P. 1
Electronic Circuits - I : Lab Manual

# Electronic Circuits - I : Lab Manual

|Views: 4,298|Likes:
Lab Manual for Second Year ECE Students of B.E. / B.Tech Students based on Anna University Syllabus
Lab Manual for Second Year ECE Students of B.E. / B.Tech Students based on Anna University Syllabus

See more
See less

07/27/2013

pdf

text

# Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note

Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 1

LAB EXPERIMENTS

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 2

Circuit Diagram:

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 3

Expt. No : 01 FIXED BIAS AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT USING BJT
Date :

Aim:
To design and construct a common emitter amplifier with fixed bias, measurement of gain
and gain-bandwidth product by plotting its frequency response.

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistor
3 Capacitor
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:

In order to operate the transistor in the desired region, we have to apply an external
dc voltage of correct polarity and magnitude to the two junctions of the transistor. This is
called biasing of the transistor.
When we bias a transistor, we establish a certain current and voltage conditions for
the transistor. These conditions are called operating conditions or dc operating point or
quiescent point. This point must be stable for proper operation of transistor. An important
and common type of biasing is called Fixed Biasing. The circuit is very simple and uses only
few components. But the circuit does not check the collector current which increases with
the rise in temperature.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 4

Circuit Design:
β = V
CC
= V
BE
= V
CE
= I
C
=

S = β + 1 ---- β = S – 1
S = + 1
S =
We know that, I
B
= I
C
/ β
I
B
= /
I
B
= mA

To find R
B
and R
C
:
V
CC
= I
B
R
B
+ V
BE

R
B
= (V
CC
- V
BE
)

/ I
B

= ( ) /

R
B
=

V
CC
= I
C
R
C
+ V
CE
.
R
C
= V
CC
- V
CE
/ I
C
= ( ) /

R
C
=

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 5

Circuit Analysis for Base resistor or fixed biasing technique:

It is required to find the value of R
B
so that the required collector current
flows in the zero signal conditions. Let I
C
be the required zero signal collector current.

Therefore I
B
= I
C
/ β --------- (1)

Where, β is the current amplification factor for CE configuration.

Applying KVL to Base-Emitter loop,

V
CC
= I
B
R
B
+ V
BE

R
B
= (V
CC
- V
BE
)

/ I
B
--------- (2)

Eqn. (2) can be rewritten as,
R
B
= V
CC
/ I
B;
since V
CC
>> V
BE
V
BE
can be Neglected

Stability factor(s):
S= β + 1

1. The biasing circuit is very simple as only one resistance R
B
is required.
2. Biasing conditions can easily be set and the calculations are simple.
3. There is no loading of the source by the biasing circuit since no resistor is employed
across base emitter junction.

1. This method provides poor stabilization.
2. The stability factor is very high.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 6

Tabulation:
S.No Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1 Without Bias

2 With Bias

Tabulation to find the frequency response:
V
in
=

S.No
Frequency
f (Hz)
Output Voltage
V
0
(Volts)
Gain =
Ͳ
Ϳ
Ͳ

Gain = 20 ˊˍg
Ͳ
û
Ͳ

dB

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 7

Procedure

• Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
• Set Vin = 50mV in the signal generator. Keeping input voltage constant, vary the
frequency from 1Hz to 1MHzin regular steps.
• Note down the corresponding output voltage.
• Plot the graph: Gain in dB Vs Frequency in Hz.
• Calculate the Bandwidth from the Frequency response graph

To plot the Frequency Response

• The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale.
• The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by√2 and these points are marked in the
frequency response curve.
• The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point.
• The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point.
• The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the
frequency scale gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.
• From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained. (i.e) Bandwidth = f
H
- f
L

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 8

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 9

Result:
Thus, the fixed bias amplifier was constructed and the frequency response curve is plotted.
Gain =
Gain Bandwidth product =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 10

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 11

1. The transistor is said to be in active region when collector junction is …………………
biased and emitter junction is …………………… biased.
2. A transistor connected in common base configuration has …………..……. input resistance
and ………………… output resistance.
3. As the magnitude of the collector junction reverse bias increases, the effective base
width …………………..
4. The DC load line of a transistor circuit is a graph between …………………. and ……………….
5. The negative part of the output signal starts clipping, if Q-point of the circuit moves
towards the ………………………………….. point.
6. To avoid thermal runaway in the design of analog circuit, the operating point of the BJT
should satisfy the condition ………………………………..
7. Improper biasing of a transistor leads to …………………….………………….. in output signal.
8. For a transistor if R
B
= 40 KΩ, V
in
= 2.7 V and β = 100 then value of I
C
is ………….……..
9. V
in
= V
CC
= 12 V, β = 50, V
CE
= 2 V and R
C
= 5 KΩ then value of R
B
is …………….…………
10. The expression for stability factor of a BJT circuit is given as ……………………………….……..

Circuit Diagram:

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I L
Department of ECE / VVCET

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
ECE / VVCET | Page 12

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 13

Expt. No : 02 BJT COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER USING
Date : VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS

Aim:
To design and construct a common emitter amplifier with self bias, measurement of gain
and gain-bandwidth product by plotting its frequency response.

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistors
3 Capacitors
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:
This type of biasing is otherwise called Emitter Biasing. The necessary biasing is
provided using 3 resistors: R1, R2 and Re. The resistors R1 and R2 act as a potential divider
and give a fixed voltage to the base. If the collector current increases due to change in
temperature or change in β, the emitter current I
e
also increases and the voltage drop
across R
e
increases, reducing the voltage difference between the base and the emitter. Due
to reduction in V
be
, base current I
b
and hence collector current I
c
also reduces. This
reduction in V
be
, base current I
b
and hence collector current I
c
also reduces. This reduction
in the collector current compensates for the original change in I
c
.
The stability factor S= (1+β) * ((1/ (1+β)). To have better stability, we must keep
R
b
/R
e
as small as possible. Hence the value of R1 R2 must be small. If the ratio R
b
/R
e
is kept
fixed, S increases with β.
Merits:
• Operating point is almost independent of β variation.
• Operating point stabilized against shift in temperature.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 14

Circuit Design:
V
CC
= I
E
= h
fe
= V
CE
= V
E
=

To find R
C
:
V
CC
= I
C
R
C
+ V
CE
+ I
E
R
E

= I
C
R
C
+ V
CE
+ V
E
------------ (V
E
=I
E
R
E
)
I
C
R
C
= V
CC
- V
CE
- V
E

R
C
= (V
CC
-V
CE
- V
E
)

/ I
C

= ( ) /
R
C
=
To find V
B
:
V
B
= V
BE
+ V
E
=

V
B
=
S = (1+ β) (1+ (R
B
/ R
E
)
1+ β + (R
B
/ R
E
)
Solving the above equation we get,
S = 1+ (R
B
/ R
E
)
R
B
= (S-1) R
E

= ( ) x ( )
R
B
=
To find R
1
and R
2
:
V
B
= V
CC
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
------ (1)
R
1
+ R
2
= V
CC
R
2
/ V
B
------ (A)
R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
------ (2)
R
1
+ R
2
= R
1
R
2
/ R
B
------ (B)
From the Equations A and B, (LHS = RHS)
V
CC
R
2
/ V
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
B

R
1
= R
B
V
CC
/ V
B
= ( ) x

/
R
1
=
We know that,
R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
Sub. R
B
= and R
1
= in above equation,
= x

R
2
/

+ R
2

Solving the above equation we get,
R
2
=

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 15

Circuit Analysis for Self Bias or Voltage Divider Bias:
To find collector Current (I
C
):
I
1
= V
CC
/ R
1
+ R
2
---- (1)
V
B
= V
CC
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
---- (2)
R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
---- (3)
V
BE
= V
B
- V
E

V
B
= V
BE
+ V
E
---- V
E
= I
E
R
E

V
B
= V
BE
+ I
E
R
E
I
E
= V
B
– V
BE
/ R
E
(Or)
I
C
= V
B
– V
BE
/ R
E
---- (4) I
E
≈ I
C
(I
E
= I
C
+ I
B
(I
B
Negligible))
To find Collector – Emitter Voltage (V
CE
):
Applying KVL to the Collector side,
V
CC
= I
C
R
C
+ V
CE
+ I
E
R
E

V
CE
= V
CC
- I
C
R
C
- I
E
R
E
V
CE
= V
CC
- I
C
(R
C
+R
E
) --------- I
E
≈ I
C
Stabilization (S):
In this circuit excellent stabilization is provided by R
E

V
B
= V
BE
+ I
C
R
E
--------- I
E
≈ I
C
If collector Current (I
C
) increases due to rise in temperature, causes the voltage drop across
emitter resistance R
E
to increase. As voltage drop across R
2
is independent of I
C
therefore,
V
BE
decreases. This in-turn causes I
B
to decrease which in-turn restore I
C
to the original
value.
Stability Factor(S) = (1+ β) (1+ (R
B
/ R
E
))
1+ β + (R
B
/ R
E
)
R
L
= V
CC
– V
E
/ 2 I
E
To find the value of coupling capacitor:
C
C
= 1/ 2∏f X
CC

Where, X
CC
= Z
i
/ 10 = R
in
/ 10
Z
i
= R
1
ll R
2
ll h
ie
h
ie
= h
fe
× r
e
r
e
= V
T
/ I
E
-------- (V
T
= 26mV)
To find the value of bypass capacitor:
C
E
= 1/ 2∏f X
CE
Where X
CE
= R
E
/ 10

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 16

Tabulation:

S.No Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1
Without Bypassed
emitter Resistor

2
With Bypassed
emitter Resistor

Tabulation to find the frequency response:
V
in
=

S.No
Frequency
f (Hz)
Output Voltage
V
0
(Volts)
Gain =
Ͳ
Ϳ
Ͳ

Gain = 20 ˊˍg
Ͳ
û
Ͳ

dB

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 17

Procedure

• Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
• Set Vin = 50mV in the signal generator. Keeping input voltage constant, vary the
frequency from 1Hz to 1MHzin regular steps.
• Note down the corresponding output voltage.
• Plot the graph: Gain in dB Vs Frequency in Hz.
• Calculate the Bandwidth from the Frequency response graph

To plot the Frequency Response

• The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale.
• The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by√2 and these points are marked in the
frequency response curve.
• The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point.
• The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point.
• The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the
frequency scale gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.
• From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained. (i.e) Bandwidth = fH - fL

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 18

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 19

Result:
Thus the frequency response of CE amplifier in self bias configuration was determined.
Gain =
Gain Bandwidth product =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 20

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 21

1. The Voltage divider biasing is used in amplifiers quite often because it makes the
operating point independent of ………………………….
2. In a transistor amplifier, the reverse saturation current I
CO
…………………………… for every
10
o
rise in temperature.
3. In BJT largest current flow occurs in the ……………………….. region.
4. In a BJT with × = 0.98, β equals …………………..
5. The Stability factor S should be kept as …………………… as possible to have better
thermal stability.
6. In CE configuration the phase shift between input and output voltages is …………………….
7. The advantage of self bias over other types of biasing is its better ………………………………
8. The two types of breakdown occurs in transistors are …………………………………………………
and ………………………………………………………………
9. In self-bias configuration the emitter current is independent of ……………………………………
10. The BJT is mostly used as a ……………………………………. in communication systems and
as a ……………………………………………….. in computer applications.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 22

Circuit Diagram:

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 23

Expt. No : 03 BJT COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER USING
Date : VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS

Aim:
To design and construct a common collector amplifier with self bias, measurement of gain
and gain-bandwidth product by plotting its frequency response.

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistors
3 Capacitors
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:
A common-collector is one of three basic single-stage bipolar junction transistor
amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage buffer. In this circuit the base terminal of
the transistor serves as the input, the emitter is the output, and the collector is common to
both hence its name.
This is the unique quality of the common-collector amplifier: an output voltage that is
nearly equal to the input voltage. Examined from the perspective of output voltage change
for a given amount of input voltage change, this amplifier has a voltage gain of almost
exactly unity (1), or 0 dB. This holds true for transistors of any β value, and for load
resistors of any resistance value.
Given the voltage polarities across the base-emitter PN junction and the load
resistor, we see that these must add together to equal the input voltage, in accordance with
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law. In other words, the load voltage will always be about 0.7 volts less
than the input voltage for all conditions where the transistor is conducting. Cutoff occurs at
input voltages below 0.7 volts, and saturation at input voltages in excess of battery (supply)
voltage plus 0.7 volts.
Because of this behavior, the common-collector amplifier circuit is also known as the
voltage follower or emitter-follower amplifier, because the emitter load voltages follow the
input so closely.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 24

Circuit Design:
B = V
CC
= V
BE
= V
CE
= I
C
=

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 25

Procedure

• Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
• Set Vin = 50mV in the signal generator. Keeping input voltage constant, vary the
frequency from 1Hz to 1MHzin regular steps.
• Note down the corresponding output voltage.
• Plot the graph: Gain in dB Vs Frequency in Hz.
• Calculate the Bandwidth from the Frequency response graph

To plot the Frequency Response

• The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale.
• The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by√2 and these points are marked in the
frequency response curve.
• The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point.
• The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point.
• The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the
frequency scale gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.
• From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained. (i.e) Bandwidth = fH - fL

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 26

Tabulation:
S.No Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1
Without Bypassed
emitter Resistor

2
With Bypassed
emitter Resistor

Tabulation to find the frequency response:
V
in
=

S.No
Frequency
f (Hz)
Output Voltage
V
0
(Volts)
Gain =
Ͳ
Ϳ
Ͳ

Gain = 20 ˊˍg
Ͳ
û
Ͳ

dB

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 27

Result:
Thus the frequency response of CC amplifier in self bias configuration was determined.
Gain =
Gain Bandwidth product =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 28

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 29

1. The ….................................................. transistor configuration is much less
temperature dependent.
2. A transistor connected in common collector configuration has ………………… input
resistance and ……………….. output resistance.
3. The voltage gain of common collector configuration is ………………..………………………..
4. Common collector configuration is used for ……………………………………………………….…
5. The Frequency response is a graph between ……………………………………………. and
……………………………………………
6. The common-collector amplifier circuit is also known as the ..…………………………………
or ……………………………………………
7. The CB configuration amplifier has wider ………………………….…………………… than the
CE configuration.
8. A transistor has β = 100 and collector current is 40 mA, then the value of emitter
current is ………………..….
9. If a transistor has β = 200, then value of o is …………………………..
10. In CC configuration the current amplification is given as …………………………………..

Circuit Diagram:

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I L
Department of ECE / VVCET

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
ECE / VVCET | Page 30

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 31

Expt. No : 04 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER USING BJT
Date :

Aim:
To construct a Darlington current amplifier circuit, determination of gain and input
resistance and to plot the frequency response characteristics

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistors
3 Capacitors
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:
In some occasions, the current gain and input impedance often an emitter follower
are insufficient to meet the requirement. In order to increase, the overall values of circuit
gain (A
i
) and the input impedance, two transistors are connected in series in emitter follower
configuration such a circuit is known as Darlington amplifier. Note that emitter of the first
transistor is connected to the base of the second transistor and the collector terminals of the
two transistors are connected together.
The result is that emitter current of the first transistor is base current of the second
transistor. Therefore, the current gain of the pair is equal to product of individual current
gains i.e.,
β = β
1
β
2

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 32

Circuit Design:
V
CC
= 12 V I
E
=1mA S = 10 h
fe
= f

= 50 Hz

A
V
≤ 1, A
1
= A
11
* A
12
h
fe1
= h
fe2
; A
1
= (h
fe
)
2

Apply KVL to output loop,
V
CC
= V
CE
+ V
E
----- (1)
V
CE
= V
CC
/ 2
= 12 / 6 = 6V
V
CE
= 6V ----- (2)
From equation (1),
12 = 6 + V
E

V
E
= 12 – 6 = 6V ----- (3)
V
E
= I
E
R
E
----- (4)
R
E
= V
E
/ I
E
= 6 / 1×10
-3

R
E
= 6 K Ω ----- (5)
The Stability factor (s),
S = (1+ β) (1+ (R
B
/ R
E
)
1+ β + (R
B
/ R
E
)
Solving the above equation we get,
S = 1+R
B
/ R
E

10 = 1+R
B
/ R
E

R
B
= (10-1) R
E

= (10-1) *(6×10
3
)
R
B
= 54 K Ω
To find V
B
:
V
B
= V
BE
+ V
E
= 0.7 + 6 = 6.7 V

To find R
1
and R
2
:
V
B
= V
CC
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
------ (1)
R
1
+ R
2
= V
CC
R
2
/ V
B
------ (A)
R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
------ (2)
R
1
+ R
2
= R
1
R
2
/ R
B
------ (B)

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 33

Here the high current gain is achieved with the minimum use of components. The
biasing analysis is similar to that for one transistor except that two V
BE
drops are to be
considered.
Thus, Voltage across R
2
, V
2
= V
CC
R
2
/ (R
1
+ R
2
)
Voltage across R
E
, V
E
= V
2
- 2 V
BE

Current through R
E
, I
E2
= V
2
- 2 V
BE
/ R
E
Since the transistors are directly coupled, I
E1
= I
B2
.
Now, I
B2
= I
E2
/ β
2
, I
E1
= I
E2
/ β
2
.

In practice, the two transistors are put inside single transistor housing and three terminals
E, B and C are brought out as shown in figure. This three terminal device is known as
Darlington transistor. The Darlington transistor acts like a single transistor that has high
current gain and high input impedance.
I
E1
= I
E2
/ β
2
.
Applications:
When emitter follower cannot provide the required high input impedance and current
gain, the Darlington amplifier is used.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 34

From the Equations A and B, (LHS = RHS)
V
CC
R
2
/ V
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
B

R
1
= R
B
V
CC
/ V
B
= (54×10
3
) * 12

/ 6.7
R
1
= 97 K Ω
We know that,
R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2
Sub. R
B
= 54 K Ω and R
1
= 97 K Ω in above equation,
54×10
3

= 97×10
3
*

R
2
/ 97×10
3
+ R
2

Solving the above equation we get,
R
2
= 122 K Ω ≈ 120 K Ω
To find C
i
and C
0
:
C
i
= X
Ci
= Z
i
/ 10
Z
i
= R
1
ll R
2
ll h
ie
h
ie
= h
fe
× r
e
r
e
= V
T
/ I
E
= 26×10
-3
/ 1×10
-3

= 26 Ω
h
ie
=
X
CC
= R
1
ll R
2
ll h
ie /
10 ----- R
B
= R
1
R
2
/ R
1
+ R
2

= 54 KΩ ll / 10 =
X
CC
=
X
CC
= 1/ 2∏f C
C

C
C
= 1/ (2×3.14×50× )
=

C
i
≈ 10 µ f
X
C0
= 1/ 2∏f C
0
X
C0
= Z
0
/10 = R
E
/ 10
X
C0
= 6 ×10
3
/ 10 = 600 Ω
C
0
= 1/ (2×3.14×50×600)
= 5.3×10
-6
= 5.3 µ f
C
0
≈ 5 µ f

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 35

Procedure

• Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
• Set Vin = 50mV in the signal generator. Keeping input voltage constant, vary the
frequency from 1Hz to 1MHzin regular steps.
• Note down the corresponding output voltage.
• Plot the graph: Gain in dB Vs Frequency in Hz.
• Calculate the Bandwidth from the Frequency response graph

To plot the Frequency Response

• The frequency response curve is plotted on a semi-log scale.
• The mid frequency voltage gain is divided by√2 and these points are marked in the
frequency response curve.
• The high frequency point is called the upper 3dB point.
• The lower frequency point is called the lower 3dB point.
• The difference between the upper 3dB point and the lower 3dB point in the
frequency scale gives the bandwidth of the amplifier.
• From the plotted graph the bandwidth is obtained. (i.e) Bandwidth = fH - fL

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 36

Tabulation:

To find the frequency response:
V
in
=

S.No
Frequency
f (Hz)
Output Voltage
V
0
(Volts)
Gain =
Ͳ
Ϳ
Ͳ

Gain = 20 ˊˍg
Ͳ
û
Ͳ

dB

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 37

Result:
Thus, the Darlington current amplifier was constructed and the frequency response curve is
plotted.
Gain =
Input resistance =
Gain Bandwidth product =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 38

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 39

1. The gain of a cascaded amplifier is equal to the ………………………….. of individual gains.
2. In multistage amplifiers, direct coupling is especially suited for amplifying changes in
………………………………………………
3. In Darlington pair the two stages are of ….................................................
configuration.
4. The Darlington pair is mainly used for ……………………………………………………
5. The Darlington amplifier has a ……………… input resistance, ……………. Output resistance
and …………………….. current gain.
6. The Voltage gain of darlington amplifier is ……………………………………..
7. Transformer coupling is used in multistage amplifiers to provide better
…………………………… between the stages.
8. RC Coupled amplifiers can be used for …............. range of frequencies.
9. The Complementary design of Darlington pair is called …………………… pair in which a
………………………………….. pair is employed.
10. The current gain of Darlington pair is equal to the ……………………… of the current gains
of individual transistor.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 40

Circuit Diagram:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 41

Expt. No: 05 SOURCE FOLLOWER WITH BOOT STRAPPED GATE RESISTANCE
Date :

Aim:
To construct a source follower bootstrapped gate resistance amplifier circuit and to measure
the input and output resistances.

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transistor
2 Resistors
3 Capacitors
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:
A common-source amplifier is one of three basic single-stage field-effect transistor
(FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage or transconductance amplifier. The
easiest way to tell if a FET is common source, common drain, or common gate is to examine
where the signal enters and leaves. The remaining terminal is what is known as "common".
In this example, the signal enters the gate, and exits the drain. The only terminal remaining
is the source. This is a common-source FET circuit.
The common-source (CS) amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier
or as a voltage amplifier. (See classification of amplifiers). As a transconductance amplifier,
the input voltage is seen as modulating the current going to the load. As a voltage amplifier,
input voltage modulates the amount of current flowing through the FET, changing the
voltage across the output resistance according to Ohm's law. However, the FET device's
output resistance typically is not high enough for a reasonable transconductance amplifier
(ideally infinite), nor low enough for a decent voltage amplifier (ideally zero). Another major
drawback is the amplifier's limited high-frequency response. Therefore, in practice the
output often is routed through either a voltage follower (common-drain or CD stage), or a
current follower (common-gate or CG stage), to obtain more favorable output and frequency
characteristics. The CS–CG combination is called a cascode amplifier.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 42

Tabulation:

S.No Category
Without
bootstrapping
With
bootstrapping
1
Input
Signal
Amplitude
Frequency
2
Output
Signal
Amplitude
Frequency
3 Input resistance
4 Output resistance

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 43

Bootstrapping:

In analog circuit designs a bootstrap circuit is an arrangement of components used
to boost the input impedance of a circuit by using a small amount of positive feedback,
usually over two stages. This was often necessary in the early days of bipolar transistors,
which inherently have quite low input impedance. The need for such arrangements has
largely been alleviated by the use of modern field effect transistor designs, except when
ultra-high input impedances are required. Note that because the feedback is positive, such
circuits usually suffer from poor stability and noise performance compared to ones that don't
bootstrap.
AC amplifiers can use bootstrapping to increase output swing. A capacitor (usually
referred as bootstrap capacitor) is connected from the output of the amplifier to the bias
circuit, providing bias voltages that exceed the power supply voltage. Emitter followers can
provide rail-to-rail output in this way, which is a common technique in class AB audio
amplifiers.

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The waveforms at the input and output are observed for cascade operations by varying
the input frequency.
3. The biasing resistances needed to locate the Q-point are determined.
4. Set the input voltage as 1V and by varying the frequency, note the output voltage.
5. Calculate gain=20 log (V
o
/ V
in.
)
6. A graph is plotted between frequency and gain

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 44

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 45

Result:
Thus, the source follower with bootstrapped circuit is constructed and the output waveform
is observed.
Parameter Without Bootstrapping Without Bootstrapping
Input resistance
Output resistance

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 46

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 47

1. Bootstrapping is used to increase ………………………………………………of a transistor.
2. Although FET having high input impedance bootstrapping is needed in case where
…………………………… input impedance is needed.
3. AC amplifiers use bootstrapping to increase ……………………………………………….
4. The Common drain is also known as ……………………………….. used as
………………………………
5. FET is a …………………… controlled device whereas BJT is a …………………… controlled
device.
6. The circuit which employs positive feedback suffers form ………………….. and
…………………….
7. The Source follower circuit is used for impedance matching as it has ……………….. input
impedance and ………………….. output impedance.
8. In JFET the current condition is due to only ………………….. carriers and so called as
………………… device.
9. If properly biased JFET act as ……………………….. controlled ……………………. source.
10. As the transconductance curve is parabolic, JFET is often called as ………………………..
device.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 48

Circuit Diagram:
Common Mode operation:

Differential mode operation:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 49

Expt. No : 06 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT
Date :

Aim:
To construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to calculate the CMRR

Equipments / Components required:
S.No Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transistor
2 Resistors
3 Capacitors
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
8 Connecting wires

Theory:
The differential amplifier is a basic stage of an integrated operational amplifier. It is
used to amplify the difference between 2 signals. It has excellent stability, high versatility
and immunity to noise. In a practical differential amplifier, the output depends not only upon
the difference of the 2 signals but also depends upon the common mode signal.
Transistor Q1 and Q2 have matched characteristics. The values of R
C1
and R
C2
are
equal. R
e1
and R
e2
are also equal and this differential amplifier is called emitter coupled
differential amplifier. The output is taken between the two output terminals.
For the differential mode operation the input is taken from two different sources and the
common mode operation the applied signals are taken from the same source. Common
Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is an important parameter of the differential amplifier. CMRR
is defined as the ratio of the differential mode gain, A
d
to the common mode gain, A
c
.
CMRR = A
d
/ A
c

In ideal cases, the value of CMRR is very high.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 50

Tabulation:

S.No Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Gain
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1
Differential
mode

2
Common
mode

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 51

Procedure:

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• To determine the common mode gain, we set input signal with voltage V
in
=2V
and determine V
o
at the collector terminals.
• Calculate common mode gain, A
c
=V
o
/V
in
.
• To determine the differential mode gain, we set input signals with voltages V
1
and
V
2
. Compute V
in
=V
1
-V
2
and find V
o
at the collector terminals. Calculate differential
mode gain, A
d
=V
o
/V
in
.
• Calculate the CMRR=A
d
/A
c
.
• Measure the dc collector current for the individual transistors.
• A graph is plotted between frequency and gain

Result:
Thus, the differential amplifier was constructed and the CMRR was determined.
CMRR =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 52

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 53

1. A differential amplifier, also known as a ……………………………. that multiplies the
………………… between two inputs by some constant factor.
2. If two inputs of a differential amplifier is zero then ouput should be ideally zero but some
output exists due to …………………………….
3. The two types of operations using differential amplifiers are ……………………. mode and
…………………… mode.
4. As ………………………………………………..….. are often used when it is desired to null out
noise or bias-voltages that appear at both inputs, a ………………. common-mode gain is
usually considered good.
5. The CMRR is defined as the ratio between ………………………… and ………………………….
6. For better performance a differential amplifier with …………….. CMRR should be chosen.
7. To improve CMRR a …………………………………………………. circuit is used in place of
emitter or collector resistor.
8. CMRR is expressed in ……………………………….
9. Differential amplifier is used as …………………… stage in Op-Amps.
10. In a perfectly symmetrical differential amplifier, A
c
is …………. and the CMRR is ………...

Circuit Diagram:

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I L
Department of ECE / VVCET

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
ECE / VVCET | Page 54

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 55

Expt. No : 07 CLASS - A POWER AMPLIFIER
Date :

Aim:
To construct a Class A power amplifier and observe the waveform and to compute
maximum output power and efficiency.

Apparatus Required:
S.No. Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transistor
2 Resistor
3 Capacitor
4 Diode
5 Signal Generator
6 CRO
7 Regulated power supply
9 Connecting wires

Theory:
The power amplifier is said to be class A amplifier if the Q point and the input signal
are selected such that the output signal is obtained for a full input cycle.
Key Point: For this class, position of the Q point is approximately at the midpoint of the load
line. For all values of input signal, the transistor remains in the active region and never
enters into cut-off or saturation region.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 56

Circuit Design:-
R
L
= 220 Ω P
a
= 500mW = 0.5Watts
Output power (P
o
) = V
CC
2
/ 8 R
L

P
o
× 8 R
L
= V
CC
2

0.5 × (8×220) = V
CC
2

V
CC
2

= 880
V
CC
= 30V
Apply KVL to output loop,
V
CE
= V
CC
/ 2
= 30 / 2 = 15V
V
CE
= 15V
V
CC
= I
L
R
L
+ V
CE

V
CC
- V
CE
= I
L
R
L
I
L
= V
CC
- V
CE
/ R
L
= (30 – 15) / 220
= 0.07 Amps
The Collector Power is given by,
P
C
= V
CC
I
L

= 30 × 0.07
= 2 Watts
The Maximum output power is given by,
P
O

(max)
= V
o
2

/ R
L

= (15)
2
/ 220
= 1 Watts
The input power is given by,
P
in
= V
i
2
/ Z
i

V
i
= 0.2 Volts

Z
i
= R
1
ll R
2
ll h
ie
h
ie
= h
fe
× r
e
r
e
= V
T
/ I
E
= 26×10
-3
/ 1×10
-3

= 26 Ω
h
ie
=

× 26 = 2.6 K Ω

Z
i
= 19.25
P
in
= 0.2
2
/ 19.25 = 2mWatts
The Efficiency is given by.
η = (P
O

(max)
/ P
C
) × 100
= (1 /2) × 100
η = 50 %

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 57

When an A.C. input signal is applied, the collector voltage varies sinusoidally hence
the collector current also varies sinusoidally the collector current flows for 360° (full cycle) of
the input signal. In other words, the angle of the collector current flow is 360° i.e. one full
cycle. The current and voltage waveforms for a class A operation are shown with the help of
output characteristics and the load line, in the Figure. As shown in the Figure, for full input
cycle, a full output cycle is obtained. Here signal is faithfully reproduced, at the output,
without any distortion. This is an important feature of a class A operation. The efficiency of
class A operation is very small.

Procedure:

• Test all the components using a multimeter. Set up the circuit and verify dc biasing
conditions. To check the dc biasing conditions, remove input signal and capacitors in the
circuit.
• Connect the capacitors in the circuit and apply a sinusoidal signal from signal generator
to the circuit input. Observe the input and output waveforms on the CRO screen
simultaneously.
• Keeping the input amplitude constant vary the frequency of the input signal from 0 Hz to
1 MHz. Measure the output amplitude corresponding to different frequencies and enter it
in tabular column.
• Plot the frequency response characteristics on a semi-log graph sheet with gain on Y-
axis and log (f) on X-axis. Mark log (f
L
) and log (f
H
) corresponding to 1/ √2 times of the
maximum gain.
• Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier using the expression BW = f
H
- f
L
.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 58

Tabulation:
To find the frequency response:

V
in
=

S.No
Frequency
f (Hz)
Output Voltage
V
0
(Volts)
Gain =
Ͳ
Ϳ
Ͳ

Gain = 20 ˊˍg
Ͳ
û
Ͳ

dB

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 59

Result:
Thus the Class A power amplifier was constructed to observe cross-over distortion
and the circuit was modified to avoid the distortion. The following parameters were
calculated:
Maximum output power =
Efficiency =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 60

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 61

1. In Class A amplifier, the current in the output circuit flows for …………………….
2. The maximum collector circuit efficiency of class A amplifier with a transformer coupled
3. The Class-A amplifiers as compared to Class-B amplifiers have ……………………………………
4. The Circuit efficiency of a class-A amplifier can be increased by using …………………………
5. A Class-A transformer coupled amplifier is required to deliver a power output of 10
watts. The maximum power rating of the transistor should not be less than …………………
6. Power amplifiers use ………………………. coupling between stages.
7. The power delivered to the load in a Class-A amplifier can be increased by using
8. In Class-A operation, the power dissipation of a transistor is ………………………… with no
input signal and …………………….. with largest input signal.
9. In a Class-A amplifier , V
CE(max)
= 25 V, V
CE(min)
= 5 V, then the overall efficiency for a
direct coupled resistive load is ………… and for a transformer coupled load is ………………
10. Silicon transistors do not operate at voltages higher than about 1000 volts where
…………………………………… are used.

Circuit Diagram:

Tabulation:

S.No Condition
1 Without Diode
2 With Diode

Electronic Circuits I L
Department of ECE / VVCET
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
ECE / VVCET | Page 62

Output Signal
Frequency

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 63

Expt. No : 08 CLASS B COMPLEMENTARY SYMMETRY POWER AMPLIFIER
Date :

Aim:
To construct a Class B complementary symmetry power amplifier and observe the
waveforms with and without cross-over distortion and to compute maximum output power
and efficiency.
Apparatus Required:
S.No. Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transistor
2 Resistor
3 Capacitor
4 Diode
5 Signal Generator
6 CRO
7 Regulated power supply
9 Connecting wires

Theory:
A power amplifier is said to be Class B amplifier if the Q-point and the input signal
are selected such that the output signal is obtained only for one half cycle for a full input
cycle. The Q-point is selected on the X-axis. Hence, the transistor remains in the active
region only for the positive half of the input signal.
There are two types of Class B power amplifiers: Push Pull amplifier and
complementary symmetry amplifier. In the complementary symmetry amplifier, one n-p-n
and another p-n-p transistor is used. The matched pair of transistor are used in the
common collector configuration. In the positive half cycle of the input signal, the n-p-n
transistor is driven into active region and starts conducting and in negative half cycle, the p-
n-p transistor is driven into conduction. However there is a period between the crossing of
the half cycles of the input signals, for which none of the transistor is active and output, is
zero
Hence the nature of the output signal gets distorted and no longer remains the same
as the input. This distortion is called cross-over distortion. Due to this distortion, each
transistor conducts for less than half cycle rather than the complete half cycle. To overcome
this distortion, we add 2 diodes to provide a fixed bias and eliminate cross-over distortion.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 64

Design:
• Output requirements V
O
= 50mW
DC biasing conditions

+V
CC
= 12 V -V
CC
= -12V V
CE1
= V
CE2
= 6V P
dc
= 0.5 mW.

Selection of R
L
: the output of an audio amplifier is usually connected to a loud speaker
whose impedance is normally 8W. Take R
L
= 8.2 Ω.

Design of R
C

P
dc
= I
C
2
× R = 78 mW
Then I
C
= 78 mA
I
C
(R
C+
R
L
) = V
CC -
V
CE
=12V - 6V
R
C+
R
L
= 76Ω
Then R
C
= 76 – 8.2 = 67.8Ω. Use 62Ω, 2W
Design of R
Base current of the transistors I
B
= I
C
/ h
FE
= 78 mA / 40 = 1.95 mA.

We can see from the circuit V
CC
– (-V
EE
) = 2V
R
+ 2V
D
where V
R
is the potential across
the resistor R and V
D
is the diode drop.
Then V
R
= 11.3 V
Assume the current through R
S
is 10I
B
base currents.
Then R = V
R
/ 10I
B
= 579 Ω. Use 560 Ω

Selection of coupling capacitors C
C1
and CC
C2

Since the frequency of interest is in the audio range,

Take C
C1
= CC
C2
= CC
C3
= 10 µ F

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 65

Procedure:

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram without diodes.
• Observe the waveforms and note the amplitude and time period of the input signal
and distorted waveforms.
• Connections are made with diodes.
• Observe the waveforms and note the amplitude and time period of the input signal
and output signal.
• Draw the waveforms for the readings.
• Calculate the maximum output power and efficiency.

Formula:
Input power, P
in
= 2V
cc
I
m

Output power, P
out
= V
m
I
m
/2
Power Gain or efficiency, η = л/4(V
m
/V
cc
) 100

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 66

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 67

Result:
Thus the Class B complementary symmetry power amplifier was constructed to
observe cross-over distortion and the circuit was modified to avoid the distortion. The
following parameters were calculated:
Maximum output power =
Efficiency =

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 68

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 69

1. High power efficiency of a push-pull amplifier is due to the fact that there is no
………………………………………………………………………
2. The output of a class-B amplifier consists of only …………………………………………………
3. The maximum overall efficiency of a class-B push-pull amplifier cannot exceed ………………
percent.
4. Cross-over distortion occurs in ………………………………………
5. A Class-B push-pull amplifier has the main advantage of being free from
………..………………………….. distortion.
6. Class-AB operation is often used in power amplifiers in order to overcome
………………………………….
7. These Class-A, Class-B amplifiers are generally called as ……………....... amplifiers or
………………….. ……………… amplifiers.
8. The DC component in the push-pull configuration is ……………………………..
9. The Current gain of a power amplifier is usually between …………. to ………
10. In power amplifier the input resistance is ………………….. than the output resistance.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 70

Circuit Diagram for Half Wave Rectifier:

Without Filter:-

With Filter:-

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 71

Expt. No : 09 HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
Date :

Aim:
To construct a half wave rectifier and to plot its input and output waveforms.

Apparatus required:
S.No. Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transformer
2 Diode
3 Resistor
4 Capacitor
5 CRO
7 Connecting wires

Theory:
Half wave rectifier:
A rectifier is a circuit, which uses one or more diodes to convert AC voltage into DC
voltage. In this rectifier during the positive half cycle of the AC input voltage, the diode is
forward biased and conducts for all voltages greater than the offset voltage of the
semiconductor material used. The voltage produced across the load resistor has same shape
as that of the positive input half cycle of AC input voltage.
During the negative half cycle, the diode is reverse biased and it does not conduct.
So there is no current flow or voltage drop across load resistor. The net result is that only
the positive half cycle of the input voltage appears at the output.
Output Voltage =
ˀ
ˋ
n

Ripple Factor =
ˀ
˅¢
ˀ

=
I
˅¢
I

= 1.21
Ͳ

- Ͳ
ͨͮ

ͮ

where ,
V
NL
V
FL

ͮ
= the change in load current

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 72

Model graph:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 73

Procedure:

• Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
• Apply A.C input using transformer.
• Measure the amplitude and time period for the input and output waveforms.
• Now connect a capacitor parallel to the resistor and measure the amplitude and time
period of the output waveform.
• Calculate ripple factor.

• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the load resistance and measure the
• Plot the load regulation characteristics (VL versus IL).
• Mark the no load and full load output voltages on this graph.
• Calculate the percentage load regulation

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 74

Tabulation:

S.No. Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1 Without Filter

2 With Filter

S.No I
L
(milli Amps ) V
L
(Volts)
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 75

Result:
Thus the half wave rectifier was constructed and its input and output waveforms
are drawn.
Theoretical Practical
DC Voltage
Ripple Factor

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 76

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 77

1. In a half-wave rectifier, the load current flows for only the ………………………………………..
of the input signal.
2. A half-wave rectifier is equivalent to a ……………………… circuit.
3. The output of a half-wave rectifier is suitable for running …........... motors.
4. The DC output polarity from a half-wave rectifier can be reversed by reversing the
………………….…
5. In a half wave rectifier if a resistance equal to load resistance is connected in parallel
with the diode then the circuit will ………………………………………….
6. The efficiency and ripple factor of a half-wave rectifier is ………………… and ………………..
7. The main job of a voltage regulator is to provide a nearly …….…………… output voltage.
8. In a Zener diode voltage regulator, the diode regulates so long as it is kept in
………………….. bias condition.
9. In Zener diode regulator, the maximum load current which can be supplied to load
resistor is limited in between ………………….. and ……………………….
10. The percentage voltage regulation of voltage supply providing 100 V unloaded and 95 V

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 78

Circuit diagram:
Without Filter:-

With Filter:-

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 79

Expt. No : 10 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
Date :

Aim:
To construct a full wave rectifier and to measure DC voltage under load and to
calculate the ripple factor.

Apparatus Required:
S.No. Name of the Component / Apparatus Specification / Range Quantity
1 Transformer
2 Diode
3 Resistor
4 Capacitor
5 CRO
7 Connecting wires

Theory:
The full wave rectifier conducts for both the positive and negative half cycles of the
input ac supply. In order to rectify both the half cycles of the ac input, two diodes are used
in this circuit. The diodes feed a common load RL with the help of a centre tapped
transformer. The ac voltage is applied through a suitable power transformer with proper
turn’s ratio. The rectifier’s dc output is obtained across the load.
The dc load current for the full wave rectifier is twice that of the half wave rectifier.
The lowest ripple factor is twice that of the full wave rectifier. The efficiency of full wave
rectification is twice that of half wave rectification. The ripple factor also for the full wave
rectifier is less compared to the half wave rectifier.
The load regulation is the change in the regulated output voltage when the load
Load regulation is denoted by LR and it is expressed as
LR = V
NL
– V
FL
/ ∆I
L
Where,
V
NL
V
FL

ͮ
= the change in load current

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 80

Model Graph:

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 81

Procedure:

• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram wiyhout filter.
• Note the amplitude and time period of the input signal at the secondary winding of
the transformer and rectified output.
• Repeat the same steps with the filter and measure V
dc
.
• Calculate the ripple factor.
• Draw the graph for voltage versus time.

• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the load resistance and measure the
• Plot the load regulation characteristics (VL versus IL).
• Mark the no load and full load output voltages on this graph.
• Calculate the percentage load regulation

Limitations:
• Although the changes in Zener current are much reduced yet the output is not
absolutely constant. It is because both VBE and VZ decrease with the increase in
room temperature.
• The output voltage cannot be changed easily as no such means is provided.

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 82

Tabulation:

S.No Condition
Input Signal Output Signal
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
1 Without Filter
2 With Filter

S.No I
L
(milli Amps ) V
L
(Volts)
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 83

Result:
Thus the full wave rectifier was constructed and its input and output waveforms
are drawn.
Theoretical Practical
DC Voltage
Ripple Factor

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 84

Electronic Circuits I Lab - Record Note
Department of ECE / VVCET | Page 85

1. The ripple factor of a full-wave rectifier is ……………………
2. The use of capacitor filter gives satisfactory performance only when the load current is
………………………
3. Bridge Rectifiers is preferred because ……………………………………………………………………….
4. The efficiency of a full wave rectifier is ………………………………………….
5. An ideal Voltage regulator has a voltage regulation of …………………………………
6. A Voltage regulator is a circuit which maintains a ……………………………. Output voltage
inspite of variations in AC input voltage or load current.
7. The expression for Dc output voltage for a full wave rectifier is …………………………………..
8. If the input supply frequency is 50 Hz, the output ripple frequency of a full wave rectifier
is ……………………………
9. A Rectifier circuit is followed with ………………………… and ………………………………… circuits
in order to get a constant DC output voltage.
10. The output of a transistor series regulator is approximately equal to Zener voltage but it
can also be used for …………………… load currents.

scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->