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INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS 10. PROMOTION, TRANSFER, DEMOTION 11. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of individual’s performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against factors such as job knowledge, quality and quantity output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health and the like. Assessment should be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspect of job performance. Performances here refer to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is always measured in terms of result and not efforts. A formal definition of performance appraisal is “it is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.”
FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevant strengths and weaknesses. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and establish a plan of improvement. Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan. Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. It refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and there for, what range of pay should be assigned to the job.
Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.
PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is planned, developed and implemented through a series of steps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD
CONNUNICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE
COMPARISON OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARDS
FOLLOW UP ACTIONS 1) Establish Performance Standards. Appraisal systems require performance standards, which serve as benchmarks against which performance is measured. In order to be useful, standards should relate to the desired results of each job. Appraisals must have a clear- cut criteria. Performance standards must be both to the appraiser and the appraise. The performance standards of goals must be developed after a thorough analysis of the job. Goals must be written down. They must be measurable within certain time and cost considerations.
2) Communicate the Standards. Performance appraisal involves attract two parties; the appraiser who does the appraisal and the appraise whose performance is being evaluated. Both are expected to do certain things. The appraiser should prepare job descriptions clearly, help appraise set his goals and targets; analysis results objectively; offer coaching and guidance to appraise whenever required and reward good results. The appraiser should be very clear about what he is doing and why he is doing. For this purpose, the performance standards must be communicated to appraise and their reactions are noted initially. These standards must be revised or modified as and when required. 3) Measure Actual Performance. After the performance standards are set and accepted, the next step is to measure actual performance. This requires the use of dependable performance measures, the ratings used to evaluate performance. Performance measures in order to be helpful must be easy to use, reliable and report on the critical behaviors that determine performance. Generally, managers regarding how to measure actual performance use four common sources of information: personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. 4) Compare Actual Performance with Standards and Discuss the Appraisal. Actual performance may be better than expected and sometimes it may even go off the track. The assessment of another person's contribution and ability is not an easy task. It has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self-esteem of the appraise. Any appraisal asked on subjective criteria is likely to be questioned by the appraisers and leave him quite dejected and unhappy when the appraisal turns out to be negative.
5) Taking Corrective Action, if Necessary. Corrective action is of two types: The one, which puts out the fires immediately and the other one, which strikes at he root of the problems permanently. Immediate action sets things right and get things back or track, whereas the basic corrective action gets to the source of deviations and seems to adjust the difference permanently. Basic corrective step seek to find out how and why performance deviate.
METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: Methods of Performance Appraisal
A) Traditional Methods Confidential report Ranking Graphical rating scale Checklists Forced distribution Critical incidents Essay evaluation Group appraisals
B) Modern Methods 1. Human resource accounting 2. management by objective 3. Assessment centre 4. BARS( Behaviorally anchored rating scale )
Traditional methods: Confidential report method It is mostly used in government organizations. It is a descriptive report generally prepared at the end of the year, by the employee’s immediate superior. The report highlights the strengths, weaknesses, major mistakes, merits, good work done etc. of the subordinate. The impression of the superior about the superior is merely recorded here. It does not offer any feedback to appraise. It is a narrative method of performance appraisal since the report is not made public and hence no freedom is available, the subjective analysis of the superior is likely to be hotly contested. Ranking method This is relatively easy method of performance evaluation. In it, the ranking of an employee in a work group is against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his or her numerical rank, for example, when there are five employees (A,B,C,D,E) to be compared, then A’s performance is compared with that of B’s and decision is arrived at as to whose is the better or worst. Next, B is
also compares with all others. Since A is already compared with B, this time B is to be compared with only C, D, and E In this evaluation is asked to rate the employees from highest to lowest on some overall criterion. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee, it is very difficult to rank the average employees. Graphical rating scale It is the oldest and the most commonly used method of performance in this, a printed form is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. Four to twelve factors are selected, depending upon the category to which the employee belongs. Some of these factors are quantity of out put, quality of out put, initiative, integrity, dependability etc. these factors and their degrees are marked on a graph paper provided in the form. The rater has merely to check on the scale where he thinks the employee belongs. Checklists and weighted checklists The checklist is a simple rating technique in which the supervisor is given a list of statement or world and ask to check statement representing the characteristic and performance of each employee a checklist represents a set of objective statement about the employee and his behavior. A more recent variation of the checklist is weighted list. Under this the value of each question may be weighted more heavily than others. The following are sample questions in the checklist: - Is the employee is really interested in the task assigned? - Is he respected of his colleagues? - Does he follow instructions properly? - Does he give respect to his superiors? - Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No
A rating score from the checklist helps the manager in evaluation of the performance of the employee. Forced distribution method It was developed to eliminate the bias and the preponderance of high ratings that might occur in some organizations. Its primary purpose is the correct tendency of the
etc. The head of department or manager may be the chairman of the group and the supervisor may act as the coordinate for the group activities. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding poor behavior of the employees.rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. objective. organizing and controlling ability. Critical incident method The manager prepares test of statements of every effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. The employees general planning. This method makes those of several sets of pair phases. other supervisors who have close contact with employee’s work. At the end of the rating period. Actually the statement items are grounded in such a way that the rater cannot which statement applies to the most effective employee. In this the overall objectivity is increased in the employee’s performance because the rater does not know how high or low he is evaluating the individual. in general. This technique is normally used with a combination of the graphical rating scale because the rater an elaborately present the scale by sustaining an explanation for his rating. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employee. The employee’s relation with the co-workers and superiors. Group appraisal In this method an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. Employees understanding about the company’s programmes. The manager prepares records of the critical incidents of the worker’s behavior. The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn the severest. The immediate supervisor enlighten . The attitude and perceptions of the worker. In it. the recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers’ performance. policies. Essay Appraisal Under this method the rater is asked to express the strong as well as the weak points of the employee’s behavior. as he has no access to the storing key. two of which are positive and two of them are negative and the rates is asked to indicate which of the four phrase is the most or least descriptive of a particular employee. manager or head of department or consultant. the rater considers the following factors: Job knowledge and potential of the employee.
therefore suggests ways for improvement of performance. The goals typically refer to the desired outcome to be achieved. The goals can be then used to evaluate the employee performance . responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as a guide for operating the unit and assessing the contributions of each of its members. MBO can be described as the process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identify its common goals. The MBO can be described in four steps: The first step is to establish the goals each subordinate is to attain. B) Modern Methods: Human resource accounting HRA is a sophisticated way to measure in financial terms the effectiveness of the personal manager activities and the use of people in an organization. then the group appraise the performance of the employee. studies the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommends changes. finds out the deviation. compares the performance with the standards. However. This method eliminates “personal bias” to a large extent.other members about the job characteristics. Management by objectives It is the modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. MBO thus represents more than an evaluation process. if necessary. The acquisition of employee is compared with the replacement cost from time to time. prepares an action plan. Mcgreger and Odioine in management science. It is process of accounting people as an organization resource. demand. each individual’s areas of operations. This method shows the investment the organization makes in the people and how the value of these people change over a time. it is very time consuming process. In brief. Managers have become increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems are characterized by facing goals. standards or performance etc. as performance is evaluated by multiple rates. discusses the reasons. The concept of MBO is actually the outcome the pioneering work of Drucker. It tries to place a value on the organizational human resources as assets and not as expenses. in this method the employees’ performance is evaluated in terms of costs and contributions of employees.
new strategies for goals that previously not attained. The process is repeated. This method represent he latest innovation in the performance appraisal. The evaluator explores the reasons or the goals that were not met and the goals that were exceeded.The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. All assesses get an equal opportunity to show their talents and capabilities based on merit. they offer an excellent means for conducting evaluation process in an objective way. subordinate and superior involvement in the goal setting may change. The critical incidents serve as the anchor statement on a scale and the rating form usually contains six to eight specifically defined performance dimensions. It is the combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. . The final step involves establishing new goals and. It also alerts the superior of the conditions that may affect but over which the subordinate has no control. In the third step. At this point. Subordinates who successively reach the established goals may be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. Observers rank the performance of each and every participant in order to merit since assessment centers are basically meant for evaluating the potential of candidates to be considered for promotion. possibly. Assessment center In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days working on an individual or a group assignment similar to the ones they would be handling when promoted. training on development. This step helps to determine the training needs. Behaviorally anchored rating scale This method is also known as behavioral expectation scale. the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreed upon.
standards of contents and who observes the employee's by performing a job. Supervisors Supervisors include superiors of the employee.360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents. Subordinates . Moreover. Subordinates. which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/ managers. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. Typical appraisals are supervisors. direct and control the subordinate continuously. user of service and consultants. peers. This is because superiors are responsible free managing their subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe. who have close contact with employee work also appraise with a view to provide additional information. employees themselves. Peers Peer appraisal may be reliable of the workgroup is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction. contents to be appraised. other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. He should prepare reports and made judgments without bias. they are accountable for the successful performance of their subordinates. General practice is that immediate superior appraises the performance. Performance Appraisal by all these parties is called 360° Performance Appraisal. Sometimes other supervisors.
every six month or annually.In developed countries. say for example. However. Such a method can be useful provided the relationships between superiors and subordinates art cordial. In such situation. speed in doing the job and accuracy. Subordinate's ratings in such cases can be quite useful in identifying competent superiors. students better judge a teacher’s performance. Self-Appraisal If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated. Consultants Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self-appraisal and the appraisal done by subordinates. When to appraise? Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisor or personnel manager feel it necessary. they are to a great extent in the best position to appraise their own performance. Example. employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. . promptness. Also. Users of Services/Customers The customers on users of services can. better judge employee performance in service organizations relating to behaviors. systematic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis. since employee development means selfdevelopment. the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in being used in most organizations. the consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long periods for the purpose of appraisal.
To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates.PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. The system should be sufficiently grounded in the requirement of the organization: It should reflect the value system of the organization. To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking. if the people find that the system is too theoretical. The reliability of the ratings is the consistency with which the ratings are made. As such it should have linkage with the job description. either by different sectors. The system should be both valid and reliable: The validity of the ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of the intrinsic merit of the employees. self and management development programmes. It musty has support of all line people who administer it: If the line people think that there role is not very important then they will not consider the system seriously. In fact functioning as a definition of performance. To contribute to the employee growth and development thought training. Similarly. retrenchment etc. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity. too ambitious. one by one rater at different times. To provide information for making decision regarding lay off. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. it should tell he employee what set of activities or what qualities are considered desirable by the organization. it may be anchored to the ground by its own dead weight of complicated forms which nobody but the experts understand. The appraisal system of many organizations lacks this objectivity and bunches all employees into one or two . or that has been foisted on them by the ivory-tower staff consultants who have no comprehension of the demand then they will recent it. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD APPRAISAL SYSTEM: It must be easily understandable: If the system is too much complex or to time consuming.
The systems should focus more on the development and growth: Of the employee than on generating data for administrative decision making related to promotions. For example it may reveal that goals need to be modified on. increments. advocate against the direct linkage between the appraisal and rewards. Many authors however.top ranks without taking into account their merits. etc. In their opinion. there is need for classification of duties or for additional training or job rotation or job enrichment. the system must help in identifying employee’s strengths and weaknesses and indicate corrective actions. This raises outstanding performances but also raises doubts about the validity of the system. such a connection throttles downward communication of performance appraisal because superiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinates. The system should be open and participative: It should involve employees in goal-setting process. . This helps in planning performance better. The system should have built-in incentive: This means that the reward should follow satisfactory performance.
Lastly. In seeing a grievance in this way. It can be valid or ridiculous. It must involve interpretation or application of the provision of the labour contract. Is the contract the only means to resolve member's grievances? Of course not. believes or even feels to be unfair. whether exposed or not. every union officer must go back to the contract first when a member comes in with a complaint or a problem.GREIVANCE 1) MEANING/ DEFINITION : The concept ‘Grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authorities some of the definition are follows: Beach defines a grievance as “any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the notice of the management”. So for all practical purposes. but not always defined by the contract. there are many grievances that fall into a large category which we say are discipline-related. a right that is usually. and must grow out of something connected with company operations or policy. where as Flippo indicate the grievance as “a type of discontent which must always be expressed A grievance is usually more formal in character than a complaint. arising out of anything connected with company which an employee thinks. The union can challenge certain rules or their application. unjust or inequitable. The two expressions are simply an arbitrator's or lawyer's way of saying the member is being disciplined unfairly.” Jucius defines a grievance as “any discontent or dissatisfaction. whether valid or not. we can understand better that the best place to look for a way to defend the member is in the language of the contract. The contract provides us with the strongest ammunition in resolving the issue for our member.” A grievance is more than likely a violation of an employee's rights on the job. We may argue that a member is being disciplined without "just cause" or he or she is suffering from disparate treatment. If there is any reasonable way of dealing with the issue as a . But it is probably the strongest leg you have to stand on. So the best advice that can be offered in handling a member's problem is to check the contract first.
and the power of the local union. which also acts as a means of upward communication. The employees are entitled to legislative. you ought to use it. this can be promptly attended to if grievance handling procedure is already in existence. productivity and their willingness to cooperate with the organization. NEED FOR A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Grievance procedure is necessary for any organization due to the following reason: Most grievances seriously disturb the employees. Moreover. 2)CONSIDERS GOOD PRACTICE IN HANDLING DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE ISSUES : endorses the ACAS Code of Practice1 for handling disciplinary and grievance issues summarizes the statutory procedures which came into force in October 2004 includes the CIPD viewpoint. If an explosive situation develops. Summary . You and your local union are only limited by the contract. It serves as a check on the arbitrary action of the management because supervisors know that employees are likely to see to it that their protest dose reach the higher management. This may affect their moral. executive and judicial protection and they get this protection from the grievance redressal procedure. the skills of the grievance representatives. there may be personality conflicts and other cause as well. discontent and frustrations. for these supervisor may not have had a proper training for the purpose. It acts like a pressure value on a steam boiler.contract violation. It serves as an outlet for employees gripes. and they may lack authority. It is not possible that all the complaints of the employees would be settled by firsttime supervisors.
any examination. and. insofar as these personally affect the employee: The agency's right to direct its employees. or the use of any job-related supplemental rating factors to determine the receipt or amount of an increase. allegations of non-compliance with the Personnel Rules. life insurance or health insurance issues. An employee may submit a grievance using the Basic Grievance Procedure within 10 days of receipt of a planning EPAS or within 10 days of failing to receive. Non-Applicable Matters A summary of issues which cannot be addressed through either the Basic or the EPAS Grievance Procedure.A summary of issues which can be addressed through the Basic Grievance Procedure include. An employee may not submit a grievance concerning the receipt of a performance decrease. An employee may submit a grievance concerning a specific performance factor rating by utilizing the EPAS Grievance Procedure. suspension for more than 40 working hours. but may submit a grievance concerning the manner of their administration. the non-receipt of a performance increase or special performance award. and personnel by which these operations are to be conducted. reprimands or memos of concern. means. promote. the following: All allegations of discrimination. transfer. a planning document. any classification action. certification or appointment. materials or equipment. or dismissal resulting from disciplinary action. and any reduction in force . health. or any other matters subject to the authority of the ADOA Director and for which no other method of redress is provided or prohibited in the Personnel Rules. and retain employees. disciplinary actions such as suspensions of 40 hours or less. or special performance award. to hire. and to determine the methods. to maintain efficiency of government operations. but are not limited to. practices or procedures. after written request. working conditions. include. improvement of systems. demotion. safety. the amount of any increase or decrease. the following: Retirement issues. but are not limited to. decrease. assign. supervisory practices or procedures considered improper or unfair. Restrictions An employee may not submit a grievance challenging the following management rights.
If additional documentation is submitted by the grievant after the initiation of the grievance. Other avenues exist to seek redress or remedy involving these actions. grievant may select one representative to provide advice and/or speak for the grievant at any meetings determined necessary by management in the course of the grievance process. and envelopes containing grievance material should be clearly labeled "confidential. Any person found guilty may be subject to penalty under ADOA Personnel Rule R2-5-501. submittal. review and response to a grievance are confidential. Confidentiality and Use of Official Authority The preparation. the reviewing official may remand the grievance to the appropriate previous level for reconsideration. Representation At any step of the grievance procedure after the mandatory pre-grievance oral discussion (see below). An ADOA employee who serves as a representative is required to request and obtain prior approval for annual or compensatory leave for any time devoted as a representative during regular working . Amendments Once a grievance is referred to any step beyond the immediate supervisor. it may not be amended. Correspondence regarding a grievance should be handled in a confidential manner. No person shall directly or indirectly use any official authority or influence in any manner to discourage the use of this procedure.action and matters not subject to the Department of Administration control. It is the employee's responsibility to provide documentation to support the allegations raised in the grievance. Copies of written responses sent at each step of the procedure are limited to respondents at the preceding steps. the agency head or the agency head's designee unless it is necessary to notify additional personnel because the response requires another individual to take some action." No reference to the complaint shall be included in the employee's official personnel file.
which will be subject to the operational needs of the unit. The contact person will act as a speaker for the group in any meetings determined necessary by management. Mandatory Oral Discussion In accordance with Personnel Rule R2-5-702. on the grievance form. Extensions The ADOA Personnel Rules require that the agency head respond to a grievant not later than 40 working days after receipt of the grievance at the first step. Within the 40 working days requirement. Employees must request and obtain prior supervisory approval for time off. the representative shall be identified on the grievance form Group Grievance Should a group of employees file a grievance. The time an employee devotes to attending any meetings scheduled by management to discuss the grievance is considered work time and is not included in the four-hour limitation specified above. If a representative is chosen. employees are allowed up to four hours with pay to prepare the grievance and/or confer with their official representative on the grievance. Preparation Time During the entire formal grievance process (after the oral discussion at Step I).hours. all employees of the group are required to sign the grievance and to clearly designate. one member who will act as the group's contact person. the employee may submit to the next step.A. Employees cannot use state equipment for this process. the time at any step may be extended by the agency head with concurrence of the grievant.1. If at any step the response is not made within the prescribed time and no extension has been agreed upon. the employee is REQUIRED to have an oral discussion with the immediate supervisor prior to initiating a formal .
The date the action occurred is not counted when determining 3)WHY ARE DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES NECESSARY? . state the problem and outline all of the specific facts. circumstances and issues involved. the grievance WILL NOT be accepted through the formal grievance procedure. the date of the action is considered to be the first day of the suspension. It is the employee's responsibility to remember that the Step I grievance must be submitted within 10 working days after the occurrence of the action being grieved. If a suspension is being grieved. the employee must: Use the appropriate form. Step I The Step I responding authority is the employee's immediate supervisor.grievance. If the employee fails to take this step. the issues involved. and that these 10 days are not extended by the date on which the oral discussion takes place. The employee may select a representative at any step after the oral discussion with the supervisor. The purpose of the meeting is for both parties to explore the issues and the requested resolution. The time limit for submitting the grievance is 10 working days from the date of the action being grieved. The employee must also meet the mandatory oral discussion requirement prior to submitting the complaint and adhere to the required time limitation for submitting a grievance. state the specific resolution which is sought. the specific rule alleged to have been violated must be stated as well as an explanation of how the rule was violated. and the requested resolution. of a Personnel Rule violation is alleged. The employee must clearly state to the supervisor the employee's intentions of filing a formal grievance. the employee must sign the grievance at each step and state why the response at the previous level was not satisfactory. and. Procedures When an employee wants to submit a basic grievance. provide all the appropriate documentation to support the allegations.
g. Numerous other pieces of legislation cross refer to discipline and grievance issues.Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent framework to deal with difficulties which may arise as part of their working relationship from either the employer's or employee's perspective. They are necessary to ensure that everybody is treated in the same way in similar circumstances. Disciplinary procedures are needed: So employees know what is expected of them in terms of standards of performance or conduct (and the likely consequences of continued failure to meet these standards). As a point of reference for an employment tribunal should someone make a complaint about the way they have been dismissed Grievance procedures are needed: To provide individuals with a course of action should they have a complaint (which they are unable to resolve through regular communication with their line manager). The legal position Most of the provisions governing discipline and grievances at work are to be found in the Employment Act 2002 and the detailed regulations made to implement the provisions of that Act namely the Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution) Regulations Some important examples include the: Employment Rights Act 1996 as amended Employment Rights Dispute Resolution Act 1998 2004 (SI2004/752). To provide points of contact and timescales to resolve issues of concern. to ensure issues are dealt with fairly and reasonably and that they are compliant with current legislation. To identify obstacles to individuals achieving the required standards (e. lack of clarity of job requirements. additional support needed) and take appropriate action. . As an opportunity to agree suitable goals and timescales for improvement in an individual's performance or conduct. training needs.
It is envisaged that the standard procedure will be used in all but the most exceptional circumstances. dismissal and grievance procedures which must be followed in most cases failure to follow the statutory procedures by the employer prior to dismissal will render that dismissal automatically unfair employers will pay a potential increase in compensation of between 10-50% if the procedures are not followed by the employer an employee may be prevented from presenting some types of claim in the employment tribunal if they have not followed the grievance procedure first the procedures are non-contractual until further notification by the Department of Trade and Industry unless an organization chooses to incorporate the statutory minimum into their own contractual procedures. security. or if there are issues of national detailed guidance for employers. These statutory procedures amount to a minimum standard that must be followed by all employers and employees. There are some exemptions to the statutory procedures. dismissal and grievance procedures in certain circumstances. to dismissals which occur on the expiry of a fixed-term contract and in a smaller scale redundancies. These procedures apply in a wide range of circumstances which are not limited to issues relating to the capability or conduct of the employee but. harassment or it is not practical to go through the procedures for reasons beyond their control. for example. the Employment Act 2002 made it a legal requirement for all organizations to follow minimum disciplinary. for example if one party reasonably believes there is a significant threat.Employment Relations Act 1999. The Main Features Of The Procedures Are: Three step statutory disciplinary. The statutory disciplinary. dismissal and grievance procedures From 1 October 2004. The ACAS Code of Practice Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures1 provides CIPD members can find out more on the legal aspects of this topic from our FAQ on in the Employment Law at Work area of our website. There are two sets of procedures: standard. CIPD endorses this Code. . and modified.
record keeping is important . All line and senior managers must be familiar with their organization’s grievance procedure. Failure to address grievances leaves employees with ‘residual anger’ and can lead to general unrest and disputes in the workplace. including: the three stages of the statutory procedure and any further elements of the organization’s additional procedures with whom to raise the complaint and appropriate sources of support timescales within which the organization will seek to deal with the complaint details of the stages of the grievance procedure e. Where this has been unsuccessful. or circumstances make this route inappropriate for the individual. As in disciplinary matters. Employees must know to whom they can turn in the event of a grievance and the support. This helps concerns to be heard and responded to as soon as possible. Handling grievances formally Employees should also be aware of the formal route open to them. how a complaint may be raised with the next level of management if a satisfactory resolution is not reached. that is available to them. An employee should be given the right to be accompanied to grievance hearings by a colleague or trade union representative as explained above. For further details see our fact sheet on Handling grievances informally Individuals should be encouraged to discuss ordinary.Top of Form Grievance policy and practice It is essential that grievances from employees are treated in the same fair manner. then matters should raised formally through the grievance procedure. There are a number of additional factors to bear in mind when dealing with grievances concerning harassment.g. day-to-day issues informally with their line manager. such as counseling or sources of advice.
They’re protected from unfair dismissal or other mistreatment for supporting you. There is nothing wrong with reading this out at the meeting. If that’s the person causing the problem. but make sure that your lack of preparation time is noted. If you ask your employer beforehand. Gather your thoughts before the meeting. Written statement You must set out your grievance in writing (often called a ‘step one letter’). If there is someone else involved. and you’re not a union member. If your employer doesn’t agree (and they don’t have to). you should go to the hearing. The Advisory. 1. you have a legal right to take a ‘companion’ (who is a colleague or trade union representative) to the meeting with you. talk on your behalf and confer with you during the hearing. If you think you’ve not had enough time to prepare. Your employer should invite you to a meeting (sometimes called a hearing) to discuss the problem. they might also be there (but you should tell your employer if you are uncomfortable with this). Don’t be afraid to write down what it is you want to say. The main purpose of the meeting should be to try to establish the facts and find a way to resolve the problem.The meeting should be at a convenient time for you and anyone else involved. Meeting: Your grievance should be looked into in a fair and unbiased way. Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Aces) have a code of practice which sets out how your employer should carry out a grievance procedure. It is up to your employer what format the meeting takes but they will normally go through the issues that have been raised and give you the opportunity to comment. If no colleague is willing to accompany you. send it to the HR department or to the person’s boss. ask if you can bring a family member or a Citizen’s Advice Bureau worker (but your employer does not have to agree to this). and you should attend if you can. 2.4)GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE PROCEDURES: THE STANDARD THREE-STEP Your employer’s grievance procedure may have more than three steps. The meeting must be at a convenient time for your companion. The companion can present and/or sum up your case. You can ask for a postponement of up to five days if necessary to get . or if they’ve ignored previous complaints. ask for more time. Your employer’s grievance procedure should say who to send your letter to. but it must include the following.
your employer could ask an Aces mediator or other independent person to hear it. your employer should tell you reasonably quickly what’s been decided. Unless they need to investigate further. and about your right to appeal if you’re not satisfied. if your employer agrees to it. maintain peace and channel their efforts towards organizational goal. and copies of any information given by other people.your chosen companion there. The appeal hearing is similar to the original meeting. If you are considering taking your issue to an Employment Tribunal you may want to appeal even if it seems pointless. CONCEPT . DISCIPLINE 1)INTRODUCTION: Discipline is required for both the organization and the individual. or you think the procedure followed was seriously flawed. because a tribunal award could be reduced if you don’t. and you have a right to a companion. Your employer should give you enough time to appeal. make your appeal anyway. You might be told of the outcome verbally at first but it will usually be confirmed in writing. as before. You should be given notes of the meeting. you can get help through mediation. conciliation or arbitration. Appeal meeting: If you’re not satisfied with the decision. This is usually heard by a higher level of management. Sad to sate. In the organization it is needed to regulate the behavior of people. most people do not exercise self discipline and this fact makes external control necessary for brining order within an organization. and say that you’ll provide more information later. you have the right to an appeal. If that isn’t possible. 3. If you can’t sort out the dispute. If they don’t.
discipline is interpreted as a sort of check or restraint on the freedom of person.” POSITIVE DISCIPLINE Employees comply with rules not out fear of punishment but out of an inherent desire to cooperate and achieve goals. If employees fail to observe rules. “Discipline is the force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules. clear goals. according to Spriegel enables an employee.” 2)DIFFEREANCE BETWEEN POSITIVE & NEGATIVE DISCIPLINE : Point Concept Negative Discipline Positive Discipline is the creation climate confirm of in to a an the It is adherence to established It fear of punishment. Positive discipline. regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective. “to have a greater freedom in that he enjoys a greater degree of self-expression in striving to achieve the objective. Discipline is used to the act of imposing penalties for wrong behavior. It is viewed with fear and suspicion in organization. norms and regulation. adequate compensation employees need not be discipline in the traditional way. which he identifies as his own. effective leadership. The multiple explanation advanced by different expert in the filed have only added to the prevailing confusion.Discipline is not a glamorous term. NEGAIVE DISCIPLINE Traditionally. they are punished. Where the organizational climate is market by two-way communication. out of conductive willingly organization so that employees established rules .
it produce undesirable result. Often. a self. it must be done according to a procedure. Supervision Require intense supervisory Employees from going off the track.control to meet organizational objectives. moulds and strengthens.respecting person tends to be a better worker than one who is not. First. exercise self- control to prevent employees control to meet organizational 3)SELF DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL: Behavioral scientist view discipline as a self. object ivies. In case of major violations such has hitting a supervisor may justify the termination of an employee immdiately. In order to assist a manager to recognize the proper level of disciplinary action. some firms have formalized the procedure. punishment seldom produce the desired result.discipline he mans the training that correct.Conflict Employees do not perceptive There is no conflict between the corporate goals as there individual and organizational own.” 4)PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINE: The concept o progressive discipline states that penalties must be appropriate to the violation. Second. 5)THE RED HOT STOVE RULE: . serious punitive steps could be initiated. This form of discipline is raised on to psychological principles. If the violation requires a written warning. if the conduct of the employees is still not along desired lines. After written warnings. “By self. If inappropriate behaviour is minor in nature and has not previously occurred an oral may be sufficient. goals. It refers to one’s efforts at self control to certain needs and demands. Megginson clarified the term thus.
the employee concerned should be issue a charge . The Act requires that all establishment must define the service rules and prepare standing order. C} Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. The term Standing order refers to the rules and regulation which governs the condition of employment of workers. There are no favorites when this approach is followed. suspension. 7)DISCIPLINARY ACTION: Though there is no rigid and specific procedure for taking disciplinary action. stoppage of work. The standing order contains rules relating to classification of employees. working hours. Issuing the letter of charge: When a employee commits an act of misconduct that required disciplinary action. redreassal of these terms and condition may lead to misconduct or indciplpine. But disciplinary action against a delinquent employee is painful and generates resentment on his part. They indicate duties and responsibility on the part of both the employer and the employees. it must occur immediately so the individual will understand the reason for it. With the passage of time. As you move closer to hot stove you are warned by its heat that will be burned. leave. the disciplinary procedure followed in Indian industries usually consist of the following steps: a. 6)JUSTICAL APPROCH TO DISCIPLINE: The Industrial Employment Act was passed in 1946 with a view to improve the industrial relation climate. attendance. According to the Red Hot Stove rule disciplinary action should have following consequences: A} Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken. shift working. people have tendency to convince themselves that they are not fault. B} provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning that punishment will follow unacceptable behaviour. holidays. no manager can get things done.Without the continual support of the subordinate.
the enquiry officer should suggest the nature of disciplinary action. that is the employee concerned must be given an opportunity. date and place of enquiry etc.sheet. Charges of misconduct or indiscipline should be clearly and precisely stated in the charge sheet. as well as the individual who is struggling to fulfill their responsibilities). time. On the contrary when the management is not satisfied with the employees explanation there is a need for serving a show-cause notice. no disciplinary action need be taken. It is good practice and also more efficient . Consideration of explanation: On getting the answer for the letter of charge served. Capability/performance It is inevitable that at some stage all employers will encounter difficulties with the performance of their employees in the workplace (these can stem from difficulties on the part of the organization such as insufficient training and support. Show-cause notice: Show-cause notice is issued by the manager when he believes that there is a sufficient prima facie evidence of employees misconduct. Holding of a full fledge enquiry: These must be in conformity with the principle of natural justice. the explanation furnished be consider and if it is a satisfactory. d. When the process of enquiry is over an findings of the same are record. 8)DISCIPLINARY POLICY AND PRACTICE:Using the disciplinary process There are two main areas where the disciplinary system is used: capability/performance and conduct. Enquiry should also initiated by first serving him a notice of enquiry indicating clearly the name of enquiring officer. or a lack of leadership or inappropriate systems of work. of being heard. b. c.
copies of correspondence etc. There must always be a full and fair investigation to determine the facts and to decide if further action is necessary. bullying behaviour or creating a hostile work environment. goal setting. unacceptable levels of absence could still result in the employer making use of warnings. Stages of the process If disciplinary action is to be taken. Only when these options have been exhausted and where there is no alternative should managers should enter a more formal disciplinary procedure. failure to follow a reasonable management instruction. it should always have three main stages: 1] Letter 2] Meeting 3] Appeal. Conduct Employee misconduct could range from continued lateness. Situations where an individual is unable to do their job because of ill-health also fall into this category. as this will be vital should a case be perused at an employment tribunal. attendance. an employer should attempt to follow the statutory procedures. fighting and committing criminal offences. through to theft. . The more grave offences may constitute gross misconduct.that such issues are addressed informally. keeping records is vital. Type of records that should be kept by employers is minutes of meetings. even gross misconduct. support and timely positive feedback where appropriate. In these instances an employee should be dealt with sympathetically and offered support. However. Record-keeping All records should be kept meticulously. by managers via discussions which clarify 'what good performance looks like'. as and when they arise. abuse of the organization’s computer system or Internet access. notes of telephone calls. Since the burden of proof is on the employer to show that the dismissal is not unfair or unreasonable. In all cases.
The HR department should be able to assist them by providing a source of independent advice on preparing for and conducting the interview. so that they have a chance to arrange an appropriate representative if they wish. Start the interview by stating the complaint to the employee and giving appropriate statements from people involved. The key points to consider are: Ensure you have investigated all the facts in advance (including consulting the individual's personal file for relevant information) and plan how you will approach the meeting. . You can also call witnesses. Make sure the individual has reasonable notice. You can also use if things become heated or people are upset during the interview. but they can only be in the room for the relevant part of the interview . Make sure the employee knows from the letter inviting them to the meeting why they have been asked to attend and that they have a right to have a companion present. Make sure another member of management can be there to take detailed notes and help. Make use of adjournments: always take a break to consider and obtain any extra information you need before reaching your decision. Give the employee ample opportunity to put forward their side of the story and call any supporting witnesses. ideally more than 48 hours. Conduct the interview.not the duration. as well as sharing knowledge about similar cases in the organization and relevant legislation.Handing disciplinary interviews All line managers should be trained and supported so that they are able to carry out disciplinary meetings with their team. Never pre-judge the outcome of the interview before hearing the employee's perspective.
Warnings Alternatively. Ultimately. Clearly these stages represent an increase in seriousness. they can still be deemed to have been treated unfairly if the correct procedures are not followed. it would be inappropriate to 'skip stages' in the process. An organization’s policy should outline exactly what warnings will be given. if an employee was unclear about what was expected from them and they agree to try to resolve the issue via additional support or counseling. the employer may decide that no action is necessary. taking into account any mitigating circumstances).Deliver the decision (and give reasons. and to select a companion of their choice. Confirm the decision in writing. as even if the case against an employee seems proven. . It would be good practice for an employer also to offer this at any purely investigatory meeting. It is important that everyone involved in disciplinary action understand the importance of following the correct procedure. confirm review periods and ensure you give details of how to appeal. but the following are likely: Recorded oral warning First written warning Final written warning. Any warning should also specify a review period during which the individual receives appropriate support and their performance can be monitored. An individual is entitled to be accompanied by a work colleague or trade union official at formal disciplinary and grievance interviews. the employer may decide to give the employee a warning. failure to reach the organization’s standards may result in dismissal. No action After the meeting. With the exception of extreme examples of misconduct. For example.
RECURITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. It locates the source of manpower to meet the requirements and job specifications. Recruitment is a process “To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing.Disciplinary warnings should normally have a specified 'life' after which they are disregarded when considering any subsequent warnings. Where misconduct has been very serious. Recruitment refers to “Discovering potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.2 years. In recruitment process available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit application so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. it may be appropriate for the warning to continue to be regarded indefinitely. It’s linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number”. Typical timescales for the types of warning are: recorded oral warning .1 year final written warning .6 months first written warning . . Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to stimulate them to apply for the job.
Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. etc. DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENT According to Edwin Flippo. internal promotions. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values. . PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) to increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization.In recruitment. For these different sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement. are used. “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. employment exchange. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT The objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies. information is collected from interested candidates. 2) To meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce. To search for talents globally and not just within the company. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company. In the recruitment.
.3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills. status and salaries. NEED FOR RECRUITMENT The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions. depending the necessity of filling jobs. or no change in terms of responsibility or status. Whenever any vacancy arises. 2) Transfers: . retirement. management follows the policy of internal promotions. (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth. Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities. death and labour turnover. Various positions in the organization are usually filled up by promotions of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of both. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent.g.In order to motivate the existing employees. In addition. E. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT The sources of recruitment may be grouped into: Internal sources External sources INTERNAL SOURCES: As the term implies internal source of recruitment is for those who are currently members or the organization. permanent disability. transfer from head office to branch office. 1) Promotions: . somebody from within the organization may be looked into. transfers. termination. facilities. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. following are the internal sources of recruitment. It may involve a promotion or demotion.Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. new vacancies are possible due to job respecification.
Following are the most common external source of managerial recruitment. his leave may be extended. it provides wide choice as it attracts a large number of suitable candidates from all over the country. EXTERNAL SOURCES As the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who are not currently member of the organization. It usually includes new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in the other organization seeking the change. The growth of Management institutes. It is an excellent source of recruiting . management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired. 4) Recalls: . Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension.At times. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. Company managements have to use eternal sources for the recruitment of supervisory staff and managers as and when necessary. Though costly.When management faces a problem. After the problem is solved.College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source.3) Retirements: .Individuals who left for some other job. An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known. Newspaper advertising typically generates a large applicant flow. might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. after meritorious service. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. 1) Newspaper Advertisement:-Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of recruitment. 5) Former employees: . This may be with a view to introducing the ‘new blood’ in the organization. External recruitment is one way of bringing into the organization that has new skills or abilities and different way of approaching job task. 2) Campus Recruitment: . The best example for newspaper advertisement is the Times of India’s Asscent supplement which comes on every Wednesday and contains both domestic as well as international jobs. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants. it may be decided to recall that person.
The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising. Currently employers can post their openings to any of several newsgroups for free.The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing. 4) Job Fairs: . More and more organizations are placing information about open positions on the World Wide web. This source is quickly growing in popularity. Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-thespot interviews.Job fairs are very effective. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers. A large and fast growing proportion of employers use the internet as a recruitment tool. etc. 6) Walk-ins. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective. Agencies can either be public or private. it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates.management trainees. The advertisement mentions date. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer. 3) Recruitment through internet: . they charge a fee.naukri.The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. day and timing during which the applicant can ‘walk in’ for an interview.com. 5) Employment Agencies: . There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. which the agency then passes along to its clients. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers.monster. www. Write-ins are those who send written inquiries. however. Clients may be either employed or unemployed. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants. Some of the examples are www. The applicant is not required to submit any applications.com. Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. . The company provides the agency with information about the job. Write-ins and Talk ins:. Most employment advertisement firms can also post the jobs on the Internet. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants.
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT 1) Internal recruitment is economical. 5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. This means there is motivation to employee to develop and reach to higher positions. ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT . 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively. 8) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. 2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. 5) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization. 7) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but too much dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to the organization in the long run. In brief. 6) It reduces labour turnover as capable employees get promotion within the organizations. 4) It provides security and continuity of employment. DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECURITMENT 1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. 3) It tends to encourage existing employees to put in greater efforts and to acquire additional qualification. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons.
1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. SELECTION MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SELECTION . 3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. experienced and ambitious employees. DISADVANTAGES RECRUITMENT OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF 1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected. 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society.
Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. human resource planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. The breakdown in any of these processes can make even the best selection system ineffective. It is the process of logically choosing individuals who posses the necessary skills. The selection procedures cannot be effective until and unless: 1) Requirements of the job to be filled. In short. searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. social. In the words of Dale Yodev. Thus. the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons. etc) 2) Employee specifications (physical. . Selection is next to recruitment. mental.Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel. The selection procedures are the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate’s specification is matched with the job specification and requirements or not. leaving the best to be selected. 3) Candidates for screening have been attracted. and behavioral. Selection is more closely related to recruitment because both are concerned with processing individuals to place them in a job. the development of job analyses. Thus selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminate applicants. abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organization. The objective of the selection decision is to chose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. After identifying the sources of human resources. have been clearly specified (job analysis. Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organization for employment. etc) have been clearly specified. “Right man at the right job” is the basic principle in selection. “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”.
Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business. 2) Reduce Cost of Training and Development:.Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms.Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization. the workers with high wages. aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job. Many problems like labour turnover. benefits etc. absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization.IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:1) Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers: . thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. 3) Absence of Personnel Problems: . nature and behaviour. Further. the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences. experience. Therefore. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production. SELECTION PROCEDURE Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidate’s qualification. the selection procedure is not a single act but . Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time. physical and mental ability. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work.Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. knowledge.
Educational information. Every organization should finalize the job analysis. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. personal details. Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case of supervisory post. salary. 3) Preliminary Interview: .Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information. facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications. Following are the steps/ procedures of selection: 1) Job Analysis: .Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. Where application forms are use. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage.Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidate. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected. the data become a part of the employee’s record. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate. job description. he is given an application form for being filled out by him. 2) Application Form: . Applications will not be accepted after the . The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. At each step. expected salary and allowances etc. job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection. Work experiences. 4) Screening Application Form: .is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance.Application Form is also known as application blank.
about the job and the organization. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. numbers. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. the personnel department will engage in checking references. The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. verbal comprehension. knowledge in various disciplines. 7) Reference Checks: . to measure the candidates aptitude. the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes. 6) Final interviewing: . Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. vocabulary. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. 5) Written test:.After completion of the final interview. the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements.close date. word fluency etc. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled.Final interview is usually followed by testing. After the close date of the recruitment.The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations. general knowledge and English language. reasoning. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning. applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position. It being the two way communication. in this situation. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic . aptitude test measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training. to know the candidate’s attitude towards job.
A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization.achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer. a thorough medical examination is essential. pay scales. If reference is checked in the correct manner. and sometime from co-workers. post on which selected etc. 8) Physical Examination: . 9) Selection: . . a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. Thus.If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment. who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance.The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PLACEMENT .
placement may be defined as “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned. and his assignment to that job. At the end of the probation period. . For this reason.” A proper placement reduced the employee turnover. 4) While introducing the job to the new employee. the employee is generally put on a probation period ranging from one year to two years. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can dos with the job demands(job requirements). It is very difficult for a new employee who is quite unknown to the job and environment. One the employee is selected he should be placed on a suitable job. companionship with other promotional possibilities etc. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong. Placement is not an easy process. if the employee show a good performance. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. 2) The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. working condition) and what offers is the form of pay roll. Neither higher. According to Pigors and Myres. Thus. the probation period or trial period is a transition period at the end of which management has to take decision whether the employee should be made regular or discharged from the job. 3) The employee should be made conversant with the conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. an effort should be mad to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realize his responsibilities better towards the job and the organization. nor lower job should be offered to the new employee. “Job first. he is confirmed as a regular employee of the organization. it is matching of what he imposes(in strain. man next” should be the principle of placement. absenteeism and accident rate and improves the morale.Placement means offering of the job to the finally selected candidate. PRINCIPLE OF PLACEMENT Following principles are followed at the time of placement of an employee: 1) The man should be placed on the job according to requirements of the job.
Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity. In such career planning. workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). order and meaning to a person’s life”. The employees will develop new skills will be available to the organization. are also available on career planning. In the case of an ordinary worker. etc. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. This type of career planning can be described as organizational career planning. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and mental). MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. At present.CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION:The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying at the college level. Lot of literature. psychological tests etc. psychological make-up. and decide what they want to be in their life. inclinations. This is described as career path. IQ and other tests are also conducted for this purpose. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business organizations. likes and dislikes. prosperous and rich in quality. parents. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. even experts are available to help youth in their career planning. In other words. Career planning enables them to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy. they should decide what they want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. According to Edwin B. Even lectures. the career path includes the following job positions: . Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations. family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. they must plan the career development programmes in their organization effectively. This means they have to plan their career.
NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. higher status and opportunity to use knowledge. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. skills and so on. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization. education and skills effectively. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality. From the point of view of an organization. compensation payment and future promotions. . career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available.Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman. As already noted. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. ability. they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. In brief. career planning and development have become crucial in management process. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status.
5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization. etc) will be supplied to employees. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. information relating to career opportunities (promotions. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. d) CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. training for self development. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:Such counselling is next to supplying career information. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of employees for self development. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:- . In addition. b) CAREER INFORMATION:Here.3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available.
iv. Along with job analysis. iii. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting.Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time. etc. public sector development. growth of backward areas. ii. at managerial level. death. organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. In a developing country like India. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: i. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees. ii. v. environmental factors such as government policy. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. resignation. influence . therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. Therefore. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. It becomes possible. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. Therefore. etc. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. it is not suitable for a very small organization.
business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. iii. iv. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career planning process. v. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions, political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes.
HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees, it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order to analyze the present career situation, the following information will be required: i. ii. iii. iv. Total number of employees – their age distribution, qualifications, positions, specializations, etc. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise) Span of control available within the organization.
Field staff at head office with necessary details, and Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization.
The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. 1. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION
2. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. 4. 5. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS SELECTION OF PRIORITIES DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS
6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. 8. 9. 10. MANAGERIAL PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW AND EVALUATION FUTURE NEEDS
2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to
identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials, and appraisal of employees). 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan. Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. What is to be attained/achieved? b. The extent to which it is to be attained, c. The employees involved, d. The department in which the proposed plan will operate; e. The length of time required the achieving the goals. In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should: a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. Improve their level of skill and knowledge; II. Gain wider experiences; and III. Assume higher responsibilities. b) leave; c) d) as: I. Providing within the organization; II. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging Take positive steps to encourage career development, such their rotation from one region to another; Establish and effectively implement a system of study
short falls) can be located quickly. Outside recruitment. III. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly.e. The gap between the two (i. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. 3. IV. etc during the implementation stage. the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. For effective implementation. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. promotion within the organization. co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. Here. Transfer within the organization. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. Such evaluation should be done by experts. 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan. 10)FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. 8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. 7) MONITORING PLANNING i. deficiencies. Removing artificial barriers to promotion. 9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. Such evaluation avoids mistakes. on the basis of the achievements of the .1. In addition.e. 2. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cumseniority basis.
Planning is a continuous process/activity. there is marked deterioration in their performance. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. On the other hand. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. Chances are they change jobs. CAREER STAGES:Education is thought of in terms of employment. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity. the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. In other to . The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. several times before retirement. depending on available opportunity. From the point of view of organization. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes.current plan. this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. There is continuous improvement in performance.
After decades of hard work. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. Others may think of “life after retirement”. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. such employees have to retire. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and “job hopping” is not common. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. 4) LATE CAREER:This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory.show their utility to the organization. “climbers” must go on improving their own performance. HIGH EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MID-CAREER LATE CAREER DECLINE LOW 25 35 AGE 45 55 60 STAGES IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT . Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. 5) DECLINE STAGE:This career stage represents the completion of one’s career usually culminating into retirement. Authority. rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. employees must remain productive at this stage. responsibility.
professional associations. for years men have used private clubs. etc. The terms ‘career development’ and ‘employee development’ need to be differentiated at this stage.). You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization. a new learning experience. however. II. Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. the only option left is to resign from the current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay.). NETWORKING:Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e.CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. business deals. even modest career goals can’t be achieved. jumping the . When the opportunity is irresistible. etc. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way ‘up’ may include: I. If the performance is substandard. lucrative job offers. new title.. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual.g. LEVERAGING:Resigning to further one’s career with another employer is known as leveraging. III. EXPOSURE:Career development comes through exposure. which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions. IV. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization. PERFORMANCE:Career progress rests largely on performance. transfers and other career opportunities. old-boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions.
A sponsor. they share their findings with others in career workshops. develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. on the other hand. NIIT. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:A mentor is. LOYALTY TO CAREER:Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. VI. generally speaking. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles.jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the longrun. ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative. The first one is called the career-planning workshop. consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer . After individuals complete their self-assessment. They act as role models. innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period. V. called as a career workbook. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. They identify career goals. interests. The second tool. is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. companies such as Infosys. To overcome this problem. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. skills and work attitudes and preferences. Mentors take junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization.
realizing these problems. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work. long parental leave. Here discussions of employees’ interests goals. This guide. When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is important. there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. a costly and time-consuming process. . current job activities and performance and career objectives take place. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. workshops. Individuals use this company specific. Seminars. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. This is. what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location. career paths. flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy.format outlining steps for realizing career goals. however. c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. etc. child care centers. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given clearly defined roles and training. who takes care of children. d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:In recent years. qualifications for jobs and career ladders. job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. generally throws light on organization’s structure.
to those who take the decision about career progress. where career opportunities are better. d) CHANGE THE JOB:Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization are better than those in the present job. advice and encouragements to switch over to other career or organization.. achievements. if they find that career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization. qualifications.CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:a) JOB PERFORMANCE:Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards established. if he wants career progress. performance etc. c) RESIGNATIONS:Employees may resign the present job in the organization. e) CAREER GUIDANCE:And counselling provides information. . knowledge. b) EXPOSURE:Employee’s desire for career progress should expose their skills.
Training is for developing overall personality of an employee. In brief. New machines. In fact. Training is the responsibility of the management as it is basically for raising the efficiency and productivity of employees. new methods and new techniques are introduced in the production. problem solving ability or attitudes etc. technical knowledge. training is the watchword of present dynamic business world. the main purpose of training is to develop the human resources present within the employees. The trainees will acquire new manipulative skills. It comes next to recruitment and selection. job and the organization where he is working. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way.EMPLOYEE TRAINING INTRODUCTION:Training plays an important role in human resource development. It also creates positive attitude towards fellow employees. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. . marketing and other aspect of business.
Even for old workers. Training makes newly recruited workers fully productive in the minimum of time. It is not essential to follow the single method of training for all the employees.training is not a one step process but is a continuous or never-ending process. The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or executive of the concern or by the training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department. Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees. placed and introduced he or she must be provided with training facilities. 3. training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”. 2. Training is a short-term educational process and . PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:A sound training programme must possess the following characteristics: 1. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees. In short training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skill of an employee for performing a particular job. Training should be followed by a reward. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge an skill of an employee for doing a particular job. 7. 4. 5. Training programme should be less expensive. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. DEFINITION OF TRAINING:According to Edwin Flippo. Training programme should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. training is necessary to refresh them and enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques. MEANING AND IMPORTANCE:After an employee is selected. 6. A reward should be provided at the conclusion of the training such as promotion or a better job so that employees may be motivated.
changes. abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization. the need for training arises due to the following reasons: I. stability and growth can also be achieved through training. no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organizational requirements. attitude. knowledge.utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs. If the organisation does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment. II. first it has to train the employees . Organizational objectives like viability. to acquire and apply the knowledge. skill. behaviour etc. skills. progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. If the organisation desires to adapt these changes. aptitude. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skill. Training is necessary in the present competitive and ever changing industrial world. Hence. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization. moulds the employee’s knowledge. To match the employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs: Management finds deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization. instructions and guidance is given to all categories of employees. As stated earlier. Organizational efficiency. In other words training improves. Organizational viability and the transformation process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. productivity. It is a must for raising efficiency of employees. Specifically. behaviour. it will lose its market share. training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. NEED FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING:The need for training of employee is universally accepted and practical training in the form of information. Training is the most important technique of human resource development.
will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing skill to operate them. organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time.e. organisation of most of the companies has become complex. managements of most of the organizations has to maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. So today. computerization and automation. III. This creates the complex problems of coordination and integration of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. So training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems (including alienation.. integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth. Adoption of latest technological means and methods. Organizational complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation. Technological advances: Every organization in order to survive and to be effective should adopt the latest technology. Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organisation and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:- .) and to maintain human relations. So.to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with the changing environment. techniques or technology. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed form the commodity approach to partnership approach. V. mechanization. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines. IV. extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries. crossing the human relations approach. diversification and expansion. manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of diversified lines. VI. i. inter-personal and intergroup conflicts etc. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination.
1) To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the organization as a whole. 5) To meet the challenges posed by new developments in the field of science and technology. 3) To provide opportunities of growth and self-development (career planning) to employees and thereby to motivate them for promotion and other monetary benefits. 2) To create a pool of well trained. 4) To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds. In addition. healthy and safety attitudes among the employees. It creates a feeling of involvement in the minds of newly appointed employees. lecture by personnel manger/HRD manger is also arranged. TYPES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) INDUCTION (ORIENTATION) TRAINING:Induction training is basically for introducing the organisation to newly appointed employees. 2) JOB TRAINING:- . This means to maintain and improve the work performance of employees. 6) To improve the quality of production and thereby to create market demand and reputation in the business world. to develop balanced. 8) To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis. In addition. In other words. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. 7) To develop positive attitude and behaviour pattern required by an employee in order to perform a given job efficiently. capable and loyal employees at all levels and thereby to make provision to meet the future needs of an organization. Induction training creates favourable impression on the newly appointed employees and this impression remains in their mind over a long period. to give safety and security to the life and health of employees. the purpose of training is to improve the culture of the organisation. information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. In addition. For induction training.
3) TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:Promotion means giving higher position. this question is crucial. techniques and procedures for raising efficiency. the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business. instructions to be followed. He should motivate concerned individual to correct his behaviour. The manager should criticize the act and not the individual. For this. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. This training is specific. precise and of short duration. The manager should handle the problem with treatment that corrects the outlook rather than giving punishment. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees and enables them to use new methods. information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. For example. 5) CORRECTIVE TRAINING:Corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. the behaviour of employee cannot be changes simply by disciplinary action. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned. process of production.Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. Here. absence without prior sanction or smoking in a “No smoking” area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. SELECTION OF TRAINEES:- Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. It gives information about machines. training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. . methods to be used and precautions to be taken while performing the job. 4) REFRESHER TRAINING:The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills.
The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. a number of programmes are available. coaching. also known as job instruction training. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. METHODS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:As a result of research in the field of training. Some of these are new methods. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. These programmes are classified into onthe-job and off-the-job training programmes. TRAINING GOALS:- The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs outlined above. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimized as the persons learns on-the-job. The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. is the most commonly used method. job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. Under this method. a) JOB ROTATION:- .Training an employee is expensive. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively. while others are improvements over the traditional methods. Therefore. it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Onthe-job training methods include job rotation. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS This type of training.
he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. b) COACHING:The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in . The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work. Often the trainee share some of the duties an responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. the trainee is separated form the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: a) VESTIBUTE TRAINING:In this method. Material. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offer him for suggestions for improvement. actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. OFF-THE-JOB METHODS Under this method of training. Under this method. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements. the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job. d) COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS:Under the committee assignments. job knowledge and skills and allow him to do the job. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them.This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. c) JOB INSTRUCTION:This method is also known as training through step by step. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop job. provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.
The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. c) LECTURE METHOD:The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. training increases their market value and wage earning power. professional and supervisory personnel. Theory can be related to practice in this method. 1. and draw conclusions. ADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:Training is advantageous not only to the organization but also to the employees. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. examine and share facts. costs and time involved are reduced. The participants play the role of certain characters. doing and practice. b) ROLE PLAYING:It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas. JOB-SECURITY:- . maintenance engineers. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method. the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. This increases their pay and status. quality control inspectors. superintendents. in that the discussion involves twoway communication and hence feedback is provided. INCREASE IN WAGE EARNING CAPACITY:Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. This method of training involves action. such as the production manager. mechanical engineer.training. ideas and data. To be effective. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group. d) CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION:It is a method in training the clerical. test assumptions. foreman. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. In this way. all of which contribute to the improvement of the job performance. 2. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. workers and the like. Thus.
and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work. i. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME:The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance.. BETTER PERFORMANCE:Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. method of presentation. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. REACTIONS:Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainee’s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter.” Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training programme. 6. FOLLOW UP OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:Training is a follow up of selection procedure. learning. viz. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process. organization and ultimate value. depth of the course content. learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. 4. reactions. 3. CHANCES FOR PROMOTION:Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs. . teaching methods etc.Continued training can help an employee to develop his ability to learnadapting himself to new work methods. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it. job behaviour. REDUCTION IN COST OF PRODUCTION:If the employees are given proper training the need for supervision is lessened. 5.
Jobs and worth of the men should be analysed through job analysis and performance appraisal. profitability etc. its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “the trouble spots” where training may be needed. iv. LEARNING:Training programme. ORGANISATION:This evaluation measures the use of training.ii. Training programmes differ on the basis of many individual characteristics of the organisations and the employees usually in the organisation of training programmes. morale. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefit. quality. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity. a) ANALYSING JOBS AND MEN:If the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills. v. iii. the content he learned. growth.. JOB BEHAVIOUR:This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. ULTIMATE VALUE:It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival. sales turnover and the like. b) IDENTIFYING PRODUCTION PROBLEMS:- . The most important step is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation. A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. ORGANISED TRAINING PROGRAMME IN AN INDUSTRY:It is not possible to suggest a training programme equally good for each and every organisation. The following steps are taken to organise the training programme: 1) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINING NEEDS:Training programme should be set up only after having decided the decided the clear-cut objective in mind. trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner’s ability to use or apply.
labour turnover etc. its relationship with the work flow and the importance of training. Careful screening of candidates for training raises the effectiveness of the training work. Unskilled workers may be trained on the job. high cost. to skilled and semi-skilled workers. Different methods of training may be suggested for the different levels of personnel. high rate of absenteeism. should be identified to indicate the need for training. Trainee should be given the proper background information before he starts learning new job skills and knowledge. Trainer should explain the trainee the importance of the job. poor quality. For supervisory and executive personnel Onthe-job and Off-the-job methods such as role-playing. c) PREPARATION OF TRAINER OR INSTRUCTOR:- .Production problems like low productivity. 2) GETTING READY FOR THE JOB:Following are the steps taken in this regard: a) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINEE:Under this step it is to be decided who is to be trained. lectures and seminars etc. may be recommended. The proper selection of trainees is very important to obtain permanent and gainful results of training. c) COLLECTING OPINIONS:Opinions should be obtained from the management and the working people through interviews or through questionnaire regarding necessary and desirable training programmes. b) SELECTION OF TRAINING METHOD:Now it is advisable to lay down which method is to be adopted fro the training. On-the-job and apprenticeship training may be awarded. who is to be trained – the new comer or the older employee or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. A trainee should be trained for the kind of job he likes and is suitable to perform.
purpose of the training. It should not be in a vacuum. trainee’s learning capacity and the training media used. PREPARATION OF THE LEARNER:- . review and reference. The putting the learner at case so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job. Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfill his responsibility. The time of training whether before or after or during working hours should be decided by the personnel manager taking in view the loss of production and benefits to be achieved by training. ii. Generally no single session should last longer than two hours. The written material should be distributed among the trainees so that they may come prepared in the lecture class and may be able to understand the operation quickly and remove their doubts. 2) This step consists: i. iii. the trainer must have a clear-cut picture of the objectives of training in mind. This may be prepared in the training section with the help of supervisors. Training materials may include some text or written materials as a basis for instruction.The success of the training programme much depends upon the instructor. He should be able to divide the job into logical parts so that he may teach one part at a time without losing his perspective of the whole. if any. e) TRAINING MATERIAL:The length of training period depends upon the skill of the trainees. In stating the importance of ingredients of the job and its relationship towards flow. As because training must be based upon the needs of the organization therefore. He should also encourage the question from the trainees. Instructor must be well-qualified and may be obtained from within or outside the organization. In explaining he is being taught. d) TRAINING MATERIAL:There should always be the training material with the instructor. It should be decided beforehand what is to be taught and how.
Trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations 4) PERFORMANCE TRY-OUT:Under this. illustrate and question I order to put over the new knowledge and operations. In familiarizing him with the equipment. PRESENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND . gradually building up skill and speed. he must be given full guidance by the immediate supervisor and should be initiated to ask questions to remove the doubts. explaining him each step. The trainer should clearly tell.iv. 3) KNOWLEDGE:This is the most important step in a training programme. materials tools and trade terms. In explaining why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows. and vii. show. 5) FOLLOW-UP:On the completion of training programme trainees should be placed to the job. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its performance is necessary instructions should be given clearly. vi. finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs. v. In creating interest and encouraging questions. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated. the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary some complicated steps are taken for the trainee for the first time. completely and patiently. Then the trainee is asked to do the job. In planning the learner as close to his normal working position as possible. The supervisor should have a constant vigil on the person still facing any difficulty on the job.
more or less. With the growth of union movement all over the globe & the emergence of employers’ associations. To avoid third party intervention in matters relating to employment. The week bargaining strength of employees tempted them. more or less. OBJECTIVES The main objectives of Collective bargaining are given below: To settle disputes / conflicts relating to wages & working conditions. working conditions & other matters affecting employees. This collective fighting spirit is behind the back of collective bargaining. Workers as a result became restless & widespread protests followed. Before the Industrial Revolution. the collective bargaining process has undergone significant changes. Governmental intervention was of little help. on occasions. Both parties have. the employer. To protect the interests of workers through collective plan. enjoyed unquestioned powers on matters relating to wage. Workers realized the importance of fighting jointly on all work-related matters. .COLLECTIVE BARGAINING INTRODUCTION The phrase ‘Collective bargaining’ is coined by Sydney & Beatrice Webb. To resolve the differences between workers & management though voluntary negotiations & arrive at a customer. According to them collective bargaining is a method by which trade unions protect & improve the conditions of their members’ working lives. to exploit the vulnerable situation to their advantage. realized the importance of peaceful co-existence for their mutual benefit & continued progress.
. Achieve an efficient functioning of the organization. setting these disputes & maintaining industrial peace by performing the following functions: Increase the economic strength of employees & management. It provides a method of the regulation of the conditions of It provides a solution to the problem of sickness in the industry & It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil employment of those who are directly concerned about them. it ensures that the management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions. Establish uniform conditions of employment.Functions of Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining plays an important role in preventing industrial disputes. Lay down fair rates of wages & other norms of working conditions. In other words. Secure a prompt & fair redressal of grievances. Promote the stability & prosperity of the company. ensures old age pension benefits & other fringe benefits. rights I the industry.
its terms & conditions throughout the organization. 2. both the parties can make mutually acceptable amendments. . The union takes steps to see that all the workers understand the contract & implement it. Management usually distributes the printed contract. become a binding contract for both the parties. Contract Administration Implementation of the contract is as important as making a contract. 1. When a solution is reached at. The chief negotiator presents the problem. He directs & presides over the process. From time to time depending upon changing circumstances. whether the problem is minor that it can be solved with the other party’s acceptance on its presentation & does not need to involve the long process of collective bargaining process etc. taking concerned legislations into consideration. both the parties prepare themselves for negotiations. Both parties concerned sign the agreement which. viz.. it is put on the paper. Negotiation (a) Identification of Problems The nature of the problem influences the whole process-whether the problem is very important that is to be discussed immediately or it can be postponed for some other convenient time. (b) Preparing for Negotiations When it becomes necessary to solve the problem through collective bargaining process. its intensity & nature & the views of both parties. (i) the negotiation stage & (ii) the stage of contract administration. (c) Negotiations of Agreement Usually there will be a chief negotiator who is form the management side.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS There are two stages in collective bargaining. in tern.
Presently. can make legislation for compulsory collective bargaining before resorting to adjudication. bargaining. Much headway has already been made in this direction. they are now encouraging negotiations & amicable solutions. They are also realizing how important cooperation between management & workers for the effective functioning of an organization. Adjudication should be used only as a last resort. should make efforts for the growth of collective should separate themselves from politics. The unions Govt. Management should develop a positive attitude toward unions.SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLIMENTATION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING workers. As such. managers are mostly aware of the rights of workers. . Unions should be made strong by creating awareness among Interference of political leaders should be avoided. Govt.
The relative importance of these causes. Such issues result in Industrial Conflicts. ⇒ Government machinery & ⇒ Other causes. which means the control of the tools of production by the small entrepreneur class has brought to the fore the acute problem of friction between management & labour throughout the world. DEFINITION OF DISPUTE / CONFLICT According to the Industrial Disputes Act.” CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS It is not easy to identify a single factor as a cause of industrial conflicts as multifarious causes blended together result in industrial disputes. . “Industrial dispute means any dispute or difference between employers & employers. According to Mukherjee. or between employers & workmen or between workmen & workmen.INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS All the issues refer to collective bargaining may not be settled to the satisfactions of both the parties. which is connected with the employment or non employment or term of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person. is often very difficult to gauge. 1947. “The development of capitalistic enterprise. ⇒ Industrial factors. Deep seated & more basic causes of disputes can be identified through in depth probe. though surface manifestations appear to be responsible for conflicts.” Causes of industrial conflicts may be grouped into four categories. Section 2(k). when more than presents. ⇒ Management’s attitude towards workers.
Sit down strike (also called stay-in.” employed in an industry acting in combination. or a concerted refusal or a refusal under a common understanding of any no of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment. the order being chosen by the union. firm by firm.TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT Strike A strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of the labour from production temporarily. Strikes are of several types. The industrial disputes act 1947 has define a strike as “an assertion of work by a body of persons. Sectional strike It is refusal of a section of a given class of workers to perform their normal duties. General strike It is a strike by all or most of the unions in a industry or a region Unofficial strike It is a strike undertaken without the consent of the unions. Bumper strike It is a strike when the unions plan to paralyse the industry. Such strikes are supported by the contributions of those who are still in work. tool down. It is a collective stoppage of work by group of workers for pressuring their employer to accept certain demands. Sympathetic strike When a strike is undertaken to show sympathy with workers in other industries. it is called as sympathetic strike. pen down strike) .
This can happen outside the factory premises too. He may also draw the shutter down so as to bring psychological pressure on the workers to agree to his condition or face closure of the unit. The National Commission on Labour. workers may go on strike without notice or at very short notice. workers may decide to forego food for a specified period. or the suspension of work or the refusal of an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him”. There is an element of surprise in such cat-call strikes. The industrial Dispute Act of 1947 defined it as “the closing of a place of an employment. employers may decide to go for lock-out. opined that gheraos tend to inflict physical duress (as . Gherao Gherao means to surround. Lock-outs Lock-out is the counterpart of strike. Such non-violence protests generally bring moral pressure on employers to iron out the differences with quickly. The persons who are ‘gheraoed’ are not allowed to move for a long time. It is a weapon available to the employer to close down the factory till the workers agree to resume work on the conditions lead down by the employer. while refusing to accept it as a form of industrial protest. Hunger strike To gain sympathy from the public & get noticed by the employer. Slow-down strike Known as a ‘go-slow’ tactic the workers do not stop working but put brakes to the normal way of doing things. Small batches of workers may also go on a relay hunger strike in a sequential order. Lightning strike Out of provocation.It is a strike in which workers cease to perform this duties but do not leave the place of work. In this method a group of workers initiate collective action aimed at preventing members of the management from leaving the office. sometimes without food or water. If it is impossible to meet the demand of workers.
Picketing & Boycott In picketing workers carry / display signs. . banners & play card (in connection with the dispute) & prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade others to join the strike. Through forceful appeals & negative behavioral acts.against economic pressure) on the persons affected & endanger not only industrial harmony but also create problems of law & order. Boycott aims at disrupting the normal functioning of an enterprise. striking workers prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade them not to cooperate with the employer.
500. works committees & councils. wage boards. the assistance . profit sharing & co-partnership. housing. These methods “cover the entire field of relations between industry & labour & include enactment & enforcement of progressive legislation. at least 1 officer must be appointed. 49 (1) & (2) of the factories act.” The significant preventive measures may be broadly outlined as below: Prevention Measures of Industrial Conflicts Labour Welfare Officer Standing Orders Grievances Procedure Joint Consultation Strong Trade Unions Joint Consultations Collective Bargaining Labour Co-partnership & Profit Sharing Labour welfare Officer Sec. specifies that every factory wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed.PREVENTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS Prevention of industrial disputes may have different methods. & trade boards. 1948. where the number of workers are in excess of 2. education. welfare work & all such measures which can bridge the gap between the employers & the employed.
Standing orders act as a code of conduct for the employees during the working life of employees as they provide do’s & do nots. Joint consultations . It was made obligatory that standing orders should govern the conditions of employment under the industrial employment (standing orders) act of 1946. Labour co – partnership & profit sharing Labour co – partnership & profit sharing create a sense of belongness among the employees & they fill that they are the partners in the company. Government also helps trade unions & govt.& or additional welfare officers are required to be appointed to assist the welfare officer. The standing orders regulate the conditions of employment from the stage of entry to the stage of exit or retirement. Such unions think & act constructively for the mutual benefit of the employees & the management. Management can prevent the occurrence of industrial disputes by solving the individual problems. Collective bargaining As discussed earlier. sound financial position & healthy polices. they think & act for the benefit of the company. These practices naturally prevent the industrial conflicts. Grievances of the employees are redressed by the management. Standing orders Majority of the industrial disputes are related to conditions of employment. Strong trade unions Strong trade unions have the stability of membership. Grievance procedure Grievances generally arise from day – to – day working relations. standing orders are formulated. As such. to come closer to each other & come to an agreement. To prevent the industrial conflict relating to employment conditions. collective bargaining helps for settlement of issues & prevention of industrial disputes.
The result of investigation has no serious effect on the dispute because the general public is least bothered to make note of the dispute. it is compulsory. . It may be voluntary or compulsory. In this method. they aim at bringing about an amicable solution. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. Meditation Another attempt to settle disputes is Meditation. There may be three kinds of meditation: a. When the investigation is compulsory.A Joint consultation between the employees & employer are the differences between them & prevents industrial conflicts. but by analyzing the facts. b. an outsider assists the parties in their negotiation. it is voluntary. Non-Government Board. Investigation This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. 2. Semi-Government Board. The mediator performs the messenger’s job for both the parties & he neither imposes his will nor his judgment upon them. the strikes & lock-outs are required to be stopped & employers should not make any change in the conditions of employment. The Eminent Outsider. SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS The methods of the settlement of conflicts generally include those mentions in the below 1. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute. The main aim of meditation is the settlement of disputes by brining about a voluntary agreement. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly. & c. If the Government appoints a Court of Inquiry to investigate into a dispute without the consent of the parties.
face saver. they are ready to accept. whose decision.If meditation is conducted skillful & sympathetically along proper lines. stimulator. advisor. The task of conciliation is to offer advice & make suggestions to the dispute on controversial issues. He acts as a safety value & a communication link. It is the practice by which the services of the neutral third party as used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties to reduce the extent of their differences & to arrive at an amicable settlement or agreed solution. who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority. He plays the role of an innovator. 3. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. . distrust etc. either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator. protector. The subsequent attendance of witness & investigations & The enforcement of an award may not be necessary. Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers & employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is a process of rational & orderly discussions of differences between the parties to a dispute under the guidance of a conciliator. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. discussion leader. Conciliation machinery consists of a conciliation officer & board of conciliations. Voluntary Arbitration If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement. Conciliation The main objective of a condition & arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production. it can bring about the adjustment of differences that might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work. 4. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are: The voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitration.
. Compulsory Arbitration / Adjudication Where trade unions are week. necessary & desirable. The nature. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement though the voluntary methods. Compulsory Arbitration is one where the parties are required to arbitrate without any willingness on their part. It may be said that Compulsory Arbitration may be at times & under certain circumstances. Compulsory Arbitration is enforced because collective bargaining was not used for regulating wages & other conditions of employment. Any one of the parties may apply to the appropriate governments to refer the dispute to adjudication machinery. The objective of state intervention in the field of industrial relations should be to do social justice & make the weaker party equally strong to enable it ultimately to stand & survive on its own & settle its differences through negations & collective bargaining.5. In India. the method of Compulsory Arbitration is used. scale & timing of state intervention should be suited to the needs of different occasions.
” . Though the organization prefers to fill up the vacancies by the external candidates through the selection procedure.better in terms of grater responsibility. ► Definition:“Promotion is advancement of an employee to a better job. Is such upward movement of an employee a promotion? Or it is purely selection? It is purely a selection. “The upward reassignment of an individual in an organizational hierarchy. If the organization prefers to fill a vacancy only by the internal candidates.promotion When there are vacancies in an organization. Myers. accompanied by increased responsibilities.” Paul Pigors and Charles A.Arun Monappa and Mirza S. the internal candidates may also apply for post and may be tested and selected for higher level job in the organizational hierarchy at par with external candidates. Such upward movement can be said as promotion. . Saiyadain. the main conditions of promotion are:1) Reassignment of higher level job to an employee than what he is presently performing. Promotion is the reassignment of a higher level job to an internal employee with delegation of responsibilities and authority required to perform that higher job and normally with higher pay. greater skills and especially increased rate of pay or salary. it assigns that higher level job to the selected employee from within through promotion tests. enhanced status and usually with increased income though not always so. more prestige or status. Thus. they can be filled up by the internal or external candidates.
► Purpose of promotion:Organizations promote the employee with a view to achieve the following purposes:1) To utilize the employee’s skills. development programmers and in team development areas. efficiency and aptitude as measured from educational. 2) To develop competent spirit and inculcate the zeal in the employees to acquired the skills. 3) Promotion normally accompanies higher pay. knowledge at the appropriate level in the organizational hierarchy resulting in organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. 3) To develop competent internal source of employees ready to take up jobs at higher level in the changing environment. ability. 6) To promote interest in training. 7) To build loyalty and to boost morale. 9) To get rid of the problems created by the leader of workers’ unions by promoting them to the officer’ levels where they are less effective in creating problems. training and past employment record. 8) To reward committed and loyal employees. knowledge etc. Merit as a basis of promotion:Merit is taken to denote an individual employee’s skills. The merits of merit system of promotion are: 1) The resources of higher order of an employee can be better utilized at a higher level. required by higher level jobs. knowledge. . Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational needs and employee performance. It reduces labour turnover. 5) To promote a feeling of content with the existing conditions of the company and a sense of belongingness. 4) To promote employee’s self development and make them await their turn of promotions.2) The employee will naturally be delegated with greater responsibility and authority than what he has had earlier. It result in maximum utilization of human resources in an organization 2) Competent employees are motivated to exert all their resources and contribute them to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness 3) It works as golden hand-cuffs regarding employee turnover.
the purpose of promotion may not be served if merit is taken as sole criteria for promotion. Senior as a basis of promotion Seniority refers to relative length of service in the same job and in the same organization. for all-round development. 4) Merit denotes mostly the past achievement. This system is also based on the custom that the first in should be given first chance in all benefit and privileges. They are: 1) Measurement or judging of merit is highly difficult. 3) The techniques of merit measurement are subjective. Despite these advantages the merit systems suffer from some demerit. 2) There would be full support of the trade unions to this system. The logic behind considering the seniority as a basis of promotion is that there is a positive correlation between the length of service in the same job and the amount of knowledge and the level of skill acquired by an employee in an organization. particularly trade union leaders. distrust the management’s integrity in judging merit. Hence. . ► Advantages of seniority as a basis of promotion are: 1) It is relatively easy to measure the length of service and judge the seniority.4) Further it continuously encourages the employees to acquire new skill. 7) This system seems to reserve the purpose in the sense that employees may learn more with increase in the length of service. 6) It minimizes the scope for grievances and conflicts regarding promotion. efficiency but not the future success. 4) It gives a sense of certainty of getting promotion to every employee and of their turn of promotion. 5) Senior employees will have a sense of satisfaction to this system as the older employees are respected and their inefficiency cannot be pointed out. 3) Every party trust the management’s action as there is no scope for favoritism and discrimination and judgment. 2) Many people. knowledge etc.
3) It kills the zeal and interest to develop as everybody will be promoted with or without improvement. Thus the two main basic of promotion enjoy certain advantages and at the same time suffer from certain limitations. There are several ways in striking the balance between these two basis. They are: 1) The assumption that the employees learn more relatively with length of service is not valid as this assumption has reverse effect. Seniority-cum-merit Management mostly prefers merit as the basis of promotion as they are interested in enriching its human resources. experience as apprentice trainee.► In spite of these merits. this system also suffers from certain limitations. In other words employees learn up to a certain age and beyond that stage the learning ability of the cognitive process diminishes. 5) Judging the seniority though it seems to be in the theoretical sense. Hence. a combination of both of them may be regarded as an effective basis of promotion. Hence a combination of both seniority and merit can be considered as the basis for promotion satisfying the management for organizational effectiveness and employees and trade union for respecting the length of service. researcher. service in different organizations. it is highly difficult in practice as the problems like job seniority. trainee. zonal/regional seniority. A balance between seniority and merit should be struck and a new basis is to be developed. company seniority. length of service not only by days but hours and minutes will crop up.viz:- . But trade union favour seniority as the sole basis for promotion with a view to satisfy the interests of majority of their members. 2) It denominates the young and more competent employees and results in employee turnover particularly among the dynamic force. 4) Organizational effectiveness may be diminishes through the deceleration of the human resource effectiveness as the human resource consists of mostly undynamic and old blood.
say five years. 3) Minimum merit and seniority:In contrast to the earlier methods. ► Problems with promotion:- .1) Minimum length of service and merit:Under this method all those employees who complete the minimum service. 4) It increases interest in acquiring higher qualifications. ► Benefit of promotion:1) Promotion places the employees in a position where an employee’s skills and knowledge can be better utilized. Most of the commercial bank in India has been following this method for promoting the employees from clerk’s position to officer’s position. are made eligible for promotion and then merit is taken as the sole criteria for selecting the employee for promotion from the eligible candidates. 6) Ultimately it improves organizational health. minimum score of merit which is necessary for the acceptable performance on the future job is determined and all the candidates who secure minimum score are declared as eligible candidates. 2) It creates and increases the interest of the other employees in the company as they believe that they will also get their turn. Candidates are selected for promotion based on their seniority only from the eligible candidates. 2) Measurements of seniority and merit through a common factor. 3) It creates among employees a feeling of content with the existing conditions of work and employment. in training and in self development with a view to meet the requirement of promotion 5) Promotion improves employee morale and job satisfaction.
and when trade union leader feel that promotion causes damage to their position in trade union. The other problems associated with the promotion are: some superiors will not relieve their subordinates who are promoted because of their indispensability in the present job and inequality in promotional in different departments. promotion that level where the employee feels that he will be quite incompetent to carry out the job. Some employee refuse promotion:There is a general tendency that employee accept promotion. . it creates certain problems. delegation of unwanted responsibilities. Promotion disappointment some employees:Some employees who are not promoted will be disappointed when their colleagues with similar qualifications and experience are promoted either due to favoritisms or due to lack of systematic promotion policy. These include promotion together with transfer to an upward place. Promotion problems can be minimized though a career counseling by the superiors and by formulating a systematic promotion policy. refusal of promotions etc.Though promotions benefit the employee and the organization. Employee may develop negative attitude and reduce their contributions to the organization and prevent organizational and individual advancement. regions and categories of jobs. But their are several incidents where employees refuse promotions. They are disappointment of the candidates.
2) It should be fair and impartial. In other words it should not give room for nepotism. . The characteristics of a systematic promotion policy are: 1) It should be considered the sense that policy should be applied uniformly to all employees irrespective of the background of the persons. knowledge etc. favoritism etc. departments. length or service. job requirement and acquiring the required skills. it should also contain reinforcing the future chances in the mind of rejected candidates and a provision for challenging the managements decision and action by employee or union within the limits of promotion policy. 3) Systematic line of promotion channel should be incorporated 4) It should provide equal opportunities fro promotion in all categories of jobs. encouragement. 7) Appropriate authority should be entrusted with the task of making final decision 8) Favoritism should not be taken as a basis for promotion 9) It should contain promotional counseling.. and regions of an organization 5) It should insure open policy in the sense that every eligible employee should be considered for promotion rather than a closed system which consider only a class of employees 6) It should contain clear cut norms and criteria for judging merit. guidance and follow-up regarding promotional opportunity.► Promotion policy Every organizational has to specify clearly its policy regarding promotion based on its corporate policy. potentiality etc.
The concerned employee naturally transgresses the job classification. and a change in designation. Depending on which elements increase and which remain stagnant. 2) Vertical Promotion:This type of promotion results in greater responsibility. only the pay increases. responsibilities and pay. prestige and pay. promotions may be classified into the following types: 1) Horizontal Promotion:This type of promotion involves an increase in responsibilities and pay. the status only increases without a corresponding increase in pay or responsibilities. in certain cases. 3) Dry Promotions:Dry promotions are sometimes given in lieu of increases in remuneration.► Types of Promotion As already noted. In other cases. together with a change in the nature of the job. and the other elements remain stagnant. a promotion involves an increase in status. . This type of promotion is referred to as upgrading' the position of an employee. But the employee concerned does not transgress the job classification. A promotion is vertical when a canteen employee is promoted to an unskilled job. a lower division clerk is promoted as an upper division clerk. The promotee may be given one or two annual increments. But. For example. Designations are different but no change in responsibilities.
Thus promotion is upward reassignment of job.Transfer ► Meaning:Transfer is defined as “ a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties. It may involve a promotion. responsibility. ► Purposes of transfer:The transfer in an organization may be due to any one of the following reasons: (1) Variation in the volume of work: Transfers are necessary due to variation in the volume of work in . .” However transfer is viewed as change in assignment in which the employee moves from one job to another in the same level of hierarchy requiring similar skill involving approximately same level of responsibility. same status and same level of pay. skills needed or compensation” Transfer is also defines as “the moving of an employee from one job to another. Shortage of employees or increase in the work in one department due to different reasons leads to transfer of employees from other departments to that department.different departments/sections. Similarly. (3) Rectification of poor placement: Transfers are necessary for the rectification of poor placement made in the initial period. (2) Providing training to employees: Transfers are made for providing opportunities to employees for training and development. Workers are transferred from surplus department to another department where there is shortage of staff. demotion or no change in job status other than moving from one job to another. demotion is a downward job reassignment whereas transfer is a latter or horizontal job reassignment. transfers are necessary in order to utilize the services of an employee in the best possible manner.
senior and experienced workers and supervisors are transferred to new plants/factories in order to manage the work smoothly. transfer is treated as a better alternative to outright dismissal. Female employees want transfer to join their husbands. For example. (9) Giving punishment for negligence: Transfers are sometimes made as a punishment for negligence and indiscipline on the part of an employee. To break this monotony. made in order to meet the mutual needs of two employees. The productivity of an employee may decline due to monotony of his or her job. (6) Meeting organizational needs: Transfers are necessary in order to meet the organizational needs developed out of expansion programmers or fluctuations in work requirements or changes in the organizational structure or dropping of existing product lines.(4) Satisfying personal needs of employees: Transfers are necessary in order to satisfy the personal needs (personal difficulties) of the employees. (8) Avoiding fatigue and monotony: Transfers are made for avoiding fatigue and monotony of work in the case of employees. He is transferred to a new place or post and is given an opportunity to improve his performance at a new place. the employee is transferred. This leads to transfers. (7) Solution to poor performance: Transfers are. transfers are basically for the convenience of employees. . and education of children and so on. (5) Meeting mutual needs of employees: Transfers are. sometimes. Such transfers take place especially among female employees. They include family problems. sometimes. Here. Here. It is a type of mutual exchange and is usually accepted by the management. made when the worker fails to perform his job efficiently. sickness. Workers demand transfers when the climate of the place of work is not suitable to them.
2. 1) Production Transfers:As mentioned earlier. replacement. versatility. Those making possible adjustment to varying volumes of work within the firm. 3. This may affect the work of the department. This practice is widespread mainly in government offices and police department. (11) Providing convenience to employees: Transfers are made to help employees to work according to their convenience. a shortage or surplus of the labour force is common in different departments in a plant or several plants in an organization. Surplus employees in a department have to be laid off. ► Types of Transfers Broadly speaking. They may be made as a disciplinary action for serious mistakes on the part of employees. Similarly. unless they are transferred to another department. shift and remedial.(10) Rectification of poor personal relations: The relations between the worker and his superior may not be smooth and cordial. Problem employees are transferred to some other jobs or to remote places. Transfers affected to avoid such imminent lay-offs are called production transfers. Those designed to enhance training and development. Those designed to remedy the problem of poor placement. transfers may be classified into three types: 1. (12) To provide relief and to punish employees: Transfers may be made in order to give relief to the employees who are overburdened or are working under heavy risks or tension over a long period. 2) Replacement Transfers:- . Such transfers are also called shift transfers. One method to solve this problem is to transfer the worker from that department to some other suitable department. This transfer may be necessary for removal of the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her boss or between one worker and the other. on certain occasions transfers are made for indulging in undesirable activities. transfers may be production. Specifically.
of senior employees. Versatile transfers may be used as a preparation for production or replacement transfers 4) Shift Transfers:Generally speaking. called personal transfers. 5) Remedial Transfers:Remedial transfers are affected at the request of employees and are. the worker may stagnate and would benefit by transfer to a different kind of work.Replacement transfers. Transfers may also be affected on special requests from employees. or the type of job or working conditions may not be well-adapted to his or her present health or accident record. such transfers being made mostly on a rotation basis. industrial establishments operate more than one shift. 3) Versatility Transfers:Versatility transfers are effected to make employees versatile and competent hi more than one skill. Some request a transfer to the second shift or the night shift in order to avail the free time during the day to take up part time jobs. for example. particularly. Remedial transfers take place because the initial placement of an employee may have been faulty or the worker may not get along with his or her supervisor or with other workers in the department. therefore. are transferred from one section to another over a period of time so that they may acquire the necessary skills to attend to the various activities. at the bank. Clerical employees in banks. Transfers between shifts are common. Versatile operations are valuable assets during rush periods and periods when work is dull. are intended to avoid imminent lay-offs. A replacement transfer programmed is used when all the operations are declining. He or she may be getting too old to continue in his or her regular job. If the job is repetitive. and is designed to retain long-service employees as long as possible. A junior employee may be replaced by a senior employee to avoid laying off the latter. too. although this is not permitted by law. ► Reasons for transfer: .
Employee may not be interested with the work or working condition or environment of his present job and hence may require a transfer. 2) Due to family problem like taking care of old parents. rather than transferring the subordinates. 4) In order to relive him from the monotony or boredom caused due to doing the same job for year together. 2) Company initiated transfer:- . These transfers are primarily in the interest of the employee and according to his convenience and desire. 1) Employee initiated transfer:These transfers are also known as personal transfers. 5) To avoid conflict with his superior. b) Permanent transfers:There are several reasons for employee initiated permanent transfers. 3) With a view to correct his wrong placement. Employee prefers transfers: 1) Due to chronic ill health or permanent disablement caused by accident. 2) Due to family problems like taking care of domestic affairs in his native place. a) Temporary transfers: The reasons for employee initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to ill health or involvement of employee in accidents. the situation should be corrected by other means like developing that superior in interpersonal skills etc. 3) Due to other adhoc problem like pursuing higher education. Further. If most of the employees working under the same superior request for a transfer. employee initiated transfer. viz. 7) With a view to search for job with opportunities for advancement to a higher level job. and company initiated transfer and public initiated transfers.Transfers are of basically of three categories. opportunities for financial gains etc. 6) With a view to search for challenging and creative job. this transfer can be classified into temporary and permanent transfers. opportunities for advancement to a higher level job.
2) To improve the versatity of employees. Benefit of transfer: Transfers benefit both the employees and the organization. This drawback is more severe in government departments and public sector unit. 3) Due to short vacations. 2) If the function of an employee is against the public interest. technology. 3) Public initiated transfers:Public also initiate the transfers generally through the politicians/ government for the following reasons: 1) If an employee’s behavior in the society is against the social norms orderprocessing if he indulges in any social evils. lines of activity. 4) To minimize bribe order-processing corruption. Further . Transfer reduce employee’s monotony. 2) Due to fluctuation in quality of production and thereby in work load. Some employees may be transferred frequently because of political victimization and company initiated transfer of some employees may be stopped due to political favoritism. organizational structure as discussed earlier. 3) To improve the employee job satisfaction. The majour drawback of public initiated transfer is the politicalisation of the issue. b) Permanent transfer: . They can be classified into temporary and permanent. and increase employees job satisfaction.Transfer is also at the initiative of the company.reasons for the company initiated permanent transfer are: 1) Changes in the quality of production. a) Temporary transfers: reasons for the company initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to temporary absenteeism of employees. boredom etc.
They are: 1) Adjustment problem to the employee to the new job. subordinates may also request fro transfer even for the petty issues. Thus. It causes frustration among employees. 5) Reasons which will be considered for personal transfers their order of priority etc. environment. Similarly. they correct erroneous placement and interpersonal conflicts. they improve employee’s morale. superior and colleageoues. As such organization may find it difficult to manage the transfer policy. 3) transfer from one place to another result in loss of Mondays. job satisfaction. description and classification etc. place. commitment and contribution. Problems of transfer: Despite these benefit some problems are associated with transfers. Thus. 2) Specification of superior who is authorized and responsible to initiate a transfer 3) Jobs from and to which transfers will be made based on the job specification. knowledge etc. they enhance human resource contribution to organizational effectiveness.they improves employee’s skills. Transfer policy: organization should specify their policy regarding transfers. Otherwise superiors may transfer their subordinates arbitrarily if they do not like them. . education to children etc. 4) The region order-processing unit of the organization within which transfer will be administrated. 2) Transfer from one place to another cause which inconvenience and cost to the employees and his family members relating to housing. However. Further they prepare the employee to meet the organizational exigencies and meet the fluctuation in business and organizational requirements. Systematic transfer policy should contain the following items: 1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be transferred in the case of company initiated transfer. 4) Company initiated transfer result in reduction in employee contribution 5) Discriminatory transfer affects employees’ morale. these problems can be minimized through formulating a systematic transfer policy. Most of the people may ask for transfer to risk less and easy job and places.
9) Specification of pay. 8) Specification of basis for transfer like job analysis. Demotion . that are to be allowed to the employee in the new job. line managers administer the transfers and personnel managers assist the line managers in this respect. Allowances. Generally. length of service. benefit etc. Special allowance for packaging luggage.6) Reasons for mutual transfer of employees. seniority. 10) Other facility to be extended to the transferee like special leave during the period of transfer. Merit. transportation etc. 7) Norms to decide priority when two order-processing more employees request for transfer like priority of reasons.
some of the employees promoted on those bases may not meet the job requirements of the higher level job. If the existing employees do not develop themselves to meet those new requirements. It is the opposite of promotion. For example. But. Job satisfaction etc. organizations demote them to the lower level jobs where they are suitable. teacher handling 10TH class were demoted to the level of 8TH class teachers when the syllabus were revised and the teachers were found misfit even after training in one school in Andhra Pradesh. closure of certain department orderprocessing plants. This is one of the extreme steps and as such organizations rarely use this measure. 3) New technology and new methods of operation demand new and higher level skills. Consequently organizations minimize the number of employees. 2) Adverse business conditions: Generally adverse business conditions force the organization to reduce quality of production. Demotion is the reassignment of a lower level job to an employee with delegation of responsibility and authority required to perform that lower level job and normally with lower level pay. withdrawal of some lines of products. knowledge and aptitude suit to the job requirements. Such employees may be demoted to the lower level jobs where their skill. 4) Employees are demoted on disciplinary grounds. In most cases employees are promoted to the level of the incompetence. Organizations use demotion less frequently as it affects employee career prospects and morale. Some employees selected for higher level jobs may prove to be incompetent I doing that job. Though the demotion seems to be simple it adversely affects the employee morale. as it reduces employee status not only in the organization but also . In addition. Junior employees will be retrenched and senior employees will be demoted under such conditions. ► Need for demotions: Demotions are necessary for following reasons: 1) Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs: Employees are promoted based on the seniority and past performance. organizations resort to economy drives.The remaining type of internal mobility is demotion.
Otherwise the superiors demote the employees according to their whims and fancies. merit order-processing both. 2) Specification of a superior who is authorized and responsible to initiated a demotion 3) Jobs from and to which. .e. 5) It should provide for open policy rather than a closed policy.in the society in addition to reduction in responsibility authority and pay. there should be a systematic demotion policy. the opinion & suggestions of workers are taken into account while framing policies particularly those.. demotions will be made and specification of lines orderprocessing ladders of demotion. Hence. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT Meaning of Participative Management The concept of participative management is closely related with the concept of industrial democracy. like reduction in operations. In industrial democracy. ► Demotion policy: Organization should clearly specify the demotion policy. It is a type of mental & emotional involvement of workers in industrial management. 7) Specification of nature of demotion i. 6) It should contain clear cut norms for judging merit and length of service. whether it is permanent order-processing temporary if it as a disciplinary action it should also specify the guidelines for determining the seniority of such demoted employee. indisciplinary cases. 4) Specification of basis for demotion like length of service. which are directly connected with them or affect them directly. Employee’s participation in management means associating workers with the decision-making process. Systematic demotion policy should contain following items: 1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be demoted.
etc. through the representatives of employees. Features of Participative Management 1. As a result. welfare facilities. Universally recognized concept: It is introduced in different countries in different forms. 2. . ideas & information in between the employer & employees through certain channels / mechanism. holidays. Higher status to employees: In participative management. Provides psychological satisfaction to employees: Participation is an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company.g. health. As a result. It is a process of giving & sharing views. 5. Economic: Automation. 6. sanitation. production schedule. etc. Participation is indirect: Employees participation in the management is indirect i. They feel that they are given better status & treatment & not treated merely as wage earners. production methods. Special attention to view of employees: The views of employees are given special attention in regard to following matters: • • • Social Matters: Hours of work. work rules. which ensures cordial industrial relations. settlement of grievances.e. E. Brings employees & management closure: It facilitates meaningful communication between management & employees.The concept of participative management developed in Western countries & has proved to be successful. 3. 4. lay-offs. work distribution. it acquired world-wide recognition & popularity. Personnel: Recruitment. some management decisions are as per the expectations of employees. This gives psychological satisfaction to employees. employees are given higher status with power of participate in the decision-making & running of their business enterprise. promotions & transfers. safety. etc. etc. Works comities. Participation in an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company.
9. ⇒ To workers in confidence.7. It is restricted to those aspects of management where employees are directly involved. 8. ⇒ To introduce industrial democracy. which can make industrial democracy a reality. Revolutionary concept: It is a powerful tool. Concept has limitations: Employees will not be allowed to participate in financial & other decisions of the management. Needs of Participative Management: 1) Giving higher status & psychological satisfaction to workers: Employees are important & that their views are being taken into account while taking . Beneficial to both parties: The participative management will be beneficial to both parties only when company’s management is professional or progressive. ⇒ To raise industrial productivity. ⇒ To establish cordial industrial relation. Objectives or Purposes of Participative Management: ⇒ To create uniform approach of employer & workers.
They are consulted as equal partners in the production process. disciplined & constructive in their approach in relation to the activities of the company. which is one useful supplement of political democracy.decisions on the matters relating to them. 7) Encouraging communication between employer & workers: It enables management to understand the workers point of view at the time of decisionmaking. This leads to industrial democracy. forums or platforms through which effective communication between workers and management will be possible and joint decision will be arrived at the methods of Participative management are different alternative. 9) Introducing industrial democracy: Workers participation acts as a means for achieving the dream of industrial democracy. Methods of participative management Participative management is possible by creating suitable agencies. 8) Raising employee’s morale: For raising the morale of employees & in order to use their knowledge. 6) Creating responsible approach among workers: To make workers more responsible. 3) Creating uniform approach of employer & workers: This avoids possible disputes. Such participation satisfies the urge of self-expressions. 2) Cordial labour-management relations: The participation of the workers in management can act as an effective means for preventing industrial disputes. respect & opportunity of selfexpression. Even for maturity & personality development of workers. Employees and workers can select any one of the method popular and also purposeful. So there needs to establish cordial labour-management relations through mutual understanding. This is the nature as the method selected is . skills & talents for the benefit of the company. 5) Creating platform for direct negotiations: It is needed in order to create a platform for direct negotiations & collective decisions. It removes suspicion among workers. 4) Raising industrial production: As workers generally take interest in their work when they are given due importance.
Such joint consultative committees exist in UK and Sweden. In India. are discussed in the meetings of JMCs. Matters like wage payment. In India. joint decisions are taken and such decisions are binding on both the parties. common grievances. there is statutory provision for the establishment of worker committees under the industrial disputes act. participative management through this mechanism is not effective or purposeful in India. they are neither effective nor popular in India. bonus. Meeting of such committees are also arranged. Many managers feel that such committees have only a nuisance value. removal of workers. are discussed in such meetings. In addition to works committee. 1. The method used is means while effective participation is the end. Joint management councils (JMCs): These council are similar to works committees with equal representation to employer and employees. holidays. The committees are for the removing the causes of friction between employers and the workers in the day to day working in factory level. working conditions etc. training. the JMCs are not operation effectively in India due to limited interest . 1947. training. etc. discipline. discipline. JMCs are in addition to works committees which are statutory in nature. However. many other committees are formed. 2. Unfortunately. However.not important but the result oriented Participative is important. welfare facility. expansion programmes. Workers committees are extremely popular and effective in France and England. As a result. rationalization. participative management is mainly through joint management councils. Workers express their views. After discussion. problems such as welfare facility. Works committees: The industrial disputes act 1947 provided for the setting up of a work committees consisting of representative of management and employees in every undertaking employee 100 or more employees. they are not effective as agencies of participative management. This joint consultative committee meets frequently for discussion on common problem before workers and the company. Such committees are constituted in large number of industrial unit.
The employee directors / workers directors are elected by workers and . Naturally. Many companies in India offer their shares to employees but the response of the employees is not encouraging. 3. Co-partnership ( Participation through ownership) : In co-partnership. The suggestions put forward by representatives are not binding on the management. The company may give financial assistance to workers to purchase equity shares. Co-partnership is also a method for introducing industrial democracy. workers are converted into shareholders of the company (by offering equity shares to them) and are allowed to participate in the management like other shareholders. shareholders. JMCs are mostly consultative bodies and this type of workers participation is of loose type. Employee Directors: Here. views. two or three representatives of workers are taken on the Board of Directors of the company. Here. This gives them an opportunity to participate in the decision making and policy framing of their company at the highest level. They only provide platform for discussions. etc. employees participate in the management as co-owners i.and initiative in their functioning by managements and workers. Workers show limited interest in purchasing shares of their company as and when offered. They are not used for exchange of information. workers are given higher status. the experiment of co-partnership is not popular. the participation of workers in the management is weak and ineffective. Workers are also allowed to attend meetings of the company and participate in the discussions. This suggests that co-partnership as a method of participative management is not effective / popular in India. Such councils serve no useful purpose. They can elect their representatives on the Board of Directors. In India. 4. Absence of cordial industrial relations in spite of JMCs indicates their overall failure. Very few workers purchase the shares and join the company as members. In this method. but for quarrels and heated exchanges between the representatives of management and workers. Voting rights are also given to employees.e. They work in two different capacities as workers and as co-owners. suggestions.
Here. Their suggestions are considered by a joint committee representing workers. employee directors act as connecting link between workers and top level management. working conditions. cost control. waste management. and HMT Ltd..they express the views of workers in the meetings of the Board. 5. Representation on the Board does not substantially enhance the participation of workers in the management of the company. Workers representatives on the Board are minority. In addition. Suitable suggestions relating to production activities. They may not be able to protect the interests of workers as decisions are taken on the basis of majority vote. etc. the personnel policies will be fair and favourable to workers. The representative of workers can put the views of workers before the directors and can also safeguard the interests of workers. This method of participative management has many limitations. heads of departments and technical experts. Finally. workers are asked to give their suggestion to the management on various administrative and other matters such as machine utilization. co-operative banks. the worker director may not be able to play a constructive role due to limited knowledge and experience. quality improvement. Tatas and some more companies from the private sector. Such suggestions are for improvement in the existing organizational setup. His contribution may not be satisfactory for the workers and also for the management. The worker director may enjoy the status on par with other directors but will feel inferior to others due to his shortcomings. This scheme also exists in the case of nationalized banks. Unfavourable decisions to workers will be avoided and better treatment will be ensured to them. This mechanism of workers participation is now used extensively in the public sector undertaking in India as per the initiative taken by the government. Suggestion Programme / Scheme: Under suggestion programme. rewards are also given to those who . energy conservation and safety measures. are promptly accepted and executed. Workers directors are now appointed in companies like Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd. Such participation ensures cordial industrial relations. The suggestions which are suitable are accepted. In addition. DCM. As a result.
On May occasions. Tatas.make constructive suggestions. Suggestion scheme of participative management encourages workers to think (individually or collectively) and participate in raising the efficiency of the organization. 7. this form of participation is voluntary. 6. to improve quality or to raise productivity or to avoid wastages. workers take over the industrial unit and manage it completely on co operative basis. It is one significant constructive development in the field of trade unionism in India. This idea of participative management is now put into operation through quality circles which are popular in Japan and now function in may Indian Companies. This method is called “Auto-management”. This leading unit was closed down in 1985 due to sickness. Suggestion scheme will give good results if workers are encouraged to think and make concrete suggestions. For collecting suggestions. This is the first example of participative management in the manufacturing sector in India. The Kamani Employees’ Union took initiative in starting this unit with the co-operation of financial institution form 6th April. 1989. Naturally. the entire management is by the workers themselves. The Supreme Court also allowed the workers to run the unit. In India. Workers suffered heavy loss. workers have contributed to its capital and have become its owners. They may raise productivity or reduce the cost of production. DCM and other industrial groups have introduced suggestion scheme. suggestion boxes are kept in all departments. Workers co-partnership / Auto Management: In this extreme form of labour participation. etc. As a . One example in India under this category is that of Kamani Tubes Limited.e. Quality Circle: Quality circle consist of a small number of employees who comes together on voluntary basis with one item on the agenda i. workers directly connected with work give creative and practical suggestions which are useful to the management in different ways. The Government of Maharashtra has taken a decision to hand over sick industrial units to workers for regular functioning on co-operative basis. Now.
The suggestion should be implemented. Empowered Team: When the authority is delegated to the employees its called empowering. As they are competent to speak on the job. In this sense. This circle highly proved to be highly successful because the problem is solved by member themselves through two way communication and brainstorming seriously and studies them effectively and promptly. 9. 8. 10. It results into signing an agreement thereby restricting each party that it cannot take unilateral decision harming the interest of the other party. Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining is the process in which the representative of the employer and employer and employees meet together to negotiate a contract government both the parties. Collective bargaining is a better alternative to strike and industrial disputes. employer and society at large. meetings are held once in the week lasting for about as hour. employment takes place when employees enjoy power and they experience a sense of ownership and control over the jobs. It is peaceful and democratic method for solving the problem and demands for workers through direct negotiation between the representative of workers and management. they feel responsible. Job enlargement and job evaluation: . Employees when empowered. if they fail they can request to management to depute an expert to sort out the problem. Employees become quality conscious and contribute to quality improvement in product and services. This happens to motivate them and they go out of the way to work. Information is shared at every level leading to improved performance. understanding that the job belong to them. A strong trade union can protect the interest of worker can more effectively through direct negotiation and consultation rather than through disputes and strike which are normally harmful to workers.practice. This sort of joint meeting can bring fruits proved barraging is done in the right spirit with positive attitude. Member of quality circle is given free hand to solve problem related to the quality. Participation brings both the parties together and improves the understanding thus making the way for the two way dialogue to sort out the problems. if found suitable.
Politicisation and multiplicity of trade union defeat the very purpose of participative management 2. employees to get the opportunity to make grater use of their mental and physical skills. Favourable attitude of management: . PRE-REQUISITES OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT 1. Difference methods are use in the different countries as per the situation available. The main objective of job enrichment and job enlargement is to force the worker from boredom which occurs because of excessive specialization. Job enrichment is designing a job in such a way that it provide the employee grater autonomy for planning and control his own performance. Strong trade unions: Existing of strong trade with creative and enlightened leadership is necessary for participative management. The method used for workers participation is not impotent. They also need information. Workers and their union must have genuine desire and interest in such participation. Statutory labour participation is not effective as it is mechanical and also imposed on both the parties by force. Voluntary participation is always better and more effective. The basis purpose of above noted scheme of participative management is to associate the worker with the decision-making process. Workers participation in management may be voluntary or statutory. Job enrichment makes the jobs more interesting and challenging. As tasks are related. Workers participation will be ineffective if these pre-request are absent.Job enlargement is the process of increasing the scope of the job by adding more tasks to it. This freedom is course limited and restricted. Both the job enrichment and job enlargement are considering method of participative management as they provide freedom to each employee to use his judgment. proper training and ability to participate in the discussions in an effective manner.
Clear understanding of objective: Employers and workers must understand clear the objective of such participation. Both parties are agree to stay together in an atmosphere of understanding. Active participation of workers in management is possible under such peaceful atmosphere. Management have to accept due importance of employees and their status as their partners and not merely as wage earners. This facilitates participative management in practice. Employer should not take such participation as an imposed liability and worker should not use it merely for expressing there grievances and demands. He must be mentally willing to associate with his workers on equal level and discus the problem freely and frankly with them. Management should not feel that its position it’s threatened by such participation. Fair participation is not possible when the mutual confidence is absent. Mutual trust and confidence: Existence of atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence is the sine quo non of participative management. This must be supplemented by desire to genuine desire to share authority and responsibility in mutually agreed to sphere. 3. The outlook of employer and worker must change and become favourable for mutual trust and understanding. 5. Genuine urge for co-operation: Genuine desire on the part of employer and worker to discuss. It is just not possible when there are disputes and strike in the industrial unit. Participation should be for achieve the . The conservative and autocratic outlook of management will defeat participative management in practice.The attitude of the management should be progressive and democratic. The objective must be clearly define and complementary in characters. 6. 4. Peaceful atmosphere: Labour management relation should be a cardinal or at least there should be a no tension in the relation. understand the views and come to certain acceptable decision is necessary for success of participative management.
This will make labour participation effectively. Education and training of workers: Workers education and training should be make significant contribution to meaningful participative management. Real representative of workers can put forward the views of all workers with confidence. The need of such participation must be felt by both the parties and they should introduce the scheme of participation on voluntary basis.objective which are accepted by both the parties and also beneficial for both the parties. 7. There must be a free flow of information and communication between management and worker. . 9. 10. It should not be government sponsored. Thus voluntary condition character is one pre-condition for the success of participative management. For this. Management should also provide all relevant information to employees for their consideration. The participation of trade union leaders should be discourage as the approach of such leaders may not be positive or fair. Voluntary character desirable: Participative management should not be made compulsory but should be kept voluntary in character. This will make the concept of participative management among popular among the workers and will ensure its success. Trade union and government should provide such education and training to the workers. In addition. Similarly. Participation of supervisory staff: Supervisory staff should be given a place on the join management council. 8. Participative management will be effective if the entire labour force covered by such participation. the representative of the worker must be drawn from themselves. financial and managerial knowledge and information. a suitable training needs to be given to the workers representatives. Meaningful sharing of information: Worker representative should have adequate technical. This avoids suspicion and distrust and ensures purposeful participative management. subject earmarked for collective bargaining must be kept outside for the joint consultation. It will not work fruitfully if it is imposed on the both the parties.
It helps consumer in an indirect manner. It bring human element in industrial management.Importance of participative management: The importance of participative management is universally accepted and efforts are being made for introducing such participation through suitable agencies and methods. employers and society at large. the concept of participative management is important because of economics. Even the process of decision making is made democratic through the workers participation. Such participation gives higher status to workers and enable them to think and express their view on the working of their company. social and human values connected with it. In addition. In the countries of west. Participative management has wider socio-economic importance as it given various advantages to workers. Industrial peace and cordial industrial relation are also established through participative management. this experiment is reasonable successful while in developing . Participative management is important it satisfies the psychological needs of self expression of workers. Employee participation is useful for raising industrial production and productivity. The ILO has given morale support to employee’s participation and has advocated its adoption in all countries. The national economy also gets certain benefits when industrial peace and harmony exits over a long period. Participative management introduces a new set of volume for the workers and employers in which power is to be replaced by persuasion and compulsion by cooperation. workers’ participation brings industrial democracy in reality. Efforts are being made in all countries in this regards. In brief.
the progress is not satisfactory even when consultative machinery exists in many countries.countries including India. .
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