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Thesis On Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior Prepare By Student of Superior University
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
A dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Management Sciences Department, Superior Group of Colleges College, University Campus, Lahore.
In particular fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters in Business Administration
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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OFFICIAL RECOGNITION STATEMENT:
I Khalid Azeem declare that this thesis is my own work and has not been submitted in any form for another degree or diploma at any university or other institute of tertiary education. Information derived from the published and unpublished work of others has been acknowledged in the text and a list of references is given in the bibliography. I hereby certify that this paper represent my own invention, that where the language of others is set out, quotation marks so indicate , and that correct credit is given where I have used the language , ideas, expression or writing of a different.
Signature Khalid Azeem
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
Page | 4 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior A dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Management Sciences Department. Superior Group of Colleges College. University Campus. In particular of the Requirements fro the Degree of masters in Business Administration By Khalid Azeem Approved By: ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Received By: ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Lahore.
Page | 5 DEDICATION We are dedicating our work to our parents and respected teacher Prof Ilyas . No doubt this dedication is insufficient and we can never repay for the role which they have played in our studies but we are sure that their work will prove itself an asset in our life Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . who have played a vital role in our studies and have guided us at every step with their precious ideas.
We are also very thankful to all the participants who helped us a lot by giving up to date information.Page | 6 Acknowledgement I am very thankful to Prof Ilyas which gave us valuable information. We are very proud of our teacher Prof Ilyas whose help and instructions enable us to bind papers into project manner. We pay gratitude Prof Ilyas giving valuable guideline. We are very thankful to him. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Page | 7 PREFACE “The most beautiful things we can experience are the mysterious .It is source of all true art and science” (Albert Einstein. 1930) This thesis is based on the topic which is assigned to us by our respected teacher Prof Ilyas. the topic which I took for it: Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior In the thesis. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .. I have covered all the topics related to Packaging and Buying Behavior.
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Table of Contents
Chapter # 1
Introduction Objectives of the study Key terms Defined Research Question 12 13 14 14 15
Chapter # 2
Chapter # 3
Theoretical foundation Consumer Buying Behavior Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Packaging Objectives of packaging Theatrical Frame work Dependent Variable Independent Variable Packaging color Background-image Packaging Material Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation 26 26 27 29 39 39 41 42 42 43 44 44 45 45 45 46
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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Chapter # 4
Tools of Data Collection Sampling Technique and Sample Measures Methodology 47 47 47 48
Chapter # 5
Reliability Test Descriptive Analysis Scatter-Plot Matrix Correlation Analysis
Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: Hypothesis 3: Hypothesis 4: Hypothesis 5: Hypothesis 6: Hypothesis 7:
50 51 55 62
62 63 64 65 66 67 68
Regression Analysis Equation for regression
Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: Hypothesis 3: Hypothesis 4: Hypothesis 5: Hypothesis 6: Hypothesis 7:
72 72 72 72 72 72 72
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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Chapter # 6
Discussion: Conclusions Recommendations Summary Areas of future research References Appendix Questionnaire 74 75 78 79 79 80 85 85
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision. The research is based in Pakistan. the research model was developed and tested in order to reveal impact of visual and verbal package elements on consumer’s purchase decisions. especially in the point of sale and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision. Background Image.Page | 11 Abstract The aim of this thesis is to get the A study to point toward role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. while for analysis I will use SPSS 16. Packaging Material. A sample of 145 consumers will be selected to test the reliability of the model. Packaging elements like Packaging color. By this article we seek to reveal elements of package having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. So package performs an important role in marketing communications. The basic purpose of behind it to find out how such factors are behind the success of packaging. Font Style. Due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle the interest in package as a tool of sales promotion and stimulator of impulsive buying behavior is growing increasingly. Taking into consideration that package could be treated as a set of various elements communicating different messages to a consumer. For collecting the data I will use the questionnaire. According to this research I try to find the positive relationship between independent variable and dependent variables. The consumer buying behavior is dependent variable. The significance of the study. The packaging is the most important factor. Design of wrapper. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Printed Information and Innovation is taken as predictors. its delimitation and limitations are discussed.
Page | 12 CHAPTER #1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER CONTENTS Introduction Objectives of the study Key terms Defined Research Question Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
. Silayoi & Speece. Vila & Ampuero. i. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products. enhances its image. 2000. 2001.Page | 13 Introduction In nowadays competitive environment the role of package has changed due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Package becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior. works as a tool for differentiation. Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision.g. while others – on every stage of consumer’s decision making process (e. Some of researchers try to investigate all possible elements of package and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision (Silayoi & Speece. Butkeviciene.. 2004. and influences consumer’s perceptions about product.. 2001. stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells. In this context.e. Silayoi & Speece. while others concentrates on separate elements of package and their impact on consumer buying behavior (e.. Underwood et al. According to Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand. 2007). Underwood et al. increasing market share and reducing promotional costs. the researches of package.. 2004). Madden.g. Moreover some researchers investigate impact of package and its elements on consumer’s overall purchase decision (e. 2007. Firms’ interest in package as a tool of sales promotion is growing increasingly. Stravinskiene & Rutelione. Bloch. 1995). Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision. 2001).g. Hewett & Roth. its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. seeking to maximize the effectiveness of package in a buying place. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . 2008). Klein & Burke. Farley & Armstrong. 2007.
• To measure the relative impact of each packaging element on the consumer. research problem could be formulated as following question: what elements of a package have an ultimate effect on consumer purchase decision? The aim of this paper – basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products. . • To identify the elements which should be highlight while design the packaging.. Furthermore the abundance of scientific literature on this issue do not provide unanimous answer concerning impact of package elements on consumer’s buying behavior: diversity of the results in this area depends not only on research models constructed and methods employed. All above mentioned confirms the necessity to investigate this issue in more detail. 2008). Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . • Theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products • To check the effect of packaging elements on the buying behavior. Objectives of the study • To find out the effect of packaging on the buying behavior. In the light of these problematic aspects.Page | 14 Butkeviciene et al. but on the context of the research too.
select. Packaging is the container for a product Research Question: Main Question Role of Packaging on consumer buying behavior. in satisfaction of their needs and wants Packaging Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product. and dispose of goods and services. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . purchase. use.Page | 15 Key terms Defined Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for.
Page | 16 CHAPTER #2 LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER CONTENTS Literature Review Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
graphics. color. stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells. enhances its image. Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase of package. i. and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. empirical research There are six variables that must be taken into Consideration by producer and designers when creating efficient package: form. 2004). 2001. He basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . He conclude that Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications. its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. color.e. size. 2007).Page | 17 Literature Review Rita Kuvykaite (2009) has descriptive research. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products. Silayoi & Speece. Farley & Armstrong. works as a tool for differentiation. According to Rita package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand. The research result of Rita shows the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions can be stronger. Similarly. material. The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. Kotler (2003) distinguishes six elements that according to him must be evaluated when employing packaging decisions: size. Klein & Burke. form. necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. text and brand. Material and flavor. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood. Research methods that Rita used is systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature.
cigarettes and The study further investigates the new consumer product packaging and labeling status in manufacturing units. For both groups there was a clear winner and a clear loser in terms of the rankings. His research results that right packaging can help a brand carve a unique position in the marketplace and in the minds on consumers. although the top brand chosen was consistent in both groups. right size) to more emotive. John Th Gersen (2000) worked on The Ethical Consumer. Moral Norms and Packaging Choice published in Journal of Consumer Policy Kluwer Academic Publishers. the worst brand differed. easy to drink from. biscuit. the order of the process was switched: they rated the bottles first and then ranked them. The study method was Descriptive presentation of facts collected through questionnaire survey concerned with different section of consumer new products (soap. 2008 studied New Consumer Products Branding. packaging and labeling of new products in consumer product manufacturing units. For the remaining 20 respondents. noodles. I like the colors.g. Packaging and Labeling in Nepal. They are aware about the value of packaging and labeling. This paper focuses on existing practice of branding. This Packaging plays an important role in the marketing context. Majority of the consumer products 84. non-functional attributes (e. Following this. they were given a questionnaire and asked to rate each of the bottles on 20 statements related their packaging.33) than the second group who rated the attributes first (variance 0.37% (27 out of 32 responses) are using product label as a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. high quality). The group that ranked the bottles first showed more variance in terms of their responses (Variance 1.20 respondents were asked to rank 5 water bottles in terms of their overall appeal.g.Page | 18 Bed Nath Sharma Dec. Alice Louw (2006) has studied The Power of Packaging the people belonged to Age 2030 years old University graduates were taken for research. Printed in Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . However.89). The statements ranged from functional attributes (e.
its effects on young consumers’ perception of authenticity and purchasing behavior The main objective of the paper is to identify the effects of authenticity on purchase behavior. perceived price and purchase intentions) have all been tested by using linear regressions. price. the current it is clear from these findings is the major role played by labels. Renaud LUNARDO 2007 has a great research on the influence of label on wine consumption. etc.Page | 19 the Netherlands. which is particularly powerful for this kind of analysis.) for consumers’ buying decisions. Further this study attempts to analyze if the importance of the labeling and packaging differs between product groups. L Renaud 2007 worked on The Influence of Eco-Labeling on Consumer Behavior. This study was intended to provide a more complete understanding of the influence of the authenticity perceive from the label of bottled wine. They used a repertory grid (RG) approach as a methodological framework in order to know which pattern of features is better at inducing purchase. The methodological approach that they chose was discrete choice analysis. With regard to this case. A majority of Danish consumers have developed personal norms about choosing environment-friendly packaging and the personal norm is a significant predictor of their (self-reported) propensity to choose environment-friendly packaging in the supermarket. All the relationships between authenticity provided by the label of bottles and consumer behavior attributes (performance risk. Two thirds of the interviews were Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . As an attempt to extend the research on the influence label of bottled wine can have on consumers’ decisions of buying. The paper presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice of environment-friendly packaging. They surveyed a total of 302 customers. the evidence supports the claim. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of the labeling in Packaging compared to other product attributes (like brand.
Kasovo during 2007. quality. 5 = not important). present mood. Both the qualitative and quantitative research showed that respondents adopted similar risk reduction strategies in their purchase of baby care products. Interviews of 304 respondents were conducted in super-markets (677) and mini-markets (397) and later 23 interviews were completed in green market mainly for Sharri cheese and curd. 3 = average. Vegara Mensur (2008) have research on analysis of consumer buying behavior in regard to dairy products in kosovo. The most important result of analysis is the significant willingness to pay for Packaging energy efficient products. The Variables chose within this study are .Page | 20 conducted in the German-speaking. age of consumer.5 was used (1 = very important. brand and gender of consumer. A two-stage research methodology consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques was adopted. Time. 2 = highly important. The population was defined as ‘parents of children under the age of five who use baby care products’. To study the reasons for choosing milk products upon supply. Bytyqi Hysen*. Adelina Broadbridge & Henry Morgan (2007). origin of product. type of shop. This research investigated consumer perceptions and buying behavior of baby care products.e. time. buying purpose With regard to sustainability marketing. 4 = less important. a coding approach from 1. price. The results of the primary research indicated that consumers need to feel confident with the product in terms of reliability and performance and packaging. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . package. consumer buying behavior and perception toward retail and brand baby products. It was conclusion after analysis that the packaging has great effect on the purchase of dairy products. habits. trust. Agriculture Faculty of Prishtina. Perception of consumers about dairy products was assessed using different variables i. This survey was carried out by the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Sciences.
It can be identified that the dependent variable is consumer perception on piracy. Social influence would include susceptibility. in this case form. it could be stated that product information (4. Comparing the impact of visual and verbal elements of package on consumer’s purchase decision it could be stated that verbal elements are more important than visual ones. and the economy. According to the research model developed the impact of package’s elements on consumer’s purchase decision depending on time pressure.: 3. These are the factors that could influence consumers’ perception on piracy thereby supporting out dependent variable. Where else the independent variables would be divided to social influence. Material are the most important visual elements for purchasing both milk (size and material 3. Aistė Dovaliene2. that producer and brand couldn’t be underestimated too.06 for washing-powder) and country-of-origin (resp. H Ahasanul . Furthermore its worth to add.88) are the most important elements. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data whereby it was served as primary data to answer the research questions and objectives planning to find out the factors that plays a vital role about consumers perception towards pirated products.87 and 3. consumer’s involvement level and individual characteristics were analyzed. color and graphic could be treated as unimportant elements of package. when purchasing both milk and washing-powder.(K Ali 2009) measured the Factors Influencing Buying Behavior of Piracy Impact to Malaysian.22 and 3. personality/believe. which means an individual might purchase a pirated product merely because his/ her friend or family members bought the product and introduced it to them.Page | 21 Rita Kuvykaite1.41).24 for milk and 4. culture. Laura Navickiene3 (2009) worked on impact of package elements on consumer purchase decision economics & management. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . because the importance of both of these elements is treated by customers above the average. whereas.80) and washing-powder (resp. When analyzing importance of verbal elements.: 4.
They tend to learn cooking and eating new food items after relocation without discontinuing their traditional food items. This research aimed at generating guidelines for managing strategic brand impressions. Typography. people have started preferring more healthy foods and are willing to try out new dishes. Finishes. Images. This paper has shown that impulse buying is indeed a relevant factor in CE retailing. which were observed after their settlement to a new region. a review of the branding literature determined a list of strategically relevant brand impressions for wine. Purchase Intention. professionals in the design and advertising industry rated wine packaging designs on the previously identified design elements. There is also influence of children on the type of food items that they eat. Shapes. From an Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . milk and milk products. A thorough review of the literature on packaging design reveals that there are no meaningful guidelines for developing holistic packaging design. primary data was collected from 326 respondents in Uttar Pradesh and National Capital Region The relative importance of various food purchasing criteria was estimated for four different food categories. and Brand. food and vegetables. compared to the last 10 years. However. Third. People accepted the fact that their food habits get affected with the shifting to a new region but many basic buying and consumption behavior do not change. Sizes. This research was conducted by collecting information and data in four stages. The present study explored the consumer behavior for food products in India from different perspectives. and processed foods on 1-5 scale. Colors. Second. However. optimization is still important. appropriate wine packaging design elements were identified and a sample of real and representative designs was selected. food grains and pulses. thus justifying the use of sales packaging.Page | 22 Ulrich R. namely brand identity created by the wine packaging design Kriti Bardhan Gupta (2009) has study on Consumer Behavior for Food Products in India. First. Impressions. Orth (2009) worked on Packaging Design as resource for the construction of Brand Identity. Some of the changes in buying and consumption behavior of relocated people. were not significantly different from the level of changes in behavior of non-moving people.
The conceptual model of male consumer behavior in buying skin care products beliefs in product attributes Quality. McDaniel & Baker.. The closed-ended questionnaire developed from standard questions of relevant literature was chosen as a research instrument. Other studies researched packages as a means of communication as well as a means of communicating brand and product meaning (Underwood & Klein. 1999. Goldberg et al. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . 2001. E Barry (2008) published a paper with subject of a model of male and consumer behavior in buying skin care products in Thailand. Rigaux-Bricmont. 2000.. 2000. Garber et al. Garber et al. Schoormans & Robben. 1992. Gordonet al. demands that the test be relatively simple. normality and outliers.. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS) version 15. Schoormans & Robben. Brand. The data set was screened and examined for incorrect data entry. or to apply them in an ineffective way. As calculating the sales performance is impossible a test will need to be used. 1997. Price. Advertising.. This study used a quantitative research method.. Promotion.Page | 23 economical and environmental perspective it is very costly to apply sales packaging (with additional material use and transport volume) to products that do not need them. indicating the packs performance. To allow proper management of the pack design the sales performance should be expressed in as simple a way as possible.1977). Economical costs and environmental impact can be expressed in a single score. 1994. The pressure from time-to-market in the CE industry. Several studies have investigated issues such as packages as a means of attracting the attention of consumers (Underwood et al. Salesperson.05 level of significance for all of the statistical assessments. 1997). A convenience sample with a shopping mallintercept technique was employed for the sampling method. Homer & Gauntt. 1981. Packaging. preferably also a single score. 2002. missing values.0 was used in this study with a 0. Distribution. S Nuntasaree and Dr.
1994). brand names (Rigaux-Bricmont. Garber et al.. Schoormans & Robben 1997). The model proposed in this study builds on previous models of consumer quality perception and signals of quality from product cues. (1999) found that by dismissing such non-verbal signs as colors. 1977) convey brand meaning.. as signals of perceived quality. package and warranty. Labels are one of the most important features of product packaging. found that pictures on packages attract attention particularly in cases when consumers are less familiar with a brand.. In fact. 2000. Schoormans & Robben. according to him When they choose among competing products consumers are faced with quality and product performance uncertainty. 2001). and they are both essential features of packages. thus this study is a small contribution to that lack of scholarly research on packages. Underwood et al. 1997). they rely on cues as extrinsic attributes.Goldberg et al. (2001).. 2000. particularly when consumers are not very familiar with the brands (Underwood et al. Other studies show that deviating package colors and shapes attract attention (Garber etal. Pictures on packages are emphasized to attract attention.Page | 24 Packages are found to attract attention (Underwood et al.. 2000. hence. and they are designed to communicate a message. on the other hand. and materials (McDaniel & Baker. Colors and shapes are important elements of marketing strategies. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . price. Ricardo (2008) worked on Product Characteristics and Quality Perception. Studies that have focused on other single signs than pictures on packages have found that such single package signs as colors (Gordon et al.. Pires Gon¸calves. past research has discovered that deviating packages attract attention. 2001. Goldberg et al. especially in product labels. the attention to verbal signs can be increased. Little research has been done on packages as extrinsic attributes used by consumers as signs of perceived quality.. packages are claimed to attract attention when their appearances are not typical within a product class (Garber et al. 1981). Furthermore. for instance brand. In other words. 1999. Schoormans & Robben 1997).
H. we will turn to different theory relating to packaging design and its important elements in order to help us to solve the first research question. which was more important than the brand (14 points) and the price (13 points). with flavor also being an important factor for the consumers.Ariyawardana (2003) has a great study in the impact of lutritional labeling on Consumer Buying Behavior. brand. P. Besides. While brand and price were of about equal importance. it must protect the products in good storage. Liang Lu (2008) worked on a paper :Packaging as a strategic tool University of Halmstad school of Business and Engineering.K. and the color of the packaging. but also acts as a mean of communicative information of the products and brand character. price. the consumers indicated that the flavor of the product was easily the most important stimulus when selecting potato crisps with an average rating of 38 points. it is An Exploratory Study into the Impact of Color And Packaging as Stimuli in the Decision Making Process for a Low Involvement Non-Durable Product The consumers and the manager agreed that important factors when deciding which packet of potato crisps to purchase were the quality. quality. Judy Rex.Prathiraja and A. This was about twice as important as the quality (21 points). After looking at Kolter theory about packaging. The consumers used a constant sum scale (out of 100) to rate the six attributes of flavor.Page | 25 In this research. Overall. the brand and the price of the product. it has also the function that can give customers the ease of access and use on the purpose of convenience. Stuart Wai and Antonio Lobo (2003). colors and shapes combinations in labels are considered as the extrinsic attributes used as signals of quality by consumers. in shipment and often in use. size and shape. Packaging is an important part of the product that not only serves a functional purpose. Packaging must be functional. This study shows that consumers use nutritional labeling when making a purchasing decision and that it is especially because Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
implying that FMCG brands may benefit from marketing strategies that communicate the sponsorship relationship on packaging. Freshmilk product was chosen as the object for experiment. Professor Jane (2005). Fresh milk is commonly considered as health-related product. The outcomes from the research Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . different types of products can be investigated further. a greater proportion was in the age category 36 to 50 years. and numerical difference on consumer response. Research suggests sponsorship leverage packaging may act in a similarly way to celebrity endorsement on product packaging. proposing a three step process of exploratory and experimental methodologies. It will also be helpful in developing successful packaging strategy. It is critical that brand managers identify the affect SLP has on consumer behavior and evaluate the degree to which it can enhance communication of the sponsorship relationship in the marketplace. have had tertiary education and the households had less than 4 members. This study has the following suggestion for packaging design based on the findings. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyses the data from the experiment. Consumer Response to Sponsorship Leveraged Packaging (SLP). K Sony (2008) studied the consumer responses toward attribute framing in product packaging. The study is advantageous in giving marketers a more thorough picture of how message framing affects consumer response in various numerical alternatives and level of involvement. For future study. This paper outlines a framework of consumer response to SLP. A majority of the respondents revealed that they are willing to pay something additional for the nutritional information provided on food items. level of involvement. Of those who are willing to pay something additional. This program of research aims to test a model that examines the structural relationships between SLP and consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward the sponsors’ products as well as the factors that impact this relationship. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of message framing. Assoc.Page | 26 of health consciousness.
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 27 will contribute to a better understanding of sponsorship effects on consumer behavior and provide managers with the means to develop more effective branding strategies and promotions.
Page | 28 CHAPTER #3 Theoretical Foundation CHAPTER CONTENTS Theoretical foundation Consumer Buying Behavior Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Packaging Objectives of packaging Theatrical Frame work Dependent Variable Independent Variable Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
The distinction between dependent and independent variables is as important in a comparative study as in a regression analysis. Dependent variable in case of a comparative study is the one which we aim to predict and independent variables here are the ones who are used to predict the dependent variable. purchase. spouse. (2) Social and cultural environment and norms. Purchase decision making pattern that is a complex amalgam of needs and desires. See also consumer decision making. etc. Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . in satisfaction of their needs and wants. Role of Packaging In Consumer Buying Behavior. and (3) Aspirations and inhibitions Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. and dispose of goods and services. and is influenced by factors such as the consumer's (1) Societal role (parent. use.). worker.Page | 29 Theoretical Foundation Theoretical frame-work focuses on the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. select.
A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for: Buyer’s reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success.Page | 30 Need to understand Why consumers make the purchases that they make? What factors influence consumer purchases? The changing factors in our society. The 6 stages are: Problem Recognition (Awareness of need)--difference between the desired state and the actual condition. determined by the degree of complexity. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers. when and how consumers buy.discussed next. Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Hunger stimulates your need to eat. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.. where. Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Hunger--Food. Deficit in assortment of products. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase.. therefore need to analyze the what. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages.
External search if you need more information. A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives. Hungry. public sources etc. comparison shopping. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search.Page | 31 Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you were deficient? I. Information from different sources may be treated differently.E. the evoked set. see a commercial for a new pair of shoes. want to go out and eat. May decide that you want to eat something spicy. If not satisfied with your choice then returns to the search phase. stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes. Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Friends and relatives (word of mouth).. memory. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Marketer dominated sources. evoked set is chinese food indian food burger king klondike kates etc Evaluation of Alternatives Need to establish criteria for evaluation. features the buyer wants or does not want. Information search Internal search. Indian gets highest rank etc.
Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. method of purchase etc. and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. have you made the right decision. Purchase May differ from decision. This can be reduced by warranties. may think that really you wanted a Chinese meal instead. Types of risk: Personal risk Social risk Economic risk Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . high priced goods. store. product availability.Page | 32 Purchase Decision Choose buying alternative. High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike. time lapse between 4 & 5. after sales communication etc. Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by: Level of Involvement in purchase decision. Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others. After eating an Indian meal. Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. includes product. package. products visible to others. Cognitive Dissonance.
unfamiliar. need very little search and decision effort. Product can shift from one category to the next. For example: Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand. Impulse buying. no conscious planning. milk etc. store personnel etc. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. education. purchased almost automatically. homes. Go through all six stages of the buying process. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category. computers. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Information from the companies MM. Limited Decision Making Buying product occasionally. Examples include soft drinks. expensive and/or infrequently bought products. Examples include cars. snack foods. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk.Page | 33 The four type of consumer buying behavior are Routine Response/Programmed Behavior Buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items. friends and relatives. Extensive Decision Making Complex high involvement. perhaps.
MASLOW hierarchy of needs!! Physiological Safety Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Categories that Affect the Consumer Buying Decision Process A consumer. but limited decision making for someone else. Sex. Race.Page | 34 Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all). Psychological factors Psychological factors include: Motives A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Demographic Factors. The reason for the dinner. Age etc. Personal Unique to a particular person. Actions are effected by a set of motives. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. Who in the family is responsible for the decision making? Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people. whether it is an anniversary celebration. not just one. making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: Personal Psychological Social The marketer must be aware of these factors in order to develop an appropriate MM for its target market. or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making.
hearing.. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight.500 advertisements per day. and certainly will not retain many.000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned exposed to 1. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . inconsistent with beliefs. intensity of input changes (sharp price drop). smell and touch. organize it and interpret it.Page | 35 Love and Belonging Esteem Self Actualization Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases. taste. More likely if it is linked to an event. forgets those that don't. have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. Perception What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting..MCI and AT&T. Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17.do you ever get confused? Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs.. satisfies current needs. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another). organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. IE we chose what info we pay attention to.. on knowledge that is stored in the memory. A current example.
Page | 36 Ability and Knowledge Need to understand individual’s capacity to learn.Drive perceptions. IE brand loyalty. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive six-pack. need to give them new information re: product. Examples include: Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior ..open bottle of wine and pour it!! Also educate American consumers about changes in SA. living or non. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy). Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and lifestyle. South Africa. changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. Learning. Attitudes Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible. buyers must process information. Need to sell a whole new country.living. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product.free sample etc. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes. uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience.. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy.. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product...... Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people. Personality All the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality. When making buying decisions.
EXAMPLE healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle. this may be due to unreliable measures. Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920's. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept. natural lifestyle. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers. Nike ads. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Lifestyles Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior.Page | 37 Work a holism Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness. Traits affect the way people behave. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology.
things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group.. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information. person's family. McDonalds.. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders. People have many roles.Chevy Chase Roles and Family Influences Role.Michael Jackson. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to.Page | 38 Social Factors Consumer wants. Michael Jordon (Nike.. Marketers must understand: • • • Many family decisions are made by the family unit Consumer behavior starts in the family unit Family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc) Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . are influenced by opinion leaders... Gatorade etc. Husband. social class and culture. motives etc. employer/e.OJ Simpson...) Can be risky. Opinion leaders Spokespeople etc..they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. reference groups. learning... father.
. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior ...Page | 39 • Family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making • • Family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual. retired Reference Groups Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values. older married couples with no children living with them. each stage creates different consumer demands: • • • • • • bachelor stage. youngest child under 6 full nest II. young. youngest child 6 or over full nest III. older married couples. attitudes or behaviors of the group members. head in labor force • • • empty nest II.. no children living at home. no children.most of BUAD301 newly married. The Family life cycle: families go through stages. head retired solitary survivor.me full nest I. in labor force solitary survivor. older married couples with dependant children empty nest I.
education. Membership groups (belong to) Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups.5%. 9%. ethnic groups and possessions. Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a persons attitude and behavior. average pay white collar workers and blue collar friends Working class. working. civic and professional organizations.Page | 40 Families. from current professionals and corporate elite Upper-middle class. IE upper middle class Americans prefer luxury cars Mercedes. inherited wealth. income. managers and professionals Middle Americans-middle class. occupation.!! Aspiration groups (want to belong to) Disassociate groups (do not want to belong to) Honda. 38%. . race. aristocratic names. Social class influences many aspects of our lives. friends. Social Class An open group of individuals who have similar social rank. 12.3%. average pay blue collar workers Lower Americans-lower class. US criteria. 1. newer social elite. tries to disassociate from the "biker" group. not on welfare Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . sororities.2%. wealth. Credit Cards etc. US is not a classless society. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. Upper Americans-upper-upper class. The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group. Lower-upper class. college graduates. 32%.
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Lower-lower class, 7%, on welfare Social class determines to some extent, the types, quality, quantity of products that a person buys or uses. Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping; do not engage in much pre purchase information gathering. Stores project definite class images. Family, reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behavior. All operate within a larger culture.
Culture and Sub-culture
Culture refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising. Culture determines what people wear, eat, reside and travel. Cultural values in the US are good health, education, individualism and freedom. In american culture time scarcity is a growing problem. IE change in meals. Big impact on international marketing. Different society, different levels of needs, different cultural values. Culture can be divided into subcultures:
Human characteristics such as age and ethnic background. IE West Coast, teenage and Asian American. Culture effects what people buy, how they buy and when they buy.
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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What is packaging?
The definitions of ‘packaging’ vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive, holistic interpretations. Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product (Olson and Jacoby (1972)) - an attribute that is related to the product but does not form part of the physical product itself. “Packaging is the container for a product – encompassing the physical appearance of the container and including the design, color, shape, labeling and materials used” (Arens,1996).
Objectives of packaging
Packaging and package labeling have several objectives: • Physical Protection – Protection of the objects enclosed in the package from shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc. • Barrier Protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc. • Containment or Agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped together one package for transport and handling efficiency. Alternatively, bulk Commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable Size for individual households. • Information transmission - Information on how to use, transport, recycle, or
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
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Dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or label. • Reducing theft - Packaging that cannot be re-closed or gets physically damaged (Shows signs of opening) is helpful in the prevention of theft. Packages also Provide opportunities to include anti-theft devices. • Convenience - features which add convenience in distribution, handling, display, Sale, opening, re-closing, use, and re-use.
• Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage Potential buyers to purchase the product. Packaging may be looked at as several different types. For example a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household. Packaging may be discussed in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail food packaging, military materiel packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc.
Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior
Page | 44 Theatrical Frame work Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Dependent Variable Font Style Consumer Buying Behavior Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Innovation Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Packaging color Color plays an important role in a potential customer’s decision making process.Page | 45 Independent Variable 1. white and a bright background color. The bright background color is to give the advertisement a fun feel and the contrasting white on black is to focus attention. Font Style 5. Printed Information 7. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . certain colors set different moods and can help to draw attention. Background Image 3. Packaging Material 4. Design of wrapper 6. they use simple tri tone color schemes of black. One good example of successful use of color psychology is in the Apple iPod advertisements. Packaging color 2.
Page | 46 Meaning of the Color Blue Blue is the most common favorite color and is liked by both genders. peaceful and calm color and is often related to the sky or water. Although blue has the benefits of gender indifference and being the most common favorite color. Meaning of the Color Green Green is related to life and nature. The main advantage of yellow is its attention grabbing feature so a combination of blue and yellow can be a successful color scheme which could create a cool and calm mood from the blue but still draw attention because of the yellow. it will grab the attention of a person so can be a good choice for things such as magazine advertisements which may usually be ignored due to ad blindness. Green is the second most popular color and the most popular shades of green are the blue-greens. As well as the natural feel greens have. Blue is often used because it is the designer’s favorite color but after considering the meaning of other colors. Meaning of the Color Yellow Yellow is a very useful color because it is the most easily noticed. if you want to give your product a natural feel use green. they can also signify money. optimism and warmth but also caution. Blue is usually cool and quiet but more electric shades can give a dynamic feel. health and power. which should be expected when blue and green are the two most popular colors. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . another color may be a better choice. Yellow signifies happiness. Yellow-greens should be avoided around food products as the color will act as an appetite-depressant. Blue is seen as a trustworthy. the overuse of blue can seem cold or uncaring.
ceramic amphorae.Page | 47 A sealed pack of diced pork from Tesco. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. The Union Flag. It shows the cooking time. etc. Note also that when the image is available. woven bags. Packaging Material Any material used especially to protect something. early glass and bronze vessels. freezing and storage instructions. authors should also specify a background color property that will be used when the image is unavailable.packing.price. wooden barrels. and British Meat Quality Standard logo are also present. Thus. number of servings. High quality Packaging attract consumer then low quality Packaging. When setting a background image. Paperboard cartons and corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century. 'display until' date. British Farm Standard tractor logo. pottery vases. 'use by' date. the background color will be visible. price to weight ratio in both £/kg and £/lb. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example.wooden boxes. in any transparent areas of the image. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. weight in kg. wadding. wineskins (Bota bags). It says 'Less than 3% Fat' and 'No Carbs per serving' and includes a barcode. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds. it is rendered on top of the background color. Consumer can change its decision regarding Packaging material. Background-image The background image property specifies the background image for an element. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. So we can say that there is relation between font style and buying behavior Design of wrapper The over all design also play a vital role in attracting the consumer. The attractive package has innovative font style. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed. enhance name recognition. they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality. transparent cellophane over wraps and panels on cartons. and optimize shelf space allocations. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Mostly the children of 10-18 years are so sensitive to the design of wrapper. The successful companies have best practices of the font styles. Font Style The font style of Packaging grab customer attraction. The labels on packages are important components of the overall marketing mix and can support advertising claims.Page | 48 on bottles. The companies try their best to create attractive design of packaging Printed Information Container or wrapper for a consumer product that serves a number of purposes including protection and description of the contents. establish brand identity. They hire specialist in composing which create mind blowing and attractive font styles. theft deterrence. The up gradation of IT technology have support this feature. and product promotion. So packaging material have strong have with buying behavior.
easystore. easy-carry. recyclability. has stand out appeal on the retailer’s shelf. Manufacturers today strive to have packaging that maintains the key equities of the brand. The customer can adopt product on the basis of its innovative packaging. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . which shows the relation between buying behavior and innovation of packaging. child-proofing. easy-open. Mostly in Merchandises and daily FMCG the consumer can perform evaluation on the basis of printed information. and non breakability. Innovation Innovative packaging may actually add value to the product if it meets a consumer need such as portion control. and is sustainable but with lower production costs.Page | 49 The consumer can change his decision on the basis of information printed on the packaging. tamper-proofing.
Page | 50 CHAPTER #4 Data & Methodology CHAPTER CONTENTS Tools of Data Collection Sampling Technique and Sample Measures Methodology Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Measures: . Institutions of Pakistan in which the sample size of 150 students will be taken for conducting the study by using simple random sampling in order to generalize the findings in the particular sector. There were at least 25 questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were directly obtaining data with no complications. Measure for each variable is defined below: Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . I will collect data on four variables: The first benefit to use questionnaire technique is that result. Sampling Technique and Sample The Population of my study will be students and educational.Page | 51 Data & Methodology Tools of Data Collection: In order to find data on Role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. The sample of questioner is available in appendix-1.
Scattered plots A scatter plot is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. Descriptive analysis I have used first techniques for generating result is descriptive statistics. maximum. 2. each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart.Page | 52 Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Each of above mentioned variable was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree Methodology: To make analysis of data I will use Spss software in which we will make analysis in to two parts where part one will lead descriptive statistics that will be use to “describe and summarize data and include measures of central tendency (average) and dispersion (the spread of data or how close each other is to the measure of central tendency)” 1. and Mean values of data. It shows minimum. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . The data is displayed as a collection of points.
Other factors such as group size will determine if the correlation is significant.Page | 53 3. Correlation The Pearson's correlation is used to find a correlation between at least two continuous variables. involving one or more independent variables. that best predict the value of the dependent variable. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .80 are considered pretty high. Generally. Multiple regressions Linear regression analysis estimates the coefficients of a linear equation. The value for a Pearson's can fall between 0. correlations above 0.00 (no correlation) and 1.00 (perfect correlation). 4.
Page | 54 CHAPTER #5 Empirical Findings CHAPTER CONTENTS Reliability Test Descriptive Analysis Scatter-Plot Matrix Correlation Analysis Regression Analysis Equation for regression Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Independent Variable The data of independent variables or predictors is reliable. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha . The value is also positive.782 N of Items the reliability of dependent variables.858 which is greater then 0. which shows 2 Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha .858 N of Items 7 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 55 Empirical Findings Reliability Test Dependent Variable The Value of Cronbach's Alpha is bigger then 0.7 and also positive. Because the value of Cronbach's Alpha is 0. so the data used for analysis is reliable.7.
55 Std.92 Table 5. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.920 In the above table 5. Standard deviation and the extreme values (minimum in comparison to maximum value) give the idea about the dispersion of the values of a variable from its mean value.924.924 In the above table 5.2 the minimum values is 1.73 with standard deviation of 0. Number of observations of each variable is 145. The Mean value is 3.Page | 56 Descriptive Analysis Table 5. The Minimum value is 1 while Maximum value is 5.73 Std. mean values and the values of standard deviation of dependent Variable have been shown.55 while the values of standard deviation is 0.2 Descriptive Statistics N Packing_Color Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3. Deviation . maximum values. maximum values 5. Mean value provides the idea Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Deviation .1 Descriptive Statistics N Buying_Behavior Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3.1 the minimum values. and mean values 3.
942 or -0. The values can be deviated by 0. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .942.3 the minimum value of 1 and maximum value of 5. Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.924. Table 5.924 The above table 5.4 Descriptive Statistics N Quality_Packing Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3.4 the minimum value of 1 and maximum value of 5.924.924 or -0.Page | 57 about the central tendency of the values of a variable.942.66 Std. Deviation . Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.3 Descriptive Statistics N Background Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3. Table 5. Deviation . Number of observations of each variable is 145.942 The above table 5. The values can be deviated by 0.72 Std.
Page | 58 Table 5. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable Table 5.7 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .927.6 the minimum values is 1. Deviation . Deviation .849.6 Descriptive Statistics N Wraper_Design Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3. and mean value is 3.927 In the above table 5.70 Std. Table 5.5 the minimum values is 1. Number of observations of each variable is 145. maximum values 5.71 while the values of standard deviation is 0.849 In the above table 5. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.70 while the values of standard deviation is 0.71 Std. and mean value is 3. maximum values 5.5 Descriptive Statistics N Font_Style Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 2 Maximum 5 Mean 3.
Page | 59 Descriptive Statistics N Printed_information Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3. and mean value is 3.7 the minimum values is 1. and mean value is 3. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable Table 5. maximum values 5.992. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Deviation . Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.992 In the above table 5.55 Std. maximum values 5.55 while the values of standard deviation is 0.68 while the values of standard deviation is 0. Deviation .68 Std.9 the minimum values is 1.8 Descriptive Statistics N Packing_Innovation Valid N (listwise) 145 145 Minimum 1 Maximum 5 Mean 3.953 In the above table 5.953.
This means that if the attractive colors Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .9 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging.Page | 60 Scatter-Plot Matrix Figure 5. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging.9 Figure 5.
This means that if the Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging.10 Figure 5.Page | 61 are used in packaging then consumer will purchase product and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations. Figure 5.10 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and background of packaging.
Page | 62 attractive background are used in packaging then consumer will purchase product and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and quality of packaging. Figure 5. This means that if the fine quality is Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .11 Figure 5.11 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and quality of packaging.
Figure 5.Page | 63 used in packaging material then consumer will attract and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.12 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and font style used in packaging.12 Figure 5. If we Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
13 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Figure 5.Page | 64 observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and quality of packaging.
Page | 65 Figure 5.14 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Figure 5. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and wrapper design.13 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and design of wrapper. This means that attractive wrapper will attract consumer and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.
14 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and design printed information. Figure 5. This means that if the printed information is used in packaging then consumer will attract and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.Page | 66 Figure 5. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and wrapper design.15 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
01 level (2-tailed).Page | 67 Figure 5.16 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig.15 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and Packaging Innovation. This means that if the printed information is used in packaging then consumer will attract Correlations Table 5. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and wrapper design.000 145 145 1 Packing_Color . (2-tailed) N Packing_Color Pearson Correlation Sig.000 145 1 Hypothesis 1: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing color H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing color Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . 145 .591 .591 .
Table 5. 145 . Where two variables – buying behavior and Packing color– are positively correlated (r= . (2-tailed) N Background Pearson Correlation Sig.000). We will accept H1 and reject H0. Correlation is significant at the 0.591. There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant.000 145 145 1 Background . (2-tailed) N **.01 level (2-tailed). H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Background of Packing.554 .Page | 68 Table 5. Consumer likes the colored packaging.17 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . So we can say that the attractive packaging color can attract consumer.16 represents the table of correlations.000 145 1 Hypothesis 2: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Background of Packing. p = .554 . It also implies that using attractive colors in packaging we can grab customer attention.
Page | 69 Table 5. (2-tailed) N **. (2-tailed) N Quality_Packing Pearson Correlation Sig.17 represents the table of correlations.000 145 145 1 Quality_Packing .506 . Where two variables – buying behavior and Background of Packing are positively correlated (r= . 145 . p = . Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . This result is also useful to marketer so that they create products with best possible background image.554.000 145 1 Hypothesis 3: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Quality of Packing.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation is significant at the 0. It mean that the customer can adopt product on the behalf of its packaging background.18 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig.506 . There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant.000). Table 5. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Quality of Packing. We will accept H1 and reject H0.
The better quality of package is proffered by customer.000 145 145 1 Font_Style .574 .574 . There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant. Table 5. Where two variables buying behavior and Quality of Packing are positively correlated (r= . H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Font Style. (2-tailed) N Font_Style Pearson Correlation Sig.000). p = .01 level (2-tailed). We will accept H1 and reject H0.18 represents the table of correlations. Correlation is significant at the 0.19 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig.506.000 145 1 Hypothesis 4: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Font Style. The results clears that the consumer also evaluate the products on the behalf of its packaging quality. 145 . (2-tailed) N **. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 70 Table 5.
145 . There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant. Consumer wants to have new experiments with font style.19 represents the table of correlations. We will accept H1 and reject H0.000 145 1 Hypothesis 5: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Wrapper Design. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).000). Where two variables buying behavior and Font Style are positively correlated (r= .574.000 145 145 1 Wraper_Design .20 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig.411 . Table 5. (2-tailed) N **. (2-tailed) N Wraper_Design Pearson Correlation Sig.411 . H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Wrapper Design.Page | 71 Table 5. The result identifies that the font styles are also liked by customer. p = .
There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant.01 level (2-tailed).433 .000 145 145 1 Printed_information . We will accept H1 and reject H0. Where two variables buying behavior and Wrapper Design are positively correlated (r= .20 represents the table of correlations.Page | 72 Table 5. Correlation is significant at the 0. (2-tailed) N **. Table 5.433 . 145 .21 Correlations Buying_Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig.000 145 1 Hypothesis 6: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Printed Information. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . (2-tailed) N Printed_information Pearson Correlation Sig.000). H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Printed Information. p = .411.
145 . Correlation is significant at the 0.000 145 145 1 Packing Innovation . Table 5.545 . There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant.01 level (2-tailed).22 Correlations Buying Behavior Buying_Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Packing_Innovation Pearson Correlation Sig.000 145 1 Hypothesis 7: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . We will accept H1 and reject H0.Page | 73 Table 5.545 . p = .000). Where two variables buying behavior and Printed Information positively correlated (r= .433.21 represents the table of correlations. (2-tailed) N **. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation.
We will accept H1 and reject H0. While Adjusted R Square shows the ratio of interdependence. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .000).22 represents the table of correlations. its value is 0. Value of adjusted R square is 0.507 Std.729. There is moderate relation between these two variables which is significant.646 In above table the R is multiple correlation coefficient.Page | 74 Table 5.531 Square .545.7% of the variance in the dependent variable can be predicted from Independent variable.729a R Square . p = . Error of the Estimate . It that means 50.507 which is multiply by 100. Where two variables buying behavior and Printed Information positively correlated (r= . Regression Analysis Model Summary Adjusted R Model 1 R .
171 Std.Page | 75 ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 64.084 .003 .002 .417 F 22.255 . Error . .079 .274 .076 .238 .926 df 7 137 144 Mean Square 9.520 .297 .294 Sig.228 .938 .993 2.003 Equation for regression Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .070 .001 . Dependent Variable: Buying_Behavior B .177 Coefficients Beta t .237 .139 121.059 .074 .059 .213 .004 .004 . Coefficientsa Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Packing_Color Background Quality_Packing Font_Style Wraper_Design Printed_information Packing_Innovation a.000 .040 .925 2.748 2.191 Sig.040 .000a The significant level in ANOVA table shows that the combination of variables significantly predicts the dependant variable.070 .988 2. .075 .787 57.079 .247 .821 .074 .208 .004 .
208 (BI) + 0.237(PC) + 0.Page | 76 The objective of the regression in this study is to find such an equation that could be used to find the impact of predictors on dependent variable.040(DOR) +0.070(PI) +0.274 + 0.247(FS) + 0.059(RM) + 0. The specified regression equation takes the following form: S = α+ β1(PC) + β2(BI) + β3(PM) + β4(FS) + β5(DOR) + β6(PI) + β7(INV) Where Packaging color = PC Background Image = BI Packaging Material = PM Font Style= FS Design of wrapper =DOR Printed Information = PI Innovation = INV So equation comes as Consumer Buying Behavior = 0.171(INV) Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Font Style.Page | 77 Hypothesis Test Hypothesis 1: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing color H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing color Hypothesis 2: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Background of Packing. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Background of Packing. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Quality of Packing. Hypothesis 3: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Quality of Packing. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Hypothesis 5: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Wrapper Design. Hypothesis 4: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Font Style.
font style.Page | 78 H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Wrapper Design.003 respectively. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation. printed information and innovative packing are 0. 0.003. 0.002. The significant levels of packing color. and 0. 0. 0.005.004.004. 0. quality of packing. This test shows that the coefficients of the predictor are statistically significant at less than five percent level of significance. back ground of packing. H0: there is no relationship between Buying Behavior and Printed Information. Hypothesis 7: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation. wrapper design.001. So we will reject Ho and accept H1. Hypothesis 6: H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Printed Information. Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Page | 79 CHAPTER #6 Conclusion Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
Page | 80 CHAPTER CONTENTS Discussion Conclusions Recommendations Summary Areas of future research References Appendix Discussion: The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of packaging on consumer buying behavior in Pakistan. Using a quantitative method that is to check the proposed model in the context of Pakistan and to see the generalizability of the research to the large population with the sample size of 145 teachers’. (Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand. Past research has been focused on the impact of packaging on consumer buying behavior. enhances its Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
printed information. The buying behavior is positively related to packaging color. Descriptive analysis used to describe the data by using descriptive summary. background. font style. The buying behavior has been used as dependent variable. wrapper design and innovation).7% contribution on buying behavior. The literature review has provided the basic theoretical evidence with regard to the link between packaging and buying behavior. packaging material. font style. descriptive analysis and the correlations and regression has been used for analysis purpose. background. The regression shows the packaging has 50. wrapper design and innovation in packaging. printed information. Also package imparts unique value to products). wrapper design and innovation. Through an extensive literature review on initial model is proposed which encompass that how packaging elements mediates the relationship with packaging color. Questionnaire was developed for data collection purpose on seven variables (packaging color. histogram. font style. and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. packaging material. Inferential analysis used to describe the relation between variables by checking the acceptance or rejection of hypothesis and to see the nature of relationship between variables. packaging material. printed information.Page | 81 image. After observing the scatter plot matrix. Conclusions Results of research on role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior stipulated following conclusions: Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . background.
Besides each element’s single function. wrapper design. Empirically testing the research model proposed. Moreover. or an easy handle/open/dose/dispose package shape. form. For a major part of consumers’ a size and material are the main Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . printed information. For this purpose main package’s elements could be identified: graphic. Appropriate and vivid picture or packaging color which delivers them a happy feeling. All these elements contribute each important effort to catch consumers’ attention and interest. package elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products from group of convenience goods were determined: It has revealed that elements of package are the most important for consumer’s purchase decision. and material of packaging are considered. The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. we think that a good combination of those elements may let the product more eye-catching and attractive. time pressure or individual characteristics of consumers. the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions should be evaluated depending on the consumer’s involvement level.Page | 82 Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications. color. necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. size. producer. innovation while product information. country-oforigin and brand are considered as important ones.
I found out that most consumers like the product quality after they purchased their desired packaged products. Aspects such as packaging color. and can set a brand apart from its competitors. According to my research. Often the packaging is perceived to be part of the product and it can be difficult for consumers to separate the two (the concept of gestalt). but also every time the product is used. Research into packaging has found that different packaging cues impact how a product is perceived. Packaging has a better reach than advertising does. but there is a positive thinking and trend about well- Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 83 visual elements. Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a product into new target markets or help to overcome cost barriers. typography. Results of analyzing the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions depending on level of involvement correspond with those of theoretical studies and let us stating that visual elements of package have relatively stronger influence on consumer’s purchasing when they are in the level of “low involvement”. illustrations and graphics can influence how a product is perceived. Based on those facts. Packaging can even drive the brand choice (especially in the context of children’s products). while product information is also the main verbal elements when purchasing milk and washing-powder. in opposite to those who are in the level of “high involvement”. we can not say there is a 100% equal relationship between good package and good product quality. It promotes and reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase.
All the marketing units pay attention for good packaging. new product introduction. there is no doubt about increasingly important role of packaging as a strategic tool to attract consumers’ attention and their perception on the product quality. market segmentation. It is necessary to Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Brand name using plan implementation must be effective in the units. They accept that poor packaging is one of the causes of product failure in the market. Product packaging is valuable for brand equity. product differentiation. packaging has been gradually shown his important role in a way to serving consumer by providing information and delivering functions. promotion etc. pricing.Page | 84 designed package shows high product quality. As a matter of fact. people are becoming more and more demanding. With its different functionality to ease and to communicate with consumers. Recommendations Brand is important and its strategy is in consideration in the units.
what it contains. taking into consideration involvement level. for instance. Consumer new product manufacturers mostly use the label in their products. Summary Summarizing. how to use it etc.Page | 85 set the packaging standard and to implement accordingly for better protection and promotion of a product. when it was made. It must also be more useful technically. The information given in the label and its value have to be highlighted while promoting the product in the market. individual characteristics of consumers. Further more they believe that the consumers are properly guided by label to use the products. it could be stated that detail evaluation of package elements and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision. the choices of packaging colors are quite different between the West and Far East. is necessary in order to implement efficient packaging decisions. Thus. where it was made. we think that it is important for international companies to take a consideration of culture differences when they design the product package. I do believe that culture difference does have an impact on companies’ initiatives to design the product package. Areas of future research Suggested areas for future research include a more in-depth analysis into the relationship Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . Basically they describe that made it. during our research.
impact of package elements on consumer purchase. etc? References K Rita (2009). packaging and labeling in Nepal. what is the best way to gain insight into preference Without biasing the results? Is this possible? More research into the elements of pack design and how it influences consumer perceptions – are there universal rules or do they differ by product category. V No. culture. new consumer products branding. pp 186-216 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 86 Between product attributes and total product assessment – how exactly does the research Process influence overall opinions. 1 L Alice (2006). united states of america. the Journal of Nepalese business studies. the power of packaging. ekonomika ir vadyba. Vol. Lietuva. Kauno technologijos universitetas. S Bed (2008).
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The topic of this questionnaire is Role of Packaging in Consumer Buying Behavior. Please provide Information with confidence. Appendix #1 Questionnaire Dear Participants. Its results will be used for analysis in Master Thesis. Englewood Cliffs. K.org/wiki/Tachistoscope Books Keller. Personal Information Name Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior . http://en.bubley. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. I will be very thankful to you for this cooperation. 9th ed. Ph. 2nd ed.m-w. measuring and managing brand equity.com/t-scopes/research. Kotler. This questionnaire is for the research purpose. (2003) Marketing management.. Your information will not be disclosed. (2003).html Miriam Webster dictionary. L.Page | 91 Bubley packaging research. Strategic brand management: Building. http://www.wikipedia. NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www.com/dictionary/gestalt Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia.
Page | 92 Gender Age Profession Education E-Mail Contact No Rating of Questions 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Normal Agree Strongly Agree Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 Questions Do you like the Packaging of any product/Brand? Packaging is attractive? Do you purchase goods as advised by your family or friends? Do you think the products offered by leading brand are always better? Do you select products according to your life style? Do you like the Color of Packaging? Color of Packaging matters you in purchasing a product? Do you like beautiful backgrounds? Do you Prefer the products package having attractive back ground? The quality of packaging can save product better? The product packed in high quality material is more preferable? Font Styles are attractive? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .
I hope all the information that you put in the questionnaire will be according to your best expertise. Thank You Role Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Behavior .Page | 93 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 Do you like creative Font Style in Package of any product? Wrapper design is important in Packaging? Did design of product wrapper inspire you in purchasing? Do you read printed information on the package of product? Do you evaluate product according to printed information while purchasing? Do you prefer packaging with better handling and transportation? Innovation is important in Packaging. The innovative package can change your decision while purchasing? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 I am very thankful to all the participants for this cooperation.
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