ANSYS Release 9.0

002114 November 2004

ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company.

**ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide
**

ANSYS Release 9.0

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com (T) 724-746-3304 (F) 724-514-9494

**Copyright and Trademark Information
**

Copyright © 2004 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is prohibited. ANSYS, DesignSpace, CFX, DesignModeler, DesignXplorer, ANSYS Workbench environment, AI*Environment, CADOE and any and all ANSYS, Inc. product names referenced on any media, manual or the like, are registered trademarks or trademarks of subsidiaries of ANSYS, Inc. located in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS, Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company. ANSYS Inc. products may contain U.S. Patent No. 6,055,541. Microsoft, Windows, Windows 2000 and Windows XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Inventor and Mechanical Desktop are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation. Unigraphics, Solid Edge and Parasolid are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation (EDS). ACIS and ACIS Geometric Modeler are registered trademarks of Spatial Technology, Inc. FLEXlm License Manager is a trademark of Macrovision Corporation. This ANSYS, Inc. software product and program documentation is ANSYS Confidential Information and are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS software license agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that license agreement. See the ANSYS, Inc. online documentation or the ANSYS, Inc. documentation CD for the complete Legal Notice. If this is a copy of a document published by and reproduced with the permission of ANSYS, Inc., it might not reflect the organization or physical appearance of the original. ANSYS, Inc. is not liable for any errors or omissions introduced by the copying process. Such errors are the responsibility of the party providing the copy.

Table of Contents

1. Overview of Structural Analyses ......................................................................................................... 1–1 1.1. Definition of Structural Analysis .................................................................................................... 1–1 1.2. Types of Structural Analysis ........................................................................................................... 1–1 1.3. Elements Used in Structural Analyses ............................................................................................ 1–2 1.4. Material Model Interface ............................................................................................................... 1–2 1.5. Types of Solution Methods ............................................................................................................ 1–2 2. Structural Static Analysis .................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.1. Definition of Static Analysis ........................................................................................................... 2–1 2.2. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses ............................................................................................... 2–1 2.3. Performing a Static Analysis .......................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.2. Set Solution Controls ............................................................................................................ 2–2 2.3.2.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box ...................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.2. Using the Basic Tab ..................................................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.3. The Transient Tab ........................................................................................................ 2–3 2.3.2.4. Using the Sol'n Options Tab ......................................................................................... 2–4 2.3.2.5. Using the Nonlinear Tab .............................................................................................. 2–4 2.3.2.6. Using the Advanced NL Tab ......................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3. Set Additional Solution Options ........................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3.1. Stress Stiffening Effects ................................................................................................ 2–5 2.3.3.2. Newton-Raphson Option ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.3. Prestress Effects Calculation ......................................................................................... 2–6 2.3.3.4. Mass Matrix Formulation ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.5. Reference Temperature ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.3.6. Mode Number ............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.7. Creep Criteria .............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.8. Printed Output ............................................................................................................ 2–7 2.3.3.9. Extrapolation of Results ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4. Apply the Loads ................................................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1. Load Types .................................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.4.1.1. Displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ) ................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.2. Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and Moments (MX, MY, MZ) .................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.3. Pressures (PRES) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.4. Temperatures (TEMP) .......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.1.5. Fluences (FLUE) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.6. Gravity, Spinning, Etc. ......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.2. Apply Loads to the Model ............................................................................................ 2–8 2.3.4.2.1. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters ........................................... 2–8 2.3.4.3. Calculating Inertia Relief .............................................................................................. 2–9 2.3.4.3.1. Inertia Relief Output ............................................................................................ 2–9 2.3.4.3.2. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations .......................................................................... 2–9 2.3.4.3.3. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations ........................................... 2–10 2.3.5. Solve the Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 2–11 2.3.6.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.3. Reviewing Results Data .............................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.4. Typical Postprocessing Operations ............................................................................. 2–11 2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) ........................................................................................ 2–13

ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . © SAS IP, Inc.

ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 2.4.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.2. Set the System of Units .............................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.3. Define Parameters ..................................................................................................... 2–14 2.4.3.4. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.5. Define Material Properties ......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.6. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section ..................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.7. Create Keypoints Along a Path ................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.8. Create Lines Along a Path .......................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.9. Create Line from Shank to Handle .............................................................................. 2–17 2.4.3.10. Cut Hex Section ....................................................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.11. Set Meshing Density ................................................................................................ 2–17 2.4.3.12. Set Element Type for Area Mesh ............................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.13. Generate Area Mesh ................................................................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.14. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements ............................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.15. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements ............................................. 2–18 2.4.3.16. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench ...................................... 2–19 2.4.3.17. Display Boundary Conditions ................................................................................... 2–19 2.4.3.18. Apply Pressure on Handle ........................................................................................ 2–19 2.4.3.19. Write the First Load Step .......................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.20. Define Downward Pressure ...................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.21. Write Second Load Step ........................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.22. Solve from Load Step Files ....................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.23. Read First Load Step and Review Results .................................................................. 2–22 2.4.3.24. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results ............................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.25. Zoom in on Cross-Section ........................................................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.26. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 2–23 2.5. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ................................................................ 2–24 2.6. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 2–26 3. Modal Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 3–1 3.1. Definition of Modal Analysis .......................................................................................................... 3–1 3.2. Uses for Modal Analysis ................................................................................................................. 3–1 3.3. Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis ........................................................................................... 3–1 3.4. Build the Model ............................................................................................................................ 3–1 3.5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ............................................................................................ 3–2 3.5.1. Enter the Solution Processor ................................................................................................. 3–2 3.5.2. Define Analysis Type and Options ......................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.1. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] .................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.2. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] ........................................................................ 3–3 3.5.2.3. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] ............................................................... 3–3 3.5.2.4. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] ........................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.5. Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] .......................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.6. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] .................................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.7. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] .............................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.8. Additional Modal Analysis Options .............................................................................. 3–4 3.5.3. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ....................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4. Apply Loads ......................................................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ............................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI ..................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.4.3. Listing Loads ............................................................................................................... 3–6

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 3.5.5. Specify Load Step Options .................................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.6. Participation Factor Table Output ......................................................................................... 3–7 3.5.7. Solve ................................................................................................................................... 3–7 3.5.7.1. Output ........................................................................................................................ 3–7 3.5.7.1.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method ................................................ 3–7 3.5.8. Exit the Solution Processor ................................................................................................... 3–8 3.6. Expand the Modes ........................................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.1. Points to Remember ............................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.2. Expanding the Modes .......................................................................................................... 3–8 3.7. Review the Results ...................................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.1. Points to Remember ........................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.2. Reviewing Results Data ...................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.3. Option: Listing All Frequencies ........................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.4. Option: Display Deformed Shape ........................................................................................ 3–11 3.7.5. Option: List Master DOF ...................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.6. Option: Line Element Results .............................................................................................. 3–11 3.7.7. Option: Contour Displays ................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.8. Option: Tabular Listings ...................................................................................................... 3–12 3.7.9. Other Capabilities .............................................................................................................. 3–12 3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) ....................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 3–13 3.9. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................................... 3–13 3.10. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................. 3–14 3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis ....................................................................................................... 3–15 3.12. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution ......................................................... 3–15 3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods ....................................................................................... 3–16 3.13.1. Block Lanczos Method ...................................................................................................... 3–17 3.13.2. Subspace Method ............................................................................................................ 3–18 3.13.3. PowerDynamics Method .................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.4. Reduced Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.5. Unsymmetric Method ....................................................................................................... 3–18 3.13.6. Damped Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.6.1. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue ................................... 3–19 3.13.6.2. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector .................................. 3–19 3.13.7. QR Damped Method ........................................................................................................ 3–19 3.14. Matrix Reduction ...................................................................................................................... 3–19 3.14.1. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction ................................................................................ 3–20 3.14.1.1. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF ........................................................................ 3–20 3.14.1.2. A Note About Program-Selected Masters .................................................................. 3–22 4. Harmonic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................. 4–1 4.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................................... 4–1 4.2. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis ............................................................................................ 4–1 4.3. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................ 4–2 4.4. The Three Solution Methods ......................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.1. The Full Method ................................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.2. The Reduced Method ........................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.3. The Mode Superposition Method ......................................................................................... 4–3 4.4.4. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods .......................................................................... 4–3 4.5. How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................................ 4–3 4.5.1. Full Harmonic Response Analysis .......................................................................................... 4–3

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 4.5.2. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.2.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.1. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor ............................................................................. 4–4 4.5.3.2. Define the Analysis Type and Options .......................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.3. Apply Loads on the Model ........................................................................................... 4–5 4.5.3.3.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ....................................................................... 4–8 4.5.3.3.2. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI ................................................. 4–8 4.5.3.4. Specify Load Step Options ........................................................................................... 4–9 4.5.3.4.1. General Options .................................................................................................. 4–9 4.5.3.4.2. Dynamics Options ............................................................................................. 4–10 4.5.3.4.3. Output Controls ................................................................................................ 4–10 4.5.3.5. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File ................................................. 4–10 4.5.3.6. Start Solution Calculations ......................................................................................... 4–10 4.5.3.7. Repeat for Additional Load Steps ............................................................................... 4–11 4.5.3.8. Leave SOLUTION ....................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.3. Using POST26 ............................................................................................................ 4–11 4.5.4.4. Using POST1 .............................................................................................................. 4–12 4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) ..................................................................... 4–13 4.6.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.3. Problem Diagram ............................................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 4–14 4.6.3.2. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.3. Define the Real Constants .......................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.4. Create the Nodes ....................................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.5. Create the Spring Elements ........................................................................................ 4–15 4.6.3.6. Create the Mass Elements .......................................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.7. Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications .................................. 4–16 4.6.3.8. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions ...................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.9. Solve the Model ........................................................................................................ 4–17 4.6.3.10. Review the Results ................................................................................................... 4–17 4.6.3.11. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 4–18 4.7. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................. 4–18 4.8. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 4–19 4.9. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis ......................................................................................... 4–19 4.9.1. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution ................................................................... 4–20 4.9.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution ........................................................................ 4–21 4.9.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) ................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.2. Expanding the Modes ................................................................................................ 4–21 4.9.4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution ...................................................................... 4–23 4.9.5. Sample Input ..................................................................................................................... 4–23 4.10. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................... 4–24 4.10.1. Obtain the Modal Solution ................................................................................................ 4–25 4.10.2. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution .......................................................... 4–25 4.10.3. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution ......................................................................... 4–27 4.10.4. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 4–27 4.10.5. Sample Input ................................................................................................................... 4–27

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.... 5–14 5...4..............................................5.. Using POST26 ... Using the Transient Tab ........................... 5–12 5.....4.........2........................................4.....2........ 5–20 5... Other Analysis Details .....................................5.....5.................3............ Review the Results ......... 5–10 5...................4.............3................................4............2........ 002114 .11................. Obtain the Modal Solution .......... 5–11 5............ 5–1 5.. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ........................... Expand the Mode Superposition Solution .................3.. © SAS IP............ 5–9 5......... 5–13 5....... 5–2 5.............................3................................... 5–10 5............................................................................ 5–12 5...........4.............. 5–12 5....................................................... Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis ...........ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 4............................................ 5–11 5............................. 4–29 5.......................3........1............12........................4..........6......................................................................................................3....11....................................................... ANSYS Release 9.......................... Transient Dynamic Analysis ...................................1.... Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step ........4...................8. Postprocessors .... 5–4 5..........6....... 5–2 5.......... Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ..................................................... Damping Option ...............................4....................................................................4....1.4.................................................................4. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution .................... 5–13 5.........4....... 5–9 5..............................1..11........ 5–2 5...........................................................5.............. 5–18 5........ Points to Remember .3.............. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box .. Obtaining the Solution .........1................................................ Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs ......................... 5–1 5.............................. 5–4 5.......................................1...........................................................7....5.............3..4...... 5–4 5............................ 5–6 5.... Apply the Loads ....... 5–8 5..............3.........................6..........................................11............................................6..1................2.............. 5–3 5............3........4........4. Obtain the Reduced Solution ......... 5–19 5... 5–10 5...............................................................4. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis .... Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis ...................................... 5–11 5.......2.........................4... Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis .....4. 5–20 5.1............ Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ..................... 5–1 5............... 5–6 5........................................1.............................................. Save a Backup Copy of the Database .................................................................................................................3........................ 4–28 4..........................................................11................................ 5–9 5.................................. 5–13 5............................................... Using POST1 .....................5..3........1.9...... Set Additional Solution Options ............................ Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step ..............................4.11.................. Mode Superposition Method ......3.......................1.................. Other Capabilities ....................... Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis ........................................................4..1...............4........... Define Gap Conditions ..2...................... 5–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ....11... Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ........ 5–8 5............................. Inc.5....................................................4.3...................... Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis ..........4........2............ Mass Matrix Formulation ................. Three Solution Methods .......0 ....................... 5–14 5.......... Review the Results ........1............................................................................... 5–14 5..........................2.......5.............11..................... 5–18 5......................1.........................6.............3.....10.............................4.......................1.................................. Build the Model ..........................................................................................................................................4.............6.............. Prestress Effects ...................... Using the Basic Tab ....................... ix ... 5–11 5......................4...................5............... Full Method ........................ Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis . 5–18 5............................. Reduced Method ............ 5–7 5........................................................................................................... Define the Analysis Type and Options .................................5..11...............................................11..........................................1..............................5.. 4–28 4........................................ Build the Model ............................................................ 4–28 4....................2........... Exit the Solution Processor ...4...11...................... Points to Remember ........................................ 5–11 5........................... 4–28 4.....................................................................................................6..............1.......................3.......................................... 5–10 5..................................................................4..3....................... Define Master Degrees of Freedom ..................................4........1........... Start the Transient Solution ................................2...........4...4.................................1.....5.3....... 5–3 5............1.4..................................... 5–9 5... 5–19 5......................... Establish Initial Conditions ........... Set Solution Controls ..................................................................................... 5–7 5...... Points to Remember ..................

.....1............. 5–27 5. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step ...................4................7.........9.....................................9...................... Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) ..................6..................................... 6–1 6..................6......................4................... Specify Loads and Load Step Options ...............9....2......... Review the Results in POST1 ....4.......3........ Solve the First Load Step .....1.....................7................. Specify the Title ........................6.........1..............7.. 5–29 5.......2..................................... 6–1 x ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .................. General Options ........................................6...............3................2............. ................. 5–31 5..................8...................11..2..6............... Where to Find Other Examples ............2...................................................... 5–29 5....... Exit ANSYS ...... Define Material Properties .......................................................... 5–29 5.....1..................2...4...................................................................... 5–33 5.............................1........................................................................... Expanding the Solution ..........3............................... Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ..............10.... 5–29 5...................... Define Element Types .....................................7........................ 5–21 5........................1........... 6–1 6.............. 5–23 5.................................... 5–27 5....................... Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis .................1............ 5–35 5........ Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................1.................................................... Definition of Spectrum Analysis ..............3...4................ Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ...................................7... Run the Expansion Pass and Solve .......... What is a Spectrum? ....................10................... 5–28 5......................... Points to Remember ........ 5–36 5.................... 5–31 5.......................7..................4........ 5–22 5........ 5–30 5.ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 5..........................................................................1...............2......................... Solve the Next Load Step ......................................7.....4..................... 6–1 6..... Automatic Time Stepping .........................3....................... 5–28 5........ 5–23 5..........3...................5..................7........................................................................ 6–1 6.............. 5–29 5.............7............ 5–24 5............10.7............. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) . Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ...3.......1................10......7....... Set the Next Time Step and Solve .................... 5–33 5...................3.......................................1.4..7..... Obtaining the Solution .. Review the Results in POST26 .......... 5–40 6...............7.................................................2........... Spectrum Analysis ..... Output Control Options ............................... 5–23 5....6............7.....................6......9..........................................7..................3.............................. 5–26 5...................................3......7................. Dynamics Options ........6............ Review the Results of the Reduced Solution ...........4.......3.. Define Master Degrees of Freedom .........................6.........................................................................................7................ Inc...... Apply Loads for the First Load Step ...........................................................8........................ 6–1 6..........7.............................................. 5–30 5.............3...................4........................................................................ 5–33 5..........1........................... 5–24 5...6.............4.....................6.......................7...2....................................................................................................... 5–23 5.......................3........ 5–26 5.... 5–22 5...............2........... Define Real Constants .... 5–31 5...................................6......... Problem Specifications .......... 5–33 5...................................3........10.........................................4........3...................................13...................1........... 5–27 5................................ Gap Conditions ....................7........ Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) ..............................................................5............0 .......3........................................6..............................7...................... Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) .. 5–24 5..2.............. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options ... 5–28 5....................... Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File ............................3....2. 5–23 5.....1...............................................6........... 5–32 5.............. Damping .................. ANSYS Release 9................1.......................................... 5–26 5............................... Problem Description ..............3............. 5–30 5....................................................7.. © SAS IP................................................................................. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model ..................12..7..6..........3.........................1......4.... Define Elements ............................................. Other Analysis Details .. Guidelines for Integration Time Step ....... 5–31 5................................. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution ...............7..1.... Define Nodes .... Specify Output ...............................1................................................................................2........ 5–20 5.................................................. Response Spectrum ......3.........11.......................................................1...................... 5–25 5................. 5–30 5............3..................................................................................... 5–32 5....................5.... Problem Sketch .......... 002114 .....................9.... 5–30 5..................7............................................1........................... Set Load Step Options .......................3..... 5–27 5...........3..................1...............................................

.........2..... Define the Real Constants .....4...4............ Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line ............................................... 6–12 6...... 6–3 6.................4........................... Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) .6....... 6–13 6...........2............... 6–18 6.........................2.......................... and Reaction Solutions ................................... Reviewing the Results in POST1 ....................................... 6–14 6........................3...................................................4.............. © SAS IP. How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis ......................................... Expand the Modes .........5..........5.......... 6–10 6.......... 6–24 6......................................................4..........................4.................. 6–14 6................................. 6–3 6.15.................... 6–22 6................1........................................................................... 6–25 7...................................................1............................................. 6–13 6......3..................12....... Where to Find Other Examples ........4...........20......................4.......... Start Expansion Pass Calculation ..2......................14............................................................................................................. Problem Description ...................3........................................ Expand the Modes ....4.... Element.....1........4................................... 6–14 6..........7.........4....................................................................................................................... 6–11 6............. Review the Results . Obtain the Spectrum Solution .........1..............................................7...............4........... 002114 ...........4........................................................................... Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 ..... How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis ..... 6–23 6.2........... Buckling Analysis ..........17............................... ANSYS Release 9............................ 6–10 6.................................4.............. Set up the Expansion Pass ....................................................................................... 6–3 6........... Display the Results ......................... 6–11 6...........................................1.... Exit ANSYS ..19........ Combine the Modes .....................................4. 6–10 6...... 6–18 6.............4.. Define Material Properties .............................................3...... 6–2 6....................................................... 6–8 6.7..... 6–15 6............ Set Up the Spectrum Analysis .....4................................................................................................ 6–17 6... 6–16 6....................................4......1...........................................4..... 6–12 6................................................... 6–21 6.......................................................3............................... 6–23 6.................3...................................4..4....... Set the Analysis Title ......4.......................6.....2.3... Specify Analysis Type and Options .....2................ 6–11 6.....7....1........4........3......................... Define Spectrum Value vs............... How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis ................3..... 6–15 6.....4........................... Problem Sketch .............0 ........ 6–13 6...........................5..... 6–15 6.. 6–22 6.... Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database ..........................1.............4............................... Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal............ Set Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis ............. Review the Results .............4.................................................................... 6–13 6.......4.................................................................................. 6–23 6.......7........... 6–12 6............................13.......5........ Build the Model .. Obtain the Spectrum Solution ......................9...... Expand the Modes ...................8..............................................ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 6..4..........................4................. Solve Spectrum Analysis ................................................ Frequency Table ..........................4......7.......... Combine the Modes ....... Points to Remember ............7...... 6–11 6........... 6–15 6....3.........4.............................. Define Keypoints and Line ......... Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) ...... Deterministic vs.......................4..... Problem Specifications ............................................................................................. Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .............................9....................... Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis ..... Select Mode Combination Method ...1.........................4..................................6............................. 7–1 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .......................4............................... 6–3 6.........................4..............4............................2...........3................................... 6–16 6................... 6–18 6......................................................... 6–6 6.................... Combine the Modes ................................................................................11................4........................4.............. Obtain the Modal Solution ..............2.............18................7... Solve the Modal Analysis ...............7............4............................................. 6–2 6.............8........................3......4........4............................ 6–6 6.7......4.......................................................................................... 6–14 6.........................................3......4.................4...................... 6–11 6...... Define the Element Type ...............4............. 6–2 6..............4................................................................................ Procedure ..................4.4.....................4......4...........................................7.............. Calculating Covariance in POST26 ......3............4................................................4............1..4........... xi ....... 6–25 6.. Power Spectral Density . Probabilistic Analyses ....7........ 6–22 6.................. 6–2 6............4............2.........4..........16.............................. 6–15 6..... Sample Input .10....... Inc...

...................4.3........ Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ...3.............................................2.................................. 7–1 7..................................... Automatic Time Stepping ...................................4............ 7–8 7...............................6................. 7–2 7. Substeps .1........ 7–8 7....................................6........................................1...1......... 7–6 7......... 7–12 8.......3... 7–1 7....................2....4..................................... 7–4 7.. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ......5...................1............................5..... Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ...................3.......................3.................................... 7–12 7..........3........................... Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior............... Large Deflections with Small Strain ...................... Solve the Static Analysis ...........4...... Spin Softening .......................................................1.......... 7–3 7......8.......2.........................2........................ 8–7 8..1.......3......... Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis ..................2................................. 8–2 8..........3......................2........... 7–4 7.................................................................................................................................... Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution ...................2...................1......... What is Structural Nonlinearity? ...........................................................6.................. Problem Description ...................................................................................6.............................................6....1........ Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ..2................ 7–3 7...................................................................................................................................3. 7–1 7................. 8–6 8........................... Define the Boundary Conditions .1.1.................................................3.............................................................................................0 ...............1....2..... 8–2 8...5............................................ Where to Find Other Examples ............... Exit ANSYS ......................................................4................... 7–11 7....................................................8........................5....................................................................................4.........................................4.....................1..................................... © SAS IP.............6....................... Modeling Material Nonlinearities .......................... ANSYS Release 9................................1......... ...................... 8–8 8... Stress Stiffening ......2........................................1..........................................................2...........6............... Points to Remember .........7..6.............1..... Path Dependency ..................... 7–3 7................................2..2......... 7–7 7........ Define Nodes and Elements ......1.. Nonlinear Transient Analyses ................................. 8–8 8......... 7–6 7.............................3.................................................................3....2........ Stress-Strain ...................... Points to Remember ............................................................................5..... 8–1 8................. 8–2 8..................................... Changing Status (Including Contact) ......... 7–9 7.................. 7–9 7........... Inc............. 7–6 7......................... Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ..................... 8–1 8...................6.................2..............3....6...1. 8–5 8..........3.............3..........................5.............. 8–2 8....... 7–11 7......................................ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 7...........................................5.....................................4..........................................................................3............................................................................................................................................3.... Material Nonlinearities ...........5....................... Applying Load Increments ......................1...................................................... Definition of Buckling Analysis .....................6........... 7–8 7..... Review the Results .....................................................1.. Nonlinear Materials .......................................2........................................................ 7–12 7.......................................................1..................1............5.3....4..........6.. Nonlinear Structural Analysis ...... 7–11 7.............. 7–5 7..............................1.. 8–6 8........9..................7..........2....................... Expanding the Solution ............................................ 8–7 8........ Using Geometric Nonlinearities ................................ Points to Remember ..................... Problem Specifications ..........................4.................................................... Geometric Nonlinearities ....................................... Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis ..................................5......1......... 7–10 7...2................ Solve the Buckling Analysis ..........................1........................................................5................................................................... 002114 ..............1................................ Set the Analysis Title .... 7–9 7.................................. Obtain the Static Solution ................................... 7–10 7.................. 8–7 8................ Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) ..............1..................... 8–6 8.................................... 7–2 7...2.......... 7–1 7................................2..................................... Important ... Expand the Solution ..............................1..................2... 7–2 7....................... Define the Element Type .................................................................... Build the Model ................................................................................ 7–2 7.....1...........................3............. Problem Sketch ............. 8–8 xii ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ..... Causes of Nonlinear Behavior ....... 7–12 7......................................6.............4................. 7–2 7.....................6.......................................................2.............................. Types of Buckling Analyses ............................................................1..... 8–5 8............... Review the Results .......................................... Define the Real Constants and Material Properties ................ 8–1 8.....

.....................................................3...................................................................................................................3....24..3................. 8–10 8..............................3...................3.....2.1................................2..2..................18.......................3........... 8–47 8........................... HILL and NLISO Example ..9........ Yeoh Hyperelastic Option .......... HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example .4..4............3.............. HILL and MKIN Example ................ Creep ..........3..............2.......................................................................... 8–16 8.......4......... 8–44 8.................................3................2...2................ 8–33 8................3...1..................................................... 8–39 8..............3..... Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option .........................3........ HILL and CREEP and BISO Example ....................... 8–17 8.......... Ogden Hyperelastic Option ......................................2........ Multilinear Elasticity ........ Hyperelasticity ....................... 8–18 8.......1........................ HILL and CHAB Example .....2................3............. 8–47 8...... Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option ....... 8–39 8................................................. MISO and RATE Example .......1.....2.. HILL and BKIN Example .0 ...........11..15.......................... Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB..............27............................................ 8–18 8.3............ Explicit Creep Procedure ................................................... 8–35 8...........2........................................... HILL and CREEP and MISO Example ...........1............... 8–16 8................ 8–36 8..........................................1.... HILL and CREEP Example ........................ Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option .............25.................................3.........3....................................................1.................................... xiii ...ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 8...............5..21........................ BISO and CHAB Example ........................... 8–31 8........3.........9..14......................................................6...... © SAS IP..2...............3........3.......................1...........3..... HILL and RATE and MISO Example ....1...1.....12.......1................1.........................5..... HILL and RATE and BISO Example ......... 8–40 8......... HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example ............1...3.. 8–40 8. 8–46 8............19....... 8–38 8...2........... 8–21 8.......1... MISO and CHAB Example ......................3........................3........ Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option ............................................1................... 8–36 8............................................... 8–37 8..................1.......... 8–20 8...... 8–42 8.............1.........................3............... Gent Hyperelastic Option ........... 8–35 8.... Material Model Combinations ..2....................2......2..........................................................................3.................3.............................................................................................10...1........................ 8–29 8.. NLISO and RATE Example .....7.........................2................. Plastic Material Options .3...................1..........................................................4.......................4............................ HILL and RATE and NLISO Example ..........3.. 8–37 8........................3.............. 8–45 8....2............4....................................2.. 8–35 8............3.....3......... BISO and RATE Example ...6...... 8–44 8.....3......... Viscoelasticity ........ 8–19 8...3.... BISO and CREEP Example ............. 8–21 8.1..........4........ 8–47 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ......................................................7................3........................3................11.............1.................................... NLISO and CHAB Example ............................... 8–20 8.........3.......4.2................ NLISO and CREEP Example ....HYPER) ......... 8–34 8................3............13....2.......3............... 8–39 8.....4........5...........4....................3.........................2...............................3................2......................3........................28........................................ 8–33 8..........................2......3.1..........................................1.. HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example ........5.........3..3.....3................. User-Defined Hyperelastic Option ........1............ 8–38 8..............................................22.................................................. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.............................4.............................. Inc..............................2................2........... 002114 ........4.............16.............................23..........2...............................................................................9.............................................................7..............8....................3....6.................. 8–35 8. MISO and CREEP Example ... 8–41 8............. 8–31 8.........................2..................... Swelling ................ 8–38 8.....2.. HILL and BISO and CHAB Example .................. 8–9 8..............3......3...................................................10.. 8–20 8.............1...... 8–19 8............ HILL and MISO and CHAB Example ................................1..................................3........ ANSYS Release 9......................... 8–37 8...................................4.............2.8................................. 8–30 8....1.............2...............3........5..........................MOONEY) ..... Plasticity ..........8.................... 8–41 8............ 8–19 8................ HILL and MISO Example ....3.... BKIN and CREEP Example ......3.....................................................17. 8–41 8..........................................26.......... Viscoplasticity .. Shape Memory Alloy ................................. Implicit Creep Procedure ......1..1........................2........3..... 8–20 8...........3.......2........... Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option ...........................20..... HILL and BISO Example ............4..2.........3.................................. 8–43 8......... HILL and KINH Example ...... User Defined Material ...

..2...................................................2......1......................................2.......... Reviewing Results in POST1 .....4..................................................3................3............................... Apply the Load Gradually .......................3........... ANSYS Release 9.....................................5..................................... Set Additional Solution Options .. 8–59 8.2.....1..................................3..............................2....10..0 .......3.......6....6.....................................................3.................................... Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave ..................2........................ Creep Criteria .4.................................................................... 8–53 8.................. Apply the Loads ....... 8–55 8............................................. Review the Results .............. 8–56 8........5..... © SAS IP.... 8–68 xiv ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ....... Overcoming Convergence Problems ..................................3...........................5.................3...... 8–64 8..10....2................ Cutback Criteria .2.......................2...... Solution Monitoring .........1..........................10..........3..3.......3.......................................9.................................................................... Set Solution Controls ............... 8–60 8...... Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis ...... Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics .. Terminating a Running Job........... 8–65 8............ Automatic Time Stepping .....5.. 8–48 8.....................3............ 8–57 8..... 8–55 8................. Time Step Open Control .........5............ 8–54 8................. 8–60 8..................... Reviewing Results in POST26 ................................2..................................1................................................2.................... Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis ..................5............. 8–67 8.............. 8–63 8....................3..................................5. 8–51 8..... Equation Solver ............................ 8–63 8.........5........................ Review the Results .1.............5.........10.................10............2.2................................... 8–50 8.............1..............2................... 8–54 8.....................................4........10........10..................10....... Build the Model ..................5... 8–67 8......2........... Points to Remember ................. Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis ...................... 8–68 8...........4........................................................5.........6........2............. 8–55 8........................................................5................6................... Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ........................2...............................6.................... Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis ......... Newton-Raphson Option .......................................................................... 8–51 8.5........................4........3......5................2. Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations ...... Using Automatic Time Stepping .........10......... Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ..... 8–56 8...........2.2.................. Predictor-Corrector Option .................................. 8–56 8..................... Birth and Death ....................................1.................................. 8–57 8....................7....1...3.........................5...............................1....................2.......2................................ Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis ...........................................................5........3.........5....................6..............................5..................................... Line Search Option .......10......................... Output Control ........7.................................. 8–57 8................................................................................... 8–62 8.... 8–65 8..... 8–62 8......... Inc....5....1..............3........ 8–64 8...... 8–53 8............3............ Build the Model .............5.... Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements .3....2..........................5........ Tracking Convergence Graphically ... 8–63 8....................................2........ Restarts ........ Using Line Search ....................... 8–51 8..... Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ................................. Use an Adequate Mesh Density ................2...3.....2.........5.............................. 8–65 8... ....................................... Convergence Criteria ................2....5....3......................... 8–57 8...........1.............................. 8–53 8.5.......................... 8–53 8............................... 8–53 8... 8–60 8................................................. 8–49 8......................................................................... Element Birth and Death ....................................... Stress Stiffness ..................3................................ Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS ..5...... 8–64 8....................... Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ......................................... Restarting ...........................6....... 8–48 8.............................................................3..9.........ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 8........................................................................ 8–50 8......... 8–54 8..........................6.........1...... 8–64 8.........5...................10..................... 8–49 8...2.....................5....1.5............. 002114 .............5..........5.....1..............................1. Using the Arc-Length Method .................................8....1....29......................................................... Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ..................5............................................1....3....1.............................5... Hyperelasticity and Viscoelasticity (Implicit) Example ..4............... 8–49 8........2....... 8–60 8..........................5...2..6............................................. 8–57 8...2.............2.. 8–64 8..............................1.......10..... 8–50 8. Keep It Simple ................................... Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .................5....................2............................................. Solve the Analysis ...........

ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 8.10.2.6. Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response ........................................... 8–70 8.10.2.7. Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ................................................................................. 8–70 8.10.2.8. Using Birth and Death Wisely ................................................................................... 8–70 8.10.2.9. Read Your Output .................................................................................................... 8–70 8.10.2.10. Graph the Load and Response History .................................................................... 8–72 8.11. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................................................... 8–72 8.11.1. Problem Description ........................................................................................................ 8–72 8.11.2. Problem Specifications ..................................................................................................... 8–73 8.11.3. Problem Sketch ................................................................................................................ 8–73 8.11.3.1. Set the Analysis Title and Jobname .......................................................................... 8–73 8.11.3.2. Define the Element Types ........................................................................................ 8–74 8.11.3.3. Define Material Properties ........................................................................................ 8–74 8.11.3.4. Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) ........................................... 8–74 8.11.3.5. Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables ..................................................................... 8–74 8.11.3.6. Create Rectangle ..................................................................................................... 8–75 8.11.3.7. Set Element Size ...................................................................................................... 8–75 8.11.3.8. Mesh the Rectangle ................................................................................................. 8–75 8.11.3.9. Assign Analysis and Load Step Options .................................................................... 8–75 8.11.3.10. Monitor the Displacement ..................................................................................... 8–76 8.11.3.11. Apply Constraints .................................................................................................. 8–76 8.11.3.12. Solve the First Load Step ........................................................................................ 8–77 8.11.3.13. Solve the Next Six Load Steps ................................................................................. 8–77 8.11.3.14. Review the Monitor File ......................................................................................... 8–78 8.11.3.15. Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results. ........................................................ 8–78 8.11.3.16. Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing ................................................... 8–78 8.11.3.17. Plot Time-History Results ....................................................................................... 8–79 8.11.3.18. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................. 8–79 8.12. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ........................................................... 8–79 8.13. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................. 8–82 9. Material Curve Fitting ......................................................................................................................... 9–1 9.1. Applicable Material Behavior Types ............................................................................................... 9–1 9.2. Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting ................................................................................................ 9–1 9.2.1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior ................................. 9–1 9.2.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data .......................................................................................... 9–2 9.2.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS ........................................................................................... 9–3 9.2.1.2.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–3 9.2.1.2.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–3 9.2.1.3. Select a Material Model Option .................................................................................... 9–3 9.2.1.3.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–4 9.2.1.3.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–4 9.2.1.4. Initialize the Coefficients .............................................................................................. 9–4 9.2.1.4.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–5 9.2.1.4.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–5 9.2.1.5. Specify Control Parameters and Solve .......................................................................... 9–6 9.2.1.5.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–6 9.2.1.5.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–6 9.2.1.6. Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze ..................................................................... 9–6 9.2.1.6.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–6 9.2.1.6.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–7 9.2.1.6.3. Review/Verify ..................................................................................................... 9–7 9.2.1.7. Write Data to TB Command ......................................................................................... 9–7 9.2.1.7.1. Batch .................................................................................................................. 9–7

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 9.2.1.7.2. GUI ..................................................................................................................... 9–8 9.3. Creep Material Curve Fitting ......................................................................................................... 9–8 9.3.1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior ........................................... 9–8 9.3.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data .......................................................................................... 9–8 9.3.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS ......................................................................................... 9–10 9.3.1.2.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–10 9.3.1.2.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–10 9.3.1.3. Select a Material Model Option .................................................................................. 9–10 9.3.1.3.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–10 9.3.1.3.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–11 9.3.1.4. Initialize the Coefficients ............................................................................................ 9–11 9.3.1.4.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–12 9.3.1.4.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–12 9.3.1.5. Specify Control Parameters and Solve ........................................................................ 9–12 9.3.1.5.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–13 9.3.1.5.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–13 9.3.1.6. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze ..................................................................... 9–13 9.3.1.6.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–13 9.3.1.6.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–14 9.3.1.6.3. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ..................................................................... 9–14 9.3.1.7. Write Data to TB Command ....................................................................................... 9–14 9.3.1.7.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–14 9.3.1.7.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–14 9.3.2. Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models ................................................................................... 9–14 9.4. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting ............................................................................................... 9–15 9.4.1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model ................. 9–16 9.4.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data ........................................................................................ 9–16 9.4.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS ......................................................................................... 9–17 9.4.1.2.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–17 9.4.1.2.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–18 9.4.1.3. Select a Material Model Option .................................................................................. 9–18 9.4.1.3.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–18 9.4.1.3.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–18 9.4.1.4. Initialize the Coefficients ............................................................................................ 9–19 9.4.1.4.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–19 9.4.1.4.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–20 9.4.1.5. Specify Control Parameters and Solve ........................................................................ 9–20 9.4.1.5.1. Temperature Dependent Solves Using the Shift Function .................................. 9–21 9.4.1.5.2. Temperature Dependent Solves Without the Shift Function ............................... 9–21 9.4.1.5.3. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–22 9.4.1.5.4. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–23 9.4.1.6. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze ..................................................................... 9–23 9.4.1.6.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–23 9.4.1.6.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–23 9.4.1.6.3. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ..................................................................... 9–23 9.4.1.7. Write Data to TB Command ....................................................................................... 9–23 9.4.1.7.1. Batch ................................................................................................................ 9–23 9.4.1.7.2. GUI ................................................................................................................... 9–24 10. Gasket Joints Simulation ................................................................................................................. 10–1 10.1. Overview of Gasket Joints ......................................................................................................... 10–1 10.2. Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis ............................................................................................ 10–1 10.3. Finite Element Formulation ....................................................................................................... 10–2

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 10.3.1. Element Topologies ......................................................................................................... 10–2 10.3.2. Thickness Direction .......................................................................................................... 10–2 10.4. ANSYS Family of Interface Elements .......................................................................................... 10–3 10.4.1. Element Selection ............................................................................................................ 10–3 10.4.2. Applications ..................................................................................................................... 10–3 10.5. Material Definition .................................................................................................................... 10–4 10.5.1. Material Characteristics .................................................................................................... 10–4 10.5.2. Input Format .................................................................................................................... 10–5 10.5.2.1. Define General Parameters ...................................................................................... 10–6 10.5.2.2. Define Compression Load Closure Curve .................................................................. 10–6 10.5.2.3. Define Linear Unloading Data .................................................................................. 10–6 10.5.2.4. Define Nonlinear Unloading Data ............................................................................. 10–7 10.5.3. Temperature Dependencies ............................................................................................. 10–8 10.5.4. Plotting Gasket Data ....................................................................................................... 10–11 10.6. Meshing Interface Elements .................................................................................................... 10–12 10.7. Solution Procedure and Result Output ..................................................................................... 10–16 10.7.1. Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing ............................................................................ 10–17 10.8. Reviewing the Results ............................................................................................................. 10–19 10.8.1. Points to Remember ....................................................................................................... 10–19 10.8.2. Reviewing Results in POST1 ............................................................................................ 10–19 10.8.3. Reviewing Results in POST26 .......................................................................................... 10–20 10.9. Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .............................. 10–20 11. Fracture Mechanics .......................................................................................................................... 11–1 11.1. Definition of Fracture Mechanics ............................................................................................... 11–1 11.2. Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems ....................................................................................... 11–1 11.2.1. Modeling the Crack Region ............................................................................................... 11–1 11.2.1.1. 2-D Fracture Models ................................................................................................ 11–3 11.2.1.2. 3-D Fracture Models ................................................................................................ 11–4 11.2.2. Calculating Fracture Parameters ....................................................................................... 11–5 11.2.2.1. Stress Intensity Factors ............................................................................................ 11–5 11.2.2.2. J-Integral ................................................................................................................. 11–6 11.2.2.3. Energy Release Rate ................................................................................................. 11–8 12. Composites ...................................................................................................................................... 12–1 12.1. Definition of Composites ........................................................................................................... 12–1 12.2. Modeling Composites ............................................................................................................... 12–1 12.2.1. Choosing the Proper Element Type ................................................................................... 12–1 12.2.2. Defining the Layered Configuration .................................................................................. 12–2 12.2.2.1. Specifying Individual Layer Properties ...................................................................... 12–3 12.2.2.2. Defining the Constitutive Matrices ........................................................................... 12–4 12.2.2.3. Sandwich and Multiple-Layered Structures ............................................................... 12–4 12.2.2.4. Node Offset ............................................................................................................. 12–5 12.2.3. Specifying Failure Criteria ................................................................................................. 12–5 12.2.4. Additional Modeling and Postprocessing Guidelines ......................................................... 12–6 13. Fatigue ............................................................................................................................................. 13–1 13.1. Definition of Fatigue ................................................................................................................. 13–1 13.1.1. What the ANSYS Program Does ........................................................................................ 13–1 13.1.2. Basic Terminology ............................................................................................................ 13–1 13.2. Doing a Fatigue Evaluation ....................................................................................................... 13–2 13.2.1. Enter POST1 and Resume Your Database .......................................................................... 13–2 13.2.2. Establish the Size, Fatigue Material Properties, and Locations ............................................ 13–2 13.2.3. Store Stresses and Assign Event Repetitions and Scale Factors ........................................... 13–4 13.2.3.1. Storing Stresses ....................................................................................................... 13–4

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 13.2.3.1.1. Manually Stored Stresses ................................................................................. 13–4 13.2.3.1.2. Nodal Stresses from Jobname.RST ................................................................... 13–5 13.2.3.1.3. Stresses at a Cross-Section ............................................................................... 13–5 13.2.3.2. Listing, Plotting, or Deleting Stored Stresses ............................................................. 13–6 13.2.3.3. Assigning Event Repetitions and Scale Factors ......................................................... 13–6 13.2.3.4. Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Usage Factors ..................................................... 13–7 13.2.4. Activate the Fatigue Calculations ...................................................................................... 13–9 13.2.5. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 13–9 13.2.6. Other Approaches to Range Counting .............................................................................. 13–9 13.2.7. Sample Input ................................................................................................................... 13–9 14. p-Method Structural Static Analysis ................................................................................................ 14–1 14.1. Definition of p-Method Analysis ................................................................................................ 14–1 14.2. Benefits of Using the p-Method ................................................................................................. 14–1 14.3. Using the p-Method .................................................................................................................. 14–1 14.3.1. Select the p-Method Procedure ........................................................................................ 14–1 14.3.2. Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 14–2 14.3.2.1. Define the Element Types ........................................................................................ 14–2 14.3.2.1.1. Specifying a p-Level Range .............................................................................. 14–2 14.3.2.2. Specify Material Properties and/or Real Constants .................................................... 14–3 14.3.2.2.1. Material Properties .......................................................................................... 14–3 14.3.2.2.2. Real Constants ................................................................................................ 14–3 14.3.2.3. Define the Model Geometry ..................................................................................... 14–4 14.3.2.4. Mesh the Model into Solid or Shell Elements ............................................................ 14–4 14.3.2.4.1. Using Program Defaults .................................................................................. 14–4 14.3.2.4.2. Specifying Mesh Controls ................................................................................ 14–4 14.3.2.4.3. Guidelines for Creating a Good Mesh ............................................................... 14–5 14.3.3. Additional Information for Building Your Model ................................................................ 14–5 14.3.3.1. Viewing your element model ................................................................................... 14–5 14.3.3.2. Coupling ................................................................................................................. 14–6 14.3.3.2.1. Coupling of Corner Nodes ............................................................................... 14–6 14.3.3.2.2. Midside Node Coupling ................................................................................... 14–7 14.3.4. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ................................................................................ 14–7 14.3.5. Helpful Hints for Common Problems ............................................................................... 14–12 14.3.6. Review the Results .......................................................................................................... 14–12 14.3.6.1. The p-Element Subgrid .......................................................................................... 14–13 14.3.7. Querying Subgrid Results ............................................................................................... 14–13 14.3.8. Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results ............................................................. 14–14 14.3.8.1. Specialized p-Method Displays and Listings ............................................................ 14–14 14.4. Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................................................. 14–14 14.4.1. Problem Description ....................................................................................................... 14–15 14.4.2. Problem Specifications ................................................................................................... 14–15 14.4.3. Problem Diagram ........................................................................................................... 14–15 14.4.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .............................................................................................. 14–15 14.4.3.2. Select p-Method .................................................................................................... 14–15 14.4.3.3. Define the Element Type and Options .................................................................... 14–15 14.4.3.4. Define the Real Constants ...................................................................................... 14–16 14.4.3.5. Define Material Properties ...................................................................................... 14–16 14.4.3.6. Create Plate with Hole ............................................................................................ 14–16 14.4.3.7. Mesh the Areas ...................................................................................................... 14–16 14.4.3.8. Define Symmetry Boundary Conditions .................................................................. 14–17 14.4.3.9. Define Pressure Load along Right Edge. .................................................................. 14–17 14.4.3.10. Define Convergence Criteria ................................................................................ 14–17

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 14.4.3.11. Solve the Problem ................................................................................................ 14–17 14.4.3.12. Review the Results and Exit ANSYS ....................................................................... 14–18 14.5. Sample p-Method Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ......................................................... 14–18 15. Beam Analysis and Cross Sections .................................................................................................. 15–1 15.1. An Overview of Beams .............................................................................................................. 15–1 15.2. What Are Cross Sections? .......................................................................................................... 15–1 15.3. How to Create Cross Sections .................................................................................................... 15–2 15.3.1. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number ................................................... 15–3 15.3.2. Defining Cross Section Geometry and Setting the Section Attribute Pointer ...................... 15–3 15.3.2.1. Determining the Number of Cells to Define .............................................................. 15–3 15.3.3. Meshing a Line Model with BEAM44, BEAM188, or BEAM189 Elements .............................. 15–4 15.4. Creating Cross Sections ............................................................................................................. 15–5 15.4.1. Using the Beam Tool to Create Common Cross Sections .................................................... 15–5 15.4.2. Creating Custom Cross Sections with a User-defined Mesh ................................................ 15–6 15.4.3. Creating Custom Cross Sections with Mesh Refinement and Multiple Materials .................. 15–7 15.4.4. Defining Composite Cross Sections ................................................................................... 15–8 15.4.5. Defining a Tapered Beam ................................................................................................. 15–8 15.5. Using Nonlinear General Beam Sections .................................................................................... 15–9 15.5.1. Defining a Nonlinear General Beam Section .................................................................... 15–10 15.5.1.1. Strain Dependencies .............................................................................................. 15–11 15.5.2. Considerations for Employing Nonlinear General Beam Sections ..................................... 15–11 15.6. Managing Cross Section and User Mesh Libraries ..................................................................... 15–12 15.7. Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) ......................................................... 15–12 15.7.1. Problem Description ....................................................................................................... 15–13 15.7.2. Problem Specifications ................................................................................................... 15–13 15.7.3. Problem Sketch .............................................................................................................. 15–14 15.7.4. Eigenvalue Buckling and Nonlinear Collapse ................................................................... 15–14 15.7.5. Set the Analysis Title and Define Model Geometry ........................................................... 15–15 15.7.6. Define Element Type and Cross Section Information ....................................................... 15–15 15.7.7. Define the Material Properties and Orientation Node ...................................................... 15–15 15.7.8. Mesh the Line and Verify Beam Orientation ..................................................................... 15–16 15.7.9. Define the Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................... 15–16 15.7.10. Solve the Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ......................................................................... 15–17 15.7.11. Solve the Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ........................................................................... 15–18 15.7.12. Plot and Review the Results .......................................................................................... 15–18 15.8. Sample Problem with Cantilever Beams, Command Method .................................................... 15–19 15.9. Where to Find Other Examples ................................................................................................ 15–20 16. Shell Analysis and Cross Sections .................................................................................................... 16–1 16.1. An Overview of Shells ................................................................................................................ 16–1 16.2. What Are Cross Sections? .......................................................................................................... 16–1 16.3. How to Create Cross Sections .................................................................................................... 16–1 16.3.1. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number ................................................... 16–2 16.3.2. Defining Layer Data .......................................................................................................... 16–2 16.3.3. Overriding Program Calculated Section Properties ............................................................ 16–3 16.3.4. Specifying a Shell Thickness Variation (Tapered Shells) ...................................................... 16–3 16.3.5. Setting the Section Attribute Pointer ................................................................................ 16–3 16.3.6. Associating an Area with a Section .................................................................................... 16–3 16.3.7. Using the Shell Tool to Create Sections ............................................................................. 16–3 16.3.8. Managing Cross Section Libraries ..................................................................................... 16–5 16.4. Using Preintegrated General Shell Sections ............................................................................... 16–5 16.4.1. Defining a Preintegrated Shell Section .............................................................................. 16–6 16.4.2. Considerations for Employing Preintegrated Shell Sections ............................................... 16–6

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Index ................................................................................................................................................. Index–1

List of Figures

2.1. Diagram of Allen Wrench .................................................................................................................. 2–14 3.1. Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing .................................................................................................... 3–13 3.2. Choose Master DOF .......................................................................................................................... 3–20 3.3. Choosing Master DOFs ...................................................................................................................... 3–21 3.4. Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model ............................................................................. 3–21 4.1. Harmonic Response Systems ............................................................................................................... 4–1 4.2. Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle ................................. 4–6 4.3. An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna ....................................................................................................... 4–7 4.4. Two-Mass-Spring-System .................................................................................................................. 4–14 5.1. Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves ................................................................................................. 5–4 5.2. Examples of Gap Conditions .............................................................................................................. 5–21 5.3. Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass .................................................................... 5–27 5.4. Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation ......................................................................... 5–34 5.5. Transient Input vs. Transient Response .............................................................................................. 5–35 5.6. Rayleigh Damping ............................................................................................................................ 5–38 6.1. Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra ................................................................................... 6–2 6.2. Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports ......................................................... 6–11 7.1. Buckling Curves .................................................................................................................................. 7–1 7.2. Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1.0 .......................................................................... 7–4 7.3. Bar with Hinged Ends .......................................................................................................................... 7–9 8.1. Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior ........................................................................... 8–1 8.2. A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity ........................................................................... 8–2 8.3. Newton-Raphson Approach ................................................................................................................ 8–3 8.4. Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. Arc-Length Method .............................................................. 8–4 8.5. Load Steps, Substeps, and Time .......................................................................................................... 8–4 8.6. Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior ...................................................................................... 8–5 8.7. Load Directions Before and After Deflection ........................................................................................ 8–6 8.8. Stress-Stiffened Beams ........................................................................................................................ 8–8 8.9. Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve .......................................................................................................... 8–9 8.10. Kinematic Hardening ...................................................................................................................... 8–10 8.11. Bauschinger Effect .......................................................................................................................... 8–11 8.12. NLISO Stress-Strain Curve ................................................................................................................ 8–14 8.13. Cast Iron Plasticity ........................................................................................................................... 8–16 8.14. Hyperelastic Structure ..................................................................................................................... 8–17 8.15. Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves ......................................................................................... 8–23 8.16. Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays ............................................................................... 8–25 8.17. Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve ........................................................................... 8–27 8.18. Stress Relaxation and Creep ............................................................................................................ 8–29 8.19. Time Hardening Creep Analysis ....................................................................................................... 8–30 8.20. Shape Memory Alloy Phases ............................................................................................................ 8–32 8.21. Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation .................................................................................... 8–33 8.22. Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model) ............................................................................................. 8–34 8.23. Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error ................................................. 8–58 8.24. Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature ............................. 8–67 8.25. Typical Nonlinear Output Listing ..................................................................................................... 8–71 8.26. Cyclic Point Load History ................................................................................................................. 8–73 10.1. Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element ...................................................................... 10–2 xx

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 10.2. Pressure vs. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material ............................................................................ 10–5 10.3. Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves ............................................................................... 10–7 10.4. Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves ......................................................................... 10–8 10.5. Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures .................................................. 10–11 10.6. Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry ......................................................................................... 10–14 10.7. Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element .......................................................................................... 10–14 10.8. Interface Layer Mesh ..................................................................................................................... 10–15 10.9. Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh ..................................................................................................... 10–15 10.10. Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements ............................................................ 10–16 11.1. Crack Tip and Crack Front ................................................................................................................ 11–2 11.2. Examples of Singular Elements ........................................................................................................ 11–3 11.3. A Fracture Specimen and 2-D FE Model ........................................................................................... 11–4 11.4. Taking Advantage of Symmetry ...................................................................................................... 11–4 11.5. Crack Coordinate Systems ............................................................................................................... 11–5 11.6. Typical Path Definitions ................................................................................................................... 11–6 11.7. J-Integral Contour Path Surrounding a Crack-Tip ............................................................................. 11–7 11.8. Examples of Paths for J-integral Calculation ..................................................................................... 11–7 12.1. Layered Model Showing Dropped Layer .......................................................................................... 12–3 12.2. Sandwich Construction ................................................................................................................... 12–4 12.3. Layered Shell With Nodes at Midplane ............................................................................................. 12–5 12.4. Layered Shell With Nodes at Bottom Surface ................................................................................... 12–5 12.5. Example of an Element Display ........................................................................................................ 12–7 12.6. Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/-45/ - 45/45] Sequence .................................................................. 12–8 13.1. Cylinder Wall with Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs) .................................................................... 13–4 13.2. Three Loadings in One Event ........................................................................................................... 13–5 13.3. Surface Nodes are Identified by PPATH Prior to Executing FSSECT .................................................... 13–6 14.1. Fan Model Showing p-Element vs. h-Element Meshes ...................................................................... 14–5 14.2. Coupled Nodes on One Element ...................................................................................................... 14–6 14.3. Nodes Coupled Between Adjacent Elements ................................................................................... 14–6 14.4. Both Corner Nodes are Coupled ...................................................................................................... 14–7 14.5. All Coupled Nodes are Midside Nodes ............................................................................................. 14–7 14.6. Constraints on Rotated Nodes ......................................................................................................... 14–9 14.7. p-Element Subgrids for Quadrilateral Elements .............................................................................. 14–13 14.8. Steel Plate With a Hole .................................................................................................................. 14–15 15.1. Plot of a Z Cross Section .................................................................................................................. 15–2 15.2. Types of Solid Section Cell Mesh ...................................................................................................... 15–4 15.3. BeamTool with Subtypes Drop Down List Displayed ........................................................................ 15–6 15.4. Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam ........................................................................... 15–13 15.5. Diagram of a Beam With Deformation Indicated ............................................................................ 15–14 16.1. Plot of a Shell Section ...................................................................................................................... 16–2 16.2. Shell Tool With Layup Page Displayed ............................................................................................. 16–4 16.3. Shell Tool With Section Controls Page Displayed .............................................................................. 16–4 16.4. Shell Tool With Summary Page Displayed ........................................................................................ 16–5

List of Tables

1.1. Structural Element Types .................................................................................................................... 1–2 2.1. Basic Tab Options ............................................................................................................................... 2–3 2.2. Sol'n Options Tab Options ................................................................................................................... 2–4 2.3. Nonlinear Tab Options ........................................................................................................................ 2–4 2.4. Advanced NL Tab Options ................................................................................................................... 2–5

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide 2.5. Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis ................................................................................................... 2–8 3.1. Analysis Types and Options ................................................................................................................. 3–2 3.2. Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis .................................................................................................. 3–5 3.3. Load Commands for a Modal Analysis ................................................................................................. 3–5 3.4. Load Step Options .............................................................................................................................. 3–6 3.5. Expansion Pass Options ...................................................................................................................... 3–9 3.6. Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices ............................................................................................. 3–17 4.1. Analysis Types and Options ................................................................................................................. 4–4 4.2. Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis .............................................................................. 4–7 4.3. Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis ............................................................................ 4–8 4.4. Load Step Options .............................................................................................................................. 4–9 4.5. Expansion Pass Options .................................................................................................................... 4–22 5.1. Transient Tab Options ......................................................................................................................... 5–8 5.2. Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis ............................................................. 5–15 5.3. Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis .............................................................................. 5–22 5.4. Expansion Pass Options .................................................................................................................... 5–24 5.5. Damping for Different Analysis Types ................................................................................................ 5–36 5.6. Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients .................................................... 5–39 6.1. Analysis Types and Options ................................................................................................................. 6–4 6.2. Load Step Options .............................................................................................................................. 6–4 6.3. Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis ......................................................................................... 6–21 6.4. Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis .............................................................................. 6–22 8.1. Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants ................................................................................................. 8–23 8.2. Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays ................................................................................. 8–24 9.1. Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko .................................................................. 9–2 9.2. Experimental Details for Case 3 Models ............................................................................................... 9–2 9.3. Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types ............................................................................................... 9–4 9.4. Creep Data Types and Abbreviations ................................................................................................... 9–9 9.5. Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute ................................................................................................. 9–9 9.6. Creep Models and Abbreviations ....................................................................................................... 9–11 9.7. Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations ........................................................................................ 9–16 15.1. ANSYS Cross Section Commands ..................................................................................................... 15–2 15.2. ANSYS Commands for Specifying Nonlinear General Beam Section Data ........................................ 15–10 16.1. ANSYS Cross Section Commands ..................................................................................................... 16–1 16.2. ANSYS Commands for Specifying Preintegrated Shell Section Data .................................................. 16–6

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. Structural analyses are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. stress stiffening. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are possible. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are displacements. ANSYS Mechanical. Explicit Dynamic Analysis--This type of structural analysis is only available in the ANSYS LS-DYNA program. but also naval. aeronautical.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. Types of Structural Analysis The seven types of structural analyses available in the ANSYS family of products are explained below.0 . The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings. You can perform the following types of structural analyses. Explicit dynamic analysis is described in the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide. under static loading conditions. stresses.1. as well as mechanical components such as pistons. Different mode extraction methods are available. Static Analysis--Used to determine displacements. Buckling Analysis--Used to calculate the buckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape. In addition to the above analysis types. machine parts. and creep. ANSYS LS-DYNA provides an interface to the LS-DYNA explicit finite element program. © SAS IP. Modal Analysis--Used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. Definition of Structural Analysis Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. used to calculate stresses and strains due to a response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). Nonlinearities can include plasticity. Transient Dynamic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads. aircraft bodies. 1. Each of these analysis types are discussed in detail in this manual. contact surfaces. Explicit dynamic analysis is used to calculate fast solutions for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. such as strains. hyperelasticity. stresses. etc. Both linear and nonlinear static analyses. Spectrum Analysis--An extension of the modal analysis. Inc. All nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above are allowed.2. Other quantities. large deflection. large strain. and ANSYS Professional programs only. Harmonic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time-varying loads. 002114 . and tools. ANSYS Release 9. and mechanical structures such as ship hulls. ANSYS Structural. are then derived from the nodal displacements. several special-purpose features are available: • • • • • Fracture mechanics Composites Fatigue p-Method Beam Analyses ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and reaction forces. and machine housings.

FLUID38. © SAS IP. SOLID46. CONTA172. Elements Used in Structural Analyses Most ANSYS element types are structural elements. you must specify the material you will be simulating using an intuitive material model interface. Material Model Interface For analyses described in this guide. SOLID64. INFIN111. MATRIX27.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. MASS166. SOLID147. Depending on the problem to be solved. SHELL51. FLUID29. the h-method usually requires a finer mesh than the p-method. INFIN110. the discussions in this manual focus on the procedures required for the h-method of solution. Types of Solution Methods Two solution methods are available for solving structural problems in the ANSYS family of products: the hmethod and the p-method. which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. SHELL99. HYPER56. BEAM54. PLANE82. SOLID187. BEAM23. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories.5. VISCO89. CONTA171. FLUID130 COMBIN7. BEAM189 PIPE16. Inc. COMBI165. SOLID191 SHELL28. COMBIN37. Most types of structural analyses can use any of these elements. FLUID30.2. The p-method provides an excellent way to solve a problem to a desired level of accuracy while using a coarse mesh.4: Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface. SOLID164. CONTA174. VISCO88. PIPE20. MASS166. INTER195 CONTAC12.3. BEAM161. PLANE83. PIPE60 PLANE2. COMBIN40. 1. SHELL163.1 Structural Element Types Category Spars Beams Pipes 2-D Solids 3-D Solids Shells Solid-Shell Interface Contact Coupled-Field Specialty Explicit Dynamics LINK1. HYPER58. VISCO108. FLUID79. The h-method can be used for any type of analysis. BEAM44. SOLID185. SOLID186. BEAM161. but the p-method can be used only for linear structural static analyses. PIPE59. SOLID168 Element Name(s) 1. PLANE146. SOLID65. SOLID95. COMBI165. ranging from simple spars and beams to more complex layered shells and large strain solids. SOLID148. SHELL91. LINK8. LINK11. SHELL93. SOLID92. LINK167.4. CONTA175 SOLID5. “p-Method Structural Static Analysis” discusses procedures specific to the p-method. VISCO107. SHELL63. PLANE183 SOLID45. MASS21. PIPE17. SHELL61. SURF153. if you are using the GUI. CONTAC52. See Section 1. FLUID129. Chapter 14. LINK167.4. SURF154 LINK160. FLUID116. PLANE42. BEAM24. COMBIN14. PLANE182. 1–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. LINK180 BEAM3.0 . VISCO106. INTER193. HYPER158. SOLID62. TARGE170. CONTA173. Table 1. FLUID81. SHELL150. INTER194. TARGE169. SHELL41. MATRIX50. PLANE13. SHELL181 SOLSH190 INTER192. FLUID80. PLANE25. and SOLID168). COMBIN39. PLANE162. LINK10. PLANE162. Note — Explicit dynamics analysis can use only the explicit dynamic elements (LINK160. HYPER84. SOLID98. PIPE18. In general. HYPER74. BEAM4. 002114 . HYPER86. PLANE145. . BEAM188. SOLID164. SHELL163. SHELL43.

All types of nonlinearities are allowed . see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. The kinds of loading that can be applied in a static analysis include: • • • • • Externally applied forces and pressures Steady-state inertial forces (such as gravity or rotational velocity) Imposed (nonzero) displacements Temperatures (for thermal strain) Fluences (for nuclear swelling) More information about the loads that you can apply in a static analysis appears in Section 2. Definition of Static Analysis A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure.1.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2. such as those caused by time-varying loads. while ignoring inertia and damping effects. stress stiffening. 3.1: Build the Model Section 2.0 . and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects.3. Linear vs.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time. include steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity).Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.3.3. ANSYS Release 9. contact (gap) elements. Static analysis is used to determine the displacements. and time-varying loads that can be approximated as static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building codes).5: Solve the Analysis Section 2. . 002114 . Nonlinear Static Analyses A static analysis can be either linear or nonlinear. 2. For further details. 5.1. Section 2. © SAS IP. creep. A static analysis can. Details of how to handle nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8. Performing a Static Analysis The procedure for a static analysis consists of these tasks: 1.3.6: Review the Results 2. 4. with brief references to nonlinearities. 2. that is.large deformations. hyperelastic elements. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.1. however. plasticity.3. This chapter focuses on linear static analyses.1.3. stresses. Inc. 2. 6.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2.3. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when doing a static analysis: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Steady loading and response conditions are assumed.3. and so on.4: Apply the Loads Section 2.3.2. strains.4: Apply the Loads. Build the Model See Section 1.3. 2.

choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls. The Solution Controls dialog box provides default settings that will work well for many structural static analyses.2. such as density (DENS). you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls. Material properties can be linear or nonlinear. Young's modulus (EX). For a general overview of the Solution Controls dialog box.1. it is the method that is presented in this chapter. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. While considering the influence of nonlinearities. you must define the coefficient of thermal expansion (ALPX). When you are doing a structural static analysis. Chapter 8. ANSYS Release 9. 2. – – – You must define stiffness in some form (for example. For details about how to set these options.3. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. isotropic or orthotropic.2. . © SAS IP. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog box. you must define the data required for mass calculations. 2.2. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. Note the following information about mesh density: • • Regions where stresses or strains vary rapidly (usually areas of interest) require a relatively finer mesh than regions where stresses or strains are nearly constant (within an element). you can set solution controls for your analysis using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths (Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> option). see Section 3.3. For example. select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program). For inertia loads (such as gravity). 2–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . if any. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. and so on). hyperelastic coefficients.3. 2.0 . As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. 002114 . as well as specifying load step options for it.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • • You can use both linear and nonlinear structural elements. Inc. Because the streamlined solution interface is the recommended tool for setting solution controls in a structural static analysis.5: Using Special Solution Controls for Certain Types of Structural Analyses in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.2. and constant or temperature-dependent. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls involves defining the analysis type and common analysis options for an analysis. you can take advantage of a streamlined solution interface (called the Solution Controls dialog box) for setting these options. plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. If you prefer not to use the Solution Controls dialog box (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls). remember that the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. and then click the Help button. of the options. For thermal loads (temperatures). which means that you may need to set only a few.

Section 2. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default. or you have previously completed a static analysis. the default is 1. and click the Help button. 2–3 .1: General Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Control time settings. Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.3. and you want to specify additional loads. The default value is 1.3: Performing a Static Analysis You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem). only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file (Jobname. Inc. it is not described here.1: “Basic Tab Options”. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 3.4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. The Transient Tab The Transient tab contains transient analysis controls. 002114 . choose Small Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection.3. For these reasons. Table 2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . remember that this load step option specifies time at the end of the load step. it is available only if you choose a transient analysis and remains grayed out when you choose a static analysis. “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification).1 Basic Tab Options Option Specify analysis type [ANTYPE. viscoplasticity. or other rate-dependent material behavior). large rotation. and number of substeps to be taken in a load step [NSUBST or DELTIM] Specify solution data to write to database [OUTRES] • • • Section 2. When setting OUTRES.0 for the first load step. NLGEOM] For more information on this option. and large strain. ANSYS Release 9. it is used as a convenient way of referring to load steps and substeps (see Chapter 2. Although time has no physical meaning in a static analysis (except in the case of creep. • • 2. automatic time stepping [AUTOTS].RST). For subsequent load steps.1: Defining the Analysis Type and Analysis Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Chapter 8. the program will terminate with an error. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19. When setting TIME.2.4: The Role of Time in Tracking in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.7. Choose Large Displacement Static if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long.0 plus the time specified for the previous load step. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).6. © SAS IP. select the Basic tab. access the dialog box.2.7. see: • • • Section 1. Use the command /CONFIG.0 . including: time at end of load step [TIME].10: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.

which is a separately-licensed product.3. ANSYS Release 9. Using the Sol'n Options Tab You can use the Sol'n Options tab to set the options listed in Table 2. but provides parallel processing. bulky structures) Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solver (applicable in the same situations as the PCG solver.2: Multiframe Restart Specify parameters for multiframe restart [RESCONTROL] • Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting EQSLV. static and full transient analyses) Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver (recommended for large models/high wavefronts.3. © SAS IP. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide: • Section 3.5.5. access the dialog box. 2. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. and click the Help button.2. based on the physics of the problem) Sparse direct solver (default for linear and nonlinear. select the Sol'n Options tab. See Chapter 14. 002114 .Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.4.4: Using Line Search 2–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . access the dialog box.2. specify one of these solvers: – – – – – – – Program chosen solver (ANSYS selects a solver for you.2. recommended) Frontal direct solver Note — The AMG and DDS solvers are part of Parallel Performance for ANSYS. “Improving ANSYS Performance and Parallel Performance for ANSYS” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information about these solvers. Using the Nonlinear Tab You can use the Nonlinear tab to set the options listed in Table 2.10.10. Inc. .2: Selecting a Solver through Section 3.2. for faster turnaround times when used in a multiprocessor environment) Distributed Domain Solver (DDS) provides parallel processing on multiple systems across a network Iterative solver (auto-select.5: Line Search Option Section 8.9: The Automatic Iterative (Fast) Solver Option Section 3. Table 2.3.2: “Sol'n Options Tab Options”. select the Nonlinear tab. for linear static/full transient structural or steady-state thermal analyses only. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.3: “Nonlinear Tab Options”. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • Section 8. and click the Help button.3 Nonlinear Tab Options Option Activate line search [LNSRCH] For more information about this option.2 Sol'n Options Tab Options Option Specify equation solver [EQSLV] For more information about this option. Table 2.0 .3.

4: Predictor-Corrector Option Section 8.2.10.OFF].5: Creep Section 8. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • • • • • Section 8.3. select the Advanced NL tab. Specific situations in which you can turn OFF stress stiffening effects include: • Stress stiffening is relevant only in nonlinear analyses. Stress Stiffening Effects Some elements. and are described further in Chapter 8. ARCTRM] For more information about this option. stress stiffening effects are ON when NLGEOM is ON.5.5.2.2. access the dialog box.5: Using the Arc-Length Method Chapter 2.2. By default. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • • Section 8. 2–5 .3.4: “Advanced NL Tab Options”.3. © SAS IP.3.5. Many of the options that appear in this section are nonlinear options. include stress stiffening effects regardless of the SSTIF command setting. refer to the appropriate element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 2. you can turn stress stiffening OFF.5.3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults. If you are performing a linear analysis [NLGEOM.0 .1: Creep Criteria Section 8.6: Cutback Criteria 2.Section 2.1. Table 2. ANSYS Release 9. To determine whether an element includes stress stiffening. Inc.1.3.3.3: Performing a Static Analysis Option Activate a predictor on the DOF solution [PRED] Specify the maximum number of iterations allowed per substep [NEQIT] Specify whether you want to include creep calculation [RATE] Set convergence criteria [CNVTOL] Control bisections [CUTCONTROL] For more information about this option. including those in the 18x family of elements.5. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.3. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide 2.3. and click the Help button.2. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. and their default settings rarely need to be changed.2.2.2.3. 002114 . These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used very infrequently.6.3.2: Convergence Criteria Section 8.4 Advanced NL Tab Options Option Specify analysis termination criteria [NCNV] Control activation and termination of the arc-length method [ARCLEN.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.5. Using the Advanced NL Tab You can use the Advanced NL tab to set the options listed in Table 2.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.3.

You can specify one of these values: • • Default (depends on element type) Lumped mass approximation Note — For a static analysis. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. ANSYS Release 9. Including stress stiffness terms.3. Prestress Effects Calculation Use this analysis option to perform a prestressed analysis on the same model. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution.4. © SAS IP.3.2.3. for example. Newton-Raphson Option Use this analysis option only in a nonlinear analysis. However. and therefore should not be used together in an analysis. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2.0 . If both are specified. Keeping in mind the points listed above.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • Prior to the analysis.3. Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option if you plan to apply inertial loads on the structure (such as gravity and spinning loads). accelerates nonlinear convergence characteristics. 002114 . in general. the mass matrix formulation you use does not significantly affect the solution accuracy (assuming that the mesh is fine enough). snap through). you may choose to turn stress stiffening OFF for specific problems in which convergence difficulties are seen.3. if you want to do a prestressed dynamic analysis on the same model. the choice of mass matrix formulation may be important. The default is OFF. the last option specified will override the previous setting. Note — The stress stiffening effects and the prestress effect calculation both control the generation of the stress stiffness matrix. . Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. you know that the structure is not likely to fail because of buckling (bifurcation. Inc. such as a prestressed modal analysis. local failures.3. You can specify one of these values: • • • • • Program-chosen (default) Full Modified Initial stiffness Full with unsymmetric matrix Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. see the appropriate dynamic analysis section for recommendations.

2. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion 2.3.3.3: Performing a Static Analysis 2. They can also indicate symmetry boundary conditions and points of known motion. Printed Output Use this load step option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. Inc.3.9.3.4. you are ready to apply loads to the model. Displacements (UX.5.7.1.4. See Section 2.4. UY.3. ROTX. UZ.3. Load Types All of the following load types are applicable in a static analysis. 2. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system.4. Mode Number This load step option is used for axisymmetric harmonic elements. Creep Criteria This nonlinear load step option specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping. Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 2.Section 2. FZ) and Moments (MX. Reference Temperature This load step option is used for thermal strain calculations.3. © SAS IP.0 . Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp 2. FY. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system.REFT command. Apply the Loads After you set the desired solution options.3. 002114 .OUT). Command(s): MODE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele 2. ANSYS Release 9. Extrapolation of Results Use this load step option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default when no material nonlinearities are present).3. ROTY.3. Forces (FX. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Caution: Proper use of multiple OUTPR commands can sometimes be a little tricky. 2. 2. MY. Reference temperature can be made material-dependent with the MP.3. 2–7 .6.3.7. ROTZ) These are DOF constraints usually specified at model boundaries to define rigid support points. 2.3. MZ) These are concentrated loads usually specified on the model exterior.8.1.1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on how to use this command.3.1.

Positive values of pressure act towards the element face (resulting in a compressive effect). © SAS IP.6.4. removed.15: Applying Loads Using Function Boundary Conditions). Density (or mass in some form) must be defined if inertia effects are to be included..2. In an analysis. 2.8: Body Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Inertia Loads Section 2.3: DOF Constraints in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.6.3.2. Moment (FX. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints.14: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.6.3.3.1.6. loads can be applied..4.9: Inertia Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide 2. see. Pressures (PRES) These are surface loads. Fluences (FLUE) These are applied to study the effects of swelling (material enlargement due to neutron bombardment or other causes) or creep. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters You can also apply loads using TABLE type array parameters.4. or you can specify temperatures directly.3.2. Gravity. Section 2. MX. They are used only if you input a swelling or creep equation. Spinning. For details on using tabular boundary conditions.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a static analysis. ROTY. Inc. Apply Loads to the Model Except for inertia loads.5. Temperatures (TEMP) These are applied to study the effects of thermal expansion or contraction (that is.7: Surface Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Body Loads Section 2. Z). 2. The coefficient of thermal expansion must be defined if thermal strains are to be calculated.4.1. using the BF family of commands.1.4. also usually applied on the model exterior. MZ) Pressure (PRES) Temperature (TEMP). . which are independent of the model. You can also apply boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Section 2. ANSYS Release 9. UY. ROTZ) Force. FY. Table 2. These are inertia loads that affect the entire structure. In a structural analysis. and so on Category Constraints Forces Surface Loads For details on commands and menu paths for defining these loads. see Section 2. Spinning. Y. Etc. TEMP.3. UZ. Fluence (FLUE) Gravity.4.3. MY.6.3. 2–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . or listed. 2. and location (X.5 Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis Load Type Displacement (UX. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).6. thermal stresses). lines.1. 2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.0 .6: Forces (Concentrated Loads) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.6. valid primary variables are TIME.6.4. operated on.3. Table 2.4.1. FZ. ROTX.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters) or as function boundary conditions (see Section 2. 002114 . You can read in temperatures from a thermal analysis [LDREAD].

This output consists of the translational and rotational accelerations required to balance the applied loads and can be used by other programs to perform kinematics studies. but check for zero reaction forces at all the constraints to make sure that the model is not overconstrained for inertia relief. Models with a mixture of 2-D and 3-D element types are not recommended.RST). Your model should meet the following requirements: • • The model should not contain axisymmetric elements.. The loads for which inertia relief calculations are desired should be applied. substructures.4. and SOLID191). The effects of unsymmetrical layups for layered elements are also ignored... such as those required to impose symmetry conditions. are permitted. TIME must be in ascending order in the table index (as in any table array). not approximate.3.) Data required for mass calculations (such as density) must be specified. Inertia Relief Output Use the IRLIST command to print the output from inertia relief calculations.4. The summary listing of mass and moments of inertia (produced during solution) is accurate.1.. Command(s): IRLF. © SAS IP. The reaction forces at the constraints will be zero because the calculated inertia forces balance the applied forces. 2–9 . or nonlinearities.3.. BEAM44.1 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Inertia Relief • • • 2.3. (Breaking up each tapered element into several elements will give a more accurate solution. Calculating Inertia Relief You can use a static analysis to perform inertia relief calculations. which calculate the accelerations that will counterbalance the applied loads. SHELL99. Additional constraints. Command(s): IRLIST GUI: No GUI equivalent. MP. . You can think of inertia relief as an equivalent free-body analysis.3.. Inc.DENS. and BEAM54) as well as for layered elements (SHELL91.3: Performing a Static Analysis When defining the table. which contains the inertia relief output from the most recent solution [SOLVE or PSOLVE]. ! Generate model. Use the partial solution method [PSOLVE].2. depending on the element type) are necessary for 2-D models and six (or fewer) are necessary for 3-D models. Issue this command before SOLVE as part of the inertia load commands. 002114 . define density ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 2. When you issue IRLIST..4. . BEAM24. Inertia relief output is stored in the database rather than in the results file (Jobname.3.. ANSYS pulls the information from the database.. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations You can also do a partial inertia relief calculation.0 .3. The effects of offsets and tapering are ignored for beam elements (BEAM23. see the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide. .those required to prevent rigid-body motion. 2. Specify only the minimum number of displacement constraints . SOLID46. For more information on defining table array parameters. Three constraints (or fewer. You can define a table array parameter via command or interactively..Section 2.. as shown in the command input below: /PREP7 . ANSYS Release 9.

OUTPR. specifying load step options.. and solving for each load step.RST..6. 2. 2. ROTZ) Derived data: – – – Nodal and element stresses Nodal and element strains Element forces ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . F.4. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations If you need to do inertia relief calculations frequently.3. Macros are described in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide.ALL.3. 2–10 .. Inc.ELPREP IRLIST FINISH ! Specify only minimum no.3.. you will need to repeat the process of applying loads. (Other methods for handling multiple load steps are described in Chapter 2. 2. you can write a macro containing the above commands. ROTY.) Leave SOLUTION.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis FINISH /SOLU D.ELFORM PSOLVE. of constraints ! Other loads ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activates printout of all items Can also be set to -1 for precise mass and load summary only. UY.ALL IRLF. UZ.3. Review the Results Results from a static analysis are written to the structural results file.. 4. IRLIST. multiple load steps).. ANSYS Release 9. SF. 2. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. They consist of the following data: • Primary data: – • Nodal displacements (UX. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file.0 . 3.3. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. © SAS IP. Jobname.1 PSOLVE. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. 002114 . Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS If you want the analysis to include additional loading conditions (that is. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. IRLF. and PSOLVE commands.. 1. Solve the Analysis You are now ready to solve the analysis. saving.. ROTX.. no inertia relief Calculates element matrices Modifies element matrices and calculates inertia relief terms Lists the mass summary and total load summary tables See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the OUTPR.5.

3.3. 2. Typical Postprocessing Operations Option: Display Deformed Shape Use the PLDISP command to display a deformed shape (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape). Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results.4.RST) must be available. Postprocessors You can review these results using POST1. POST26 is used in nonlinear static analyses to track specific result items over the applied load history. (Use RMOM instead of RFOR for reaction moments.3. 2. Some typical POST1 operations are explained below.RFOR.3. ANSYS Release 9. 002114 .2.6.0 . 2. 2. See Chapter 8. Read in the database from the database file. The results file (Jobname. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. © SAS IP. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. Typical static analysis POST1 operations are explained below.) Option: List Nodal Forces and Moments ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. issue /PBC. 2–11 .6.) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step Perform the necessary POST1 operations.Section 2.6. the time-history processor. the ANSYS program will perform linear interpolation on all the data to calculate the results at that time..1 and then request a node or element display [NPLOT or EPLOT].3. Identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time. • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific substeps (time-points).6. To display reaction forces. the general postprocessor.1. and POST26.3. Option: List Reaction Forces and Moments The PRRSOL command lists reaction forces and moments at the constrained nodes (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu).3: Performing a Static Analysis – – Nodal reaction forces and so on 2. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” for the use of POST26 in a nonlinear static analysis. (If you specify a time value for which no results are available. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. The KUND field on PLDISP gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. Reviewing Results Data 1. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1 or POST26. see Chapter 4.

Select a set of nodes and use this feature to find out the total force acting on those nodes: Command(s): FSUM GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Total Force Sum You can also check the total force and total moment at each selected node. This command calculates and lists the percent error in structural energy norm (SEPC). (You can activate automatic mesh refinement by means of the ADAPT command . EPELY. strains. the total load is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists: Command(s): NFORCE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Sum @ Each Node The FORCE command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) dictates which component of the forces is being reviewed: • • • • Total (default) Static component Damping component Inertia component For a body in equilibrium. SZ.. use the PRERR command to list the estimated solution error due to mesh discretization (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Percent Error). and so on) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table). © SAS IP.0 . Option: Error Estimation For linear static analyses using solid or shell elements. UZ. Option: Structural Energy Error Estimation Use PLESOL. Option: Contour Displays Use PLNSOL and PLESOL to contour almost any result item. the total load (using all FORCE components) is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists. Inc. For a body in equilibrium. which represents the error relative to a particular mesh discretization. strains (EPELX.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Use the PRESOL. and displacements (UX..3.) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu). and pipes. 2–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Option: Line Element Results For line elements. such as stresses (SX.). The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display.SERR to contour the element-by-element structural energy error (SERR) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu)..6: Estimating Solution Error in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more details about error estimation. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. . UY. EPELZ.). You can list the sum of all nodal forces and moments for a selected set of nodes. Regions of high SERR on the contour display are good candidates for mesh refinement.F (or M) command to list nodal forces and moments (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution). spars.. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command.. ANSYS Release 9.) See Section 5.see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information. SY.. such as beams. 002114 . use ETABLE to gain access to derived data (stresses.

This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials. use PowerGraphics with the AVRES command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) to not average results across different materials and/or different shell thicknesses. you will run a static analysis of an Allen wrench.0 . 2. PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data).1. rotation (ROT). Problem Description An Allen wrench (10 mm across the flats) is torqued by means of a 100 N force at its end. S3).2. Option: Tabular Listings Use these commands to produce tabular listings: Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results). Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) are an effective way of viewing vector quantities. 2.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Use PLETAB and PLLS to contour element table data and line element data (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table and Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res). same shell thickness.mapping results onto a path. or other discontinuities meet.Section 2. 2–13 . Problem Specifications The following dimensions are used for this problem: Width across flats = 10 mm Configuration = hexagonal Length of shank = 7. ANSYS Release 9. Later. such as stresses and strains. 2. such as displacement (DISP). S2. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. Option: Vector Displays Use PLVECT to view vector displays (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined) and PRVECT to view vector listings (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data).4.4. Other Postprocessing Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . load case combinations. at the same time retaining the original 100 N torquing force. and so on . use selecting (described in Chapter 7. Inc. To avoid the smearing effect. and principal stresses (S1. and so on GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes or Sort Elems). The objective is to determine the stress intensity in the wrench under these two loading conditions. Alternatively. different shell thicknesses. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. Caution: Derived data. 002114 .5 cm ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .are available in POST1. See Chapter 4. © SAS IP. a 20 N downward force is applied at the same end.4. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis.

07E11 Description Young's modulus is 2.1.1 Diagram of Allen Wrench 2. 2. first type “exx = 2. 2. For example.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Length of handle = 20 cm Bend radius = 1 cm Modulus of elasticity = 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.0 ." Click on OK. ¨ ¥ ¦£ ©§ ¥¦£ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢¡ ¥ £ ¡ ¦¤¢ ¡ ¢¡ ¡ ¢ . Type the following parameters and their values in the Selection field. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Parameter EXX Value 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Angular Units. select "Degrees DEG.3. Type the text "Static Analysis of an Allen Wrench" and click on OK. Inc.4.3.SI and press ENTER. which can be accessed by clicking on the down arrow at the right of the input window. ANSYS Release 9.4.4. Continue entering the remaining parameters and values in the same way. 3. In the drop down menu for Units for angular parametric functions. © SAS IP. 2.3.3.07E11 Pa 2–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2. Define Parameters 1. Set the System of Units 1.4.3. 002114 . 2. 5. The Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box appears. 4. Type the command /UNITS. Set the Analysis Title 1. Problem Sketch Figure 2. Notice that the command is stored in the history buffer.07e11” in the Selection field and then click on Accept. Click once in the Input Window to make it active for text entry.07 x 1011 Pa Applied torquing force = 100 N Applied downward force = 20 N 2. Click on Accept after you define each parameter. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.

Section 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.4.6. A dialog box appears.0058 m Length of shank (short end) . Type the text EXX in the EX field (for Young's modulus). 2.075 . Click on Close.3. double-click on the following options: Structural. 2–15 ." Click on Apply to define it as element type 1. This sets Young's modulus to the parameter specified above. and . 4. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section 1. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 3. 6. Linear. In the scroll box on the left. ANSYS Release 9.3. 3." Click once to select it.01 m Element length .0075 m Number of divisions along hex flat = 2 Tolerance for selecting node = 25E-6 m Note — You can type the labels in upper. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . ANSYS always displays the labels in uppercase. 2. © SAS IP.or lowercase.4. 4. 2.2 .3 for PRXY. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. In the Material Models Available window. Define Material Properties 1.01 ." In the scroll box on the right. 002114 . 5. 8. 7. Click on OK. Elastic. 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. Scroll up the list on the right to "Quad 4node 42.3.2 m Bend radius . Click on OK to define Quad 4node42 as element type 2. The Polygon by Side Length dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Polygon> By Side Length. Click on Add. Enter 6 for number of sides.4.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Parameter W_HEX W_FLAT L_SHANK L_HANDLE BENDRAD L_ELEM NO_D_HEX TOL . Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 4. 3. 2. 3. Define the Element Types 1. Enter W_FLAT for length of each side.4.5.0075 2 25E-6 Value Description Width of hex across flats = . click once on "Structural Solid. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.01 m Width of flat = . Isotropic. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.075 m Length of handle (long end) . click once on "Brick 8node 45. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.01 W_HEX* TAN(30) . Inc. 2.

7.-L_SHANK for the X. select "At top left. 17. 2. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options. 3. The Window Options dialog box appears." Click on OK. and click on Apply. 4.4. 13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. Enter 9 for keypoint number.7. 10.8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate. Create Lines Along a Path 1. In the Location of triad drop down menu. Enter 8 for keypoint number. Click on OK. 6.0 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. Type a 0 in each of the X. 7. 14. Z location. 4. Click once on keypoints 7 and 8 to create a line between keypoints 7 and 8. Enter 0. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu.3." Click on OK. (If you have trouble reading the keypoint numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. A hexagon appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Inc.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 4. 18.-L_SHANK for the X. Enter 7 for keypoint number. 12. 2–16 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Enter 0. The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears. 2. ANSYS Release 9. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. Create Keypoints Along a Path 1. 002114 .0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. Enter 90 for angle in degrees. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to turn keypoint numbering on.) 16. Click on OK. 5. 5. . Y. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. © SAS IP. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. 15. Click on OK. 6. Click on Apply. Z location. use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in. Click once on keypoints 4 and 1 to create a line between keypoints 1 and 4. 2. The Create Straight Line picking menu appears. Click on "Iso" to generate an isometric view and click on Close. Y. Click once on keypoints 8 and 9 to create a line between keypoints 8 and 9. Y. 2. 8. select "Global Cartes X.L_HANDLE.4. and click on OK. Z location fields. Click the Line numbers radio button to turn line numbering on. 11. 9.3. 3.

3.12. 7.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Divide> With Options> Area by Line. The Divide Area by Line with Options dialog box appears. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 10. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. 6.3. Click once on line 7. 2.4. 2.0 . Click OK. 12. Enter 1. Click on OK in the picking menu. In the Subtracted lines will be drop down menu. In the Component is made of drop down menu. select Kept. 3. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. This step is required to satisfy mapped meshing. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 5. Set Meshing Density 1. 3. 3.4. Set Element Type for Area Mesh In this step. The Create Component dialog box appears. 2. 2. 1.6 in the picker. 2. Create Line from Shank to Handle 1. The Line Fillet dialog box appears.4. then press ENTER. use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in. you cut the hex section into two quadrilaterals.2. 8. Click once on the shaded area. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. 4.9.3. (If you have trouble reading the line numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. all quadrilaterals for the area mesh. select "Areas.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 2. Cut Hex Section In this step.10. Click on OK. and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Line Fillet. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Areas. 11." 13. Inc.Section 2. 4. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 4. Click once on lines 8 and 9.3. Enter BENDRAD for Fillet radius and click on OK. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines.11. Enter BOTAREA for component name. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. ANSYS Release 9. Enter NO_D_HEX for number of element divisions and click on OK. Click on OK. 9.) Click on OK. Click on OK in the picking menu. 2. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to Off. 2–17 . The Divide Area by Line picking menu appears. set the element type to PLANE42. The Line Fillet picking menu appears. 002114 .

The 3-D model appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 2–18 Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. .4. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size.14. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . click on the Mapped radio button and then click on OK. © SAS IP. In the Element type number drop down menu.0 . 11. 8. 9. Click on OK. 2. The Mesher Options dialog box appears. generate the area mesh you will later drag. 6.3. The Sweep Areas along Lines picking box appears. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements 1. 1. 7. Click on OK. 5. ANSYS Release 9.13. 002114 . Generate Area Mesh In this step. A second picking box appears. 10. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements 1. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. 4. 14.3. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. 10. select “1 SOLID45” and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> Along Lines.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 1. 12. Click the Line numbers radio button to on if it is not already selected. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 2. In the Mesher Type field. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 3. The Set Element Shape dialog box appears. 2. Click on OK to accept the default of Quad for 2-D shape key. and 9 (in that order). Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. In the Element type number drop down menu. 2. Click once on lines 8. 13. select “2 PLANE42” and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesher Opts. The Mesh Areas picking box appears. Click on Pick All. 4.4. 6. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. 2. 2. 2.15. Enter L_ELEM for element edge length and click on OK. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. Click on Pick All. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.4. 3.

Click on the "Sele All" button. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. Click on OK.3. select "Arrows. select "Lines.Section 2. In the top drop down menu. select "Attached to. select "Lines. 6. select "Exterior. apply pressure on the handle to represent 100 N finger force.18. 13. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Apply U. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Apply Pressure on Handle In this step." In the second drop down menu. 8. Click on the "All Applied BCs" radio button for Boundary condition symbol. Click on Pick All. 3. 2. In the top drop down menu.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. all" radio button to select it. 9. 5. 5. The Select Entities dialog appears. The Select Entities dialog box appears." Click on Apply. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears." ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ." In the “Show pres and convect as” drop down menu. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. 16. The Apply U. then click on Cancel. The Clear Areas picking menu appears. 2–19 . select "Nodes. Display Boundary Conditions 1. In the top drop down menu. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Clear> Areas.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 3. In the top drop down menu.0 ." Click on OK. 2.16. 10. 3.17. 6. Inc. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench 1. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component.4. Click on OK.3.4." 14. Click on Pick All. select "Pressures. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 15. 1. 12. 7. In the Surface Load Symbols drop down menu. 2." In the second drop down menu. 5. 2.4. click on "ALL DOF. select "Areas." 17. © SAS IP. In the scroll list for DOFs to be constrained. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes." Click on the "Lines. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 4. 002114 .3. The Symbols dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 9.

Inc. . In the scroll box on the left. scroll to "For selected set" and select it.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min. In the second drop down menu. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on OK. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. 17. Click on OK. In the scroll box on the right. In the second drop down menu. click once on "Current node set" to select it. 34. 38. 21. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data. The Get Scalar Data dialog box appears. 36. Click on the "Areas. 32. Max." 10." Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 33. Max. 37. 002114 . 26. 35. 28.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3. 7. and click on Apply. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes.0 . Enter "maxyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 8. and click on Apply. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. In the scroll box on the right. In the scroll box on the left. Enter W_FLAT/2. select "By Location. 16. select "Nodes. Click on "X coordinates" to select it. Enter PTORQ for Load PRES value and click on OK. all" radio button to select it. scroll to "Model Data" and select it. In the top drop down menu. select "Attached to. In the scroll box on the right. Click on OK. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears." 15. 30. Enter "minyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 29. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. In the second drop down menu. click once on "Min Y coordinate" to select it. 5. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. Click on Pick All.W_FLAT for Min. Click on Close. 22. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. select "By Location. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. In the scroll box on the left. 9. Click on OK again to select the default settings. Click on Apply. 18. 24. 13. Max. 20. © SAS IP. Type the text PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. click once on "Current node set" to select it. 23. 25. Click on Reselect. 14. 2–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. Click on Apply. 31. 19. click once on "Max Y coordinate" to select it. 12.L_HANDLE-(3. ANSYS Release 9.L_HANDLE for Min. 27." 11. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. Enter BENDRAD.

Click on Pick All. 2. 17.4. 6. you define the downward pressure on top of the handle. Click on Close. Define Downward Pressure In this step. select "By Location. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File. 2. Click on the Areas. 3.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min.19. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Enter 1 for load step file number n. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. representing 20N (4. select "Areas. 9. 11. select "Attached to. ANSYS Release 9." 12. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. Inc. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. In the second drop down menu. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 14. 21. 20. and click on Apply. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . In the top drop down menu. 22.3. Max. Type the text PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. 002114 . 16." In the second drop down menu. Max. © SAS IP. Click on Apply. Enter -(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) for Min.L_HANDLE-(3. The Select Entities dialog appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes." 13. 40.20. 18. 19. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. 2. In the top drop down menu." 15. Enter PDOWN for Load PRES value and click on OK. 10. Write the First Load Step 1. select "By Location. 2–21 . Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. 3.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 39. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.4. 2. 1. Click on OK." Click on the "Z coordinates" radio button to select it. Click on OK. select "Nodes.0 . all radio button to select it. 8. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.5 lb) of force.Section 2. 4. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. The Write Load Step File dialog appears. In the second drop down menu.3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 23. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes.

The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2. Enter 1 for Starting LS file number. and click on OK. and click on OK. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button and click on OK.22. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu. 2. select "Relative angle. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Edge Options. 4.21. 2. 2. 5." 21. Enter 120 for Angle in degrees.0 . Solve from Load Step Files 1. click on "Intensity SINT. 9. In the scroll box on the left. 002114 . select "Global Cartes Y.4. The Edge Options dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 9. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. and click on OK. In the Element outlines for non-contour/contour plots drop down menu." Click on OK. 20. 16. 14. Enter 2 for Ending LS file number. 8. Read First Load Step and Review Results 1." 18. Click on the Close button after the Solution is done! window appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. click on "Stress. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items.3. Review the information in the status window.gsa" in the Selection box. 4. 19. select "Edge Only/All. The Symbols dialog box appears. 3. and click on OK. 11. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. In the Relative/absolute drop down menu. Type "pldisp.23. 3. Click on the "None" radio button for Boundary condition symbol.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File. Enter 2 for Load step file number n. The Solve Load Step Files dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls.4.4. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files. 12. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. 2. The Write Load Step File dialog box appears. 10. Inc. Click on OK. Write Second Load Step 1. The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears." In the scroll box on the right." 17.3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. . 13. and click on Close. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. 15. © SAS IP. 3. 2–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .

Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls. Inc.26." In the scroll box on the right. 2. Review the information in the status window. 2.3. 7. 2. 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by Increments.067 for X. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.4.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 22.0 . Read the Next Load Step and Review Results 1.4. and click on OK. Type "plnsol.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. 5. select "Working plane. 6. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items." Drag the Rate slider bar to 10. 9. On the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box. The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls.gsa" in the Selection box. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-Rotate. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. 2. and click on Close.gsa" in the Selection box. 6. Z Offsets and click on OK. 2–23 . 10. The Pan-Zoom-Rotate tool box appears." Click on OK. Choose Quit . 7. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button if it is not already selected and click on OK. Exit ANSYS 1. 10. 23. Y. scroll to "Intensity SINT" and select it. 13. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls. 4. In the drop down menu for Type of Plot. 3. Type "pldisp. The Offset WP tool box appears.Section 2. © SAS IP.gsa" in the Selection box." In the drop down menu for Cutting plane is. 8.0.24. 12. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. Type "plnsol. click on the large round dot several times to zoom in on the cross section.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.No Save! ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 3. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. Click on OK. 5. and click on OK. In the scroll box on the left. Enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Next Set. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden Line Options.4. 4. 11.25. click on "Stress. The Hidden-Line Options dialog box appears. and click on OK. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9. Zoom in on Cross-Section 1.-0. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. select "Capped hidden. Click on "WP. 9.

01 ! Bend radius of Allen wrench (.0in) L_HANDLE=.AREA ! Component name BOTAREA for the two areas ! Generate area mesh for later drag LESIZE.1.NO_D_HEX LESIZE.30 in) NO_D_HEX=2 ! Number of divisions on hex flat TOL=25E-6 ! Tolerance for selecting nodes (25e-6 m = ..0. 002114 .9 in) BENDRAD=. © SAS IP.0) K.9 ! Line along handle LFILLT..L_HANDLE.-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at shank-handle intersection K.NO_D_HEX ! Number of divisions along line 1 LESIZE.8.SOLID45 ! Eight-node brick element ET..4 ! Hex section is cut into two quadrilaterals ASBL.001 in) /PREP7 ET.1 ! Isometric view in window 1 /ANGLE. .BOTAREA ! Type pointer set to SOLID45 Element size Drag operation to create 3-D mesh Precise hidden line display Select BOTAREA component and 2–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .W_FLAT ! Hexagonal area K.ALL /TITLE.1 ! Line numbers turned on LPLOT /PNUM. 2.PRXY.01 ! Width of hex across flats (..-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at end of handle L.L_ELEM ! VDRAG.0 ! Line numbers off L.9.2.0075 m = .NO_D_HEX TYPE.1. Inc.Meshed hex wrench end to be used in vdrag EPLOT ! Now drag the 2-D mesh to produce 3-D elements TYPE.9 ! /TYPE.7.1.2D ! Mapped quad mesh MSHKEY.BENDRAD ! Line along bend radius between shank and handle /VIEW. ANSYS Release 9. for batch ! run plots are written to pm02...07E11 Pa = 30E6 psi) W_HEX=.0075 ! Element length (..6.075m=3.1 SAVE ! Save database before meshing AMESH.HIDP ! /TITLE..1 ! Line through middle of hex shape L..5..Static analysis of an Allen wrench /UNITS.075 ! Length of shank (short end) (.1.1.EXX ! Young's modulus for material 1 MP.BOTAREA.1.XM ! Rotates model 90 degrees about X /PNUM...0.1. Click on OK.SI ! Reminder that the SI system of units is used /SHOW ! Specify graphics driver for interactive run.DEG ! Units for angular parametric functions W_FLAT=W_HEX*TAN(30) ! Width of flat L_SHANK=.1 ! ESIZE.2 ! PLANE42 elements to be meshed first MSHAPE.01m=.7.PLANE42 ! Four-node quadrilateral (for area mesh) MP.3 ! Poisson's ratio for material 1 RPOLY.2 ! Length of handle (long end) (.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3.1.Meshed hex wrench EPLOT CMSEL..grph ! Define parameters for future use EXX=2.39in) *AFUN.EX.2.9.3.LINE.90.0. /FILNAME..2m=7.7 ! Keypoint at (0.01m=. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments..39 in) L_ELEM=.LINE...4.10.6.pm02! Jobname to use for all subsequent files /TITLE.07E11 ! Young's modulus (2. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example static analysis of an Allen wrench using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.KEEP ! to satisfy mapped meshing requirements for bricks CM..8.8.8 ! Line along middle of shank L..2.0 .8.

.-(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) ! Area on top flat of handle.pldisp.Load step 1 ! First fix all nodes around bottom of shank CMSEL.ALL. Inc.R.LOC.U.LOC...120.1 ! Nodes on those lines D.Y ! Get minimum Y value of selected nodes *GET.1 ! .Stress intensity contours caused by torque PLNSOL.Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 1 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes first load step /TITLE.MNLOC..L_HANDLE+TOL.INT ! Stress intensity contours ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Y ! Get maximum Y value of selected nodes PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ! Pressure equivalent to 100 N SF..2 ! Pressure symbols turned on /TITLE.1 ! Edges only.ALL FINISH ! delete the 2-D elements ! Apply loads and obtain the solution /SOLU ANTYPE.ON ! Turns on entire legend column /PLOPTS.5-lb) finger force ASEL.gsav ! Saves graphics specifications on pldisp.Y.ALL ! Displacement constraints LSEL.MXLOC.Y. NSLA.Section 2.ALL ASEL.LOC.Deformed allen wrench caused by torque PLDISP.X.NODE.DEFA ! No BC symbols /PSF.R.L_HANDLE-(3..and all corresponding nodes NSEL.ALL.LEG1.L_HANDLE ! Areas on handle ASEL.2 ! Deformed shape overlaid with undeformed edge plot /GSAVE. 2–25 .PRES.INFO..L_HANDLE-(3.BOTAREA ! Bottom areas of shank LSEL.1 ! Additional rotation about model Y (to see high stress areas) /TITLE..Y...OFF ! Turns off legend header /ANGLE.gsav /PLOPTS...PTORQ ! PTORQ pressure on all selected nodes ALLSEL ! Restores full set of all entities /PSF.NODE.ALL /PBC.2 ! Initiates solution for load step files 1 and 2 FINISH !Review the results /POST1 SET.1.5 -lb) force PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ASEL.S..L_HANDLE+TOL.W_FLAT ! Two areas on one side of handle...PDOWN ! PDOWN pressure at all selected nodes ALLSEL /TITLE..and all corresponding nodes NSEL.DEFA ! No surface load symbols /EDGE.MAXYVAL. no interior element outlines /TITLE.0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) *GET.1 ! . 002114 ..Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 2 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes second load step SAVE ! Save database before solution LSSOLVE.ALL.LOC..MINYVAL.EXT ! Exterior lines of those areas NSLL. NSLA.LOC.PRES.YM.5: A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ACLEAR.. Allen wrench -.Allen wrench -.0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) SF.BENDRAD.PRES.Z.STATIC ! Static analysis (default) /TITLE.load step 2 ! Downward pressure on top of handle. ANSYS Release 9..1 ! Displacement symbols turned on /TITLE.0 .Boundary conditions on end of wrench NPLOT !Now apply pressure on handle to represent 100-N (22.R. representing 20-N (4.W_FLAT/2..1 ! Reads load step 1 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /PBC. © SAS IP.

Combined Bending and Torsion VM13 .Cylindrical Shell Under Pressure VM16 .2 ! Reads load step 2 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /GRESUME. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes the following structural static analysis test cases: VM1 .. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.Bending of a Circular Plate with a Center Hole VM41 .2 /GRESUME.INT WPOF.01 ! Zoom in on the cross section /TITLE.plnsol. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Deformed allen wrench caused by torque and force PLDISP. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.pldisp.Cylindrical Membrane Under Pressure VM25 .gsav /TITLE.Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System 2–26 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .gsav SET.S. Inc.Vibration of a String Under Tension VM59 .gsav ! Saves graphics specifications to plnsol.WP ! View will be normal to the WP /DIST.Deflection of a Hinged Support VM11 . 002114 .1. © SAS IP. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual and the ANSYS Tutorials.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis /GSAVE.S.Small Deflection of a Rigid Beam VM44 .Friction on a Support Block VM31 .gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from pldisp.Stress intensity contours caused by torque and force PLNSOL. describe additional structural static analyses.Bending of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation VM141 .Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends VM135 . 1 .Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis VM2 . However.Lateral Vibration of an Axially Loaded Bar VM63 .Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM82 .INT FINISH /EXIT.1.-0.067 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view /TYPE.Simply Supported Laminated Plate Under Pressure VM127 .Bending of an Axisymmetric Thin Pipe Under Gravity Loading VM53 .6. ANSYS Release 9. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Stresses in a Long Cylinder VM29 .5 ! Capped hidden display /CPLANE.Beam Stresses and Deflections VM4 .gsav /TITLE..Static Hertz Contact Problem VM78 .Limit Moment Analysis VM39 ..Bending of a Parabolic Beam VM183 .gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from plnsol.plnsol.Cross section of the allen wrench under torque and force loading PLNSOL.Diametric Compression of a Disk VM148 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Residual Stress Problem VM12 .1 ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP /VIEW.Bending of a Solid Beam VM18 . .0 .Out-of-plane Bending of a Curved Bar VM20 .ALL 2.Cable Supporting Hanging Loads VM36 .

0 .Stranded Coil with Voltage Excitation VM211 .Lateral Buckling of a Right-Angle Frame ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.Section 2.Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM201 .6: Where to Find Other Examples VM199 . 2–27 . 002114 . Inc. ANSYS Release 9.Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM216 .Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM206 .

2–28 .

Review the results. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading conditions. such as a transient dynamic analysis. reduced. they are treated as linear.1. It also can be a starting point for another.2. and QR damped. you must • ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis The procedure for a modal analysis consists of four main steps: 1. Apply loads and obtain the solution. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis. PowerDynamics. For further details. If you specify nonlinear elements. Definition of Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine component while it is being designed. Uses for Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. Material properties can be linear. Any nonlinearities. 4. Expand the modes. dynamic analysis. You can choose from several mode-extraction methods: Block Lanczos (default). are ignored even if they are defined. which allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by modeling just a sector of it. 3. 2. The damped and QR damped methods allow you to include damping in the structure.3. 3. more detailed.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. You must define both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) for a modal analysis. Nonlinear properties are ignored. such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements.4. and constant or temperature-dependent. For example. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.0 .2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry. isotropic or orthotropic. unsymmetric. Inc. Build the Model See Section 1. if you include contact elements. You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure. When building your model. Details about mode-extraction methods are covered later in this section. or a spectrum analysis. . 3. ANSYS Release 9. such as a spinning turbine blade. subspace. 3. Build the model. Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of products is a linear analysis. © SAS IP. 002114 . The QR Damped method also allows for unsymmetrical damping and stiffness matrices. If applying element damping. remember these points: • Only linear behavior is valid in a modal analysis. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and never change. damped. a harmonic response analysis.

Table 3.2. COMBIN37. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. Define Analysis Type and Options After you have entered the solution processor.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. For details. see Section 3. and so on).5.2. Each of the options is explained in detail below. a Solution menu that is appropriate for modal analyses appears. Note — In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis define the required real constants for the specific element type (COMBIN7. 3.1. and begin the finite element solution for the natural frequencies. specify load step options. © SAS IP. 3–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . . the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. 002114 . The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for modal analyses. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged.5.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Analysis Type: Modal (see Note below) mode-extraction Method Number of Modes to Extract Mass Matrix Formulation Prestress Effects Calculation Command ANTYPE ANTYPE MODOPT MODOPT LUMPM PSTRES GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options No. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is.DDAM). Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step you define the analysis type and options.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT.5.0 . Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 3. select the Unabridged Menu option.1. 3. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). Enter the ANSYS solution processor. COMBIN14.5. apply loads. Enter the Solution Processor 1. Inc. ANSYS offers the options listed in Table 3. solution options that are valid for you to use.1: “Analysis Types and Options” for a modal analysis. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. 3.5. of Modes to Expand (see Note below) MXPAND Note — When you specify a modal analysis. ANSYS Release 9. you define the analysis type and analysis options.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session.

13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods. If you need to apply different sets of boundary conditions. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). (For more detailed information. © SAS IP. such as fluid-structure interaction problems. • Subspace method The subspace method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. see Section 3. ANSYS Release 9. (See Section 3. but you achieve a faster convergence rate.ON) To use the PowerDynamics method when running in batch or command mode. such as bearing problems.3. use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver.000+ DOFs). • QR Damped method The QR damped method is faster and achieves better calculation efficiency than the damped method.Section 3.2.) • Block Lanczos method (default) The Block Lanczos method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution Note — Restarts are not valid in a modal analysis. followed by EQSLV.) • Unsymmetric method The unsymmetric method is used for problems with unsymmetric matrices. However. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations. 3. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. 002114 .2. You can then choose the most appropriate extraction method (subspace or Block Lanczos) for running the final solution.2. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver. • Damped method The damped method is used for problems where damping cannot be ignored. • Reduced (Householder) method The reduced method is faster than the subspace method because it uses reduced (condensed) system matrices to calculate the solution. 3. Inc.PCG.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] Choose one of the extraction methods listed below.5.SUBSPACE. This method automatically uses the lumped mass approximation (LUMPM. it is less accurate because the reduced mass matrix is approximate. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure described in Chapter 3. 3–3 .0 . and is especially useful to obtain a solution for the first several modes to learn how the model will behave. • PowerDynamics method The PowerDynamics method is used for very large models (100. It uses the reduced modal damped matrix to calculate complex damped frequencies in modal coordinates. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] Use this option to specify a modal analysis. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . You can use this method for the same types of problems for which you use the subspace method. you first issue MODOPT. Several solution controls are available to control the subspace iteration process.5.

3.5. 3. 3. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] Use this option to calculate the modes of a prestressed structure. the lumped mass approximation often yields better results.6.2. FREQE. click OK. but results in more solution time. if you want element results.5. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. and damped methods only. you will need to expand the modes as well. A dialog box specific to the selected extraction method appears.2. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT.5. Nrmkey.4. damped. you need to turn on the "Calculate elem results" option. Inc. no prestress effects are included. However. . Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] This option is required for the reduced. reduced.7. and QR damped methods are meant for special applications. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. Additional Modal Analysis Options After you complete the fields on the Modal Analysis Options dialog box. Also. For the unsymmetric and damped methods. To include prestress effects. RIGID. SUBOPT. Note — The damped. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells. PRMODE.5.11: Prestressed Modal Analysis. 3. that is. The unsymmetric.0 . and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. If prestress effects are turned on. Note — You can use only axisymmetric loads for prestressing harmonic elements such as PLANE25 and SHELL61.2. © SAS IP. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element-dependent) or lumped mass approximation. or PowerDynamics method. If you want the mode shapes normalized to unity for the Block Lanczos or subspace methods. unsymmetric. ANSYS Release 9. By default. You see some combination of the following fields: FREQB. requesting a larger number of modes than necessary reduces the possibility of missed modes.2.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis For most applications. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT).5. see Section 3. unsymmetric. the lumped mass setting [LUMPM] in this and subsequent solutions must be the same as it was in the prestress static analysis. ANSYS automatically chooses the appropriate equation solver. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. Refer to the MODOPT and RIGID command descriptions for the meaning of these fields. 3–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . subspace. 3. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. However. element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis must be available. the structure is assumed to be stress-free.DDAM). you will use the Block Lanczos. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis.2.8.5. regardless of the mode-extraction method. 002114 . Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] This option is required for all mode-extraction methods except the reduced method. When you specify a mode-extraction method.

UZ. temperatures. You should choose at least twice as many MDOF as the number of modes of interest.3: “Load Commands for a Modal Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a modal analysis. loads can be applied.4. We recommend that you define as many MDOF as you can based on your knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the structure [M. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads.2 Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis Load Type Category Cmd Family GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Displacement (UX. For directions in which no constraints are specified. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 3. see Section 3. the program assigns a zero-value constraint to that DOF instead. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ROTZ) In an analysis. removed. the program will calculate a load vector and write it to the mode shape file (Jobname. DCUM ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): M GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define 3. Note — Other loads . For more details about master degrees of freedom. apply loads on the model. Define Master Degrees of Freedom In a modal analysis. Master degrees of freedom (MDOF) are significant degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. or listed. The only "loads" valid in a typical modal analysis are zero-value displacement constraints. Table 3.5.3. you also need to define master degrees of freedom.MODE) so that it can be used in a subsequent modesuperposition harmonic or transient analysis. ROTX.2: “Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis” shows the commands to apply displacement constraints.can be specified in a modal analysis. (If you input a nonzero displacement constraint. Inc.5. Notice that you can apply them either on the solid model (keypoints. operated on. Table 3. ANSYS Release 9. UY. These are required only for the reduced mode-extraction method.14: Matrix Reduction.forces.Section 3. and delete extraneous MDOF [MDELE]. 3.MGEN]. 002114 . pressures.1.0 .5. but they are ignored for the mode-extraction. and also let the program choose a few additional masters based on stiffness-to-mass ratios [TOTAL]. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). but are ignored (see Note below). You can list the defined MDOF [MLIST]. © SAS IP. Constraints D ROTY. Table 3.3 Load Commands for a Modal Analysis Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Solid Model Solid Model Solid Model Finite Elem Entity Keypoints Lines Areas Nodes Apply DK DL DA D Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE Apply Settings DSYM. the program calculates rigid-body (zero-frequency) as well as higher (nonzero frequency) free body modes. see Chapter 2. accelerations. Apply Loads After defining master degrees of freedom.) Other loads can be specified.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 3. and so on .4. However. 3–5 . lines.

3: Damping in Chapter 5.10. to apply a displacement load to a line.5. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for more information on damping. see the Note below.2. See Section 3. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis.DMPR Command Element Damping (applied via element real constant) R Damping is valid only for the damped and QR damped mode-extraction methods. Also see the section Section 5.4 Load Step Options Option Damping (Dynamics) Options Alpha (mass) Damping Beta (stiffness) Damping Material-Dependent Damping Ratio Constant Material Damping Coefficient ALPHAD BETAD MP. Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis. Specify Load Step Options The only load step options available for a modal analysis are damping options. If you include damping and specify the QR damped mode-extraction method.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. line.0 .4.3. © SAS IP. 002114 .5. Applying Loads Using the GUI All loading operations (except List.3: Listing Loads) are accessed through a series of cascading menus. and so on). follow this GUI path: GUI: Utility Menu> List>Loads> load type 3.4. and then the object to which you are applying the load (keypoint.DAMP MP. The QR damped eigen analysis itself. Table 3. For example. you select the operation (apply.5.5. From the Solution menu. However. the eigenvalues are complex. . The corresponding modal damping matrix is formulated during modal harmonic analysis. Note — Damping can be specified in a non-damped modal analysis if a single-point response spectrum analysis is to follow the modal analysis. delete. follow this GUI path: GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On lines 3. Spectrum analyses are discussed in Chapter 6. If you include damping and specify the damped mode-extraction method.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods for details. it is used to calculate an effective damping ratio for each mode. then the load type (displacement. and so on). force. 3–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the calculated eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. Inc. does not include the effect of the constant material damping coefficient. “Spectrum Analysis”. node. Although the damping does not affect the eigenvalue solution. see Section 3. Damping is ignored for the other mode-extraction methods. ANSYS Release 9. Listing Loads To list existing loads.5. however. which is then used to calculate the response to the spectrum.4. and so on).

Section 3. you might see the following warning in the solution printout: "STURM number = n should be m. To do this. 3–7 . Both methods are briefly described below." where n and m are integer numbers. depending on your analysis options and output controls. The participation factors and mode coefficients are calculated based on an assumed unit displacement spectrum in each of the global Cartesian directions and rotation about each of these axes. Output The output from the solution consists mainly of the natural frequencies. and mass distribution percentages for each mode extracted. then click OK.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method If you use the subspace mode-extraction method.. or change the shift point used in the eigenvalue extraction. or that the mthand nth mode gave the same frequencies and only m modes were requested. subspace.1. perform a spectrum analysis with the excitation set (SED) to the desired direction.. To change the shift point that was used in the eigenvalue extraction.5. The factor or coefficient is valid for the excitation (assumed unit displacement spectrum) directed along the last of the applicable coordinates (rotation about the Z axis for a 3-D analysis).0 . Rotational participation factors will be calculated when a real eigensolver mode-extraction method (such as Block Lanczos. 3. If you prefer to use the GUI to change the shift point. Solve Before you solve. you can issue the MODOPT.5.1. The reduced mass distribution is also listed. follow these steps: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . then issue another *GET command. Change the value of the NPAD field and click OK. you can issue the SUBOPT.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 3. If you prefer to use the GUI to adjust the number of iteration vectors. Note — You can retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient by issuing a *GET command.5.) To use more iteration vectors. mode coefficients.6. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 3. which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname. To retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient for another direction. follow these steps: 1. Inc.OUT) and also written to the mode shape file (Jobname. Now start the solution calculations. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract. 3.5.. ANSYS Release 9. you should save (SAVE) a back-up copy of the database to a named file. No mode shapes are written to the database or to the results file. you need to expand the modes (explained next). This indicates that a mode has been missed. (See the ANSYS. 002114 . The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME.FREQB command.7. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. Participation Factor Table Output The participation factor table lists participation factors.7. © SAS IP. The printed output may include reduced mode shapes and the participation factor table. 2.MODE).NPAD command. 3. There are two methods that you can use to investigate the missed mode: use more iteration vectors. so you cannot postprocess the results yet. Theory Reference for more information. or QRDAMP) is used.7.

. In a modal analysis. Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears.EMAT. Jobname. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract. Activate the expansion pass and its options. and Jobname. Exit the Solution Processor You must now exit the solution processor. 3.ESAV. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. and the real part is a measure of the stability of the system. the eigenvalues are complex. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was calculated. 3.6. if you want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor. "expanding the modes" applies not just to reduced mode shapes from the reduced mode-extraction method. The "reduced solution" is usually in terms of master DOF. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: 3–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .DDAM). the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. 002114 . In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT.5. 2. Change the value of the FREQB field and click OK. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. however. Thus. 2. Inc. you must expand them (that is. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. The imaginary part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency. the term "expansion" means expanding the reduced solution to the full DOF set.6. Expanded modes are also required for subsequent spectrum analyses. Jobname. we use the term "expansion" to mean writing mode shapes to the results file. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT).8. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor.6. write them to the results file). the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. Expanding the Modes 1. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Main Menu> Finish 3.MODE). Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. If you use the damped mode-extraction method. However. then click OK. 3.TRI (if reduced method) must be available. That is.1. ANSYS Release 9. 3. Expand the Modes In its strictest sense.0 . No expansion is necessary for subsequent mode superposition analyses.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 1. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. © SAS IP.2. but to full mode shapes from the other mode-extraction methods as well. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis.

if requested. For example.. "Stresses" from a modal analysis do not represent actual stresses in the structure. FREQE] This is another way to control the number of modes expanded. On/Off MXPAND Each of these options is explained in detail below. NMODE] Specify the number. Elcalc] Choose ON only if you plan to do a subsequent spectrum analysis and are interested in stresses or forces to do the spectrum. you cannot write information for every other mode. that is. relative stress distributions for each mode.. Stress Calculations On/Off [MXPAND. and forces) on the printed output file (Jobname. but give you an idea of the relative stress distributions for each mode. Default is no stresses calculated. Inc. 002114 . Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File 4. FREQB. The FREQ field on OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE. 3. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and. the data are written for all modes or no modes. of Modes to Expand MXPAND Freq. Default is no modes expanded.Section 3.5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off Command EXPASS GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes No.0 .. 3–9 . Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and results file output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname. Remember that only expanded modes can be reviewed in the postprocessor. Specify load step options. Frequency Range for Expansion [MXPAND. The only options valid in a modal expansion pass are output controls: • Printed output Use this option to include any results data (expanded mode shapes.RST).. Expansion Pass On/Off [EXPASS] Choose ON. If you specify a frequency range.6: Expand the Modes Table 3. © SAS IP. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND. Start expansion pass calculations. Range for Expansion MXPAND Stress Calc. stresses.OUT). ANSYS Release 9. only modes within that range are expanded.

for example). Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. 3. the general postprocessor.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 5. if you include the MXPAND command in the modal solution step. 3.RST) must be available. Results consist of: • • • Natural frequencies Expanded mode shapes Relative stress and force distributions (if requested). the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. the modal expansion pass) are written to the structural results file. The results file (Jobname. Read in results data from the appropriate substep. Inc. However. A sample output from this command is shown below.1.DDAM).7.RST. Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. and 4 for additional modes to be expanded (in different frequency ranges. Some typical postprocessing operations for a modal analysis are described below. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. .SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. Review the Results Results from a modal analysis (that is. Typical modal analysis POST1 operations are explained below: 2. You can review these results in POST1 [/POST1]. your results file will have one load step consisting of six substeps. Caution: Spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. Command(s): SET. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). © SAS IP. Reviewing Results Data 1.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> substep Perform any desired POST1 operations.0 .7. 3. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Repeat steps 2. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. 6. see Chapter 4. 3. for instance.2. You can now review results in the postprocessor. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. 002114 . Points to Remember • • If you want to review results in POST1. Option: Listing All Frequencies You may want to list the frequencies of all modes expanded. Leave SOLUTION. ANSYS Release 9.7. If you expand six modes. the program not only extracts the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. but also expands the specified mode shapes. Jobname.3. 3. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. 3–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .7.

and so on).. UZ. Inc. such as stresses and strains.LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results 3. SZ.5. Option: Line Element Results Command(s): ETABLE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table For line elements. and pipes. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. 3. PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Caution: Derived data.7. and displacements (UX.0 . Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Use the KUND field on PLDISP to overlay the nondeformed shape on the display.7. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.476 1 2 2 78. 3–11 .6. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the nondeformed shape on the display. Option: List Master DOF Command(s): MLIST. EPELZ. strains.ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Note — To display the master DOFs graphically.7. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material.. use the ETABLE command to access derived data (stresses.). such as beams. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . plot the nodes (Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes or command NLIST).973 1 1 1 40.Section 3.7. spars. same shell thickness.). are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. such as stresses (SX. different shell thicknesses.4. UY. 3. 3. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials.)..7: Review the Results ***** SET 1 2 3 4 INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE ***** TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE 22. You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB. To avoid the smearing effect..082 1 3 3 188. or other discontinuities meet. strains (EPELX. Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to contour almost any result item. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. EPELY.. 002114 .7. © SAS IP.. use selecting (described in Chapter 7. SY.34 1 4 4 Command(s): SET. ANSYS Release 9.

and so on . It is held fixed to the body on one end and hangs freely at the other.7. The objective of the problem is to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom.mapping results onto a path. 3. The wing is of uniform configuration along its length. you perform a modal analysis on the wing of a model plane to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom.8. EXPASS. Problem Description This is a modal analysis of a wing of a model plane. 002114 . TOTAL.8. 3. ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. ANSYS Release 9.2.8. .0 . The wing is made of low density polyethylene with the following values: Young's modulus = 38x103 psi Poisson's ratio = . 3. © SAS IP. MXPAND. SET.1.3e-5 lb-sec2/in4 3–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and PLDISP commands. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . and its cross-sectional area is defined to be a straight line and a spline. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. and so on NSORT. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) In this example.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3.8.are available in POST1. Inc. Problem Specifications The dimensions of the wing are shown in the problem sketch. as shown. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. MODOPT. 3. Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data). M.3 Density = 8. load case combinations.9.7.

2 ! Define keypoint 3 at 2.1..38000 MP.0 K. © SAS IP.3. Problem Sketch Figure 3.1.2..1 Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing The detailed step-by-step procedure for this example..1.8.0 .Section 3.DENS.2 ! Define keypoint 2 at 2.4.0 LSTR.NUXY.1. Inc.0 K.2 ESIZE.2.3 K.25 ! Define keypoint 5 at 1.4..0.3.1.Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing /PREP7 ET.PLANE42 ! Define PLANE42 as element type ET..45.25 AMESH.9: A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 3..1..2.SOLID45 ! Define SOLID45 as element type MP.9. You may receive warning messages when you run this problem.. The version of the problem that appears in the Modal Tutorial contains an explanation of the warnings.. /FILNAM.0.1 ! Create a straight line between BSPLIN..3.1.25..SUBSP.3. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.1 /REP EPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.3..-1.8.1..0 K.45 ! Define keypoint 4 at 1.9. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .. 3–13 .5 1 2 keypoints 1 and 2 keypoints 5 and 1 ! Choose modal analysis type ! Choose the subspace mode-extraction method.5.10 TYPE. ANSYS Release 9. 002114 ...10 /VIEW.-. Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing.MODAL /TITLE. is included in the Modal Tutorial. 3..2 ! Create a straight line between LSTR.1 ! Define keypoint 1 at 0.1.3..-1.0 K.2. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example modal analysis of a model airplane wing using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.3E-5 MP.5.2.1.EX.9.2 VEXT.5.1 /ANG.1 ESIZE.25 ! Create a B-spline AL.MODAL MODOPT.

S. .TYPE.NEXT PLDISP.0 ANMODE.10.5E-1 SET.Fundamental Frequency of a Simply Supported Beam VM52 .0 ANMODE.0 ANMODE.NEXT PLDISP. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.LIST. However. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products..FIRST PLDISP.Vibration of a Wedge VM66 .5 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.10.2 SET.ALL NSEL.NEXT PLDISP. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.. describe additional modal analyses.Lateral Vibration of an Axially-loaded Bar VM60 .Chapter 3: Modal Analysis ! extracting 5 modes ! Unselect element type 1 ESEL.Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM76 . © SAS IP.10.Harmonic Response of a Guitar String 3–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Vibration of a String Under Tension VM54 .Radial Vibrations of a Circular Ring from an Axisymmetric Model VM68 .5E-1 FINISH /EXIT 3.10.1 NSEL.U. ANSYS Release 9.10. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Z.Torsional Frequencies of a Drill Pipe VM59 .Longitudinal Vibration of a Free-free Rod VM62 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes variety of modal analysis test cases: VM45 .Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane VM57 .10. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.LOC.0 .Automobile Suspension System Vibrations VM53 .5E-1 SET..Vibration of a Rotating Cantilever Blade VM55 .Natural Frequency of a Motor-generator VM50 .NEXT PLDISP.. Inc.Torsional Frequency of a Suspended Disk VM48 .ALL. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.0 ANMODE.5E-1 SET.Natural Frequency of a Spring-mass System VM47 .Vibration of a Flat Plate VM67 .0 ANMODE..Natural Frequency of a Cross-ply Laminated Spherical Shell VM61 .PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-mass System VM69 . 002114 ..ALL MXPAND.Seismic Response VM70 .5E-1 SET.0 D.

Transient Response of a Spring-mass System VM183 .EMAT (if ANSYS creates it) and Jobname. Prestress must be applied (PSTRES. from pressures. save the EMAT and ESAV files at the desired time point.Section 3. except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. If the model is spinning.ON) during the static portion of the analysis. “Structural Static Analysis” describes the procedure to obtain a static solution. 3.Natural Frequencies of a Two-mass-spring System VM151 . ANSYS Release 9. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES.ON].Modal Analysis of a Rectangular Cavity 3.Transverse Vibrations of a Shear Beam VM203 . Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the modal solution. However.11. This procedure uses the element matrices and element load vectors (for example.Harmonic Response of a Spring-mass System VM202 . Chapter 2.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-supported Thick Square Plate VM212 . temperature or acceleration loads) from a previous static analysis.Natural Frequency of a Flat Circular Plate with a Clamped Edge VM182 . in cases where stressstiffening helps convergence: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . such as a spinning turbine blade.Vibration of a Fluid Coupling VM175 . 3–15 .ON) static analysis in order to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a highly deformed structure.Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Harmonic Els) VM153 . In such a case. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution You can also perform a prestressed modal analysis following a large deflection (NLGEOM. Step 1 above can also be a transient analysis. but use the PSOLVE command (rather than the SOLVE command) to obtain the modal solution. 2. Prestressed Modal Analysis Use a prestressed modal analysis to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a prestressed structure. you must issue the UPCOORD command to update the coordinates necessary for obtaining the correct stresses. Use the prestressed modal analysis procedure.0 .ESAV from the static analysis must be available. Files Jobname. include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) if necessary.12: Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution VM89 . you can perform a prestressed modal analysis of a large-deflection solution instead.Natural Frequency of a Piezoelectric Transducer VM181 . Inc. Expand the modes and review them in the postprocessor. as shown in the sample input listing below. 002114 . The procedure to do a prestressed modal analysis is essentially the same as a regular modal analysis. The same lumped mass setting [LUMPM] used here must also be used in the later prestress modal analysis. These loads will be passed through to a subsequent mode superposition analysis if specified (LVSCALE command). If the deformed shape from the static solution differs significantly from its nondeformed shape. © SAS IP. Along with the PSOLVE command.Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Modal) VM154 .Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Circular Plate VM152 .12.ON). 3. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on [PSTRES.

) FINISH Note — You may also use one of the other eigensolvers (PSOLVE. ! Initial.. 002114 .0 . .EIGREDUC).EIGEXP ! Expand the eigenvector solution.) The EMATWRITE. Inc.ON ! Prestress effects ON MODOPT. If the model is spinning..ON ! Large deflection analysis PSTRES. large deflection static analysis ! /PREP7 .EIGxxx command.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis • • Stress-stiffening (SSTIF.YES command is also necessary to write the element matrices to File. a PSOLVE. SOLVE FINISH ! ! Prestressed modal analysis ! /SOLU ANTYPE. EXPASS.TRIANG command must precede the PSOLVE. (Required if you ! want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor. (This requirement applies to elements outside of the 18x family of elements only.EIGSYM.ON ! Flag to calculate the prestress matrix ..OFF or SSTIF.ON ! Display mode shapes relative to deformed geometry ! in the postprocessor.STATIC ! Static analysis NLGEOM. FINISH /SOLU !Additional solution step for expansion. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods The basic equation solved in a typical undamped modal analysis is the classical eigenvalue problem: [K ]{φ i} = ω2 [M]{φ i} i where: [K] = stiffness matrix {Φi} = mode shape vector (eigenvector) of mode i ω2 Ωi = natural circular frequency of mode i ( i is the eigenvalue) [M] = mass matrix Many numerical methods are available to solve the above equation.. ! Specify the number of modes to expand. ANSYS offers these methods: 3–16 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ... ! Use EIGLANB or EIGFULL to match MODOPT command. include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) in the modal solution if necessary. PSOLVE.. PSOLVE.. In such a case. ! Select eigensolver MXPAND.EIGDAMP or PSOLVE.13.1..MODAL ! Modal analysis UPCOORD.0. PSOLVE.EIGxxxx ! Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Issuing either a PSTRES.EMAT. © SAS IP.EIGUNSY.OFF command prevents all previously specified prestressing from being applied.ON) must be applied instead.ON PSOLVE. PSTRES. 3. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.. if desired. ANSYS Release 9.

) Note — The damped. see the ANSYS. the algorithm extracts the n modes beyond FREQB at about the same speed as it extracts the lowest n modes. Recommended when the model consists of poorly shaped solid and shell elements. Works faster but requires about 50% more memory than subspace. Recommended for fast computation of eigenvalues of over 100K DOF models. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver. To find many modes (about 40+) of large models. The Block Lanczos method is especially powerful when searching for eigenfrequencies in a given part of the eigenvalue spectrum of a given system. and reduced) are the most commonly used. Inc.6: “Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices” compares these four mode-extraction methods.13. subspace.) QR damped method (The QR damped method solves a different equation. Memory Required Medium Disk Required Low Subspace Low High Power Dynamics To find few modes (up to about 20) of large models. see the ANSYS. Following the table is a brief description of each mode-extraction method.6 Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices Eigensolver Block Lanczos Application Default. Missed modes are possible when repeated frequencies are present. unsymmetric. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Theory Reference for more information. Table 3. Theory Reference for more information. Reduced To find all modes of small to medium models (less than 10K DOF). On coarse mesh models. but accuracy of frequencies depends on the master DOF selected. when you use a shift frequency (FREQB) to extract n modes beyond the starting value of FREQB. PowerDynamics. To find few modes (up to about 40) of large models. It uses the Lanczos algorithm where the Lanczos recursion is performed with a block of vectors. the frequencies are approximate. Therefore. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command.1. Can be used to find few modes (up to about 40) of large models with proper selection of master DOF. This method is as accurate as the subspace method.Section 3. but faster. Inc. This solver performs well when the model consists of shells or a combination of shells and solids. 002114 . The convergence rate of the eigenfrequencies will be about the same when extracting modes in the midrange and higher end of the spectrum as when extracting the lowest modes.0 . Block Lanczos Method The Block Lanczos eigenvalue solver is the default. High Low Low Low 3. ANSYS Release 9. Works well if memory availability is limited. Table 3. and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. © SAS IP. Recommended when the model consists of well-shaped solid and shell elements. The first four methods (Block Lanczos. Inc. 3–17 .13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods • • • • • • • Block Lanczos method (default) Subspace method PowerDynamics method Reduced (Householder) method Unsymmetric method Damped method (The damped method solves a different equation.

3.5. or if the matrix is ill-conditioned.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3.000+ DOFs) to obtain a solution for the first few modes. the subspace method is slower than the reduced method. Note — If you use PowerDynamics to solve a model that includes rigid body modes. whereas a positive value means the system is unstable. It is relatively fast because it works with a small subset of degrees of freedom called master DOF. it does not check for missing modes). This method is especially useful in very large models (100. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. The accuracy of the results.a negative value means the system is stable. It uses the Lanczos algorithm and calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors (as described below). When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations. PowerDynamics Method The PowerDynamics method internally uses the subspace iterations. be sure to issue the RIGID command or choose one of its GUI equivalents (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options or Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Options).2.4. which in turn depends on the number and location of masters. It uses the Lanczos algorithm which calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors if the system is non-conservative (for example.3. 3. 3. The PowerDynamics method does not perform a Sturm sequence check (that is. which also uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method.13. [M]. however. It is highly accurate because it uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. Using master DOF leads to an exact [K] matrix but an approximate [M] matrix (usually with some loss in mass). 3. © SAS IP.13.6. depends on how well [M] is approximated. therefore. such as rotor dynamics applications. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. 3–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .13. acoustic fluid-structure interaction problems). This method may be significantly faster than either the subspace or the Block Lanczos methods. This method always uses lumped mass approximation.13. It uses full matrices ([K]. a shaft mounted on bearings). For the same reason. Using the JCG solver when your analysis has many constraint equations could result in an internal element stiffness assembly that requires large amounts of memory. Reduced Method The reduced method uses the HBI algorithm (Householder-Bisection-Inverse iteration) to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. but may not converge if the model contains poorly-shaped elements. 002114 . Unsymmetric Method The unsymmetric method. Damped Method The damped method is meant for problems where damping cannot be ignored. Inc. and the damping matrix [C]). Therefore. This method is typically used in cases where high accuracy is required or where selecting master DOF is not practical. Do not use this method if you will be running a subsequent spectrum analysis. is meant for problems where the stiffness and mass matrices are unsymmetric (for example. Subspace Method The subspace method uses the subspace iteration technique. Therefore. which might affect problems with multiple repeated frequencies.0 . use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver. ANSYS Release 9. . which internally uses the generalized Jacobi iteration algorithm.13. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method.14: Matrix Reduction presents guidelines to select master DOFs. but uses the PCG iterative solver. Section 3. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. The real part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency and the imaginary part is a measure of the stability of the system .

a sufficient number of fundamental modes are recommended. (Or.Section 3. If σ is greater than zero. This gives the frequency in Hz (cycles/second). Matrix Reduction Matrix reduction is a way to reduce the size of the matrices of a model and perform a quicker and cheaper analysis. Because the accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of modes used in the calculations. and positive σ gives an exponentially increasing. Example: Brake friction problem wherein the local part of a model with friction contacts is producing nonsymmetrical stiffness matrix in contact elements. and use only a "dynamic" portion of it for a dynamic analysis. especially for highly damped systems to provide good results.14. in other words. When requested however. then the amplitude will increase exponentially. In other words: Imaginary part of eigenvalue. Matrix reduction allows you to build a detailed model. response. 3. If σ is less than zero. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue The imaginary part of the eigenvalue. but outputs only the real eigenvectors (mode shapes). You can ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 3. The QR Damp eigensolver is applicable for models with an unsymmetrical global stiffness matrix where only a few elements contribute nonsymmetrical element stiffness matrices. 002114 . Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector In a damped system. QR Damped Method The QR damped method combines the advantages of the Block Lanczos method with the complex Hessenberg method. called master degrees of freedom.0 . then the displacement amplitude will decay exponentially. This approach gives good results for lightly damped systems and can also be applicable to any arbitrary damping type (proportional or non-proportional symmetric damping or nonsymmetrical gyroscopic damping matrix). The ANSYS program then calculates reduced matrices and the reduced DOF solution in terms of the master DOF. negative σ gives an exponentially decreasing. 3–19 . the real component of the eigenvalue will be zero. a smaller eigenvalue problem is then solved in the modal subspace. or unstable. ANSYS Release 9. The key concept is to approximately represent the first few complex damped eigenvalues by modal transformation using a small number of eigenvectors of the undamped system. It is mainly used in dynamic analyses such as modal. and transient analyses.7. the amplitude will be the vector sum of the real and imaginary components of the eigenvector. This method outputs both the real and imaginary eigenvalues (frequencies). harmonic. represents the steady-state circular frequency of the system. the response at different nodes can be out of phase.) If there is no damping. Using the QR algorithm. Matrix reduction is also used in substructure analyses to generate a superelement. This approach also supports nonsymmetrical stiffness if present in the model.13. the equations of motion are transformed to these modal coordinates. This method is not recommended for critically damped or overdamped systems. Note — The eigenvalue results reported by ANSYS are actually divided by 2* π. complex mode shapes of damped systems are computed.14: Matrix Reduction 3. σ.2. as you would for a static stress analysis. You choose the "dynamic" portion by identifying key degrees of freedom.13. Inc.13.6. as reported = σ/(2* π) 3. as reported = Ω/(2* π) Real part of eigenvalue. © SAS IP.6. in accordance with EXP(σ). The real part of the eigenvalue. or stable. At any given node.1. Ω. response. After the undamped mode shapes are evaluated by using the real eigensolution (Block Lanczos method). represents the stability of the system. that characterize the dynamic behavior of the model.

or at locations with high stiffness (such as DOF close to constraints). Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF Choosing master DOF is an important step in a reduced analysis. 002114 . 3.3: “Choosing Master DOFs”).14. The net result is that the reduced stiffness matrix is exact. whereas the reduced mass and damping matrices are approximate.2 Choose Master DOF (a) Possible out-of-plane masters for a flat plate(b) Motion in X induces motion in Y • Choose masters at locations having relatively large mass or rotary inertia and relatively low stiffness (see Figure 3. For details about how the reduced matrices are calculated. You can choose masters using M and MGEN commands. This way. Therefore. refer to the ANSYS.0 . Conversely. The key assumption in this procedure is that for the lower frequencies.1. Examples of such locations are overhangs and "loosely" connected structures. 3–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . In cases where motion in one direction induces a significant motion in another direction. Theory Reference. the total mass of the structure is apportioned among only the master DOF. you should choose at least a few masters in the out-of-plane direction (see Figure 3. ANSYS Release 9. Figure 3.2: “Choose Master DOF” (a)). © SAS IP. Inc. The accuracy of the reduced mass matrix (and hence the accuracy of the solution) depends on the number and location of masters.14.1. inertia forces on the slave DOF (those DOF being reduced out) are negligible compared to elastic forces transmitted by the master DOF. We recommend that you do both: choose a few masters yourself. For a flat plate.2: “Choose Master DOF” (b)). choose master DOF in both directions (see Figure 3. and also have the ANSYS program choose masters. The main advantage of this procedure is the savings in CPU time to obtain the reduced solution. or you can have the program choose masters during solution using the TOTAL command.1. for example.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis then expand the solution to the full DOF set by performing an expansion pass. . Choose master DOF in directions in which you expect the structure or component to vibrate. Inc. the program can pick up any modes that you may have missed. For a given problem. 3. do not choose masters at locations with relatively small mass. especially for dynamic analyses of large problems. you can choose many different sets of master DOF and will probably obtain acceptable results in all cases. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction The ANSYS program uses the Guyan Reduction procedure to calculate the reduced matrices. The following list summarizes the guidelines for selecting master DOF: • • The total number of master DOF should be at least twice the number of modes of interest.

If the degree of freedom to be chosen belongs to a coupled set.14: Matrix Reduction Figure 3. Inc. The reduced mass should be. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . Another way is to review the reduced mass distribution printed during a modal solution. For axisymmetric harmonic elements with MODE = 2 or greater. This recommendation can be relaxed if the motion is primarily parallel to the centerline. within 10-15 percent of the total mass of the structure. at least in the dominant direction of motion. Choose master DOF at locations where forces or nonzero displacements are to be applied. (b) large mass • • • • If your primary interest is in bending modes. choose as masters the global UX degree of freedom at all nodes on those sections of the model that are parallel to or nearly parallel to the center line. ANSYS Release 9.4 Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model The best way to check the validity of the master DOF set is to rerun the analysis with twice (or half) the number of masters and to compare the results. 002114 . so oscillatory motions between master DOF can be avoided (see Figure 3.4: “Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model”). you can neglect rotational and "stretching" DOF. choose only the first (primary) DOF of the coupled set. choose as masters both UX and UZ degrees of freedom.Section 3. Figure 3. 3–21 . © SAS IP.3 Choosing Master DOFs Choose masters at locations with (a) large rotary inertia. For axisymmetric shell models (SHELL51 or SHELL61).

3–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . this difference usually yields insignificant differences in the results. However. the distribution of masters will. you should specify some master DOF of your own [M. 002114 . not be uniform.2. © SAS IP. The same recommendation applies to structures with an irregular mass distribution. In such cases.14. in general. the distribution of masters selected will depend on the order in which elements are processed during the solution. MGEN]. A Note About Program-Selected Masters If you let the ANSYS program select masters [TOTAL]. Inc.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3.0 . ANSYS Release 9.1. a flat plate). . different master DOF sets may be selected depending on whether the elements are processed from left to right or from right to left. For example. where the program-selected master DOF may be concentrated in the higher-mass regions. For meshes with uniform element sizes and properties (for example.

1 Harmonic Response Systems ω φ Typical harmonic response system. © SAS IP. Fo and Ω are known. such as plasticity will be ignored. The transient vibrations. The idea is to calculate the structure's response at several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. Figure 4.11. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1: “Harmonic Response Systems”). Harmonic analysis can also be performed on a prestressed structure. even if they are defined. fatigue. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time. uo and Φ are unknown (a).1: Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis for more information on prestressed harmonic analyses. Transient and steady-state dynamic response of a structural system (b).0 . Inc.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance. ANSYS Release 9. Harmonic response analysis gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your structures. 002114 . such as a violin string (assuming the harmonic stresses are much smaller than the pretension stress). “Acoustics” in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide). Some nonlinearities. You can.1. however. "Peak" responses are then identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies. and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. See Section 4. are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis (see Figure 4. 6 2 ¡¨ ¦ U @ 0 ©!0 7©9¤¥£ ¡¥5¥1§¤!X#S4 !0 33§¤W9©§H2 D ©@¥¥9¨ V 2 B 2 ¨ ¦¨ " ¦ ¡ 7¨ 6 2 ¡¨ ¦¤ ¡ U ¤ ©!0 7©9¥£ ¥5¥§T#S4 !0 33§¤P! 3!§RQ 2 B 2 ¨ ¡ 2 ¦¤ 6£ 3T4 Y` abc ad` 6 IP¨ 4E¥HG' CFEC 20 D 2 B2 ¤ ¦ !0 339A!¥ £ ¡¥!!¦ &¥19!08$ 0 ¤ @ ¤ 6 4 20 $ % 7¨ 531)'(&$ #"¤! ¥©¥¦ ©¦§¥£ ¢ ¡ ¡¨ ¤ ¡ ω ' 8$ 6 (¦94 .2.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response) in a structural system. forced vibrations of a structure. 4. have unsymmetric system matrices such as those encountered in a fluidstructure interaction problem (see Chapter 15. which occur at the beginning of the excitation. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state.

because you don't have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. and mode superposition. It uses the full system matrices to calculate the harmonic response (no matrix reduction). The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • • It is easy to use. (See Section 3.4. for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure. ANSYS Release 9.4. 4. A disadvantage is that this method usually is more expensive than either of the other methods when you use the frontal solver. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for details. Inc. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a harmonic response analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. see Chapter 5.0 . It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces. (A fourth. It calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass.2. the full method can be very efficient.) The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method. 002114 . and element loads (pressures and temperatures). Section 4. which are typical of such applications as acoustics and bearing problems. The Full Method The full method is the easiest of the three methods. imposed (nonzero) displacements.) The advantages of this method are: • • It is faster and less expensive compared to the full method when you are using the frontal solver.14: Matrix Reduction. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. let's explore the advantages and disadvantages of each method.1.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 4. respectively.4. It allows unsymmetric matrices.3. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. relatively expensive method is to do a transient dynamic analysis with the harmonic loads specified as time-history loading functions. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods. alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands. © SAS IP. so no mass matrix approximation is involved. when you use the JCG solver or the ICCG solver. you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. The matrices may be symmetric or unsymmetric. However. reduced. 4. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated. the solution can be expanded to the original full DOF set. 4. The Three Solution Methods Three harmonic response analysis methods are available: full. The Reduced Method The reduced method enables you to condense the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. Likewise. . Prestressing effects can be included. It uses full matrices.7: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show a sample harmonic response analysis done via the GUI and via commands. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: 4–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . For detailed.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4.

stress. It allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies. Transient effects are not calculated. Disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • Imposed (nonzero) displacements cannot be applied. This results in a smoother. When you are using PowerDynamics for the modal analysis. Chapter 5. 002114 . It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of frequency).1. and force solution. with harmonic loads expressed as time-history loading functions. No nonlinearities are permitted. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .) cannot be applied. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. You can overcome any of these restrictions by performing a transient dynamic analysis. ANSYS Release 9. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” describes the procedure for a transient dynamic analysis. Its advantages are: • • • • • It is faster and less expensive than either the reduced or the full method for many problems. and then list the steps that are different for the reduced and mode superposition methods. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. © SAS IP. 4. Prestressing effects can be included.5. is required for a complete displacement. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the harmonic response analysis via the LVSCALE command. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods All three methods are subject to certain common restrictions: • • • • All loads must be sinusoidally time-varying.4.) Element loads (pressures.5. known as the expansion pass.Section 4. The Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response. Build the model.4. etc. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis We will first describe how to do a harmonic response analysis using the full method. 4. Inc. All loads must have the same frequency.3. more accurate tracing of the response curve.) • • 4.0 .4.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. 4. the expansion pass might be optional for some applications. temperatures. Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure for a full harmonic response analysis consists of three main steps: 1. A second step. 4–3 . initial conditions cannot have previouslyapplied loads. (However.

Details of how to do these tasks are explained below. isotropic or orthotropic. Apply loads and obtain the solution. if any. 4. For a full harmonic response analysis. “Modal Analysis”). 002114 . are ignored. you should first determine the natural frequencies of your structure by obtaining a modal solution (as explained in Chapter 3. 4.ELASTIC and TBFIELD.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 2. Define the Analysis Type and Options ANSYS offers these options for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4. ANSYS Release 9.5. Before obtaining the harmonic solution.5. Build the Model See Section 1.2. Nonlinear material properties. If you include contact elements. will be treated as linear elements. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. for example. apply loads.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Command ANTYPE GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Harmonic Response ANTYPE Solution Method Solution Listing Format Mass Matrix Formulation Equation Solver HROPT HROUT LUMPM EQSLV Each of these options is explained in detail below. 4.2.0 .1.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.SDAMP and TBFIELD to define your structural damping coefficients. For further details. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 4. Material properties may be linear. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step. if any. use TB. and initiate the finite element solution. Only linear behavior is valid in a harmonic response analysis.5.5. Note — Peak harmonic response occurs at forcing frequencies that match the natural frequencies of your structure. Nonlinear elements. you can define frequency-dependent elastic material properties by using TB.2. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. 3.1. Inc. you define the analysis type and options. .3. 4–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5. Review the results. and constant or temperature-dependent.3. Points to Remember • Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined.3. specify load step options. © SAS IP. • • 4.

However. Restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis. the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver. 002114 .5. where you choose an equation solver.0 .3. Also. if you need to apply additional harmonic loads. 4. • Option: Analysis Type: Harmonic Response (ANTYPE) Choose Harmonic Response as the analysis type. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. the sparse direct solver (SPARSE). by definition. the phase angle. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default).2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”). Apply Loads on the Model A harmonic analysis. • Option: Solution Method (HROPT) Choose one of the following solution methods: – Full method – Reduced method – Mode superposition method • Option: Solution Listing Format (HROUT) This option determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. and amplitudes and phase angles. assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. choose the sparse solver over the frontal solver. • Option: Mass Matrix Formulation (LUMPM) Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element dependent) or lumped mass approximation. ANSYS Release 9. • Option: Equation Solver (EQSLV) You can choose the frontal solver (default). To completely specify a harmonic load. Inc. When using a direct solver to solve a relatively large problem.Section 4. The frontal direct solver or sparse direct solver is recommended for most structural models. 4–5 . the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. After you complete the fields on the Harmonic Analysis Options dialog box. and the forcing frequency range (see Figure 4. do a new analysis each time.OUT). We recommend the default formulation for most applications.3. three pieces of information are usually required: the amplitude.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis • Option: New Analysis (ANTYPE) Choose New Analysis. click on OK to reach a second Harmonic Analysis dialog box.

0 . The phase angle cannot be specified directly. Pressures and other surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of 0 (no imaginary component) with the following exceptions: nonzero imaginary components of pressures can be applied using the SURF153 and SURF154 elements in a full harmonic response analysis.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle” shows how to calculate the real and imaginary components. instead. you specify the real and imaginary components of the out-of-phase loads using the VALUE and VALUE2 fields of the appropriate displacement and force commands. For example.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4.2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis”. 3 S 7 $A43 2! 0@9( 6 P a ¨© ¦§ ©¨ ©¨ `Y £¢ X WbXc¦§ &UT¡ ¡ ¤ V © # 3 ¨ ¥ ¥ 7 2&$#"1hI$ge 7Hf 78$453 2! 1)( 6 0 2 7 " RQ P # IHdC¡ ©¨ ! ¤ P HIGDE CB¦§ ¨ F ¤ ¡ © ¨ © ¦§ P ¤ ' &$# " % ! . The phase angle is required only if you have multiple loads that are out of phase with each other. or using a mode superposition harmonic response analysis if the mode-extraction method is Block Lanczos (see the SF and SFE commands). Figure 4. 4–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . which you specify using the commands shown in Table 4.3: “An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna” will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”).2 Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle The amplitude is the maximum value of the load. The phase angle is a measure of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. ANSYS Release 9. On the complex plane (see Figure 4. 002114 . It is specified later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command. it is the angle measured from the real axis. Inc. the unbalanced rotating antenna shown in Figure 4. © SAS IP. The forcing frequency range is the frequency range of the harmonic load (in cycles/time).

MY. Inc. ROTZ) Force.Section 4. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).2 Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Displacement (UX. POST1 can superimpose multiple load cases to obtain the total response. ANSYS Release 9. © SAS IP. Note — A harmonic analysis cannot calculate the response to multiple forcing functions acting simultaneously with different frequencies (for example. UY. Flu.Body Loads ence (FLUE) ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . MX. MZ) Pressure (PRES) Category Constraints Forces Surface Loads Cmd Family D F SF BF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Temperature Temperature (TEMP). 002114 . FZ. Except for inertia loads. However. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. UZ.3 An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna 7 86 5 4 3 An unbalanced rotating antenna will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite element loads. see Chapter 2.0 . FY. two machines with different rotating speeds running at the same time). Moment (FX. Table 4.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4. ROTX. & 2 % $ " ¤#1)¤ ¤©§¦¢ 0 ( ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ & ' % $ " ¤#! ©§¦¤¢ ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ @!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 #¡ $ 9 ¨ 6 C I I F C W V 8U 5 !4 @! IG¤9 5S!P¤¡R@P¤¡ $ C T ¨ C Q F £ Q 6 4 £ D @¤69 8!4 4 6 6 ( C!@¤@6 !@¢! A A B 5 A % 6!4 T X E 0 9 ¨ @6!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 C#¡ C I I F % 4–7 . Table 4. lines.2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a to a harmonic response analysis. ROTY.

3.4. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 9.1. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 4. loads can be applied. See Section 3. etc.3 Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Entity Apply DK DL DA D FK F SFL SFA SF SFE Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE FKDELE FDELE SFLDELE SFADELE SFDELE SFEDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST FKLIST FLIST SFLLIST SFALIST SFLIST SFELIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE FTRAN FSCALE SFTRAN SFTRAN SFSCALE SFSCALE FCUM SFGRAD SFGRAD SFGRAD. BFUNIF .2.3: Listing Loads for more information.5. 4. Inc. Category Inertia Loads Cmd Family GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Other In an analysis. DCUM - Solid Model Keypoints Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Finite Elem Nodes Nodes Force Pressure Solid Model Keypoints Finite Elem Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Finite Elem Finite Elem Nodes Elements Temperature.5. . Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI These steps for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most other analyses.3. Spinning. CGOMGA.4. OMEGA. SFBEAM. or listed. 002114 .5. 4–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3.3: “Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a harmonic response analysis. TBUNIF BFCUM Apply Settings DSYM.3.0 . CGLOC.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Gravity. SFCUM SFGRAD. SFCUM BFCUM . Table 4.5.2: Applying Loads Using the GUI and Section 3. Fluence Solid Model Keypoints Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Solid Model Volumes Finite Elem Nodes BFK BFL BFA BFV BF BFKDELE BFLDELE BFADELE BFVDELE BFDELE BFKLIST BFLLIST BFALIST BFVLIST BFLIST BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFSCALE Finite Elem Inertia - Elements - BFE ACEL. DOMEGA. removed. operated on. SFFUN. DCGOMG BFEDELE - BFELIST - BFSCALE - 4.

MP. BETAD. • Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) The loads may be stepped or ramped. General Options General options include the following: • Number of Harmonic Solutions (NSUBST) You can request any number of harmonic solutions to be calculated. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9.1. except for those applied to PLANE2.Time Step or Freq and Substeps Command GUI Path ALPHAD.Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/FrePRAT quenc> Damping MP. © SAS IP.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Note — Surface and body loads do not ramp from their previous load step values.Section 4.4. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range. the same load amplitude will be maintained for all substeps in the frequency range. 39.0 . By default. For example. 4–9 . 33.DAMP.3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .4 Load Step Options Option General Options Number of Harmonic Solutions NSUBST Stepped or Ramped Loads Dynamics Options Forcing Frequency Range Damping HARFRQ Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps KBC Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time . Specify Load Step Options The following options are available for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.5. and SOLID95 element types.1). SOLID45. SOLID92. By stepping the loads (KBC.5.. the load amplitude is gradually increased with each substep.4. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ).. that is.. Inc. if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz.3. DM. and 40 Hz. . they are ramped. the program will calculate the response at 31. 32. The remaining element types always ramp from zero or from the value specified via BFUNIF.DMPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/ Results File Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Database and Results File Output OUTRES Extrapolation of Results ERESX 4.

3. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4.10. Note — If no damping is specified in a direct harmonic analysis (full or reduced). otherwise.4.3: Damping for further details. 4.2.DAMP) Constant Material Damping Coefficient (MP. See Section 5.DMPR) 4.6.5. the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies. Within this range. Damping can also be specified for individual materials using MP.DAMP and MP.3. Output Controls Output control options include the following: • Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname.0 . ANSYS Release 9.5.5.3. • Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME.3.4. • • • • • Alpha (Mass) Damping (ALPHAD) Beta (Stiffness) Damping (BETAD) Constant Damping Ratio (DMPRAT) Material Dependent Damping Multiplier (MP.DMPR.5. © SAS IP. • Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.3. you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. Start Solution Calculations Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 4–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . .OUT).RST). Dynamics Options Dynamics options include the following: • Forcing Frequency Range (HARFRQ) The forcing frequency range must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis. • Damping Damping in some form should be specified. ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio.5. the program uses zero damping by default. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 4. Inc. 002114 .

Inc. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2.7. See Section 2.2. Points to Remember The points to remember for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. See Section 2.3. Define the variables using these options: Command(s): NSOL. ANSYS Release 9.5. 4. All results are then complex in nature and are stored in terms of real and imaginary parts. see Chapter 4.4. use the FORCE command. and the RFORCE command for reaction force data.5. Repeat for Additional Load Steps Repeat the process for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is.3.frequencies at which the highest displacements (or stresses) occur at points of interest in the model . The normal procedure is to first use POST26 to identify critical forcing frequencies .5. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. “Structural Static Analysis”.Section 4. Leave SOLUTION Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26 or POST1. 1.and to then use POST1 to postprocess the entire model at these critical forcing frequencies.5. 4. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. Review the Results The results data for a harmonic analysis are the same as the data for a basic structural analysis with the following additions: If you defined damping in the structure. Another method for multiple load steps. 4.3. the response will be out-of-phase with the loads.3. To specify the total force.0 . 4. Some typical postprocessing operations for a harmonic response analysis are explained below. • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies.1.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis 4. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26).6. 4–11 . “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.3. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ESOL. POST26 allows you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire frequency range. with variable number 1 reserved for frequency. static component of the total force.5. damping component. Complex results will also be produced if out-of-phase loads were applied.4.4. 002114 .5. © SAS IP. “Structural Static Analysis”. such as stresses). the ESOL command for derived data (element solution data. or the inertia component.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. known as variables.4. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency.8. for additional load steps). which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro. RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — The NSOL command is for primary data (nodal displacements). 4. Each variable is assigned a reference number.

but it will read in either the real component or the imaginary component. contours of stresses. EPELY. Display the deformed shape of the structure. Then use PLCPLX to work with just the amplitude.4.). 4. PRCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> List 3. Read in results for the desired harmonic solution. PRRSOL. see Chapter 6. moving variables into array parameters. phase angle. • Option: Vector Plots Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item.5. ANSYS Release 9.). UY. PLCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph Get a listing of the variable. you can identify the critical frequencies for further POST1 postprocessing.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 2.. EXTREM. Using POST1 1. • Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to contour almost any result item. strains. moving array parameters into variables. UZ. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display.). or imaginary part. etc. UY... not both at the same time. NSORT. such as stresses (SX. To list just the extreme values. You can use the SET command for this purpose. EPELZ. such as performing math operations among variables (in complex arithmetic).4.0 . EPELY.). UZ.. SZ.. Graph the variables (versus frequency or any other variable). • 4–12 .. etc. 2. Many other functions. Inc. The true magnitude of the results is given by an SRSS (square-root-of-sum-of-squares) combination of the real and imaginary components (see Figure 4. Command(s): PRVAR..). and displacements (UX. such as stresses (SX. SZ. or vector plots of vector items (PLVECT). etc. © SAS IP. Then use the PRCPLX command to work with amplitude and phase angle or real and imaginary part.. SY.. real part.. SY. use PRNSOL.. Command(s): PLVAR.. EPELZ.).2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”) and can be done for specific points in the model in POST26. 002114 . use the EXTREM command. strains (EPELX. To obtain tabular listings of data. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. strains (EPELX. PRESOL.. ESORT ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and displacements (UX. • Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) etc.. are available in POST26.

such as mapping results on to a path. PLDISP. PLVAR. PRRSOL. NSOL. HARFRQ. 4–13 .6.5 Hz with a solution at 7..6. 4. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem. 002114 .Section 4. POST26 is used to get an amplitude versus frequency display. HROUT. you will determine the harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system. 4. transforming results to different coordinate systems. and PLNSOL commands. PRVAR. DMPRAT. ESOL. Problem Specifications Material properties for this problem are: m1 = m2 = 0.6.1. Two master degrees of freedom are selected at the masses in the spring direction. see Chapter 3. © SAS IP. 4. are available in POST1. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. HROPT. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. KBC. PRCPLX.5/30 = 0. etc. A frequency range from zero to 7. RFORCE.5 lb-sec2/in k1 = k2 = kc = 200 lb/in Loading for this problem is: F1 = 200 lb The spring lengths are arbitrarily selected and are used only to define the spring direction.2. PLCPLX. Problem Description Determine the response amplitude (Xi) and phase angle (Φi) for each mass (mi) of the system shown below when excited by a harmonic force (F1sin Ωt) acting on mass m1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them.25 Hz intervals is chosen to give an adequate response curve. load case combinations.0 . Inc. Many other functions. NSUBST.

Click once on "Spring-damper 14" in the list on the right. 4–14 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Click once on "3D mass 21" in the list on the right.6. Inc. 7. Scroll up the list on the left to "Structural Mass" and select it. 2. Problem Diagram Figure 4.2.3. 002114 . 4. © SAS IP. Type the text "Harmonic Response of Two-Mass-Spring System" and click on OK.4 Two-Mass-Spring-System 4. ANSYS Release 9. Set the Analysis Title 1.3. .1.6. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. Define the Element Types 1.6. Scroll down the list on the left to "Combination" and select it. 3.3. Click on Apply. 5.0 . 2.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 4. 6. Click on Add. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.

4.6. Enter 0. A picking menu appears. 4. 4. Enter 1. MASS21. 9. Click once on "Node numbers" to turn node numbers on. 8. 3.3. Nodes 2 and 3 appear in the graphics window. Y. 14. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. A line appears between the selected nodes. 2. Click on Apply. A small box appears around each node. Click once on Type 1 to highlight it. 4–15 . 0. 10. Inc. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 3. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. 0 for the X. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants.5 for mass in X direction and click on OK. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 3. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. Repeat steps 2-4 for Type 2. 7. 002114 . Enter 1 for node number.3.6.5.Section 4. Click on OK.1 for the damping coefficient (CV1). 0. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of 2 nodes to fill. Define the Real Constants 1. 13. Click on Apply. Enter 200 for the spring constant (K) and 0. respectively. Click on OK. ANSYS Release 9.3. Enter 4 for node number. 2. 9. In the graphics window. 12. 5. Y. Click on Apply. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. The Real Constants for COMBIN14 dialog box appears.4.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 8. click once on nodes 1 and 4 (on the left and right sides of the screen). Click on OK. Click on OK on the picking menu. and Z coordinates. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. 5.6. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. 2. 11.0 . 4. 0 for the X. A picking menu appears. Click on OK.3. and Z coordinates. respectively. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. © SAS IP. 4. 6. Create the Nodes 1. 8. Click on OK. click once on nodes 1 and 2. Enter . Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. Create the Spring Elements 1. A line appears between the selected nodes. In the ANSYS Graphics window. Click on Add. Click once on nodes 2 and 3.

Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 6. A picking menu appears. Enter 0 and 7. ANSYS Release 9. 9.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. 4. Enter 30 for the number of substeps. © SAS IP. . 2. click once on nodes 1 and 4. 6.8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. click once on "UY" to highlight it (make sure no other selections are highlighted). Enter 2 for real constant set number and click on OK. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions 1. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 7. In the graphics window. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout. Click on Apply. Click OK in the Full Harmonic Analysis dialog box. Click once on "Full" to select the solution method. 5.3. A picking menu appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes.6. 3. 002114 . click once on node 2. A line appears between the selected nodes. Click once on node 3 and click on OK.6. Click once on "Amplitud + phase" to select the DOF printout format and click on OK. 10. 5.0 . 7. Click on Pick All. 7. The Apply U. Click once on nodes 3 and 4. A picking menu appears. 11. 4. 13. 2. 12. 5. Click on OK. 4. 4. and Load Step Specifications 1. 2. Click once on "Stepped" to specify stepped boundary conditions. 6.5 for the harmonic frequency range. The Apply U. Create the Mass Elements 1. Click on "Last substep" to set the print frequency and click on OK. MDOF. Inc. Click on OK. 3. Specify the Analysis Type. Click once on "Harmonic" and click on OK.6. 3. Click on OK. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Click on OK. 4. 4–16 Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. 4.3. 8. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps.3. In the graphics window. Enter 2 for element type number.6.

16.Section 4. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. 6. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. 11. 10. 4. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. The Graph Controls dialog box appears. click once on "UX" to highlight it and click once on "UY" to deselect it. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/ Moment> On Nodes. Enter 3 for node number. Click on OK. When the solution is finished. Solve the Model 1. Click on Add. In the scroll box on the right." 14. click once on node 2. 9. Inc. 9.3. 15. 3. 4. In the graphics window. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. 12. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 2. 12. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. 11. In the scroll box for direction of force/moment. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. 14. In the scroll box for type of grid. 1.6. 4. click once on "FX. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. 002114 . you will review the time-history results of nodes 2 and 3. 4.9. Click on Close. 8. 13. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. Enter 2 for node number. © SAS IP. 18. A picking menu appears. ANSYS Release 9. 4–17 . Click on OK. 7. 10. Click on Close. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Click on Add in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. Enter 2 for reference number of variable.10. 13.6. Enter 3UX for the user-specified label. Enter 3 for reference number of variable. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Click on OK. 5. Enter 200 for the real part of force/moment and click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on OK.0 . 3. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears.3. scroll to "X and Y lines" to select it. 17.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 8. In the scroll box on the right. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs. Review the Results For this sample. 2. Enter 2UX for the user-specified label. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears.

22. Click on OK.2. Inc. In the ANSYS Toolbar.5 ! Mass = 0.. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9...2 ET.1 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 23. Harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system ET.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 19. 2.11.0 .4 R. Click on OK.1.1. A graph appears in the graphic window.MASS21. 20. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears.7. /PREP7 /TITLE.2. Your graph should look like this: 21. © SAS IP. click on Quit.. Enter 3 for 2nd variable to graph. Choose the save option you want and click on OK.COMBIN14. 4. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example harmonic response analysis of a two-mass-spring system by using the following ANSYS commands instead of the GUI.5 N. 4.6. Exit ANSYS You are now finished with this sample problem.200 ! Spring constant = 200 R..3. 4–18 . Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. 1.

2.8.2.1 D.OFF OUTPR.1.200 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.4 TYPE.2.Harmonic Response of a Dynamic System VM87 .Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM76 .2 E.9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis N. However.7.3.3.Natural Frequency of a Submerged Ring VM183 .HARMIC HROPT. © SAS IP.FX.9.Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System VM203 . 4–19 .3 FINISH ! Spring element ! Spring element ! Mass element ! Mass element ! Harmonic response analysis ! Full harmonic response ! Print results as amplitudes and phase angles ! ! ! ! ! 30 Intervals within freq.2.2.Harmonic Response of a Two-Mass-Spring System VM176 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.. uses reduced matrices to calculate the harmonic solution..UX. Build the model.2 E.Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM86 .Response of an Eccentric Weight Exciter VM90 .0 .2 E.Frequency Response of Electrical Input Admittance for a Piezoelectric Transducer VM177 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.5 KBC... ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .. ANSYS Release 9. 002114 .Y. The procedure for a reduced harmonic analysis consists of five main steps: 1.3 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate 4.2 REAL.3 E.3. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. range Frequency range from 0 to 7.1.1 /AXLAB. as its name implies.2UX NSOL. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.4 D.Section 4.4.1 FILL E.5 HZ Step boundary condition Constrain all 44 DOF Constrain nodes 1 and 4 in UX ! Store UX Displacements ! Turn grid on ! Y-axis label disp ! Display variables 2 and 3 4.X. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.X.UY.4.1.30 HARFRQ. Inc.U.1 NSUBST.FULL HROUT. describe additional harmonic analyses.3 F.U.Equivalent Structural Damping VM88 .BASIC. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The reduced method.DISP PLVAR.3UX /GRID. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of harmonic analysis test cases: VM19 .

ALL (or NONE)). 3. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and options. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 4 through 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is. 8. Element loads such as pressures. we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. 5.9.0 .1. 2. 4.NSOL. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. except for the following restrictions: • • Only displacements and forces are valid. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis that also included prestress effects.14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF. 6. See Section 3. and the constant material damping coefficient (MP. Apply loads on the model.1: Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis for details. Master DOF are essential or dynamic degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro. ANSYS Release 9. 4–20 . for additional load steps). temperatures. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. the first step is the same as for the full method. Another method for multiple load steps. Define master degrees of freedom. Options for the reduced solution are the same as described for the full method except for the following differences: • • Choose the reduced solution method. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. Details of the other steps are explained below. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to apply forces or nonzero displacements. Of these. Review the results of the reduced solution. and accelerations are not allowed. The OUTPR command controls the printout of the nodal solution at the master DOF (OUTPR.11. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method. Specify load step options. 5. 7. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are as follows: 1. Expand the solution (expansion pass). ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution. Apply the loads and obtain the reduced solution. Review the results of the expanded solution. These are the same as described for the full method except that the OUTRES and ERESX commands are not available. Save a copy of the database. 4. See Section 4. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. 4. For a reduced harmonic response dynamic analysis. © SAS IP. 002114 .Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 2. You can include prestress effects (PSTRES). 3.DMPR) is not applicable for the reduced method. Inc. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26).

which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated.RFRQ.3. Therefore. (By default. Expanding the Modes 1. Points to Remember • • The . Jobname. 2. before you begin the expansion pass. stress. (POST1 cannot be used. An expansion pass is not always required. For example.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method. .EMAT. then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. then you must perform an expansion pass. 002114 . and force solution at all degrees of freedom. you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical frequencies and phase angles.9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis 9. As with the full method.RFRQ. Inc.2.3. © SAS IP. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced harmonic solution are written to the reduced harmonic displacement file.3. use the FILE command to specify that data are to be read from Jobname. For instance. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement. except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables.) Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing. ANSYS Release 9.RFRQ. • 4. . 4. These calculations are done only at frequencies and phase angles that you specify. However. which is not written by a reduced harmonic solution. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor. Leave SOLUTION. Activate the expansion pass and its options. if HARMONIC is the jobname.0 . if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF.ESAV files from the reduced solution must be available. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of frequency using POST26. the FILE command would be: FILE.9. 4. or if you are interested in the stress solution. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available.2. 4–21 .RFRQ. 4. if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure. and . these displacements will be complex in nature if damping was defined or if out-of-phase loads were applied. The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated. They consist of displacements at the master DOF.9. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables.9.9. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . POST26 looks for a results file.1.Section 4.HARMONIC.TRI. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass.

of Solutions to Expand Freq. • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON. Range for Expansion Phase Angle for Expansion Stress Calculations On/Off Nodal Solution Listing Format Command EXPASS NUMEXP NUMEXP HREXP NUMEXP.4. See the example above. • Option: Phase Angle for Expansion (HREXP) If multiple solutions are to be expanded over a frequency range (NUMEXP). NUMEXP.1000. ENDRNG) Specify the frequency range. 1500. you can use EXPSOL to identify a single solution for expansion (either by its load step and substep numbers or by its frequency value). and other results. and amplitudes and phase angles. For example. BEGRNG. The only options valid for a harmonic expansion pass are output controls: • 4–22 Printed Output ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . a single solution is to be expanded (EXPSOL). This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over a frequency range (specified next).2000 specifies four solutions in the frequency range 1000 to 2000 (that is.angle.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Table 4. Inc.0 . EXPSOL HROUT GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Each of these options is explained in detail below. ANSYS Release 9. . 002114 . This way. If. and 2000).NUM) Specify the number. 3. • Option: Nodal Solution Listing Format (HROUT) Determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. on the other hand.OUT). expanded solutions at 1250. If you do not need to expand multiple solutions. stresses. Specify load step options. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default). 1750. © SAS IP. Default is to calculate stresses and forces. • Option: Frequency Range for Expansion (NUMEXP. • Option: Number of Solutions to Expand (NUMEXP. • Option: Stress Calculations On/Off (NUMEXP or EXPSOL) You can turn off stress and force calculations if you are not interested in them. we suggest that you request both the real and imaginary parts to be expanded (HREXP. you can easily combine the two parts in POST26 to review the peak values of displacements. you can specify the phase angle at which peak displacements occurred using HREXP.ALL).5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off No.

Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File • Extrapolation of Results Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). 5. Start expansion pass calculations. Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 4. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2. Use the SET command to read in the results. except for one difference: if you requested expansion at a specific phase angle (HREXP. etc. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file.. Caution: Subsequent spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. 4–23 ..9. 4. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname. there is only one solution available for each frequency. Leave SOLUTION.9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Use this option to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname..Section 4..4.5.OUT). (If you expanded solutions at several frequencies.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method. ANSYS Release 9.9. See Section 2. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 . Review the Results of the Expanded Solution This step is the same as the corresponding step in a basic structural analysis with the following additions: You can review the results using POST1. and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded.angle). Inc. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.0 . you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus frequency... Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE. strain versus frequency. 3. Sample Input A sample input listing for a reduced harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM. “Structural Static Analysis”.RST). /TITLE. 4.3. © SAS IP. You can now review results in the postprocessor.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. 6.

.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX. FILE.. SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Reenter SOLUTION Expansion pass Expand a single solution Phase angle for expanded solution ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET.... Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the harmonic response.. ANSYS Release 9.. ! Constraints F........... PRVAR. 5... 002114 . ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP.. Obtain the mode superposition harmonic solution.. Inc.... ! Contour plot of nodal results -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.... Build the model. the first step is the same as described for the full method. Obtain the modal solution.. ! Loads (real and imaginary components) HARFRQ.. ! Define how to list complex variables PRVAR... 2. OUTRES. ! Number of harmonic solutions KBC. NSOL. ! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU EXPASS. ! Deformed shape PRRSOL.HARMIC ! Harmonic analysis HROPT. ! Harmonic analysis output options M. HROUT. EXPASS...0 .. ! Damping ratio NSUBST... KBC. PLDISP... The remaining steps are described below.... Review the results.... 4–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ... PLVAR. ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR.. NSUBST.10. TOTAL. HROPT. ! List reactions PLNSOL. ! Master DOF TOTAL.... 3.RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname. ! Ramped or stepped loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! Review the Results of the Reduced Solution /POST26 FILE....RFRQ NSOL. It is the only method allowed in the ANSYS Professional program.. HREXP. 4.... PRCPLX. Expand the mode superposition solution. PRRSOL.ON EXPSOL. ! Forcing frequency range DMPRAT.REDU ! Reduced method HROUT... and PLNSOL commands. D. © SAS IP. PLCPLX.. EXPSOL. ! Plot variables PRCPLX. 4. M. HARFRQ. Of these.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.. HREXP.. DMPRAT. .. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1.

you must expand the mode shapes. the number of modes specified should cover about 50 percent more than the frequency range of the harmonic loads. 2. If you need to apply harmonically varying element loads (pressures. © SAS IP.1. If the modal solution was performed using the subspace or Block Lanczos method using the default mass formulation (not the lumped mass approximation). BETAD. Enter SOLUTION. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3.2. accelerations applied via the ACEL command.) Do not change the model data (for example.Section 4.FULL) must also be available.MODE). MP. These are the same as described for the full method. Following are some additional hints: • • • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default). Specify the modes you want to use for the solution (HROPT). the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic response. or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT). The following tasks are involved: 1. • • • • • 4. This determines the accuracy of the harmonic solution. and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. the full file (Jobname. “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution. Inc. For the reduced mode-extraction method.MODE) must be available. define constant material damping coefficients (MP. (The other methods. and so on). ANSYS Release 9. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. temperatures. therefore. no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is. 002114 . unsymmetric and damped. subspace.10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis 4. include those master degrees of freedom at which harmonic loads will be applied. (If you want to review mode shapes. nodal rotations) between the modal and harmonic analyses. but calculates a load vector and writes it to the mode shape file (Jobname. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution In this step. and the database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. Only forces. Use the LVSCALE command to apply both the real and imaginary (if they exist) components of the load vector from the modal solution. you must specify any damping (ALPHAD. accelerations. reduced. however. specify them in the modal analysis. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. do not apply to mode superposition. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. Optionally. • 4–25 . cluster the solutions about the structure's natural frequencies (HROUT) for a smoother and more accurate tracing of the response curve.10. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution. PowerDynamics. You can then use the load vector for the harmonic solution. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. ANSYS ignores the loads for the modal solution. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero.DMPR). ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .10.) Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the harmonic response.0 .DAMP. except for the following differences: • • Choose the mode superposition method of solution (HROPT). only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition). or QR damped. The mode shape file (Jobname. Generally.

3. forces may be applied only at master DOF. Save a copy of the database. delete any loads that were applied in the modal analysis. but you can specify any number of solutions from 2 through 20. reduced. regardless of whether the subspace.component. PowerDynamics. except for the following restrictions: • Only forces.) 5. constant material damping coefficients (MP. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26).Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis • Optionally. 8.NSOL. at each frequency.RFRQ file.RFRQ. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations.NONE.DMPR) can be defined. To use this option. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . .RFRQ. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results.0 . OUTPR. Inc. 9. you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES. The NSUBST command specifies the number of solutions on each side of a natural frequency if the clustering option (HROUT) is chosen. If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or the subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT. and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. 7. In addition. The mode superposition harmonic solution is written to the reduced displacement file. Jobname. then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES. Apply loads on the model. 4–26 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 6. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used. 002114 . Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 3 to 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.NSOL must be specified to print mode contributions at each frequency.LANB or SUBSP). first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES. These are the same as described for the reduced method except that you can also specify modal damping (MDAMP). Leave SOLUTION. The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . print a summary table that lists the contributions of each mode to the response (HROUT). if the QR damped method is specified.NSOL. • 4. for additional load steps). The default is to calculate four solutions.NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname. (Any value over this range defaults to 10 and any value below this range defaults to 4.ALL. Note that ALL loads from the modal analysis are scaled. ANSYS Release 9. including forces and accelerations. accelerations. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. © SAS IP. Block Lanczos. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution.RFRQ file. To avoid load duplication. Specify load step options. Note.

5. D.. © SAS IP... Jobname.REDU ! Reduced method M. MDAMP... NSUBST. ANSYS Release 9.10.. number of modes to use Harmonic analysis output options. /PREP7 ------FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. 4.10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis 4.4. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method..ON ! Expansion pass ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR... Review the Results Results consist of harmonically varying displacements.. /TITLE. KBC...RST. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file.. 4.Section 4... See Section 4..9. Jobname...RFRQ NSOL. Inc..0 ...HARMIC HROPT.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX.. ! Constraints SF. ! Masters TOTAL..MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT. ! Plot variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution (for Stress Results) /SOLU! Re-enter SOLUTION EXPASS.. HROUT. ! Element loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate modal solution FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE..TRI from the modal analysis is needed only if the reduced eigenvalue extraction method was used. 002114 ...10.....10... cluster option Scale factor for loads from modal analysis Nodal loads Forcing frequency range Damping ratio Modal damping ratios Number of harmonic solutions Ramped or stepped loads ! Initiate solution ! Review the Results of the Mode Superposition Solution /POST26 FILE.. Sample Input A sample input listing for a mode superposition harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM. stresses.. F.....3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass). LVSCALE.. and reaction forces at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Harmonic analysis Mode superposition method. HARFRQ...3. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1. as explained for the reduced method... 4–27 .. DMPRAT....RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname.MSUP... containing expanded results....

. NSOL.ON). also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. HARFRQ.. ! Deformed shape PLNSOL. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the reduced harmonic solution. MODOPT.1.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. Files Jobname.. Other Analysis Details 4.11. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed full harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other full harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. DMPRAT. EXPASS. LVSCALE... © SAS IP.EMAT and Jobname.1. HREXP. 2. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. “Structural Static Analysis”. any temperature loads used to define the thermal prestress must also be used in the full harmonic response analysis as sinusoidally time-varying temperature loads.ESAV from the static analysis must be available.ON).. TOTAL.. KBC. “Structural Static Analysis”. MDAMP. You should be aware of this limitation and exercise some judgement about whether or not to include temperature loads in their static prestress analysis.11. and PLNSOL commands.0 . SET. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other reduced harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1.11. HREXP.2.ON). these thermal body forces must not be deleted during the full harmonic analysis or else the thermal prestress will vanish. ANSYS Release 9. Inc. 2. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the full harmonic solution. 4.. If thermal body forces were present during the static prestress analysis.ON). The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis EXPSOL.11. NSUBST. It is assumed that the harmonically varying stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. PLCPLX. SOLVE FINISH ! Expand a single solution ! Phase angle for expanded solution ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET.EMAT and Jobname.. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. 4. 002114 . Hence.1. ! Contour plot of nodal results --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.. The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2. Files Jobname. ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP. 4–28 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . such as a violin string. PLVAR. FILE.... M. .1. EXPSOL.. F. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis A prestressed harmonic response analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure. HROUT. 4. HROPT..

© SAS IP.3. See Chapter 3.11. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis To include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis. you must first perform a prestressed modal analysis. proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis. “Modal Analysis” for details. 4–29 .11: Other Analysis Details 4.Section 4. Inc. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available.0 . ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 . ANSYS Release 9.1.

4–30 .

consider substructuring the linear portions of the model to reduce analysis costs. transient. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 .0 . you can: 1. and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static. ANSYS Release 9. For a nonlinear problem. and springs can provide good insight into the problem at minimal cost. try to understand how they affect the structure's response by doing a static analysis first. masses. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important. The natural frequencies are also useful for calculating the correct integration time step. you might be able to use a static analysis instead (see Chapter 2.2. stresses. Substructuring is described in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. you can learn how the structure responds when those modes are excited. “Structural Static Analysis”). . 2. If you are including nonlinearities.1. The time increment between successive time points is called the integration time step. This simpler model may be all you need to determine the dynamic response of the structure. in terms of the “engineering” time involved. For example. The basic equation of motion solved by a transient dynamic analysis is (M){ u } + (C){ u } + (K){u} = {F(t)} where: (M) = mass matrix (C) = damping matrix (K) = stiffness matrix { u } = nodal acceleration vector { u } = nodal velocity vector {u} = nodal displacement vector {F(t)} = load vector At any given time. The ANSYS program uses the Newmark time integration method or an improved method called HHT to solve these equations at discrete time points. 5. Analyze a simpler model first. You can use this type of analysis to determine the time-varying displacements. By doing a modal analysis. strains. If the inertia and damping effects are not important. Understand the dynamics of the problem. © SAS IP. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis Transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called time-history analysis) is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time-dependent loads. 3. A model of beams. these equations can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that also take into account inertia forces ((M){ u }) and damping forces ((C){ u }). Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis A transient dynamic analysis is more involved than a static analysis because it generally requires more computer resources and more of your resources. which calculates the natural frequencies and mode shapes. You can save a significant amount of these resources by doing some preliminary work to understand the physics of the problem. Inc. and harmonic loads. In some cases. 4. nonlinearities need not be included in the dynamic analysis.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. t.

The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). mode superposition. • The main disadvantage of the full method is that it is more expensive than either of the other methods. and element loads (pressures and temperatures) and allows tabular boundary condition specification via TABLE type array parameters. It uses full matrices. It allows all types of nonlinearities. Inc. imposed (nonzero) displacements (although not recommended).3.3.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis. This is the only method available in the ANSYS Professional program. we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of each. Three Solution Methods Three methods are available to do a transient dynamic analysis: full. you should consider using one of the other methods because the full method is also the most expensive method of the three. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods. ANSYS Release 9. and reduced. It is the most general of the three methods because it allows all types of nonlinearities to be included (plasticity.0 . It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of mode number). All displacements and stresses are calculated in a single pass.1. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method. 5. 002114 . large strain. and so on). 5–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the transient dynamic analysis via the LVSCALE command. Full Method The full method uses the full system matrices to calculate the transient response (no matrix reduction).3.2. Its advantages are: • • • It is faster and less expensive than the reduced or the full method for many problems. For procedural information about using the full method. The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • It is easy to use. The disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • • The time step must remain constant throughout the transient. large deflections. so automatic time stepping is not allowed. © SAS IP. 5. so no mass matrix approximation is involved. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. Note — If you do not want to include any nonlinearities.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. see Section 5. because you do not have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. . It does not accept imposed (nonzero) displacements.

ANSYS Mechanical. so automatic time stepping is not allowed. 5.2: Establish Initial Conditions Section 5.4. and force solution. however.3: Set Solution Controls Section 5.11: Review the Results ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . known as the expansion pass.3.4.4.4. you are encouraged to become familiar with the concepts presented in Chapter 2. 6. ANSYS Release 9. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. 002114 .1: Build the Model Section 5. • • • • For procedural information about using the reduced method. temperatures.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis For procedural information about using the mode superposition method.4.4.5: Apply the Loads Section 5.4. Section 5. Inc. We will first describe how to do a transient dynamic analysis using the full method. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis Note .4. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. © SAS IP.8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5. Section 5.3.4. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated. 7. “Structural Static Analysis”.4.) Element loads (pressures. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). stress. 9.4. 2.14: Matrix Reduction for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step Section 5.9: Start the Transient Solution 10.Section 5. are allowed. Reduced Method The reduced method condenses the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. the expansion pass might not be needed for some applications.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis. Accelerations. 8. ANSYS expands the solution to the original full DOF set. is required for a complete displacement. and ANSYS Structural products) consists of these steps: 1. We will then list the steps that are different for the mode superposition and reduced methods. The procedure for a full transient dynamic analysis (available in the ANSYS Multiphysics.) The time step must remain constant throughout the transient. (See Section 3. and so on) cannot be applied. (However. Section 5.Before reading this section. 5. see Section 5. see Section 5.4. 5.6: Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step Section 5.0 . 4. A second step. 5–3 .) The advantage of the reduced method is: • It is faster and less expensive than the full method. 3.10: Exit the Solution Processor 11.4: Set Additional Solution Options Section 5.

002114 . plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. isotropic or orthotropic. you need to understand how to establish initial conditions and use load steps. Material properties may be linear or nonlinear. Figure 5.1. the mesh should be fine enough to resolve the wave.4. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. • 5. Establish Initial Conditions Before you can perform a full transient dynamic analysis on a model. To specify such loads. the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. ANSYS Release 9.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. Regions where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively finer mesh than regions where only displacements are of interest.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. involves loads that are functions of time. A general guideline is to have at least 20 elements per wavelength along the direction of the wave. Inc. you need to divide the load-versus-time curve into suitable load steps. © SAS IP.4. Each "corner" on the load-time curve may be one load step. . If you are interested in wave propagation effects (for example.0 . For further details. by definition. as shown in Figure 5. For example.1.2. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. Build the Model See Section 1. 5. a bar dropped exactly on its end). Some comments on mesh density: • • • The mesh should be fine enough to resolve the highest mode shape of interest. and constant or temperature-dependent.1. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when building a model for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • You can use both linear and nonlinear elements. A transient analysis.4.1 Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves 5–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1: “Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves”. If you want to include nonlinearities.

For instance.. you would apply ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .. Command(s): IC GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define Caution: Be careful not to define inconsistent initial conditions.UY. 002114 .4: .. it is usually much easier to define initial conditions explicitly. that is.004 = 0.These are the default conditions.4 = 2.0 and a displacement of 1.0 TIME.25.0/0. The first step in applying transient loads is to establish initial conditions (that is.0 . TIMINT.0 over a time interval of 0. A transient dynamic analysis requires two sets of initial conditions (because the equations being solved are of u u second order): initial displacement (uo) and initial velocity ( o ). See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the TIMINT and IC commands.ALL.OFF D. ANSYS Release 9. and so on.UY. Establishing initial conditions is described below. For each load step.OFF D..ON . You then write each load step to a file and solve all load steps together.S01) Remove imposed displacements Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity . if uo = o = 0.This is similar to the above case.0. the remaining tasks are described later in this chapter. Nonzero initial displacement and/or nonzero initial velocity .5. Zero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity . but you can specify nonzero initial accelerations by applying appropriate acceleration loads over a small time interval. if you define an initial velocity at a single DOF. If no special action is taken.UY TIMINT.UY ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Initial displacement = 1. Inc. .001/0.. as shown below.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis The first load step you apply is usually to establish initial conditions.001 TIME. you need to specify both load values and time values.1.ALL. (assuming Y-direction velocity) Initial velocity = 0..Section 5. For example if u u uo = 0. use automatic time stepping. both uo and o are assumed to be zero.You can set these initial conditions with the IC command.S01) Remove imposed displacements uo = 2. you can apply a displacement of 0. potentially leading to conflicting initial conditions. except that the imposed displacements are actual values instead of "small" values.The nonzero velocity is established by applying small displacements over a small time interval on the part of the structure where velocity is to be specified.ALL.4 LSWRITE DDELE. The following paragraphs describe how to apply different combinations of initial conditions.5 Write load data to load step file (Jobname. If these conditions are not the same at every DOF. you do not need to specify anything. TIMINT.001 over a time interval of 0.25 Write load data to load step file (Jobname. the initial velocity at every other DOF will be 0. You then specify the loads and load step options for the second and subsequent transient load steps. if uo = 1. In most cases. © SAS IP.004 LSWRITE DDEL. the condition at Time = 0).. along with other load step options such as whether to step or ramp the loads.0 Initial velocity = 1. as documented below (rather than by using the IC command). ! ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Small UY displ.ALL.. you will want to define initial conditions at every unconstrained DOF in your model. Zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity . You may apply the loads corresponding to the first corner of the load-versus-time curve in the first load step. For example.. 5–5 .004. Initial accelerations ( o ) are always assumed to be zero.

1).3.1..This can be approximated by specifying the required acceleration (ACEL) over a small interval of time.4..0 and o = 0. ! Use appropriate time step KBC. KBC. The example below shows how u to apply uo = 1..ON ..1 ! Stepped loads ! The structure must be unconstrained in the initial load step. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box... See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ACEL. Inc....S02) .3.2: Set Solution Controls in Chapter 2.. .0 .0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures ..2 ! Two substeps KBC. TIMINT. ! Realistic time interval DDELE. you must do so for the first load step of the analysis.001 ! Small time interval NSUBST. and KBC commands. ANSYS Release 9.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step). You can then cycle through the Solution Controls dialog box additional times to set individual load step options for the second and subsequent load steps (as described in Section 5. © SAS IP. For example.2 ! Two substeps KBC.OFF ! Time integration effects off for static solution D.81 would look like this: . ACEL. choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control... the imposed displacements would vary directly with time. or ! else the initial acceleration specification will have no effect.. Without the step change (or with just one substep). NSUBST. . 5...1.4. TIME.0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) D. ! Realistic time interval NSUBST.ALL.This requires the use of two substeps (NSUBST. ! Constrain structure as desired ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname. “Structural Static Analysis”) with the following additions: If you need to establish initial conditions for the full transient dynamic analysis (as described in Section 5... .2: Establish Initial Conditions). leading to a nonzero initial velocity. ! Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and zero initial velocity .. DDELE..1 ! Stepped loads LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname.. 5.4.4.UY ! Remove displacement constraints KBC. the commands to apply an initial acceleration of 9.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis TIMINT.001 ! Small time interval NSUBST. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog 5–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 ! Initial displacement = 1. Set Solution Controls This step for a transient dynamic analysis is the same as for a basic structural analysis (see Section 2. DDELE.81 ! Initial Y-direction acceleration TIME.. LSWRITE.S01) ! Transient solution TIME. 002114 .9. Nonzero initial acceleration .3.0 TIME.. .2) with a step change in imposed displacements (KBC.ALL.S01) ! Transient solution TIMINT. ..ON ! Time-integration effects on for transient solution TIME.UY.0: . ! Remove displacement constraints (if appropriate) LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname.

Inc. set the Frequency so that it writes all of the substeps. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls.4.10. or you have previously completed a static prestress or a full transient dynamic analysis. • • • 5. For details about how to set these options. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. Also.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19. the program will terminate with an error.10. and then click the Help button.2. choose Small Displacement Transient if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection. in terms of the number of substeps).3. help to limit the range of variation of the time step. To write all substeps. “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. see Section 5. 002114 .3.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis box. The time step size determines the accuracy of the solution: the smaller its value. and click the Help button.1: Guidelines for Integration Time Step for details. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default. You should consider several factors in order to calculate a "good" integration time step. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. © SAS IP. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. we recommend that you turn on automatic time stepping. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. For most problems. access the dialog box. Chapter 8. When setting AUTOTS. see Section 5. remember that this load step option (which is also known as time-step optimization in a transient analysis) increases or decreases the integration time step based on the response of the structure. Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis. and click the Help button.Section 5. only the last substep (time-point) is written to the results file (Jobname. The default is ON.4. Use the command /CONFIG. by default. select the Transient tab. and large strain. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. Choose Large Displacement Transient if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long. and you want to extend the time-history. When setting OUTRES. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem). specified using DELTIM or NSUBST. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 5–7 . As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2.0 . NSUBST and DELTIM are load step options that specify the integration time step for a transient analysis.3. select the Basic tab. You can specify the time increment directly or indirectly (that is. Using the Transient Tab You can use the Transient tab to set the options listed in Table 5. 5. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. access the dialog box. If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification). Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file.2: Automatic Time Stepping for more information.RST) in a full transient dynamic analysis.1: “Basic Tab Options”. The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration of the equations of motion. with upper and lower limits for the integration time step. the higher the accuracy.1: “Transient Tab Options”. select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program). These limits. large rotation. ANSYS Release 9.

Time integration effects must be turned on for inertia and damping effects to be included in the analysis (otherwise a static solution is performed). “Structural Static Analysis” for a list of these options: • • • Section 2. ALPHAD (alpha.5: Stepping or Ramping Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 5. Inc. so the default is to include time integration effects. The default is Newmark method. TINTP is a dynamic load step option that specifies transient integration parameters. damping) are dynamic load step options for specifying damping options. or mass. ANSYS Release 9.4. Theory Reference • • Specify mass and stiffness damping (ALPHAD. 5. damping) and BETAD (beta.3: Damping in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 17. See Section 5. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. This option is useful when beginning a transient analysis from an initial static solution. .4.5: Stepped Versus Ramped Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs The options on the remaining tabs in the Solution Controls dialog box for a full transient analysis are the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. See the following sections of Chapter 2. see the following sections of Chapter 2. Theory Reference ANSYS. © SAS IP.4.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2.4.5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2. Newmark or HHT (TRNOPT) Define integration parameters (TINTP) • • • Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • TIMINT is a dynamic load step option that specifies whether time integration effects are on or off. see: • Section 8. TRNOPT (TINTOPT) specifies the time integration method to be used. BETAD) Choose the time integration method.2: Transient Analysis in the ANSYS.0 . Inc.2.2: Damping Option for other damping options.7.2.1 Transient Tab Options Option Specify whether time integration effects are on or off (TIMINT) Specify whether to ramp the load change over the load step or to step-apply the load change (KBC) For more information about this option. “Structural Static Analysis”: 5–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .4. For a general description of what additional solution options are.3.1. the first load steps are solved with the time integration effects off. • • • 5. Inc. 002114 .10.6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 2.2. or stiffness.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab.4.3. Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark and HHT time integration techniques. Set Additional Solution Options The additional solution options that you can set for a full transient analysis are mostly the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Table 5. along with descriptions of those options that are the same. Exception: You cannot use arc-length options in a full transient analysis.3. that is.3.

2.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis.1: Stress Stiffening Effects Section 2.4.3.1. see Section 5.Section 5. Prestress Effects You may include prestress effects in your analysis.DAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP. you can specify the following additional forms of damping for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • Material-dependent beta damping (MP. Apply the Loads You are now ready to apply loads for the analysis. the lumped mass approximation might provide better results.3. 5–9 . Also. Inc.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis • • • • • • Section 2.10.4: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 .4.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2.3: Damping for further details.5. Damping Option Use this load step option to include damping.4.9: Extrapolation of Results Additional solution options for a full transient analysis that differ from those for a static analysis. Except for inertia loads.3.3.3. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis. Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option to specify a lumped mass matrix formulation.4.3.8: Printed Output Section 2. In addition to setting ALPHAD and BETAD on the Solution Controls dialog box (as described in Section 5. lines.3. and so on) To use the MP form of damping: Command(s): MP.4. 5.4.3.3.3.DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7. 5.0 . or have different descriptions are presented in the following sections.3: Using the Transient Tab).7: Creep Criteria Section 2. ANSYS Release 9. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints.9: Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis for details. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis.2: Newton-Raphson Option Section 2. Table 2. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. To use this option: Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5. Section 2. for some problems involving "skinny" structures. See Section 5.3.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a transient dynamic analysis.3.4. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.4. © SAS IP. such as slender beams or very thin shells.3. However. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).3.

see Section 3. LSWRITE TIME.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Apply the Loads describes the types of loads that are applicable. ALPHAD.6. You can also apply time-dependent boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter)...2.4.. NCNV. KBC. .3. You may also want to have an additional load step that extends past the last time point on the curve to capture the response of the structure after the transient loading.4. KBC. for each load step. . you can reset any of these load step options: TIMINT. Inc. Loads .8: Solving Multiple Load Steps in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.2: Establish Initial Conditions.. CNVTOL. ANSYS Release 9.7.DAMP. reset any desired solution controls and options. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 5. see Chapter 2... © SAS IP. An example load step file is shown below: TIME. In an analysis. Loads . For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads. Loads .0 . NEQIT.. CUTCONTROL. you need to repeat steps 3-6. . KBC. . That is.4. LSWRITE Etc. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5. AUTOTS. PRED.9. CRPLIM. you need to apply loads and save the load configuration to a load step file for each corner of the load-versus-time curve. and RESCONTROL. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME... Start the Transient Solution Use one of these methods to start the transient solution: Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files For additional ways to create and solve multiple load steps (the array parameter method and the multiple SOLVE method). TINTP. loads can be applied. KBC. 5–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . BETAD.4. ! Time at the end of 1st transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 2nd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 3rd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file 5. .8. 002114 . MP. DELTIM. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step For each load step that you want to define for a full transient dynamic analysis.4.. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.4... 5. OUTRES. NSUBST. Save a Backup Copy of the Database Save a copy of the database to a named file.. LNSRCH. See Section 2.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters. LSWRITE TIME. and write the load configuration to a file.. TIME. apply loads.. ERESX. For each load step. operated on. . Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step As described in Section 5... or deleted. removed. . OUTPR..

1.2. ANSYS Release 9.4.11. see Section 4. 5–11 . Command(s): NSOL (primary data. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. known as variables. or inertia component of total force) SOLU (time step size. 2. response frequency.Section 5. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus time. 5. and so on) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods. that is. “Structural Static Analysis”.2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2. Each variable is assigned a reference number. 002114 . EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . number of equilibrium iterations. © SAS IP. 5. Inc. or POST1. Points to Remember The points to remember for a full transient analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. Graph or list the variables. such as stresses) RFORCE (reaction force data) FORCE (total force. which is the time-history postprocessor.4. POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific time points. damping.3. element solution data.11. Review the Results You review results for a full transient analysis in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses. 5.1: What Is Postprocessing? in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. See Section 2.3. 5. you can identify the critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.6. Exit the Solution Processor Use one of these methods to exit the solution processor: Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. only static force is available with the FORCE command.10.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2.4.11. • • POST26 is used to review results at specific points in the model as functions of time.4.3. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model.4. “Structural Static Analysis”. Some typical postprocessing operations for a transient dynamic analysis are explained below.0 . with variable number 1 reserved for time. Define the variables. nodal displacements) ESOL (derived data.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. that is.11. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26. See Section 2. which is the general postprocessor. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR. 1. or static.

. Note — If you specify a time for which no results are available. /TITLE. such as performing math operations among variables.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.5... 5...... Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Time/Freq Perform the necessary POST1 operations.11...4: Typical Postprocessing Operations for a list of these operations.6. and moving array parameters into variables.4.. 3. ! Time step size OUTRES.. etc. Read in model data from the database file..12.. The typical POST1 operations that you perform for a transient dynamic analysis are the same as those that you perform for a static analysis.. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. are available in POST26. ! Loads SF. the results that are stored will be a linear interpolation between the two nearest time points. See Chapter 6..0 .4. ANSYS Release 9..1. ! Constraints F. ... ! Mass damping BETAD. ! Store solution summary data 5–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3..11.4. Inc. See Section 2. ! Ramped or stepped loads TIME.ON ! Auto time stepping DELTIM. 002114 .. ! Time at end of load step AUTOTS... 5. Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a full transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.. ! Stiffness damping KBC... 2. Use the SET command to identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time.. time. moving variables into array parameters..... © SAS IP. for 2nd load step --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step SAVE LSSOLVE.4.TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT...FULL ! Full method D. Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results.. ! Results file data options LSWRITE ! Write first load step -----! Loads. Using POST1 1.. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions. ALPHAD.2 ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST26 SOLU.. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.

If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution...5. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3. TIME. 5.. 5. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. Review the results. 5. ESOL. 2. This method is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. 3. MP.. PRVAR.. and PRERR commands. unsymmetric and damped.5. reduced. subspace. ANSYS Release 9. PLDISP. Obtain the modal solution.. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. SOLU. Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the dynamic response.. PRRSOL. you must specify any damping (ALPHAD. Expand the mode superposition solution. 4. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero. Build the model. DELTIM.Section 5... “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution.... ! PLNSOL.5. PRVAR.0 . OUTRES. therefore. PowerDynamics. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the dynamic response. no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method.. ANSYS Mechanical.. Inc. ! PRRSOL. ALPHAD. Following are some additional hints: • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default).1. PLVAR. ESOL. FINISH ! ! ! ! ! Store nodal result as a variable Store element result as a variable Store reaction as a variable Plot variables List variables /POST1 SET. See Section 5.. • • • • 5–13 . do not apply to mode superposition.. PLVAR.. Build the Model Building the model for a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis is the same as that described for the full method.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis NSOL. include those master degrees of freedom at those nodes at which forces and gap conditions are to be defined.DAMP. © SAS IP. AUTOTS. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .4.. LSSOLVE.. RFORCE. ANSYS Structural. or QR damped. TRNOPT. and ANSYS Professional products.) PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. BETAD.. LSWRITE. ! PLDISP. RFORCE. 5. only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition). Obtain the mode superposition transient solution.. 002114 . PLNSOL..1: Build the Model for more information... For the reduced mode-extraction method.2. NSOL.. (The other methods.. BETAD. KBC.. ! PRERR ! -----! Other postprocessing as --FINISH Read desired set of results into database Deformed shape Reaction loads Contour plot of nodal results Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) desired See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE.

Obtaining the Solution The procedure to obtain the mode superposition transient solution is described below: 1. but a load vector will be calculated and written to the mode shape file (Jobname. © SAS IP. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears.MODE). nodal rotations) should not be changed between the modal and transient analyses. however.5. Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. 5.2. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. These constraints will be ignored if they are specified in the mode superposition transient solution instead of in the modal solution.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution In this step.) The model data (for example.4. You can then use this load vector for the transient solution. except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a mode superposition transient analysis. Instead. 2. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5. see Section 3.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis in the modal analysis. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). 002114 .3. Enter SOLUTION. • • 5. For details. you must specify them in the modal analysis. The loads are ignored for the modal solution.5.MODE) must be available. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for mode superposition transient analyses. Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP. Choose the mode superposition method of solution (TRNOPT). ANSYS Release 9. • • • 5–14 . you must expand the mode shapes.5. if any.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5. • • Specify displacement constraints. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged.3. (If you want to review mode shapes from a reduced modal solution.4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. 5.4.4. When you specify a mode superposition transient analysis. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE).3. accelerations.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.4. If you need to apply element loads (pressures. and so on) in the transient dynamic analysis.5. solution options that are valid for you to use. temperatures.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.0 .4: Set Additional Solution Options). Inc. the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the transient response.1.

and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used.0 . 5–15 . 5. If you do not want to use rigid body (0 frequency) modes. 4. This establishes the initial condition and time step size for the entire transient analysis. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM. If you expect higher frequencies to be excited. This determines the accuracy of the transient solution. a master DOF implies an unconstrained. the only load applicable for the first load step is initializing nodal forces. © SAS IP. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions. Damping MDAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping General Options ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you should use all modes that you think will contribute to the dynamic response. • • 3. For this pseudo-static analysis.TINTP meters Load Vector Damping LVSCALE Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super Command GUI Path ALPHAD. if any.1. Use the LVSCALE command (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super) to apply the load vector from the modal solution. the mode superposition method may yield poor results at TIME = 0 if nonzero loads are applied. MP.1: Gap Conditions. active DOF. and a load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. If you used the QR damped mode-extraction method.6. Imposed nonzero displacements are ignored.3. Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> DMPRAT. Generally. In modal superposition transient analyses. • Multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. Establish initial conditions.Section 5. use MINMODE on the TRNOPT command to skip over them. At a minimum. for example. BETAD. When a non-reduced mode-extraction method is used. 002114 .2 Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Para. The default is to use all modes calculated in the modal solution. gap conditions are not supported. a first solution is done at TIME = 0. Inc. More details about gap conditions are presented in Section 5. forces may be applied only at master DOF. NROPT) are not available. ANSYS Release 9. accelerations applied via the ACEL command. The following load step options are available for the first load step: Table 5.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify the number of modes you want to use for the solution (TRNOPT). Define gap conditions. They can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define Apply loads to the model. The following loading restrictions apply in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: • Only forces. the number of modes specified should include the higher modes. as explained next. SSTIF.

Note — If you do issue the TIME command in the first load step.2: Obtain the Modal Solution.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname.DAMP) ¡ Modal damping (MDAMP) Remember that. Theory Reference for further details. Constant material damping coefficient (MP.0 . – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads.10. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme. the integration time step is assumed to be 1/(20f). You can use such a load vector to apply element loads (pressures. Use this option to control printout of the displacement solution at the master DOF. where f is the highest frequency chosen for the solution. 5–16 .3: Damping for further details. 002114 . Inc. The DELTIM command is valid only in the first load step and is ignored in subsequent load steps. it will be ignored. • The output control option for the first load step is printed output (OUTPR). Command(s): LSWRITE ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . • The only valid general option for the first load step is integration time step (DELTIM). see your ANSYS. any damping that you specify in the mode superposition transient analysis is ignored if you used the QR damped mode-extraction method. temperatures. ANSYS Release 9. – Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis.S01) by issuing the LSWRITE command.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Option Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command DELTIM GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> TimeTime Step • Dynamics options include the following: – Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique. as described earlier in Section 5. Inc. © SAS IP. You can specify five forms of damping in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: ¡ Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) ¡ Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) ¡ Constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) ¡ Material-dependent beta damping (MP. See Section 5. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. 6.5. which is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. and so on) on the model. By default.

Inc. – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads.FREQ.NSOL. The default is ramped. then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES.RDSP file. you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES.NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname. 10. If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the reduced displacement file.Section 5. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 9. 5–17 . ANSYS Release 9. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . 002114 . 8. Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion. Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files 11.COMP. Start the transient solution. writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE). Leave SOLUTION. first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES. – Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) This option indicates whether to ramp the load change over the load step (KBC) or to step-apply the load change (KBC. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution).LANB or MODOPT.SUBSP).NSOL. The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined. To use this option. in which case the default is to write every solution).ANSYS uses the last frequency specified by OUTRES. © SAS IP.NONE.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 7.RDSP file.0 .1). • General options include the following: – Time Option (TIME) This option specifies time at the end of the load step.RDSP. Only one output frequency is allowed . • Output control options include the following: – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to control printed output.

MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT.5..TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT.6... 002114 . ! Results-file data controls --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step (first transient load step) SAVE 5–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . /TITLE.. ! Time at end of second load step KBC..TRI is needed only if the reduced method was used for the modal solution... Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method (see Section 5. © SAS IP.6... Jobname. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a mode superposition transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM...5.RDSP... Review the Results Results consist of displacements.4.RST.MSUP. ! Element loads ACEL. Jobname... ! Scale factor for element loads F.. Jobname... ! Master DOF TOTAL.. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results. ! Constraints SF.... containing expanded results. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1. ! Nodal Loads MDAMP.5.. Block Lanczos. PowerDynamics. . D. reduced.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition transient solution is written to the reduced displacement file.. regardless of whether the subspace.. ! Mode superposition method LVSCALE. stresses.) -----! Loads..4. 5.11: Review the Results)..REDU ! Reduced method M. Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods... 5. etc.. ! Modal damping ratios DELTIM. only static force is available with the FORCE command. ! Integration time step sizes LSWRITE ! Write first load step (Remember: the first load step --! is solved statically at time=0. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.. for 2nd load step TIME.5... Inc..0 .. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file. as explained for the full method (see Section 5.. ANSYS Release 9.. and reaction forces at each time-point for which the solution was expanded. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE... ! Ramped or stepped loads OUTRES.. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. 5....3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass))...

! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION EXPASS. Command(s): /SOLU ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Of these. MODOPT. ! Results-file data controls SOLVE FINISH ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET. M. ! Read desired set of results into database PLDISP. PRRSOL..... You should consider using this method if you do not want to include nonlinearities (other than simple node-to-node contact) in the analysis.. 5.ON ! Expansion pass NUMEXP. It is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis LSSOLVE FINISH ! Initiate multiple load step solution ! Review results of the mode superposition solution /POST26 ! Enter POST26 FILE..0 .. of solutions to expand. ! No.. uses reduced matrices to calculate the dynamic response. the first step is the same as for the full method. ! Store solution summary data NSOL..6. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The reduced method..RDSP SOLU. TOTAL.. 5. 002114 .. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are explained in the following sections.. PLDISP.... LSSOLVE.. which is specified in the form of a gap condition instead of an element type).. and ANSYS Structural products. © SAS IP. PLVAR.6. For the following tasks. DELTIM. ! Contour plot of nodal results PRERR ! Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE. ! Deformed shape PRRSOL. EXPASS. and PRERR commands. TIME.. Build the model. OUTRES. Review the results of the reduced solution. LVSCALE. NUMEXP. 2. ! Plot variables PRVAR. Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution.Section 5. ANSYS Release 9. TRNOPT. PRVAR. Inc. FILE. PLNSOL... Details of the other steps are explained below.. Expand the solution (expansion pass). we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF.. 3. you need to first enter the SOLUTION processor.. SOLU. as its name implies. 5–19 .RDSP ! Results file is Jobname. Obtain the reduced solution. time range OUTRES. OUTRES.. 5.. except that no nonlinearities are allowed (other than simple node-to-node contact. ! Reaction loads PLNSOL.... ANSYS Mechanical. The procedure for a reduced transient dynamic analysis consists of these main steps: 1.. NSOL.. 4. Review the results of the expanded solution. ACEL.1. MDAMP. KBC. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLVAR.

4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths.1.6. © SAS IP. For details.1. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE).4.1. When you specify a reduced transient analysis. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5. TOTAL. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for reduced transient analyses. forces. Define Gap Conditions Define any gap conditions.1. Define the Analysis Type and Options These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5.3.3.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). • • • • 5.0 . as shown in the following figure. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu.4. Define Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOF are essential degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. solution options that are valid for you to use.6. Gap Conditions Gap conditions can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground. Choose the reduced method of solution (TRNOPT). Command(s): GPLIST.6. SSTIF. 002114 .2. or nonzero displacements.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.4.1. You can list the defined master DOF or delete master DOF as well. GPDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> List All Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Delete 5.14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF.1. . MLIST. See Section 3. 5–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. MDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Copy Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> Program Selected Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Delete 5. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution 5.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. Command(s): M. Inc.5. NROPT) are not available. ANSYS Release 9. For a reduced transient dynamic analysis. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to define gap conditions.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. see Section 3. Instead. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define You can also list the defined gaps and delete gaps.4.6.4: Set Additional Solution Options) except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a reduced transient dynamic analysis. MGEN. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is.

• Establish initial conditions. 002114 . Some guidelines to define gap conditions are presented below: • • Use enough gap conditions to obtain a smooth contact stress distribution between the contacting surfaces. which develops when the gap closes.6. initial velocity and acceleration must be zero ( o = 0. therefore they cannot be used to specify an initial velocity. by using an equivalent nodal load vector. forces. Inc. as explained next. You can estimate the adjacent element stiffness using AE/L. ANSYS Release 9. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The only initial condition that may be explicitly established is the initial displacement (uo). o = 0).4. and translational accelerations (such as gravity) are valid.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Figure 5. u u 5–21 .Section 5. a very small time step will be required during impact. a static solution is always performed as the first solution.0 . Acceleration loading is not allowed if the model contains any master DOF at any nodes with rotated nodal coordinate systems. If the stiffness is too low. where A is the contributing area around the gap condition. that is. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model The following loading restrictions apply in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: • • Only displacements. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. A general recommendation is to specify a gap stiffness that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than the adjacent element stiffness. The ANSYS program accounts for the gap force. If the stiffness is too high.1. Displacements cannot be deleted in subsequent load steps. Only TRNOPT = MSUP allows the nonlinear gap damping action. Define a reasonable gap stiffness. The nonlinear gap damping provided through the DAMP field of the GP command runs faster than a full transient analysis using a gap element COMBIN40. and L is the depth of the first layer of elements at the interface. the contacting surfaces may overlap too much.2 Examples of Gap Conditions Gap conditions are similar to gap elements and are specified between surfaces that are expected to contact (impact) each other during the transient. multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. © SAS IP. using the loads given. • 5. E is the elastic modulus of the softer material at the interface. As mentioned for the full method. Damping conditions are ignored for the reduced transient analysis method. In a reduced transient analysis. and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions. to determine uo.

3 Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Paramet.0 . The integration time step is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. Inc. 5.6.1.4. 5–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7. Theory Reference for further details.10.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify load step options for the first load step. and so on) See Section 5. Inc.2. Note — If you do issue the TIME command for the first load step. • Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. Dynamics Options Dynamic options include the following: • Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique.3: “Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis”.1. General Options The only valid general option is Integration Time Step (DELTIM). MP.DAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time.TINTP ers Damping ALPHAD. see the ANSYS. Table 5. © SAS IP. BETAD.6.4. 002114 . .3: Damping for further details.1. Valid options appear in Table 5.Time Step Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command GUI Path General Options Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR DELTIM 5. it will be ignored. You can specify four forms of damping in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: – – – – Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) Material-dependent beta damping (MP. ANSYS Release 9. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme.

except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables.5. writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE).6.1. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced transient dynamic solution are written to the reduced displacement file. Jobname. the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 5–23 .) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method. Output Control Options Use the Printed Output (OUTPR) option to output the displacement solution at the master DOF.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.1. 002114 .7. They consist of time-varying displacements at the master DOF. Inc.4.9: Start the Transient Solution Section 5.1) or ramped loads (KBC) Output Controls – Printed output (OUTPR) – Reduced displacement file (OUTRES) The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution).6.S01).RDSP.2. For example.4.6.4. Specify Loads and Load Step Options Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available.3.10: Exit the Solution Processor 5. See the following sections for a description of those steps: • • • Section 5. The following load step options are valid for the transient load steps: • General Options – – • Time (specifies the time at the end of the load step) (TIME) Stepped (KBC. © SAS IP. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of time using POST26. (POST1 cannot be used.4. in which case the default is to write every solution).Section 5. The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined.1. 5. ANSYS Release 9. 5.6.6.RDSP.6.0 . use the FILE command (Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File) to specify that data are to be read from Jobname.1. Obtaining the Solution Solving a reduced transient dynamic analysis involves the same steps as those involved in solving a full transient analysis. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname. if the jobname is TRANS.8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5.

or if you are interested in the stress or force solution. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement. of Solutions to be Expanded Single Solution to Expand Command EXPASS NUMEXP EXPSOL GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON.1. 5. you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical time points. and force solution at all degrees of freedom.0 . Expanding the Solution 1. Before you begin the expansion pass. These calculations are done only at time points that you specify. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. 5.RDSP. 5. However. then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. • Option: Number of Solutions to be Expanded (NUMEXP) 5–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .TRI files from the reduced solution must be available. The procedure for the expansion pass is explained below. For instance. Reenter SOLUTION. . Activate the expansion pass and its options.ESAV.3.6. and .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis FILE command would be: FILE. .3. stress.RDSP. which is not written by a reduced transient solution.4 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off No.6. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables.) • Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing. 002114 . © SAS IP. . The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated.TRANS. if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure. Points to Remember • • The .EMAT. therefore. POST26 looks for a results file.6.DB.2. 2. Note — An expansion pass is not always required. . Table 5. if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF. Inc. ANSYS Release 9.3. then you must perform an expansion pass. (By default.

you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus time. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. You can specify it either by load step and substep number or by time. You can review these results using POST1. • Option: Single Solution to Expand (EXPSOL) Use this option to identify a single solution for expansion if you do not need to expand multiple solutions in a range. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution window. 6. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). Review the Results of the Expanded Solution You review results for an expansion pass in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. “Structural Static Analysis”.6. 4. 3. 002114 . Leave SOLUTION.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method.RST). 5. © SAS IP. 3. 5–25 . ERESX allows you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). strain versus time. Start expansion pass calculations. 5. and so on. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). Specify load step options.3. – Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). The only options valid for a transient dynamic expansion pass are output controls: • Output Controls – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname.0 . Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2.Section 5. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over the specified time range. The solutions nearest these times will be expanded. Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.4.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Specify the number. See Section 2. (If you expanded solutions at several time points. Inc.OUT). and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded.

7.0259067 kips-sec2/in The following geometric properties are used for this problem: l = 800. 5. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) In this example.075 sec 5–26 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2. Loading for this problem is: F1 = 20 kips tr = 0.1. Inc.7.6 in4 h = 18 in = 20 ft = 240 in. . © SAS IP. The beam is not used in this solution and its area is arbitrarily input as unity. a steel beam supporting a concentrated mass is subjected to a dynamic load. In this problem. One master degree of freedom is selected at the mass in the lateral direction.092 sec) is selected for the expansion pass calculation. ANSYS Release 9.7. If the weight of the beam is considered to be negligible.0 . The time of maximum response (0. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 103 ksi m = 0.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. 5. m. determine the time of maximum displacement response tmax and the response ymax. The final time of 0. Problem Description A steel beam of length and geometric properties shown in Problem Specifications is supporting a concentrated mass. 002114 . Also determine the maximum bending stress σbend in the beam. you will perform a transient dynamic analysis using the reduced method to determine the transient response to a constant force with a finite rise in time.1 sec allows the mass to reach its largest deflection. Symmetry could have been used in this model. A static solution is done at the first load step. The beam is subjected to a dynamic load F(t) with a rise time tr and a maximum value F1.

Define Element Types 1. In the Element Types dialog box. The Element Types dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. scroll to "2D w/o rot iner" and select it. © SAS IP." Click on OK." In the right scroll box. 6. ANSYS Release 9. 3.3.3. 7.3." and click on OK. click on "Structural Mass.7." and click on Options. 8. click once on "Type 2. Inc.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 5. 9. Specify the Title 1. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. click on "3D mass 21.1. In the left scroll box. Define Real Constants 1.0 ." In the right scroll box. Problem Sketch Figure 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. 5. Click on Add.2. click on "Structural Beam.7.3. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 5. 3. Click on Add.3 Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete. 2." and click on Apply. 5–27 . In the scroll box for Rotary inertia options. Enter the text "Transient response to a constant force with a finite rise time. In the left scroll box. 002114 . 3.7.7.Section 5. 2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The Real Constants dialog box appears.3. Click on Type1 BEAM3 then Click on OK. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. 5. 4. Click on OK and click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. click on "2D elastic 3. 2.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Click on OK to accept the default settings. ANSYS Release 9. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. Define Elements 1. Y. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. 4. and 18 for Height. and click on OK. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 5. 5. Define Nodes 1. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 2. select “2 MASS21. 7.0 for X. Inc.4. In the Real Constants dialog box.0. 5–28 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 3. 800. 3. 7. Click once on nodes 1 and 2. 5. 5.6. Enter 1 for node number and click on Apply to define node 1 at 0. Click once on nodes 1 and 3 in the ANSYS Graphics window. 6. Elastic. Isotropic. 7. Click on Type 2 MASS21 and click on OK. 8.0259067 in the 2-D mass field and click on OK. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. A dialog box appears.0. 4. Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus). The Element Attributes dialog box appears. In the Element type number drop down menu. select 2 and click OK. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 002114 . © SAS IP.3 for PRXY.7. Z coordinates and click on OK.6 for IZZ. In the Material Models Available window. Enter 240. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears.5. and click on OK in the picking menu. 3. Click on OK. Enter 1 for Area. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS.3. . double-click on the following options: Structural.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 4. 5.3. Enter 3 for node number. for MASS21 dialog box appears.7. Define Material Properties 1. 9. Linear. and click on OK. enter 0. 6. Click once on nodes 2 and 3. 5.3. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears.0 . and click on Apply. Click once on node 2 and click OK. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes.7. Enter . 2. click on Add. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. The Real Constant Set Number 2. 4.” In the Real constant set number drop down menu.0.

Choose the menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. 7.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 5. Enter . Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.3.10. Click on "UX" to select it. The Transient Analysis dialog box appears. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 8. © SAS IP. In the drop down menu for Damping effects. "UY" should remain selected.3. 2.8. 6.0 . Click on "UY" to select it and click on Apply. Specify Output 1. 5.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Define Master Degrees of Freedom 1.7. The Apply U.7. Click on OK. Inc. select "UY. 3. Click on node 3. ANSYS Release 9. Click on node 2 and click on OK. 4.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. select "Ignore. 5. 2. The Apply U. Click on "Reduced" and click on OK.11. select "FY. and click on OK. 5. 5. Set Load Step Options 1.Section 5.7. 4. 002114 .7.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 9. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.7." Leave the value as blank (zero) for the initial static solution. Click on OK. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. and click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. In the drop down menu for Direction of force/mom.004 for Time step size and click on OK. 4. 5. Apply Loads for the First Load Step 1. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears.3. Click on node 2 and click on OK." Click on OK." Click on OK. 9.3. 3.7. 5–29 . The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on node 1 and click on Apply. 2. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define. In the drop down menu for 1st degree of freedom.9. and click on OK. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The Define Master DOFs picking menu appears. The Apply U. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Click on "Transient" to select it. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears. The Reduced Transient Analysis dialog box appears. 5.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. The Apply U.

002114 .3. . 7. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears 5. Set the Next Time Step and Solve 1. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. 4.4. 4. Solve the Next Load Step 1.7. Choose menu path Main Menu >Solution> Solve> Current LS.4. 3. ANSYS Release 9. Set the Expansion pass radio button to On and click on OK. 5.12.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq.075 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step 1. Review the information in the status window. Solve the First Load Step 1.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 2. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step. 2. 5. Run the Expansion Pass and Solve 1. Review the information in the status window. Enter . Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.7. Inc. 6. and click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 5. 3. 2. © SAS IP. 5. 4. 5. 3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . 2. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 3. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on the "Every substep" radio button and click on OK.092 for Time-point/Frequency and click on OK.1. Enter 20 for Force/moment value and click on OK.2. Enter . 2. 4. Click on node 2 and click on OK.1 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. Enter 0. 4. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears.7. Review the information in the status window.3. 5–30 Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass.13. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. and click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 3. and click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. The Expand Single Solution by Time/Frequency dialog box appears. 2.7.

3. Enter NSOL for user-specified label. 6. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph and click on OK.7. click on "Translation UY" to select it. 002114 . Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments. Click on the save option you want. and click on Close.7.4. 11. 14.4. 6. and click on OK. Review the Results in POST1 1. 2. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. © SAS IP. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables. Inc. In the right scroll box. 12. Pick node 2 and click OK.4. ANSYS Release 9. Enter 2 for 1st variable to list and click on OK.3.1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. 2. 2. Review the information in the status window.0 . Make sure that 2 is entered for node number. Click browse and select "file. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. /PREP7 /TITLE. 10. 7.rdsp" and click on open then OK.BEAM3 ! 2-D beam ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Click on OK. 7. 13. 5. 5–31 . 5. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Accept the default of 2 for the reference number of the variable. Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time ET. 9. 5. The File Settings dialog box appears. Exit ANSYS 1. 4. 15. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. The graph appears in the ANSYS Graphics window.8: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. then click on Close in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. 5. Click on Add. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example transient dynamic analysis of a bracket using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.Section 5.4. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears.7.8. Review the Results in POST26 1. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables.5. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. Click on "Def + undeformed" and click on OK. 3.

0.2 M. such as a heat-treated part with residual thermal stresses.2 PRVAR.1 FINISH ! Define the variables ! Graph the variables ! List the variables ! Read in results ! Display deformed and undeformed shape 5.1 N. ANSYS Release 9....) The procedure consists of two steps: 1.3. (Do not remove these loads in subsequent load steps. 5.2 REAL.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis ET.1. 002114 .UY D.2.NSOL PLVAR.2.6.2 FINISH /POST1 SET.800.2! Beam elements EGEN.2.1.0 .004 D.1..1 OUTRES.EX.TRANS TRNOPT....3. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis A prestressed transient dynamic analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure.0 SOLVE TIME..1.1.NODAMP DELTIM.FY..REDUC.ON ! Expansion pass on EXPSOL.240 FILL E. and define a transient analysis type (ANTYPE.20 SOLVE TIME.ALL.2.075 F.TRANS). .1.UY FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. enter SOLUTION.9.FY.2.UY OUTPR..FIRST PLDISP.1 F.Y.6..MASS21. ignore damping ! Integration time step size ! Force = 0 at Time = 0 ! Time at end of load step ! Force is ramped to 20 ! Constant force until time = 0.2.2 E. Build your model.file.1 SOLVE FINISH ! 2-D mass ! Beam area = 1. I = 800.4 R.UX.092 ! Time of maximum response SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NUMVAR..0 FILE.0259067 MP.U.9. h = 18 ! Mass ! Type 2 element with real constant 2 ! Master DOF in Y direction at middle of beam ! Transient dynamic analysis ! Reduced transient analysis. Inc.2.1. © SAS IP.1 /SOLU ! The following is the expansion pass using BEAM3 and MASS21 elements EXPASS.2. Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis You can include prestressing effects in a full transient dynamic analysis by applying the prestressing loads in a preliminary static load step.30e3 N..18 R. 5–32 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . depending on the type of transient dynamic analysis being performed.1 TYPE. Prestressed-analysis procedures vary.BASIC.rdsp NSOL.

the accuracy of the transient dynamic solution depends on the integration time step: the smaller the time step. proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis. the higher the accuracy.Section 5. If prestressing effects develop because of nonlinear behavior (as in the case of residual thermal stresses in a casting). Jobname. Turn stress stiffening effects on (SSTIF. Inc. If they are not.DB. as explained below.9. Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced transient dynamic analysis requires that you first prestress the structure in a separate static analysis. Reenter SOLUTION (/SOLU) and obtain the reduced transient solution.ON. Files Jobname. you should consider the following guidelines: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . A time step that is too large will introduce error that affects the response of the higher modes (and hence the overall response). 002114 .0 . © SAS IP.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. Other Analysis Details The following sections provide additional details about defining integration time step.ON). Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis In order to include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis. you can capture the prestressing effect by issuing NLGEOM. and proceed using the full transient dynamic analysis procedures described previously. Once all load steps are written to files (LSWRITE). you must first do a prestressed modal analysis.10. 5. “Structural Static Analysis”.9. you can initiate the multiple load step solution (LSSOLVE). (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define) The IC command is valid only in the first load step. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available. 1.ON). automatic time stepping.S01 (LSWRITE). and damping.1. To calculate an optimum time step.10.ON). 5. several load steps might be required to complete the static prestressing phase of your analysis. It is assumed that the transient (time-varying) stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. A time step that is too small will waste computer resources. turn time integration effects on (TIMINT. 5. Note — The static prestress solution must be done as a separate solution if initial conditions are to be defined with the IC command.EMAT. The procedure to obtain a static solution is explained in Chapter 2. 5–33 . 2.3. also with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. Write your first load step to Jobname. In the case of geometric nonlinearities (large deformation effects). “Modal Analysis” for details.OFF). Set time equal to some small dummy value (TIME). For all subsequent load steps.10: Other Analysis Details • • • • • Apply all prestressing loads. and Jobname.ON).2. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. 5. See Chapter 3. ANSYS Release 9. Guidelines for Integration Time Step As mentioned earlier. you should use the full transient dynamic analysis. 2. Turn time integration effects off (TIMINT.

The response tends to lag the applied loads. it has been found that using approximately twenty points per cycle of the highest frequency of interest results in a reasonably accurate solution. © SAS IP. especially for stepped loads. 2. the same guidelines for time step should be applied. the integration time step (ITS) is given by ITS = 1/20f Smaller ITS values may be required if acceleration results are needed. That is.4 Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation For the HHT time integration method. Resolve the response frequency. The time step should be small enough to “follow” the loading function.0 . For the Newmark time integration scheme. Since the dynamic response of a structure can be thought of as a combination of modes. 5–34 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5: “Transient Input vs. Figure 5. Transient Response”. 002114 . The time step should be small enough to resolve the motion (response) of the structure. The following figure shows the effect of ITS on the period elongation of a single-DOF spring-mass system. Resolve the applied load-versus-time curve(s). Notice that 20 or more points per cycle result in a period elongation of less than 1 percent.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 1. the HHT method will be more accurate compared to the Newmark method. as shown in Figure 5. ITS values as small as 1/180f may be needed to follow stepped loads. if f is the frequency (in cycles/time). Inc. Note that if the same time step and time integration parameters are used. the time step should be able to resolve the highest mode that contributes to the response. . ANSYS Release 9. Stepped loads require a small ITS at the time of the step change so that the step change can be closely followed.

Transient Response 3. In problems involving contact (impact). the time step should be small enough to capture the wave as it travels through the elements. however: if the structure tends to stiffen under the loading (for example. use the minimum value for your analysis.10. Resolve the nonlinearities.2. 4. Based on a problem time scale of unity. the higher frequency modes that are excited will have to be resolved. For most nonlinear problems. an apparent energy loss will occur and the impact will not be perfectly elastic. you can let the ANSYS program decide when to increase or decrease the time step during the solution. 5. large deflection problems that change from bending to membrane load-carrying behavior). Exceedingly small numbers can cause numerical difficulties. Resolve the wave propagation. for example. You can use fewer than thirty points per cycle during impact if the contact period and contact mass are much less than the overall transient time and system mass. To minimize the energy loss. ANSYS Release 9. The integration time step can be determined from the contact frequency (fc) as: ITS =1/Nfc fc =(1/ 2π) k /m where k is the gap stiffness. Larger values of N may be required if acceleration results are needed.1: Build the Model for a discussion of element size. the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . If you are interested in wave propagation effects. Otherwise. and N is the number of points per cycle. N must be at least 7 to ensure stability. Resolve the contact frequency. also known as time step optimization.10: Other Analysis Details Figure 5. After calculating the time step using the appropriate guidelines. By using automatic time stepping. The main benefit of this feature is that the total number of substeps can be reduced. 5. especially when establishing initial conditions. the time step should be small enough to capture the momentum transfer between the two contacting surfaces. Inc. For the reduced and mode superposition methods. © SAS IP. There are a few exceptions. 002114 . Caution: Avoid using exceedingly small time steps. attempts to adjust the integration time step during solution based on the response frequency and on the effects of nonlinearities. resulting in computer resource savings. a time step that satisfies the preceding guidelines is sufficient to resolve the nonlinearities. 5–35 .Section 5. Automatic time stepping is discussed next.5 Transient Input vs. Automatic Time Stepping Automatic time stepping. because the effect of any energy loss on the total response would be small. at least thirty points per cycle of (N = 30) are needed.4. m is the effective mass acting at the gap. time steps smaller than 10-10 could cause numerical difficulties. Also. See Section 5.0 .

You can activate automatic time stepping with the AUTOTS command.5 Damping for Different Analysis Types Alpha. 002114 . automatic time stepping gives the added advantage of incrementing the loads appropriately and retreating to the previous converged solution (bisection) if convergence is not obtained.10.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” shows the types of damping available for different structural analyses. seismic loading). turbine blade and hub assemblies). The constant material damping coefficient is only applicable in full and modal harmonic analyses. Table 5. The following forms of damping are available in the ANSYS program: • • • • • • Alpha and Beta Damping (Rayleigh Damping) Material-Dependent Damping Constant Material Damping Coefficient Constant Damping Ratio Modal Damping Element Damping Only the constant damping ratio and modal damping are available in the ANSYS Professional program. and so on) is greatly reduced. there are some cases where it may not be beneficial (and may even be harmful): • • • Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example. nonlinearities.0 . .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis number of times that you might have to rerun the analysis (adjusting the time step size. © SAS IP.DMPR N/A N/A 5–36 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .) Although it seems like a good idea to activate automatic time stepping for all analyses. If nonlinearities are present. ANSYS Release 9. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. (For more information on automatic time stepping in the context of nonlinearities. BETAD Static Modal Undamped Damped Harmonic Full Reduced Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No(5) Yes No(5) Yes No(5) No No No No Yes No No(7) N/A Material. where the time step tends to change continually as different frequencies are excited Kinematics (rigid-body motion) problems.Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP. Inc. where the rigid-body contribution to the response frequency term may dominate 5. Table 5. and Coefficient so on MP. The program will formulate the damping matrix (C) as the sum of all the specified forms of damping. Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD.3. see Chapter 8. where the low-frequency energy content of part of the system may dominate the high-frequency areas Problems that are constantly excited (for example. You can specify more than one form of damping in a model. Damping Damping is present in most systems and should be specified in a dynamic analysis.DAMP DMPRAT N/A N/A Modal Damping MDAMP N/A Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7.

an effective damping ratio is calculated for subsequent spectrum analyses If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method (MODOPT.Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP. Inc. Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD. β damping only. ANSYS Release 9.DMPR Yes(6) Yes Yes Yes(6) No No No N/A Yes Yes(7) No No No No No No N/A No Alpha.DAMP DMPRAT Yes(4. ξi is the ratio of actual damping to critical damping for a particular mode of vibration. alpha damping (or mass damping) may be ignored (α = 0). ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 5. © SAS IP. In such cases. The values of α and β are not generally known directly. The damping matrix (C) is calculated by using these constants to multiply the mass matrix (M) and stiffness matrix (K): (C) = α(M) + β(K) The ALPHAD and BETAD commands are used to specify α and β. BETAD Mode Sup Transient Full Reduced Mode Sup Spectrum SPRS. α and β satisfy the relation ξi = α/2ωi + βωi/2 In many practical structural problems. If ωi is the natural circular frequency of mode i. ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition analysis Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis 7. ξi. MPRS(2) DDAM(2) PSD(2) Buckling Substructure Yes(1) Yes(1) Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes(6) Modal Damping MDAMP Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No N/A Not applicable 1. 5–37 .0 . as decimal numbers.6) Yes Yes No N/A Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7. and you specify any kind of damping during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. 002114 . i. Alpha damping and Beta damping are used to define Rayleigh damping constants α and β. as β = 2 ξi/ωi Only one value of β can be input in a load step.QRDAMP). 6.10: Other Analysis Details Material.Section 5. 2. respectively. 4. you can evaluate β from known values of ξi and ωi. and Coefficient so on MP. so choose the most dominant frequency active in that load step to calculate β. no α damping Damping is used only for mode combination and not for computation of mode coefficients Includes superelement damping matrix If converted to modal damping by expansion of modes If specified.6) Yes Yes Yes(4. but are calculated from modal damping ratios. 3.

DAMP in a spectrum analysis (ANTYPE. rather than the material pointed to by any real constant MAT for the element. not β. Beta damping and material damping can lead to undesirable results in a nonlinear analysis. The resulting change in damping can sometimes be opposite to the actual change in damping that can occur in physical structures. Element damping involves using element types having viscous damping characteristics. and mode superposition transient dynamic analyses. In these cases. ANSYS Release 9. DMPRAT is available only for spectrum. β can only be specified for the element as a whole. COMBIN37. and SHELL99.DAMP is not assumed to be temperature-dependent.SPECTR) specifies a material-dependent damping ratio ξ. an ANSYS model that has beta damping will experience a decrease in damping as plastic softening response develops. Modal damping gives you the ability to specify different damping ratios for different modes of vibration. Inc. SOLID65. (You can use the large mass to convert an acceleration spectrum to a force spectrum. Also note that for multi-material elements such as SOLID46. Figure 5. which is constantly changing in a nonlinear analysis. whereas physical systems that experience softening due to plastic response will usually experience a corresponding increase in damping. not for each material in the element. as well as in the system response.6: “Rayleigh Damping”). however. will produce artificially large damping forces in such a system. COMBIN14. and is always evaluated at T = 0. 002114 . two simultaneous equations can be solved for α and β. which is multiplied by the mass matrix. and is specified as a decimal number with the DMPRAT command. it is commonly assumed that the sum of the α and β terms is nearly constant over a range of frequencies (see Figure 5. and so on. One common example is when an artificially large mass is added to the base of a structure to facilitate acceleration spectrum input. β is determined from the material pointer for the element (set with the MAT command).) The alpha damping coefficient.DAMP). © SAS IP. COMBIN40. These damping coefficients are multiplied by the stiffness matrix. It represents the ratio of actual damping to critical damping.0. such as COMBIN7. Note. For example. MP. Material-dependent damping allows you to specify beta damping (β) as a material property (MP. given ξ and a frequency range ωi to ωj.6 Rayleigh Damping Alpha damping can lead to undesirable results if an artificially large mass has been introduced into the model. SHELL91. 5–38 . leading to inaccuracies in the spectrum input. harmonic response. The constant material damping coefficient is available only for full and modal harmonic analyses. It is specified with the MDAMP command and is available only for the spectrum and mode superposition method of solution (transient dynamic and harmonic response analyses).Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis To specify both α and β for a given damping ratio ξ.0 . The constant damping ratio is the simplest way of specifying damping in the structure. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Therefore. that MP.

The explicit mathematical expressions that form the damping matrix in different analysis options are shown in Table 5. Theory Reference.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” is handled in a dynamic analysis.6: “Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients”. beta (BETAD).6 Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients Analysis Type Full Harmonic & Modal Analysis Transient AnalysLANB(1) is Modal Analysis QRDA(1) ALPHAD α BETAD β α[M] β[K] No α[M] No Mode Superposition Harmonic Analysis(1) ΦTα[M]Φ = α Mode Superposi. Inc. ANSYS Release 9. see the ANSYS.0 . and element damping must be defined in the QR damping modal solution for the damping to be available in a subsequent mode superposition analysis. Inc. Theory Reference Nm m ∑ β j [K j ] Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 No j =1 DMPRAT ξ Harmonic No 2ξωi 2ξωi ξ No 2ξ [K ] Ω MDAMP ξm i No No 2ξmωi i No 2ξmωi i No ξm i No No Element Damping Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne MP. © SAS IP. Table 5. These expressions define how each of the damping options in Table 5.DMPR βξ j Harmonic Nm j =1 No No No ∑ 2βξ [K j ] j Ω 2βξ [K j ] j Φ ∑ Φ Ω j =1 N T m ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . alpha (ALPHAD). 5–39 . 002114 .DAMP j m Nm j =1 m ∑ β j [K j ] No No No Nm j =1 Nm m s ∑ βj Ej s ∑ Ej j =1 See Equation 17–109 in the ANSYS.Section 5. For more information about damping. Inc.Spectrum Analystion Transient is(1) (modal Analysis(1) damping ratio) ΦTα[M]Φ = α No Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i βωi 2 No β[K] β MP. material-dependent.10: Other Analysis Details If you are running a mode superposition analysis and used the QR damping solution method for the modal solution.

The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of transient dynamic analysis test cases: VM9 . and spectrum analyses the boxes are split where applicable with the top indicating the Lanczos method and the bottom indicating the QR damped method.Transient Displacements in a Suddenly Stopped Moving Bar VM91 .Transient Response of a Ball Impacting a Flexible Surface VM71 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. Mass.Transient Response of a Spring.Dynamic Double Rotation of a Jointed Beam VM182 . 002114 . mode superposition. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping VM74 .Transient Response of a Spring-Mass System 5–40 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Transient Response of a Bilinear Spring Assembly VM80 . .Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Spring-Mass System VM158 . describe additional transient dynamic analyses.Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time VM79 .Motion of a Bobbing Buoy VM179 .Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM81 .Transient Response to a Step Excitation VM77 .Large Deflection and Rotation of a Beam Pinned at One End VM65 . For modal.Logarithmic Decrement VM73 .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Note — 1.Large Rotation of a Swinging Pendulum VM156 .Transient Response of a Drop Container VM84 .0 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. ANSYS Release 9. 5.Transient Response to an Impulsive Excitation VM75 . Damping System VM72 .Displacement Propagation along a Bar with Free Ends VM85 .Large Lateral Deflection of Unequal Stiffness Springs VM40 .11. However. Inc. © SAS IP. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.

Inc. ANSYS Release 9.1. Two types of response spectrum analysis are possible: single-point response spectrum and multi-point response spectrum. .Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. you specify different spectrum curves at different sets of points. 6. or force.0 .2. © SAS IP.2.1. you specify one response spectrum curve (or a family of curves) at a set of points in the model. 002114 . It is a graph of response versus frequency.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (a). 6. What is a Spectrum? The spectrum is a graph of spectral value versus frequency that captures the intensity and frequency content of time-history loads. Response Spectrum A response spectrum represents the response of single-DOF systems to a time-history loading function. acceleration. 6.1.1. Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) In a multi-point response spectrum (MPRS) analysis.2.1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . as shown in Figure 6.2. and so on. wind loads. such as at all supports.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (b). velocity. Definition of Spectrum Analysis A spectrum analysis is one in which the results of a modal analysis are used with a known spectrum to calculate displacements and stresses in the model. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) In a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis. It is mainly used in place of a time-history analysis to determine the response of structures to random or time-dependent loading conditions such as earthquakes.2. Three types of spectra are available for a spectrum analysis: • Response Spectrum – – • • Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Multi-point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) Power Spectral Density (PSD) The only method available in the ANSYS Professional program is the single-point response spectrum. jet engine thrust. where the response might be displacement. 6. ocean wave loads. rocket motor vibrations. as shown in Figure 6.

Similar to response spectrum analysis. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis The procedure for a single-point response spectrum analysis consists of six main steps: 1. It is a graph of the PSD value versus frequency.3. In a singlepoint random vibration analysis. velocity PSD.1 Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra 6. Deterministic vs. Probabilistic Analyses Response spectrum and DDAM analyses are deterministic analyses because both the input to the analyses and output from the analyses are actual maximum values. 6. where the PSD may be a displacement PSD. because both input and output quantities represent only the probability that they take on certain values. 002114 . or force PSD. © SAS IP. 6. Mathematically. 6. Build the model. Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) The Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) is a technique used to evaluate the shock resistance of shipboard equipment.4. 6–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you specify one PSD spectrum at a set of points in the model. acceleration PSD. The technique is essentially a response spectrum analysis in which the spectrum is obtained from a series of empirical equations and shock design tables provided in the U. In a multi-point random vibration analysis. Power Spectral Density Power spectral density (PSD) is a statistical measure defined as the limiting mean-square value of a random variable. is probabilistic in nature.S.2.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis Figure 6. on the other hand. Inc. It is used in random vibration analyses in which the instantaneous magnitudes of the response can be specified only by probability distribution functions that show the probability of the magnitude taking a particular value.0 . .2.2. Random vibration analysis. A PSD is a statistical measure of the response of a structure to random dynamic loading conditions. ANSYS Release 9. Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL-1396.3.2. a random vibration analysis may be single-point or multi-point. you specify different PSD spectra at different points in the model. the area under a PSD-versus-frequency curve is equal to the variance (square of the standard deviation of the response).

so that modes are not expanded at this time. choose YES to expand all the modes at this phase.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis 2. The modal solution is required because the structure's mode shapes and frequencies must be available to calculate the spectrum solution. subspace.1.0 . their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. if any.Section 6. Combine the modes. Be sure to constrain those DOF where you want to apply a base excitation spectrum. Obtain the Modal Solution The modal solution . Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid in a spectrum analysis.FULL) from the modal analysis must be available. Obtain the modal solution.MODE. choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT]. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. 4. 6. • 6. by performing the spectrum solution ahead of mode expansion. 5. Inc. QR damped. are ignored. Review the results. and constant or temperature-dependent. you can expand only the significant modes that contribute to the final solution. © SAS IP. The other methods .3.are not valid for subsequent spectrum analysis.2.3. Expand the modes. The procedure to obtain the modal solution is described in Chapter 3. Material properties can be linear.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 6. Nonlinear properties. but you should keep in mind the following additional points: • Use the Block Lanczos (default).3. 002114 . “Modal Analysis”. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. leave the SOLUTION processor. The number of modes extracted should be enough to characterize the structure's response in the frequency range of interest. damped.1. and the database must contain the model data. 6–3 .natural frequencies and mode shapes . and PowerDynamics . Build the Model See Section 1. ANSYS Release 9. Also. isotropic or orthotropic. If material-dependent damping is to be included in the spectrum analysis. For further details. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .unsymmetric. 6. or reduced method to extract the modes. Nonlinear elements.is needed to calculate the spectrum solution. Obtain the spectrum solution. If you are using GUI method. if any. for example. Obtain the Spectrum Solution The procedure to obtain the spectrum solution is explained below. • • • • • 6. At the end of the solution. but can be expanded selectively in a separate solution pass. jobname. are treated as linear. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined.1. it must be specified in the modal analysis. 3.3.3. If you include contact elements.) Otherwise. The mode file and the full file (jobname.

The accuracy of the solution depends on the number of modes used: the larger the number. Enter SOLUTION. • Option: Number of Modes to Use for Solution [SPOPT] Choose enough modes to cover the frequency range spanned by the spectrum and to characterize the structure's response. the higher the accuracy. The following options are available for single-point response spectrum analysis: Table 6. 3. ANSYS offers the following analysis options for a spectrum analysis.BETAD ing 6–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . 2.2 Load Step Options Option Spectrum Options Type of Response Spec. © SAS IP. Make sure to choose YES on the SPOPT command if you want to calculate element stresses. Inc.vs-frequency Curve SED FREQ.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Spectrum Type: SPRS Command ANTYPE SPOPT GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Spectrum ANTYPE No. • Option: Spectrum Type: Single-point Response Spectrum [SPOPT] Choose Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS). of Modes to Use for SPOPT Solution • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 1.SVTYP trum Excitation Direction Spectral-value. SV Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table or Spectr Values Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Command GUI Path Damping (Dynamics Options) Beta (Stiffness) Damp. Specify load step options. 002114 . • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum. ANSYS Release 9. Not all modal analysis options and not all eigenvalue extraction techniques work with all spectrum analysis options. . Table 6.

The force spectrum is specified at non-base nodes with the F or FK command. For further details about the different forms of damping. The spectral value at this effective damping ratio is then calculated by loglog interpolation of the spectral curves.10.4] is internally converted to a displacement response spectrum and is limited to flat.3: Damping in Chapter 5.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis. that is. You can define a family of spectral curves. • Damping (Dynamics Options) If you specify more than one form of damping. ROCK.DMPRAT tio Modal Damping MDAMP • Spectrum Options These data include the following: – Type of Response Spectrum [SVTYP] The spectrum type can be displacement. FY. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 . they are assumed to be specified at the base. Inc. narrowband spectra. or PSD. a more robust random vibration analysis procedure is described in Section 6. “Transient Dynamic Analysis”.0 . Another command. – – Excitation Direction [SED] Spectral-Value-Versus-Frequency Curve [FREQ. – Constant Damping Ratio [DMPRAT] This option specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. as used in other analyses). acceleration.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis Option Command GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping Ra. Start solution calculations. FZ. ANSYS Release 9. see Section 5. SV] SV and FREQ commands are used to define the spectral curve. 6–5 . Use the STAT command to list current spectrum curve values. MP. the ANSYS program calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency. – Modal Damping [MDAMP] Note — Material-dependent damping ratio [MP. All except the force spectrum represent seismic spectra. 4. © SAS IP. each curve for a different damping ratio. force. If no damping is specified.Section 6. and the direction is implied by labels FX. allows you to specify a rocking spectrum. The following forms of damping are available: – Beta (stiffness) Damping [BETAD] This option results in a frequency-dependent damping ratio. The PSD spectrum [SVTYP. velocity. the spectral curve with the lowest damping is used.DAMP] is also available but only if specified in the modal analysis.DAMP also specifies a material-dependent constant damping ratio (and not material-dependent beta damping.

4. subspace. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. but you should keep in mind the following points: • Only significant modes can be selectively expanded. multiply the mode shape by the mode coefficient. The procedure is as follows: 1. If you want to expand all the modes.0 . which means no stresses are available for the spectrum analysis. Click on the expansion pass option button on the Expansion Pass dialog box to signify YES for an expansion pass. ANSYS Release 9.RST) only if the mode expansion is performed. 002114 . you must perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution.3. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination operation in the subsequent mode combination pass.) If you are using the GUI method and want to selectively expand modes. be sure to request stress calculations here. and the mass distribution for each mode. or reduced extraction method. If you are using the GUI method and want to expand all the modes. By default. “Modal Analysis” under "Expand the Modes" as a separate solution pass. lists the participation factors. The participation factor table. choose YES for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal solution step. You then perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution.5.3. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for additional response spectra. Leave the SOLUTION processor.rst at this time. If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. 6. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass. 6. which is part of the printed output. To obtain the maximum response of each mode (modal response). You do this by retrieving the mode coefficient with the *GET command and using it as a scale factor in the SET command. 2. you can include the mode expansion steps in the modal solution pass by issuing the MXPAND command. mode coefficients (based on lowest damping ratio). Enter SOLUTION.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis The output from the solution includes the participation factor table. Inc. Details of how to expand the modes are explained in Chapter 3. But if you want to expand only the significant modes. if any. © SAS IP. 5. Combine the Modes Combine the modes in a separate solution phase. • • • Note that modal analysis solutions are written to the results file (Jobname. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 6. Expand the Modes 1. Command(s): MXPAND GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Expansion Pass> Expand Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the Block Lanczos. choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal analysis phase. 6–6 . Note that solutions are not written to the file.

" etc. 3. Define analysis type.) 4." "force velocities. you must request that element results be calculated in the modal expansion. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum.. NRLSUM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Opts> Single-pt resp Main Menu> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Spectrum-Single Point-Mode Combine These commands allow computation of three different types of responses: • Displacement (label = DISP) Displacement response refers to displacements. • Acceleration (label = ACEL) Acceleration response refers to accelerations. Command(s): ANTYPE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. forces.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis 2. ANSYS Release 9. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . DSUM.Section 6. 6–7 .]. "stress velocities. ANSYS offers five different mode combination methods for the single-point response spectrum analysis: • • • • • Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) Double Sum (DSUM) Grouping (GRP) Naval Research Laboratory Sum (NRLSUM) The NRLSUM method is typically used in the context of the Dynamic Design and Analysis Method (DDAM) spectrum analysis. 002114 . Inc." etc. CQC. Start solution.0 . The following commands are used to invoke different methods of mode combinations: Command(s): SRSS. stresses. Choose one of the mode combination methods. • Velocity (label = VELO) Velocity response refers to velocities... The DSUM method also allows the input of time duration for earthquake or shock spectrum. "stress accelerations. if you use material-dependent damping [MP. GRP. etc. Note — You must specify damping if you use the Complete Quadratic Combination method of mode combination (CQC).DAMP. In addition." "force accelerations. © SAS IP. (Elcalc = YES on the MXPAND command.

the general postprocessor.MCOM).3: Creating and Combining Load Cases in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. © SAS IP. Read the commands on Jobname. the overall stresses (or stress velocities or stress accelerations). component stresses are not available. Inc. Command(s): /INPUT GUI: Utility Menu> File> Read Input From 6–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Note that the command default (SUMTYPE.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The mode combination phase writes a file of POST1 commands (Jobname. The overall response consists of the overall displacements (or velocities or accelerations) and. Also.0 . If you selected acceleration as the response type (label = ACEL). GRP.3. to review the results. SI) from the results file. . S3. Note — If you want a direct combination of the derived stresses (S1. and reaction forces (or reaction force velocities or reaction force accelerations). SEQV. 002114 . issue the SUMTYPE.MCOM. accelerations and stress accelerations are combined for each mode on the mode combination command.RST) from the modal expansion pass.MCOM.MCOM file. Remember that the existing Jobname. S2. The file Jobname. With the PRIN option. Read in this file in POST1 to do the mode combinations. strains (or strain velocities or strain accelerations).6. ANSYS Release 9. Refer to Section 5. see the ANSYS Commands Reference for a description of the SUMTYPE command.5. CQC. NRLSUM). using the results file (Jobname. if placed on the results file during the expansion pass. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. in the form of POST1 commands. 6.COMP) is to directly operate only on the unaveraged element component stresses and compute the derived quantities from these.MCOM file is overwritten by the additional mode combination step(s). If you selected velocity as the response type (label = VELO).MCOM contains POST1 commands that combine the maximum modal responses by using the specified mode combination method to calculate the overall response of the structure. Review the Results Results from a single-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file. You can use POST1. repeat the mode combination step after postprocessing the displacement solution by using the VELO or ACEL label on the mode combination commands (SRSS. Leave the SOLUTION processor. velocities and stress velocities are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. Jobname.PRIN command before reading in the Jobname. displacements and stresses are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. DSUM. The mode combination method determines how the structure's modal responses are to be combined: • • • If you selected displacement as the response type (label = DISP). 1. Note — If you want to compute velocity or acceleration in addition to displacement. 5. These commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by one of the mode combination methods).

• Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item. © SAS IP. SHELL181. and load case combinations.. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials. the results of the PLNSOL or PLESOL command are affected by the particular SUMTYPE command option (SUMTYPE. etc. • • • If you are using batch mode. ANSYS Release 9.). EPELY. such as stresses (SX.COMP or SUMTYPE. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. same shell thickness. Inc. SHELL208. These KEYOPTS write the mid-surface node results directly to the results file.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis For example.. The default method of averaging the TOP and BOT squared values to obtain a MID value can possibly yield incorrect MID values. SZ . Caution: Derived data. If you previously issued the SUMTYPE command. such as stresses and strains. such as mapping results onto a path. issue /INPUT with the following arguments: /INPUT. note the following: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . before issuing PLNSOL. • Option: Vector Displays Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions. UZ . MID) by using KEYOPT(8) = 2 (for SHELL93.). are available in POST1.MCOM!Assumes the default jobname FILE 2.PRIN) that you selected. transforming results to different coordinate systems.. and displacements (UX.. 6–9 . and SHELL209) or KEYOPT(11) = 2 (SHELL63).Section 6. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. different shell thicknesses. or other discontinuities meet. UY. use selecting (described in Chapter 7.FILE. EPELZ . strains (EPELX. You can view correct membrane results for shells (SHELL.0 . and allow the membrane results to be directly operated on during squaring operations. Use the PLETAB command to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. SY.. 002114 .). Display results.. To avoid the smearing effect.

2 lb-sec2/in2 The following geometric properties are used for this problem: I = (1000/3) in4 A = 273.0 .ON] solution pass with a mode combination command. The motion is defined in terms of a seismic displacement response spectrum.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • The modal solution and spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. ANSYS Release 9. Determine the nodal displacements. and section properties shown in Problem Specifications. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi m = 0. 6. 002114 . 6.4. mass per unit length m. Inc. is subjected to a vertical motion of both supports. © SAS IP. FREQ]. Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem. 6.2. Problem Description A simply supported beam of length . The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. reactions forces.MODAL] solution pass.9726 in2 = 240 in h = 14 in 6–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . with spectrum loads [SV.4.1. SVTYP. SED. you determine the seismic response of a beam structure.4. and the element solutions.MODAL and EXPASS. .

4.0 . 5. 3. 002114 . 4.Section 6. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. Set the Analysis Title 1.2. Click on Add. Define the Element Type 1. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. Click on OK.1.4.4.4. The Element Types dialog box appears. 6. Type the text "Seismic Response of a Beam Structure" and click on OK. Click on "2D elastic 3" in the list on the right. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears.2 Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports 6. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Real Constants dialog box appears.4.4.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. 2. 6–11 .3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Scroll down the list on the left to "Structural Beam" and select it. 2. Define the Real Constants 1. Click on Add.4. Procedure 6. 6. 6.4. 3. Click on OK. Problem Sketch Figure 6.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants. © SAS IP. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.3. 2.

12. 9. Click on keypoint 1.4.9726 for cross-sectional area. Inc. Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line 1. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Define Keypoints and Line 1. Click on "keypoint numbers" to turn keypoint numbering on.0. 3. 4. Enter 2 for keypoint number. 7. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box.0. Y. 002114 .4.4. Enter 8 for the number of element divisions and click on OK. 6. respectively. A picking menu appears. 5. and Z coordinates. Enter (1000/3) for area moment of inertia. ANSYS Release 9. Click on OK. 6. and then on keypoint 2. 10. A dialog box appears. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 4. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears.0 for X.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. Y. Click on Pick All. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. and click on OK. Double-click on Density. 5. 6.4. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. Enter 240. Click on Apply to accept the default X. A picking menu appears. Z coordinates of 0.0. and click on OK. 6. A dialog box appears. Elastic.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 2. 4. Click on OK. Enter 73E-5 for DENS (density). 3. . Enter 1 for keypoint number. 5. 11.0 . 2. Enter 273. 8. Isotropic.6. Click on OK. The picking menu closes. The Global Element Sizes dialog box closes. 6. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. In the Material Models Available window. Define Material Properties 1. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's modulus). Linear. A straight line appears between the two keypoints. 6–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. 7. 3. double-click on the following options: Structural. The picking menu closes.4.4. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.5. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Lines. Enter 14 for total beam height and click on OK.

and click on OK. of modes to print and click on OK. 2.0 . 4. 7. The Apply U.9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.7. Inc.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define. The New Analysis dialog box appears. 7. 6. 2. The Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box closes.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. 6. Click on "Modal" to select it and click on OK. The Apply U. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained. Set Boundary Conditions 1. Click on "Reduced" as the mode extraction method [MODOPT]." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. click once on the node at the left end of the beam. results dialog button [MXPAND] to specify YES.4. 5. 11. ANSYS Release 9. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. The New Analysis dialog box appears. along with a status window. and then click on Close. In the graphics window. 3. Click on Close. Choose Pick All.Section 6. Enter 1 for the number of modes to expand.4. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and the Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box appears.ROT on Nodes dialog box closes. The Define Master DOFs dialog box closes. Click on OK." Both "UX" and "UY" should be highlighted. click once on "UY" to highlight it. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 6. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears.4. A picking menu appears. 2. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.4. The Modal Analysis dialog box closes. 6. 6–13 . 10. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. Specify Analysis Type and Options 1. The New Analysis dialog box closes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.4. Click on "Spectrum" to select it. Solve the Modal Analysis 1. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears.4. This will reset load step count to 1. Carefully review the information in the status window. Click on the Calculate elem.4. click once on "UX. The picking menu appears. Select UY for the 1st degree of freedom and click on OK. When the solution is finished. 3. 3. © SAS IP. 4. Set Up the Spectrum Analysis 1. 9. The New Analysis dialog box closes. Click on OK. Enter 3 for the No. Click on OK. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. Click on OK. 6. 002114 . 4.10. 8.8. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 8. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. Repeat steps 1-3 and select the node at the right end of the beam.

The Expand Modes dialog box appears. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. 5. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. 6. This will reset load step count to 1. The Spectrum Values dialog box appears.4. 3. The Expand Modes dialog box closes. 2. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 2.0 .Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 3. Carefully review the information in the status window. and then click on Close. Click on OK to accept the default of no damping.4. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table. 5. When the solution is finished. Enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. The Frequency Table dialog box appears.44 for FREQ1 and FREQ2. Define Spectrum Value vs.4.1 for FREQ1. The Settings for Single-point Response Spectrum dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings. 2. Click on Close.Damping Ratio dialog box appears. respectively. Expand the Modes 1. The Spectrum Values . The New Analysis dialog box closes. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Spectr Values. The Expansion Pass dialog box appears. Frequency Table 1.4. Click on OK.4. 6–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Set up the Expansion Pass 1.1. Enter 0.4. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass. 3. Click on "Modal" to select it. © SAS IP. The Spectrum Values dialog box closes. The New Analysis dialog box appears. and click on OK. 6.4. Enter 0. and click on OK. The Expansion Pass dialog box closes.0 for excitation direction into the excitation direction input windows and click on OK. 3. enter 10 for FREQ2.44 and 0." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes. 002114 . Click on OK.11. 4. 6.14. 6.005 for the significant threshold. Solve Spectrum Analysis 1. Inc. Select "Seismic displac" in the scroll box as the type of response spectrum. 6.13. 4. 3. Enter 10 for the number of modes to expand and enter 0. along with a status window. 4. 2.4. Click on the expansion pass dialog button to turn it ON and click on OK. ANSYS Release 9. . Click on the calculate element results dialog button to specify YES for element results calculation.12.

Click on "Spectrum" to select it. 4. Carefully review the information in the status window. 2. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box appears. The New Analysis dialog box closes. 6. along with a status window.18. Combine the Modes 1. From the left side of the Read File dialog box.0 .15. Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal. Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis 1. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.4.15 for the significant threshold. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Accept the default spectrum type single-point response. The SET Command listing window closes. Click OK. The SET Command listing window appears. along with a status window. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Read Input From. and click on Close. Click on Close. When the solution is finished." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. Inc. 6–15 . 002114 . a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. select the directory containing your results from the scroll box. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears.17. © SAS IP. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box closes. 2. Carefully review the information in the status window.4.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Mode Combine. ANSYS Release 9. 4.4. Enter 0. 3. 3. select the jobname. Click on OK. Select displacement for the type of output. Click on Close. Review the information in the listing window. 3. 4. From the right side of the Read File dialog box. and click on OK. Element.mcom file from the scroll box.Section 6. 2. 2. and Reaction Solutions 1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The New Analysis dialog box appears.4.19. 3. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Results Summary. Select Mode Combination Method 1. This will reset load step count to 1.4. 6. and then click on Close. 6.4. 2. 3.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. 4. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution.16. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears.4. and then click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The Read File dialog box appears. 6. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box appears. Start Expansion Pass Calculation 1. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution.4. 5. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box closes. When the solution is finished. 4. Select SRSS as the mode combination method. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.4.

ALL.MODAL ! Mode-frequency analysis 6–16 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .UY NSEL.LOC.(1000/3). The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears.5.9726. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution.4.UY NSEL.UX.. Exit ANSYS 1.1.1. I = (1000/3).1 NSEL. 13.BEAM3 R.14 ! A = 273. 15.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. 10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu.1 K.9726. The PRNSOL Command listing window appears. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRNSOL Command listing window.240 L.20. . Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments. 6.4. Scroll down the list to "All struc forc F" to select it and click on OK. 2. 11. The List Nodal Solution dialog box appears. 14.1. /PREP7 /TITLE Seismic Response of a Beam Structure ET.73E-5 K. You are now finished with this sample problem. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRESOL Command listing window.2 ESIZE.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Inc.1. Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example spectrum analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. 8. 9..X. 12.X. The PRRSOL Command listing window appears..0 . The List Element Solution dialog box appears. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. H = 14 MP. Click on OK to accept the default settings of "DOF solution" in the scroll box on the left and "All DOFs DOF" in the scroll box on the right.ALL. Click on OK.EX. ANSYS Release 9. © SAS IP. The Read File dialog box closes.1. Scroll down the list on the left to select "Line Elem results" and select "Structural ELEM" on the scroll box on the right.. The List Nodal Solution dialog box closes.DENS. 002114 .0 D.8 LMESH.S. The List Reaction Solution dialog box closes. 7. click on Quit.240 D.30E6 MP. 6. The PRESOL Command listing window appears. The List Element Solution dialog box closes. In the ANSYS Toolbar.2..S. Review the results in the listing window and click on Close to close the PRRSOL Command listing window.273.

. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.YES.ALL.1.LIST /INP. D. MXPAND.10.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.F FINISH ! Householder.. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of spectrum analysis test cases: VM19 .PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-Mass System VM69 .44 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. and DMPRAT commands.. freq.1. table Spectrum values associated with frequency points ! Mode-frequency analysis ! Expand 10 mode shapes. FREQ.. DSUM.BASIC.15.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.DISP SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. EXPASS.YES M.ON MXPAND. 6–17 .. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. print first 3 reduced mode shapes ! Expand first mode shape. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.3 MXPAND. calculate element stresses ! set signif=0.0 . SED. ANSYS Release 9.Seismic Response VM70 .UY OUTPR..44.1 SVTYPE..REDUC.005 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SPECTR SPOPT. SVTYP. SV. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. calculate element stresses ! ! ! ! ! ! Spectrum analysis Single point spectrum Global Y-axis as spectrum direction Seismic displacement spectrum Frequency points for SV vs. SRSS. SPOPT.6.10 SV.. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. MODOPT.6: Where to Find Other Examples MODOPT.mcom PRNSOL.Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM68 .3 FREQ.DOF PRESOL.. © SAS IP.MODAL EXPASS. CQC.0. 002114 .Section 6. GRP..15 and displacement solution requested ! Print nodal solution ! Print element solution in element format ! Print reaction solution 6.ELEM PRRSOL..005 ! Square Root of Sum of Squares Mode combination ! with signif=0. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications. NRLSUM.SPECTR SRSS.0. Inc. However. describe additional spectrum analyses. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ..Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM203 .SPRS SED..

6. be sure to request stress calculations here. The procedures for obtaining the modal solution and expanding the nodes are combined into a single step. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options: 2. Block Lanczos. In addition. 3. Expand the Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the subspace.2.7. the following files from the modal solution must be available: Jobname. The procedure for the remaining four steps is explained below. you must save the database at this point. leave SOLUTION with the FINISH command. The mode expansion can be performed as a separate step.1: Expand the Modes. “Modal Analysis”. In the GUI method.0 . 6. If you want to exit ANSYS after running the modal analysis.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. Choose YES for mode expansion. Review the results. You then follow the instructions in Section 6. the database must contain the model data as well as the modal solution data. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass.6: Expand the Modes. 6. Expand the modes. Inc. How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis The procedure for a PSD analysis consists of six main steps: 1. 6–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Obtain the Spectrum Solution To obtain the PSD spectrum solution. but keep in mind the following additional points: • • Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination step. or reduced extraction method. . 4.MODE.FULL (only for subspace and Block Lanczos methods). . Details about expanding the modes are explained in Section 3. or can be included in the modal analysis phase. • • As explained in Chapter 3. Combine the modes.7. Enter SOLUTION. . you can combine the modal solution and mode expansion steps by including the MXPAND command in the modal analysis step (GUI and batch modes). which means no stresses are available at the end of the spectrum solution. If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. ANSYS Release 9. 1. 002114 . At the end of the expansion pass. .7. If you leave ANSYS after running the modal analysis. 2. By default. you must save the database. Obtain the modal solution. Build the model. Random vibration analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program. the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] contains an option for mode expansion [MXPAND].EMAT.1.RST.7. the first two steps are the same as described for a single-point response spectrum analysis. .ESAV. Of these. 5. Obtain the spectrum solution.

You can issue STAT to list PSD tables and issue PSDGRAPH to graph them. Specify stress calculations ON [SPOPT] if you are interested in stress results. ANSYS calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency. pressure. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. PSDGRAPH GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> PSD vs Freq Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph PSD Tables PSDFRQ and PSDVAL are used to define the PSD-versus-frequency table.0 . which is overlaid with the fitted curve. Specify load step options. If the fit is not good. 002114 . Since a curve-fitting polynomial is used for the closed-form integration of the curve. The following options are available for a random vibration analysis: • Spectrum Data – Type of PSD Command(s): PSDUNIT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Settings The PSD type can be displacement. If a pressure PSD is to be applied. BETAD. you should graph the input. choose Power Spectral Density (PSD). you should add one or more intermediate points to the table until you obtain a good fit. to ensure a good fit. Inc.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis • • For spectrum type [SPOPT]. the pressures should be applied in the modal analysis itself. 3. – PSD-versus-frequency table Define a piecewise-linear (in log-log scale) PSD versus frequency table. ANSYS Release 9. Stresses caused by the spectrum are calculated only if they were also requested during the modal expansion pass. and MDAMP result in a frequencydependent damping ratio. • Damping (Dynamics Options) The following forms of damping are available: ALPHAD. Whether it is a base excitation or a nodal excitation is specified in Steps 4 and 5. © SAS IP. – Alpha (Mass) Damping Command(s): ALPHAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Beta (Stiffness) Damping Command(s): BETAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping Ratio Command(s): DMPRAT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Frequency-Dependent Damping Ratio Command(s): MDAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Step 6 describes how to apply additional PSD excitations (if any). velocity. or acceleration.Section 6. a default DMPRAT of 1 percent is used. If you specify more than one form of damping. – – – 6–19 . PSDVAL. Note — If no damping is specified in a PSD analysis. force. Command(s): PSDFRQ.

A value of 0.ALL provides a summary table of the significant modal covariance terms. the degree of correlation between the excitations. PSDSPL for a spatial relationship. or acceleration solution. Command(s): PFACT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calculate PF 6. Note — You can apply base excitations only at nodes that were constrained in the modal analysis. To limit the amount of data written to the results file. using any of the following commands: Command(s): COVAL for cospectral values. Each of these can be relative to the base or absolute. The PSDSPL and PSDWAV commands are not available for a pressure PSD analysis.NSOL. If you need to apply multiple PSD excitations on the same model.0 to indicate points where the PSD excitation applies. Begin participation factor calculations for the above PSD excitation. UY. Command(s): PSDRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calc Controls Table 6. The excitation direction is implied by the UX.3: “Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis” shows a summary of the possible solution sets. respectively. or DA) for base excitation F (or FK) for nodal excitation LVSCALE for pressure PSD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Spectrum> Base PSD Excit> On Nodes 5. PSDWAV for a wave propagation relationship. which specifies the amount and form of output written to the results file. 002114 . Use a value of 1. FY cannot be applied to one node and FZ be applied to another). Up to three sets of solution quantities can be calculated: displacement solution. FZ on the F command (for nodal excitation). For pressure PSD. velocity solution. 6–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . PSDGRAPH to graph the data overlaid with the fitted curve GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Correlation Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph Tables When you use the PSDSPL or PSDWAV command.0 can be used to scale the participation factors. Specify the output controls. bring in the load vector from the modal analysis (LVSCALE). and 5 for each additional PSD table. Inc. QDVAL for quadspectral values. Command(s): D (or DK. UZ labels on the D command (for base excitation). PSDSPL and PSDWAV relationships might be quite CPU intensive for multi-point base excitations.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis The remaining steps are specific to a random vibration analysis: 4. 7. Apply the PSD excitation at the desired nodes. For nodal excitation. you must use SPATIAL or WAVE.0 . DL. Use the TBLNO field to indicate which PSD table to use. values other than 1. Using OUTPR. for Parcor on the PFACT command. You can use the scale factor. ANSYS Release 9. and by FX. The only valid output control command for this analysis is PSDRES. use OUTRES at the mode expansion step. repeat steps 3. FY. © SAS IP.0 (or blank) can be used to remove a specification. and Excit to specify whether the calculations are for a base or nodal excitation. Then define. 4. Nodal excitation and base excitation input must be consistent when using PSDWAV and PSDSPL (for example. . as necessary.

• Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum. 5. forces Relative. 2. If you do not issue the PSDCOM command. stresses.7. Enter Solution. Accelerations. the program does not calculate the one-sigma response of the structure. 8. stress accl's. © SAS IP. etc. or neither cities.0 . Command(s): PSDCOM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Mode Combin The SIGNIF and COMODE fields on the PSD mode combination method [PSDCOM] offer options to reduce the number of modes to be combined (see the description of PSDCOM command). absolute. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define analysis type. The procedure is as follows: 1.7.. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Relative. • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis.3 Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis Solution Items Form Displacement Solution (label DISP on Displacements. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor. it is prudent to print the modal covariance matrices in Section 6. force velo.2: Obtain the Spectrum Solution to first investigate the relative contributions of the modes toward the final solution. Inc.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis Table 6. or neither etc. 4. 6. absolute. 3. absolute.3. Only the PSD mode combination method is valid in a random vibration analysis. 9. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor. strains. ANSYS Release 9. If you want to exercise these options. force accl's. or neither PSDRES) Velocity Solution (label VELO on PSDRES) Acceleration Solution (label ACEL on PSDRES) Velocities. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . stresses. 6–21 . Start the solution. stress velocities. in the structure.Section 6. 002114 . Start solution calculations. etc. Combine the Modes The modes can be combined in a separate solution phase. This method triggers calculation of the one-sigma displacements.Relative.

the corresponding load step is left blank.1 Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set 6–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database For example.4 Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis Load Step 1 Substep 1 2 3 Etc.7.0 . and then calculate response PSDs in POST26. 002114 .. only) 1 2 Etc. ANSYS Release 9. if you suppress the displacement. They consist of the following quantities: 1. Also.3. 2 (Base excit. you first need to understand how the results data are organized on the results file. strain velocities. if mode combinations are requested [PSDCOM] and based on the PSDRES setting: • • • 1 σ displacement solution (displacements. or 5 in a PSD analysis. to read in the 1 σ displacement solution. and forces) 1 σ velocity solution (velocities. Reviewing the Results in POST1 To review results in POST1.1. © SAS IP. 2.4. Table 6. stresses. strain accelerations.BASE] The following output. stress velocities.RST. Unit static solution for PSD table 1 Unit static solution for PSD table 2 Etc. strains. Also. and force velocities) 1 σ acceleration solution (accelerations. and force accelerations) You can review these results in POST1.4: “Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis” shows the organization. Review the Results Results from a random vibration analysis are written to the structural results file.DSUB) is not written for load steps 3. Note — Load step 2 is left blank if you specify only nodal PSD excitation. the time-history postprocessor. Inc. issue the command: SET.7.4. the superelement displacement file (. 3 4 5 1 1 1 Contents Expanded modal solution for 1st mode Expanded modal solution for 2nd mode Expanded modal solution for 3rd mode Etc. or acceleration solution using the PSDRES command.1. 4. stress accelerations. 6. 3. Table 6. velocity. 1 sigma displacement solution 1 sigma velocity solution (if requested) 1 sigma acceleration solution (if requested) 6. Jobname.7.4. the general postprocessor.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. Expanded mode shapes from the modal analysis Static solution for base excitation [PFACT. .1.

PSD.) are to be stored. Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 You can calculate and display response PSDs for any results quantity available on the results file (displacements. The frequency vector is stored as variable 1. Calculating Covariance in POST26 You can compute the covariance between two quantities available on the results file (displacements. Display the Results Use the same options available for the SPRS analysis.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis 6. reaction forces. 3. Enter POST26. reaction forces.7.2. Command(s): NSOL. velocities. ESOL. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements. The procedure to calculate the covariance between two quantities is as follows: 1. Command(s): RPSD GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Resp PSD 2. Command(s): CVAR GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Covariance 2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Section 6. etc. Command(s): NSOL.7. 6.PSD files are available. stresses. Enter POST26.4.7.3.0 . 6.2. The procedure to calculate the response PSD is as follows: 1. ESOL. 6–23 . Command(s): STORE. if the Jobname.RST and Jobname. velocities. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Store the frequency vector. and/or accelerations) if the Jobname. 4.RST and Jobname. 002114 .) are to be stored.4. Note — Nodal stress averaging performed by the PLNSOL command may not be appropriate in a random vibration analysis because the "stresses" are not actual stresses but stress statistics. ANSYS Release 9. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the response PSD. the time-history postprocessor. NPTS is the number of frequency points to be added on either side of natural frequencies in order to "smooth" the frequency vector (defaults to 5). the time-history postprocessor.1. and/or accelerations). © SAS IP.NPTS GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Store Data Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements.PSD files are available. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the modal contributions (relative response) followed by the contributions of pseudo-static and mixed part responses to the total covariance. etc. stresses.4. and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the contributions of each response component (relative or absolute response) and store them in the desired variable. and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the response PSD and store it in the desired variable. Inc. 3.

substep . PSDRES.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. frequency tables) Spectrum values Damping ratio Base excitation Calculate participation factors Output controls 6–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ... Stress calcs.. . Obtain the covariance. ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Modal analysis Reduced method Master DOF ! Constraints ! Initiates solution ! Reenter SOLUTION ! Expansion pass ! Number of modes to expand PSDVAL. of modes. . . etc.0 PFACT. FINISH ! ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ANTYPE. .MODAL MODOPT... ANSYS Release 9. . DMPRAT.. .0 ..! Postprocess as desired .. . SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! Combine modes using PSD method /SOLU ! Re-enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.... TOTAL. Inc.SIGNIF...REDU M. .. PSDUNIT. (for spectrum values vs.SPECTR SPOPT. D. ! Read results from appropriate load step.....7. Sample Input A sample input listing for a random vibration (PSD) analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.5. .. No. 002114 .SPECTR ! Spectrum analysis PSDCOM. PRNSOL. SOLVE FINISH ! ! Obtain the Spectrum Solution /SOLU! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE..... . © SAS IP. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Expand the Modes /SOLU EXPASS. . NSORT. Command(s): *GET.! (PLDISP....NameVARI.PSD. ... /PREP7 . FINISH ! ! Calculate Response PSD /POST26 ! Enter POST26 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Spectrum analysis Power Spectral Density. /TITLE.EXTREM.) .ON MXPAND.. on/off Type of spectrum Frequency pts.n.. ... D.COMODE ! PSD mode combinations with significance factor and ! option for selecting a subset of modes for ! combination SOLVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST1 ! Enter POST1 SET.CVAR GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data 6.. PSDFRQ.. . . PLNSOL...

Mode combinations are done in the same manner as for a single-point response spectrum. If damping is specified. ANSYS Release 9. element real constants. SV.4.. Choose DDAM instead of SPRS as the spectrum type [SPOPT command].VARI.0 .EXREME. 6. PFACT. TOTAL. ! Calculate Covariance RESET NSOL.2 NSOL.MODAL and EXPASS. Use the ADDAM and VDDAM commands instead of SVTYP.ON] solution pass with a mode combination command. and FREQ to specify the spectrum values and types.CVAR ! FINISH Reset all POST26 specifications to initial defaults.1 ! ! ! ! Store frequency vector (variable 1) Define variable 2 (nodal data) Calculate response PSD (variable 3) Plot the response PSD ! ! ! ! ! *GET. PSDFRQ. VDDAM.2.. SED]. Define variable 3 (nodal data). 6. Note — As in the Single-point Response Spectrum analysis. DMPRAT.9: How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis STORE. with the following exceptions: • • • Use the British system of units [inches (not feet). Theory Reference. © SAS IP..3 . SPOPT. Inc. it is used for mode combinations but ignored for solution. etc. material properties. 002114 . • • DDAM spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program. the program computes the mode coefficients according to the empirical equations given in the ANSYS.4. DDAM spectrum analysis requires six steps to systematically perform the analysis. The "PSD-versus-frequency" tables now represent spectral values versus frequency.model geometry. Obtain covariance. Mode combinations require damping. 6–25 . D. pounds.3. Specify the global direction of excitation using the SED command.. Calculate covariance between displacement at nodes 2 and 3.9. PLVAR. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis The procedure for a DDAM spectrum analysis is the same as that for a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis (including file requirements). If you are using batch mode. Inc.CVAR23U. PSDUNIT. MODOPT.. M.. The most applicable mode combination method is the NRL sum method [NRLSUM]. with the following exceptions: • • Choose MPRS instead of PSD as the type of spectrum [SPOPT command]. How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis The procedure for a multi-point response spectrum analysis is the same as that for random vibration (PSD) analysis (including file requirements).3 CVAR.2.PSD NSOL. note the following: • • The modal solution and DDAM spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE.8.3. PSDVAL. PSDCOM.MODAL] solution pass with DDAM spectrum loads [ADDAM.. EXPASS.2.1. MXPAND. The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .] for all input data . etc.Section 6. Based on the coefficients specified in the ADDAM and VDDAM commands. Define variable 2 (nodal data). and PSDRES commands... No damping needs to be specified for solution because it is implied by the ADDAM and VDDAM commands. RPSD. SUMTYPE.

GRP. the corresponding velocity or acceleration responses are written to the mode combination file.e. All mode combination methods are available except PSDCOM. © SAS IP. or NRLSUM) during SOLUTION. Multi-point response spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program. . The overall response consists of the overall displacements and. Inc. the overall stresses. they are assumed to be uncorrelated). If Label = VELO or ACEL on the mode combination command (SRSS.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • • • You cannot specify any degree of correlation between the spectra (i. if placed on the results file during the modal expansion pass. strains. The commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by the mode combination command in SOLUTION). Results from a multi-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file.0 . CQC. ANSYS Release 9. and reaction forces.MCOM. Jobname. are calculated. in the form of POST1 commands. DSUM. 002114 . Only relative results (relative to the base excitation) not absolute values.. 6–26 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .

let's examine the differences between them before discussing the details of their implementation. and large-deflection response. Definition of Buckling Analysis Buckling analysis is a technique used to determine buckling loads .1 Buckling Curves (a) Nonlinear load-deflection curve. eigenvalue buckling analysis often yields unconservative results. as depicted in Figure 7. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength (the bifurcation point) of an ideal linear elastic structure.1: “Buckling Curves” (a). Since these two methods frequently yield quite different results. This technique employs a nonlinear static analysis with gradually increasing loads to seek the load level at which your structure becomes unstable. Thus.critical loads at which a structure becomes unstable .2. 7. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis Nonlinear buckling analysis is usually the more accurate approach and is therefore recommended for design or evaluation of actual structures. © SAS IP.1. an eigenvalue buckling analysis of a column will match the classical Euler solution. Figure 7.1: “Buckling Curves” (b). Using the nonlinear technique. your model can include features such as initial imperfections.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. Types of Buckling Analyses Two techniques are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. 002114 . (b) Linear (Eigenvalue) buckling curve ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .) This method corresponds to the textbook approach to elastic buckling analysis: for instance.2. 7.and buckled mode shapes . gaps. . such as "snap-through" buckling of a shallow dome).0 . and ANSYS Professional programs for predicting the buckling load and buckling mode shape of a structure: nonlinear buckling analysis.2. Inc. imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from achieving their theoretical elastic buckling strength. 7.the characteristic shape associated with a structure's buckled response. plastic behavior.2. ANSYS Structural. you can even track the post-buckled performance of your structure (which can be useful in cases where the structure buckles into a stable configuration. and eigenvalue (or linear) buckling analysis. and should generally not be used in actual day-to-day engineering analyses. ANSYS Release 9. However. In addition. ANSYS Mechanical.1. using deflection-controlled loading. (See Figure 7.

Section 7. you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. Likewise. Perform a preliminary analysis using the arc-length method [ARCLEN] to predict an approximate value of buckling load. which might be corrected by refining your modeling technique. or whether it reflects some other problem. 7. Be sure to use a sufficiently fine load increment as your loads approach the expected critical buckling load. The program normally converges to the limiting load as the process of bisection and resolution continues to the point at which the minimum time step increment (specified by DELTIM or NSUBST) is achieved. the program automatically seeks out the buckling load. You can usually ignore these messages if the program successfully obtains a converged solution at the next. each such convergence failure is typically accompanied by a "negative pivot" message indicating that the attempted load equals or exceeds the buckling load.3. The procedure for a static analysis is described in Chapter 2. The minimum time step will directly affect the precision of your results. 7. ANSYS Release 9. If automatic time stepping is ON in a static analysis having ramped loading and the solution does not converge at a given load.2. Compare this approximate value to the more precise value calculated using bisection to help determine if the structure has indeed reached its maximum load. Automatic Time Stepping With automatic time stepping on.0 . For detailed. reduced load.OFF] to ensure that a lower bound to the buckling load is attained. If the load increment is too coarse. extended to a point where the structure reaches its limit load or maximum load. 7.4.7: Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show you how to perform an example eigenvalue buckling analysis via the GUI or via commands.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 7. Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a buckling analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis.ON] to help avoid this problem.ON].ON]. but this method requires you to adjust the arc-length radius by trial-and-error in a series of manually directed reanalyses. In a buckling analysis. the buckling load predicted may not be accurate. you should run without adaptive descent active [NROPT. “Structural Static Analysis”. Important Remember that an unconverged solution does not necessarily mean that the structure has reached its maximum load. 7–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 7.4.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands. respectively.. 002114 . . Applying Load Increments The basic approach in a nonlinear buckling analysis is to constantly increment the applied loads until the solution begins to diverge. Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis A nonlinear buckling analysis is a static analysis with large deflections turned on [NLGEOM. It could also be caused by numerical instability. © SAS IP.1. and nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8. Track the load-deflection history of your structure's response to decide whether an unconverged load step represents actual structural buckling. Turn on bisection and automatic time stepping [AUTOTS. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. If stress stiffness is active [SSTIF. Other nonlinearities such as plasticity may be included in the analysis.4. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. the program bisects the load step increment and attempts a new solution at a smaller load. Inc.4.FULL. You can also use the arc-length method itself to obtain a precise buckling load.3.

(Merely establishing the fact that a structure is stable at a given load level is generally insufficient for most design practice. be sure to apply the proper type of loads. Therefore. Obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. Review the results. © SAS IP. Points to Remember • If the loading on the structure is perfectly in-plane (that is. activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1 and NLGEOM. Build the Model See Section 1. 3. BEAM189. Inc.1. Many other elements (such as BEAM188. Obtain the static solution.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. You should carry your stability analysis through to the point of identifying the critical load in order to calculate the structure's factor of safety with respect to nonlinear buckling.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis 7. to begin the buckling response. The failure load is very sensitive to these parameters. such as a modest temporary force or specified displacement. membrane or axial stresses only). • • • • • 7. For further details. (A preliminary eigenvalue buckling analysis of your structure may be useful as a predictor of the buckling mode shape. 7. 002114 .5.0 . Expand the solution. 7–3 . and SHELL181) will provide consistent tangent stiffness matrix with NLGEOM.) You can extend your analysis into the post-buckled range by activating the arc-length method [ARCLEN]. which can only be determined by establishing the actual limit load. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and should usually not be used for design of actual structures. In a large-deflection analysis. 4. 2.ON.4. follow this procedure: 1. remember that eigenvalue buckling analysis generally yields unconservative results.5. To overcome this problem. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. If you decide that eigenvalue buckling analysis is appropriate for your application. apply a small out-of-plane perturbation. SHELL63.) The imperfection (perturbation) induced should match the location and size of that in the real structure.ON) to enhance the convergence behavior of your nonlinear buckling analyses and improve the accuracy of your results.4. Use this feature to trace the load-deflection curve through regions of "snap-through" and "snap-back" response. and the analysis will fail to predict buckling behavior. For those elements that support the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (BEAM4. the out-ofplane deflections necessary to initiate buckling will not develop. you will usually be required to provide a specified safety factor. This element KEYOPT must be defined before the first load step of the solution and cannot be changed once the solution has started. 5. forces (and displacements) will maintain their original orientation. Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Again. but surface loads will "follow" the changing geometry of the structure as it deflects.Section 7. Build the model. and SHELL143). allowing you to choose appropriate locations for applying perturbations to stimulate the desired buckling response. ANSYS Release 9.

using different values of A. 002114 .2 Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their status after the static prestress run and are never changed. One strategy that you can use to achieve this end is to iterate on the eigensolution. All loads are scaled. ANSYS Release 9. The eigenvalues found in the buckling solution will be the load factors applied to these nonzero constraint values.0.1.0.000. you need to ensure that the stress stiffness matrix from the constant loads is not factored by the eigenvalue solution. Eigenvalue buckling analysis requires the stress stiffness matrix to be calculated.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. the maximum permissible eigenvalue is 1. adjusting the variable loads until the eigenvalue becomes 1.you must use larger applied loads if your eigenvalue exceeds this limit. Nonlinear properties. with the following exceptions: • • Prestress effects [PSTRES] must be activated. To determine the limiting value of A in an eigenvalue buckling solution. you could solve repetitively. If certain loads are constant (for example. leave SOLUTION [FINISH]. within some convergence tolerance). for example. the load factors represent the buckling loads. If you include contact elements.0 • You can apply a nonzero constraint in the prestressing pass as the static load. The eigenvalues calculated by the buckling analysis represent buckling load factors. Material properties may be linear.0 (or nearly 1. externally applied loads). isotropic or orthotropic. A. “Structural Static Analysis”.5.5.2. are treated as linear. Therefore. Design optimization could be useful in driving this iterative procedure to a final answer. if any. Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid.000 . (Also. for example. At the end of the solution. which supports an externally-applied load. Inc.) Note that eigenvalues represent scaling factors for all loads. However. the mode shapes will have a zero value at these degrees of freedom (and not the nonzero value specified). if any.0 . . actual load values need not be specified). Unit loads are usually sufficient (that is. • Figure 7. a pole having a self-weight W0. until by iteration you find an eigenvalue acceptably close to 1. Consider. Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) must be defined. Nonlinear elements. if a unit load is specified. • 7. • 7–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Obtain the Static Solution The procedure to obtain a static solution is the same as described in Chapter 2. and constant or temperature-dependent. © SAS IP. are ignored.1. self-weight gravity loads) while other loads are variable (for example.

Section 7. Method. which is usually sufficient for eigenvalue buckling. Specify load step options. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu.5. In this document. see Section 3. The Block Lanczos and subspace iteration methods use the full system matrices. 1. solution options that are valid for you to use.2. Command(s): BUCOPT. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. 002114 . © SAS IP. we treat the expansion pass as a separate step.5. The shift point is helpful when numerical problems are encountered (due to negative eigenvalues. You can choose subspace iteration or Block Lanczos. 3.NSOL. NMODE. See Section 3.0 . For details. the database must contain the model data (issue RESUME if necessary). • • 4. This argument defaults to one.4: Expand the Solution for details. Inc. Command(s): ANTYPE. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for buckling analyses. Command(s): SAVE ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . specify the number of eigenvalues to be extracted. specify the eigenvalue extraction method. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is.5.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. The only load step options valid for eigenvalue buckling are output controls and expansion pass options.BUCKLE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Note — Restarts are not valid in an eigenvalue buckling analysis. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. for example).EMAT and Jobname.ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout You can make the expansion pass a part of the eigenvalue buckling solution or perform it as a separate step. The Solution menu will be either "abridged" or "unabridged". Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Specify the analysis type. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). Also. SHIFT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method. 5. Specify analysis options. a Solution menu that is appropriate for buckling analyses appears. For NMODE.3: Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] in this manual for more information about these solution methods. 2. Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution This step requires files Jobname. Defaults to 0. ANSYS Release 9. Follow the steps below to obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. See Section 7. For SHIFT. depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. you can specify values for these options: • For Method.ESAV from the static analysis. Command(s): OUTPR.3.0. Note — When you specify an eigenvalue buckling analysis. specify the point (load factor) about which eigenvalues are calculated.5. 7–5 .5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis 7.

7.5. which uses full system matrices. 2.4. Inc. In the case of the subspace iteration method. To do this. Exit the SOLUTION processor. ANSYS Release 9. which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname. Negative eigenvalues indicate that buckling occurs when the loads are applied in an opposite sense. . so you cannot postprocess the results yet. 7–6 . No buckling mode shapes are written to the database or the results file. 002114 . Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The output from the solution mainly consists of the eigenvalues.ON GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Specify expansion pass options. Command(s): EXPASS. specify the number of modes to expand. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Expanding the Solution The procedure to expand the mode shapes is explained below. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . . NMODE. the following options are required for the expansion pass: • For NMODE. The database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. you need to expand the solution (explained next). 3. © SAS IP. 7. Sometimes you may see both positive and negative eigenvalues calculated.4. if unit loads were applied in the static analysis. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass.4.0 .5. The eigenvalues represent the buckling load factors.MODE) from the eigenvalue buckling solution must be available. Start solution calculations. Specify that this is an expansion pass. you may think of "expansion" to simply mean writing buckled mode shapes to the results file. they are the buckling loads.2. 1. Expand the Solution If you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). Command(s): MXPAND. This argument defaults to the total number of modes that were extracted. you must expand the solution regardless of which eigenvalue extraction method is used.OUT). Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As 6. 7.5. Reenter SOLUTION. 7. Elcalc GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method.1.

By default. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and.RST) from the expansion pass must be available. Jobname. the results file (Jobname. 7–7 . 7. the general postprocessor. for instance. Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. buckling mode shapes.RST).0 . that is. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname. 4. The only options valid in a buckling expansion pass are the following output controls: • Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. "Stresses" in an eigenvalue analysis do not represent actual stresses. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 6.5. You can now review results in the postprocessor. Note — To review results in POST1. List all buckling load factors.5. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. 002114 . Inc.Section 7. if requested. Specify load step options.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis • For Elcalc. © SAS IP. 5.OUT). but give you an idea of the relative stress or force distribution for each mode.LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Results Summary ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> DB/Results File Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. Leave the SOLUTION processor.you cannot write information for every other mode. ANSYS Release 9. the data can be requested for all modes or no modes . You can make it part of the eigenvalue buckling solution by including the MXPAND command (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes) as one of the analysis options.RST. They consist of buckling load factors. Also. no stresses are calculated. Command(s): SET. Start expansion pass calculations. and relative stress distributions. the database must contain the same model for which the buckling solution was calculated (issue RESUME if necessary). Review the Results Results from a buckling expansion pass are written to the structural results file. You can review them in POST1. relative stress distributions for each mode. indicate whether you want ANSYS to calculate stresses. 1.

Read in data for the desired mode to display buckling mode shapes. 7–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 4.) Command(s): SET. EXPASS. The boundary conditions become free-fixed for the half-symmetry model. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi The following geometric properties are used for this problem: = 200 in A = 0. The bar has a cross-sectional height h.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the mode shape. you will analyze the buckling of a bar with hinged ends. The moment of inertia of the bar is calculated as I = Ah2/12 = 0. PSTRES. OUTRES. and area A. D.0052083 in4. PLDISP. 7. ANSYS Release 9.6.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 2. Problem Description Determine the critical buckling load of an axially loaded long slender bar of length with hinged ends.1. 7.5 in Loading for this problem is: F = 1 lb. SET. BUCOPT.2. F.0 . Only the upper half of the bar is modeled because of symmetry. © SAS IP. 7. SF. Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Contour the relative stress distributions. .25 in2 h = 0. Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem.6. and PLNSOL commands.6. Inc. (Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. 002114 . MXPAND. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution 3.

click on "Structural Beam" to select it. follow these steps to set the title. and then click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. 5.3. In the scroll box on the left. Set the Analysis Title After you enter the ANSYS program. 1. Problem Sketch Figure 7.2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Enter the text "Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends" and click on OK. 1. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 4.0 .3. 7.6. In the scroll box on the right.Section 7.3 Bar with Hinged Ends 7.6. Inc.3.1. 7–9 . Define the Element Type In this step. Click on OK. you define BEAM3 as the element type. 002114 . Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. 2. © SAS IP. 3. 2.6. click on "2D elastic 3" to select it. ANSYS Release 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Click on Add. The Element Types dialog box appears.

0 for the X. 8. choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options and select the "Not Shown" option for Location of triad. Click on Add. 13. Enter 1 for node number. Click on OK to accept the settings (fill between nodes 1 and 11. double-click on the following options: Structural. ANSYS Release 9. 6. 002114 . The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. hides the node number for node 1. Click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. The Copy Elements (Automatically-Numbered) dialog box appears. then click on OK. A dialog box appears. Isotropic. 12. Define the Real Constants and Material Properties 1. 7–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 7.3. 4. 3. 9. Click on nodes 1 and 2. 7. 52083e-7 for IZZ. Elastic. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's modulus). Click on OK.0. The Copy Elems Auto-Num picking menu appears. Define Nodes and Elements 1. In the Material Models Available window. The two nodes appear in the ANSYS Graphics window. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. and click on OK. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.25 for area. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Copy> Elements> Auto Numbered.6. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. 10. and number of nodes to fill 9). 15. Enter 0.3. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. 5. 3. 9. 8. 6. Click on OK. Enter 11 for node number. The Real Constants dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 10. 14. Enter 10 for total number of copies and enter 1 for node number increment. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete.4.5 for height. Z coordinates. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds.0. To turn the triad off. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. The remaining elements appear in the ANSYS Graphics window. © SAS IP. Enter . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes.0 . and click on OK. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. Click on Apply. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box.6. Click on OK. and . by default. Then click OK to close the dialog box. Y. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 5. Linear. Click on Pick All. 4. 2. Note — The triad.3. 2. Inc. then 11. Click on node 1. 7. Node location defaults to 0.100.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. .

3.3.7. Carefully review the information in the status window. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. and click on OK.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. then click on OK. then click OK. scroll to "FY" to select it. 6. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . In the scroll box for stress stiffness or prestress. 7.Section 7. Inc. The Apply U. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 7. The Apply U. and click on OK.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. In the scroll box for Direction of force/mom. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Click on node 1 in the ANSYS Graphics window.3. Note — Click on Close in the Warning window if the following warning appears: Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step.6. The force symbol appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. The Static or SteadyState Analysis dialog box appears. Solve the Buckling Analysis 1.6. 7–11 . 7. and click on OK. Solve the Static Analysis 1. 11. Click on node 11. 7. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 12. In the New Analysis dialog box. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 4.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 8. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. 6. 5. 2. then click on OK in the picking menu. 2. 8. and click on Close.3. scroll to "Prestress ON" to select it. © SAS IP. Click OK to accept the default of "Static. 3. The Eigenvalue Buckling Options dialog box appears. 10. ANSYS Release 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. click the "Eigen Buckling" option on. The New Analysis dialog box appears. Click on "All DOF" to select it. Click on OK. 2. 002114 ." Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Click on the "Block Lanczos" option. This will reset the load step count to 1. Click on OK. Enter 1 for number of modes to expand.6. Enter -1 for the force/moment value. and enter 1 for number of modes to extract. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes.6. Define the Boundary Conditions 1. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished. 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.0 . 4. 4.

STATIC PSTRES.1. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished.BUCKLE BUCOPT. Click on OK. © SAS IP. the ANSYS Verification 7–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.BEAM3 ! Beam element R. click on Quit.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 9.11.52083E-7. and click on Close.FY. 7.11.ON D. height MP. /PREP7 /TITLE.1 FINISH ! ! ! ! Static analysis Calculate prestress effects Fix symmetry ends Unit load at free end ! Buckling analysis ! Use Block Lanczos solution method.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears.3. 002114 . 2.7. . Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example buckling analysis of a bar with hinged ends using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set.6.1.25.EX. 7.1 MXPAND.ALL F. Click the "Def + undeformed" option on.9.1.1 N.FIRST PLDISP.8.3. describe additional buckling analyses.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. The deformed and undeformed shapes appear in the ANSYS graphics window.100 FILL E.. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program.-1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.30E6 ! Define material properties N. Review the Results 1. Inc..IZZ. Exit ANSYS 1. In the ANSYS Toolbar..1.LANB. Carefully review the information in the status window. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. 7. 10. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.1. 3. BUCKLING OF A BAR WITH HINGED SOLVES ET.2 EGEN.8.10. Choose the save option you want and click on OK.0 .6.1. extract 1 mode ! Expand 1 mode shape 7. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. 11.5 ! Area.

Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Area Elements) ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 7–13 . 002114 .Snap-Through Buckling of a Hinged Shell VM127 .Section 7. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. Inc. The ANSYS Verification Manual contains a variety of buckling analysis test cases: VM17 . © SAS IP. However.0 . ANSYS Release 9.Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Line Elements) VM128 .8: Where to Find Other Examples Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.

7–14 .

Inc.1. .a changing structural stiffness. the metal staples are permanently bent into a different shape. Causes of Nonlinear Behavior Nonlinear structural behavior arises from a number of causes. (See Figure 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.) If you were to plot the load-deflection curve for each of these examples. you would discover that they all exhibit the fundamental characteristic of nonlinear structural behavior . the contact surfaces between its pneumatic tires and the underlying pavement change in response to the added load.) As weight is added to a car or truck.) If you heavily load a wooden shelf. © SAS IP. Figure 8. ANSYS Release 9. it will sag more and more as time passes. (See Figure (b).1 Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior 8. whenever you staple two pieces of paper together. 002114 .1: “Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior” (a). (See Figure (c). which can be grouped into these principal categories: • • • Changing status Geometric nonlinearities Material nonlinearities ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 .1.1. What is Structural Nonlinearity? You encounter structural nonlinearities on a routine basis. For instance.

and the amount of time that a load is applied (as in creep response). Geometric nonlinearity is characterized by "large" displacements and/or rotations. Figure 8. a tensiononly cable is either slack or taut. 002114 . See the ANSYS Contact Technology Guide for detailed information on performing contact analyses using ANSYS.3. Changing Status (Including Contact) Many common structural features exhibit nonlinear behavior that is status-dependent. Situations in which contact occurs are common to many different nonlinear applications. .1. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ANSYS employs the "Newton-Raphson" approach to solve nonlinear problems.2. 8. In this approach. the load is subdivided into a series of load increments.2. For example. environmental conditions (such as temperature). An example would be the fishing rod shown in Figure 8. 8.3: “Newton-Raphson Approach” illustrates the use of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations in a single DOF nonlinear analysis.1.1. Inc.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. © SAS IP.2 A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity 8. The load increments can be applied over several load steps. or they might be determined by some external cause.1.1.0 .1. Figure 8. Geometric Nonlinearities If a structure experiences large deformations. Material Nonlinearities Nonlinear stress-strain relationships are a common cause of nonlinear structural behavior.2: “A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity”. Status changes might be directly related to load (as in the case of the cable). Many factors can influence a material's stress-strain properties. including load history (as in elastoplastic response). ANSYS Release 9.1. its changing geometric configuration can cause the structure to respond nonlinearly.1. 8–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . a roller support is either in contact or not in contact. Contact forms a distinctive and important subset to the category of changing-status nonlinearities.

the Newton-Raphson method evaluates the out-of-balance load vector. In some nonlinear static analyses. thereby often preventing divergence. Inc. deflection curve becomes zero or negative. A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features.4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. automatic load stepping. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . 002114 . ANSYS Release 9. The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations to converge along an arc. if you use the Newton-Raphson method alone. This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges. If convergence cannot be achieved. the stiffness matrix is updated. you can activate an alternative iteration scheme. ArcLength Method”. If convergence criteria are not satisfied. The program then performs a linear solution. such as line search. which is the difference between the restoring forces (the loads corresponding to the element stresses) and the applied loads. Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to another stable configuration.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? Figure 8. even when the slope of the load vs. using the out-of-balance loads. can be activated to help the problem to converge. and checks for convergence.3 Newton-Raphson Approach Before each solution.Section 8. and a new solution is obtained. the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or non-unique). 8–3 . to help avoid bifurcation points and track unloading. causing severe convergence difficulties. the arc-length method. then the program attempts to solve with a smaller load increment. and bisection. © SAS IP. This iteration method is represented schematically in Figure 8. For such situations. the out-of-balance load vector is reevaluated.

4 Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. Inc. 002114 . Arc-Length Method To summarize. • • Figure 8. and Time 8–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. the program will perform a number of equilibrium iterations to obtain a converged solution.5: “Load Steps.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.5 Load Steps. a nonlinear analysis is organized into three levels of operation: • The "top" level consists of the load steps that you define explicitly over a "time" span (see the discussion of "time" in Chapter 2. Substeps. Loads are assumed to vary linearly within load steps (for static analyses). substeps. At each substep. and Time” illustrates a typical load history for a nonlinear analysis. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Figure 8. you can direct the program to perform several solutions (substeps or time steps) to apply the load gradually. Also see the discussion of load steps.0 . and equilibrium iterations in Chapter 2. Substeps. Within each load step. . © SAS IP. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).

Displacement-based (and. Additionally. ANSYS provides automatic time stepping that is designed for this purpose. Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior. 8. each item can have a different convergence tolerance value. Automatic time stepping adjusts the time step size as needed.0 . moment-based) convergence tolerance.6 Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior 8. or on any combination of these items.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? The ANSYS program gives you a number of choices when you designate convergence criteria: you can base convergence checking on forces. Substeps When using multiple substeps. Automatic time stepping activates the ANSYS program's bisection feature. small time step sizes) usually result in better accuracy.1. If energy is dissipated by the system (such as by plastic deformation or sliding friction).1. An example of a nonconservative system is shown in Figure 8. rotation-based) convergence checking can be added. This feature will cut a time step size in half whenever equilibrium iterations fail to converge and automatically restart from the last converged ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . but should usually not be used alone. Conversely. moments. you need to achieve a balance between accuracy and economy: more substeps (that is. Figure 8. Path dependent problems usually require that loads be applied slowly (that is.2. © SAS IP. An analysis can also be path dependent if more than one solution could be valid for a given load level (as in a snap-through analysis). Bisection provides a means of automatically recovering from a convergence failure. gaining a better balance between accuracy and economy. when applicable. when applicable. the system is said to be conservative. Path Dependency If all energy put into a system by external loads is recovered when the loads are removed. ANSYS Release 9. For multiple-degree-of-freedom problems. but at a cost of increased run times. if desired. An analysis of a conservative system is path independent: loads can usually be applied in any order and in any number of increments without affecting the end results.2.1. or rotations.Section 8. Inc. the system is said to be nonconservative. You should almost always employ a force-based (and. 8–5 . 002114 . displacements.6: “Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior”. you also have a choice of convergence norms. an analysis of a nonconservative system is path dependent: the actual load-response history of the system must be followed closely to obtain accurate results. using many substeps) to the final load value.2.

The main difference between the static and transient procedures is that time-integration effects can be activated in the transient analysis.2. Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis Consider what happens to loads when your structure experiences large deflections. . In other cases. regardless of the element orientation. forces will change direction. Inc. Figure 8.3. Pressure loads always act normal to the deflected element surface. the loads applied to your system maintain constant direction no matter how the structure deflects.2. and the program performs equilibrium iterations at each step. Accelerations and concentrated forces maintain their original orientation. 8. "time" always represents actual chronology in a transient analysis. If the halved time step again fails to converge.1. ANSYS Release 9. 002114 .0 .7: “Load Directions Before and After Deflection” illustrates constant-direction and following forces. The ANSYS program can model both situations.4. 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis substep.7 Load Directions Before and After Deflection 8. Note — Nodal coordinate system orientations are not updated in a large deflection analysis. Calculated displacements are therefore output in the original directions.2. Using Geometric Nonlinearities Small deflection and small strain analyses assume that displacements are small enough that the resulting stiffness changes are insignificant. continuing the process until convergence is achieved or until the minimum time step size (specified by you) is reached.1. "following" the elements as they undergo large rotations. Thus. In many instances. Figure 8. 8–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . bisection will again cut the time step size and restart. The automatic time stepping and bisection feature is also applicable for transient analyses. depending on the type of load applied. and can be used to model "following" forces. Nonlinear Transient Analyses The procedure for analyzing nonlinear transient behavior is similar to that used for nonlinear static behavior: you apply the load in incremental steps. © SAS IP.

) 8. To convert from engineering stress to true stress. This coupling between in-plane stress and transverse stiffness.2.see below. A drumhead. large strain analyses account for the stiffness changes that result from changes in an element's shape and orientation.2.2. (This stress conversion is valid only for incompressible plasticity stress-strain data. or linear. in some structural systems (such as in Figure 8. For small-strain regions of response. Issue NLGEOM. highly stressed structures. if indicated as such in the ANSYS Elements Reference.ON (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) to activate large deflection effects for those elements that are designed for small strain analysis types that support this feature.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (b)). use εln = ln (1 + εeng). Large Deflections with Small Strain This feature is available in all beam and most shell elements. 8–7 . © SAS IP. Stress Stiffening The out-of-plane stiffness of a structure can be significantly affected by the state of in-plane stress in that structure. 8. known as stress stiffening. Large strain effects are not available in the ANSYS Professional program.1. which gains lateral stiffness as it is tightened.ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.1. (Certain ANSYS element types will be subject to practical limitations on total strain .0 .1.) However. true strain would be expressed as ε = ln ( / 0). theory. ANSYS Release 9. use σtrue = σeng (1 + εeng). 002114 . the procedure requires that strain increments must be restricted to maintain accuracy. true strain and engineering strain are essentially identical. 8. In other systems (such as in Figure 8.2.) To convert strain from small (engineering) strain to logarithmic strain. such as cables or membranes.Section 8. (In one dimension. The large strain procedure places no theoretical limit on the total rotation or strain experienced by an element. However. you activate large strain effects in those element types that support this feature. all stress-strain input and results will be in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain. as well as in a number of the nonlinear elements. Thus.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (a)). Stress-Strain In large strain solutions. large deflection effects (NLGEOM command) are supported for shell and beam elements in ANSYS Professional. is most pronounced in thin. The large strain feature is available in most of the solid elements (including all of the large strain and hyperelastic elements). the total load should be broken into smaller steps. the stiffening stress is only obtainable by performing a large deflection analysis. By issuing NLGEOM. would be a common example of a stress-stiffened structure. the stiffening stress is obtainable using small deflection.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities In contrast. Even though stress stiffening theory assumes that an element's rotations and strains are small. as well as in most of the shell and beam elements.

8.3.ON] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). The adjustment approximates the effects of geometry changes due to large deflection circumferential motion in a small deflection analysis. at different temperatures). time. viscoplasticity.2. initial stiffness effects are automatically included when large deformation effects are activated [NLGEOM. TBPT. Nonlinear constitutive models (TB command. and stress. TBDELE] (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Nonlinear) to define the nonlinear material property 8–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . typically.FAIL) are not applicable for the ANSYS Professional program. Inc. neutron flux level (or some analogous quantity). and stress-related.1. Modeling Material Nonlinearities A number of material-related factors can cause your structure's stiffness to change during the course of an analysis. TBCOPY.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. large deflection. Swelling will induce strains that can be a function of temperature. TBTEMP. Creep.3. Any of these kinds of material properties can be incorporated into an ANSYS analysis if you use appropriate element types. ANSYS Release 9. . and hyperelastic materials will cause a structure's stiffness to change at different load levels (and. Spin softening is activated by the KSPIN field on the OMEGA and CMOMEGA commands (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Inertiav Angular Velocity). then you must use the TB family of commands [TB. It should not be used with the other deformation nonlinearities.3. It is usually used in conjunction with prestressing [PSTRES] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). For most elements. temperature-. except for TB. or large strain. Spin Softening Spin softening adjusts (softens) the stiffness matrix of a rotating body for dynamic mass effects. TBLIST. you must issue PSTRES. rate-. 8. 8.ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) in your first load step. which is caused by centrifugal force in the rotating body. TBPLOT. multilinear elastic. TBDATA.8 Stress-Stiffened Beams To use stress stiffening in the second category of systems. Large strain and large deflection procedures include initial stress effects as a subset of their theory.0 . © SAS IP. Nonlinear stress-strain relationships of plastic. and viscoelasticity will give rise to nonlinearities that can be time-. Nonlinear Materials If a material displays nonlinear or rate-dependent stress-strain behavior. 002114 .

1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities relationships in terms of a data table. If you expect large deformations in your structure.0 . © SAS IP.Section 8. the ANSYS program assumes that these two points are coincident in plasticity analyses (see Figure 8. material stress-strain properties must be input in terms of true stress and logarithmic strain. The maximum plastic strain is printed with the substep summary information in your output (Jobname. path-dependent phenomenon. Figure 8. by reducing the load step size after a load step in which a large number of equilibrium iterations was performed or in which a plastic strain increment greater than 15% was encountered. 8–9 . Plasticity is a nonconservative. the sequence in which loads are applied and in which plastic responses occur affects the final solution results. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the stress-strain relationship will become nonlinear. 8. Plastic behavior. so that your model will follow the load-response path as closely as possible. See Data Tables . Inc.Implicit Analysis in the ANSYS Elements Reference for specific details for each material behavior type. In particular. Because there is usually little difference between the yield point and the proportional limit. characterized by nonrecoverable strain. Plasticity Most common engineering materials exhibit a linear stress-strain relationship up to a stress level known as the proportional limit. 002114 .1. Other kinds of nonlinear behavior might also occur along with plasticity. Beyond this limit. but will not necessarily become inelastic. For large strain analyses. begins when stresses exceed the material's yield point. The exact form of these commands varies depending on the type of nonlinear material behavior being defined.OUT). If too large a step was taken. The different material behavior options are described briefly below.3. In other words. If you anticipate plastic response in your analysis. you should apply loads as a series of small incremental load steps or time steps. the program will bisect and resolve using a smaller step size. you must activate these effects in your analysis with the NLGEOM command (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options).9: “Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve”). ANSYS Release 9.9 Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve The automatic time stepping feature [AUTOTS] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time and Substps) will respond to plasticity after the fact. large deflection and large strain geometric nonlinearities will often be associated with plastic material response.

.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. Inc. The Bilinear Kinematic Hardening (BKIN) option assumes the total stress range is equal to twice the yield stress.1. ANSYS Release 9. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.1.0.3. TBTEMP. © SAS IP.1. /XRANGE.1. see Section 8.0 TBDATA.1.8E6 TBLIST.1. You may incorporate other options into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).000.10 Kinematic Hardening (a) Bilinear kinematic hardening.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.EX.0 .1.1 /XRANGE.10: “Kinematic Hardening”(a) illustrates a typical display [TBPLOT] of bilinear kinematic hardening properties. TBDATA.500 MP.44E3.0. Stress-strain-temperature data are demonstrated in the following example. It is not recommended for large-strain applications. Tangent modulus = 0. MPTEMP. 002114 .BKIN. Also. Tangent modulus = 1.2 TBTEMP.0.0. This option is recommended for general small-strain use for materials that obey von Mises yield criteria (which includes most metals).29.0 Yield = 44.3.330. (b) Multilinear kinematic hardening 8–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .01 TBPLOT. You can combine the BKIN option with creep and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. TBLIST. Figure 8. Figure 8.1. MP. Plastic Material Options Several options are available for describing plasticity behavior.01 Display the data table See the MPTEMP.0. so that the Bauschinger effect is included (see Figure 8.BKIN.11: “Bauschinger Effect”).2E6 Temperature = 500 Yield = 29.1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define temperatures for Young's modulus C0 and C1 terms for Young's modulus Activate a data table Temperature = 0.2E6 TBTEMP.12E6.8E6 List the data table X-axis of TBPLOT to extend from varepsilon=0 to 0.1.BKIN.33E3.500 TBDATA. TB.-8E3 TB.

0900.0 Strain = 0.0.09088.0.12926. PLANE182.1.0000. and more points per curve (20 vs. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.0.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. Also.05 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate a data table Temperature = 20.3.0. plastic strain curve..0 . Inc..008.2000.3 TBTEMP. and SHELL209..0.2 TBPT.0.1.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0.20.1000.1.0 TBPT.1.2013. 5).09088.0.2 TBPT.0 TBPT.12926.3 TBTEMP.. 5).05 In this example.1012. SOLID187. Stress = 0..3 TBTEMP. TB.0 TBPT.008. ! Plastic Strain = 0..05 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 20.0.0 TBPT. 002114 .0.0.3 Stress = 0.0 Stress = 1.2 Strain = 0.1. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 9..000.1012.0 Strain = 0. ! Plastic Strain = 0. The assumption is that the corresponding points on the different stressstrain curves represent the temperature dependent yield behavior of a particular sublayer. ! Temperature = 40.strain behavior is the same as the previous sample.PLASTIC TBTEMP.10: “Kinematic Hardening”(b) illustrates typical stressstrain curves for the MKIN option.1. if you define more than one stress-strain curve for temperature dependent properties.001. KINH is preferred for use over MKIN because it uses Rice's model where the total plastic strains remain constant by scaling the sublayers. so that the Bauschinger effect is included.40.2.2013.1. Figure 8.008.0.. Stress = 1.001.1.0 Strain = 0. the third point in the two stress-strain curves defines the temperature-dependent yield behavior of the third sublayer.0 TBPT.0. For either option. You can combine either of these options with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors.1. ! Plastic Strain = 0.0 TBPT. Stress = 1.0 TBPT. then each curve should contain the same number of points.0000. SOLSH190.2 Stress = 1.. SOLID186. A typical stress.plastic strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example. Also.KINH.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0.. Stress = 1.0. you can use TBOPT = 4 (or PLASTIC) to define the stress vs.09088.0 Strain = 0. 8–11 . KINH allows you to define more stress-strain curves (40 vs.Section 8. ! Plastic Strain = 0.2013.1. BEAM189. see Section 8.9 TBPT. when KINH is used with LINK180. The plastic strain can be converted from total strain as follows: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . SOLID185. also called the sublayer or overlay model. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example.20. TB. PLANE183.1.9 Stress = 1.1290.9 Strain = 0..05 In this example.40.12926. Stress = 1.3. These options are not recommended for large-strain analyses.0 TBPT. SHELL181.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8. the stress ..3 Temperature = 40. BEAM188. except now the strain value is the plastic strain.9 TBPT. Stress = 1.11 Bauschinger Effect The Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (KINH and MKIN) options use the Besseling model.1. Stress = 1.1012.2.0 Stress = 1.0.KINH. SHELL208.

you can use the CHABOCHE option to simulate monotonic hardening and the Bauschinger effect.0 ! Temperature = 0. where n is the number of kinematic models.1.1. The MISO option can contain up to 20 different temperature curves.C11.1. C23. MPTEMP. Inc.3. with up to 100 different stress-strain points allowed 8–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . C24. Also. This option is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories in small-strain analyses. The Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening (CHABOCHE) option uses the Chaboche model. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. recommended for large strain analyses. which is a multi-component nonlinear kinematic hardening model that allows you to superpose several kinematic models.43. ANSYS Release 9. You can combine BISO with Chaboche.500 ! Temperature = 500 TBDATA. MP..0 .C2. see Section 8.7E3.37E3.1 TBDATA. TBTEMP.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.1.33E3. Inc. You can also combine this option with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors.C21. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.0 TBTEMP.C14. MISO.EX.1. Theory Reference for details.2 ! Activate a data table TBTEMP. The model has 1 + 2 x n constants.0. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.65E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 0. C13. C22.STRAIN ! Next TBDATA values are strains TBDATA.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Plastic Stain = (total strain . C14.-8E3 ! as in BKIN example TB. It is. Inc.15E-3 ! Strains for all temps TBTEMP. MP.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. 002114 .3E3. © SAS IP.40. You define the material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands. Also.1. viscoplastic.1. .3. except that a multilinear curve is used instead of a bilinear curve.C12. creep.67E-3. TBTEMP. and is defined by NPTS in the TB command. you have the further capability of simulating cyclic hardening or softening. TB.C1. This model is suitable for large strain analysis. The Bilinear Isotropic Hardening (BISO) option uses the von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic work hardening assumption.7E-3.0.MKIN.60E3.CHABOCHE.C24.1.44E3. and NLISO.0.50E3.C22. The Multilinear Isotropic Hardening (MISO) option is like the bilinear isotropic hardening option. C2. This option is often preferred for large strain analyses. The following example is a typical data table with no temperature dependency and one kinematic model: TB.10E-3. see Section 8.C25 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate CHABOCHE data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11.3. See the ANSYS.stress)/Young's Modulus.100 TBDATA. Like the BKIN and MKIN options.C3 ! Activate CHABOCHE data table ! Values for constants C1.55E3. and C3 The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants with two kinematic models at two temperature points: TB. C12.200 TBDATA.MKIN.29. By combining the CHABOCHE option with isotropic hardening model options BISO. however. This option also allows you to simulate the ratcheting and shakedown effect of materials. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using MKIN is demonstrated by this example. and C15 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21.2.1 Please see the MPTEMP.C13. TBDATA.12E6. Theory Reference for details.47E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 500 /XRANGE.5E-3. See the ANSYS.C23.1. TBPT.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX.C15 TBTEMP.CHABOCHE. and C25 at second temperature Please see the TB.0 TBDATA.2 TBTEMP.0. /XRANGE.02 TBPLOT.1.

DEFI.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities per curve.DEFI. stress at temperature = 500 See the MPTEMP. You can combine this option with nonlinear kinematic hardening (CHABOCHE) for simulating cyclic hardening or softening.0. The Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening (NLISO) option is based on the Voce hardening law (see the ANSYS.0.2.DEFI.DEFI. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.3 TB.0.2E-3.10E-3.0.29.7E3 TBPT. The stress-straintemperature curves from the MKIN example would be input for a multilinear isotropic hardening material as follows: /prep7 MPTEMP. Also. TB.15E-3.40. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.43. /XRANGE. 8–13 .5 TBTEMP.10E-3.2.423e6 MPDATA. MP. MPDATA.55E3 TBPT.1. Inc.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX..EX. © SAS IP.0.500 TBPT.DEFI. Inc.02 TBPLOT.37E3 TBPT. You can also combine the MISO option with creep.15E-3.65E3 TBTEMP.47E3 /XRANGE.DEFI.1.1 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 0.665E6.33E3 TBPT.12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”).5E-3.7E-3.1. TBPT.MISO.0 ! Strain.DEFI.DEFI.27.33E3 TBPT. The NLISO option is a variation of BISO where an exponential saturation hardening term is appended to the linear term (see Figure 8.DEFI. ANSYS Release 9. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. TBTEMP.. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .14. 002114 . see Section 8. Theory Reference for details).60E3 TBPT. stress at temperature = 0 ! Temperature = 500 ! Strain.1.Section 8.2E-3.PRXY.3E3 TBPT.5E-3.50E3 TBPT.3.MISO.7E-3.DEFI. Strain points can differ from curve to curve.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. viscoplastic.12.0 TBPT.0 .

C12. The Anisotropic (ANISO) option allows for different bilinear stress-strain behavior in the material x. C22. It is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories since work hardening is assumed. The yield stresses and slopes are not totally independent (see the ANSYS. You can obtain the material constants by fitting material tension stress-strain curves. 002114 . See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.0 .12 NLISO Stress-Strain Curve The advantage of this model is that the material behavior is defined as a specified function which has four material constants that you define through the TBDATA command.C11. and z directions as well as different behavior in tension. Theory Reference for details). This option is suitable for large strain analyses. y. C24 at second temperature Please see the TB. Also.3.200 TBDATA.C24 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate NLISO data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11. see Section 8.1. C13. This option is applicable to metals that have undergone some previous deformation (such as rolling).1. ANSYS Release 9. .12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”. and shear.1 TBTEMP. C23. TBTEMP. C14 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21. The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants at two temperature points: TB.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. Inc.C22.C23. Unlike MISO. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. this model is only applicable to the tensile curve like the one shown in Figure 8.C21. Inc.C14 TBTEMP. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. viscoplastic. However.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.NLISO.C12.C13. compression.100 TBDATA. there is no need to be concerned about how to appropriately define the pairs of the material stress-strain points. You can combine NLISO with Chaboche. creep. 8–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.

when combined with other material options simulates plasticity.140E-01.UNIAXIAL command to enter the yield and hardening in tension and compression.0.CAST. TB.0.0 ! Cohesion = 2.. ! Dilatancy angle = 0 degrees See the MP.0. SOLID185. BEAM189.0. and concrete. flows. PLANE183. 8–15 . and creep .10 TBPT.0. Also.5. and uses the outer cone approximation to the Mohr-Coulomb law.COMPRESSION TBTEMP.656E+05 TBPT.all using the Hill potential. issue the TB command [TB.UNIAXIAL. Inc.. PLANE82..350E-02.0...700E+05 Figure 8.0. The Cast Iron (CAST..800E-02.500E+05 TBPT. Use the TB. EY.1.581E+05 TBPT. Note — Cast Iron is intended for monotonic loading only and cannot be used with any other material model.1. which consists of the von Mises cylinder in compression and a Rankine cube in tension.300E+05 TBPT. BEAM188. The TB.0.. MP.100E-02. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. viscoplasticity.5.0. TB.1. It has different yield strengths. and NUXZ).. ANSYS Release 9. NUYZ.1.3. see Section 8. SOLID187.0.500E-02. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.550E-03. SHELL208.0.0.TENSION TBTEMP.DP. and hardenings in tension and compression. Elastic behavior is isotropic. © SAS IP.5000 MP.0 . ! Angle of internal friction = 32 degrees.0.241E+05 TBPT.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities To define anisotropic material plasticity.CAST command is used to input the plastic Poisson's ration in tension.) The Hill Anisotropy (HILL) option.0. Then. The Drucker-Prager (DP) option is applicable to granular (frictional) material such as soils. SOLSH190.Section 8. 002114 ..10 TBPT.ISOTROPIC TBDATA.0.NUXY.0. SOLID45. PLANE182. SHELL181.1. The Hill potential may only be used with the following elements: PLANE42. and SHELL209.1. (See Nonlinear StressStrain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information.04 TB.813E+04 TBPT.322E+05 TB.0.110E-01. SOLID92. LINK180.0.1 TBDATA.0.1. NUXY. which can be temperature dependent. EZ.EX.203E-02. UNIAXIAL) option assumes a modified von Mises yield surface..2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.0.. SOLID186.9. rock.1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .450E-02.UNIAXIAL. SOLID95. and is the same in tension and compression..250E-02.13: “Cast Iron Plasticity” illustrates the idealized response of gray cast iron in tension and compression.0.32.1.2. use MP commands (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props) to define the elastic moduli (EX.131E+05 TBPT.288E+05 TBPT.9 (use consistent units).ANISO] followed by TBDATA commands to define the yield points and tangent moduli.27 TB.

Multilinear Elasticity The Multilinear Elastic (MELAS) material behavior option describes a conservative (path-independent) response in which unloading follows the same stress-strain path as loading. 8. PLANE42. SHELL51. issue the TB. SOLID62. Second temperature.0 8–16 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. PIPE60. the number of temperatures.3. SHELL91. and SHELL209.3. TBTEMP.4 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as user material with 2 temperatures and 4 data points at each temperature point. The USER option works with the USERPL subroutine in defining plasticity or viscoplasticity material models. LINK8.0. . Then define the temperatures and material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands. SOLID185. relatively large load steps might be appropriate for models that incorporate this type of material nonlinearity.100. © SAS IP. which are ANSYS user-programmable features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).1. SOLID92.USER. TBTEMP.2. SHELL93.1e3. The following example illustrates defining a material with two temperatures and four data points: TB. SHELL208. SOLID186. Input format is similar to that required for the multilinear isotropic hardening option. User Defined Material The User Defined (USER) material option describes input parameters for defining a material model based on either of two subroutines.13 Cast Iron Plasticity Compression σc σt Tension ε See the TB and TBPT command descriptions for more information. The choice of which subroutine to use is based on which element you are using.1. BEAM189. PIPE20.0 TBDATA.2. when you use any of the following elements: LINK1.3. Inc. 8. ANSYS Release 9. and the number of data points.1. Thus. BEAM23. 002114 . BEAM188.19e5. SHELL181. PLANE2. SOLID45. SOLID187. SOLID95. PLANE182.1. SOLSH190.1. PLANE183. PLANE82.0 .2. except that the TB command now uses the label MELAS.USER command to define the material number.3. To access the user material option. BEAM24. The USER option works with the USERMAT subroutine in defining any material model (except incompressible materials). 4 material constants for first temperature. SHELL43. First temperature. when you use any of the following elements: LINK180. SOLID65.

ON]. which ! has 4 state variables.STATE. All options are applicable to elements SHELL181. whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the corresponding stress component. and on mixed formulation of the 18x solid elements. SHELL208.1. PLANE182. and all of the 18x family of elements except the link and beam elements (SHELL181.14 Hyperelastic Structure There are two types of elements suitable for simulating hyperelastic materials: the hyperelastic elements (HYPER56.1. SOLID185.2e3. SOLID187. Hyperelasticity can be used to analyze rubber-like materials (elastomers) that undergo large strains and displacements with small volume changes (nearly incompressible materials). ANSYS Release 9. PLANE183. 8. Material thermal expansion is also assumed to be isotropic. HYPER58.C2.100. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .STATE command. Because of this assumption. TBDATA. SOLID186.4. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information.4. and SHELL209).Section 8..1. The material response in ANSYS hyperelastic models is always assumed to be isotropic and isothermal.21e5. © SAS IP. ! Initialize the 4 state variables. You then use the TBDATA command to initialize the value of the state variables. SOLID185.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TBDATA. PLANE182. ANSYS supports several options of strain energy potentials for the simulation of incompressible or nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials. Hyperelasticity A material is said to be hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential function (or strain energy density function).3. For further details on the use of hyperelastic elements. HYPER74. HYPER158). SOLSH190.14: “Hyperelastic Structure”. Figure 8.1. See the TB. ! Define material 1. as shown in the following example: TB.C3.C1. 8–17 . A representative hyperelastic structure (a balloon seal) is shown in Figure 8. Unless indicated otherwise. PLANE183. Large strain theory is required [NLGEOM. you must first define the number of state variables using the TB. If you use state variables in the USERMAT subroutine. ! 4 material constants for ! second temperature. see Mixed u-P Formulation Elements in the ANSYS Elements Reference. the strain energy potentials are expressed in terms of strain invariants. 002114 . Inc.STATE in the USERPL subroutine.0. the hyperelastic materials are also assumed to be nearly or purely incompressible.C4. You cannot use TB. which is a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors.0 .3.

SOLID164.MOONEY TBDATA.. For example.HYPER. HYPER58.1. SOLID186. To access the MooneyRivlin option for these elements.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis SOLID186.HYPER.2. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material (TB. SHELL163. the Mooney-Rivlin option. use TB.OGDEN) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command. 002114 . SHELL163. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden option with 2 parameters: TB. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information. SHELL208. allows you to define 2. PLANE182.3. to define a 3 parameter model.1. the Ogden option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels. Access these options through the TBOPT argument of TB.HYPER.1. SOLID187.. Compared to the other options.HYPER.93063E-5 !Activate 3 parameter Mooney-Rivlin data table !Define c10 !Define c01 !Define c11 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.MOONEY. For example.0.3. 8.4.014719 TBDATA. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the hyperelastic options defined by TB. ANSYS Release 9.OGDEN TBDATA. a high parameter value is not recommended. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. and SHELL209. Compared to the other options. . Ogden Hyperelastic Option The Ogden option (TB.1. SOLSH190.. PLANE183. HYPER158.HYPER. The applicable strain level can be up to 700%. A higher parameter value can provide a better fit to the exact solution. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.0 .4..1.3. to define a 5 parameter model you would issue TB.. Inc.3. or SOLID168.2. © SAS IP. SOLID164. is also applicable to elements HYPER56. 8.326996 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden data table !Define µ1 8–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .OGDEN.125076 TBDATA. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command.6.MOONEY). higher orders of the Mooney-Rivlin option may provide better approximation to a solution at higher strain.163498 TBDATA.1.1. The Mooney-Rivlin option (TB. HYPER74.4.5.MOONEY. HYPER74. and SOLID168. which is the default.0. HYPER58. use TB..2. SOLID185. SOLID187.0.4. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin option with 3 parameters: TB.1...HYPER) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181. PLANE162.HYPER) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.. HYPER158.0.1. One of the options.3. For these reasons. and SHELL209.3.HYPER. 5. 3.MOONEY). Each of the hyperelastic options is presented in the following sections. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56.. The 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option has an applicable strain of about 100% in tension and 30% in compression. It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants. and explicit dynamics elements PLANE162. SHELL208. and it requires enough data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested.HYPER.HYPER. see Section 8. SOLSH190. or 9 parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command.1.11: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.

8–19 .0.3. For NPTS = 1 and constant c01 = 0..2.2..4.1.4.. Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option The polynomial form option (TB.4.3. 8. Inc. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Neo-Hookean option is presented below.2 TBDATA. For NPTS = 2.NEO) represents the simplest form of strain energy potential.BOYCE TBDATA.5.4. 002114 .HYPER.1.. For example.0e-5 !Activate Neo-Hookean data table !Define mu shear modulus !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.1. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option..3.NEO TBDATA.1.3.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TBDATA.Section 8. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .. and has an applicable strain range of 20-30%. ANSYS Release 9.3. 8. it is equivalent to the 5 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option.2. and for NPTS = 3.1. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option The Neo-Hookean option (TB.HYPER. it is equivalent to the 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option.0..HYPER.0 . it is equivalent to the 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option (see Section 8.3. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Material in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.1.1.-2 TBDATA.HYPER. Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option The Arruda-Boyce option (TB.577148 TBDATA.4.. © SAS IP.POLY.5. 8.0 TBDATA.POLY) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command..1.4.7. the polynomial form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8..-0.3.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.5.. Refer to Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. the polynomial form option may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain.250152 TBDATA.1. Similar to the higher order Mooney-Rivlin options. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Arruda-Boyce option is presented below..200.BOYCE) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%.4. TB.3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing).3.3.001 !Activate Arruda-Boyce data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting network stretch !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.HYPER.HYPER. to define a 3 parameter model you would issue TB.1. for NPTS = 1.6.. K is the bulk modulus) !(Second incompressibility parameter d2 is zero) Refer to Ogden Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.0 TBDATA.93063E-5 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.HYPER) for a sample input listing). TB. Also..

An example of a 3 parameter model is TB. It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants.93063E-5 !Activate 2 term Yeoh data table !Define C1 !Define C2 !Define first incompressibility parameter Refer to Yeoh Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.FOAM.. The higher the number of parameters..HYPER. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Yeoh option with 2 terms and 1 incompressibility term: TB.YEOH) is a reduced polynomial form of the hyperelasticity option TB.1.0 !Activate Blatz-Ko data table !Define initial shear modulus Refer to Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option..BLATZ TBDATA.3. This option is analogous to the Neo-Hookean option of incompressible hyperelastic materials.0 .. 8.3. Compared to the Blatz-Ko option.FOAM) simulates highly compressible foam material. 8...GENT TBDATA. An example of a 2 term Yeoh model is TB.6.. TB..7.HYPER.6.0. 8–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . An example input listing showing a typical use of the Gent option is presented below.YEOH...3.1. Yeoh Hyperelastic Option The Yeoh option (TB. 8.0..HYPER. the higher order terms may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain.HYPER.GENT) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%. TB.2. For NPTS = 1. a high parameter value is not recommended. Gent Hyperelastic Option The Gent option (TB.1..0 TBDATA.HYPER.8.0.1.HYPER.1. the Yeoh form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.3.4.. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Blatz-Ko option is presented below.3..42.3.. Inc. © SAS IP.5. Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option The Ogden compressible foam option (TB.9.3.BLATZ) is the simplest option for simulating the compressible foam type of elastomer..3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing)..001 !Activate Gent data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting I1 .1.1.1. and it requires sufficient data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested.2.4.3.1.4. the better the fit to the experimental data. Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option The Blatz-Ko option (TB. For these reasons.1.HYPER.2. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Gent Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.163498 TBDATA..1.1.4.POLY. Similar to the polynomial form option.3.125076 TBDATA.HYPER. 002114 .HYPER. .HYPER.YEOH TBDATA.0 TBDATA... ANSYS Release 9. the Ogden foam option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels.1..3 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K..2.4.

Hyperelastic stress-strain relationships usually differ significantly for tension.49999 ! NUXY should be almost equal to.1. or SOLID168. 002114 .2.. SOLID185.HYPER. 8.. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. Theory Reference for information on the Mooney-Rivlin function. ANSYS element types HYPER56.1 TBDATA.) For these element types. and SHELL209.1.1.0.USER) allows you to use the subroutine USERHYPER to define the derivatives of the strain energy potential with respect to the strain invariants.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden foam option with 2 parameters: TB. Inc. see Section 8.0. but you might find that you need to obtain more data from a testing laboratory.0.0.92 TBDATA.1. 8–21 . If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181. SOLID186. but less than 0. and shear modes of deformation.2.014719 TBDATA.FOAM TBDATA.-9. Refer to the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a detailed description on writing a user hyperelasticity subroutine.5 TBDATA.1.4. Therefore.4.HYPER).10.3. you can enter them directly with the TB family of commands.0. 8.-0.20 TBDATA. User-Defined Hyperelastic Option The User option (TB.. ANSYS Release 9.0 in this example) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB. HYPER74.4. The Mooney-Rivlin constants for any given hyperelastic material are not generally available in the open literature.3. PLANE162. and HYPER158 use up to a nine-term Mooney-Rivlin elastic potential function. 7. SOLID164. you can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from a set of known experimental test data.163498 TBDATA.1.3.MOONEY.-4. If you already know the values for two-term. HYPER58.1.3. SOLID187. Inc.4.5 TB.NUXY.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. HYPER158.1. HYPER74. compression. or nine-term MooneyRivlin constants. © SAS IP. five-term.5.0003882 ! (Constants 5.4.0. PLANE182. SHELL208. and 9 default to 0. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin for these elements is presented below : MP.MOONEY) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56. Hyperelastic material behavior is much more complicated than typical metallic material behavior. SHELL163.. 8.0047583 TBDATA. three-term. HYPER58.11. you can also specify the material function as a User Programmable Feature (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).0 .3.HYPER.Section 8.6.92 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden foam data table !Define µ1 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define first compressibility parameter !Define second compressibility parameter Refer to Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. using *MOONEY to generate a generally applicable hyperelastic material model will require test data ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0.1.MOONEY) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the constants required as input for this option. Sometimes the manufacturer of the material will be able to supply some or all of the needed test data.85 TBDATA.5 TBDATA. Consequently.6. PLANE183. SOLSH190.2.125076 TBDATA.4. (See the ANSYS.

if all you have is uniaxial tension data. such as STRAIN.you do not need to use the *MOONEY command every time to regenerate these constants. and so on. you will need to dimension at least six different arrays. For example. This advice is simply common sense . If. STRESS. Determine the Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically. do not model a part that experiences 150% strain. Evaluate the quality of the automatically determined Mooney-Rivlin constants. compression. Theory Reference for a discussion of hyperelastic test methods and equivalent deformation modes. in our discussion. arranged in three columns: • • • Column 1: uniaxial tension and/or compression data Column 2: equibiaxial tension and/or compression data Column 3: shear data (planar tension and/or compression) This array has the dimensions N x 3. you can use it in future analyses to define that same material's Mooney-Rivlin constants . the program can still determine usable hyperelastic material properties. ANSYS determines the constants and stores them in the database. you cannot accurately predict the behavior of a part that experiences such deformations or strains. This array must always be N x 3. and shear. 002114 . 8–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .) The arrays are STRAIN. Additionally. . we will use specific array names. you discover that the available test data do not adequately characterize the model's response. and calculated stress-strain evaluation. STRAIN Array: An array of engineering strain data from mechanical material tests. in such cases the deformations experienced in the model should be limited to be of the same nature as those experienced in the tests.0 . after reviewing your analysis.TB) that records the Mooney-Rivlin constants in the form of a series of TB and TBDATA commands. Inc. Once such a file exists. 5. Inc. if you have 20 data points from uniaxial tension/compression tests and 10 data points from shear tests. 4.if you do not know how the material behaves in a certain mode of deformation or range of strain. it writes an ASCII file (Jobname. the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) that will be experienced in the model. where N equals the maximum number of data points in any one of the three columns. even if fewer than three types of test data are available. CONST. If your test data extend only from 0% to 100% strain. See the ANSYS. N = 20. 3. if only uniaxial tension data are available). If an incomplete set of data is provided (for instance. and SORTSS. get more test data! You can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from experimental test data. (You can give these arrays any valid parameter names. For example. ANSYS Release 9. Fill the input-data arrays with engineering stress and strain test data. Step 1: Dimension the Arrays Command(s): *DIM GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit You must dimension arrays before using the *MOONEY command. and in an array parameter. SORTSN. Dimension all arrays that will be used for data input. STRESS. Apply the Mooney-Rivlin constants in your analysis. In most cases. In other words. You can substitute any other valid parameter names that you like. CALC. However.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis that encompasses all possible modes of deformation: tension. do not model a part that experiences significant shear deformations. Determining and Applying Mooney-Rivlin Constants The procedure for determining and applying Mooney-Rivlin constants consists of five main steps: 1. but for convenience. Mooney-Rivlin constant storage. © SAS IP. 2.

SORTSS Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input stress data are stored. double curvature) Two inflection points Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Function Two-term Five-term Nine-term Figure 8. and if you wanted to generate a five-term set of Mooney-Rivlin constants. SORTSN Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input strain data are stored. if your test data contained up to 20 data points for any one test type.0 . it is not necessary to do so. 002114 . you might issue the following commands to dimension the necessary arrays (remember that you can substitute any valid parameter names for the ones shown here): *DIM..3 *DIM. You must input stress data points in the same order as the corresponding strain-data input. ANSYS Release 9. These stress values will be sorted into the same order as their corresponding sorted strain values (which will be sorted into ascending order).1 Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants Number of Points in the Stress-strain Curve No inflection points (that is. The *MOONEY command later reads the dimensions of this array to determine how many Mooney-Rivlin constants to generate. CONST Array: A Mooney-Rivlin constant array of dimension M x 1.15 Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves CALC Array: An output stress-data array of dimension N x 3 (where N is as described above). Table 8. Dim. Using more terms will usually improve the statistical quality of your curve fit (that is.5.20. STRESS Array: An array of engineering stress data from mechanical material tests input stress-data array. any other value will produce an error message when *MOONEY is invoked. single curvature) One inflection point (that is. or 9. 8–23 . Inc.STRESS.3 *DIM.. © SAS IP.20. For example. (M must be either 2. How many Mooney-Rivlin constants should you use? As a rule of thumb.) You actually tell the program in this dimensioning operation how many Mooney-Rivlin constants you want.3 ! ! ! ! Dim. and then writes the values of those constants to this array. array array array array (STRAIN) for 20 input strain-data points (STRESS) for input stress data (20 pts. where M equals the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants. and examine the resulting stress-strain curves to decide which function gives you the best combination of tight fit and satisfactory curve shape.Section 8.STRAIN. you should probably try two-term.1 *DIM..20. also of dimension N x 3.) (CONST) for 5-term M-R constants (CALC) for sorted calculated stresses ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Although it might be preferable to input the data points in order of ascending strain values.. you should have at least twice as many data points (N.CONST.CALC. as defined above) as the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants. and nine-term functions in sequence. but the overall shape of the curve might be worse than that obtained with fewer terms. 5. five-term. As a practical matter. Dim. it will probably be more tightly fitted through the data points). Dim. in which sorted calculated stress values are stored.

Step 2: Fill the Input-Data Arrays Once you have dimensioned your arrays.16: “Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays”. the second mode of deformation. (Again. but the first column of the array contains data from uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression. . you can then fill the STRAIN and STRESS arrays with test data using the *SET command (GUI path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters). remember that you can give these arrays any valid parameter names. particular array names are used here only for the convenience of this discussion.) Note — The *MOONEY command interprets all input stress and strain data as engineering stress and engineering strain. in this order: • • • First column: Uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression Second column: Equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression Third column: Shear (planar tension or compression) Note that these do not have a 1:1 relationship with the modes of deformation and their equivalencies. © SAS IP. Schematically.SORTSN. equibiaxial tension. Table 8.3 ! Dim...3 *DIM. has equibiaxial compression as its equivalency. Inc.20. array (SORTSN) for sorted input strain data ! Dim.2 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Mode of Deformation Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial tension Shear Equivalent Test Types Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial compression Equibiaxial tension Uniaxial compression Planar tension Planar compression Array Location for Test Data Column one Column two Column two Column one Column three Column three If fewer than three types of tests are used. These arrays are of dimension N x 3. The first mode of deformation. 002114 . array (SORTSS) for sorted input stress data See the *DIM command description for more information.0 . 8–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . but the second column of the array contains data from equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis *DIM. ANSYS Release 9. Likewise. has uniaxial compression as its equivalency. with each column of the arrays containing data from one type of test.SORTSS. uniaxial tension. you must leave the missing columns blank.20. data input might be represented as shown in Figure 8.

first use the TB command. 002114 .MAT...3).3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8.1).STRAIN(1.1 *MOONEY. and planar (pure shear) equations for the data in column 3.STRAIN(11.SORTSN(1).1).16 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Consider a case in which data from uniaxial tension and shear tests are available. Step 3: Determine the Mooney-Rivlin Constants To generate Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically. Next.CALC(1)... and the number of data points represented by N1 and N2 in this example can be any integral numbers): ! Uniaxial Tension Data *SET. .Section 8.STRESS(1. Note — All the laboratory test data entered in the STRAIN and STRESS arrays will be used to determine the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material constants. Uniaxial equations will be used for the data in column 1.. you can use any valid parameter names): TB..STRAIN(1.Ext (default file name = Jobname. .3). inserting the appropriate names of arrays that you have already dimensioned (particular names have been used in this example for convenience of discussion only. © SAS IP.Ext The program automatically determines the Mooney-Rivlin constants. ! *SET.. Inc..NTEMP.. issue the *MOONEY command. .STRESS(1. 8–25 . equibiaxial equations for the data in column 2.TB). Step 4: Evaluate the Quality of the Mooney-Rivlin Constants ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . SORTSS(1).1). ..STRESS(11. The commands to store the strain and stress data in the input-data arrays could look something like this (of course.STRESS(1. ANSYS Release 9. and writes a series of TB and TBDATA commands in the ASCII file Fname.Fname.0 .. the arrays can have any valid array names.1).CONST(1). stores them in the database and in the CONST array (which can have any valid parameter name)... ! First 10 strain data points Strain data points 11 through N1 (if N1<21) First 10 stress data points Stress data points 11 through N1 Strain data points 1 through N2 (if N2<11) Stress data points 1 through N2 See the *SET command description for more information. with Lab = MOONEY and TBOPT = 1.. ! ! Shear Data *SET.STRAIN(1. ! *SET. ! *SET. ! *SET.1).1)..MOONEY..

You can fill this array fairly easily. ANSYS Release 9. Because *EVAL reads these same constants from this CONST array. where P is the number of points you want to use to plot your curve. Each of these table array vectors should have dimension P. The following example demonstrates how to graph a calculated curve for the uniaxial compression deformation mode: ! Dimension strain and stress arrays for the calculated curve: ! (Any valid parameter names can be used) *DIM.CONST(1).1.0 .Y. any valid parameter names may be used). If you already have the Mooney-Rivlin constants (and thus will not be doing a *MOONEY calculation). /AXLAB.Engineering Stress ! Plot the calculated uniaxial compression curve: *VPLOT. you can readily do a *EVAL following a *MOONEY operation in the same ANSYS session. typically 0. 002114 .ECALC(1) ! Label the graph axes: /AXLAB. you should graph a uniaxial tension curve only in regions of positive strain.99 or better). you must dimension [*DIM] two more table array vectors (identified as XVAL and ECALC in the *EVAL command description. you will want to make P fairly large in order to generate a very smooth curve. (Typically. define the strain range ! (XMIN.ECALC(1) See the *DIM. a value of 2. For instance. and a uniaxial compression curve only in regions of compressive strain. Finally.0 (that is. Inc. or 1 x 9 at most. you must first dimension [*DIM]and fill the CONST array with the Mooney-Rivlin constants before you can evaluate the curves [*EVAL].X. That is. you should use the *EVAL and *VPLOT commands (GUI paths Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Mooney-Rivlin> Evaluate Const and Utility Menu> Plot> Array Parameters) to graph the input and calculated stress-strain curves. . you can extend the displayed curve into regions that were not defined by the experimental data. When you graph your calculated stress-strain curves. examine the "ROOT-MEAN-SQUARE ERROR (PERCENTAGE)" and the "COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION. Similarly. and the calculated shear curve against the shear data only. specify the mode of deformation. and *VPLOT command descriptions for more information.TABLE. in order to obtain a visual check on how well the calculated curve matches the experimental data. In addition. then that portion of the display will be meaningless. realize that if you extend a displayed curve into a region that represents a different mode of deformation. but should be "close" to 1. and use the M-R constants (CONST) to fill the strain (XVAL) ! and stress (ECALC) arrays with calculated data: *EVAL. *EVAL.TABLE. Remember that good practice usually requires that the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) experienced by your model. © SAS IP. The root-mean-square error.2. To check your curve's shape. using the *EVAL command. You could also add the *DIM and array-filling commands to your archived Jobname. and fill the arrays with engineering strain and calculated engineering stress data.XVAL." These two values give you a statistical measure of how well your calculated stress-strain curve fits the experimental data points.0.XMIN.1000 *DIM. 8–26 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you should compare calculated values against test data that represent the same mode of deformation.) Next.XMAX. you should compare the calculated uniaxial compression curve against the uniaxial compression data only.XVAL(1).Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis In your printout (file Jobname.TB file to make this operation more convenient. However. 1 x 5. The *MOONEY command automatically writes the Mooney-Rivlin constants to the CONST array.5 means 2. In comparing these curves. The coefficient of determination will be less than 1. you should compare the shape of the calculated uniaxial tension curve (EVPARM = 1 in the *EVAL command) against uniaxial tension data only (column 1 of the sorted STRAIN and STRESS arrays). should be "close" to zero.Engineering Strain /AXLAB.XMAX).XVAL(1).OUT). define an extended range of strain.ECALC. graph [*VPLOT] the calculated stress-strain curve.1000 ! Specify the mode of deformation (EVPARM). Graphing your curves over such an extended range can help you qualitatively understand your model's behavior if its response ever happens to exceed the range of experimental strain. which is expressed as a percentage (that is. given that the CONST array is either 1 x 2.5 %).

Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities

Figure 8.17 Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve

Step 5: Using the Mooney-Rivlin Constants If the curve-fit statistics and the overall curve shape are satisfactory, then you can proceed to use the generated Mooney-Rivlin material properties in your analysis. (The *MOONEY command will have stored these constants in the database.) In future analyses using the same material model, you can simply read in [/INPUT] the file Jobname.TB to load the constants into your new database. However, do not forget to define a value for Poisson's ratio [MP,NUXY,...]. Always remember to examine your analysis results carefully to determine whether or not your model's modes of deformation and values of maximum strain were properly represented by the original test data. Analyses involving hyperelastic elements are sometimes very sensitive to material property specification and load application. Some values of Mooney-Rivlin constants result in very stable stiffness matrices whereas others do not. Therefore, choose constants with caution and experiment with slightly different values. ANSYS provides internal stability checks for hyperelastic materials based on the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you enter. These checks occur at two levels: • The first stability check occurs before the analysis. The check is for six typical stress paths (uniaxial tension and compression, equibiaxial tension and compression, and planar tension and compression), and covers a stretch ratio ranging from 0.1 to 10. If the material is not stable over the range, a message appears that states the critical values of the nominal strains where the material first becomes unstable, and lists the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you entered. If the material is stable over the range, you will not see any message or indication. The sample warning message below lists the nominal strains where Material 1 loses stability, then lists the constants that were entered for this example:

ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . © SAS IP, Inc.

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**Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis
**

*** WARNING *** CP= 1.110 TIME= 16:59:52 Material 1 can become unstable under certain loading. The strain (nominal) limits where the material becomes unstable are: UNIAXIAL TENSION UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION EQUIBIAXIAL TENSION EQUIBIAXIAL COMPRESSION PLANAR TENSION PLANAR COMPRESSION 0.645E+00 -0.565E+00 0.516E+00 -0.220E+00 0.585E+00 -0.369E+00

Mooney-Rivlin constants of the hyperelastic material are: 0.170E+02, 0.000E+00, 0.000E+00, 0.000E+00, 0.000E+00, 0.000E+00, 0.150E+03 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

•

For the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56, HYPER58, HYPER74, and HYPER158), you can also have ANSYS perform a stability check during an analysis by setting KEYOPT(8) = 1. For each equilibrium iteration, the program checks every Gauss point in the problem for stability violations. If the problem fails the stability check, you will see a message in the solution history section of the ANSYS Output window reporting the total number of Gauss points that were unstable for that iteration. You will not see any messages if the problem passes the check. The sample message below shows that, during an analysis, ANSYS detected 3 Gauss points that exceeded the material stability limit:

DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 22.81 CRITERION= 0.5000 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 10.00 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.5018E+07 CRITERION= 0.1917E+05 >>> 3 Gauss points have exceeded the material stability limit

For elements that contain at least one unstable Gauss point, the instability indicator is set to 1 and stored in the result file as an item in the SMISC record. You can plot the region of instability in POST1 by plotting this SMISC record identified as STFLAG for the element. The SMISC number for STFLAG differs for some of the elements. See the appropriate table for the SMISC item that corresponds to instability indicator STFLAG, for the particular element of interest: HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands, HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands, HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands, HYPER158 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. You should be aware that even though a material failing a stability check is often an indication of convergence difficulty, it does not necessarily mean that your solution is invalid once the material enters the unstable region. The material stability check is simply a tool to help you diagnose the problem when the solution fails to converge. For nearly incompressible materials with Poisson's ratio greater than 0.49, we recommend that you use the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56, HYPER58, HYPER74, and HYPER158). Note — The element types HYPER84 and HYPER86 are intended primarily for modeling compressible, foam-like elastomers, using a Blatz-Ko function to describe the material properties. Select the Blatz-Ko option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1 for these elements, then use MP commands to enter appropriate values for EX and NUXY to define the initial material shear modulus. An incompressible hyperelastic material option is also available for HYPER84 and HYPER86, but it is limited to two-term Mooney-Rivlin only. In general, it is recommended that you use HYPER56, HYPER58, HYPER74, or HYPER158 (not HYPER84 or HYPER86) for all incompressible hyperelastic materials. Problems using hyperelastic elements can be sensitive to the rate of load application. In most instances, load application should be slow so as not to over-distort elements in the converging sequence. Each problem may be unique and require special consideration. Bifurcation of the solution, indicating that two or more different geometric configurations have the same minimum potential energy, may occur at various times during the

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ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . © SAS IP, Inc.

Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities loading history. Automatic time stepping with bisection [AUTOTS,ON] is often effective in overcoming these difficulties.

8.3.1.5. Creep

Creep is a rate dependent material nonlinearity in which the material continues to deform under a constant load. Conversely, if a displacement is imposed, the reaction force (and stresses) will diminish over time (stress relaxation; see Figure 8.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(a)). The three stages of creep are shown in Figure 8.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(b). The ANSYS program has the capability of modeling the first two stages (primary and secondary). The tertiary stage is usually not analyzed since it implies impending failure.

Figure 8.18 Stress Relaxation and Creep

Creep is important in high temperature stress analyses, such as for nuclear reactors. For example, suppose you apply a preload to some part in a nuclear reactor to keep adjacent parts from moving. Over a period of time at high temperature, the preload would decrease (stress relaxation) and potentially let the adjacent parts move. Creep can also be significant for some materials such as prestressed concrete. Typically, the creep deformation is permanent. ANSYS analyzes creep using two time integration methods. Both are applicable to static or transient analyses.The implicit creep method is robust, fast, accurate, and recommended for general use. It can handle temperature dependent creep constants, as well as simultaneous coupling with isotropic hardening plasticity models. The explicit creep method is useful for cases where very small time steps are required. Creep constants cannot be dependent on temperature. Coupling with other plastic models is available by superposition only. Note — The terms “implicit” and “explicit” as applied to creep, have no relationship to “explicit dynamics,” or any elements referred to as “explicit elements.” The implicit creep method supports the following elements: PLANE42, SOLID45, PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95, LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, BEAM188, BEAM189, SHELL208, and SHELL209. The explicit creep method supports the following elements: LINK1, PLANE2, LINK8, PIPE20, BEAM23, BEAM24, PLANE42, SHELL43, SOLID45, SHELL51, PIPE60, SOLID62, SOLID65, PLANE82, SOLID92, and SOLID95. The creep strain rate may be a function of stress, strain, temperature, and neutron flux level. Libraries of creep strain rate equations are built into the ANSYS program for primary, secondary, and irradiation induced creep. (See Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for discussions of, and input procedures for, these various creep equations.) Some equations require specific units. In particular, for the explicit creep option, temperatures used in the creep equations should be based on an absolute scale.

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**8.3.1.5.1. Implicit Creep Procedure
**

The basic procedure for using the implicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP, and choosing a creep equation by specifying a value for TBOPT. The following example input shows the use of the implicit creep method. TBOPT = 2 specifies that the primary creep equation for model 2 will be used. Temperature dependency is specified using the TBTEMP command, and the four constants associated with this equation are specified as arguments with the TBDATA command.

TB,CREEP,1,1,4,2 TBTEMP,100 TBDATA,1,C1,C2,C3,C4

You can input other creep expressions using the user programmable feature and setting TBOPT = 100. You can define the number of state variables using the TB command with Lab = STATE. The following example shows how five state variables are defined.

TB,STATE,1,,5

You can simultaneously model creep [TB,CREEP] and isotropic, bilinear kinematic, and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. Also, see Section 8.3.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. To perform an implicit creep analysis, you must also issue the solution RATE command, with Option = ON (or 1). The following example shows a procedure for a time hardening creep analysis (See Figure 8.19: “Time Hardening Creep Analysis”).

Figure 8.19 Time Hardening Creep Analysis

The user applied mechanical loading in the first load step, and turned the RATE command OFF to bypass the creep strain effect. Since the time period in this load step will affect the total time thereafter, the time period for this load step should be small. For this example, the user specified a value of 1.0E-8 seconds. The second load step is a creep analysis. The RATE command must be turned ON. Here the mechanical loading was kept constant, and the material creeps as time increases.

/SOLU RATE,OFF TIME,1.0E-8 !First load step, apply mechanical loading !Creep analysis turned off !Time period set to a very small value

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**Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities
**

... SOLV RATE,ON TIME,100 ... SOLV

!Solve this load step !Second load step, no further mechanical load !Creep analysis turned on !Time period set to desired value !Solve this load step

The RATE command works only when modeling implicit creep with either von Mises or Hill potentials. When modeling implicit creep with von Mises potential, you can use the RATE command with the following elements: LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, BEAM188, BEAM189, SHELL208, and SHELL209. When modeling anisotropic creep (TB,CREEP with TB,HILL), you can use the RATE command with the following elements: PLANE42, SOLID45, PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95, LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, BEAM188, BEAM189, SHELL208, and SHELL209. For most materials, the creep strain rate changes significantly at an early stage. Because of this, a general recommendation is to use a small initial incremental time step, then specify a large maximum incremental time step by using solution command DELTIM or NSUBST. For implicit creep, you may need to examine the effect of the time increment on the results carefully because ANSYS does not enforce any creep ratio control by default. You can always enforce a creep limit ratio using the creep ratio control option in commands CRPLIM or CUTCONTROL,CRPLIMIT. A recommended value for a creep limit ratio ranges from 1 to 10. The ratio may vary with materials so your decision on the best value to use should be based on your own experimentation to gain the required performance and accuracy. For larger analyses, a suggestion is to first perform a time increment convergence analysis on a simple small size test. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the implicit creep options defined in TB,CREEP. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information.

**8.3.1.5.2. Explicit Creep Procedure
**

The basic procedure for using the explicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP and choosing a creep equation by adding the appropriate constant as an argument with the TBDATA command. TBOPT is either left blank or = 0. The following example input uses the explicit creep method. Note that all constants are included as arguments with the TBDATA command, and that there is no temperature dependency.

TB,CREEP,1 TBDATA,1,C1,C2,C3,C4, ,C6

For the explicit creep method, you can incorporate other creep expressions into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features). For highly nonlinear creep strain vs. time curves, a small time step must be used with the explicit creep method. Creep strains are not computed if the time step is less than 1.0e-6. A creep time step optimization procedure is available [AUTOTS and CRPLIM] for automatically adjusting the time step as appropriate.

**8.3.1.6. Shape Memory Alloy
**

The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) material behavior option describes the super-elastic behavior of nitinol alloy. Nitinol is a flexible metal alloy that can undergo very large deformations in loading-unloading cycles without permanent deformation. As illustrated in Figure 8.20: “Shape Memory Alloy Phases”, the material behavior has

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Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis three distinct phases: an austenite phase (linear elastic), a martensite phase (also linear elastic), and the transition phase between these two.

**Figure 8.20 Shape Memory Alloy Phases
**

σ

σ σ σ σ

∫

Use the MP command to input the linear elastic behavior of the austenite phase, and the TB,SMA command to input the behavior of the transition and martensite phases. Use the TBDATA command to enter the specifics (data sets) of the alloy material. You can enter up to six sets of data. SMAs can be specified for the following elements: PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, and SOLSH190. A typical ANSYS input listing (fragment) will look similar to this:

MP,EX,1,60.0E3 MP,NUXY,1.0.3 TB,SMA,1,2 TBTEMP,10 TBDATA,1,520.0,600.0,300.0,200.0,0.07,0.12 TBDATA,7,5.0E4 TBTEMP,20 TBDATA,1,420.0,540.0,300.0,200.0,0.10,0.15 TBDATA,7,4.0E3 ! Define austenite elastic properties ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as SMA, with two temperatures Define first starting temp Define SMA parameters

See TB, and TBDATA for more information.

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¡ ¤¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡

ε ε

Define second starting temp Define SMA parameters

∫

¡ ¤¢ ¥ ¥

Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities

8.3.1.7. Viscoplasticity

Viscoplasticity is a time-dependent plasticity phenomenon, where the development of the plastic strains are dependent on the rate of loading. The primary applications are high-temperature metal forming processes such as rolling and deep drawing, which involve large plastic strains and displacements with small elastic strains (see Figure 8.21: “Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation”). The plastic strains are typically very large (for example, 50% or greater), requiring large strain theory [NLGEOM,ON]. Viscoplasticity is modeled with element types VISCO106, VISCO107, and VISCO108, using Anand's model for material properties as described in Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.

Figure 8.21 Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation

Viscoplasticity is defined by unifying plasticity and creep via a set of flow and evolutionary equations. A constraint equation is used to preserve volume in the plastic region. The Rate-Dependent Plasticity (Viscoplasticity) or TB,RATE option allows you to introduce the strain rate effect in material models to simulate the time-dependent response of materials. Two material options are available, the Perzyna model and the Peirce model (see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details). In contrast to other rate-dependent material options in ANSYS such as Creep or Anand's model, the Perzyna and Peirce models also include a yield surface. The plasticity and thus the strain rate hardening effect are active only after plastic yielding. You must use the models in combination with the BISO, MISO, or NLISO material options to simulate viscoplasticity. Further, you can simulate anisotropic viscoplasticity by also combining the HILL option. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. Also, see Section 8.3.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. For isotropic hardening, the intent is for simulating the strain rate hardening of materials rather than softening. This option is also suitable for large strain analysis, and is applicable to the following elements: PLANE42, SOLID45, PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95, LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, BEAM188, BEAM189, SHELL208, and SHELL209. Some typical applications of these material options are metal forming and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

8.3.1.8. Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity is similar to creep, but part of the deformation is removed when the loading is taken off. A common viscoelastic material is glass. Some plastics are also considered to be viscoelastic. One type of viscoelastic response is illustrated in Figure 8.22: “Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model)”.

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Figure 8.22 Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model)

Viscoelasticity is modeled with element types VISCO88 and VISCO89 for small deformation viscoelasticity and LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, BEAM188, BEAM189, SHELL208, and SHELL209 for small and large deformation viscoelasticity. You must input material properties using the TB family of commands. For SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLSH190, SHELL208, and SHELL209, the underlying elasticity is specified by either the MP command (hypoelasticity) or by the TB,HYPER command (hyperelasticity). For LINK180, BEAM188, and BEAM189, the underlying elasticity is specified using the MP command (hypoelasticity) only. The elasticity constants correspond to those of the fast load limit. Use the TB,PRONY and TB,SHIFT commands to input the relaxation property (see the TB command description for more information).

!Small Strain Viscoelasticity mp,ex,1,20.0E5 !elastic properties mp,nuxy,1,0.3 tb,prony,1,,2,shear !define viscosity parameters (shear) tbdata,1,0.5,2.0,0.25,4.0 tb,prony,1,,2,bulk !define viscosity parameters (bulk) tbdata,1,0.5,2.0,0.25,4.0 !Large Strain Viscoelasticity tb,hyper,1,,,moon !elastic properties tbdata,1,38.462E4,,1.2E-6 tb,prony,1,,1,shear !define viscosity parameters tbdata,1,0.5,2.0 tb,prony,1,,1,bulk !define viscosity parameters tbdata,1,0.5,2.0

See Viscoelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference and the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details about how to input viscoelastic material properties using the TB family of commands. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the viscoelastic options defined by TB,PRONY. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information.

8.3.1.9. Swelling

Certain materials respond to neutron flux by enlarging volumetrically, or swelling. In order to include swelling effects, you must write your own swelling subroutine, USERSW. (See the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a discussion of User-Programmable Features.) Swelling Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference discusses how to use the TB family of commands to input constants for the swelling equations. Swelling can also be related to other phenomena, such as moisture content. The ANSYS commands for nuclear swelling can be used analogously to define swelling due to other causes.

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and Section 8. 002114 .3.1.20000.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.2. For information on the CHAB option. MP. 8. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.185E3 MP.100.NUXY.3.3.3.3 TB. and Section 8.200. MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0E5 MP.CHAB.NUXY.BISO.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.20.7E-4.185.100.1 TBDATA.3 TB.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.500.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8. Material Model Combinations You can combine several material model options discussed in this chapter to simulate complex material behaviors.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.2.0 .0.100.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.40.0.10000 TBDATA.9. 8.2.. 8.3. BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.40000.1.1 TBDATA.0.1 TBPT.100. NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.200. MP.1.1 TBDATA.3.MISO.1.1.100.5 ! CHABOCHE TABLE TBTEMP.2.1. Inc. For information on the CHAB option.1 ! THIS EXAMPLE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT TBDATA.1.2.Section 8.180.200 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE For information on the BISO option. Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference presents the model options you can combine along with the associated TB command labels and links to sample input listings..0.0 TBTEMP.1.CHAB. 8–35 .180.3.1.3.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. ANSYS Release 9.3.3.2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.EX.180.3 TB.0E3 MP. © SAS IP. and Section 8.1.1.CHAB.380 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! THIS EXAMPLE ISOTHERMAL ! MISO TABLE For information on the MISO option.1.1. MP.EX.1.NUXY. and Section 8.7. These sample input listings are presented below in sections identified by the TB command labels.180 TBPT.3 TB.1000.EX.20.1.

and Section 8.060..0.0 TBTEMP.2 TBDATA.030. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.2.880. For information on the RATE option.3 TBDATA.1 TBPT.700.500.NUXY.3. For information on the CHAB option.3.9000.0.1 TBDATA. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.10200 TBDATA.0.1. © SAS IP.7.RATE. MP.2600.1.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.3 TBTEMP.35000 TBPT.1.BISO.MISO.400.0.32000 TBPT.PERZYNA TBDATA.4..RATE command to model viscoplasticity.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.38000 TBPT.7.20..2000.244000. and Section 8.900.EX.10000 TB.36500 TBPT.0.1 TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.040.3000.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..025.0.60.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA. and Section 8.1.1.0.3.0.0 TB. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.050.1.2 TBTEMP.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.30000 TBPT.120. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.. and Section 8. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.33800 TBPT.5.0.RATE.NUXY.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the MISO option. MP. 8.1.500.45800.80.1.. 8–36 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.7 ! NLISO TABLE For information on the NLISO option.0.40.0. 002114 .1080.2800..NLISO.020.1..1.5.1400.1000.1.3 TB.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the BISO option.1.3 TB.1080.0 .0..200.0.3.1.39000 TB.60.0.PERZYNA TBDATA.1...1. . and Section 8.12200 TBDATA.EX. MISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. BISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.1.204000.0E5 MP.3.1.3.3.0.2.1.1. ANSYS Release 9. For information on the RATE option.1.0E5 MP.20.5. Inc.880.43800.015.1. and Section 8. 8.

0..0E5 MP.5.EX..100000. MP. and Section 8.3.10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE TB. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For information on the RATE option.3.3 TB.1.NLISO.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.0 For information on the MISO option.3. MP.1.1.RATE.1.1.32000 TBPT. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference. MISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.1.0.3 TB. and Section 8.5.0.5.2.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the NLISO option.3..20. 8–37 .0.0 .3 TB.9000.1.020.1.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1 TBDATA.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.2.1. MP. and Section 8.3.5200. NLISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.0.Section 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.36500 TBPT.1.1.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.172 TB.1.0.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.0.050. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.025.3.0. ANSYS Release 9. For information on the CREEP option.NUXY.30000...1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1 TBPT..33800 TBPT.0E5 MP.CREEP.0. and Section 8.015.1 TBDATA..0.1.35000 TBPT..030.3.NUXY.20.5625E-14. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1...1.NUXY. 8.EX.040.EX.0. 002114 .1.0E5 MP.30000 TBPT.1..2.5625E-14.0.0.38000 TBPT.3.1.0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1. © SAS IP.PERZYNA TBDATA.1.-0.20.1.0 For information on the BISO option. BISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.5..-0. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.MISO.1.1.060.CREEP.5.BISO..5. and Section 8. Inc. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .7.8.6.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. 8.

2 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1.0.1..3.9 TB.5.1.. BKIN and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.5200.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.2. MP.NUXY.1.1. MP.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.0.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB.1.1.0.1 TBDATA. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference. © SAS IP.1. ANSYS Release 9.1.0.3. and Section 8. and Section 8.0402. and Section 8.1.EX.1.CREEP.1. and Section 8.0.5.1.CREEP.0 ! BISO TABLE For information on the HILL option.1.20.1.NUXY. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.3.BKIN. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.10.1.9.2.07895. 8..1.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLE For information on the BKIN option.2.1. . 8–38 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.42000.200 TBDATA.3.30000.1.5.97.400.0.1000 TB.100000. 8.5.BISO.461.24897.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.NUXY.-0.1.32 TB.EX.9..7.325. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.6 TBDATA.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the CREEP option. For information on the CREEP option. and Section 8.9. Inc.1.1.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1e7 MP. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.200 TBDATA.124.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.5. For information on the CREEP option.3.3. TBDATA. MP.3.374.3 TB. HILL and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening.1.0 .1.100 TBDATA.3.0.0.1.0.3.20.0.5. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 TBTEMP.586 TBTEMP.0E5 MP.NLISO.4e-21. and Section 8.3.1.0.11.0E5 MP.1. NLISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.2 TBTEMP.HILL.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.5625E-14.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1.0.1. 8.100 TBDATA.EX. 002114 .1.94.0 For information on the NLISO option.

1.. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.1.1. HILL and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening.0..HILL.85.20.. MP.1.3.20.HILL.1.EX. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.13. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0E5 MP.0.9.0.36500 TBPT.1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1. HILL and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening.0.025. and Section 8.040. 8.0.0. and Section 8.3 TB.33800 TBPT. Inc.015.35000 TBPT.1.1.MISO. and Section 8.0.1.HILL. 002114 .3 TB.12.020.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.0.9.1.NUXY.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.1. and Section 8.85.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1 TBPT.3.3.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.1.030.EX.1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the BISO option.Section 8.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.060.3.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.14.85.2.100000.NUXY. 8.050.3.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.1.5200.0.1 TBDATA.30000.1.1. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference..1.9. HILL and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear kinematic hardening.0.0.. For information on the NLISO option.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1 TBDATA.2.3.30000 TBPT.0.80 For information on the HILL option.0.9000. ANSYS Release 9.9.1.EX. For information on the MISO option.BKIN.80 For information on the HILL option.0E5 MP.10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE TB.1.1. © SAS IP.1.0..0.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.38000 TBPT. MP. 8–39 .9.0.1. and Section 8.. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. 8.3.0.2.3 TB.3.1.NLISO.NUXY.0.1.0E5 MP.0 .1.9.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.32000 TBPT. and Section 8.0.0.0. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.20. MP.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.80 For information on the HILL option.

1.31140.0.20E6.20E6.351.100800 TBTEMP.20E6.96600.110E4.1.00.190E4.1..20E6 MP.1.0.00 For information on the HILL option.0.0.0.93.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.400.800.0 TBDATA. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference..25.650.1.368.0.0.1.368.0.23.15.3.160E4.1 TBTEMP.950.160E4.3 TBPT.16. and Section 8.54720.41520.25.30. 8.1.75600.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the BKIN option.800 TBDATA.EX.1.00E6.1.0 TBDATA.1.0.1.377 MPDATA.60. and Section 8.0.1.2.1.1.36E6.76E6 MPDATA.60000.KINH..190E4.650 TBDATA.93.00.377 MPDATA.30.20.1.GXY. and Section 8. For information on the MKIN option.1.0.400.PRXZ.5.1.1.0.351. .1.1.1.0.1.0.82080.1.1.EZ.1.0.0.1.36E6.1.01.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.5 ! MKIN TABLE TBTEMP.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1.080E4.3 TB.23.1.0 TBDATA.0.93 TBTEMP.1.375.1.377 MPDATA.0.HILL.04.1.1.110E4.1.11E6.1.30. MP.1.23.45000.1.5E-5. 002114 .0.0.1.1.1.060E4 MPDATA.1.0 TBDATA.1. MPTEMP.359.20.0.1.1.1.1.375.88588.006.375.0.1.20 TBDATA.79580.NUXY.0015.1.36E6.0.0.1.109440 TBTEMP.93.351.1.359.GXZ.EY.0.1.93 TBTEMP.1.0.0.11E6.0.37800.060E4 MPDATA. ANSYS Release 9.1.20.27.1.1. HILL and MKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening. Inc.400 TBDATA.0.0.1E3 TBPT.190E4.08.GYZ.69330.0.00E6.1.2. © SAS IP.0.115000.0.PRXY.1.0.11E6.00.1.3.060E4 TB.080E4.0.50400.0.359.93. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.27.800.0.25.20.93.0..0. 8.1.MKIN.1.1.1.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.34665.0 .93.3.1.62280.0.1.1.76E6 MPDATA.20.83040 TB.1.0.1.650.080E4.90000.0.. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0 TBDATA.0.120000 TBTEMP.92440 TBTEMP.27.46220.6E4 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! KINH TABLE 8–40 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2E3 TBPT.1.1.0.1.93 TBTEMP.76E6 MPDATA.0.00E6.160E4.41040.strain TBDATA.EX.1.104880.368. HILL and KINH Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening.1.1.110E4.950 TBDATA.3.00 TBTEMP.0.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPDATA.0.PRYZ.00.

19.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.EX.3.1.3.3.0.0. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .9.0.80 For information on the HILL option.2.1 TBDATA.3.3.9.1.1.1 TBDATA.90.1 TBDATA. MP.185E3 MP.1.3. Inc.400.9.9.3.180.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.95 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option. 8.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 8.1.1.1.200 TB.1 TBDATA.1. and Section 8.3. and Section 8.1.EX.0.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.CHAB.NUXY.0.85.2.BISO.HILL.3.0.1.Section 8. and Section 8. For information on the BISO option.HILL.1.0. and Section 8.1.1.HILL.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.100. 002114 .1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. For information on the CHAB option.1. For information on the CHAB option.0. HILL and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.9.1.0.1.2. and Section 8.185E3 MP.1.1. and Section 8.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.CHAB.1.0 .3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.3.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. 8.1. HILL and MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.1.3 TB. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.18.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 TBDATA.1.0.3 TB.85. 8–41 .3 TB.180.0.0.1. and Section 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. For information on the KINH option.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE TB.17. MP.0.85. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.180. ANSYS Release 9.0. © SAS IP. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.NUXY.1.0.1. HILL and BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.

070E4.351.050E4 MPDATA. © SAS IP.375.1. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.946E4.0.1.NUXY.9.0. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.060E4.368.973E4.PRXY.EY.1.0.GYZ.0. and Section 8.050E4 MPDATA.865E4 ! MPDATA.210E4.1.090E4.1.070E4.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 TBPT.1.1.PRXZ.0.1..1 TBDATA.0.1.1.1.1.384.090E4.368.1.1.700.0. and Section 8.0.393 ! MPDATA.0.5 ! TB.1.1.1.950 ! MPDATA.1.0.890E4.0.0..384.1.1.040E4 MPDATA.1.1.995E4.020E4.995E4.1.140E4.600.1.1.0.PRYZ.0.EX.160E4.1.380 MPDATA.020E4.001.0.973E4.250E4.1.1.HILL.890E4.110E4.1. HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.180.CHAB.1.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.EX.386.0.1.1.1.1.389.0.1 TBDATA.1 TBDATA.2.0.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.386.GXY.1.0.380 MPDATA.932E4.375.0.0.0.1.375.0.PRYZ.3.1.0.1.995E4.386..1. 8.932E4.180.1.0. For information on the CHAB option.359.1.080E4.3 ! NLISO TABLE ! CHABOCHE TABLE 8–42 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.MISO.1.1.351.1. MPTEMP.200.0.359.0.100.9.0.3 TB.0.963E4.0.391.380 TB.1.368.3.0.040E4 MPDATA.185.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.090E4.1.389.1.060E4.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.380 MPDATA.20.391.110E4.1.0.080E4.1.3.190E4.0.377.0.100.900.1.GYZ.1.963E4..0. .1.1.393 ! MPDATA.0.EY.400..908E4.CHAB.963E4.140E4. 002114 .1.060E4.110E4.040E4 MPDATA.250E4.070E4.1..20.0.1..946E4.1.973E4.1.0.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP.020E4.1.1.1.1.887E4 TB.100.0.1.0.160E4.190E4.0..1.1.000E4.351.000E4. ANSYS Release 9. and Section 8..382.160E4.PRXY.1..185 TBPT.384.140E4.1.000E4.359.080E4.NLISO.020E4.0.020E4.1.020E4.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! MISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1.GXZ.3 TB.1.0.932E4.550.1 TBDATA.0.0 .0.1.0.0.887E4 ! MPDATA.210E4..1.EZ.0.0.1.1.1.0.391.946E4.0.0.190E4.393 ! MPDATA.908E4.0.0.210E4.85.PRXZ.EX.1. For information on the MISO option.0.1.1.1.0.1.185E3 MP.382.EZ. Inc.908E4.377.389.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.887E4 ! MPDATA.377.0.050E4 MPDATA.0.1.382.GXY.0.890E4.250E4.0.850.750.3.0.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.800.1..0.1.0.GXZ.0.1.0.1.

1.1.160E4.1.1.27.375.0.359.1.1.1.20.0. and Section 8.Section 8.0.0.PRXY.0.1.1.93. TBDATA.0.359.377 ! MPDATA.351.1.0.BISO.0.375. 002114 .110E4.5 TBTEMP.1.0.0 .0.1.1.5 ! RATE TABLE TB.1.30.1.2.11E6.1.93.93 TBTEMP.1.0.0 TBDATA. 8–43 .0. ANSYS Release 9.110E4.1.PERZYNA TBTEMP.PRYZ.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.800.EZ. For information on the CHAB option.0 TBDATA.93 TBTEMP.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. and Section 8. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.93.1.0.900.0 TBDATA.93 TBTEMP.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MPDATA.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.20.060E4 ! MPDATA.EX.0.00.0.25.0.93.1.1. HILL and RATE and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.1.0.20E6.1.0 TBDATA.0. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.11E6.1.1.45000.0.0.1.25.1.1.950 TBDATA.0.0.750.110E4.800.36E6.190E4.HILL.0.650.0.1.0.0.3.1.20E6.0 TBDATA.1.93.93.0.160E4.00E6.060E4 ! MPDATA.1.PRXZ.1. Inc.1.080E4.0.1.GXY.00E6.1.20.HILL.1.76E6 ! MPDATA.1.0.1.1.0 TBDATA.160E4.20E6.3 TBTEMP.00 TBTEMP.1.0.368.36E6.190E4.080E4.0.1.368.0 TBDATA.0.1.1.0.00.0.080E4.1.377 ! MPDATA.76E6 ! MPDATA.1.2.GXZ.0.1.1.850.1.1.359.0.93.EY.30.23.0.0.GYZ.1.76E6 ! MPDATA.1.1..0.1.0.1.375.21.0.23.0.0.0.1.1.1.0.20 TBDATA.0 TBDATA.00E6.0.93.0.93 TBTEMP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.00.900.0. and Section 8.0.3.RATE.11E6.368.93.1.1.0.0 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.1.0.1.750.27.800.1.1.93 TBTEMP.25.850.1.351.0.1.1.1.950.3.1.0.36E6.190E4.3.1.1.93.1. For information on the NLISO option.93.1.351.0.93 TBTEMP. MPTEMP.377 ! MPDATA.1.1.0.27.060E4 TB.400.1.23.1.30.0. 8.20.0.0.1. © SAS IP.1.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.93.0.1.1.760000 ! BISO TABLE TB.00.1.1.

1 TBPT.060.00 For information on the HILL option.NUXY..85.0.0.9.0 TBDATA..1.1.0.3..80 TB.3.RATE.0.PERZYNA TBDATA.1.1.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.80 TB.5.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA.020.1.0. and Section 8. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. For information on the BISO option.NUXY.0.20. MP.0E5 MP.1.1.1.1. 8.1.0.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.0.3 TB. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.PERZYNA TBDATA.85.950.0.0 .1.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.30000 TBPT. Inc.9.1. and Section 8.1. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.22.35000 TBPT.23.33800 TBPT.050.0.1.040. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.9.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. and Section 8.38000 TBPT.1.1.1.00 TBTEMP.00.EX.1.NLISO.00.1.1 ! RATE TABLE 8–44 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .30000.1 ! RATE TABLE For information on the HILL option.2.9.00.1 TBDATA..RATE..3.0.1.. ANSYS Release 9. MP..1.1.5. HILL and RATE and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.0.0.1.EX.1..3.HILL.025.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA. 002114 .0.1.0.0.1.20. and Section 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.0.1. © SAS IP.1.3.1.015.0.HILL.030. and Section 8..1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. For information on the RATE option.2.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.32000 TBPT.0E5 MP.MISO.3..1.1.0.00.3.1. For information on the MISO option.5200.0.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.3 TB.1.100000. and Section 8. For information on the RATE option.1.1. .0.. 8.0.0. HILL and RATE and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.36500 TBPT.0.

080E4..1.0.140E4.080E4.PRXY..93. and Section 8.1.1.00.1.1.391.1.0.GXZ.1..190E4.375.887E4 TB.380 MPDATA.EX.110E4.PRXZ. and Section 8.1.0.0.0.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.0.1.050E4 MPDATA.368.0.190E4.1.1.1.0. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 TBDATA.1.1.963E4.1.0.0.190E4.1.384.384.1.1.1.1.377.995E4.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.375.0.0 TBDATA.932E4.93.1.963E4.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.0.1.0.0.382.1.1.090E4.1.1.050E4 MPDATA.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the HILL option.0.1.1.HILL.210E4..0.0.0.1.0.1.1.389.359.0.0.060E4.1. For information on the CREEP option.0.110E4.1..0.0.GXZ.PRYZ.377.PRXY.0.020E4.0.400.060E4.1.890E4.1.950.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.382.1.020E4. Inc.1. For information on the NLISO option.0.160E4.020E4.1.908E4.0.359.391.250E4.946E4.1.00 TBTEMP.0.93..040E4 MPDATA.1.393 ! MPDATA.0 TBDATA.3.1.0. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.1.1.0..865E4 ! MPDATA.140E4.0.0 .1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.PRXZ.1.0.0.386.0.1.1.932E4.950 ! MPDATA.908E4.0.0.000E4.0.070E4.890E4.080E4.GXY.1.1.1.1.1.1.0.0.1.932E4.1.0.0.3.1.1..1.93.1.389.CREEP.020E4.1.368.93.700.0 TBDATA.0.1.389.0.250E4.0 TBDATA. © SAS IP.020E4.946E4.0.0.25.351.93 TBTEMP.850.1.140E4.2 TBDATA.0.800.0.0.1.1.1.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.380 MPDATA.EZ..1.377.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.070E4.93.1.5 TBTEMP.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.250E4.973E4.PRYZ.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.963E4.110E4.0.3.GXY.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.93 TBTEMP.5.090E4.020E4. ANSYS Release 9.0.900.0.890E4.850.800.6.1.1.0.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1. 8–45 .1. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.386.0.1.386.0.1.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.0.0.-0.1.EY.0.000E4.0.1.00.1.380 MPDATA.0.0.359.070E4.1.600.0. and Section 8.EZ.GYZ.0.0.1.1.0.1.20. and Section 8.946E4.368.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1.1.0.995E4..090E4.750. HILL and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep.911E-34.1.160E4.1.0.5.1.0.1..0.93 TBTEMP.210E4.0.210E4.0.3. 002114 .900.1.200.00.1.1.1. For information on the RATE option.0.0. MPTEMP.050E4 MPDATA.375.995E4.000E4.00.0.EX. 8.1.351.1.1.040E4 MPDATA.1..1.1.382.1. and Section 8.Section 8.384.351.GYZ.160E4.3.0.908E4.393 ! MPDATA. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.391.0.1.0.393 ! MPDATA.1.0.973E4.1.1.750.1.24.2. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.0.0.1.040E4 MPDATA.550.1.973E4.1.EY.060E4.0.

0.1.25.PRYZ.400.1.391.1.0.963E4.110E4.110E4.1.1.750. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.386.0.1.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.0.890E4.973E4.1.GYZ.0.93.0.0.351.EZ.368.1. For information on the CREEP option.1..1.1.3..932E4.389..1.1.1.1.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.1.0.382.1.110E4.391. Inc.0.1.377.0.0.382..946E4. and Section 8..0.1.1.1.0.950.1.750.190E4.00.0.391. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.020E4.1.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.EZ..386..060E4.368.EX.1.0.0.1.93 TBTEMP.800.0.0.1.0.890E4.20.080E4.382.5 TBTEMP.0.0.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.900. ANSYS Release 9.CREEP.393 ! MPDATA.1.1.0.0.1.0.060E4.908E4.950 ! MPDATA.00.1.384.1.GXZ.1.1.375.0.800.1.2 TBDATA.93.050E4 MPDATA.865E4 ! MPDATA.090E4.932E4.070E4.0.0 TBDATA.0.963E4.020E4.0.1.1.070E4.93 TBTEMP. .384.000E4.5..887E4 TB.080E4.0.040E4 MPDATA.5.0.190E4.0.1.25.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.380 MPDATA.160E4.1.1.2..0.1.0.020E4. © SAS IP.1.1.0.359.865E4 ! MPDATA.160E4.1.210E4.0.1.00 TBTEMP.995E4.PRXY.0.0.1.1.1.93.1.0.210E4.3.1.PRXZ.0.190E4.368.0.0.0.1.080E4.1.GXY.0.1..850.0.050E4 MPDATA.1.3.0. For information on the BISO option.GXZ.380 MPDATA.0.160E4.1.393 ! MPDATA..0 TBDATA.140E4.973E4.1.0.0.93.1.1.6.EX. and Section 8.1.1.1.0.375.0.550.0.090E4.377.0.0.1.1.0.0.1.1.908E4.1.000E4.1.0 .PRXZ.210E4.PRXY.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1.1.0 TBDATA.200 ! BISO TABLE TB.1.0.1.200.0.040E4 MPDATA.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.140E4.0.0.GXY.EY.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.020E4.1.1.1.BISO. and Section 8.1.0.0.946E4.1. 002114 .1.1.0.0.93 TBTEMP.GYZ.389.0.0.0.393 ! MPDATA.1.0.0.1.0.359.932E4.3.0.908E4.1.1.1.180.0.00.250E4.386.050E4 MPDATA.020E4.070E4.1.600.973E4.040E4 MPDATA.93.0.0.020E4.1.1.EY.1.1.1.389.0.963E4.PRYZ.1.1.700.93.0.-0.0.995E4.0.1 TBDATA.HILL.1.850.0 TBDATA.00.995E4.1. MPTEMP.0 TBDATA. 8–46 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.1.0.1.380 MPDATA.090E4.1.359.1.250E4.351.0.1.900.1..375.140E4.1.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.1.0.000E4.946E4.377.911E-34.890E4.060E4.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.1.0.351. HILL and CREEP and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.384.250E4.1.0.

9.1.0.0.3.1. and Section 8.060.32000 TBPT.35000 TBPT.2.030.0 For information on the HILL option.3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0.NUXY.015. 8.0.26.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA. HILL and CREEP and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.9.. MP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.28.1.MISO.1.1.1. Inc.0. ANSYS Release 9.2. and Section 8.5625E-14. 8.NLISO.0.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.Section 8. and Section 8.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB..1. 8–47 .1.33800 TBPT. and Section 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..5.0 For information on the HILL option.3.0. HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.1.1.3. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0E5 MP.3. and Section 8.0E5 MP.100000.3.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.0.3 TB.85.1 TBDATA. For information on the CREEP option.1 TBPT.025.0.CREEP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.-0.EX.1.050.0 .3.5.2.0.0. and Section 8.9.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA..0. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.5625E-14.0. © SAS IP.1.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.30000 TBPT.1.020.1.0.1.27.HILL.5200.0..0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.CREEP.0.5.20. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.5.5.36500 TBPT.3.80 TB. 002114 .040.0.38000 TBPT.1.1.1.30000.1.3 TB.NUXY.EX.0..HILL.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB..80 TB.0.0. For information on the CREEP option. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0..1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.-0...85.1. For information on the NLISO option. HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity.1. For information on the MISO option.. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.20. MP.9.5.1.3.

and Section 8. 8.1e7 MP.a2. You can also refer to the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference.0.prony. 8–48 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Hyperelasticity and Viscoelasticity (Implicit) Example This input listing illustrates the combination of implicit hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLES TB.1.1000 TB. and Section 8.7. © SAS IP. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference. The following commands are set to optimal defaults: AUTOTS DELTIM NSUBST CNVTOL LNSRCH ARCLEN PRED NROPT TINTP CUTCONTROL OPNCONTROL CDWRITE MONITOR NEQIT SSTIF KBC EQSLV LSWRITE These commands and the settings they control are discussed in later sections.a1. see Viscoelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP.3.1.. see Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.t2.1. you can manually override the settings.4e-21.2 a3=0.1.1. Inc.5.0 . 002114 .0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. ANSYS Release 9..1.1. .1.1. based on the physics of your problem.. and Section 8.1.2.c10. For information on the CREEP option.HYPER.3.42000.MOON TBDATA.29.0.t1.1.3.3..HILL. For information on the viscoelasticity.8: Viscoelasticity in this chapter.t3 !!!! type 1 is Mooney-Rivlin ! define Prony constants For information on hyperelasticity.3.c01 a1=0. c10=293 c01=177 TB.6 TBDATA.3.NUXY.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1.shear tbdata. 8.3.1.1 a2=0. and Section 8.32 TB.1.0 For information on the HILL option. and Section 8. For information on the BKIN option. Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS ANSYS employs an automatic solution control method that.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3 t1=10 t2=100 t3=1000 tb..3.1.BKIN.1. If you are not satisfied with the results obtained with these values.EX.1.0.1.1. sets various nonlinear analysis controls to the appropriate values.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.15. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.5.0.1.0.05.1 TBDATA.1.0.1.4: Hyperelasticity in this chapter.a3.CREEP.4.

6: Review the Results 8. 8. The general procedure for performing these tasks follows. See Section 8. the default settings in the Solution Controls dialog box are essentially the same settings employed by the automatic solution control method described in Section 8.2: Set Solution Controls Section 8. See the following sections in Chapter 2.1: Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box Section 2.Section 8. ANSYS' automatic solution control is active for the following analyses: • • Single-field nonlinear or transient structural and solid mechanics analysis where the solution DOFs are combinations of UX. Note — The Solution Controls dialog box.5.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis If you do choose to override the ANSYS-specified settings. A nonlinear solution will differ from a linear solution in that it often requires multiple load increments. For more information on building models in ANSYS.5. cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis. ROTX. 002114 .OFF in the /SOLU phase.0 . and Section 8.5. Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis The procedure for performing a nonlinear static analysis consists of these tasks: • • • • • • Section 8. ANSYS Release 9. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. UY.5. For a nonlinear analysis. 8. with exceptions noted: • • • Section 2. although a nonlinear analysis might include special elements or nonlinear material properties.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 8.5. Instead. UZ. analysis options.4: Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths.5. Inc. apply loads. “Structural Static Analysis”. After you have created a model in ANSYS.5.3. ROTY. Build the Model This step is essentially the same for both linear and nonlinear analyses.1. and always requires equilibrium iterations.2. issue SOLCONTROL. or if you wish to use an input list from a previous release of ANSYS.9: Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements. you set solution controls (analysis type.5. load step options. and so on). 8–49 . See the SOLCONTROL command description for more details. If your analysis includes large-strain effects. Single-field nonlinear or transient thermal analysis where the solution DOF is TEMP. and ROTZ. which is described later in this chapter.2.3.3. © SAS IP. and solve. your stress-strain data must be expressed in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain.4: Apply the Loads Section 8. See Section 8. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls for a nonlinear analysis involves the same options and method of access (the Solution Controls dialog box) as those used for a linear structural static analysis.1: Build the Model Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) for a sample problem that walks you through a specific nonlinear analysis.5: Solve the Analysis Section 8.2: Using the Basic Tab ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5. for more details.2.

NRES to increase the limit (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).2. You will usually choose to do a new analysis.5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2. To use this command. choose Large Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis. but you can use the command /CONFIG. When working with time settings. A nonlinear analysis requires multiple substeps (or time steps. except for the generation pass of a substructure analysis (which uses the frontal direct solver).2.1. (But. SOLID186.5. Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced analysis options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. only the last substep is written to the results file in a nonlinear analysis. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. See Section 8.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2.2.) Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis. keep in mind that not all nonlinear analyses will produce large deformations.SPARSE) for most cases. The sparse direct solver is the default. You cannot change this setting after the first load step (that is. The NSUBST and DELTIM commands both achieve the same effect (establishing a load step's starting. Only 1000 results sets (substeps) can be written to the results file. ANSYS Release 9. • 8. Other parts of the model that do not meet the above criteria will be solved using global assembly for the stiffness matrix. © SAS IP. and/or SOLID187 elements with linear material properties. minimum.2. in addition to those available on the Solution Controls dialog box.5.2.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities for further discussion of large deformations. NSUBST defines the number of substeps to be taken within a load step. SOLID185. after you issue your first SOLVE command). you must be doing a static analysis or a modal analysis with the PowerDynamics method. the two terms are equivalent) within each load step so that ANSYS can apply the specified loads gradually and obtain an accurate solution.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab 8.2. SOLID92.3.5. rather than a restart. SOLID92 or SOLID45). whereas DELTIM defines the time step size explicitly.2. Equation Solver ANSYS' automatic solution control activates the sparse direct solver (EQSLV.3.RST). For applications using solid elements (for example. 8–50 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3: The Transient Tab Section 2.5. Advanced time/frequency options.2.3: Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box. are discussed in Section 8. Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations Special considerations for setting these options in a nonlinear structural static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. Other choices include the frontal direct and PCG solvers. only small strain (NLGEOM. SOLID95.2. Restarts are discussed in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.OFF) analyses are allowed. and maximum step size). the PCG solver may be faster. remember that these options can be changed at any load step. 002114 . The MSAVE command triggers an element-by-element approach for the parts of the model that use SOLID45. See Chapter 2.2.1.3. If automatic time stepping is off [AUTOTS]. 8. Inc. then the starting substep size is used throughout the load step. you may be able to considerably reduce your memory usage with the MSAVE command. If you are using the PCG solver. .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis • • • • Section 2. especially when doing 3-D modeling. When using SOLID186 and/or SOLID187. • OUTRES controls the data on the results file (Jobname.3.0 . By default. but by reciprocal means.

Although the PCG solver can solve indefinite matrix equations. the entire nonlinear load step can be solved.2.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis MSAVE. the size of the next time step is predicted based on four factors: • • • • Number of equilibrium iterations used in the last time step (more iterations cause the time step size to be reduced) Predictions for nonlinear element status change (time step sizes are decreased when a status change is imminent) Size of the plastic strain increment Size of the creep strain increment 8. After completing the bisection. Use the following guidelines for selecting either the sparse or the PCG solver for nonlinear structural analysis: • • • If it is a beam/shell or beam/shell and solid structure. although the solution time may increase depending on the manufacturer of your computer and the speed of your processor.3. ANSYS Release 9. choose the sparse direct solver.ON can result in a memory savings of up to 70% for the part of the model that meets the criteria. a setting that is appropriate for most cases.5%.3.0 . or has insufficient displacement boundary constraints. 8. 002114 . 8.ON]. © SAS IP. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5.Section 8. You can define custom criteria if the default settings are not suitable. choose the sparse direct solver. 8–51 .2. In most cases. or has a big difference in material properties in different regions of the model. The sparse direct solver. the solver will iterate to the specified number of iterations and stop if it fails to converge. when the PCG solver encounters an ill-conditioned matrix. Eventually. When this happens. choose the PCG solver. 200. 2 x 2 x 2 integration for SOLID95). If the problem is ill-conditioned (triggered by poor element shapes).3.5. Inc.000 or more DOF). the solver continues the solution if the resulting matrix is wellconditioned. The check that the displacements are loosely set serves as a doublecheck on convergence. in sharp contrast to the iterative solvers included in ANSYS. If it is a 3-D solid structure and the number of DOF is relatively large (that is. An internal auto-time step scheme ensures that the time step variation is neither too aggressive (resulting in many bisection/cutbacks) nor too conservative (time step size is too small). Convergence Criteria The program will continue to do equilibrium iterations until the convergence criteria [CNVTOL] are satisfied (or until the maximum number of equilibrium equations is reached [NEQIT]).5. Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced load step options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. ANSYS' automatic solution control uses L2-norm of force (and moment) tolerance (TOLER) equal to 0. it triggers bisection.2.1. is a robust solver. as well as the chosen element options (for example. Automatic Time Stepping ANSYS' automatic solution control turns automatic time stepping on [AUTOTS. At the end of a time step.2. an L2-norm check on displacement with TOLER equal to 5% is also used in addition to the force norm check.

and if the change in displacements (checked as the square root sum of the squares) is less than or equal to 10*0. For displacements.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis By default. Thus.) However.0. but at the cost of more equilibrium iterations. you should change TOLER by one or two orders of magnitude. you will have to redefine force convergence checking.5). that is.0005 (that is. for applied displacements. you might want to use a different method of comparison. 2.001 and MINREF defaults to 1. The default value of TOLER is 0.0 for force convergence. not VALUE. additional L1 or L2 checking can be performed for a displacement convergence check. Checking Convergence in a Single and Multi-DOF System To check convergence in a single degree of freedom (DOF) system. and compare this value against the established convergence criteria (VALUE*TOLER).01). we do not recommend putting two or more disjointed structures into one model for a nonlinear analysis because the convergence check tries to relate these disjointed structures. often producing some unwanted residual force. The L2 norm performs the convergence check using the square root sum of the squares of the force (and moment) imbalances for all DOFs. in a multi-DOF system.001.U. the substep will be considered to be converged if the out-of-balance force (checked at each DOF separately) is less than or equal to 5000*0. (You can also perform a similar check for displacement (and rotation) convergence for your single DOF. the program bases convergence checking on the change in deflections (∆u) between the current (i) and the previous (i-1) iterations: ∆u=ui-ui-1.0005.2 8–52 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Also. If SOLCONTROL. You should make certain that the default value of MINREF = 0. rotation) convergence checking. CNVTOL. In general. TOLER defaults to 0. change the convergence criteria by adjusting TOLER. ANSYS Release 9. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. Note — If you explicitly define any custom convergence criteria [CNVTOL].01).F. 002114 . you should continue to use the default value of VALUE. you compute the force (and moment) imbalance for the one DOF.0. 0. the entire default criteria will be overwritten. when rotational degrees of freedom are active. which is not recommended) your criteria.005. You can also add displacement (and.) Using tighter convergence criteria will improve the accuracy of your results. The L1 norm compares the convergence criterion against the sum of the absolute values of force (and moment) imbalance for all DOFs.10. . If your analysis uses certain sets of units or has very low load levels. You should almost always use force convergence checking. The default value of VALUE is the SRSS of the applied loads (or. whichever is greater. the program will check for force (and. The ANSYS program provides three different vector norms to use for convergence checking: • • • The infinite norm repeats the single-DOF check at each DOF in your model. (Use multiple CNVTOL commands to define multiple convergence criteria. © SAS IP. Inc. of the Newton-Raphson restoring forces).0 CNVTOL.OFF.) Example For the following example. moment) convergence by comparing the square root sum of the squares (SRSS) of the force imbalances against the product of VALUE*TOLER. if you define displacement convergence checking.5000.001 makes sense in the context of your analysis. If you want to tighten (or loosen. when applicable.0 . (Of course.001 (that is. you might want to specify a smaller value for MINREF.

By default. For transient analysis.5.3. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used infrequently. adaptive descent is not automatically activated if the line search option is on. You can activate a predictor on the DOF solution for the first equilibrium iteration of each substep. a run cannot converge until at least one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. For most contact problems. If the time step size is reduced greatly in the current substep. specify any creep ratio control. VALUE is set to 15%. This feature accelerates convergence and is particularly useful if nonlinear response is relatively smooth. for Lab = PLSLIMIT (maximum plastic strain increment limit). Using the predictor for large rotations can cause divergence and thus is not recommended for problems with large rotations.4. according to the instructions you issue in the NCNV command. including the imposed displacement value. Predictor-Corrector Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will set PRED. ANSYS Release 9. For implicit creep (Option = 1). Because the line search algorithm is intended to be an alternative to the adaptive descent option [NROPT].0 . LNSRCH is toggled off.2. and if auto time stepping is on [AUTOTS]. PRED is turned off. and their default settings rarely need to be ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .ON if there are no beam or shell elements present. Option]. We do not recommend activating both line search and adaptive descent simultaneously. Lab. ANSYS scales the entire ∆U vector. The idea is to employ a small time step with fewer quadratically converging iterations.5. 8.5. If the convergence criteria have not been satisfied within this number of equilibrium iterations.2. Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the value of NEQIT to between 15 and 26 iterations.5. The number of points per cycle for second order dynamic equations (Lab = NPOINT) is set to VALUE = 13 by default to gain efficiency at little cost to accuracy.3. a "small" displacement would occur everywhere except at the imposed DOF. whenever a stiffening response is detected.3.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis 8. When an imposed displacement exists.5. Until one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. Line Search Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will toggle line search on and off as needed.2.5. there is no maximum creep criteria by default. For most non-contact problems. For explicit creep (Option = 0). use [CUTCONTROL. 002114 . 8.2.3. then the analysis will either terminate or move on to the next load step. © SAS IP.Section 8. You can however. 8.3. VALUE. Inc. Lab = CRPLIM (creep increment limit) and VALUE is set to 10%. 8. This field is set to such a large value for avoiding unnecessary bisections caused by high plastic strain due to a local singularity which is not normally of interest to the user. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution. 8–53 . Cutback Criteria For finer control over bisections and cutback in time step size. otherwise. It is not so helpful in analyses that incorporate large rotations or viscoelasticity. This convergence-enhancement tool multiplies the calculated displacement increment by a program-calculated scale factor (having a value between 0 and 1). the predictor is also turned off. the analysis will attempt to bisect. This option limits the maximum number of equilibrium iterations to be performed at each substep (default = 25 if solution control is off).6. ANSYS does not impose the full value of the displacement. depending upon the physics of the problem. This is a reasonable limit for creep analysis. If bisection is not possible.3. LNSRCH is toggled on.

This option is not applicable to large deformation analyses. It is not applicable to large deformation analyses. but it often requires more iterations to achieve convergence. Inc. ANSYS Release 9.3: Set Additional Solution Options. 8. ANSYS includes stress stiffness in all geometrically nonlinear analyses. As noted above in Section 8. Full (NROPT. If adaptive descent is on (optional). This option can be less likely to diverge than the full option. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you can specify one of these values: • • Program-chosen (NROPT. the program will use the tangent stiffness matrix only as long as the iterations remain stable (that is.MODI): The program uses the modified Newton-Raphson technique.1. Adaptive descent is not available. you can turn stress stiffening off (SSTIF. and PIPE60).3. and no negative main diagonal pivot occurs). This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution. Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Use this option only in a nonlinear analysis.1. using a weighted combination of the secant and tangent stiffness matrices. Stress Stiffness To account for buckling. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults. Adaptive descent is not available. • Modified (NROPT. If you are confident of ignoring such effects. The underlying contact elements require adaptive descent for convergence.5. Initial Stiffness (NROPT. node-to-surface contact elements are used for contact analysis with friction.1.0 . Activating adaptive descent will usually enhance the program's ability to obtain converged solutions for complicated nonlinear problems but is supported only for elements indicated under "Special Features" in the Input Summary table (Table 4. The matrix is not changed during equilibrium iterations at a substep.INIT): The program uses the initial stiffness matrix in every equilibrium iteration. © SAS IP. BEAM23. as long as the residual decreases. you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below. PIPE20. 002114 . 8. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 8. the program discards the divergent iteration and restarts the solution. when appropriate. bifurcation behavior. If you choose to override the default. Newton-Raphson Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will use the FULL Newton-Raphson option with adaptive descent off if there is a nonlinearity present.n. where n is the element number) in the ANSYS Elements Reference.OFF).5. If divergent trends are detected on an iteration. then adaptive descent is automatically turned on (for example.5.FULL): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure. However.2.5.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis changed.1 for an element. Adaptive descent will be automatically activated.1. the program will resume using the tangent stiffness matrix. When the iterations return to a convergent pattern. Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced analysis options that you can set for your analysis. see the ANSYS Elements Reference for the description of the specific elements you are using.3.3.AUTO): The program chooses which of the options to use. based on the kinds of nonlinearities present in your model. Instead. • 8–54 . you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. when node-to-node. BEAM24. This command has no effect when used with several ANSYS elements. in which the tangent stiffness matrix is updated at each substep.

INCP. 8. (Remember that you cannot perform a thermal analysis using the Solution Controls dialog box. for all elements.FULL. this creep criterion will have no effect. a divergent solution is possible and the analysis will be terminated with an error message. Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced load step options that you can set for your analysis.2. you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below.1.3.UNSYM): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure. See Section 3. however.0e-6 longer. If you are running a contact analysis. the change in creep strain in the last time step) to the elastic strain (εel).UNSYM to fully use the property you defined. If the maximum ratio is greater than the criterion CRCR. than if you use a symmetric solver. if the ratio ∆εcr / εel is above the stability limit of 0. irrespective of the Newton-Raphson option. (If automatic time stepping [AUTOTS] is off.5. If you are defining an unsymmetric material model using TB.5. ANSYS Release 9. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion Note — If you do not want to include the effects of creep in your analysis.3. 8.USER.3: Set Additional Solution Options. the program might increase the next time step size. specify any creep ratio control.2.3. As noted above in Section 8. then try NROPT.8. In addition.UNSYM if you experience convergence difficulties. if it is less. an unsymmetric contact stiffness matrix would fully couple the sliding and the normal stiffnesses. Instead.0 . and if the time increment cannot be decreased. Note that using an unsymmetric solver requires more computer time to obtain a solution. impending element status change.5. the program will then decrease the next time step size. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. • If a multistatus element is in the model. 002114 . For implicit creep (Option = 1). © SAS IP. and plastic strain increment. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands or the standard ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . use the RATE command with Option = OFF. or set the time steps to be longer than the previous time step. You should first try NROPT.) For explicit creep (Option = 0). it would be updated at the iteration in which it changes status. Option]. This problem can be avoided by making the minimum time step size sufficiently small [DELTIM and NSUBST].4: Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration in the ANSYS Contact Technology Guide for details. 8. an unsymmetric pressure load stiffness might be helpful in obtaining convergence.2. but not more than 1. Time Step Open Control This option is available for thermal analysis. Inc. it generates and uses unsymmetric matrices that you can use for any of the following: – – – If you are running a pressure-driven collapse analysis.5.2. (The program will also base automatic time stepping on the number of equilibrium iterations. you can specify a creep criterion for automatic time step adjustment [CRPLIM. You can include pressure load stiffness using SOLCONTROL.) The program will compute the ratio of creep strain increment (∆εcr.25. 8–55 . Creep Criteria If your structure exhibits creep behavior. there is no maximum creep limit by default. you would need NROPT. You can however.Section 8.CRCR. The time step size will be adjusted to the minimum size calculated for any of these items.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis • Full with unsymmetric matrix (NROPT.

3. particularly if you change nonlinear [TB] material properties. The default is that if the TEMP increment is smaller than 0. if an excessive number of attempts were made for a substep.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis corresponding menu paths instead. and so on) is updated to match the current displaced positions of their nodes. heat flux. thermal strains. the information contained in the file provides hints to either reduce the initial time step size or increase the minimum number of substeps allowed through the NSUBST command to avoid an excessive number of bisections. and so on) for inactive elements are also set to zero. which you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. In such cases. the time step size can be "opened-up" (value = 0. Inc. Command(s): MONITOR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor 8. As an alternative to the standard birth and death method. ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout 8–56 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 002114 .3.2. 8. and (if NLGEOM. ANSYS Release 9.ON) their geometric configuration (length. © SAS IP. . there are several other output control options that you can set for an analysis: Command(s): OUTPR.4. The time step size can then be opened continuously for greater solution efficiency.5.2.1 in three (NUMSTEP = 3) contiguous substeps. they have a zero strain state. Those elements to be “born” in later stages of your analysis should be deactivated before the first load step. Birth and Death Specify birth and death options as necessary. You can deactivate [EKILL] and reactivate [EALIVE] selected elements to model the removal or addition of material in your structure.3. and then reactivated at the beginning of the appropriate load step. and by removing its mass from the overall mass matrix. When elements are reactivated. you can change the material properties for selected elements [MPCHG] between load steps. Changing material properties in a nonlinear analysis may produce unintended results. Element loads (pressure. EALIVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Kill Elements Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Activate Elem The program “deactivates” an element by multiplying its stiffness by a very small number (which is set by the ESTIF command).5.1 by default). Output Control In addition to OUTRES.5. The command also provides the user with a means to quickly review the solution convergence efficiency. you cannot create new elements in SOLUTION.) This option's primary use is in unsteady state thermal analysis where the final temperature stage reaches a steady state.5. Command(s): OPNCONTROL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Open Control 8. rather than attempting to gather this information from a lengthy output file. the time step can be opened quickly. See the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information on birth and death. You need to define all possible elements during preprocessing.0 . For instance. area. Another way to affect element behavior during solution is to change the material property reference number for selected elements: Command(s): MPCHG GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Change Mat Num Note — Use MPCHG with caution.3. Solution Monitoring This option provides a facility to monitor a solution value at a specified node in a specified DOF.2. Command(s): EKILL.

Extrapolation of results [ERESX] copies an element's integration point stress and elastic strain results to the nodes instead of extrapolating them. Solve the Analysis You solve a nonlinear analysis using the same commands and procedure as you do in solving a linear static analysis. You can apply complex boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter). you probably will not want to postprocess the results.5.3. the general postprocessor. See Chapter 2.RST. If not. you must respecify time settings.0 . ANSYS Release 9. and so on. • • 2. or in POST26.RST.2. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname.5. Review the Results Results from a nonlinear static analysis consist mainly of displacements. then continue postprocessing. creep.the load step file method and the array parameter method . (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in this guide for more information.1.6. 002114 . Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The results file (Jobname. 8.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Printed output [OUTPR] includes any results data on the output file (Jobname. 8.OUT). See Section 2. but surface loads will "follow" the structure in a large-deformation analysis. strains. 8. If your model is not currently in the database.5. © SAS IP. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. See Section 2.5. and then save and solve for each of the additional load steps.3. stresses. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. other than to determine why convergence failed.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps. 8.RST) must be available. 8–57 . load step options. Enter POST1. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for load information. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1.6. Reviewing Results in POST1 1.5. The integration point nonlinear strains are always copied to the nodes. only one substep can be read in at a time.5. Remember that inertia and point loads will maintain constant direction. 8.6. See Chapter 2.5: Solve the Analysis in Chapter 2. swelling) are present in the element.2. Inc.are described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and reaction forces. if nonlinear strains (plasticity.4. If your solution converged. issue RESUME. Apply the Loads Apply loads on the model. Remember that in POST1. Other methods for multiple load steps . Verify from your output file (Jobname.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. the time-history postprocessor. “Structural Static Analysis”. “Structural Static Analysis” in this guide and Chapter 2. If you need to define multiple load steps. You can review these results in POST1.4.Section 8.

that arc-length results should not be identified by time. See the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time.23 Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error 4. Read in results for the desired load step and substep. Caution: If you specify a TIME value for which no results are available. 002114 . the ANSYS program will perform a linear interpolation to calculate the results at that value of TIME. Display the results using any of the following options: Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape In a large deformation analysis. © SAS IP. or with adjacent deactivated and activated elements). . strains. or any other applicable item. for a nonlinear analysis. Figure 8. with different material types.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 3. (Note. you 8–58 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Thus. ANSYS Release 9. Additionally.) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step You can also use the SUBSET or APPEND commands to read in or merge results data for selected portions of the model only. Inc.. Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses.23: “Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error”). If you have adjacent elements with different material behavior (such as can occur with plastic or multilinear elastic material properties. You can also limit the amount of data written from the results file to the database through the INRES command. you should usually postprocess at a TIME that corresponds exactly to the desired substep.1]. you might prefer to use a true scale display [/DSCALE. however. The LIST argument on any of these commands lists the available solutions on the results file. you can use the ETABLE command to store result items for selected elements.0 . Realize that this interpolation will usually cause some loss of accuracy in a nonlinear analysis (see Figure 8.

the time-history postprocessor. ESOL. PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Use PLETAB to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. enter POST26. You should not base design decisions on unconverged results. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro Define the variables to be used in your postprocessing session. For instance. ANSYS Release 9. Verify from your output file (Jobname. © SAS IP. Selecting logic (described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) provides a means of avoiding such errors. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display.3. issue RESUME. 002114 .6.mapping results onto a path. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis should take care to avoid nodal stress averaging errors in your results. 2. and so on. 8. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . or you might list the plastic strain at a node and the corresponding TIME value. 8–59 . Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26. where you can incorporate them into your postprocessing. You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB. If your solution converged.5.Section 8. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes 3. The SOLU command will cause various iteration and convergence parameters to be read into the database. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all desired load steps.0 . Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRETAB PRITER (substep summary data). Command(s): NSOL. RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Graph or list the variables. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . Inc. 4. If your model is not currently in the database. and so on are available in POST1. NSORT ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence might follow these steps: 1. report quality listings. you might graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses.

6. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 1. Terminating a Running Job. Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis Many of the tasks that you need to perform in a nonlinear transient analysis are the same as (or similar to) those that you perform in nonlinear static analyses (described in Section 8. Instead.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis) and linear full transient dynamic analyses (described in Chapter 2. Restart procedures are covered in Section 3.6.DAMP]. However. See Chapter 3. New Analysis or Restart [ANTYPE] Analysis Type: Transient [ANTYPE] Large Deformation Effects [NLGEOM] Large Displacement Transient (if using the Solution Controls dialog box to set analysis type) Apply loads and specify load step options in the same manner as you would for a linear full transient dynamic analysis. “Structural Static Analysis”). “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. 8. 8. KBC.7. ANSYS Release 9. If you want to. In a nonlinear transient analysis. with the first load step typically used to establish initial conditions (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). The general. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. which is the method described in Section 8.ABT).2. Restarting You can stop a nonlinear analysis by creating an "abort" file (Jobname. 8–60 . Inc. See Chapter 6. The program will also stop upon successful completion of the solution. However. be sure to include a value for mass density [MP. SSTIF. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for procedures for defining nonzero initial conditions.1. NEQIT. You can often restart an analysis if it successfully completed one or more iterations before it terminated. birth and death. time must be greater than zero. cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis. NSUBST.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis. See the NLGEOM. you can also define material-dependent structural damping [MP. this section describes some additional considerations for performing a nonlinear transient analysis. 8.DENS]. Build the Model This step is the same as for a nonlinear static analysis. nonlinear. and output control options available for a nonlinear static analysis are also available for a nonlinear transient analysis. if your analysis includes time-integration effects. 002114 . OUTRES. NROPT. TIME. NCNV. CNVTOL. AUTOTS. Remember that the Solution Controls dialog box.6. or if a convergence failure occurs.10: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.5. A transient load history usually requires multiple load steps. and SOLU command descriptions for more information. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. © SAS IP. PRED.0 . Specify transient analysis type and define analysis options as you would for a nonlinear static analysis: • • • • 2. 8. See Chapter 5.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST26.

10. you must specify whether you want stepped or ramped loads [KBC]. or swelling. Note — If you are using the Solution Controls dialog box to set solution controls. which provide numerical damping to the Newmark and HHT methods.do not use BETAD. © SAS IP. 5. See Section 5. KBC. BETAD.) ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the defaults to a new time integration scheme for use by first order transient equations. 002114 . and transient integration parameters. • Time Integration Effects [TIMINT] Time integration effects are ON by default in a transient analysis. Except in kinematic (rigid-body motion) analyses. this is the backward Euler scheme. ON). use a static analysis). These time-dependent effects are usually not included in dynamic analyses because the transient dynamic time step sizes are often too short for any significant amount of long-term deformation to occur. ANSYS Release 9. stepped loads. Write load data for each load step to a load step file. you can access all of these options [ALPHAD. Inc.3: Damping for details about damping. TIMINT. In a nonlinear analysis the stiffness may change drastically . For creep. Theory Reference for more information about these parameters. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. “Getting Started with ANSYS” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. TIMINT. TINTP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Transient Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration An explanation of the dynamics options follows. Command(s): ALPHAD.Section 8.0. TINTP. time integration effects. Inc. Other methods for multiple load steps are described in Chapter 1. 3. you should turn the time integration effects off (that is. leave SOLUTION. so that the response first order eigenvalues can be used to more precisely determine a new time step value. (See your ANSYS.0 . 4. 8–61 . except with care. It is unconditionally stable and more robust for highly nonlinear thermal problems such as phase changes. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As Start solution calculations. viscoplasticity. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for further discussion about ramped vs. Command(s): FINISH ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 (set by SOLCONTROL. BETAD. viscoelasticity. The oscillation limit tolerance defaults to 0. Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files After you have solved all load steps. You can also specify dynamics options: alpha and beta damping. TRNOPT] on the Transient tab. • Damping Rayleigh damping constants are defined using the constant mass [ALPHAD] and stiffness [BETAD] matrix multipliers. you will rarely need to adjust the transient integration parameters [TINTP].6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis For a nonlinear transient analysis. This is typically used for unsteady state thermal problems where θ = 1. 6.

! Convergence criteria ! NEQIT=25 by default NCNV....3 ! Initiate multiple l..ON ! Predictor ON OUTRES.6. as needed --LSSOLVE. min. depending on ! nonlinearities encountered ! Loads: F.ALL.3 8–62 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .TRANS ! TRNOPT.s.. ! Nonconvergence termination controls PRED. ! TIME at end of load step DELTIM. Again..2.FULL by default --! Establish initial conditions as in linear full --! transient analysis LSWRITE ! Initial-condition load step NLGEOM.. ! Mass damping TIMINT. ! Time step controls (starting. See the postprocessing procedures outlined in Chapter 5..CNVG ! Check convergence SOLU..ALL ! Results for every substep written to database LSWRITE ! First "real" transient load step --! Additional load steps.. max) AUTOTS.2. .. ! Load Step Options: TIME. © SAS IP. you can use POST1 to postprocess results at a specific moment in time....3. More details of postprocessing procedures can be found in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide....ON ! Automatic time stepping.ON ! TIMINT. 8. 002114 . solution SAVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results: /POST26 ! Time-History Postprocessor SOLU.. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis A sample input listing for a nonlinear transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model: /PREP7 --! Similar to a linear full transient model.ON ! Nonlinear geometric effects (large deformations) SSTIF.FOCV PRVAR.. unless you turned it OFF for ! initial-condition load step ! Nonlinear Options: CNVTOL. Review the Results As in a nonlinear static analysis. Time-history postprocessing using POST26 is essentially the same for nonlinear as for linear transient analyses. including bisection ! KBC=0 by default (ramped loading) ! Dynamic Options: ALPHAD. ANSYS Release 9... Inc. nonlinear elements --FINISH ! ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution: /SOLU ANTYPE..7.3.1.0 . Procedures are much the same as described previously for nonlinear static analyses. D. you should verify that your solution has converged before you attempt to postprocess the results.ON by default. “Transient Dynamic Analysis”.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis GUI: Close the Solution menu.. with --! these possible additions: nonlinear material --! properties. 8.ON ! Stress stiffening effects ! NROPT=AUTO by default: Program will choose appropriate Newton-Raphson and ! Adaptive Descent options.

. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for details. EALIVE. NEQIT.. 8.9. OUTRES. CONTA171. see Section 3... For example. PLNSOL. TIME.8.. and ANSYS Structural products only. FINISH ! /POST1 SET.... • • • • • • • • • • COMBIN7 COMBIN14 COMBIN37 COMBIN39 COMBIN40 CONTAC12 and CONTAC52 TARGE169.10: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ESTIF] (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other) can be used to deactivate or reactivate selected elements in such cases. its stiffness suddenly drops to zero. These and other status-dependent stiffness changes can be modeled by using nonlinear elements (described below). NSORT. DELTIM. ! General Postprocessor ! Read results from desired time step ! Postprocess as desired See the ANTYPE. and CONTA175 LINK10 SHELL41 SOLID65 8. CONTA173. NLGEOM. determine critical time step.0 . stresses. TIMINT. ALPHAD. etc. an element's status changes between "existent" and "nonexistent. or by changing material properties [MPCHG].9: Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements NSOL. etc... Element Birth and Death Sometimes. FINISH ! ! ! ! Store results (displacements.. PLDISP. by applying birth and death options to applicable elements (see the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide). Some of the nonlinear element features described below are available only in the ANSYS Multiphysics. PLVAR. 8–63 .Section 8. LSSOLVE. and SOLU command descriptions for more information. KBC.. when a cable goes slack." The birth and death options [EKILL. 8... TRNOPT. LSWRITE. SSTIF. TARGE170.9. NROPT. © SAS IP.. CONTA172. CONTA174. When two separate bodies come into contact. The birth and death feature is discussed in detail in Chapter 12. TIME to evaluate general quality of analysis. Inc. Restarts Restart procedures for a transient analysis are essentially the same as for a static analysis. their overall stiffness changes drastically.. PRED. NCNV. AUTOTS.1. PRNSOL.. Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements Nonlinear elements display an abrupt change in stiffness when they experience a change in status.) as variables Graph results vs... “Element Birth and Death” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. CNVTOL. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Mechanical.. 002114 .. ANSYS Release 9.

3. Areas where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively fine mesh compared to that needed for displacement or nonlinearity resolution. construct a very simple model (that is.2. you can avoid many difficulties commonly associated with nonlinear analyses. Inc.10. Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave If you have not used a particular nonlinear feature before.1.10. The following suggestions should be useful.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. • • 8–64 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .10. 002114 . For nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. .) If you can omit a nonlinear detail without affecting results in critical regions of your model. Use an Adequate Mesh Density • Recognize that regions undergoing plastic deformation require a reasonable integration point density (mesh density is particularly important in plastic-hinge regions). make sure your problem converged. thus lower-order elements provide the same accuracy as higherorder elements. do so. Provide a mesh density adequate for resolving stresses. If you can represent your 3-D structure as a 2-D plane stress. However.1. Antisymmetry can also be rendered inapplicable by large deflections. and/or modal analyses can also help you to understand various aspects of your structure's nonlinear dynamic response before you undertake the final nonlinear transient dynamic analysis. and make sure you understand how to handle this feature before you use it in a large.1. For nonlinear static models. If you can reduce your model size through the use of symmetry or antisymmetry surfaces. Model transient dynamic loading in terms of static-equivalent loads whenever possible. do so. For path-dependent problems. the 18x elements are recommended for nonlinear analyses. plane strain. a preliminary model of beams.0 . (However. you can generally not take advantage of antisymmetry to reduce a nonlinear model's size. At a minimum. complicated model. a preliminary linear static analysis can reveal which regions of your model will first experience nonlinear response.1. if your model is loaded antisymmetrically. or axisymmetric model. Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis This section describes tips and guidelines that can help you to perform a nonlinear analysis. ANSYS Release 9. Higher-order elements use only the corner integration points for nonlinear analyses. 8. containing only a few elements). © SAS IP. 8. Keep It Simple • Keep your final model as simple as possible. masses. • Gain preliminary insight into your structure's behavior by analyzing a preliminary simplified model first. before you try to postprocess your results. • 8.10.10. the printout's equilibrium iteration record can be especially important in helping you to determine if your results are valid or not. Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis By taking your time and proceeding with reasonable caution. Consider substructuring the linear portions of your model to reduce the computational effort required for intermediate load or time increments and equilibrium iterations. • • 8. Read and understand the program's output messages and warnings.1. Preliminary nonlinear static. linear transient dynamic. Provide an adequate mesh density on contact surfaces to allow contact stresses to be distributed in a smooth fashion. and springs can provide insight into the structure's dynamics at minimal cost. do so. and at what load levels these nonlinearities will come into play.

A convergence failure can also indicate a physical instability in the structure. as well as on the mode shape itself. CHECK.10. Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics The nonlinear diagnostics tool NLDIAG can help you find problems in your model when an analysis will not converge. When this happens. or large deformations causing mesh distortion that result in element shape errors. The CHECK command does an overall verification of the model. and after a solution. accurate solution. a part in your model is constrained only through contact with other parts and if the contact surfaces are open. 8–65 . The number of elements needed depends on the elements' assumed displacement shape functions. and CNCHECK commands help you verify if there are any obvious problems with the model before you start the solution. You can sometimes improve the convergence behavior of conservative systems by applying the load gradually. some portions of the initial mesh can become highly distorted. Apply the Load Gradually • • For nonconservative.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis • Use a mesh density adequate to characterize the highest mode shape of interest. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .10. The following sections detail some of the techniques that you can use to attempt to improve the convergence performance of your analysis. especially when the mesh is imported from a third party software.2. thereby allowing them to retain acceptable shapes. This deformed-shape checker will help you to identify the portions of your model that require different meshing. then provide at least 20 elements to resolve one wavelength. path-dependent systems. and element shape checks. Using ESCHECK at different time points will help you to identify the load conditions that cause mesh deterioration. When you analyze models with large deformations. so as to minimize the number of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations required.2. providing inaccurate results. unconstrained model. Some examples may be initially open contact surfaces causing rigid body motion.4. several tools are available in ANSYS that can help you identify potential problems before. Use a mesh density adequate to resolve any transient dynamic wave propagation through your structure. including missing elastic properties. ANSYS Release 9. 8. identifying whether the contacts are initially open or closed. © SAS IP. Overcoming Convergence Problems When performing a nonlinear analysis you may encounter convergence difficulties due to a number of reasons. during. you need to apply the load in small enough increments to ensure that your analysis will closely follow the structure's load-response curve. or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model. 002114 .1. If.10. Solution control (SOLCONTROL) automatically adjusts solution parameters and attempts to obtain a robust. This can cause your nonlinear solution to stop. Highly distorted elements can take on unacceptable shapes.Section 8. The MCHECK command can help you identify defects in the mesh such as holes or cracks. • 8. If wave propagation is important. The CNCHECK command provides the initial contact status of contact pairs. use the ESCHECK command to perform shape checking of deformed elements in the postprocessor (based on the current set of results in database). Inc.1. the CNCHECK command can help you identify this potential error condition. 8. In addition.0 . material instabilities. MCHECK. for example. large load increments causing nonconvergence.

Information stored in this file will help identify when and how contact occurs. the CUTCONTROL command sets the maximum plastic/creep strain increments allowed in an iteration. where the model has a large number of contact surfaces and other nonlinearities. determine the regions where contact is unstable. Monitor the Diagnostics Results in Real Time The NLHIST command allows you to monitor results of interest in real time during solution. 8–66 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . determine when convergence criteria have been violated. The result data are written to a file named Jobname. The file is written during solution at a user-specified frequency (each iteration.g.nlh.0 . local element level NewtonRaphson convergence failure. The NLDIAG. Be sure to read any error messages generated during solution. Process the Tracked Results Issue the NLDPOST command to process the . Identify contact pairs causing convergence difficulties Issue the NLDIAG. you can request nodal data such as displacements or reaction forces at specific nodes. or extreme element distortion).NRRE command. Inc.EFLG command identifies elements that violate the above criteria and records them in a file (Jobname. or load step). Some limits are user-controlled.ndxxx). which will help to identify regions of high residual forces. ANSYS Release 9.cnd text file. Nodal results and contact results are monitored at every converged substep while element nodal data are written as specified via the OUTRES setting. The Ansys error message identifies the corresponding element number and/or the material ID for these cases. Before starting the solution. For example. 002114 . . for example. when exceeded. You can then focus on the specific settings for those particular contact pairs that need attention.CONT command to write various contact information for all defined contact pairs to a single Jobname. and identify the corresponding contact parameters. You can restart the analysis and issue an NLDIAG. Such a capability can be useful when you experience convergence difficulties in the middle of a load step.nrxxx). substep. © SAS IP. Other limits are fixed. You can then contour plot the residual forces via the PLNSOL. Identify Problem Elements • • • • Too large a distortion Elements contain nodes that have near zero pivots (nonlinear analyses) Too large a plastic or creep strain increment Elements where mixed u-P constraints are not satisfied (mixed U-P option of 18x solid elements only) Typically. a reaction force-deflection curve could indicate when possible buckling behavior occurs. You can then focus on the nonlinearities in that area (for example.NRRE command to write out the residuals.NRRE command to write the Newton-Raphson residuals from equilibrium iterations to a file (Jobname. a contact pair's properties) instead of having to deal with the entire model.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Identify Regions of High Residual Forces Issue the NLDIAG. Note — Convergence problems may occur when material algorithms fail (e.ndxxx nonlinear diagnostics files. You can also request element nodal data such as stresses and strains at specific elements to be graphed. Pair-based contact data are also available. nonlinear analyses fail to converge for the following reasons: ANSYS has default limits which. By tracking the way the residuals change over several equilibrium iterations you can identify a portion of your model where large residuals persist. The command creates components of elements that violate a certain criterion for a particular equilibrium iteration (or iterations).

10.24: “Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature” shows a typical GST display: Figure 8. 002114 . even after the solution is complete (the data in the file must be formatted correctly).nlh file. GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. This can be important in the following situations: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Either access the ANSYS Launcher and select File Tracking from the Tools menu.3. By default. Available in both batch and interactive sessions.Section 8. the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence norms and criteria while the solution is in process. 8.2. Use the supplied file browser to navigate to your Jobname. and click on it to invoke the tracking utilty.24 Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature 8. 8–67 . Tracking Convergence Graphically As a nonlinear structural analysis proceeds. This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included. especially for complicated models.2. ANSYS computes convergence norms with corresponding convergence criteria each equilibrium iteration. or type nlhist81 at the command line. use either of the following: Command(s): /GST GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track Figure 8. ANSYS Release 9. © SAS IP.10. Inc.0 . To turn GST on or off.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis You can also track results during batch runs. Using Automatic Time Stepping • Be sure to place an upper limit on the time step size using DELTIM or NSUBST.2. You can use this utilty to read the file at any time.

These guidelines can usually help you obtain a good solution: – Incorporate significant numerical damping (0. The program calculates the reference arc-length radius from the load (or displacement) increment of the first iteration of the first substep. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . adaptive descent [NROPT. Problems that include structures that are continuously excited over a range of frequencies (for example. using the following formula: (Total Load or Displacement) B NSBSTP Reference Arc -Length Radius = where NSBSTP is the number of substeps specified in the NSUBST command. 8. When using the arc-length method. • Do not use line search [LNSRCH].. ANSYS Release 9. ramped portions of the load history may be inaccurately characterized.10. which causes stability problems for the Newmark time-integration algorithm. Ideally. seismic problems)..05 < γ < 0. Problems with short ramp times on some of their loads. • Take care when modeling kinematic structures (systems with rigid-body motions). please keep in mind the following considerations: • • The arc-length method is restricted to static analyses with proportional (ramped) loads only. Inc. especially if a coarse time step is used.4.0 . as it will dampen the rigid body motion (zero frequency mode) of the system. If the time step size is allowed to become too large.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis – – – Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example. You might have to take an "educated guess" of the desired number of substeps. Using Line Search Line search [LNSRCH] can be useful for enhancing convergence. the predictor [PRED].2. If you are analyzing a "flimsy" structure which exhibits increasing stiffness (such as a fishing pole). but it can be expensive (especially with plasticity). and adjust and re-analyze as needed. TIME. 002114 . When choosing the number of substeps.10. or time-integration effects [TIMINT] when the arc-length method is active.2. turbine blade and hub assemblies) in which the low-frequency energy content of the system could dominate the high-frequency areas. ALPHAD command) in a dynamic kinematic analysis. you want to choose the minimum number of substeps required to produce an optimally efficient solution. because imposed displacement input has (theoretically) infinite jumps in acceleration. 8–68 . DELTIM]. Using the Arc-Length Method You can use the arc-length method [ARCLEN and ARCTRM] to obtain numerically stable solutions for many physically unstable structures. Do not use α-damping (mass matrix multiplier.ON]. You might consider setting line search on in the following cases: • • • When your structure is force-loaded (as opposed to displacement-controlled). consider that more substeps will result in a longer solution time.1 on the TINTP command) into the solution to filter out the high frequency noise. If you notice (from the program output messages) oscillatory convergence patterns. automatic time stepping [AUTOTS. © SAS IP. – 8.5. Avoid imposed displacement history specifications.

which can cause a solution failure with this solver. ANSYS Release 9. © SAS IP. You generally have to adjust the reference arc-length radius (using NSUBST) by trial-and-error to obtain a solution at the limit point. The actual load at convergence is somewhat less. 002114 . Inc. It might be more convenient to use standard Newton-Raphson iterations with bisection [AUTOTS] to determine values of nonlinear buckling loads. To help minimize solution time with the arc-length method. as appropriate. deactivating the arc-length method in the first load step of the restart [ARCLEN. • • • Use the load-deflection curve as a guide for evaluating and adjusting your analysis to help you achieve the desired results. However. the program will automatically bisect and continue the analysis. In general. Similarly. because the arc-length procedure might result in a negative definite stiffness matrix (negative pivot). Study the loaddeflection curve to understand this problem.4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. "Drifting back. or until the minimum arc-length radius is used (the minimum radius is defined by NSBSTP [NSUBST] and MINARC [ARCLEN]). You can freely switch from the Newton-Raphson iteration method to the arc-length method at the start of any load step. is one typical difficulty that is caused by using too large or too small an arc-length radius. It is usually good practice to graph your load-deflection curve (using POST26 commands) with every analysis. an unsuccessful arc-length analysis can be traced to an arc-length radius that is either too large or too small. Often.ABT) See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for a discussion of termination and restart procedures. Bisection will continue either until a converged solution is obtained. Negative values of ALLF or TIME indicate that the arc-length feature is applying load in the reverse direction. it can be difficult to determine a value of limiting load or deflection within some known tolerance when using the arc-length method in a nonlinear buckling analysis.0 .F] instead. Use the force criteria [CNVTOL.OFF]." in which the analysis retraces its steps back along the load-deflection curve. TIME. When reading arc-length results into the database for POST1 postprocessing [SET]. the maximum number of equilibrium iterations in a single substep [NEQIT] should be less than or equal to 15.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis • • • Do not attempt to base convergence on displacement [CNVTOL. Note in Figure 8. you must terminate the analysis and restart. you should always reference the desired results data set by its load step and substep number (LSTEP and SBSTEP) or by its ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . to switch from arc-length to Newton-Raphson iterations. • a F1 • is only used as a starting Similarly. You should usually avoid using the JCG solver [EQSLV] in conjunction with the arc-length method. An arc-length solution terminates under these conditions: – When limits defined by the ARCTRM or NCNV commands are reached – When the solution converges at the applied load – When you use an abort file (Jobname. which in an arc-length analysis is related to the total arc-length load factor. can also be either positive or negative. You can then use the NSUBST and ARCLEN commands to adjust the arc-length radius size and range. The total arc-length load factor (item ALLF on the SOLU command) can be either positive or negative.U]. If an arc-length solution fails to converge within the prescribed maximum number of iterations [NEQIT].Section 8. • • • 8–69 . Arc-Length Method” how the specified load point. Negative ALLF or TIME values can be commonly encountered in various snap-through analyses. in order to maintain stability in the structure. you cannot use this method to obtain a solution at a specified load or displacement value because the value changes (along the spherical arc) as equilibrium is achieved.

• • 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis data set number (NSET).10. The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections. or in POST26. using control elements (such as COMBIN37).8. do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. or using the birth and death option on other elements. you can use imposed displacements instead of applied forces. or to control displacements through periods of unstable response (for example.) Additionally. A typical nonlinear output listing is shown in Figure 8. Another technique that can be effective in circumventing problems due to initial instability is running a static problem as a "slow dynamic" analysis (that is.2. ANSYS Release 9. If your problem is predominantly bulk deformation. (Use a small time step size if necessary to accomplish this. or passes through. the artificial stiffness is removed. Such singularities can cause convergence problems.25: “Typical Nonlinear Output Listing”. is captured on Jobname. a singular (zero stiffness) configuration.10. you can sometimes use other techniques to artificially inhibit divergence in your model's response: • In some cases. 8. or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT]. Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ANSYS provides "incompatible" modes" formulation (also referred to as "extra shapes") for modeling bending applications. (A single value of TIME might reference more than one solution. 8.10. However.2. Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response If you do not want to use the arc-length method to analyze a force-loaded structure that starts at. You can also apply temporary artificial stiffness to unstable DOFs. Inc. then you may choose to turn extra shapes off to reduce CPU/storage requirements and enhance convergence.10.7. try to spread the changes out over a number of substeps. . using the SOLU and PRVAR commands. Using Birth and Death Wisely Realize that any sudden change in your structure's stiffness matrix is likely to cause convergence problems. remember to define an appropriate variable range [/XRANGE or /YRANGE] before creating any POST26 graphs.6. The idea here is to artificially restrain the system during intermediate load steps in order to prevent unrealistically large displacements from being calculated.0 . Do not reference results by a TIME value. When activating or deactivating elements. (Printout either appears directly on your screen.) You can examine some of this same information in POST1. Read Your Output Remember that the ANSYS program performs a nonlinear analysis as a series of linear approximations with corrections.9. doing so precludes the ability to model any bending. 8.OUT.2. In particular. using the PRITER command. the program cannot correctly interpret negative TIME values (which might be encountered in a snap-through analysis).) Also be aware of possible singularities (such as sharp reentrant corners) that might be created as you activate or deactivate elements. This approach can be used to start a static analysis closer to the equilibrium position. © SAS IP.2. using time-integration effects in an attempt to prevent the solution from diverging in any one load step). 002114 . 8–70 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . • If TIME becomes negative. As the system displaces into a stable configuration. snap-through or postbuckling). You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. because TIME in an arc-length analysis is not always monotonically increasing.

. . . CRITERION= 488. PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . . MAX DOF INC= 0. . . .7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED. Inc. . NEW TRIANG MATRIX.9 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. . . CUM ITER = 9 *** TIME = 102. . . MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.1034E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 0. . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING . . MAX DOF INC= 0. . NEW TRIANG MATRIX.2 CRITERION= 502.2 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED. 8–71 . . . . . . . .YES (EXIT) .3 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED. TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. 10000 .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.Section 8.4 CRITERION= 507. MAX DOF INC= -0.1451E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. . . CRITERION= 534.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0. . . . . MAX DOF INC= 0. MAX DOF INC= 0.2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. .1272E-01 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 4267. .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. .87 CRITERION= 512. .5 CRITERION= 497. .7 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED. . NROPT set to 1 (full Newton-Raphson solution procedure) for all DOFs.9 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. 100 . . .4318E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 626. . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . CONVERGENCE CONTROLS. . . . .1451E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1135. . MAX DOF INC= 0.3 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. 15 . . .00 .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. .4 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. 2 . CRITERION= 540.2006E+06 CRITERION= 1125.USE DEFAULTS . . . NEW TRIANG MATRIX. . MAX DOF INC= 0. .9905E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 41. .8570E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.1333E+05 CRITERION= 575. CRITERION= 480.2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. . .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.9578 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. .1746E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 778. INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . MAX DOF INC= 0.000 TIME INC = 1. . . .95 CRITERION= 551.3628E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. . NO . .00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. .8570E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 77.1746E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. .9 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED. 200. .0 .000 TIME INC = 1. .1272E-01 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.6943E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 347. DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT BASI -10 Load step 2 substep 1 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. . MAX DOF INC= 0. . .3628E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 3905. © SAS IP. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0. . .10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis Figure 8. .6943E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS. . MAX DOF INC= -0.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.4 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 Load step 2 substep 2 Load step 2 substep 3 Equilbrium iteration summaries ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .9019E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1751.NO PRINTOUT LOAD STEP NUMBER. . NEW TRIANG MATRIX. . . 10 . .5329E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 8237. . NEW TRIANG MATRIX. ANSYS Release 9. L O A D S T E P O P T I O N S . .00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. 002114 .6674E+05 CRITERION= 594. . CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 101. . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . NEW TRIANG MATRIX. .891 TIME= 11:09:22 Nonlinear analysis. . . . . . CRITERION= 532. . ON . . . NEW TRIANG MATRIX.9019E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. .5329E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.4318E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.25 Typical Nonlinear Output Listing SOLVE command echo Checking Logic Load step summary table ***** ANSYS SOLVE COMMAND ***** *** NOTE *** CP= 13.

50000 CUM ITER = 13 8. with a maximum of 25 and a minimum of 2 substeps. ANSYS Release 9. For the subsequent six load steps that apply the cyclic point load. then the load increment can be cut back to 1/50 the total load. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis. you will monitor the history over the entire solution of the vertical displacement of the node at the location where the point cyclic load is applied and the reaction force at the node located at the bottom of the clamped edge. The results of interest (displacements. Inc.125 N/m2. POST26 graphs of load and response histories should agree with your informed expectations about your structure's behavior.11.1. You will apply the dead load in load step 1 and the cyclic point load in six subsequent load steps. See Section 8. You will also specify a maximum of 50 and a minimum of 5 substeps to ensure that if the plate exhibits a severe nonlinear behavior during the solution. You must specify the number of substeps for each load step. Graph the Load and Response History This verification technique may be considered to be a graphical combination of two other techniques: checking for reasonableness. you will specify 4 substeps. and so on) should show relatively smooth response histories. You will specify 10 substeps for the first load to ensure that the increment of the dead load applied over the first substep is 1/10 of the total load of 0.11. 8–72 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . In this example. then the load increment can be increased up to 1/5 the size of the total load. 8. For this example. and the various load steps that describe externally applied loads. then ANSYS uses a constant load increment for all substeps within the load step. Problem Description In this example. stresses. as well as load step options. you will use an axisymmetric model for the plate.500 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED. © SAS IP. You will perform a geometrically nonlinear analysis. Specify the kinematic constraints as follows: The nodes located at the center of the plate are constrained to have zero radial displacement. If the plate exhibits mild nonlinear behavior. 8. you will run a nonlinear analysis of an elastic-plastic circular plate under the action of a dead load and a cyclic point load. and reviewing the iteration history. 002114 . ANSYS uses an incremental solution procedure to obtain a solution to a nonlinear analysis.11.3: Problem Sketch.10. You can control the size of the load increment for these subsequent substeps by specifying the maximum and minimum number of substeps. ANSYS automatically determines the size of the load increment for each subsequent substep in a load step. reaction forces. since this number controls the size of the initial load increment applied in the first substep of the each load step. . the total external load within a load step is applied in increments over a certain number of substeps. Any non-smoothness may indicate that too coarse of a time step was used. ANSYS uses a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure to solve each substep. The nodes located at the outer edge are constrained to have zero radial and axial displacement. the maximum and minimum number of substeps all to be the same. If you define the number of substeps. the maximum and minimum number of substeps for a load step.10.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Substep summary *** LOAD STEP 2 *** TIME = 103. You will define a kinematic hardening plasticity curve. using four-node PLANE42 elements with the axisymmetric option to mesh the model. You will also learn how to interpret the monitor file that ANSYS writes for a nonlinear analysis. TIME INC = 1. As described earlier in this chapter.2.0 .

001123514 0. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.001865643 0.002562402 0.23 Pa PRXY = 0. The following material properties are used for this problem: EX = 16911.26 Cyclic Point Load History © §¨¦£¤¢ ¥ ¡ 8.1.73 The plate has a dead load acting as a uniform pressure of 0.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 8.006422389 True Stress (Pa) 19.11.Section 8. I F F H G 9¤F 9FEDE¤¤8 @ 9¢7 53 ¢32 C B 4 A 5 8 6 4 1 8.07 31. Problem Sketch a Y I X V G 7` "¨¤WH FUD R ¦¦¤R Q"P Q T S S $%# " ! 0 ) ( ' & C R %`b 4B 6 ¤ 1 ¤ 8–73 .004471788 0. ANSYS Release 9.08 29.00 22. The history of the cyclic point load is shown here: Figure 8. Inc.3.11.125N/m2. Set the Analysis Title and Jobname 1. Problem Specifications The circular plate has a radius of 1.3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .80 25.3 The kinematic hardening plasticity curve for the material is: Log Strain 0.1 m. © SAS IP.0 m and a thickness of 0. 002114 .0 .11.2.

" In the list on the right. Rate Independent. Type the text “axplate” in the entry box and click OK. 6.3. Type the text "Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate. 4. 8. Inelastic.11. In the Material Models Available window. 19.3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname. 3. Enter . Define Material Properties 1. Linear. 2.1.00187. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears. and enter the next Strain/Stress value pair: 0.11. Click on OK.11. A dialog box appears. 5.3 for PRXY (Poisson's ratio). 8. In the Material Models Available window. Enter the following Strain/Stress value pair in the table: 0. In the scroll box for element behavior.00447.3.8. 8–74 Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes. 25. 7.0. Repeat the previous step to enter the following Strain/Stress value pairs: 0. Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables 1.3. 4. 29. 002114 . 4. 5. Kinematic Hardening Plasticity. click once on "Quad 4node 42. Inc. 2. 2. In the list on the left. 4. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .00112. double-click on the icons next to the following options: Structural. A dialog box appears. 22. 3.11. 8. von Mises Plasticity. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Define the Element Types 1. 6. 0. Click on the Add Point button. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. Click on Add.23 for EX (Young's modulus). 8. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes." Click on OK. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.1. © SAS IP.5. 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 2.00642. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. ANSYS Release 9. 9. 5. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 0. scroll to "Axisymmetric" and select it. 3. Elastic. 31. The Change Jobname dialog box appears.0 . 2. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. .3. 5. Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. click once on "Structural Solid.7.4. Isotropic. Click on OK." Click on OK.2. Click on Options. double-click on the following options: Nonlinear.00256. Multilinear (General). The PLANE42 element type options dialog box appears. Enter Total Strain for the X-axis label. Enter 16911. Click on OK. 3.

8. Type "thick=0. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Repeat these steps (1-3). The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.11.11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. The dialog box appears that includes the Strain/Stress data pairs that you entered. Inc. Create Rectangle 1. Click on the two vertical lines (2 and 4). and specify 40 element divisions.1" in the Selection field and click Accept. Repeat revisions and graphing as needed until you are satisfied with the graphed results. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. 2. then click MESH.3. The Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box appears. 8. The MeshTool dialog box appears. Enter "0.11.7. Mesh the Rectangle 1. but choose horizontal lines 1 and 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. revise the stress/strain values and click on the Graph button again. Turn large deformation effects ON and click OK. 4. 2. pick Quad and Map. thick" for Y-coordinates and click on OK. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears. This value is the thickness of the plate. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines.9. 8. A rectangle appears in the ANSYS Graphics window.0 . If necessary. Enter "0. Assign Analysis and Load Step Options 1. double-click in Material Model Number 1. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. radius" for X-coordinates. 4. Click on Pick All. Click Size Controls> Lines> Set. 2. Enter 8 for number of element divisions and click on OK. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.3. Set Element Size 1. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.6. and Multilinear Kinematic (General). Click on Close on the MeshTool. 2. 6. 5. 3.3. 4.11. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . This value is the radius of the plate. In the Material Models Defined window. Click OK on the picking menu.Section 8. ANSYS Release 9. 7. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears. 8. 8–75 . © SAS IP. 002114 . Click Close. 3. Click on the Graph button. 6. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears.0" in the Selection field and click Accept.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 3. Type "radius=1. A graph of the data table values appears in the Graphics window. 5. Enter True Stress for the Y-axis label and click OK. 8.8. On the MeshTool.3. 7.

Verify that X coordinates are selected. and enter "radius" in the Min. as well as the reaction force at the fixed end of the plate. 6. 8. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Click OK. This will select the nodes at the X=0 position. 002114 . 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. . and choose Every substep for the File write frequency. By Location. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. then Close. The Apply U. 6. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. 3.0" as the Displacement value.10. The Monitor picking menu appears.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Click OK. you monitor the displacement of the node located at the axes of symmetry. Click OK.0)" in the Selection field and click Accept. The Apply U.0. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. Verify that Nodes and By Location are selected. 7. Max field and click OK. 1.thick. Click on All DOF to deselect it. Apply Constraints 1.11. Click OK. In the scroll box for Variable to redefine. The Monitor dialog box appears. Click on Y coordinates and enter "thick" in the Min. 3. Click OK. 7. Inc. scroll to "UY" and select it. and X coordinates are selected.0. 5. Enter "0" in the Min. 8. Verify that Nodes. 5. Click on "All DOF" for DOFs to be constrained. 8.3. Click OK. scroll to "FY" and select it. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Monitor the Displacement In this step. 9. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. Max field. 4. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. ANSYS Release 9.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 8. Type "nright" in the picker and press RETURN. Verify that All items are selected. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears.11. Click Pick All. Click OK in the picking menu. 2. Click on "UX" for DOFs to be constrained. 8–76 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Max field. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor. The Monitor picking menu appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.11.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 3. Select Nodes and By Location in the first two selection boxes.0. Type "ntop = node(0.0. 9. The Apply U. The Apply U.0 . 4. Click Pick All. scroll to "Variable 2" and select it. 11.0)" in the Selection field and click Accept. 12. Click OK in the picking menu. Type "nright = node(radius. 10. The Monitor dialog box appears. Click OK.3. The Select Entities dialog box appears. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Enter "0.

ANSYS Release 9. 3. 14. Enter "0. The Apply PRES on nodes dialog box appears. entering "f" in the Force/moment value field at Step 7. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.3. Review the information in the /STAT window. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything.3. and click on Close.12. Repeat Steps 5-10. 17. 4. and click on Close. 11. 002114 .11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. Click OK. 13. Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. 6. and enter 5 as the minimum number of substeps.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 13. 16.11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Click OK. Solve the First Load Step 1. Enter "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done. Click on Pick All. Enter 10 as the number of substeps. Enter "f = 0. for a total of three cycles (six substeps). 9. Enter "-f" in the Force/moment value field. 5. 4.Section 8. 3. 12. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps.13. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Solve the Next Six Load Steps 1. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. Repeat Steps 5-11 two more times. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on Close. Click OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu. 5. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes.010" in the Selection field and click on Accept. © SAS IP. 6. 2.125" in the Load PRES value field and click OK. Enter "4" for the number of substeps. 8. 8. and "2" for the minimum number of substeps. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box. enter 50 as the maximum number of substeps. 8–77 . Inc. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box.0 . 15. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 7. Review the information in the /STAT window. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Click OK. Select "FY" in the Direction of force/mom selection box. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 10. "25" for the maximum number of substeps. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.

Choose Attached to in the second drop-down selection box. Click OK. 1.3. Review the Monitor File 1. with variable reference number 3. ANSYS Release 9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities.11. Choose Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. 4. Repeat steps 7-10. 11. Verify that Nodes and By Num/Pick are selected in the first two boxes. Choose Stress in the selection list on the left. Verify that Nodes is selected. 4. Select the axplate. choose Strain-plastic. Click OK. 6. Click OK on the picking menu. 8–78 . 3. Click on Add. 12. In the selection box on the left. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set. Click on the top left element in the ANSYS Graphics window. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. Click OK. Click on Element results. vertical displacement.15. © SAS IP. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. Click OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 7. 10. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 5. The Select nodes picking menu appears.0 . The Select Entities dialog box appears. Click Close. Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results. with a second variable listed (ESOL). node number 50. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box reappears. 8. 13. Review the time step size. 002114 .16. The Define Element Results Variable dialog box appears. Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing 1. Click OK on the picking menu. The List File dialog box appears.3. The contour plot appears in the Graphics window. The Contour Element Solution Data dialog box appears.11. and reaction force evolution over the entire solution. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 8. Choose Y-dir'n EPEL Y in the selection list on the right. 3. 2. Choose Elements in the first drop-down selection box. 3. and name SY. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. Click OK. component Y. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 2. The dialog box should show element number 281. Verify that the reference number of the variable is 2. Click OK.14. Inc. Choose menu path Utility Menu> List> Files> Other. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.11. 5. Click on Add. In the selection box on the right. choose Strain-elastic in the selection list on the left. 8. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. item S.mntr file and click on OK. Click on the top left node of the top left element. 9. Click OK. Click OK. The Define Elemental Data picking menu appears. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. Choose Y-direction SY in the selection list on the right. Click on Def + undef edge for items to be plotted. The deformed mesh appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. choose Eqv plastic EPEQ. 2.

ANSYS Release 9.1. Choose Y-dir'n EPPL Y in the selection list on the right.1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Math Operations> Add.. 8. Inc. 3. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example nonlinear static analysis of a copper cylinder impacting a rigid wall using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.KINH. 8.Section 8.axplate /prep7 radius=1.1. The Graph Settings dialog box appears.0 .18. 4. 15. © SAS IP.22. 2. 002114 .001865643. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. 16. and enter 4 as the 2nd variable. Exit ANSYS 1.3. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.17.001123514.0. Click OK. 5.11. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. Enter 5 for the reference number for result. Click on the save option you want. 8. Click on Add.. Click OK. Enter 2 as the first variable to graph..19. 17.1 ! PLANE42 axisymmetric element mp. 6.0. /BATCH. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears.0.0.5 ! Define the true stress vs. Click OK.23 et. 2. Click OK. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears.00 tbpt. Click OK.nuxy. Their sum is the total strain.11. Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate /filnam. The Add Time-History Variables dialog box appears.1 ! Thickness of plate (m) YM=16911.80 tbpt.. choose Strain-plastic in the selection list on the left. Enter Total Y-Strain as the X-axis label.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 14. Click on Single variable for the X-axis variable and enter 5 as the single variable number. Click on Close on the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. and it is stored as variable 5.LIST /title.12.YM mp.0 ! Radius of the plate (m) thick=0.3 ! Define a Kinematic Hardening Plasticity curve using the KINH material model tb. with variable reference number 4.PLANE42.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph. Repeat steps 7-10. 8–79 . enter 3 as the 1st variable. total log strain curve for this material model ! using 5 points.002562402.1. Plot Time-History Results 1.25. 7..08 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments.ex. 18. First point defines the elastic limit tbpt. Enter Y-Stress as the Y-axis label. and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes. This adds the elastic and plastic strains that you stored as variables 3 and 4.1.

_Y1._Y amesh._Y LESIZE.2 FITEM.on! Turn on geometric nonlinearity ! Get the node numbers for the nodes located at the top ! of the axis of symmetry and at bottom right of the model ntop = node(0.006422389.X._Y1 !* ! Select the top and bottom bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 40 (40 elements through the radius of the plate) FLST._Y CMDEL._Y.._Y1.1..LINE LSEL. © SAS IP._Y CMDEL.S.0.LINE LSEL.5. This will be written out to the monitor file ratch.2 FITEM.07 tbpt.0) ! Activate the monitoring of the displacement and reaction force histories ! during the analysis.5.4 CM.0 .1 FITEM. .P51X !* CM. .uy 8–80 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3 CM.mntr monitor. .5.ORDE.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis tbpt.ntop.0) nright = node(radius.all CMDEL.'AREA' CMSEL. ANSYS Release 9._Y CMDEL. ! The rectangle has a length equal to the radius of the plate and a height equal ! to the thickness of the plate rect.Log Strain (N/m^2) /axlab.8.2.2 FITEM..40.Y._Y LESIZE._Y1 !* CM.73 ! Set the axles labels for the stress-strain curve plot /axlab.5. . .thick.LINE CMSEL.31.AREA ASEL.thick ! Select the left and right bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 8 (8 elements through the thickness of the plate) FLST.. ._Y1. .1. 002114 .AREA CHKMSH. CMDEL.1. ._Y1.0.5. Inc. .4. .P51X !* CM._Y. ._Y2 fini /solve nlgeom._Y1._Y.True Stress (N/m^2) tbpl. 1 CM..2. . CMDEL.29..ORDE.radius.1 ! Plot and verify the material stress-strain curve ! Define a rectangle which is the axisymmetric cross section of the plate. .0.KINH.LINE CMSEL.004471788._Y1 CMDEL. .5.4.

.all ! Output all the results for all substeps to the ! results file for later postprocessing ! Select the nodes located at right end and constrain their radial (x) and ! axial (y) direction displacement to be zero..Section 8.loc.4.all ! Select the nodes located at left end and constrain their radial (x) direction ! displacement to be zero.ntop f.all nsubst.all nsubst.loc.fy.all.all.radius d.nright.s.s..fy.2 solve nsel.all nsubst. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 5 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .s.s. nsel. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 2 ! Define load for load step 3 ! Set the number of substeps.f nsel.ntop f.all nsubst. nsel.s. ! Over six load steps apply a cyclic point load of magnitude f = 0. ! Select the nodes located at top surface of plate and apply a uniform pressure ! of 0.node.2 solve ! Define load for load step 2 ! Set the number of substeps.thick sf. nsel.125 alls! Select all nodes ! Define the number of substeps (10).25.fy.0.fy.all.fy outres.loc.0 d.s. used to apply ! the cyclic point load.5 solve f = 0..10. 8–81 . max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 4 ! Define load for load step 5 ! Set the number of substeps.all.0.x. f.0.node.all.2 solve nsel.01 ! Solve load step 1 ! Define the parameter.50. nsub.y.all.25.all.-f nsel.pres. Inc.f nsel.0 .125 N/m^2 as dead load on the plate.s. 002114 . and the minimum number of substeps (5) for the automatic ! time stepping algorithm.-f nsel.ux.4.all.2 solve ! Start Cycle 2 ! ---------------nsel.node. Also define maximum number of ! substeps (50).node.4.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) monitor. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 3 ! Define load for load step 4 ! Set the number of substeps.0 ! Define the load for Load Step 1.25.01 units ! applied at the center of the plate over three cycles ! Start Cycle 1 ! ---------------nsel.ntop f.25.4.ntop f.x. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 9.2.

node..4.5. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.ntop f.s.fy.2 solve nsel.2 fini /eof /exit.S.all.1.ntop esln elem=elnext(0) alls ! Define load for load step 6 ! Set the number of substeps.nl.4.EPPL.Y. max and min number ! of substeps. ! Add the elastic and plastic strains in variables 3 and 4 and store the total ! strain in variable 5.s. .0.all nsubst.Total Y-Strain /axlab.s. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. Inc.ntop. ANSYS Release 9..last ! (final state) pldi.all.2. describe additional nonlinear analyses.4. ! Define variable 3 to be Y component of elastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL.3.5 ! Set the axes for subsequent x-y plot to be variable 5 ! Define the x and y axes labels for subsequent x-y plot /axlab.x.Y-Stress plvar. . ! Define variable 4 to be Y component of plastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL. ! Solve load step 7 ! Read in the results from the last substep of ! the last step.2 solve save fini /post1 set.elem.f nsel.elem.2 ples.EPEL. xvar.0 . .ntop.fy. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 6 ! Define load for load step 7 ! Set the number of substeps.4.node. © SAS IP.25..3. ADD. .13. .-f nsel.Y. ! ! ! ! Plot the deformed mesh with the undeformed edge only Plot the total accumulated equivalent plastic strains ! ! ! ! ! Plot the mesh Select the node where the point load is attached Select the element attached to this node Get the number of this element Select back everything in the model ! Define variable 2 to be Y component of stress at the node where the point ! load is applied ESOL.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ! Start Cycle 3 ! ---------------nsel.nosav ! Plot the Y-stress stored in variable 2 8.ntop f.ntop.elem. 002114 .1.node.epeq fini /post26 eplo nsel.Y. 8–82 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .25.y.all nsubst.

Viscoelastic Sandwich Seal Analysis VM218 .Motion of a Rod Due to Irradiation Induced Creep VM134 .Plastic Hinge in a Rectangular Beam VM38 .Bending of a Reinforced Concrete Beam VM185 .Discharge of Water from a Reservoir VM126 .Hyperelastic Circular Plate VM220 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of nonlinear analysis test cases: VM7 .Large Strain In-Plane Torsion Test VM199 .Heat Transferred to a Flowing Fluid VM132 .Section 8.Current Carrying Ferromagnetic Conductor VM198 .Residual Stress Problem VM24 .Eddy Current Loss in Thick Steel Plate ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. However. Inc.Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM200 .Plastic Loading of a Thick-Walled Cylinder Under Pressure VM56 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Plastic Compression of a Pipe Assembly VM11 . 002114 .Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM80 .Liquid-Solid Phase Change VM124 .0 .Stress Relaxation of a Bolt Due to Creep VM133 .Hyperelastic Thick Cylinder Under Internal Pressure VM78 . most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. 8–83 .Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM104 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Plastic Bending of a Clamped I-Beam VM146 .13: Where to Find Other Examples The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. © SAS IP.

8–84 .

© SAS IP. your creep strain rate or creep strain as a function of time.2: Input the Data into AN. choose a model from one of nine supplied hyperelastic models. ANSYS Release 9.1. compare the fits to the experimental data. Polynomial. Neo-Hookean.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting For viscoelastic material models. 2 Section 9. nearly incompressible. you compare experimental data versus ANSYS-calculated data for different nonlinear models. Curve fitting is based on the data table configurations outlined in the TB command. 9. • Section 9. Ogden. and compressible.0 . graphically view the curve fitting results. Applicable Material Behavior Types ANSYS supports curve fitting for hyperelastic. . Temperature dependency is supported for all three behaviors.2. and write the fitted coefficients to the database as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands for the subsequent finite element analyses.1. The data manipulations and constructions are performed by the TBFT command.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma. • Section 9. stress or temperature can be converted to any of the thirteen ANSYS-supported implicit creep models.2. Arruda-Boyce. and Yeoh.1. With this feature. Hyperelastic curve fitting is based on the HYPER option of the TB command. Inc.The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing to the file SYS location (GUI) or by specifying the filename and path (batch) on the command line. 002114 .1. your stress-strain curves can be converted to any of the available ANSYSsupported hyperelastic models. Curve fitting involves comparing your experimental data to certain nonlinear material models built into ANSYS. You perform curve fitting either interactively (GUI) or via batch commands. 9.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting For hyperelastic material models.2. • Section 9. 9. creep and viscoelastic material behavior. Gent. you decide which material model to use during solution. ANSYS hyperelastic models can define three types of behavior: purely incompressible. including Mooney-Rivlin. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . You input your experimental data. time data is converted to ANSYS-supported Prony series format. Based on these comparisons. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior The steps for hyperelastic curve fitting are defined as follows: 1 Section 9. time and/or bulk modulus vs. Compressible hyperelastic Ogden hyper-foam and Blatz-Ko models are also supported. your shear modulus vs.2. perform a regression analysis.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting For creep material models.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting You use material curve fitting to derive coefficients from experimental data that you supply for your material. Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Hyperelastic curve fitting is a tool for estimating your material constants by inputting your experimental data and comparing it to the ANSYS-supported hyperelastic material models.

1 Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko Experimental Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) Column 2 Engineering Stress Engineering Stress Engineering Stress True Stress Table 9.1. Once you pick a model.1.1.2.2.6: Plot Your Experimental You review and verify the results by comparing the experimental data Data and Analyze and the regression errors. The hyperelastic material models.1.5: Specify Control Paramet.1. 002114 .3: Select a Material Model The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are Option defined in the TB command.1. 9. along with the associated process for each are listed in Table 9.2. Prepare Experimental Data Curve fitting requires experimental test data.2.7: Write Data to TB Com.Compressible Models (see Table 9. .Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 3 Section 9. referencing your stress vs. strain values. Hyperelastic curve fitting supports three main behaviors: • • • Case 1 .1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 2 .3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types”. Inc. 6 Section 9.0 .Nearly Incompressible Models (see Table 9. repeat steps 3 to 5 to perform a new curve fitting solution.Write your curve fitting results to the database in the TB command mand table format.1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 3 . 4 Section 9. Table 9. 5 Section 9. ANSYS supports nine hyperelastic models. If the results you obtain are not acceptable. 7 Section 9. you can still change to another model if an ideal fit is not realized.Totally Incompressible Models (see Table 9.2.2.4: Initialize the Coefficients Depending on the model. Your hyperelastic curve fitting data needs to be a comma or space delimited file.2 Experimental Details for Case 3 Models Experiment Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Longitudinal Engineering Strain Biaxial Engineering Strain Shear Engineering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) Column 2 Column 3 Lateral Direction Engineering Strain Engineering Stress Thickness Direction Engineering Strain Thickness Direction Engineering Strain True Stress Engineering Stress Engineering Stress 9–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2: “Experimental Details for Case 3 Models”) The types of data required for each of these cases is defined in the tables below. ANSYS Release 9. © SAS IP.You will specify the type of error norm to be used to generate the ers and Solve curve fit. hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear or nonlinear regression process.1.

Select a Material Model Option Table 9.1.ID.2.2 231. SHEA. 9–3 . in additional files. BIAX.2 0.8847 60.9127 175.2. and then designate the location in the Option2. and also include the appropriate path. designate whether they are uniaxial. 002114 . Separate input is performed for each Option1 value (UNIA.00 0. 9.1.EADD. a compressible or nearly incompressible model is implied.2. SHEA.100 0.2. except for the volumetric option (true stress). BIAX.2. biaxial.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Note — J is the ratio of current volume to the original volume. shear.value line. specify your temperature values at the top of the experimental data using the /temp.Option4 Option1 = UNIA. An example of a typical data input using these attributes follows: /temp.1. All of the stress values will be engineering stress. You can also browse to a file in a specified location.1 Adding this header introduces a temperature attribute of 100 degrees. or volumetric. Batch TBFT.1. When volumetric data is supplied. One file can have data at only one temperature. All stresses output by ANSYS in POST1/POST26 are true stresses and logarithmic strains. When no volumetric data is supplied. This header format specifies the attribute (temp) and its value (100).1 For temperature dependent curve fitting.9703 60.2.9703 0. © SAS IP.).Option1. 9. Option3. GUI The Material Properties GUI provides an input field where you can type in the filename of your data file.00 118.2 0.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” below lists the models that are available for hyperelastic curve fitting.0 . or VOLU Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9. the model is understood to be incompressible. and only the designated options will be available. etc. You can add additional data sets at other temperatures.2.9412 0.Section 9. Inc.1. Supplying zero coefficients for the volumetric data field will also denote an incompressible model.2 175.9127 0.9412 118. delimited set of stress and strain values similar to the following: 0. and Option4 fields. First. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 9.2. ANSYS Release 9. Input the Data into ANSYS Use the EADD option of the TBFT command to input your data files.3.8847 231.Option3.Option2. The file should be a simple. and those model options will be available.

However.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) Option3 = order or number of coefficients. coefficient values can vary greatly depending on the model chosen. 9. GUI A pull-down selection menu in the material GUI allows you to pick the applicable material model option. as specified in Table 9. © SAS IP. the experimental data you supply will require additional fields. all of the coefficients are free to vary.1.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) specifies the number and type of coefficient(s) necessary for each hyperelastic model type.Option3 Option2 = model name. 9–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3 Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types Model Name Mooney-Rivlin Polynomial Yeoh Neo-Hookean Ogden Arruda-Boyce Gent Blatz-Ko Abbreviation moon poly yeoh neoh ogde boyc gent blat Order/Options 2. For most hyperelastic models.2. hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear or a nonlinear regression process. and also from studying the function that defines the model you are attempting to compare/fit your data to.FADD. provides good fit with initial coefficient values as high as 1000. Inc. The initial values of the coefficients generally come from experience.Option2. The number of coefficients for a polynomial will be dependent on the polynomial order N.1. You can then release the coefficient you fixed and operate on it after the others are optimized. for instance. The options displayed will be dependent on the format of your experimental data file. .2.2. 1 or -1 is a good starting point. 002114 . The number of coefficients is usually the sum of the number of deviatoric coefficients and the number of volumetric coefficients. 2.0 .1. ANSYS Release 9. Table 9.5. 3. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged.4. Initialize the Coefficients Depending on the model you choose. 9 1 to N 1 to N 1 to N 1 to N No. of Coefficients [1] Linear/Nonlinear Fitting 2/3/5/9+1 see below [2] N+N 1+1 2*N+N 2+1 2+1 1 2*N+N Linear Linear Linear Linear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Ogden Hyper-foam foam 1. 9. The Gent model.HYPER. 9. Batch TBFT. Number of Coefficients = ∑ (1 + i) + N i =1 N Blatz-Ko and Ogden hyper-foam are compressible models. the initial coefficients you supply will determine how accurate and efficient your curve fit will be.1. In both cases.3. where applicable.ID. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on.2: Hyperelastic Material Constants.3. More information on the hyperelastic models ANSYS supplies for curve fitting can be found in Section 2.2. 5. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients. By default. For Ogden hyper-foam.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Table 9.

value header line in the experimental data. You can also specify tref = all and initiate multiple solves to evaluate coefficients at all available discrete temperature values. ANSYS Release 9. These coefficients are. and Option5 = 0 turns it off. overridden when temperature dependency is turned on and another set of initial values are specified at discrete temperature values.Option2. a single TBFT.ID.SET.1. GUI The GUI automatically updates your coefficient tables depending on the model you pick. See Table 9. With temperature dependency on and the reference temperature set to a particular value. a TBFT. Batch TBFT. and t3).3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the available models) Option3 = order.2.Option5 Option2 = model name (see Table 9. however.FIX. In this case. you turn temperature dependency on and specify a reference temperature before you solve for the coefficients. if applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = value of the coefficient To set Option4 for a reference temperature.Option2. © SAS IP. 002114 .0 . 9–5 . or for temperature dependency: TBFT.HYPER. SOLVE command solves for coefficients only at that temperature.Option4. You can set the reference temperature only to values specified using the /temp.Option3. TBFT.Section 9.1. t2. If the coefficients are initialized before turning temperature dependency on. for data at three temperatures (t1. If Option4 = tref.2. if applicable Option4 = tdep or tref Option5 = If Option4 = tdep.1.Option5 Option2 = model name.ID.Option5 Option2 = model name See Table 9. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = 1 for fixed and 0 to vary 9. You can initialize the coefficients before or after turning temperature dependency on. Option3 = order.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the available models.4.Option2.” or the reference temperature. To solve for coefficients at other temperatures.4. Inc.Option4.HYPER.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting For temperature dependent experimental data. SOLVE entry will initiate three different solve operations at those three discrete temperatures. the specified coefficients will become the initial coefficients for all future solves for that particular model.Option3.2. Option5 = 1 turns on temperature dependency.SET. 9.ID.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the available models.Option3. you set the reference temperature to each desired discrete temperature value and solve again. You can modify individual coefficients to initialize them at values you believe are more appropriate.Option4. Option5 will be either “all.HYPER. If no coefficients are specified at a discrete temperature. The curve fitting tool looks for the initial coefficients at a particular temperature. the initial coefficients set before temperature dependency was turned on are used.

PLOT. and solve to generate the coefficients. Option7 Option2 = model name.SOLVE.Option1.6.1.1.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9.Option3.1.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. You can change the parameters and repeat the solution as necessary to ensure an accurate result. and the solver options) interactively. the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors. .2. You should try to reserve column one for the variable that you would like to see vary in the plot.1.5.. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Depending on the model.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. 9.1. or if the number of iterations criteria is met. and creep strain. 9.0 .axis. temperature. 9.EADD commands (or the corresponding GUI operations) by splitting the file into multiple experimental files as prescribed earlier.. if your data contains time. Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze After you initiate Solve. GUI The GUI lets you specify all of your control parameters (error norm. .2.1. 2.1. 9. Your error norms can be either normalized or unnormalized. one for each combination of temperature and stress. Batch TBFT. Batch TBFT. number of iterations residual tolerance coefficient change tolerance The solution stops when both the residual tolerance and the coefficient change tolerance of your error norm are met.. 3.ID.2. When you use nonlinear regression.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for details). The unused options are disabled whenever necessary.5. Option3 = order or number of your coefficients.Option4 9–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and you wish to see the creep strain vary as a function of time at different temperatures and stresses in the plot. Option4 = curve fitting procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares.2.2.HYPER.6. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results. solution control parameters. 1 = normalized least squares Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solution parameters are available. since normalized error gives equal weight to all of your data points.Option3.5. The first column is always your X. with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one. ANSYS Release 9. you must initialize your coefficients.HYPER. See Table 9. your hyperelastic curve fitting will be either a linear or nonlinear regression process (see Table 9. For example.Option2.2. Inc. You select the appropriate options from the provided menus. stress. See Table 9. The solution control parameters of a nonlinear regression include: 1.ID. 002114 . See the TBFT command for details. you add your experimental data using multiple TBFT. Normalized error norms (the default regression option) generally give better results than the unnormalized error norms.Option4. © SAS IP.

7. You use the /WINDOW command to configure the graphs for each of the resultant curves for the individual stress types.1. Option4 = order or number of your coefficients.2. and switch the scales between log scale and regular scale. you may want to go back to step 3 and solve again. Two or more fitted functions can also be compared in the same plot. GUI Use the GRAPH button to plot the data. See Table 9.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. Option3 = order or number of your coefficients. increasing the order. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses. Review/Verify The two factors you consider in determining results acceptability are visual fit and the error norm/residual values. ANSYS Release 9. Save Plot to File. but are not always the best indicator of a valid curve fit. Write Data to TB Command After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results. turn the legend and/or axis displays on and off. provided you have already solved for both of these functions. 9–7 .6. Use RMB functions to Zoom.7. 9. 9. By default. plotted as a function of column 1.1.0 . and also change the minimum X value and the maximum X value in a plot. You can also hide a particular curve within a graph.1. See Table 9. or VOLU Option3 = model name.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. the error norm/residual values are printed in the curve fitting GUI window. You can continue to use your original experimental data.HYPER. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Plotting the curves and visually assessing the result is usually the best indication. you can view Mooney2 Uniaxial and Mooney9 Uniaxial plots directly on top of each other. When you plot the curve. BIAX. Fit.3. See Table 9. Inc.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. 9. See Table 9.Option3 Option2 = model name. To view specific data and its corresponding fitting result.ID. either by picking a different model. FSET. or redefining your initial values of the coefficients or other control parameters. View/Hide Legend and View/Hide Grid.1.2. Your plots will show columns 2 and above as separate curves. If the results are unacceptable.Option2.2. The data in column 1 is always the X-axis.Section 9. Error norm values help you determine the quality of curve fitting and whether to accept the results. 002114 . © SAS IP. and pick a desired option to view the results. For example. Use the middle-mouse button to eliminate a specific curve and clarify or refine the remaining curve. Other RMB plotting utilities can be found for different data fields in the curve fitting GUI window.2. Both the GUI and the command line convert the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables.2.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Option1 = UNIA. 9. you can click the right mouse button (RMB) on the specific data set.6. repeating step 3 through step 7 until you get an acceptable solution. RMB also allows you to set the number of points used to generate the plot.FSET. Batch TBFT. SHEA. all the experiments are plotted in the GUI window. you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT.1.

1.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file with headers to describe the data types and attributes. GUI Once you complete the process and update your material data properties with the representative curve data.1. repeat steps 3 to 5 to obtain a new curve fitting solution. The creep data must be a plain text file that contains the headers and the test data in table form. . such as uniaxial. 9. Prepare Experimental Data You need to provide accurate experimental test data in order to achieve valid curve fitting results. 002114 .3. You input your experimental data.2: Input the Data into ANSYS The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing to the file location in the GUI or by specifying the location on the command line. you are returned to the material properties dialog.3. temperature. For creep analyses.1. Once you pick a model.3. you can still switch to another model if an ideal fit is not realized.1.1. etc. tension. If they are not acceptable. 9. Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression. and then perform a regression analysis.1.3. The type of data you need to provide will depend on the creep model you choose.4: Initialize the Coefficients 5 Section 9. stress.2. delimited by a space or a comma. see Table 9. and Solve 6 Section 9. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior. 3 Section 9.1. and/or creep strain. 9.6: Plot the Experimental Data You review and verify the results by comparing them with the exand Analyze perimental data and the regression errors. If the curve is acceptable. Interactive (GUI) or command line (batch) input is available. 7 Section 9.3. ANSYS supports thirteen implicit creep models. the initial values of the coefficients to be determined can be very important for a successful solution.1.3. you write the fitted coefficients to the database as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands (ANSYS TB command format) for the subsequent finite element analyses. ANSYS Release 9. 9–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .7: Write Data to TB Command Write curve fitting results in the TB command format to the ANSYS database.1. you use either the creep strain value or creep strain rate.1. The experimental data is named “creep” to distinguish it from other types of data.3. There are five different creep data types. Inc. 2 Section 9.5: Specify Control Parameters You choose the error norm to be used for an acceptable curve fit.3: Select a Material Model Option The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are defined in the TB command.3. The test data must be delimited by a space or a comma.3. Creep Material Curve Fitting ANSYS provides thirteen creep models. The header is used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data. biaxial.7. along with the tools to generate and fit derived coefficients to your experimental data.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. derived as a function of time. You then graphically view the curve fitting result. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior The steps for creep curve fitting are defined as follows: 1 Section 9.3.0 . © SAS IP.2.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9. 4 Section 9.1. choose a model from one of the supplied creep models. and compare it for fit with your experimental data.

Section 9. 9–9 .0102068 0.dcreq ! indicates fourth column is creep strain rate 4000 0.000140946 When a particular column is unchanged over the loading history.00664691 100 0. ANSYS Release 9.temp ! indicates third column is temperature /4.creq ! indicate first column is creep strain /2.00664691 0. you need to input both creep strain and creep strain rate in the experimental data.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Table 9. The header format to define a data attribute is /attr.0151416 100 0. For instance.5 Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute Creep Model Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham Generalized Blackburn creq x dcreq x x x x x x x x x time seqv x x x x x temp x x x x ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Note that for strain hardening and modified strain hardening. © SAS IP.seqv ! indicates first column is stress /2.000165303 4000 0.0151416 0. Inc. you can define it as an attribute. Table 9.0220102 0.00406109 0. where attr is the data-type abbreviation.000203055 4000 0.000165303 0.000181314 0. 002114 . as follows: /seqv.creq ! indicates second column is creep strain /3. abbr. A typical data input is shown below: /1.4 Creep Data Types and Abbreviations Time Equivalent Creep Strain Equivalent Creep Strain Rate Equivalent Stress Temperature time creq dcreq seqv temp The header format to define each column's data-type is /n. and value is the value of the attribute.100 ! indicate this creep data is at a constant temperature of 100 /1. You define this data as an attribute.00215869 100 0. the stress and temperature are constant throughout the range.000181314 4000 0. The constant stress and temperature values above can be written into the file header. The following table describes the creep data required to perform curve fitting for each model type.000140946 0. value. as described in Table 9.00215869 0.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. and abbr is the abbreviation for the type of data in the column. The model you choose will determine the experimental data required for the curve fitting process.000152217 0.000152217 4000 0.000130945 ANSYS provides thirteen model types for creep curve fitting.0 .dcreq ! indicate second column is creep strain rate 0.000203055 0. in the above example.4000 ! indicate this creep has a constant stress of 4000 /temp.0102068 100 0.00406109 100 0. where n is the index of the data column in the file.

There is no restriction on the number of data sets you can add. Batch TBFT. ANSYS Release 9.1.Option3. See Table 9.FADD.Option2.3.1.CREEP.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”. 9–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.3. you can input experimental data by typing the filename (with the appropriate path if the file is not in the default directory) into the appropriate area. and can be a complete set of experimental test data or a part of a series of files of experimental test data.Option4 Option1 = creep Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9.1. including both header information and formatted test data.1.2.3. The command syntax is: TBFT. and use the creep model abbreviation from the table in subsequent fitting operations.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Creep Model Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening x x x creq x x x x x x x x x dcreq time x seqv x x x x x x x x x x x x x temp x 9.3. You'll find it helpful to view the formula before you solve.Option2.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations” to determine a starting point for the initial creep model coefficients. You prepare this file according to the previous section.1. Batch The EADD argument of the TBFT command is used to identify and specify the location of your data files.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”. The header portion is required for creep analyses. .2.ID. when you perform creep curve fitting.1.3.2.3.Option3 Option2 = creep model abbreviation. Pick the one that best satisfies your requirements. Select a Material Model Option The thirteen models available for creep curve fitting are defined in Table 9.1. such as tests performed at different stress levels and/or temperatures. 002114 .Option1.3. You can also browse to a file in a particular location. Input the Data into ANSYS The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file. Each file is viewed as a data set in ANSYS. 9. Also see Table 9. It will help you determine the initial coefficients you might use and also help you determine the format of your experimental data.0 . There are two ways to input the experimental data. You can include several data sets.ID. Inc.2. 9. 9. GUI In interactive mode. Use the Add Data Set button to add additional data sets for creep curve fitting.EADD.

1.5: “Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute” for the data types required for each creep model. the more difficult it is to get the solution to converge. For both types of models.4. If the equation implicitly supports temperature dependency already. You solve for separate coefficients at each of your desired discrete temperatures. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on. Models with many parameters will sometimes converge more easily if you fix (hold constant) your coefficients. 002114 . 9. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged. The following table describes the creep models available and their abbreviated names for Option2 (above). if you have e(-C*T).Section 9. you can account for temperature dependency by generating coefficients at discrete temperature values. When a solution doesn't converge. To do this. GUI You can pick the appropriate model option from a menu in the data entry area.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Option3 = not used for creep curve fitting. In general.3. other models lack this capability.1. all of the coefficients are free to vary.6 Creep Models and Abbreviations Model Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening Fitting Name/Option2 shar thar gexp ggra gbla mtha msha ggar expo nort psth psrp gtha Note — The experimental data must be consistent with the creep model you choose. 9–11 . All of the options and constraints listed for batch input apply.3. Initialize the Coefficients Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process. You can then release the fixed coefficients to obtain a solution. © SAS IP. 9. then C is set to 0 to eliminate this term. A successful curve fit depends greatly on the initial coefficient values. Inc. Table 9.3. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .2. that portion is eliminated by appropriately fixing the coefficient to a specific value. For example. the more parameters a model has.0 . See Table 9. you can adjust the initial value of specific coefficients and rerun the problem (you do not need to input the data again). certain variances will prevent your curve fit from converging. By default. ANSYS Release 9. you turn on temperature dependency by setting the tdep parameter to 1. Although some creep models implicitly address temperature dependency.

Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting For temperature dependent experimental data, you turn temperature dependency on and specify a reference temperature before you solve for the coefficients. You can set the reference temperature only to values specified using the /temp,value header line in the experimental data. You can also specify tref = all and initiate multiple solves to evaluate coefficients at all available discrete temperature values. In this case, for data at three temperatures (t1, t2, and t3), a single TBFT, SOLVE entry will initiate three different solve operations at those three discrete temperatures. With temperature dependency on and the reference temperature set to a particular value, a TBFT, SOLVE command solves for coefficients only at that temperature. To solve for coefficients at other temperatures, you set the reference temperature to each of the desired discrete temperature values and solve again. You can initialize the coefficients before or after turning temperature dependency on. If the coefficients are initialized before turning temperature dependency on, the specified coefficients will become the initial coefficients for all future solves for that particular model. These coefficients are, however, overridden when temperature dependency is turned on and another set of initial values is specified at discrete temperatures. The curve fitting tool looks for the initial coefficients at a particular temperature. If no coefficients are specified at discrete temperatures, the initial coefficients set before temperature dependency was turned on are used.

9.3.1.4.1. Batch

You define your coefficient values and temperature dependency using the SET option of the TBFT command, as follows:

TBFT,SET,ID,CREEP,Option2,Option3,Option4,Option5

Option2 = creep model name Option3 = order, if applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = value of coefficient

**Then you can modify the coefficients with the FIX option of the TBFT command.
**

TBFT,FIX,ID,CREEP,Option2,Option3,Option4,Option5

**Option2 = creep model name Option3 = order, if applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = 0 variable, 1 fixed
**

TBFT,SET,ID,CREEP,Option2,Option3,Option4,Option5

Option2 = creep model name Option3 = order, if applicable Option4 = tdep or tref Option5 = For Option4 = tdep, 1 to turn on, 0 to turn off. For Option4 = tdep, a specific temp value, or “all.”

9.3.1.4.2. GUI

The models listed in Table 9.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations” are available directly from the GUI. When you pick a model from the choices, ANSYS automatically configures the coefficients for the model. You can then make modifications, including initializing and/or fixing certain coefficients.

**9.3.1.5. Specify Control Parameters and Solve
**

Your error norm, your maximum number iterations allowed, and your error tolerance will affect the accuracy of your results. There are two available error norms available for the regression. The default error norm calculation 9–12

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Section 9.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting option is normalized curve fitting. It usually yields better results than unnormalized curve fitting, since normalized fitting gives equal weight to all data points when minimizing the error norms. Other available solve criteria are number of iterations, residual tolerance, and coefficient change tolerance. The solution stops when both residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met. The coefficients are updated after every iteration during the solve process.

9.3.1.5.1. Batch

The batch command is:

TBFT,SOLVE,ID,CREEP,Option2,Option3,Option4, ..., Option7

Option2 = creep function name (See Table 9.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”) Option3 = not applicable for creep models Option4 = error norm: 0 = unnormalized, 1 = normalized (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes

Other solving parameters are available. See the TBFT command for details.

9.3.1.5.2. GUI

After you fill in the last set of coefficient values, the analysis moves automatically to the solution phase. Each of the options specified in the command line description is presented as a pull down menu or fill in box, and each option must be specified before Solve will begin. The coefficients are updated in the GUI after the solution is complete.

**9.3.1.6. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze
**

After you initiate Solve, the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results. Column one is your X- axis, with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one. You should reserve column one for the variable that you would like to see vary in the plot. For example, if your data contains time, temperature, stress and creep strain, you may wish to see the creep strain vary as a function of time, at different temperatures and stresses in the plot. Add your experimental data using multiple TBFT,EADD commands (or the corresponding GUI method). Split the file into multiple experimental fields as prescribed earlier, one for each combination of temperature and stress. Right mouse button (RMB) functions allow you to Zoom, Fit, Save Plot to File, View/Hide Legend and View/Hide Grid. Two or more fitted functions can also be compared in the same plot. For example, you can view Mooney2 Uniaxial and Mooney9 Uniaxial plots right on top of each other, provided both of these function are already solved for. RMB also allows you to see the number of points used to generate the plot, and also change the Minimum X Value and the Maximum X Value in a plot. You can use the middle-mouse button (context sensitive) to hide a particular curve within a graph.

9.3.1.6.1. Batch

TBFT,PLOT,ID,Option1,Option2,Option3,Option4

**Option1 = CREEP Option3 = creep model name Option4 = not used
**

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Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting

9.3.1.6.2. GUI

You can simultaneously display many data sets for each function plotted. Each window of your display can be used to display each one of the data sets you are plotting against column one.

**9.3.1.6.3. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit
**

You use the GUI to graphically review the curve fitting result and ensure a good fit throughout the range of data. Use the plotted curve fitting results both to determine the degree of fit at various locations and to verify the error norm/residual value. You can then determine the quality of a curve fitting and decide whether to accept the results. If the results are unacceptable, you may want to go back to step 3, and then solve again with a new model, redefining certain initial values of the coefficients, and also modifying some of the other control parameters. You can continue to use your experimental data, repeating step 3 through step 6 until you obtain a satisfactory solution.

**9.3.1.7. Write Data to TB Command
**

After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results, you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT, FSET. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses.

9.3.1.7.1. Batch

TBFT,FSET,ID,CREEP,Option2,Option3

Option2 = creep model abbreviation Option3 = not applicable

9.3.1.7.2. GUI

When you complete the process, click the Write to Database button to write the fitted coefficients of your creep model as a creep data table in ANSYS material database. You are then returned to the material properties dialog. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior.

**9.3.2. Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models
**

The following tips will help to ensure successful curve fitting. They are only suggestions, and do not represent a singular method or strategy. Also, following them does not guarantee a solution. Refer to Section 2.5.11: Creep Equations for additional details on each implicit creep model.

Name 1 Strain Hardening Notes Strain hardening has 4 coefficients, with C4 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C4 to zero. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data, use experimental data for only one temperature and fix C4 to zero. Solve, and then add data for your other temperatures. Then release C4 and solve for all coefficients. You can also solve for just C4 by fixing the C1, C2 and C3 values. Time hardening has 4 coefficients, with C4 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C4 to zero. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data, use experimental data for only one temperature and fix C4 to zero. Solve, and then add data for your other temperatures. Then release C4 and solve for all coefficients. You can also solve for just C4 by fixing the C1, C2 and C3 values.

2 Time Hardening

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**Section 9.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting
**

3 Generalized Exponential Generalized exponential has 5 coefficients, with C4 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C4 to zero. Use a low value for C5 (e.g., 1e-3) to avoid floating-point overflows in the exponential term. If you have difficulty solving for temperature dependent data, use experimental data for only one temperature, fix C4 to zero, then solve. Then add data for your other temperatures, release C4 and solve for all coefficients. You can also solve for just C4 by fixing C1, C2 and C3. Generalized Graham has 8 coefficients. You use C8 for temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C8 to zero. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data, use experimental data for only one temperature, fix C8 to zero, and solve. Then add data for other temperatures, release C8 and solve for the remaining coefficients individually. Generalized Blackburn has 7 coefficients. It is advisable to look at the exponential terms and try to keep them from floating-point overflows. To keep eC2σ within floating-point range, make sure the initial value of C2 is such that C2σ is close to 1. Similarly try to keep σ/C4 and C7σ close to 1. Modified time hardening has 4 coefficients. C4 is for temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, fix C4 to zero. Modified Strain Hardening has 3 coefficients. This model can be complex for curve fitting. To keep the C1σ [(C3 + 1)ε] term from going negative, C1 2 is replaced with C1 but converted to the proper form before beings written to the ANSYS database. 8 Generalized Garofalo Generalized Garofalo has 4 coefficients, with C4 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C4 to zero. To keep the Sinh term within floating-point range, keep c2σ close to one when you initialize the coefficients. Exponential form has 3 coefficients, with C3 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C3 to zero. To keep eσC2 within floating-point range, keep σ/C2 close to one. Norton model has 3 coefficients, with C3 dedicated to temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data, set C3 to zero. Time hardening has 7 coefficients. This is a complex model. Here it is advisable to solve for temperature independent data first and then introduce temperature related data.

C2 C3

4 Generalized Graham

5 Generalized Blackburn

6 Modified Time Hardening 7 Modified Strain Hardening

9 Exponential Form

10 Norton 11 Prim+Sec Time Hardening

12 Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Rational polynomial is a very complex model for curve fitting, with 10 coefficients. If you find it hard to fit this data, it is advisable that you split the experimental data into primary creep data and secondary creep data. Primary creep data is the initial part of the curve that covers the nonlinearity in the strain rate. Fit only the secondary data by fixing C1 to 1 and then set all other coefficients except C2, C3 and C4 to zero. Use a low value of C3 to keep 10C3σ within floatingpoint range. Coefficients C5 to C10 in curve fitting refers to coefficients C7 to C12 in the implicit creep equation. Then add the primary creep data, release all coefficients, and solve. 13 Generalized Time Hardening Generalized time hardening has 6 coefficients. Set C6 to zero if you have temperature independent data. When initializing coefficients set C5σ close to 1 to avoid floating-point overflows.

**9.4. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting
**

Viscoelastic material curve fitting determines your material constants by relating your experimental data to the Prony series expansion for both the shear and bulk modulus of the ANSYS hypoviscoelastic material option.

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Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Curve fitting is performed either interactively or via batch commands. You input the experimental data, define the order of Prony series expansion, perform nonlinear regression, view the curve fitting results graphically, compare the experimental data, and write the fitted coefficients to the database as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands for the subsequent finite elements analyses. Current tools allow you to fit shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift functions, along with discrete temperature dependencies for multiple data sets.

**9.4.1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model
**

The steps for Viscoelastic Curve Fitting are defined as follows:

1 Section 9.4.1.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma.

2 Section 9.4.1.2: Input the Data into AN- The experimental data can be read into ANSYS from the GUI or via SYS batch commands, as a plain text file. 3 Section 9.4.1.3: Select a Material Model This includes Prony series expansion of shear and/or bulk moduli as Option well as shift function. The supported shift functions include WLF and TN. 4 Section 9.4.1.4: Initialize the Coefficients Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression; the initial value of your coefficients is very important for a successful solution. 5 Section 9.4.1.5: Specify Control Paramet- Specify the error norm to be used, the solution control parameters, ers and Solve and perform the nonlinear regression. 6 Section 9.4.1.6: Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze Graphically view the curve fitting results. Review and verify the results by comparing them with the experimental data and the regression errors. If any factor is not acceptable, repeat steps 3 to 7 to obtain a new curve fitting solution.

7 Section 9.4.1.7: Write Data to TB Com- Write your curve fitting results in TB command format to the ANSYS mand database.

**9.4.1.1. Prepare Experimental Data
**

Curve fitting requires experimental test data. For curve fitting viscoelastic materials, the experimental data must be shear modulus and/or bulk modulus as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is named sdec or bdec to distinguish it from other data types, such as hyperelastic or creep. This also makes documenting your analyses more convenient. Your viscoelastic test data must be a plain text file with headers to define the test data. The data file should be in table form, delimited by a space or a comma. The header defines the test data type and the temperature for your test data. For viscoelastic curve fitting with multiple temperatures, you can evaluate coefficients at each discrete temperature point and write it as a temperature-dependent Prony data table, or you can use the WLF or TN shift functions to account for the temperature dependency. A separate data file must be provided for each discrete temperature. The viscoelastic test data can be any of 4 data types, see Table 9.7: “Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations”.

**Table 9.7 Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations
**

Time Shear modulus Bulk modulus Temperature time smod bmod temp

9–16

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Section 9.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting The headers are used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data. The following listing contains the appropriate headers, followed by the delimited data:

/temp,100 ! define temperature attribute 0.01 2992.53 1 2978.514207 2 2965.45541 4 2942.293214 6 2922.530649 8 2905.612202 10 2891.073456 20 2842.506984 40 2798.142793 60 2772.383729 80 2750.631843 100 2730.398114 200 2643.125432 400 2517.475394 600 2431.262053 800 2366.580897 1000 2313.955396 2000 2117.922594 4000 1833.734397 6000 1627.199197 8000 1470.6806 10000 1347.264527 20000 964.0141125 40000 586.1405449 60000 392.186777 80000 277.2706253 100000 202.0025278 200000 46.87056342 400000 2.669209118 600000 0.156653269 800000 0.0137224 1000000 0.005591539

**9.4.1.2. Input the Data into ANSYS
**

You use the EADD option of the TBFT command to input your data files. The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file. The experimental data must be prepared as discussed in the previous section, and include both the header information and the formatted test data. Each file is viewed as a data set in ANSYS, and can be the complete set of experimental test data or a part of an experimental test data. You can include several data sets, including tests performed at different temperatures. Although different data sets can have the same/or different temperature, each file can have only one temperature. Multiple temperature data sets must be input with multiple files. Two types of data may be required for viscoelastic curve fitting, either shear modulus vs. time and/or bulk modulus vs. time. The data can also be a function of temperature, which can then be accounted for by either WLF or TN shift function. You can use the GUI or batch command to input your experimental data.

9.4.1.2.1. Batch

TBFT,EADD,ID,Option1,Option2,Option3,Option4

ID = index corresponding to the ANSYS material number Option1 = experimental data type, either sdec or bdec Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory

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Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Note — “sdec” refers to the shear modulus as a function of time and “bdec” refers to the bulk modulus as a function of time.

9.4.1.2.2. GUI

Click on the Add Dataset button and type the filename into the area provided. You can also browse to a file in a specified location. Separate input is performed for each data type (Option1 = sdec, or bdec)

**9.4.1.3. Select a Material Model Option
**

The TBFT command provides the curve fitting tools for viscoelastic material modeling. You represent your viscoelastic material behavior by a set of Prony-series expansions of shear and/or bulk moduli to characterize the shear and the bulk deformation of the material. You can also use the shift functions to characterize the material's temperature dependency. First you define a case casename to associate the set of coefficients for the Prony expansions with the shift functions that characterize the material behavior. You can use the casename to define several different options that characterize the same test data, and then to compare the curve fitting results. To define the material model, you must first define a casename, and then specify the order of shear and bulk moduli and the type of the shift function(s), if required. You need to create an additional case to define different shear order, bulk order or shift options. Once you create a case, the number of shear terms, bulk terms, or shift options cannot be changed.

9.4.1.3.1. Batch

You define a viscoelastic material with the Prony series expansion by creating a case and setting the order of shear modulus, bulk modulus, and shift options. You create the case with the TBFT, FCASE command. The first line will include FCASE, ID, NEW. Then you specify the number of shear terms, bulk terms, and the shift function. The case is actually created only after the option is issued. The following syntax examples and argument descriptions illustrate the relationship of these activities.

TBFT,FCASE,ID,NEW,Option2,Option3

**Option2 = PVHE (refers to Prony Viscohypoelastic) Option3 = user specified casename
**

TBFT,FADD,ID,CATEGORY,Option2,Option3

CATEGORY = VISCO Option2 = pshear or pbulk or shift Option3 = dependent on Option2 as follows:

• •

**Option2 = pshear or bulk, Option3 = NONE, or 1 to N Option2 = shift, Option3 = NONE or TN or WLF
**

TBFT,FCASE,ID,FINI

9.4.1.3.2. GUI

You can use the GUI to interactively navigate the tree structure of the curve fitting window. Each of the shear, bulk and shift options can be selected, and you can fill in the appropriate casename in a text box field. As you choose the options, the coefficient table is automatically created.

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Section 9.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting

**9.4.1.4. Initialize the Coefficients
**

The initial values you choose for your coefficients will determine the success of your viscoelastic curve fitting operations. A complete model has (2*NG+1)+(2* Nk +1)+ NS number of the coefficients. NG is the order of the Prony series expansion of the shear modulus. Nk is the order of the Prony series expansion of the bulk modulus. NS is the number of coefficients of the shift function (NS = 2 for the TN option and NS =3 for the WLF option). The coefficients are ordered as shear terms first, then the bulk terms, and then the shift function. The coefficients are ordered as α0G, α1G, τ1G, α2G, τ2G, … αnG, and τnG for shear modulus, and α0K, α1K, τ1K, α2K, τ2K, … αnK, and τnK for bulk modulus. A shift function must be used together with your shear and/or bulk modulus for temperature dependent experimental data. The default coefficient is set to “one,” but you should redefine the initial values before solving. When initializing your coefficients, you should set αnKs to 1 and τnKs to time values that are equally distributed in the log scale, spanning the data range from minimum to maximum time. For example, in the shear decay versus time data file, if the time values vary from 1 to 10000, and if you use 3rd order Prony, logical guesses for τ1G , τ2G and τ3G that span this range could be τ1G = 1, τ2G = 100, and τ3G = 10,000 (also (1), (10) and (10,000) or (1), (1,000) and (10,000), respectively). You should also note that αnG used in curve fitting is the square root of the αnG used in ANSYS TB tables. This was done to keep all αnG used in the TB tables positive. A good guess for the WLF or TN parameter is the reference temperature you used during your partial solve for shear and bulk. The index of the reference/base temperatures is the sum of NumShear + NumBulk + 1. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged, while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on. You can then release the fixed coefficient later if desired. By default, all of the coefficients are free to vary. You estimate coefficients for temperature dependent data either by using the shift function, as described in the next section, or by turning the temperature dependency flag on and setting a reference temperature before you solve for the coefficients. You can set the reference temperature only to values specified using the /temp,value header line in the experimental data. You can also specify tref = all and initiate multiple solves to evaluate coefficients at all available discrete temperature values. In this case, for data at three temperatures (t1, t2, and t3), a single TBFT, SOLVE entry will initiate three separate solve operations at those three discrete temperature values, and generate data at three corresponding discrete temperatures. With temperature dependency on and the reference temperature set to a particular value, a TBFT, SOLVE command solves for coefficients only at that discrete temperature. To solve for coefficients at other temperatures, you set the reference temperature to each of the desired discrete temperature values and solve again. You can initialize the coefficients before or after turning temperature dependency on. If the coefficients are initialized before turning temperature dependency on, the specified coefficients will become the initial coefficients for all future solves for that particular model. These coefficients are, however, overridden when temperature dependency is turned on and another set of values is specified at a discrete temperature value. The curve fitting tool looks for the initial coefficients at a particular temperature. If no coefficients are specified at discrete temperature values, the initial coefficients set before temperature dependency was turned on are used.

9.4.1.4.1. Batch

TBFT,SET,ID,CASE,Option2,Option3,Option4,Option5

**Option2 = casename Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient
**

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Three solver options including shear modulus only. residual tolerance. At that point.0 .ID. The solution control parameters for nonlinear regression include number of iterations. By default.2 TBFT. SET command or to release a previously fixed coefficient. and coefficient change tolerance.FIX. and references data files you entered with the appropriate “temp” header. Prony coefficients of the bulk modulus. 9.7: “Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations” (above) for the models available.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = 1 to fix. This error norm generally gives better results than the unnormalized error norm.5 ! Initialize the first coefficient to 1. since the normalized error gives equal weight to all data points.FIX command to fix a coefficient to a value set by the TBFT. you should ex9–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .FIX.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Option5 = value of coefficient For example: TBFT. the bulk modulus and the shift function. ANSYS Release 9.1.2 ! Initialize the second coefficient to 1.FIX.Option2. then 1 turns temperature dependency on and 0 turns it off.” 9. The normalized error norm is the default regression option for calculating the error..SET. the coefficients of shift function can't be solved until the shear or bulk modulus are solved. It is normal for a solution to not converge at first.Option4. TBFT. Specify values for your coefficients in the coefficients table in the curve fitting GUI window.Option5 Option2 = model name. In general it is very difficult to directly solve a complete case including coefficients of the shear modulus. Option3 = not applicable Option4 = tdep or tref Option5 = If Option 4 = tdep.1.CASE.1.VISCO. 0 to vary For example: TBFT.1.1..2.4. In many cases.1 ! Fix the first coefficient to a value set via TBFT.4.Option3.5. but to stop when the maximum iterations criteria is reached.ID.. and shift function (or all) are provided to allow you to solve only Prony coefficients of the shear modulus.1. GUI The coefficients table is automatically updated in the viscoelastic curve fitting GUI window when the order of shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift function are defined. TBFT.1.1. however. © SAS IP. Inc. myvisco1. .Option4. myvisco1.Option2.2.SET. 002114 . See Table 9.1. myvisco1. this value will be a specific temperature. and coefficients of the shift function.Option3. and check the appropriate boxes to fix them or allow them to vary. or “all. myvisco1.. TBFT.2. The coefficients are updated when the solution is completed. coefficients are not fixed.1.1. You can use either normalized or unnormalized error norm for the regression.5 Use the TBFT. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process. bulk modulus. The solution stops when both residual tolerance of error norm and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met. IfOption 4 = tref.SET ! Fix the second coefficient to a value set via TBFT.SET.SET Temperature dependency uses Option4.4.

© SAS IP.COMP..TREF.SOLVE 3..1. Solve the shift function (or all) coefficients: Set the partial solve option using TBFT. TREF is not used when you solve for all parameters. ANSYS Release 9.1.... you must check all three buttons. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT.COMP..5. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Initialize the coefficients. TX.4. SET.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting amine the curve fitting results and the solution history before proceeding any further. PBULK... SET.. PVHE. Solve the shear coefficients (if there are any): Set the partial solve option using TBFT. SET. Inc..Section 9. follow these three steps to perform the regression: 1.. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT.1. Follow these steps to perform the regression: 1. Temperature Dependent Solves Without the Shift Function If you do not use the shift function... Temperature Dependent Solves Using the Shift Function For viscoelastic curve fitting using the shift function... SET..SOLVE Note — For GUI operations. PSHEAR. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Solve 2..SOLVE Repeat the above steps for all temperatures. TX...TREF.4.. SET.. TX. To solve for both shear and bulk.. You can then adjust parameters and resolve the problem whenever it is necessary. 2. Solve the bulk coefficients (if there are any): Set the partial solve option using TBFT. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients TBFT.. Solve the shear coefficients (if there are any): Set the partial solve option using TBFT..TDEP.COMP.. only your shear coefficients are solved..5. 9. All temperature data is used to estimate the coefficients. SET.1..TREF. TBFT.0 . Turn the temperature dependency flag on using the command TBFT. 002114 . SET. 9–21 . Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT.COMP. TBFT.. SET. discrete data must be supplied to account for temperature dependency.. The reference temperature should be the same for both shear and bulk.2. 9.. when only the shear and bulk buttons are checked. PSHEAR...

TDEP. Initialize the coefficients. Option7 Option2 = visco function name (See Table 9. TBFT. Inc. SET. 9..3.5.7: “Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations”. Alternatively. ..ID. and number of iterations. TBFT.COMP. ANSYS Release 9.. 1 = normalized least squares (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solving parameters are available.SOLVE Repeat the above steps for all of the desired temperatures. SET. TX..TREF. you can solve for both shear and bulk data at the same time.1.. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT. Set the partial solve option using TBFT.. TX..Option3. 9–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . . SET.....Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 3. 1.Option2. SET...Option4. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT. © SAS IP.. 002114 . Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate the shear coefficients.4. tolerances. TBFT.COMP.. SET.) Option3 = not applicable Option4 = curve fitting procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares....Option3.CASE.Option2..ID..SET. Batch Solution option command is: TBFT.SOLVE...Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = not applicable Option4 = comp Option5 = pshea (for Shear only) or pbulk (for bulk only) The SOLVE option allows you to specify procedure types.0 . PBULK. Solve the bulk coefficients (if there are any): Set the partial solve option using TBFT. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear and bulk coefficients Initialize the coefficients.. Turn the temperature dependency flag on using the command TBFT. Solve for ALL coefficients. 2.SOLVE Repeat the above steps for all temperatures. See the TBFT command for details.1. PVHE.TREF.CASE.Option4.

9.Option2. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit All of your data is plotted as a function of column 1 for the X-axis. View/Hide Legend. Once you complete these specifications and SOLVE. You can use the middle-mouse button (context sensitive) to hide a particular curve within a graph.2. Batch You enter the plotting parameters from the command line as follows: TBFT. Save Plot to File. Two or more fitted functions can also be compared in the same plot. with the corresponding fitted data as a function of column 1. solution control parameters.1. you can eliminate certain curves from each window's display in order to see the remaining data more clearly. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing TB commands.4. all the shear data sets and/or the bulk data sets as well as the corresponding fitting results are plotted in two separated graphs in a GUI window. solve again by changing the order of the Prony series. After plotting the curve fitting results. and pick a desired option. you can then review multiple plots and also verify the error norm/residual value that is printed in the curve fitting GUI window. You can continue to use your original data.4.1.0 . Inc. you can go back and modify your parameters as necessary to obtain a good curve fit. you click the right mouse button (RMB) on the specific data set. Fit.PLOT. GUI The GUI provides access for you to choose your error norm. 9.5. and also change the minimum X value and the maximum X value in a plot.1. 9–23 . RMB also allows you to see the number of points used to generate the plot.4. and solver options.1. With the middle button. If not.ID.3. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze The best way to verify a good fit between your experimental data and the provided curves is to plot your curves and visually inspect them. GUI The Graph button provides direct means to plot the data. 9.6.1. ANSYS Release 9.FSET.6.4.Option3 Option3 = casename 9.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 9.Section 9. This information helps you determine the quality of a curve fit and decide whether to accept the results.ID. Reviewing your curve fitting result graphically is the only way to ensure a good fit. redefining certain initial values of the coefficients.Option3 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Write Data to TB Command After a successful curve fitting.1. Right mouse button (RMB) functions allow you to Zoom.6. the last step is to write the curve fitting data as ANSYS Prony data table (the TB. repeating step 3 through step 6 until you are satisfied with the solution. 9.4.4. By default.7.1.1.4.Prony command) to the ANSYS database.ExpIndex.1. 9. You can also use the right mouse button to turn the legend and/or axis on and off. Columns 2 and above are each plotted in a separate graph.7.CASE.6. © SAS IP. you may want to go back to step 3.4. Batch TBFT. The scales can be also switched between log scale and regular scale. in a separate window. To view a specific data and its corresponding fitting result. 002114 . and View/Hide Grid. and possibly other control parameters.

4. The τ values remain the same.1. 9–24 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . but the α values are different.0 .7.2. © SAS IP. They are also normalized to make α at time 0 = 1. 002114 . The α values shown in ANSYS are the square of the α values derived during curve fitting.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Option2 = case Option3 = casename 9. . Inc. Please note that the coefficients you see in the curve fitting module are different from those in the TB tables. ANSYS Release 9. GUI Click the Write to Database button and the fitted coefficients are automatically written to the ANSYS material database according Prony data table.

you can account for transverse shear behavior by using an element Keyopt setting and transverse shear option of the gasket material data table. A typical example of a gasket joint is in engine assemblies. You then input the sets of data using the TBDATA and TBPT commands. Special restrictions apply to the IMESH command in terms of matching the source and target. 5. There are no special considerations for building or importing the model for a gasket joint analysis. namely. although the TB command provides options to account for transverse shear. Mesh the model. Build or import the model. and in particular.GASKET to define the gasket joint material.4. To properly simulate gasket joints.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. as applicable. rubber and composites. and tension (unloading). A thorough understanding of the gasket joint is critical in engine design and operation. For further details on building the model. Most of these steps however warrant special considerations for a gasket joint analysis. see Section 10. and can generate interface elements directly using the EGEN command. The stiffness contribution therefore is assumed to be negligible. along with links to applicable sections where more detailed information is included on that topic. gaskets act to transfer force between components. such as steel. Also.5: Material Definition in this chapter for more details on this topic. the order in which you execute these commands is critical.0 . The stiffness contributions from membrane (in plane) and transverse shear are much smaller in general compared to the through thickness. You can use TB. You perform this step as you would in any typical ANSYS analysis. Inc.1. and the interaction of the gasket joint with other components. 4. 10. However. See Section 10. Each of these commands involve special considerations for interface elements. Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis A gasket joint analysis involves the same overall steps that are involved in any ANSYS nonlinear analysis procedure. through thickness. these elements are designed to account for gasket through-thickness behavior. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . You can also mesh interface layers using the VDRAG command. . You specify the type using TBOPT. There are special solving considerations when you perform a gasket joint analysis.1: Element Selection for a table of corresponding structural and interface elements.2. compression (loading). transverse shear stiffness. See the TB command documentation and the specific element documentation for more information. 1. Use TB. Elements within the ANSYS family of interface element are used to model gaskets. See Section 1. Overview of Gasket Joints Gasket joints are essential components in most structural assemblies. Presented below are the overall steps with the special considerations noted. and the gasket element's use with contact 2. See Section 10. Define element type. By default. Gaskets as sealing components between structural components are usually very thin and made of many materials. Use the AMESH or VMESH commands to mesh the structural element types. you must define structural element types and corresponding interface element types. Define material. 3. From a mechanics point of view.6: Meshing Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic. The primary deformation of a gasket is usually confined to one direction. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. You can also plot most of the gasket data types using the TBPLOT command. These are primarily concerned with the gasket element stiffness loss. This includes an understanding of the behavior of gasket joint components themselves in an engine operation. Solve.GASKET to define four types of data input: general parameters. ANSYS Release 9. and use the IMESH command to mesh the gasket layer.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10.4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic. © SAS IP. See Section 10. 002114 .

or ESOL commands. which are based on the relative deformation of the top and bottom surfaces. Element Topologies An interface element is composed of bottom and top surfaces.8: Reviewing the Results in this chapter for more details on this topic. PLESOL. 002114 . The element formulation is based on a corotational procedure. No ESYS coordinate system is allowed for the elements. total inelastic closure. You can print or plot any of four gasket output items: stresses (also pressure). Theory Reference for further details. An element midplane is created by averaging the coordinates of node pairs from the bottom and top surfaces of the elements.3.3. Figure 10. and thermal closure. Inc. 10–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. See Section 10. using the PRESOL. © SAS IP. The through thickness deformation is quantified by the relative deformation of bottom and top surfaces along the thickness direction. Thus the pressure versus closure behavior can be directly applied to characterize the gasket material. 10. The positive direction is defined by the right-hand rule going around the nodes in the midplane.0 . 6. The thickness direction is then noted as the X-direction according to the ANSYS notation convention. It is therefore difficult to use solid continuum elements to effectively model gasket joints.1 Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element 10.1: “Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element” shows the geometry of a 3-D 8-node interface element available in ANSYS. The interface elements. 10. total closure. The numerical integration of interface elements is performed in the element midplane. PLNSOL. Refer to Gasket Material in the ANSYS. and computed inside of ANSYS.2. You can also use these items with the *GET command in POST1. ANSYS Release 9. Thickness Direction The thickness direction is defined as the normal direction of the mid plane of the element at the integration point. Inc. PRNSOL. Figure 10. Review Results.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation elements. See Section 10. Finite Element Formulation The primary deformation behavior of gasket joints is through-thickness deformation.1. The Gauss integration scheme is used for the numerical integration.7: Solution Procedure and Result Output in this chapter for more details on this topic. offer a direct means to quantify through-thickness deformation of the gasket joints. ANSYS provides several types of interface elements for the analysis of the gasket joints. ¥ ¦ § © & %$# " ! ¢ ¨ £ ¡ ¤ .

quadratic 3-D. In this case the gasket properties do not vary significantly with geometric location.0 . INTER192 and INTER193. 2-D elements are the ideal choice. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . SOLID92. linear element. Applications In general. Inc.1. A good example of the use of 2-D element INTER192 or INTER193 is the gasket between the "flanged" ends of pipe line.3-D. With a free mesh (tetrahedral elements) the mid-node (quadratic) is required for an accurate solution. 10. Element Selection The simulation of an entire gasket joint assembly. linear element The 2-D elements.. 10–3 . 002114 . 4-node. 6-node. 8-node. If elements are to follow a curved boundary closely. Use the following table as a guideline for choosing interface and structural elements that have the same characteristics: For elements with these . SOLID96. linear and quadratic elements are chosen for the following reasons: • • • • Fewer nodes produce a smaller model that runs faster with less computer resources. SOLID95.4. quadratic element.2-D. 16-node. HYPER86.195 defines element type 1 as element INTER195.. 10.4.3-D. use this interface characteristics: element: 2-D. PLANE183 VISCO89. VISCO88. linear 2-D.2. use a KEYOPT to define various stress state options. PLANE82. VISCO106. INTER194 .. © SAS IP. for example. plane stress / strain / axisymmetric. quadratic element. SOLSH190 Proper element type is chosen based on the stress states of interest and structural element types used. for example.. involves choosing interface elements and structural elements that have the same characteristics.1. ET. ANSYS Family of Interface Elements ANSYS offers 4 types of elements to simulate gaskets. INTER195 . with one of these structural elements: PLANE42.4. quadratic 3-D. HYPER58. SOLID65. They are referred to as interface elements and are summarized as follows: • • • • INTER192 . When a surrounding structure can be considered as a 2-D structure. SOLID62. ET. HYPER84. SOLID185. SOLID187 SOLID45. HYPER56. SOLID186. SOLID64. quadratic elements are ideal because their edges are arcs.Section 10. ANSYS Release 9. SOLID46. PLANE182 PLANE2. linear INTER192 INTER193 INTER194 INTER195 .4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements 10. Quadratic elements are necessary if stress gradients are present in surrounding bodies. consisting of the gasket and the structural elements on either side of the gasket. Element selection is done by the element type command. INTER193 .2-D.

The gasket material also exhibits quite complicated unloading behavior when compression is released. 3-D element INTER194 or INTER195 is a good choice for simulating the gasket between the cylinder head and block. Material Characteristics The TB command option GASKET allows gasket joints to be simulated with the ANSYS interface elements. In this case there is no "nice" geometry because the gasket must fill in between two complicated surfaces. The remainder of the gasket is much softer. there often exists an initial gap or void. Figure 10. The GASKET material option must be used with interface elements INTER192.2: “Pressure vs. The sample was unloaded and reloaded 5 times along the loading path and then unloaded at the end of the test to determine the materials unloading stiffness. and then set an initial gap for the gasket material to account for it. 10–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and around other holes and passages. 002114 . and also for several unloading pressure closure curves. A stress cap is used to restrict tension pressure in the gasket joint elements. INTER194. . Also.5. there is usually a much stiffer zone immediately around the cylinder to contain combustion pressure (called the "fire ring"). The gasket material is usually under compression. from a modeling point of view. © SAS IP.5. For example in a cylinder head. the material behavior follows the compression curve while it is unloaded. Also the gasket properties can vary in different zones. it is a lot easier to fill the spaces or volumes between the adjacent components with the interface meshes. Material Definition 10.1. The material under compression is highly nonlinear. As long as the closure is less than the initial gap. and INTER195. and the through thickness deformation is decoupled from the in plane deformation.0 . 10. there will be an open gap. gasket joints generally do not have tension pressure. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material” shows the experimental pressure vs. no pressure is acted on the gaskets. closure (relative displacement of top and bottom gasket surfaces) data for a graphite composite gasket material. in which there is only one element through the thickness. As it is a joint component. The GASKET option allows you to directly input data for the experimentally measured complex pressure closure curve for the material model (compression curve). Inc.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation For a 3-D structure such as an internal combustion engine. ANSYS Release 9. INTER193. when it is under tension loading. in between cylinders. Therefore. When no unloading curves are defined. On the other hand.

LUNL: gasket linear unloading data. The general parameters define initial gasket gap. NUNL: gasket nonlinear unloading data.Section 10.2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5. The TB command specification for defining a gasket material is: TB. ANSYS Release 9.NTEMP. © SAS IP. Input Format You input gasket material data using TB.5: Material Definition Figure 10. 002114 .0 .GASKET.NPTS. COMP: gasket compression data. stable stiffness for numerical stabilization. Presented in the following sections are examples of inputs for the various types of gasket data. The material data consists of 2 main parts: general parameters and pressure closure behaviors.GASKET. then input the compression and unloading data using the TBPT command. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material 10. Inc. 10–5 . TSS: gasket transverse shear stiffness data. You input the general parameters using the TBDATA command.TBOPT where TBOPT = one of the following types of gasket material data: • • • • • PARA: gasket material general parameters.MAT.2 Pressure vs. The pressure closure behavior includes gasket compression (loading) and tension data (unloading). and stress cap for a gasket in tension.

5. 0.x1.COMP TBPT. Inc. 0. 10. The following input listing is an example showing the linear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points TB. 0.C3 Refer to Gasket Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for further details on these parameters.78000E-04.2.... The following input listing is an example defining a compressive pressure vs. 002114 .MAT. 0.C1.12000E-03.47400E+09 TBPT.20000E-04. Several unloading slopes can be defined to accommodate the comprehensive unloading behavior as follows: TB.NPTS. C2.xi.GASKET.60000E-04..xi.C2.28600E-03...1..67350E+09 TBPT.40000E-04.x2.37200E+09 TBPT. . Define Compression Load Closure Curve (TBOPT = COMP) The compression pressure closure curve gasket material definition option is defined as follows: TB.LUNL TBPT.1. 0..y2 TBPT.NPTS. 0.. 0.10.MAT.58500E+09 TBPT.35800E-03.GASKET.1.x2. and C3 in the following example: TB.yi where: NPTS is the number of unloading points.5. 0.. © SAS IP.GASKET. 0.. . 0.MAT.15150E+09 TBPT. 0. stable stiffness and the maximum tension stress cap.. ANSYS Release 9.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10.25100E+12 10–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .54000E+08 TBPT. Define General Parameters (TBOPT = PARA) The gasket material general parameters include the initial gap. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values. 0.3. 0.NTEMP. Define Linear Unloading Data (TBOPT = LUNL) The linear unloading gasket material definition option is a simple way to define the gasket unloading behavior.NTEMP.24900E+09 TBPT.GASKET. 0.43200E-03. 0.2.89550E+09 ! define compression data 10.COMP TBPT.2.30000E+09 TBPT.5. xi is the closure where unloading started.50500E-03..2. . These parameters are defined as C1. 0.PARA TBDATA.1. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 10 data points. 0. TB.78000E-04. 0.NTEMP. 0.yi where: xi.78000E+09 TBPT. 0. and yi is unloading slope..y2 TBPT. 0.19000E-03.GASKET..0 .NPTS. 0.LUNL ! define linear unloading data TBPT.y1 TBPT.x1..y1 TBPT..3.

xi. 0. 0. Several unloading curves can be defined.5. 002114 . Define Nonlinear Unloading Data (TBOPT = NUNL) The nonlinear unloading gasket material definition option provides a more comprehensive way of defining gasket material unloading behavior.. 0.24750E+08 TBPT. 10–7 .63100E-04. ANSYS Release 9. The input listing format is: TB.50500E-03.GASKET.. Inc.. ..00000E+00.78000E-04.y2 TBPT.66900E-04.MAT.15000E+07 TBPT.3 Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves 10..GASKET.Section 10.NUNL TBPT.30000E+09 TBPT. 0.5: Material Definition TBPT.yi where: xi.5.. .4.GASKET.0 . 0.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.5.54100E-04.x2.. 0. An example showing the nonlinear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points is as follows: TB.. 0.x1.y1 TBPT.00000E+00 TB. 0.25500E+12 TBPT.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data TBPT. Figure 10.82500E+07 TBPT. 0.2.1.10600E+13 A sample plot representing linear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10. 0. 0.1. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values. 0.. 0.NPTS.NTEMP. 0..3: “Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves”.28600E-03.

0. ANSYS Release 9.... 0. 0. When the temperature is out of the specified range.MAT.x1. 002114 . Temperature Dependencies Inputting temperature dependent gasket material properties follows the standard ANSYS procedure for inputting temperature dependent data for other materials..NPTS.5.4: “Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves”..50500E-03.46800E-03. 0.T1 TBPT. © SAS IP.28600E-03.25600E-03. 0...26100E-03. Inc.y1 TBPT.y2 ANSYS will automatically interpolate the temperature data to the material points using linear interpolation. .13500E+08 TBPT.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT. TBPT. 0.NUNL TBPT.00000E+00. 0..4 Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves 10.15000E+07 TBPT.26400E-03.. 10–8 . 0.x1. The following format shows this procedure.x2.5. 0.47500E-03.3.GASKET. 0.y2 TBTEMP. 0.90000E+07 0.GASKET.y1 TBPT. 0.58500E+09 0.x2..33900E+08 TBPT. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .. 0.0 . 0. 0. TBPT.. 0.NTEMP..15000E+07 0.1.00000E+00 ! define third nonlinear unloading data TB. TB. Figure 10.00000E+00 A sample plot representing nonlinear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10.LUNL TBTEMP.T2 TBPT.22350E+08 0.. TBPT. TBPT.89550E+09 TBPT.47800E-03. the closest temperature point is used.00000E+00.

0.41500E+08 0. TBPT. 0.78000E-04.40000E-04. 0.60000E-04. 0.. TBPT.19000E-03..13000E+09 0. TBPT.000 TBPT.29850E+08 TB. 0. TBPT.35800E-03. 0.54100E-04. 0.52000E+08 0.89550E+09 TBTEMP. 0. 0.. 0.. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 5 temperature points and up to 10 data points for each temperature point.. 0.66900E-04.. TBPT..97500E+08 0.43200E-03. 0. TBPT..67350E+09 TBPT.GASKET...40000E-04.26000E+08 0.0 .19000E-03.20000E-04.. TBPT.28600E-03. 300. 0. TBPT.35800E-03.19000E-03.. 0.10000E+08 0.24750E+08 TBPT. 0.19000E-03. 0..44900E+08 0.000 TBPT.37200E+09 TBPT. TBPT.25250E+08 0..31600E+08 0.. TBPT. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0. 0. TBPT.COMP ! define compression data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.59700E+08 0. 0..10100E+08 0. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 002114 . TBPT. 0.63100E-04. 0.62000E+08 0.20000E-04. TBPT. 0.50500E-03. 0.20000E-04. 0.10.40000E-04. TBPT.. TBPT.10000E+09 0.50500E-03. 0.43200E-03. 500.. 0. 0. TB. 5.12000E-03.60000E-04. TBPT.12400E+08 0.. TBPT. 0.19000E-03. 0..79000E+08 0. © SAS IP.78000E-04. 0. 0.29850E+09 0. 0. 0.. 0.28600E-03.15000E+07 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . TBTEMP.60000E-04.. 0.40000E-04.12000E-03..35800E-03.20000E-04. 0. 0. TBTEMP. 0..35800E-03.58500E+09 TBPT.. 0.000 TBPT.90000E+07 0.. 10–9 . ANSYS Release 9. TBPT.15800E+08 0. 0.. TBPT..15150E+09 TBPT.5..5: Material Definition The following is an example input listing defining a compressive pressure vs.. TBPT.78000E-04.15800E+09 0. 0.43200E-03. 5.. 0.. TBTEMP. 400.. 100..50500E+07 0.16600E+08 0..12000E-03.. 0....GASKET. 0. TBPT.22450E+09 0. TBPT.54000E+08 TBPT..30000E+09 TBPT. 100.83000E+07 0. TBPT. TBPT.12400E+09 0. 0.Section 10.11225E+09 0.12000E-03.78000E-04. 0..83000E+08 0. 0.36000E+07 0. 0. 0. TBPT.26000E+09 0.28600E-03.22450E+08 0..78000E-04.19500E+08 0.47400E+09 TBPT.50500E-03.50000E+08 0.50500E-03.82500E+07 TBPT.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.20000E-04. 0. 0.39000E+08 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. TBPT.24900E+09 TBPT.1.28600E-03.18000E+08 0.14925E+09 0.000 TBPT. 0. TBPT.50500E+08 0. TBPT.000 TBPT. 0..1.24800E+08 0. and 3 nonlinear unloading curves with each curve having 5 temperatures and 5 data points.60000E-04..78000E-04.28600E-03.20000E+08 0. TBPT.43200E-03. Inc..78000E+09 TBPT....19500E+09 0.. 0. TBPT. 0. 0. 0.35800E-03. 0. 0.30000E+09 TBPT.. TBPT. 0.60000E-04. TBPT. 0. 0..50500E-03.. 0.12000E-03.. 200.43200E-03..000 TBPT.40000E-04.18000E+07 0.

0. TBTEMP.25000E+06 0...00000E+00 0. 0.26100E-03. 0.. 0.28600E-03.97500E+08 0.1.66900E-04.NUNL ! define third nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP. 0. 0..54100E-04.20000E+08 0..22350E+08 TBPT.33900E+08 TBPT. 100.0 .63100E-04. TBTEMP.54100E-04.10000E+09 0.. 0....00000E+00 TB.27500E+07 0. TBPT.000 TBPT. 0. 0.00000E+00. TBPT. TBPT.00000E+00.26400E-03..GASKET. 0.78000E-04.5. TBTEMP.00000E+00 0.66900E-04.00000E+00.000 TBPT. TBPT.00000E+00. 0.78000E-04.... 0. TBPT..000 TBPT.50000E+06 0. 0. 0.00000E+00.. Inc. 5. 0. 0.. 0. TBPT. 300. 0. 0. 500. TBPT.16500E+07 0. 0. TBTEMP.26400E-03.25600E-03. TBPT. 0.00000E+00. TBPT. 100. 0. 0. 500.GASKET. 0. TBTEMP.5. 0. 0.55000E+06 0.25600E-03.000 TBPT..000 TBPT.. 0.. 0. 400.41250E+07 0. 0.00000E+00. 0.25000E+06 0.60000E+06 0.26400E-03. TBPT. 0.50000E+06 0.82500E+06 0. 0..74500E+07 0. 0. TBPT.26100E-03. 0..00000E+00 TBTEMP. 0. TBPT..47800E-03.50000E+08 0. 200.74500E+06 0. TBPT. 0.47500E-03.63100E-04..000 TBPT. 5.89550E+09 TBPT.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT. 002114 . 0.14900E+07 0.54100E-04.26400E-03... TBPT.26100E-03.90000E+07 TBPT.00000E+00 TB. 0. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0..37250E+07 0. 300. 0. 0.10000E+06 0.000 TBPT. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0. TBPT. TBPT.. TBTEMP.63100E-04. 0..000 TBPT.15000E+07 0. 200.1. 0.50500E-03..00000E+00.. 0.58500E+09 TBPT...28600E-03.25600E-03. TBPT..19500E+09 0.. 0. TBPT. TBPT.00000E+00 0. 0. 400. TBPT.30000E+06 0. TBPT.25600E-03.15000E+07 10–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . TBPT. 0.. 0.00000E+00 TBTEMP.00000E+00 0.27500E+06 0.13750E+07 0.19500E+08 0. ANSYS Release 9.30000E+07 0. 0.28600E-03. TBPT. .28600E-03. 0.13500E+08 TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0.. TBPT.50000E+05 0.10000E+06 0. TBPT.. 0..26100E-03. 0.00000E+00 0.66900E-04.15000E+07 TBPT..26400E-03...25600E-03..000 TBPT.50000E+05 0. 0...39000E+08 0. 0.00000E+00 0.78000E-04.00000E+00.54100E-04. TBPT..63100E-04.78000E-04.10000E+08 0.. 0..82500E+07 0...26100E-03.00000E+00.28600E-03..66900E-04. TBPT. 0. 0.000 TBPT.46800E-03. © SAS IP.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.

% '52$"#!¦ '!¦4¥ ¨ '526' ©102¦ )2 ( % $ " 3 ¡¢ $ " ¨ '%&#!¦ ©¦§¥ 10–11 " 3 1 0 ) '%&$ !2¦ ( £ ¤ .00000E+00 0.47500E-03..5.47800E-03. Plotting Gasket Data You can plot gasket compression. 200. 002114 .00000E+00 0.5: Material Definition TBPT... TBPT. 0. 0. 0.00000E+00. TBPT.000 TBPT.00000E+00 0.. 0. 300. TBPT.29850E+09 0.. 0. 400..22500E+07 0. 0.29850E+08 0.000 TBPT.50000E+06 0.00000E+00 Sample plots of compression and unloading curves for gasket data to two temperatures is shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. © SAS IP. TBPT.00000E+00.. 0. The use of this command to plot gasket data is as follows: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .47500E-03.90000E+06 0. 0.25000E+06 0. 0..10000E+06 0. Inc.00000E+00 TBTEMP. linear unloading and nonlinear unloading data using the TBPLOT command. TBTEMP..47500E-03.. TBPT. 0.50500E-03. 0.14925E+09 0. 0.50500E-03. 0. 0. 500..000 TBPT.45000E+07 0.47800E-03. TBPT..46800E-03.47800E-03.56500E+07 0. 0. TBPT.. 0. ANSYS Release 9. TBPT.50500E-03. TBPT. TBPT. TBPT.. TBPT...0 . 0. 0. 0...45000E+06 0. TBPT.22600E+07 0. TBTEMP.46800E-03.. 0.00000E+00..000 TBPT.59700E+08 0.50500E-03.00000E+00.00000E+00. 0.11300E+07 0.Section 10.46800E-03. TBPT.50000E+05 0.47500E-03.4. 0. TBPT. TBTEMP.5: “Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures”..11300E+08 0.46800E-03. TBPT. 0.47800E-03.5 Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures 10.

MAT.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPLOT. Inc. * * /com. 002114 .1.194 ! Interface layer element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ EH=1.2. /batch.1 k.1. 10.1.12.6: Generating an Interface Mesh for Gasket Simulations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for further details on this type of meshing. use the VDRAG command.z1 k.SEGN where TBOPT specifies the gasket material option to be plotted. © SAS IP.TBOPT.1.3.1.187 ! Solid tetrahedral element et.0 . or a curve at a specified temperature. and SEGN specifies whether or not to add the segment numbers to the curves.1. ANSYS Release 9.z1 k. * command to generate gasket elements.0.5.6.z2 10–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1. .1.0 k.11. Meshing Interface Elements Three options are available for meshing interface elements: • • • For meshing gasket layers as an area or volume.2.1 DX=0 DY=0 DZ=IH Z1=EH Z2=Z1+IH Z3=Z2+EH !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Keypoints !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ k.list /title.5.7. * /com.1. The model consists * /com.10.z2 k.z1 k.0.0 IH=0.9.4.0.1. ************************************************************ /com.0. * * /com.z2 k. See Section 7. * between them.0.z1 k.1.8. use the EGEN command.0.0. For meshing gasket layers by dragging an area mesh along a path. * This is a simple test to demonstrate the use of IMESH * /com.0.0. There are special requirements for meshing interface elements. * of two blocks with gasket elements (INTER194) defined * /com.z2 k.TEMP.0 k.1 k.6. use the IMESH command.1. ************************************************************ /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et. The following example input listing shows the use of the IMESH command. TEMP specifies plotting either all of the temperature dependent data curves. For generating interface elements directly from a pattern.0. Test to demonstrate the use of IMESH command /com.GASKET.

12. and Figure 10.TOL !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh Second Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type.2 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Plot Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /view. ANSYS Release 9.0.10.1.1.1.0.15.7.area. SOLID187.0.1 mat.0..6: Meshing Interface Elements k.12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Size !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ esize.z3 k.9: “Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh” shows the mesh with solid tetrahedral element.7: “Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element” shows the mesh with solid brick element.9. in top and bottom of block volumes.10.1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Interface Layer with IMESH command !* using Element Type 2 (INTER194) !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type. 10–13 . Figure 10.16. INTER195.13.14.6.DX. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .8.9.1 vmesh. in the interface layer between the two blocks. © SAS IP.DZ. and Figure 10.7.1.1 .13. a thin interface layer between two block volumes.2 mat. 002114 .1.1 eplot finish Figure 10.z3 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate First Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.4 ! !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh First Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type.4.7.0 .16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.Section 10.1.5.6.11.6: “Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry” shows the geometry of the finite element model. in the interface layer between the two blocks.1.11. Inc.8 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Second Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.1 mat.3. SOLID185.1 vmesh. Figure 10.DY.z3 k. INTER194.14. in top and bottom of block volumes.2.15.8: “Interface Layer Mesh” shows the mesh of interface element.5.0.6.z3 k.2 imesh.10: “Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements” shows the mesh of interface element (degenerated wedge).

002114 . © SAS IP.6 Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry Figure 10. Inc.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10.0 . .7 Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element 10–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.

9 Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 9.0 .Section 10. 10–15 .8 Interface Layer Mesh Figure 10. Inc. 002114 .6: Meshing Interface Elements Figure 10.

convergence behavior of a gasket joint analysis depends strongly on the particular problem to be solved. ANSYS Release 9. or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT]. unless you are sure about the benefits of the changes. is captured on Jobname. or in POST26. © SAS IP. Solution Procedure and Result Output Gasket material behavior is highly nonlinear. The full Newton-Raphson solution procedure (the standard ANSYS nonlinear method).Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10. Gasket elements must be configured to support transverse shear. You should not use gasket elements with contact elements unless you configure the elements accordingly.OUT.7. It is always a good practice to place the lower and upper limit on the time step size using the DELTIM or NSUBST commands. .0 . In 10–16 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Even if you do so. and ascertain the mesh compatibility of the gasket layer and its mating components.) You can examine some of this same information in POST1. When the element goes into tension. ANSYS has provided a comprehensive solution hierarchy. using the PRITER command. errors can result. Like most nonlinear problems. You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections. 002114 . or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model. Other solution procedures for gasket solutions are not recommended. A convergence failure can indicate a physical instability in the structure. and to start with a small time step. (The printout either appears directly on your screen. therefore it is always recommended that you use the ANSYS default solution options.10 Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements 10. Inc. using the SOLU and PRVAR commands. then subsequently ramp it up . it will lose its stiffness and may cause numerical instability. especially for contact and other nonlinear applications. Some special considerations for solving a gasket problem are as follows: • • By default a zero stress cap has been enforced on the gasket. the ANSYS program performs a series of linear approximations with corrections. • Like any other type of nonlinear analysis. This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included and that the problem is solved effectively. is the default method for performing this type of analysis.

. DEGREES OF FREEDOM. . . . © SAS IP. . . . UZ . . . .4200E+07 CRITERION= 0. .000 0. . . . . . Memory required (MB) 0 = 0. Minimum= 388758681 at element 0. ANSYS Release 9. TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. INCLUDED. . NO . . . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES NEWTON-RAPHSON OPTION . . .Section 10. . . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING .0000 . CONVERGENCE CONTROLS. When other types of nonlinearity such as contact or materials are included. O P T I O N S . . . . ON . . . MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . MAX DOF INC= -0. . .2000E-06 NEW TRIANG MATRIX. . .4000E-05 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . L O A D S T E P No . . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 Nonlinear analysis. *** NOTE *** CP= 0. . . *** ELEMENT MATRIX FORMULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP AVE CP 1 2 SOLID185 0. . .2143E+05 SPARSE MATRIX DIRECT SOLVER. . . TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . . A typical output listing with gasket nonlinearity only is shown in Section 10. UX UY . 20 .3-D . . . 1.000 0.STATIC (STEADY-STATE) . . . . . . . . . . 15 . 10–17 . ANALYSIS TYPE . . . 002114 . INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . .0 . .000000 2 1 INTER195 0. . . *** NOTE *** CP= 0.1.USE DEFAULTS . . . . . do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. . . Memory available (MB) = 0. . . . .0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. . . . . .YES (EXIT) . . . . . . . . . 10.1130E-04 CRITERION= 0. . FOR ELEMENTS WITH ACTIVE MAT. LOAD STEP NUMBER.0 = 0. .erot O P T I O N S . COPY INTEGRATION POINT VALUES TO NODE . .PROGRAM CHOSEN *** NOTE *** CP= 0. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . ALL CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME= FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. . . . . . . 200 .YES . NONLINEARITIES PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . .326388889E+11 at element 0.000 TIME= 00:00:00 Present time 0 is less than or equal to the previous time. . . . . . . NROPT set to the FULL Newton-Raphson solution procedure for ALL DOFs. . . . . . .000000 Time at end of element matrix formulation CP= 0. . 20000 .7. Maximum wavefront = .7: Solution Procedure and Result Output particular. . 1 . Time will default to 1. . . . . additional information will be printed out. . . Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing S O L U T I O N PROBLEM DIMENSIONALITY. . .YES. . Inc. . . .NO PRINTOUT DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT ALL ALL SVAR ALL Range of element maximum matrix coefficients in global coordinates Maximum= 4. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.emat or . . .1: Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing.000 TIME= 00:00:00 The conditions for direct assembly have been met. . . . . files will be produced. . . . . .7. . . . Number of equations = 24. . . .

2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.3000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.2234E-20 >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** ELEMENT RESULT CALCULATION TIMES TYPE 1 2 NUMBER 2 1 ENAME SOLID185 INTER195 TOTAL CP 0.1 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6406E-08 CRITERION= 728.3748E-20 CRITERION= 0.0 .4503E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1800E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED.1951E-20 CRITERION= 0.6 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. MAX DOF INC= 0.112500E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.1013E-05 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.456250E-01 TIME INC = 0.3 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 4 COMPLETED. ANSYS Release 9.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.7198E-20 CRITERION= 0. Inc. © SAS IP.000 0.100000E-01 TIME INC = 0.35 <<< CONVERGED DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.7716E-09 CRITERION= 100.37969E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.25313E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.2744E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. MAX DOF INC= -0.000000 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.000000 *** NODAL LOAD CALCULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP 1 2 2 1 SOLID185 INTER195 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. 002114 .0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.3713E-08 CRITERION= 289.750000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.4624E-09 CRITERION= 102. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.2 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.175000E-01 TIME INC = 0.4656E-19 CRITERION= 0.8307E-09 CRITERION= 179.5000) 10–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 6 COMPLETED.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1964E-08 CRITERION= 176.75000E-02 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.000000 0.16875E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1. CUM ITER = *** TIME = 0. CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 0.2322E-07 CRITERION= 714. MAX DOF INC = -0.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.11250E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.709375E-01 TIME INC = 0. CUM ITER = 4 *** TIME = 0. CUM ITER = 3 *** TIME = 0.3257E-20 CRITERION= 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.000 AVE CP 0.6 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 5 COMPLETED.50000E-02 UNCHANGED FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. CUM ITER = 6 *** TIME = 0.000 0.500000E-02 TIME INC = 0. .1468E-08 CRITERION= 295. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= -0.1367E-08 CRITERION= 51.168750E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.287500E-01 TIME INC = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6750E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.1642E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. CUM ITER = 5 *** TIME = 0.500000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.3550E-08 CRITERION= 468.2664E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1833E-07 CRITERION= 459. MAX DOF INC= -0.2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED.3753E-19 CRITERION= 0.4 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.500000E-02 *** AUTO STEP TIME: NEXT TIME INC = 0.253125E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 0.000 AVE CP 0.000000 2 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED.4500E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.

When displaying the gasket pressure distribution. 4. ANSYS will plot the geometry of those components in gray. strains and reaction forces of the structural components and the gasket joint layer information (gasket pressure. 3. Note that in POST1.8: Reviewing the Results 10. Inc. such as pressure and closure. other than to determine why convergence failed. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1.RST. 10. If your solution converged. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the results using any of the following options. If your model is not currently in the database. the general postprocessor. Verify from your output file (Jobname. You can review these results in POST1.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname. To have a better visualization of a gasket pressure plot. the time-history postprocessor.8. Reviewing Results in POST1 1. 10–19 .2. Reviewing the Results Results from a gasket joint analysis consist mainly of displacements. Enter POST1. stresses. If not. 002114 . it is better for you to select gasket elements only. or in POST26.). 10. • • 2. you probably won't want to postprocess the results. The results file (Jobname.8.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps. only one substep can be read in at a time. See the Output Data sections of the element descriptions for any of the interface elements (for example INTER192) for a description of the available output components.RST. Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read in results for the desired load step and substep. © SAS IP. Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time. Note that gasket results. Option: Tabular Listings ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . are always displayed and listed in the local coordinate system.0 . and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname.8. then continue postprocessing. etc.1. ANSYS Release 9. issue RESUME. or any other applicable item. closure. strains. if other structural mating components are not included.RST) must be available.Section 10.

Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRITER (substep summary data). * * /com. GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Option: Animation You can also animate gasket results over time: Command(s): ANTIME GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST1. * element. etc. Two load steps were used. 10. * * 10–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .8. Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26.0e-5 is imposed so that no tension stress is generated. * tension pressure in gasket material. or you might list the gasket pressure at a node and the corresponding TIME value.0E-05 is enforced so that there is no * /com. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. A pressure stress cap of 1. ANSYS Release 9. * A Stress Cap of 1. in the second load step.GASKET. which should correspond to the material behavior defined by TB. * applied causing the unloading (tension) of gasket element. * /com. * /com. * /com. 002114 . * This is a simple test case to verify gasket material and * /com. * /com. © SAS IP. Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses.6. Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) This is a simple finite element model created to demonstrate the gasket material simulation. the time-history postprocessor. gasket pressure.5.3.9. The ANSYS commands are shown below. * Then. ************************************************************** /com. * Displacement is applied to one SOLID185 element while the * /com. * /com. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence for a gasket analysis is the same as the sequence for a typical nonlinear analysis. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. Two block elements with element type SOLID185 were generated as supporters and a gasket element INTER195 was created. You might also graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. Test to Verify Gasket Material and Element /com. A prescribed displacement is placed on top of the supporter element.0 . The whole system is fixed along one side of each axes to prevent rigid body motion. * other SOLID185 element is fixed. Inc. The gasket material is assumed to have a nonlinear compression behavior with 5 different linear unloading slopes. In the first * /com. a reverse displacement is * /com.3: Reviewing Results in POST26 included in Chapter 8. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another. /batch. For instance. 10. * SOLID195 element causing compression of gasket elements. * /com. See steps 1 through 4 in Section 8.list /title. . you might graph the gasket closure vs. * with gasket element (INTER195) defined between them. * load step negative z-displacement is applied to one * /com. * * /com. * The problem is solved in two load steps. * The test case is set up with two solid SOLID185 elements * /com.

748254E+08 tbpt.0.0e-5 tb. 1. ANSYS Release 9.Section 10.563189E+08 tbpt.157147E+09 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Linear Unloading Curve !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb.0.. 5.0.delta0.0...0...816400E-03.664000E-03.2. Stable Stiffness.0.0008 dis2 = -0.5.lunl tbpt.968800E-03.490000E+12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* List Gasket Material Model !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tblist.714800E-03.0. 0.scap !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Compression Curve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb.. 3... 0.0.1 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0.0.088000e+12 tbpt..511600E-03..113134E+08 tbpt. 002114 .259960E+08 tbpt.0.gask.1E12 mp.0.1.613200E-03.0 elg = 0.430000E+11 tbpt.200499E+08 tbpt.stiff0..all !*++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*++++++++++++++++++ n1 = 20 n2 = n1*100 n3 = n1 dis1 = -0. 1.00e-3 stiff0 = 0. 0.129001E+09 tbpt...0. 0. 0.816400E-03.0.161226E+07 tbpt. © SAS IP.440064E+08 tbpt.gask.2.92300E+11 tbpt.1.4E8 dp = -2.520884E+07 tbpt.357453E+08 tbpt.0.nuxy. 0. 0.2.ex.2.para tbdata.0e7 scap = 1. ************************************************************** /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++ et.0. Stress Cap !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ delta0 = 0..101960E-02.1. 0.0e7 elb = 1. 0...1.565000E+11 tbpt.290345E+08 tbpt.. 0.109326E-02.967287E+08 tbpt.13.765600E-03.460800E-03.0. 2.0.185 et. 0.109326E-02.1..562400E-03.000001 pres = 1.gasket.0e7 pres2 = 10 pres3 = 1.2.195 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Linear Elastic Material Type 1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ mp.. Inc. 1.867200E-03. 10–21 .9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /com. 0.918000E-03.714800E-03.460800E-03.968800E-03.comp tbpt.gask. 0..0 .0.0 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Initial Gap.

Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation !*+++++++++++++++ !* Generate Nodes !*+++++++++++++++ n.uz.0.elb*2+elg d.all. type.ux nsel.n1.2*elb+elg !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Front and Back SOLID185 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et.all.12.0.loc. Open the Elements !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst.11.uy nsel..16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle INTER195 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et.1.7.4.1 e. ANSYS Release 9.185.svar.1.1.n3 outres.0.0.dis1 nsel.9.4.4.8.all nsel.0 n.x d.2.dis2 nall solve finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Postprocess the Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ 10–22 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . .7.4.2.10. Inc.uz.12 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Boundary Condition !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsel.3.all finish /solu !*+++++++++++++++++++ !* Apply Displacement !*+++++++++++++++++++ nsel.s.0.elb+elg ngen.2.4.s.0.0.all.4.5.0.z d.0.all.9.all.3. © SAS IP.2. 002114 .z.8.s.0.n2.loc.all !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve First Load Step.6.1.1.2 mat.all.8 e.1 mat.11..loc.0.n1.0.y d.elb*2+elg d.all..1.s.15.12.0.0 n.elb ngen.all nsel.s.loc.0 ngen.n3 outres.195.1.2.0 .1.6.loc.5.14.all nsel.1.2 e.uz nsel.z.1.0. Compress the Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst.all outres..2.all solve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve Second Load Step.10. n.all outres..13.n2.0.svar.

100000E-04 0.119601E-03 0.s.6000 1.2.5500 1.100000E-04 -0.120850E-03 -0.320600E-03 0.85000 0.409500E-04 0.-1.x.520350E-03 -0.152775E+08 -0. -836930. 557953.160800E-03 0.3.100000E-04 -0..440450E-03 -0.0 . 10–23 .600250E-03 -0.656120E-03 -0.90000 0.100000E-04 -0.3.100000E-05 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .239203E-03 0.70000 0.227277E+08 -0. -697442.357955E+08 -0.2.100000E-04 -0.409500E-04 -0.2.989280E+07 0.100000E-04 -0.5000 1.100000E-04 0.680150E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.nosave Presented below is the POST26 output resulting from this analysis.8500 1.100000E-04 -0.6500 1.208613E+08 0.100000E-04 -0.279070E-03 -0.139488E+07 0.3500 1.600250E-03 0.press esol.357955E+08 0.100000E-04 0.358804E-03 0.epto pres.4.50000E-01 0.2000 1.809000E-04 0.7500 1.360550E-03 0.4500 1.159469E-03 -0.139488E+07 -0. 976418.585450E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 0.965988E+07 0.240700E-03 0.100000E-04 0.80000 0.585450E-03 -0.199336E-03 -0.278389E+07 -0.100000E-04 0.318937E-03 0. -976418. ANSYS Release 9.797343E-04 -0.809000E-04 -0.35000 0.153437E+07 0.20000 0.9500 2. -418465. .160800E-03 -0.100000E-04 -0.50000 0.3000 1.1500 1.398672E-03 -0.200750E-03 0.epel.100000E-04 0.delta.65000 0.560300E-03 -0.25000 0.100000E-04 0. ! change sign for plotting add.100000E-04 0.111591E+07 -0.520350E-03 0.738405E-03 -0.100000E-04 5 ADD delta 0.45000 0.120850E-03 0.318937E-03 -0.656120E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 0.320600E-03 -0.965988E+07 -0. -557953.4 finish /exit. -----------------------------------------------------------------------***** ANSYS POST26 VARIABLE LISTING ***** TIME 0.550578E-03 0.Section 10.358804E-03 -0.119601E-03 -0.100000E-04 -0.10000 0.75000 0.9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /post1 set.125539E+07 0.277640E+08 0.15000 0. © SAS IP.560300E-03 0.480400E-03 0.3.5 xvar.1000 1.159469E-03 0.765909E-03 0..0500 1. 278977.4000 1.557968E+07 0.514686E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.100000E-05 4 ADD press 139488.delta add.100000E-04 0. ! change sign for plotting prvar.0000 1.epel prns.5 plvar.620132E-03 -0.100000E-04 0. 697442.710900E-03 0. 836930.x.0000 3 S X press -139488.438539E-03 -0.400500E-03 0.epel finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Post26.last pres.477349E-03 0.710900E-03 -0.620132E-03 0.765909E-03 -0.240700E-03 -0. 002114 .360550E-03 -0.100000E-04 0. .100000E-04 -0.398672E-03 0.693558E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.280650E-03 0.30000 0.279070E-03 0.440450E-03 0.250737E+08 0. 418465.277640E+08 -0.press.4.400500E-03 -0.7000 1.3.680150E-03 0.3. -0.100000E-04 0.477349E-03 -0.514686E-03 0.100000E-04 -0. .208613E+08 -0.9000 1.557968E+07 -0.989280E+07 -0. Inc.100000E-04 -0..125539E+07 -0. 0.153437E+07 -0.310936E+08 0.797343E-04 0.738405E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.2500 1.640200E-03 -0.s pres..250737E+08 -0.-1. .200750E-03 -0.278389E+07 0. Print and Plot Gasket Element Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /post26 esol.199336E-03 0.398672E-04 0.239203E-03 -0.310936E+08 -0.227277E+08 0.8000 1.730387E-03 -0..280650E-03 -0.438539E-03 0.55000 0.40000 0.60000 0..100000E-04 3 EPELX delta -0.480400E-03 -0.398672E-04 -0.693558E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.5.100000E-04 -0. -278977.730387E-03 0.111591E+07 0.640200E-03 0.152775E+08 0.95000 1.550578E-03 -0.

10–24 .

This is illustrated in Figure 11. Also see Chapter 8. which may be defined as a path-independent line integral that measures the strength of the singular stresses and strains near a crack tip Energy release rate (G). Further. ANSYS Release 9. The analytical predictions are made by calculating fracture parameters such as stress intensity factors in the crack region. In this section. Theory Reference). Modeling the Crack Region The most important region in a fracture model is the region around the edge of the crack. It involves correlating analytical predictions of crack propagation and failure with experimental results. Fracture mechanics deals with the study of how a crack or flaw in a structure propagates under applied loads.2. which you can use to estimate crack growth rate.0 . We will refer to the edge of the crack as a crack tip in a 2-D model and crack front in a 3-D model. Some typical fracture parameters of interest are: • • • Stress intensity factors (KI. Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems Solving a fracture mechanics problem involves performing a linear elastic or elastic-plastic static analysis and then using specialized postprocessing commands or macros to calculate desired fracture parameters. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” for a discussion of structural nonlinearities. 002114 . © SAS IP.2. “Structural Static Analysis” for details about the general static analysis procedure. sometimes leading to disastrous results.Chapter 11: Fracture Mechanics 11. the crack length increases with each application of some cyclic load.1.1: “Crack Tip and Crack Front”. 11. Inc. The engineering field of fracture mechanics was established to develop a basic understanding of such crack propagation problems. Inc. Definition of Fracture Mechanics Cracks and flaws occur in many structures and components. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . KII.13: “The Three Basic Modes of Fracture” in the ANSYS. environmental conditions such as temperature or extensive exposure to irradiation can affect the fracture propensity of a given material. which represents the amount of work associated with a crack opening or closure 11. Typically. we will concentrate on two main aspects of this procedure: • • Modeling the Crack Region Calculating Fracture Parameters See Chapter 2. such as cabin pressurization-depressurization in an airplane. KIII) associated with the three basic modes of fracture (see Figure 19. .1. J-integral.

002114 . Such elements are called singular elements. it has been shown that the displacements near the crack tip (or crack front) vary as r . © SAS IP.Chapter 11: Fracture Mechanics Figure 11. ANSYS Release 9. and the elements around the crack tip (or crack front) should be quadratic.1 Crack Tip and Crack Front In linear elastic problems. varying as r 1/ . To pick up the singularity in the strain. . Inc. the crack faces should be coincident. with the midside nodes placed at the quarter points. Figure 11. 11–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . where r is the distance from the crack tip.2: “Examples of Singular Elements” shows examples of singular elements for 2-D and 3-D models. The stresses and strains are singular at the crack tip.0 .

as illustrated in Figure 11.2: Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems Figure 11. the 6-node triangular solid. Inc. 11–3 . which assigns element division sizes around a keypoint. © SAS IP. 2-D Fracture Models The recommended element type for a 2-D fracture model is PLANE2.Section 11. Other fields on the command allow you to control ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1.2 Examples of Singular Elements (a) 2-D models and (b) 3-D models 11. The first row of elements around the crack tip should be singular. is particularly useful in a fracture model.1.2. It automatically generates singular elements around the specified keypoint. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9.2: “Examples of Singular Elements” (a). The PREP7 KSCON command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Concentrat KPs> Create).0 .

4 Taking Advantage of Symmetry • For reasonable results. The crack tip elements should not be distorted.3 A Fracture Specimen and 2-D FE Model Other modeling guidelines for 2-D models are as follows: • Take advantage of symmetry where possible. and should take the shape of isosceles triangles. 002114 . where a is the crack length. the first row of elements around the crack tip should have a radius of approximately a/8 or smaller. you need to model only one half of the crack region. In many cases. 11–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. etc. Figure 11.2: “Examples of Singular Elements” (b). As shown in Figure 11. • 11.3: “A Fracture Specimen and 2-D FE Model” shows a fracture model generated with the help of KSCON. with symmetry or antisymmetry boundary conditions.2. Figure 11. In the circumferential direction. © SAS IP. the 20-node brick element.1. . with the KLPO face collapsed into the line KO.2. the first row of elements around the crack front should be singular elements.Chapter 11: Fracture Mechanics the radius of the first row of elements. number of elements in the circumferential direction. roughly one element every 30° or 40° is recommended. as shown below. Inc.0 . Figure 11. 3-D Fracture Models The recommended element type for 3-D models is SOLID95. Notice that the element is wedge-shaped.

ANSYS Release 9. KII. with X parallel to the crack face (perpendicular to the crack front in 3-D models) and Y perpendicular to the crack face. isotropic material near the crack region. Note — This coordinate system must be the active model coordinate system [CSYS] and results coordinate system [RSYS] when KCALC is issued. The KSCON command is not available. All element edges should be straight. In addition. you should have at least one element every 15° to 30° along a circular crack front. and you need to make sure that the crack front is along edge KO of the elements. 002114 . etc. aspect ratios should not exceed approximately 4 to 1 in all directions. the J-integral. and KIII. 11. where ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . typical fracture parameters of interest are stress intensity factors.) GUI: Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Local Coordinate Systems> Create Local CS> At Specified Loc Figure 11. Define a local crack-tip or crack-front coordinate system. To use KCALC properly. Define a path along the crack face. As mentioned earlier. Command(s): LOCAL (or CLOCAL. two additional nodes are required. © SAS IP. For a halfcrack model.2. CSKP. both along the crack face. Inc. as shown in the following figure. you can use POST1. and the energy release rate. CS.2: Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems Generating a 3-D fracture model is considerably more involved than a 2-D model.2. Calculating Fracture Parameters Once the static analysis is completed. Other meshing guidelines for 3-D models are as follows: • • • Element size recommendations are the same as for 2-D models.5 Crack Coordinate Systems (a) 2-D Models and (b) 3-D Models 2.2.2. The first node on the path should be the crack-tip node.Section 11. 11. This command is limited to linear elastic problems with a homogeneous. including the edge on the crack front.1. Stress Intensity Factors The POST1 KCALC command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Stress Int Factr) calculates the mixed-mode stress intensity factors KI. the element size along the crack front will depend on the amount of local curvature. the general postprocessor. 11–5 .0 . For a full-crack model. follow these steps in POST1: 1. For curved crack fronts. to calculate fracture parameters. As a rough guide.

the asymptotic or near-crack-tip behavior of stress is usually thought to be that of plane strain. The following figure illustrates the two cases for a 2-D model. and KIII. KII. ANSYS Release 9. PPATH GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path Figure 11. The KPLAN field on the KCALC command specifies whether the model is planestrain or plane stress. © SAS IP. . Command(s): PATH. four additional nodes are required: two along one crack face and two along the other. or a full-crack model.2. It assumes that the crack lies in the global Cartesian X-Y plane.2.2.Chapter 11: Fracture Mechanics both crack faces are included. 002114 . The KCSYM field specifies whether the model is a halfcrack model with symmetry boundary conditions. a half-crack model with antisymmetry boundary conditions. J-Integral In its simplest form. Except for the analysis of thin plates. ∂uy ∂u J = ∫r Wdy − ∫r t x x + t y ds ∂x ∂x where: γ = any path surrounding the crack tip W = strain energy density (that is. the J-integral can be defined as a path-independent line integral that measures the strength of the singular stresses and strains near a crack tip. with X parallel to the crack (see Figure 11. strain energy per unit volume) tx = traction vector along x axis = σxnx + σxy ny ty = traction vector along y axis = σyny + σxy nx σ = component stress n = unit outer normal vector to path γ u = displacement vector s = distance along the path γ 11–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): KCALC GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Stress Int Factr 11. The following equation shows an expression for J in its 2-D form is shown below.7: “J-Integral Contour Path Surrounding a Crack-Tip”). Inc. Calculate KI.0 .6 Typical Path Definitions (a) a half-crack model and (b) a full-crack model 3.

Inc. 3. PPATH GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define Path 2.7 J-Integral Contour Path Surrounding a Crack-Tip Follow these steps to calculate J for a 2-D model: 1. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0 . which was stored in the element table in step 1. Command(s): SEXP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Exponentiate Define a path for the line integral. Command(s): PATH. 4. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set Store the volume and strain energy per element. onto the path. 11–7 . © SAS IP.Section 11. Command(s): ETABLE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table Calculate the strain energy density per element.8: “Examples of Paths for J-integral Calculation” shows examples of such paths.2: Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems Figure 11. Read in the desired set of results. ANSYS Release 9. Figure 11.8 Examples of Paths for J-integral Calculation 5. Map the strain energy density. Figure 11. 002114 .

1. (Macros are described in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide. for example. One method to calculate the energy release rate is the virtual crack extension method. Shift the path a small distance in the positive and negative X directions to calculate the derivatives of the displacement vector (δux/δx and δuy/δy). Inc.LAST GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data Map the component stresses SX. This gives us the first term of equation 10. Calculate TX and TY using the expressions shown with equation 10. and SXY onto the path. ANSYS Release 9..LAST.-DX/2] and map the displacements UX and UY onto the path [PDEF]. respectively.1..) 11. Command(s): PCALC GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Integrate Assign the final value of the integral to a parameter. Shift the path back to its original location (a distance of -DX/2) and calculate the quantities (UX2UX1)/DX and (UY2-UY1)/DX using PCALC. calculate the integrand in the second term of J [PCALC] and integrate it with respect to the path distance S [PCALC]. one with crack length a and the other with crack length a +∆a. 12. Command(s): PCALC GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> operation 11.13: “The Three Basic Modes of Fracture” in the ANSYS. Integrate it with respect to global Y.XG.XG.S.3. SY. giving them labels UX2 and UY2. outlined below. giving them labels UX1 and UY1.. Command(s): *GET. Command(s): PDEF GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Map Onto Path Define the path unit normal vector. Using the quantities calculated in steps 10 and 11. you perform two analyses. Inc. for example. Energy Release Rate Energy release rate is a concept used to determine the amount of work (change of energy) associated with a crack opening or closure. 002114 . +DX/2 from its original position) and map UX and UY onto the path. the energy release rate can be calculated from 11–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Fracture Mechanics Command(s): PDEF GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Map Onto Path 6. This gives the second term of equation 10. © SAS IP. A rule of thumb is to use one percent of the total length of the path. Shift the path a distance of DX in the positive X direction (that is.2.0 .Name. 10. 13..Name. You can obtain the total path length as a parameter using *GET. If the potential energy U (strain energy) for both cases is stored.1. • • • See the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for a discussion of the *GET. Shift the path a distance of DX/2 in the negative X direction [PCALC. These quantities represent δux/δx and δuy/δy.ADD. using the quantities calculated in steps 5-7 and 12. . The following steps are involved (see Figure 19.2.1. Command(s): PVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Unit Vector 7.. In the virtual crack extension method.PATH. 9. PCALC and PDEF commands. You can simplify the J-integral calculations by writing a macro that performs the above operations. Theory Reference): • Calculate the distance by which the path is to be shifted. 8.PATH. say DX. Calculate J according to equation 10.

Note — If you used solid modeling. Also. The "vicinity of the crack" is usually taken to mean all nodes within a radius of a/2 from the crack tip. © SAS IP.2: Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems U − Ua G = − a +∆a B∆a where B is the thickness of the fracture model. you will first need to detach the solid model from the finite element model [MODMSH.DETACH] (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Checking Ctrls) before scaling the nodes. the factor ∆a for node scaling is usually in the range of 1/2 to 2 percent of the crack length. 002114 .Section 11. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. 11–9 .0 . Extend the crack length by ∆a for the second analysis by selecting all nodes in the vicinity of the crack and scaling them in the X direction [NSCALE] (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Scale) by the factor ∆a. Inc.

11–10 .

you can input your own material matrix. For structures with smaller ratios.Nonlinear Layered Structural Shell Element SHELL91 is similar to SHELL99 except that it allows only up to 100 layers and does not allow you to input a material property matrix.Chapter 12: Composites 12. we will concentrate on the following aspects of building a composite model: • • • • Choosing the proper element type Defining the layered configuration Specifying failure criteria Following modeling and postprocessing guidelines 12. Which element you choose depends on the application. 002114 . Check the individual element descriptions to determine if a specific element can be used in your ANSYS product.1. If more than 250 layers are required. SHELL91 supports plasticity. 12. the element allows 125 layers with thicknesses that may vary bilinearly over the area of the layer. It is designed to model thin to moderately thick plate and shell structures with a side-to-thickness ratio of roughly 10 or greater. However. Composite materials are those containing more than one bonded material. and boron epoxy. SHELL91 .2. The SHELL99 element allows a total of 250 uniform-thickness layers. . In this section. large-strain behavior and a special sandwich option. You need to take special care in defining the properties and orientations of the various layers since each layer may have different orthotropic material properties. Modeling Composites Composites are somewhat more difficult to model than an isotropic material such as iron or steel. you can do any structural analysis (including nonlinearities such as large deflection and stress stiffening).0 . In recent times composite parts have been used extensively in aircraft structures. whereas SHELL99 does not. and many consumer products. ANSYS Release 9. ANSYS allows you to model composite materials with specialized elements called layered elements. the type of results that need to be calculated. you may consider using SOLID46. graphite epoxy. 3-D shell element with six degrees of freedom at each node. Definition of Composites Composite materials have been used in structures for a long time. It also has an option to offset the nodes to the top or bottom surface. The main advantage of composite materials is the potential for a high ratio of stiffness to weight. All layered elements allow failure criterion calculations. Inc. Alternately.Linear Layered Structural Shell Element SHELL99 is an 8-node. SHELL91. each with different structural properties.1.2. Composites used for typical engineering applications are advanced fiber or laminated composites. SHELL99 . SHELL181. sporting goods. SHELL181 . and so on. glass epoxy. such as fiberglass. Choosing the Proper Element Type The following element types are available to model layered composite materials: SHELL99. SHELL91 is also more robust for large deflection behavior. automobiles. and SOLID191. SOLID46.Finite Strain Shell ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Once you build your model using these elements.

SOLID45. the 3–D finite strain beam elements. UY. It allows nonlinear materials and large deflections. It is designed to model thick layered shells or layered solids and allows up to 250 uniform-thickness layers per element. The element has full nonlinear capabilities including large strain and allows 255 layers. can have their sections built up with multiple materials. © SAS IP. or SHELL181. the element does not support nonlinear materials or large deflections.2.Layered Structural Solid Element SOLID191 is a layered version of the 20-node 3-D solid element SOLID95. Two methods are available to define the layered configuration: • By specifying individual layer properties 12–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The bending stiffness can be adjusted by the real constant RMI to represent the bending stiffness due to the metal plates. where the bending stiffness of the polymer would be small relative to the bending stiffness of the metal plates. other composite element capabilities exist in ANSYS. can be used for rough. In comparison to the 8-node shells. UZ). the 20-node structural solid element. the 4-node shell element. It is designed to model thick layered shells or layered solids and allows up to 100 layers per element. ANSYS Release 9. SOLID46 adjusts the material properties in the transverse direction permitting constant stresses in the transverse direction. Defining the Layered Configuration The most important characteristic of a composite material is its layered configuration. models an isotropic medium with optional reinforcing in 3 different user-defined orientations. For laminated composites. A typical application would be a polymer between two metal plates. In spite of its name. 002114 .0 . An advantage with this element type is that you can stack several elements to model more than 250 layers to allow through-the-thickness deformation slope discontinuities. with three degrees of freedom per node (UX.2.3-D Layered Structural Solid Element SOLID46 is a layered version of the 8-node. As with SOLID46. but will not be considered further in the chapter: • SOLID95. UZ). Inc. and distances from the middle surface to extreme fibers (real constants CTOP. and will not be considered for anything other than sandwich structures in this section. the 3–D Reinforced Concrete Solid Element. Alternately. SOLID65. SOLID46 is a lower order element and finer meshes may be required for shell applications to provide the same accuracy as SHELL91 or SHELL99 . Failure criteria is available using the FC commands. approximate studies of sandwich shell models. CBOT) can be used to obtain output stress estimates on the outer surfaces of the sandwich shell. SOLID191 has an option to adjust the material properties in the transverse direction permitting constant stresses in the transverse direction. the fiber directions determine layer orientation. SOLID191 . with three degrees of freedom per node (UX. the element allows 125 layers with thicknesses that may vary bilinearly over the area of the layer. SOLID191 can be stacked to model through-the-thickness discontinuities. UY. . SHELL99.Chapter 12: Composites SHELL181 is a 4-node 3-D shell element with 6 degrees of freedom at each node. It is not used as frequently as SHELL91. Each layer may be made of a different orthotropic material and may have its principal directions oriented differently. The layer information is input using the section commands rather than real constants. with KEYOPT(1) = 1 functions similarly to a single layered SOLID191 including the use of an orientation angle and failure criterion. SHELL63. In addition to the layered elements mentioned above. The user-input constitutive matrix option is also available. BEAM188 and BEAM189. • • • 12. SOLID46 . 3-D solid element.

the layer coordinate system is parallel to the element coordinate system. Figure 12. and the TB command is used to define the nonlinear material data tables (plasticity is only available for elements SOLID191 and SHELL91).1 Layered Model Showing Dropped Layer For each layer. Typical fiber-reinforced composites contain orthotropic materials and these properties are most often supplied in the major Poisson's ratio form (see the ANSYS. the second of which is dropped over part of the model. RMORE. 002114 .2.As with any other element. the layer configuration is defined layer-by-layer from bottom to top.2. Figure 12. By default. 12–3 . and additional layers are stacked from bottom to top in the positive Z (normal) direction of the element coordinate system. Inc. a physical layer will extend over only part of the model. The linear material properties for each layer may be either isotropic or orthotropic (see Linear Material Properties in the ANSYS Elements Reference). The bottom layer is designated as layer 1. Theory Reference). these dropped layers may be modeled with zero thickness. © SAS IP. • • • Material properties (via a material reference number MAT) Layer orientation angle commands (THETA) Layer thickness (TK) Layered sections may also be defined through the Section Tool (Prep>Sections>Shell — Add/edit). SECDATA) (accessed with the SECNUM attributes). the following are specified in the section definition through the section commands. which is defined by the element coordinate system and the layer orientation angle (described below). In order to model continuous layers.This defines the orientation of the layer coordinate system with respect to the element coordinate system. ANSYS Release 9.Section 12. RMODIF] (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants) (accessed with REAL attributes). Layer Orientation Angle. You need to define only half of the layers if stacking symmetry exists.1. The only difference is that the material attribute number for each layer of an element is specified in the element's real constant table. Material property directions are parallel to the layer coordinate system. At times. or through the Section Tool (SECTYPE.2: Modeling Composites • By defining constitutive matrices that relate generalized forces and moments to generalized strains and curvatures (available only for SOLID46 and SHELL99 ) 12. Inc. the MP command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Linear> Elastic> Isotropic or Orthotropic) is used to define the linear material properties. • • • • Material properties (via a material reference number MAT) Layer orientation angle commands (THETA) Layer thickness (TK) Number of integration points per layer (NUMPT) Material Properties . It is the angle (in degrees) between X-axes of the two systems. For the layered elements. Specifying Individual Layer Properties With this method. For each layer.0 .1: “Layered Model Showing Dropped Layer” shows a model with four layers. the following properties are specified in the element real constant table [R. All elements have a default coordinate system which you ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the MAT command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs) attribute is only used for the DAMP and REFT arguments of the MP command.

They can be included as part of the solution printout with KEYOPT(10). the R and RMORE commands must be used. © SAS IP. KEYOPT(9) = 1 of SHELL91 specifies the sandwich option. The matrices.Chapter 12: Composites can change using the ESYS element attribute [ESYS] (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs). ANSYS Release 9. Sandwich and Multiple-Layered Structures Sandwich structures have two thin faceplates and a thick. . This feature applies only to sections defined through the section commands. must be calculated outside the ANSYS program as outlined in the ANSYS.2 Sandwich Construction You can model sandwich structures with SHELL63. core. Defining the Constitutive Matrices This is an alternative to specifying the individual layer properties and is available as an option [KEYOPT(2)] for SOLID46 and SHELL99. more would be needed. For very thin layers. Figure 12. or SHELL181.This allows you to determine in how much detail the program should compute the results. The main advantages of the matrix approach are: • • • It allows you to incorporate an aggregate composite material behavior. you only need to specify TK(I). which represent the force-moment and strain-curvature relationships for the element. Dropped layers may be represented with zero thickness. If the matrix approach is used. The core is assumed to carry all of the transverse shear.2. one point would be appropriate.2. Layer Thickness. Mass effects are incorporated by specifying an average density (real constants AVDENS) for the element. Theory Reference. Figure 12. Inc. SHELL91.If the layer thickness is constant. If more layers are needed for SHELL99 or SOLID46.0 . The matrices may represent an unlimited number of layers. see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for details. A thermal load vector may be supplied. Only SHELL91 has this sandwich option. Inc. the GUI only allows layer real constant input of up to 100 layers. SHELL63 has one layer but permits sandwich modeling through the use of real constants.2: “Sandwich Construction” illustrates sandwich construction. You may also write your own subroutines to define the element and layer coordinate systems (USERAN and USANLY). Number of integration points per layer.3. Conversely. Note — Currently. 002114 . You can modify the effective bending moment of inertia and the distance from the middle surface to the extreme fibers to account for the weak core. But for laminates with few layers. detailed results in each layer cannot be obtained since individual layer information is not input. when used with many other layers.2. but relatively weak. 12. The terms of the matrices are defined as real constants. the thickness at node I. the thicknesses at the four corner nodes must be input.2. 12–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the faceplates carry none. Otherwise. the faceplates are assumed to carry all (or almost all) of the bending load. The default is 3 points. 12.2.

© SAS IP. use either the family of TB commands or the family of FC commands. The failure strains. The methods are defined in the ANSYS. using the SECOFFSET command. The three predefined criteria are: • • • Maximum Strain Failure Criterion.4.3: “Layered Shell With Nodes at Midplane”. In Figure 12. and TBDATA. the nodes are located at the middle surfaces (KEYOPT(11) = 0) and these surfaces are aligned. Figure 12. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for details about the data required for each criterion. Inc. Maximum Stress Failure Criterion.3. Theory Reference.2. Inc. the nodes are located at the bottom surfaces (KEYOPT(11) = 1) and these surfaces are aligned. (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Failure Criteria).2.4 Layered Shell With Nodes at Bottom Surface 12. and coupling coefficients may be temperature-dependent. and SHELL99 the node offset option (KEYOPT(11)) locates the element nodes at the bottom.4: “Layered Shell With Nodes at Bottom Surface”. 002114 .Section 12. nodes can be offset during the definition of the section. To specify a failure criterion. You can choose from three predefined failure criteria or specify up to six failure criteria of your own (user-written criteria).2: Modeling Composites SHELL181 models the transverse shear deflection using as energy equivalence method that makes the need for a sandwich option unnecessary 12. which allows nine failure stresses. Specifying Failure Criteria Failure criteria are used to learn if a layer has failed due to the applied loads. TBTEMP. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3 Layered Shell With Nodes at Midplane Figure 12. In Figure 12. middle or top surface of the shell. A typical sequence of commands to specify a failure criterion using these commands is shown below. which allows nine failure strains. stresses. The figures below illustrate how you can conveniently model ply drop off in shell elements that are adjacent to each other. which allows nine failure stresses and three additional coupling coefficients. You have a choice of two methods of calculating this criterion. 12–5 .2. Node Offset For SHELL181 using sections defined through the section commands. Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion. For SHELL91. ANSYS Release 9. The TB commands areTB.0 .

0 degrees of Failure Criteria at 200. As a result. of temperatures = 2 TBTEMP. Inc.2. © SAS IP.1 ! Maximum Stress Failure Criterion (Const. Some notes about specifying failure criteria: • • The criteria are orthotropic. Interlaminar shear stresses are usually important at the free edges of a model..10000. (The exception is that compressive values default to tensile values. material 1.4. increasing the number of layers per actual ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .FAIL.200 ! Second temperature TBDATA. TBDATA.S. 100. SHELL99.1.YZ .S. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the TB. 1500.1. SOLID46.200.1. TBLIST. FC. FC.10. The FC commands are FC. and TBDATA) can be used only for SHELL91.100 FCLIST.YTEN.1.S. FCLIST.S.10000 ! XY.10000.TEMP. . FC. This is due to stacking of layers of differing material properties. 12–6 . For shells.1. .FAIL 200 1200 500 8000 200 8000 8000 ! Temperatures ! Maximum stress components ! ! ! ! List status List status List status Use Failure of Failure Criteria at 100.10000.1. coupling between extension and bending.1500.S. because the displacements and stresses may not be symmetric. 1. User-written failure criteria may be specified via user subroutines USRFC1 through USRFC6. and FCLIST commands (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Nonlinear> Inelastic> Non-Metal Plasticity> Failure Criteria) and (Main Menu> General Postproc> Failure Criteria).XTEN. etc. 2. so you must input the failure stress or failure strain values for all directions.0 . if the layer stacking sequence is not symmetric. you may not be able to use model symmetry even if the geometry and loading are symmetric. For relatively accurate interlaminar shear stresses at these locations. FCDELE. 12. FC.0 degrees of Failure Criteria at 150.2. FCDELE. 2 = 1) TBTEMP. 400.150 FCLIST.10000.1. and FCLIST commands. These subroutines should be linked with the ANSYS program beforehand.. ! no.. FC.S.ZTEN. see the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for a brief description of user-programmable features. TBTEMP.XZ .200 PRNSOL. 200.) If you don't want the failure stress or strain to be checked in a particular direction.. such as coupling between bending and twisting.. and XZ failure shear stresses TBLIST TBTEMP. TBTEMP. Additional Modeling and Postprocessing Guidelines Some additional guidelines for modeling and postprocessing of composite elements are presented below.S. or SOLID191. FC.100 ! Temperature for subsequent failure properties TBDATA. the element size at the boundaries of the model should be approximately equal to the total laminate thickness. specify a large number in that direction (as shown in the previous example).XY . but the FC and FCLIST commands can be used for any 2-D or 3-D structural solid element or any 3-D structural shell element.1.0 degrees Criteria Note — The TB commands (TB.400. and Z failure tensile stresses (Z value ! set to a large number) TBDATA. 002114 .10000 ! X. ANSYS Release 9. FC. Composites exhibit several types of coupling effects.2 ! Data table for failure criterion.. YZ. FC.Chapter 12: Composites TB. Y.16. .CRIT ! Failure criterion key TBDATA.. A typical sequence of commands to specify a failure criterion using these commands is shown below.

--1 45. SOLID46.n (Utility Menu> PlotCrls> Symbols) followed by EPLOT displays layer number n for all selected layered elements.250 1 2 -45.0 0. ANGLE THICKNESS MAT --. LIST LAYERS 1 TO 4 IN REAL SET TOTAL LAYERS = 4 LSYM = 1 LP1 = NO.5 Example of an Element Display • LAYLIST (Utility Menu> List> Elements> Layered Elements) lists the layer stacking sequence from real constants and any two material properties for SHELL99. Interlaminar transverse shear stresses in shell elements are based on the assumption that no shear is carried at the top and bottom surfaces of the element.ESYS. EPLOT (Utility Menu> Plot> Elements) displays all selected elements. and SOLID191.250 2 3 -45. • • Figure 12. 3.0 0. and SOLID191 elements. You can specify a range of layer numbers for the listing. /PSYMB. Several commands are available for this purpose: • • ELIST (Utility Menu> List> Elements) lists the nodes and attributes of all selected elements. 12–7 . These interlaminar shear stresses are only computed in the interior and are not valid along the shell element boundaries.00 1 FOR ELEMENT TYPE 1 0 LP2 = 0 EFS = .0 0. It also causes SOLID46 elements to be displayed with layers. you should verify the data before proceeding with the solution. however. 002114 . stacking elements in the thickness direction should result in more accurate interlaminar stresses through the thickness.1 followed by EPLOT displays the element coordinate system triad for those elements whose default coordinate system has been changed. /PSYMB. Inc. SOLID95. Using the /ESHAPE.0 0. This can be used to display and verify each individual layer across the entire model. This example uses element SHELL99 with /ESHAPE turned on).Section 12.0 .---------.----. With elements SOLID46. SHELL91.1 command (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape) before EPLOT causes shell elements to be displayed as solids with the layer thicknesses obtained from real constants or section definition (see Figure 12. © SAS IP. Use of shell-to-solid submodeling is recommended to accurately compute all of the free edge interlaminar stresses. ANSYS Release 9.5: “Example of an Element Display”.6: “Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .250 1 -----------------------SUM OF THK 1. Because a large amount of input data is required for composites.000E+00 • LAYPLOT (Utility Menu> Plot> Layered Elements) displays the layer stacking sequence from real constants in the form of a sheared deck of cards (see Figure 12.2: Modeling Composites material layer does not necessarily improve the accuracy of interlaminar shear stresses.250 2 4 45.LAYR.

ANSYS Release 9. the results are applicable only to the entire element. The sections are crosshatched and color coded for clarity. The hatch lines indicate the layer angle (THETA) and the color indicates layer material number (MAT) defined by the SECDATA command. If an element has a zero thickness for the requested layer. and the layer with the maximum failure criterion value.6 Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/-45/ . then LAYER and LAYERP26 commands store the TOP. though.0 . 12–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . • SECPLOT (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Plot Section) displays the section stacking sequence from sections in the form of a sheared deck of cards (see Figure 12.45/45] Sequence 5. and the top of the top layer. Figure 12. Be aware. The SHELL command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp or Main Menu> TimeHist Prostpro> Define Variables) specifies a TOP. If KEYOPT (8) = 2 is set for SHELL181 during SOLUTION. . set KEYOPT(8) = 1. data stored for all layers). The hatch lines indicate the layer angle (real constant THETA) and the color indicates layer material number (MAT). Use the LAYER command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) in POST1 (or LAYERP26 (Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables) in POST26) to specify the layer number for which results are to be processed. that this may result in a large results file. If KEYOPT(8) = 1 (that is. top of the last (top) layer. 6. only data for the bottom of the first (bottom) layer.LAYER command to select elements that have a certain layer number.6: “Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/-45/ . In POST26. the default is layer 1. The default in POST1 is to store results for the bottom of the bottom layer.45/45] Sequence”). 4. Note — For energy output.45/45] Sequence”). If you are interested in data for all layers. MID. © SAS IP. Use the ESEL.Chapter 12: Composites 45/ .S. or BOT location within the layer. MID values are then calculated by average TOP and BOT values. By default. the element is not selected. Inc. You can specify a range of layer numbers for the display. 002114 . You can specify a range of layer numbers for the display. and the layer with the maximum failure criterion value are written to the results file. The layers are crosshatched and color coded for clarity. the LAYER and LAYERP26 commands store the TOP and BOT results for the specified layer number. you cannot get output results for individual layers.

Section 12.2: Modeling Composites BOTTOM, and MID results for the specified layer number. In this case, MID values are directly retrieved from the results file. For transverse shear stresses with KEYOPT(8) = 0, therefore, POST1 can only show a linear variation, whereas the element solution printout or KEYOPT(8) = 2 can show a parabolic variation. 7. By default, POST1 displays all results in the global Cartesian coordinate system. Use the RSYS command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) to transform the results to a different coordinate system. In particular, RSYS,SOLU allows you to display results in the layer coordinate system if LAYER is issued with a nonzero layer number.

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Chapter 13: Fatigue

13.1. Definition of Fatigue

Fatigue is the phenomenon in which a repetitively loaded structure fractures at a load level less than its ultimate static strength. For instance, a steel bar might successfully resist a single static application of a 300 kN tensile load, but might fail after 1,000,000 repetitions of a 200 kN load. The main factors that contribute to fatigue failures include: • • • • Number of load cycles experienced Range of stress experienced in each load cycle Mean stress experienced in each load cycle Presence of local stress concentrations

A formal fatigue evaluation accounts for each of these factors as it calculates how "used up" a certain component will become during its anticipated life cycle.

**13.1.1. What the ANSYS Program Does
**

The ANSYS fatigue calculations rely on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III (and Section VIII, Division 2) for guidelines on range counting, simplified elastic-plastic adaptations, and cumulative fatigue summation by Miner's rule. For fatigue evaluations based on criteria other than those of the ASME Code, you can either write your own macro, or else interface your ANSYS results with an appropriate third-party program (see the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on these two features). The ANSYS program features the following fatigue-calculation capabilities: • You can postprocess existing stress results to determine the fatigue usage factors for any solid-element or shell-element model. (You can also manually input stresses for fatigue evaluation of line-element models.) You can store stresses at a preselected number of locations for a preselected number of events and loadings within the event. You can define stress concentration factors for each location and scale factors for each event.

• •

**13.1.2. Basic Terminology
**

A location is a node in your model for which fatigue stresses are to be stored. You would typically choose locations that represent points on the structure that would be susceptible to fatigue damage. An event is a set of stress conditions that occur at different times during a unique stress cycle. See Section 13.2.3.4: Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Usage Factors later in this chapter for more information. A loading is one of the stress conditions that is part of an event. The alternating stress intensity is a measure of the difference in stress state between any two loadings. The program does not adjust the alternating stress intensity for mean-stress effects.

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Chapter 13: Fatigue

**13.2. Doing a Fatigue Evaluation
**

You do a fatigue evaluation in POST1, the general postprocessor, after you have completed a stress solution. The procedure normally consists of five main steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enter POST1 and resume your database. Establish the size (the number of locations, events, and loadings), define the fatigue material properties, identify stress locations, and define stress concentration factors. Store stresses at locations of interest for various events and loadings; assign event repetitions and scale factors. Activate the fatigue calculations. Review the results.

**13.2.1. Enter POST1 and Resume Your Database
**

In order to perform a fatigue evaluation, you need to follow these steps: 1. Enter POST1. Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read your database file (Jobname.DB) into active memory. (If your intended fatigue evaluation is a continuation of an ongoing ANSYS session, then Jobname.DB will already be in memory.) A results file (Jobname.RST) with nodal stress results should also be available; you will read results data into memory later. Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from

2.

**13.2.2. Establish the Size, Fatigue Material Properties, and Locations
**

Define the following data: • • • 1. Maximum number of locations, events, and loadings Fatigue material properties Stress locations and stress concentration factors (SCFs) Define the maximum number of stress locations, events, and loadings. By default, your fatigue evaluation can consider up to five nodal locations, ten events, and three loadings within an event. You can use the following option to establish larger dimensions (that is, allow more locations, events, or loadings), if necessary. Command(s): FTSIZE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Size Settings 2. Define material fatigue properties. In order to calculate usage factors, and to include the effect of simplified elastic-plastic computations, you must define material fatigue properties. The material properties of interest in a fatigue evaluation are: • The S-N curve, a curve of alternating stress intensity ((Smax - Smin)/2) versus allowable number of cycles. The ASME S-N curves already account for maximum mean stress effects. You should adjust your S-N

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Section 13.2: Doing a Fatigue Evaluation curve to account for mean-stress effects, if necessary. If you do not input an S-N curve, alternating stress intensities will be listed in decreasing order for all possible combinations of stress conditions, but no usage factors will be calculated. Command(s): FP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Property Table> S-N Table • The Sm-T curve, a curve of design stress-intensity value versus temperature. This curve is needed if you want the program to detect whether or not the nominal stress range has gone plastic. Command(s): FP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Property Table> Sm_T Table Elastic-plastic material parameters M and N (strain hardening exponents). These parameters are required only if you desire simplified elastic-plastic code calculations. These parameters' values can be obtained from the ASME Code. Command(s): FP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Property Table> Elas-plas Par The following example illustrates the use of the FP command to input material fatigue properties:

! Define the S-N table: FP,1,10,30,100,300,1000,10000 FP,7,100000,1000000 FP,21,650,390,240,161,109,59 FP,27,37,26 ! Define the Sm-T table: FP,41,100,200,300,400,500,600 FP,47,650,700,750,800 FP,51,20,20,20,18.7,17.4,16.4 FP,57,16.1,15.9.15.5,15.1 ! Allowable Cycles, N ! " ! Alternating Stress! Intensity Range, S, ksi

•

! Temperature,°F ! " ! "Design Stress-Intensity ! Value", Sm (=2/3*Sy or ! 1/3 *Su), ksi ! Define the elastic-plastic material parameters: FP,61,1.7,.3 ! M and N

3.

Define stress locations and stress concentration factors. The following option allows you to explicitly define a nodal location of interest to your fatigue evaluation, define stress concentration factors (SCFs) for that location, and assign a short (20 character) title to that location. Command(s): FL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Stress Locations

Note — Not all fatigue analyses will require the FL command. Locations are automatically defined for nodes when FS, FSNODE, or FSSECT are issued (see below). If your model contains sufficient grid detail, your stresses could be accurate enough that you would not need to apply calculated SCFs. (Supplemental SCFs for surface, size, or corrosion effects might still be required, however.) Where only one location is being examined, you could omit a title. If explicit definition of locations, SCFs, or titles are not required, you could forgo the FL command entirely. Here is an example of some FL commands for a cylinder with a global Y axis, having two wall thicknesses of interest, where SCFs are to be applied (to the axial linearized stresses) at the outside wall.

FL,1,281,,,,Line 1 at inside FL,2,285,,1.85,,Line 1 at outside FL,3,311,,,,Line 2 at inside FL,4,315,,2.11,,Line 2 at outside

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Chapter 13: Fatigue

Figure 13.1 Cylinder Wall with Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs)

**13.2.3. Store Stresses and Assign Event Repetitions and Scale Factors
**

13.2.3.1. Storing Stresses

In order to perform a fatigue evaluation, the program must know the stresses at different events and loadings for each location, as well as the number of repetitions of each event. You can store stresses for each combination of location, event, and loading, using the following options: • • • Manually stored stresses Nodal stresses from Jobname.RST Stresses at a cross-section Caution: The program never assumes that a "zero" stress condition exists. If zero stress is one of the conditions to be considered, it must be explicitly input for each event in which it may occur. The following command sequences schematically illustrate how to store stresses. In some situations, you might prefer to use LCASE instead of SET.

Manually stored stresses: Nodal stresses retrieved from Jobname.RST: Stresses at a cross-section: FS SET, FSNODE PATH, PPATH, SET, FSSECT

(Cross-section calculations also require data from Jobname.RST.)

You can use more than one method of storing stresses in an event. Each of these methods is explained in detail below.

**13.2.3.1.1. Manually Stored Stresses
**

You can use this option to store stresses and the temperature "manually" (without direct access to the results file Jobname.RST). In such cases, you are not using the fatigue module in POST1 as a postprocessor, but simply as a fatigue calculator. Line elements, such as beams, must be handled in this way since the fatigue module is not able to access data from a results file other than for solid elements or shell elements. Command(s): FS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> Specified Val Command input for this option is demonstrated by the following example:

FS,201,1,2,1,-2.0,21.6,15.2,4.5,0.0,0.0 FS,201,1,2,7,450.3

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Section 13.2: Doing a Fatigue Evaluation In this example, only the total stresses (items 1-6) and the temperature (item 7) are input. If the linearized stresses were also to be input, they would follow the temperatures as items 8 through 13. Note — In the special case of a beam element having only axial stress, you would input only one stress component (SX), leaving the rest of the stress fields blank.

**13.2.3.1.2. Nodal Stresses from Jobname.RST
**

When you use this option, you cause a nodal stress vector containing six stress components to be stored directly from the results database. Stress components stored with this option can be modified with a subsequent FS command. Note — You must issue a SET command, and possibly a SHELL command, before executing FSNODE. SET will read results for a particular load substep from the results file (Jobname.RST) into the database. SHELL allows you to select results from the top, middle, or bottom surfaces for shell elements (default is the top surface). Command(s): FSNODE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> From rst File Input by means of FSNODE is demonstrated by the following example for an event at one nodal location:

SET,1 FSNODE,123,1,1 SET,2 FSNODE,123,1,2 SET,3 FSNODE,123,1,3 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define data set for load step 1 Stress vector at node 123 assigned to event 1, loading 1. Define data set for load step 2 ...event 1, loading 2 ...load step 3 ...event 1, loading 3

Figure 13.2 Three Loadings in One Event

**13.2.3.1.3. Stresses at a Cross-Section
**

This option calculates and stores total linearized stresses at the ends of a section path (as defined by a preceding PATH and PPATH command). Because you will normally want the linearization to take place over a thickness representing the shortest distance between the two surfaces, use only the two surface nodes to describe the path in the PPATH command. This option retrieves stress information from the results database; therefore

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Chapter 13: Fatigue FSSECT must also be preceded by a SET command. Stress components stored with an FSSECT command can be modified with a subsequent FS command. Command(s): FSSECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> At Cross Sect Input by means of FSSECT is demonstrated in the following example. If node locations are not assigned with an FL command, the FSSECT commands in this example will automatically assign location numbers to the two path nodes, 391 and 395. (See Figure 13.3: “Surface Nodes are Identified by PPATH Prior to Executing FSSECT”.)

PATH,Name,2 PPATH,1,391 PPATH,2,395 SET,1 FSSECT,,1,1 ! Define the path using the two surface nodes

! Store stresses at nodes 391 and 395

Figure 13.3 Surface Nodes are Identified by PPATH Prior to Executing FSSECT

**13.2.3.2. Listing, Plotting, or Deleting Stored Stresses
**

Use the following options to list, plot, or delete stored stresses. • List the stored stresses per location, per event, per loading, or per stress condition: Command(s): FSLIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> List Stresses Display a stress item as a function of loading number for a particular location and event: Command(s): FSPLOT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> Plot Stresses Delete a stress condition stored for a particular location, event, and loading: Command(s): FSDELE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Store Stresses> Dele Stresses Delete all stresses at a particular location: Command(s): FL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Stress Locations Delete all stresses for all loadings in a particular event: Command(s): FE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Erase Event Data

•

•

•

•

**13.2.3.3. Assigning Event Repetitions and Scale Factors
**

This option assigns the number of occurrences to the event numbers (for all loadings at all locations of the event). It can also be used to apply scale factors to all of the stresses that make up its loadings. Command(s): FE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Assign Events

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Event 2.500 ! Erase all parameters and fatigue stresses formerly ! used for event 1.1 loading 1: Sx = 50.3. Let's see how this would happen: Event 1.5. The number of repetitions possible for this range is recorded.0 ksi These load cycles will obviously sum to 1500 repetitions having an alternating stress intensity of about 50 ksi.1 loading 2: Sx = -50. ! Assign 100 occurrences to events 2. in order to obtain a valid fatigue usage factor.0 loading 2: Sx = -50. © SAS IP.0 to -50.2: “Three Loadings in One Event”. 002114 . loading 1: Sx = 50. remaining occurrences of stress conditions belonging to that event will subsequently be ignored.4. in order to successfully capture the extreme stress state. Therefore. Theory Reference for more details on how the ANSYS program performs range counting.0 . ! Assign 500 occurrences to event 5.1 ksi Load Cycle 2: 1000 repetitions of Sx = +50. Inc.L1 to E1. However. Inc.2. You must take pains to assemble events carefully if you want your fatigue evaluation to yield accurate usage factors.2 *REPEAT.2: Doing a Fatigue Evaluation An example of this command usage is given below: FE. a search is made throughout all of the events for the pair of loadings (stress vectors) that produces the most severe stress-intensity range. If you group more than one extreme condition in a single event.1.-1 FE. 13–7 . good practice often requires that you include several clustered loadings in each event. Consider the following guidelines when assembling events: • • Understand the internal logic of the ANSYS range-counting algorithm.3.2. From E1. The ANSYS program automatically calculates all possible stress ranges and keeps track of their number of occurrences. ANSYS Release 9. At least one of the source events will be "used up" at this point. (See Figure 13.05 ksi ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1 to -50. This process continues until all ranges and numbers of occurrences have been considered. ! and scale by 1.) You will obtain consistently conservative results if you include only one extreme stress condition (either a local maximum or a local minimum) in any given event.100. you must take care to achieve an accurate count of the number of repetitions of all possible stress ranges. which occur in unknown (or even random) order. See the ANSYS.L2: 50. as illustrated by the following example: • Consider a load history made up of two slightly different cycles: Load Cycle 1: 500 repetitions of Sx = +50. and the remaining number of repetitions for the events containing these loadings is decreased accordingly.2. 13. Caution: It can be surprisingly easy to misuse the range-counting feature of the fatigue module.Section 13. At a selected nodal location. you will sometimes generate unconservative results. 3 and 4. using a technique commonly known as the "rain flow" range-counting method.0 500 repetitions 1000 repetitions The possible alternating stress intensities are: a. carelessly grouping these loadings into only two events will result in an inaccurate range count.1 FE. Because it can be difficult to predict the exact load step at which a maximum (or minimum) 3-D stress state occurs. Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Usage Factors Structures are usually subjected to a variety of maximum and minimum stresses.1.

instead of the known 1500 cycles. c. 002114 .L1 0 cycles of E1.both events are all used up Thus.E2 is all used up .05 ksi 50. d.L2 500 cycles of E2.L2: From E2.L2 . using separate events for each maximum and each minimum stress condition could sometimes become too conservative. e 500 cycles of E1. b. e.this uses up 500 cycles of E2 and E3 .L2 to E2. In such cases.L2: 50.this uses up 500 more cycles of E2 .this uses up 500 cycles of E1 and E2 . .L2: From E1.L1 to E2.E2 and E4 are both all used up Cumulative fatigue damage in this case would properly be calculated for 1500 repetitions of about 50 ksi range. e.05 ksi 50.L2: From E1. f.L2 to E2.L1 to E2. 500 cycles of E2 to E3 0 cycles of E1 to E2 500 cycles of E3 to E4 500 cycles of E1 to E4 0 cycles of E1 to E3 0 cycles of E2 to E4 .L1 to E2.L1 to E2.E3 is all used up .L1 to E1. c.00 ksi 50.L1: From E1. b. b.05 ksi 0.uses up 500 more cycles of E4 .L1 ≥ E1. ANSYS Release 9.Chapter 13: Fatigue b.both events are all used up . From E1. f. E2. then the following range counts would be obtained: d. This error results solely from improper assembly of events.both events are all used up .0 ksi Load Cycle 2: 1000 repetitions of Sx = +50. E1. Inc. a. and E2.1 to +50.05 ksi The range counting then proceeds as follows: d. f. c.L1 to E2.0 ksi 13–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . only 1000 repetitions of about 50 ksi range would be counted. and 500 of E4 .L2 to E2. f. c.10 ksi 50.L1: From E1. If the loadings had each been described as separate events (such that E1. a.L2: 0.05 ksi 50. © SAS IP.00 ksi 0. e. a.1 to +100.L1 to E2.L1 to E2.L2 to E2. and group them into the same events.L1 to E2.L2 to E2. carefully choose those loadings that should be counted together.L2: From E1.L1: From E1.L1 to E2.L1 to E1.L2 ≥ E4).L2: From E2.0 .L1 0 cycles of E1.05 ksi 50.L1: From E1.E1 is all used up .L2 to E2.10 ksi 0.uses up 500 more cycles of E3.L2 0 cycles of E1. • Conversely. From E1.L2 0 cycles of E1.05 ksi Sorting these combinations by decreasing alternating stress intensity gives: d. The following example illustrates how some events can appropriately contain multiple extreme stress conditions: Consider a load history made up of these two load cycles: • • Load Cycle 1: 500 repetitions of Sx = +100.L2 ≥ E2.L1 ≥ E3.

you can execute the fatigue calculations at a specified location. Sample Input A sample input listing for a fatigue evaluation is shown below: ! Enter POST1 and Resume the Database: /POST1 RESUME. However.7.. Review the Results Fatigue calculation results are printed in the output. ! Material Fatigue Properties: FP. FTCALC output shows the contributing pairs of events and loadings for any given alternating stress-intensity range. Following that. This information is repeated for all locations.2: Doing a Fatigue Evaluation It is readily apparent that the worst possible combination of these cycles would yield 500 repetitions having alternating stress intensity of about 25 ksi range. This technique is useful whenever the exact timehistory of various loadings is not known. cycles allowed. Command(s): FTWRITE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Write Fatig Data 13.OUT).Section 13..FATG in terms of equivalent fatigue module commands. and material parameters all specified. 13.0 ..6. © SAS IP.1. output is in the form of a table of alternating stress intensities (listed in decreasing order) with corresponding pairs of event/loadings. (This option could be executed either before or after FTCALC.. and partial usage factor. then you can review the results by listing that file. Inc.2. we discussed the "rain flow" range-counting method. events. ! Number of Locations. the cumulative usage factor is shown for that particular location.OUT If you have input an S-N curve. Other Approaches to Range Counting Earlier.. You can modify your events by editing Jobname.FATG. As has been just mentioned. 002114 . Events. Activate the Fatigue Calculations Now that you have locations.5.4.) Data are written to Jobname. Command(s): FTCALC GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Fatigue> Calculate Fatig 13. Treating each loading as a separate event would yield an over-conservative count of 1000 repetitions of about 25 ksi range. as well as cycles used. Proceeding as in the above example. ANSYS Release 9. and Loadings FTSIZE.. stresses.. 13. Command(s): *LIST GUI: Utility Menu> List> Files> Other> Jobname.2.2. then use the /INPUT command to reread the modified fatigue commands. 13–9 .2.. A convenient way to modify your events would be to write all stored fatigue data on Jobname. grouping these loadings into two events would produce an accurate count of 500 repetitions of about 25 ksi range.. temperature. This information can help you isolate the transients (events/loadings) causing the most fatigue damage. ! N values ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . if in your fatigue analysis the time-history is known.. If you have routed your output [/OUTPUT] to a file (for example Jobname.FATG. you can avoid the undue conservatism of this procedure simply by running a separate fatigue analysis [FTCALC] for each sequential event and then adding the usage factors manually. The location is specified by either the location number or the node itself.

! S values FP. Inc. ! Retrieve Stresses from the Results File: SET.... 002114 ..0 . FS. ! Activate the Fatigue Calculations FTCALC. FP.... ANSYS Release 9.. FSSECT. FL. ! Store Stresses (3 Different Methods) ! Store Stresses Manually: FS. ! Elastic-plastic material parameters ! Locations..Chapter 13: Fatigue FP. FSSECT. ! T values FP.61...... ! Store Stresses at a Cross-Section: PPATH. SET.. 13–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide ... ........ © SAS IP.... ! Event Repetitions and Scale Factors FE... ! Review the Results (List the output file) FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the FTSIZE.51... ! Sm values FP. FE... PPATH..... FSNODE. and Location Titles FL. and FTCALC commands..41.21. Stress Concentration Factors. FSNODE..

For example. Select the p-method procedure. © SAS IP. This provides you with the flexibility of taking advantage of the p-method solution option independently of how the mesh was created. Build the model. such as for fracture or fatigue assessments. the better the finite element approximation to the real solution.1.3. stress at a point rather than strain energy). you might prefer this method since it relieves you of the task of manually designing an accurate mesh. but this is not a requirement.0 . the p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. 14. and can be calculated locally as well as globally (for example.3. 3. stress or strain at a point (or points) in the model. . The p-method is most efficient when meshes are generated considering that p-elements will be used.2. solving it at a given p-level. Review the results. Definition of p-Method Analysis The p-method obtains results such as displacements. and then solving the mesh again. the p-method adaptive refinement procedure offers error estimates that are more precise than those of the h-method. you might want to create and mesh your model using p-elements.1. Each step is discussed in detail in the following sections. In order to capitalize on the p-method functionality. In addition. 14. 002114 . and global strain energy. After each iteration the results are compared for convergence against a set of convergence criteria. ANSYS Release 9.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis 14. discussed in the preceding chapters. if the elements are at least mid-noded. Of course. You can specify the convergence criteria to include displacement. 4. the p-method offers an excellent means of obtaining these results to the required accuracy. The p-method can improve the results for any mesh automatically. stresses. Apply loads and obtain the solution. The most convenient benefit is the ability to obtain good results to a desired level of accuracy without rigorous user-defined meshing controls. Using the p-Method The procedure for a p-method static analysis consists of four main steps: 1. or strains to a user-specified degree of accuracy. 14. increasing the p-level selectively. 2. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . if you need to obtain highly accurate solutions at a point. If you are new to finite element analysis or do not have a solid background in mesh design. The higher the p-level. Select the p-Method Procedure You can activate the p-method solution procedure in two ways: through the GUI or by defining a p-element [ET]. This feature works by taking a finite element mesh. Benefits of Using the p-Method The p-method solution option offers many benefits for linear structural static analyses that are not available with the more traditional h-method. rotation. but you can also perform a p-method solution using meshes that have been generated with h-elements (generated by ANSYS or your CAD package). you don't have to work only within the confines of p-generated meshes. To calculate these results. Inc.

Specify material properties and/or real constants.2. If you are working outside of the GUI. the definition of a p-element lets the program know that a p-method solution is to be done. either locally or globally. 14. no other commands are necessary to initiate p-method. In this section we will explain the techniques that are unique to a p-analysis. by default. the ET command must be entered in the "Input Window.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis • Activating p-method through the GUI: Command(s): /PMETH GUI: Main Menu> Preferences> p-method Defining a p-element: The p-method solution procedure can also be activated by defining a p-element.1. 4. 14–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. One important option is the ability to specify. Define the model geometry. 2. 1. ANSYS Release 9. you must follow the procedure listed below. 3.2.0 .1. Define the Element Types You can use the following five p-elements to build your model: • • • • • 2-D Quadrilateral (PLANE145) 2-D Triangle (PLANE146) 3-D Brick (SOLID147) 3-D Tetrahedron (SOLID148) 3-D Shell (SHELL150) Note — H-elements and p-elements cannot be active at the same time in your model. . Mesh the model into solid or shell elements.1. Define the element types. Build the Model In order to build a model with p-elements. © SAS IP. The above steps are common to most analyses. Inc.2. The range within which the p-level may vary can be controlled locally through the p-element KEYOPT settings (KEYOPT(1) and KEYOPT(2)). or globally across the entire model with PPRANGE. the p-level range is 2 to 8." since. The ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide explains those steps in detail. a range in which the p-level may vary. only h-elements are displayed in the GUI unless p-method is active.3.3. (Remember. 002114 . you can also issue the ET command in the "Input Window" to activate the p-method procedure.) Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete • 14. Specifying a p-Level Range Various options are available for use with p-elements. When both KEYOPT values and PPRANGE have been used to specify p-level ranges. 14. From within the GUI. By default. the local p-level range [ET] will take precedence over the global p-level range [PPRANGE].

2.0 . Use local p-range control to eliminate regions of little importance from high p-escalation. 14. At the (default) starting p-level of 2.3.2. © SAS IP.3: Using the p-Method For example. Command(s): R GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Additional checking is performed at each iteration to fix the p-levels of the elements which are converged. Note — Convergence checking for SHELL150 begins at a p-level of 3 instead of a p-level of 2. 14–3 . ANSYS Release 9.2. these elements will remain at a p-level of 2. As with other structural analyses.4. Material Properties Material properties for p-elements may be either constant or temperature-dependent. Real Constants You may define optional thicknesses for 2-D elements and thicknesses for SHELL150 as real constants. it is advantageous to have such controls available.145.3. These range controls are not necessary. you must also specify the density (DENS) that is required for mass calculations.2. • Defining a local p-level range: Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete Defining a global p-level range: Command(s): PPRANGE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> p-Method> Set p-range • See the ANSYS Elements Reference for complete descriptions of each of the above element types. All element coordinate systems are parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system. a coefficient of thermal expansion (ALPX) must be specified. 002114 . Inc. and will be eliminated from any further convergence checking. Therefore. Specify Material Properties and/or Real Constants 14. Thicknesses must be defined for SHELL150. and isotropic or orthotropic.Section 14. Use global p-range control for overall control of the p-level. but p-escalations to high plevels increase CPU time. if you plan to apply inertia loads (such as gravity or rotational velocity). the p-level for the PLANE145 elements may only vary between 4 and 6.2. convergence checking is performed to determine those elements which are converged and may have their p-level fixed at 2.3. 14.1. if you set a global p-level range between 3 and 8 with PPRANGE.1. That is. Young's modulus (EX) must be defined. then define a local p-level range of 4 to 6 for PLANE145 elements (ET.2. while the rest of the model may vary between 3 and 8. Command(s): MP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Density Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Linear> Elastic> Isotropic Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Thermal Expansion Coef> Isotropic Caution: Element coordinate systems [ESYS] used for orthotropic material directions are not supported by p-elements. and if thermal loads (temperatures) are to be applied.6).2.

Note — Using direct generation is not recommended when you plan to create a p-mesh since all p-elements require that midside nodes be included in their geometric definition. (SmartSizing is not available for mapped meshing. the EMID command does not place nodes on a curved line.3. Define the Model Geometry You can create your model using any of the various techniques outlined in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. © SAS IP. If you are generating your model from within ANSYS. • 14. the accuracy obtained with a relatively coarse.4. 14. Using Program Defaults After you have generated your solid model.) Note — Adaptive meshing is not valid with a p-method analysis.3. You may not drop any midside nodes from p-elements.3. you will not need to specify any meshing size controls because the program defaults will give you an adequate mesh. it would not only be tedious. you are ready to mesh it with p-elements. If you use direct generation or import your mesh from an outside source. “Generating the Mesh” in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.2. For free meshing.3. SmartSizing generally produces a better quality mesh and is recommended for meshing a p-element model.1. you have the option of using the SmartSize feature [SMRTSIZE] to control element sizing.0 . In cases where surface curvature is important. The angles between adjacent edges should be between 10° and 170°. The general procedure for meshing your solid model is outlined in Chapter 7. the program will generate a coarser mesh under default settings for p-elements. These elements are smaller relative to the other areas of the model.2.4.2. keep the following guidelines in mind: • • A curved element edge should not cover more than a 30° arc.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis 14. Inc. .2. Normally. ANSYS Release 9. Element shape checking will warn that adjacent edges should be between 30° and 150°.3. but possibly imprecise to manually define each midside node. In addition. you can use either solid modeling or direct generation techniques. Specifying Mesh Controls By default. A good rule of thumb is to keep the aspect ratio (ratio of element length to width) less than 20:1. Compared to h-elements. and a transition region occurs from the large to the smaller elements. For engineering design studies.) Command(s): SMRTSIZE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> SmartSize> Basic or Command(s): DESIZE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Manual Size> Global> Other 14–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . (A graded mesh is one where there are more elements near an area of interest.2. ungraded mesh is usually sufficient. 002114 . Mesh the Model into Solid or Shell Elements 14. the DESIZE command controls automatic element sizing. each element's p-level will be manipulated during solution to obtain accurate and efficient results.4. It is much more convenient to let the program generate the midside nodes using solid modeling. In addition. or you can import it from a CAD system using ANSYS Connection product. but it is usually acceptable to have angles in the range of 10° to 170° for p-elements.

For fracture or fatigue assessments. If this is not possible. • • Figure 14. Additional Information for Building Your Model 14. © SAS IP.3.1. The number of divisions on lines "parallel" and near to each other should be fairly equivalent. In certain cases. the default element size values for a p-method analysis are different than those used for h-elements. if the DESIZE method of element sizing is used. badly shaped elements may be produced because of the difficulty of filling a curved domain with as few elements as possible. if you are using DESIZE for meshing.3. you should be able to see all of its vertices.1]. or build them as separate geometries. you might wish to consider subdividing the volume into more manageable pieces.0 . User-defined meshing controls can make the task less difficult.3.4.. Inc.1 Fan Model Showing p-Element vs.3. where successful meshes are more difficult to achieve with the default size settings. However.Section 14. if you were to stand inside a volume. ANSYS Release 9. SmartSizing will do this automatically.2. The SmartSizing method of meshing [SMRTSIZE] handles this situation well. You may display varying degrees of curvature in your model by specifying the number of facets to be used for element display. A greater number of facets will result in a smoother representation of the element surface ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3: Using the p-Method Note — Since p-method prefers a coarser mesh. Viewing your element model A subgrid approach is used for plotting the model in which the amount of displayed element curvature can be controlled. 14–5 . such as when there are severe geometric transition regions. use one element through the thickness in the meshed model. you may still need to specify meshing controls because the mesh must be fine enough to obtain the desired accuracy near the areas of interest. For beam-like or shell-like models. h-Element Meshes 14.3. 002114 . you should set local mesh controls to achieve a good mesh in these areas. Under default conditions. Facets are piecewise linear approximations of the actual curve represented by the element face or edge. However. Guidelines for Creating a Good Mesh • Subdivide complex geometries. set the default element size [MINH] to 1 [DESIZE. As a general rule.3. 14. You may also want to specify meshing controls for curved geometries. you may also need to specify mesh controls to avoid a meshing failure. See the SMRTSIZE and DESIZE commands for details.

Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis for p-element plots.0 .3.2. only the nodal combinations described below are permitted when coupling. Coupling You may couple degrees of freedom (DOFs) between nodes on p-elements to control nodal solution behavior. PowerGraphics is the default graphics display method used for p-method plots. See Chapter 10.3 Nodes Coupled Between Adjacent Elements 14–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.3.1. and any deviation from these combinations will most likely result in singularities. All coupled nodes are forced to assume the same displacement values in the specified nodal coordinate direction. This method will display the plot at a much faster speed than the Full Model method. Command(s): /EFACET GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape 14. Figure 14. The amount of this displacement is unknown until the analysis has been completed. only the corner nodes may be defined as prime degrees of freedom if midside nodes are also part of the same coupled set. Coupling of Corner Nodes 1. For more information on /EFACET. ANSYS Release 9. For a p-method analysis. All other degrees of freedom in the coupled set are eliminated from the solution matrices as a result of their relationship to the prime degree of freedom.3. Note — For p-elements. Two nodes are coupled between adjacent element edges/faces. “PowerGraphics” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on PowerGraphics. 14. Figure 14.3. .2.2 Coupled Nodes on One Element 2. 002114 . see the discussion on the p-Element Subgrid later in this section. © SAS IP. Command(s): CP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs The first degree of freedom defined on the coupled set is the "prime" degree of freedom. Two nodes are coupled within the same element.

• • • Frontal equation solver Jacobian Conjugate Gradient equation solver (JCG) Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient equation solver (PCG) (recommended) Command(s): EQSLV ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. Only the corner nodes may be defined as prime degrees of freedom. 002114 . 14–7 . Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis options. but this is only valid as long as there are no corner nodes defined as part of the same coupled set.4.2. 14.3: Using the p-Method 14.2.3.Section 14. These solvers are discussed at length in Chapter 3.5 All Coupled Nodes are Midside Nodes Note — If you have coupled faces or edges on a p-element (that is. a midside node must be defined as the prime degree of freedom.3. all edges of the element's face or all nodes of the element's edge are coupled). “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Figure 14.0 . © SAS IP. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this section you will take the following steps to obtain a solution for your model: 1. 2. constraint equations (used to represent relatively rigid parts) are not available in a p-method analysis. Choose any of three options to solve the simultaneous equations generated by a p-method analysis. Both corner nodes on the element's edge or face are part of the same coupled set. Figure 14. Enter SOLUTION. All nodes in the coupled set are midside nodes.4 Both Corner Nodes are Coupled 2. the p-level of that edge or face will be held to 2.3. In addition. ANSYS Release 9. In this case. Midside Node Coupling 1.

You may increase the maximum number of iterations by using the MULT option on the EQSLV command. 3. 002114 . “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. refer to Chapter 3. is parallel to the global Cartesian system (regardless of the coordinate system in which the node was defined). the more complex the deformation. which are independent of the model. . Some of these DOFs act on the element boundary (edges and interior faces) resulting in deformations that vary from a polynomial order of 2 to 8.6: “Constraints on Rotated Nodes”). Nodes may be rotated into a nodal coordinate system [NROTAT] (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Rotate Node CS> To Active CS). you need to understand nodal coordinate systems. For a general discussion of solid model loads versus finite element loads.). See the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more details about nodal coordinate systems. In certain cases.) or to the finite element model (nodes and elements). except for inertia loads (gravity. DOFs are the allowed motions or deformations of the elements.000 DOF). The PCG solver is significantly faster than JCG for p-elements. Internal Degrees of Freedom and Nodal Coordinate Systems In order to correctly apply boundary conditions. which. Apply the loads to the solid model (keypoints. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. rotational velocity. see Chapter 2. Inc. • The program aligns the internal DOFs with the nodal coordinate systems as defined by the nodes on the element face or edge. more DOFs are added to the elements. and the better the approximation to the real solution. This option is only valid when solving with the PCG solver. Displacement constraints applied to nodes with rotated nodal coordinate systems are applied to the internal DOFs on an element edge or face only if ALL the nodes defining that edge or face are also rotated into that same coordinate system (see Figure 14. by default. The PCG solver is not available for p-element shells. such as when your model contains elements with high aspect ratios or material type discontinuities. Computer-time savings will be greater with the PCG solver when p-levels of 4 and higher are active. a greater number of iterations may be required to achieve convergence for the PCG solver. Each node has its own nodal coordinate system.0 . etc. Therefore any symmetry/antisymmetry displacement boundary conditions applied to the nodes on adjoining surfaces 14–8 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and how degrees of freedom (DOFs) which are not attached to a node are handled. © SAS IP. See the EQSLV command description in the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information on this capability. lines. Nodal coordinate systems orient the degree of freedom directions at each node. ANSYS Release 9. etc. For most 3-D solid models and for very large 2-D models (usually greater than 40. As the p-level is increased for each loop. For more information on the general use of the PCG solver. The constraints and forces are then applied to the nodes in the nodal coordinate systems. In many cases. • Internal DOFs allow the elements to form a better approximation to the real solution.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Sol'n Options Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options We generally recommend that you use the PCG solver for a p-element analysis. the PCG solver is usually faster than the JCG and frontal solvers: • • • The PCG solver is about 5 to 10 times faster than the frontal solver for p-elements. areas. Those DOFs which are not attached to a node are referred to as internal degrees of freedom. the higher the p-level.

g. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3: Using the p-Method should reference the same coordinate system. If they do not.Section 14. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system.6 Constraints on Rotated Nodes Loads Applicable to a p-Method Analysis Table 2. Nodal coordinate systems which are not necessarily parallel to the global Cartesian system are formed when you invoke symmetry or antisymmetry displacement constraints on model surfaces.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” of this manual describes the loads applicable to a static analysis. MZ) are concentrated loads usually specified on the model exterior. The program will ignore an imposed quadratic variation. 14–9 . Conversely. if all of the nodes are not constrained in that direction. Caution: If all of the DOFs of the nodes on an edge (or face) are not fully constrained (are only partially constrained. If you apply the symmetry/antisymmetry displacement boundary conditions to areas or lines. Inc. apply a single constraint at a corner node. Figure 14. apply the boundary conditions to the individual nodes.) Imposed motions may only vary linearly over an element edge or face. They are also used to indicate symmetry boundary conditions and points of known motion. Moments (MX. ANSYS Release 9. ROTZ) are DOF constraints usually specified at model boundaries to define rigid support points. ROTY. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system. FY. Forces (FX. MY. Displacements (UX. UZ. 002114 . Displacement boundary conditions that are applied to all nodes on an element edge or face will also constrain the higher-order deformations along that edge or face. you should verify that the constraints all "point" in the same direction on each surface. only UX is constrained) and the nodal rotations of these nodes are not the same. Never apply a displacement only at a midside node on an edge. © SAS IP. ROTX. then those lower-order deformations will be constrained but not the higher-order ones. UY. however. e.0 . FZ) are concentrated loads usually specified on the model exterior. The following is a brief discussion of each type of loading. the stress results at these nodes may be inaccurate if the p-level of the attached elements exceeds 3. (You may.

There is no thermal equivalent for SHELL150.) is checked. continue with the same procedure as defined for h-elements (see the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide). spinning. You can read in temperatures from a thermal analysis. and if converged. You may only apply these loads at the corner nodes. and SOLID148 to SOLID87. or you can specify temperatures directly on the nodes or the solid model keypoints. • • • Gravity. For analyses beginning at p=2. SOLID147 to SOLID90. or the maximum p-range has been reached. This process is continued until all specified convergence criteria are met. If these loads or constraints are applied. 4. also usually applied on the model exterior. Those elements that did not converge within the specified criteria (that is. etc. • Pressures (PRES) are surface loads. thermal stresses). etc. In addition. will have their p-level increased. Density must be defined if inertia effects are to be included.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis Caution: Observe the following cautions: • You should avoid applying single-point loads or constraints. Also. are inertia loads that affect the entire structure. and another solution (iteration) will then be performed. If the solution is within the requested tolerance [PMOPTS].0 . a p-method analysis works with a series of iterations. At each iteration the convergence criteria (strain energy. the solution stops. © SAS IP. those elements whose individual solutions are considered to be converged will have their p-level held at the current p-level. PLANE146 to PLANE35. To obtain temperatures from a thermal analysis: • • Mesh the p-element model. The following solution options are available to aid in solving a p-Method analysis: • • • Convergence criteria specifications Specifications for controlling p-levels Accounting for stress singularities As mentioned earlier in this section. that element will have its p-level held to 2. since they cause stress singularities. 002114 . stress. Positive values of pressure act towards the element face (resulting in a compressive effect). Convert the p-element types to the following thermal element types: PLANE145 to PLANE77. or loops. Temperatures (TEMP) are applied to study the effects of thermal expansion or contraction (that is. 14–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9. Inc. not fixed at p=2 for the first iteration). . each element will have its solution checked for convergence against established criteria [PCONV]. The coefficient of thermal expansion must be defined if thermal strains are to be calculated. Do not apply forces and moments to the midside nodes. out-of-plane (element ROTZ) moments may not be applied to SHELL150. The PPRANGE command is used to specify the overall range where the p-level may vary (somewhere between 2 and 8). Run the thermal analysis. Specify load step options. displacement. Change the element types back to the p-element types in order to perform the p-method structural analysis. For the remainder of the analysis. checking for convergence each time. See the "Accounting for Stress Singularities" section later in this chapter. exclude the elements attached to these nodes from the convergence computations.

002114 . In most cases. Caution: Do not specify stress or strain criteria at nodes where there are singularities or at nodes along material interfaces. Command(s): PCONV GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> p-Method> Convergence Crit For SHELL150. Inc. Accounting for Stress Singularities If the model contains any re-entrant (internal or concave) corners that are not modeled with a fillet radius. etc. © SAS IP.Section 14. When choosing locations for specifying convergence criteria. These locations will not converge due to the singularity.PINC] (no GUI equivalent). This facilitates using these elements as a component [CM]. 14–11 . strain. You may wish to start at a higher p-level if you have already completed an analysis and you want to perform a re-analysis (for a design change. All elements that have a node at the singularity should be excluded. If you are specifically interested in the results at certain points in the model. Specifications for Controlling p-levels You may specify the starting (defaults to 2) and maximum (defaults to 8) p-levels that you wish to allow for your analysis [PPRANGE]. Use this option to specify which areas of your model you would like to monitor for analysis convergence. stress. MID. at which to specify the convergence criteria (deflection. Command(s): SAVE ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . for instance) and you know the final p-level where convergence will occur for most elements. you should concentrate your monitoring in the areas of high stress or at the point of maximum displacement rather than where stresses. you also have the option to choose a layer (TOP. Command(s): PEXCLUDE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> p-Method> Strain Energy> Exclude Elems You can reassign. In that situation. Excluded elements will appear `whited-out' in the plot. such as for a fatigue evaluation. then you should use local convergence criteria.PEXC or ESEL. PEXCLUDE.STAT. a higher tolerance will cut down on run times. you should not exclude elements at or near the crack tip. you should consider excluding these areas from the convergence computations. For a design study or optimization analysis. Command(s): PINCLUDE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> p-Method> Strain Energy> Include Elems 5.). as well as the type of criteria you would like to use to control convergence.STAT. strains. If you are working with intersecting shells. One exception applies to fracture mechanics. or re-include. or displacements are relatively insignificant.. the default convergence tolerance (5%) is sufficient for generally good results. or contains point loads or any other areas of stress singularities. Adjust the starting and maximum p-level in portions of your model using element KEYOPT selections. elements for convergence checking.3: Using the p-Method Convergence Criteria Specifications Convergence criteria may be global (for strain energy) or local. or *GET] or plotting elements [EPLOT]. You may determine which elements have been included or excluded by listing [PINCLUDE. You may also select included or excluded elements by issuing the ESEL command directly [ESEL.. Typically. you should select a few points of interest (nodes). it is recommended that you choose MID as the layer for convergence checking. You may also want to restrict the maximum plevel to less than 8 if conserving disk space or run time. Save a backup copy of the database. ANSYS Release 9. You may want to lower this tolerance if you require a more accurate solution. or BOT) for stress or strain convergence criteria.0 .

14. 002114 . or strain value. . adjacent element edges is greater than 55° on a curved boundary.3. The maximum p-level was restricted lower than that required for convergence.6.0 . They consist of the following data: 14–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As 6. Although most of these capabilities are directly applicable to p-method analyses. the convergence statistics. Possible Causes The convergence criteria is too tight for the maximum allowable plevel and the mesh. Allow the maximum p-level to go higher. Possible Causes: There are several possible causes. some techniques for reviewing results are unique to pmethod. indicating the current p-level. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Caution: You may not restart a p-method analysis. Solution Relax the convergence criteria. Problem: Solution does not converge to within the requested tolerance. and the status of how many elements have converged. The output will provide a summary of each loop.3. The mesh is too coarse.5. such as • • • • The p-Element Subgrid Querying Subgrid Results Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results Specialized p-Method Displays and Listings The results from a p-method analysis are written to the results file. ANSYS Release 9. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 14. Review the Results The fundamental procedures for general postprocessing of results [/POST1] in the ANSYS program are discussed in Chapter 4. © SAS IP. especially in the area where the stress is high. Refine the mesh. Jobname. The convergence criterion is at a location where the angle made by Refine the mesh in that region. Start the p-level iterations and solution process. Solution: Add enough displacement constraints to prevent any rigid-body motion.RST. such as under a point load) or the elements near the singularity were not excluded. try the following steps to identify and correct the cause for failure: Problem: "Negative Pivot" error encountered. Inc. Possible Cause: Insufficient constraints to prevent rigid-body motion (the component can slide or rotate in one direction because there are no constraints to prevent it from doing so). You may use the general postprocessor [/POST1] to look at this solution in order to determine the difficulty. Helpful Hints for Common Problems If the analysis is not successful. The convergence criterion was specified at a singularity (infinite stress Do not monitor a singularity point.

etc. a greater number of facets will result in a smoother representation of the element surface and results contours for p-element plots. ROTX.1. dividing the quadrilateral into 16 subgrid facets. 14. etc.NUM where NUM represents the number of facets per element edge (GUI path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape). a subgrid approach has been devised for viewing results in POST1.Section 14. the element has 4 facets per edge which means two pseudo nodes per edge and 9 interior pseudo nodes are added for each p-element.3: Using the p-Method Primary data Nodal displacements (UX.) are affected by this approach. The key command involved in the subgrid approach is /EFACET.RST) into the database [SET] before displacements may be reviewed during postprocessing. The tools used for time-history postprocessing [/POST26] are also applicable to p-method analyses. p-method finite element models generally contain fewer elements than do models meshed with h-elements. stresses. ANSYS Release 9. Since fewer elements correspond to a coarser mesh. for a model with a very coarse mesh or any model in which the p-levels are high (p>3) you should consider using NUM = 4 to view your field quantities.7. since p-element technology is restricted to linear static analyses.6. You can obtain all subgrid point results (or element results). If NUM = 2.7 p-Element Subgrids for Quadrilateral Elements As a general rule. UY.3. such as some plotting and printing operations. each element is divided into smaller. In this approach. Before reading this section.) Derived data Nodal and element stresses. 14. © SAS IP. element forces Note — You must read the results data from the results file (Jobname. Both the display of geometric curvature and the display and printout of field quantities (displacements. more information will be available at NUM = 4. Querying Subgrid Results You have the ability to directly and interactively query subgrid results. 14–13 . but have limited functionality. in general. GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Query Results ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the element has 2 facets per edge and is divided into 4 subgrid facets by adding a pseudo node at the "center". The example below illustrates how /EFACET subdivides a quadrilateral element. In most cases. Figure 14. "h-like" elements. nodal and element strains. Since results are available at each subgrid location.3. Inc. etc.0 . In this section we will explain those procedures that deviate from standard postprocessing. Command(s): No command equivalent. The p-Element Subgrid As mentioned previously. If NUM = 4. 002114 . it would be a good idea to review the chapters on postprocessing in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more details on postprocessing. Thermal strains are not available on the results file.

and/or material type discontinuities exist. For all of the p-elements. PLCONV.). displacements. For SHELL150. Printout is similar to that for h-elements. results will not be averaged at those locations.0 .OFF will deactivate PowerGraphics unless /GRAPHICS. middle. Note — AVRES has no effect on the nodal degree of freedom solution values (UX.FULL] or for the model surface only [/GRAPHICS. ROTZ. Inc. © SAS IP. SOLID147. displaced shape plots reflect each calculated element subgrid [/EFACET] displacement. strains. Specialized p-Method Displays and Listings There are three commands specifically designed for listing or plotting p-element results data [PRCONV. SOLID147.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis You may query stresses. ANSYS Release 9.PCON]. UY. stresses and strains can be listed [PRESOL] at all node locations for each element. Note — Results values for SHELL150 are displayed for the top and bottom layer simultaneously. PPLOT].POWER has been issued previously. results can be listed (as controlled by the SHELL command) and plotted at the top/bottom and middle layer locations. A convenient way to visualize local convergence criteria at specified locations in the model is to display a symbol at the location of interest. /PMETH. Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results For elements PLANE145. these nodal values can be contoured for display purposes [PLNSOL]. with nodal results being unaveraged and sorted by element number. PLANE146. [/PSYMB. and SOLID148. 14. and SOLID148.1. 002114 . 14–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 14.8. and bottom layers with results for the bottom layer listed first. or when using the Query function). For PLANE145.3.POWER]. ROTX.POWER]. 14. PLANE146. ROTY. with the contour resolutions being controlled by the/EFACET command. The characteristic p-level refers to the p-level range from the minimum specified [PPRANGE] to the maximum p-level reached during SOLUTION. and displacements at all subgrid locations that have previously been activated by the /EFACET command.ON command or defining a p-element [ET] will activate PowerGraphics unless a prior /GRAPHICS. Final p-levels that were assigned to individual elements can be viewed by means of the PPLOT command. . You may print [PRCONV] or plot [PLCONV] the previously-specified convergence values [PCONV] versus characteristic p-levels. stresses.8. results are for all nodal locations (corner and midside nodes).4. You can average results at all boundaries (the default). results may be displayed in various ways. The results data may be averaged along element boundaries with the AVRES command.FULL command has been issued. Likewise. and strains can be listed [PRNSOL] at all node locations (both corner and midside nodes).3. If a geometric discontinuity exists. Unlike higher order h-element printout. displacement plots are available with both undisplaced structure and undisplaced edge options [PLDISP]. When using PowerGraphics [/GRAPHICS. Results may be printed or plotted for the entire model [/GRAPHICS. or at all boundaries except where real constant. Note — Issuing the /PMETH. Similarly. UZ. etc. When viewing nodal field values across p-element boundaries ([PRNSOL. PLNSOL]. Results for SHELL150 are listed for the top. Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) Follow the steps below to perform a p-method analysis using the GUI. then issue an element or node plot.

© SAS IP. 14.1. you will perform a p-method analysis on a steel plate with a hole. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears. The material is 1/4" thick steel. 2.1. Click on OK.25) = 250 lbs (total force applied on the right side).4. 1.2. Loading for this problem is: P = (100) (10) (. Define the Element Type and Options 1. Problem Description In this sample problem.4. you will use symmetry boundary conditions to constrain the left side and bottom of the model. Problem Specifications For this problem. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of "2D Quad 145.2.4.3.3. 14–15 . 14. Select p-Method 1.3.4: Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) 14." Click on Options. 2. This problem uses element type PLANE145.4. Inc. Click the Structural method on. Set the Analysis Title After you enter the ANSYS program. 3. Problem Diagram Figure 14. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences.Section 14. 2. follow these steps to set the title. ANSYS Release 9. Click on Add. Click the p-Method Struct. 14. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.0 .3. 002114 . 14.4.4. 4.8 Steel Plate With a Hole 14. 3. option on. The PLANE145 element type options dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. Type the text "p-Method Plate with Hole" and click on OK.

ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 5. Isotropic. 002114 . A semicircle is removed from the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Click on OK in the picking menu. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Circle> By Dimensions. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.20 for the X-coordinates and 0. 14. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. Click on OK. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Subtract> Areas. Click on Add. 4. 2. 9. scroll down to "Plane Stress+TK" to select it. Enter 5 for outer radius. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete.3. 6. 4.3. Linear. 10.29 for PRXY and click on OK. The Subtract Areas picking menu appears. Elastic. The Circular Area by Dimensions dialog box appears. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's modulus). The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears. Click on OK. Click once on the rectangle to select it. Enter .5. 2. 7. 3.4. 14–16 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 7. Click the SmartSize check box on.6.25 for thickness and click on OK.3. 14. Enter 0. 2. In the scroll box for Analysis type.0 . Mesh the Areas 1. Define Material Properties 1.4. ANSYS Release 9. Click on OK. The rectangle appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Click on OK. on the lower left corner of the rectangle. Enter 0. 3. © SAS IP. 5. In the Material Models Available window. Another Subtract Areas picking menu appears. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. 8. The circle appears on the ANSYS Graphics window. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 14. 11. A dialog box appears. 3. Use the TAB key to move between fields. Inc. 14. double-click on the icons next to the following options: Structural. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.4. 5. Click on OK in the picking menu.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis 5. Set the SmartSize slider to 5.10 for the Y-coordinates. .3. Define the Real Constants 1.4.4.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The MeshTool appears. Click once on the circle to select it. 2. The Real Constants for PLANE145 dialog box appears. 4. Create Plate with Hole 1. 6.

8. Define Pressure Load along Right Edge. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.> On Nodes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> Symmetry B. Click on OK to accept the default of symmetric surface normal to X-axis. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . 2. Enter 100 for pressure value and click on OK. 4. 7.1. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.10. 7.9. pick "Nodes" and "By Location. Solve the Problem 1. In the top two menus. In the Selection field. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9.3. 14–17 . 5. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Click Close to close the MeshTool. 5. Click OK. select "Y-axis. 2." 10. The Apply SYMM on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 3. 14. Click the "Y coordinates" option on. Click OK. Define Symmetry Boundary Conditions 1. The displacement symbols appear down the left edge of the drawing. 5.4. 4. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 1.4: Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) 3.3. A mesh for the plate is created. Max and click on OK.C. In the drop down menu for Symm surface is normal to.0) and click on Accept. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Max and click on OK.X. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. 14. The Apply SYMM on Nodes dialog box appears. 6. Enter 20 for Min. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> Symmetry B.C. Inc. 3.0 .S. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities.4.3.4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. 8. Then click the MESH button.> On Nodes. Click on Pick All. Click on Close. 14. Define Convergence Criteria 1. enter PCONV. © SAS IP. Click on Pick All.4. Click the "X coordinates" option on. choose Areas and Free. 6. 6.Section 14. 2. 4.11. The displacement symbols appear along the bottom of the drawing. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. enter NCVG = NODE(0.NCVG and press ENTER.5." Enter 0 for Min. 9. 14. 3. In the ANSYS Input window. 4. In the Mesh section of the MeshTool.3.

0) PCONV.5 AMESH. and then close it. Expected results are: Max displacement = .1 FINISH 14–18 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .97x10-4 in.3 R.0 DSYM. 8.Chapter 14: p-Method Structural Static Analysis 2. Sample p-Method Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example p-method analysis of a plate with a hole using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.S.4.X.1.1. 14. Click on OK.1.0 DSYM.S.0.20. In the scroll box on the right.29 RECTNG. 2.X.0. and Max stress in X direction = 437 psi.360 ASBA..SYMM. Review the graphic using the legend in the graphics window. Review the Results and Exit ANSYS In this step. 7. Carefully review the information in the status window. Click the "Def + undeformed" option on.20 SF.LOC.25 MP.1.-100 ALLSEL NCVG=NODE(0. Click on QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.X PLDISP.10 PCIRC.ALL. 1.X.PRXY.3..PLANE145. 002114 . .SYMM..1.Y. © SAS IP. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. 3. 6.PRES. Click on Close when the Solution is done window appears.S..30e6 MP. ANSYS Release 9. 4. 5. The deformed and undeformed shapes appear in the ANSYS Graphics window.Y NSEL. Inc. you will review results as deformed shape and SX contour plot.LOC.12. /TITLE.X NSEL. 3. click once on "Stress" to select it.5.2 SMRTSIZ.3 SAVE FINISH /SOLU NSEL. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears.5.S. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. All items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments.S.EX.NCVG SOLVE /POST1 SET. p-method plate with hole problem /PREP7 ET. 14. In the scroll box on the left.1 PLNSOL.0. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. 4.1. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.0.0 . Choose a save option and click on OK.5. Click on OK.LOC. click once on "X-direction SX" to select it.

15. and visualization. © SAS IP.1: “Plot of a Z Cross Section” shows the centroid and shear center of the cross section and the calculated section properties: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Izz. When a cross section is defined. and BEAM189 elements in the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections 15. BEAM188. the postprocessing visualization capabilities described in this chapter are not applicable to BEAM44 elements. They offer computationally efficient solutions when compared to solid and shell elements.0 . What Are Cross Sections? A cross section defines the geometry of the beam in a plane perpendicular to the beam axial direction. The discussion in this chapter applies only to BEAM44. which is a 3-D tapered unsymmetric beam. ANSYS builds a numeric model using a nine node cell for determining the properties (Iyy. Inc. etc.2. 002114 . ANSYS supplies a library of eleven commonly-used beam cross section shapes. In addition. Note — Custom cross sections may not be used with the CDWRITE command. which are 3-D finite strain beams. be aware that you cannot use these capabilities to define tapered sections. ANSYS Release 9. . as compared to other ANSYS beams. These beams provide more robust nonlinear analysis capabilities. An Overview of Beams Beam elements are used to create a mathematical one-dimensional idealization of a 3-D structure.) of the section and for the solution to the Poisson's equation for torsional behavior.1. and BEAM188 and BEAM189. and significant improvements in cross section data definition. See the descriptions of the BEAM44. Note — If you are using the cross section capabilities described in this chapter with BEAM44 elements. and permits user-defined cross section shapes. analysis. Figure 15.

ANSYS supplies the following commands for creating. 002114 . ANSYS Release 9. and for managing cross section libraries: Table 15. 2. © SAS IP.3. .Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections Figure 15.0 . These section definitions will be incorporated into the generated beam elements when the line is meshed with BEAM44.1 Plot of a Z Cross Section Cross sections and user section meshes may be saved and stored in cross section library files. Inc. You may assign beam cross sections as attributes of a line using the LATT command. viewing. 15–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1 ANSYS Cross Section Commands Command PRSSOL SECTYPE SECDATA SECOFFSET Purpose Prints beam section results (not supported for BEAM44) Associates section Subtype with SECID Defines section geometry data Defines section offset for beam cross sections SECCONTROLS Overrides program calculated properties. Define the section and associate a section ID number with the section subtype. and listing cross sections. BEAM188. How to Create Cross Sections The general procedure for creating cross sections consists of the following steps: 1. 15. Define the geometry data for the section. or BEAM189.

002114 . the following command assigns a section identification number (2) to a predefined cross section shape (circular solid): Command(s): SECTYPE. ANSYS will calculate values for the cross section such as the area of the section and the moments of inertia about the coordinate axes using default integration rules and will produce results that are numerically exact. use the subtype ASEC. the SECDATA command shown below specifies 5 as the radius of the circular solid beam. Defining Cross Section Geometry and Setting the Section Attribute Pointer Use the SECDATA command to define the geometry of a cross section. 15. note that the CSOLID subtype has two dimensions: the radius and the number of cells along its circumference. or custom cross section Summarizes section properties Deletes a cross section For complete documentation of the cross section commands.Section 15. L. mesh. There are two ways to specify the mesh size for common sections: • • invoking SECTYPE.. CSOLID GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Common Sectns To define your own cross sections. 2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Common Sectns Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Attributes> Default Attribs 15. use the subtype MESH. Z. 15–3 . Since the torsion constant is derived from the mesh..2.. The default mesh used by ANSYS yields acceptable engineering accuracy. Continuing with the example SECTYPE command shown above. Command(s): SECDATA. Determining the Number of Cells to Define In general. Inc.3. I. and HREC) specifying the number of divisions using SECDATA for solid sections (RECT. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number Use the SECTYPE command to define a section and associate it with a section ID number. The SECNUM command sets the element section attribute pointer to 2. ANSYS Release 9. and CSOLID) ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . the accuracy of the torsion constant is directly proportional to the mesh size of the cross section. QUAD. 15. 8 and SECNUM. To define a cross section with integrated properties such as Iyy and Izz. For example.2. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. HATS. Thus. T.3.0 . and 8 as the number of cells along its circumference.3: How to Create Cross Sections Command SECNUM SECPLOT SECWRITE /SECLIB SECREAD SLIST SDELETE Purpose Identifies the SECID to be assigned to an element Plots geometry of a beam section to scale Creates an ASCII file containing user mesh or a custom cross section Sets default section library path for SECREAD Reads a user defined section library..3.1. 2. you do not need to set the number of cells when building a cross section. © SAS IP.REFINEKEY to set the level of mesh refinement for thin-walled sections (CTUBE. CHAN.1. 5. BEAM.

when doing a plasticity analysis. ANSYS Release 9. BEAM188. KB. BEAM188. .0 .Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections The thin wall sections have a minimum of two integration points through thickness.2 Types of Solid Section Cell Mesh 15. However. Meshing a Line Model with BEAM44. The following arguments are described here in terms of their applicability to beams. TYPE. . These attributes include: • • • The material set attribute pointer to be associated with the generated beam elements. the cell defaults may need to be changed for the solid sections. Figure 15. or BEAM189 Elements Before you mesh a line with BEAM44. 002114 . unmeshed line: Command(s): LATT. The beam element type to be used in meshing the line.2: Generating a Beam Mesh With Orientation Nodes in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. . or BEAM189 elements.5. so results produced using thin wall sections should be acceptable for materially nonlinear analysis. KE. The cross section ID to be assigned to the generated beam elements. All beam elements generated will have their beam section oriented such that the beam z-axis will lie in the plane defined by two line end keypoints and this keypoint number. The orientation of the cross section with respect to the beam element axis. © SAS IP. SECNUM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Lines See the LATT command description for the meaning of MAT and TYPE. Inc. see Section 7. For detailed information about orientation nodes and beams. 15–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .3. MAT. Here are examples of ANSYS-generated solid section cell meshes and the type of analysis you may wish to use them with. • Issue the LATT command to associate these attributes with the selected. KB Corresponds to any keypoint number in the model.3. some of its attributes must be defined.

Using the Beam Tool to Create Common Cross Sections The SECTYPE. and SECOFFSET commands (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Common Sectns) are all associated with the BeamTool in the GUI. Inc. This is useful for creating twisted beams. SECDATA. 15.4: Creating Cross Sections KE Corresponds to any keypoint number in the model (optional). If KE is given. KB determines the beam orientation at the beginning of the line.Section 15. © SAS IP. Creating Cross Sections There are two main types of beam cross sections: • • common sections custom sections Common sections are described by a standard geometry and a single material.0 . SECNUM Corresponds to the beam section defined by the SECTYPE command with the section ID number as given by the SECNUM.5: Defining a Tapered Beam for more information. ANSYS Release 9. The appearance of the BeamTool varies depending on the cross section subtype you select: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .4. you can use defined sections to create tapered beams (for BEAM188 and BEAM189 only).4. 15.4.1. Custom sections are defined by an arbitrary geometry and may consist of several isotropic materials. See Section 15. In addition. 002114 . 15–5 . This keypoint determines the beam orientation at the end of the line as described above.

Create all areas (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas). optionally.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections Figure 15. 002114 . create a 2-D solid model and save it using the SECWRITE command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Write From Areas). The bottom contains the fields for section geometry information [SECDATA]. 15. 3. select the subtype that you want information about. a section name) [SECTYPE]. 2. To create a user mesh file. ANSYS Release 9. The middle of the BeamTool defines the section offset information.2. Inc.0 .3 BeamTool with Subtypes Drop Down List Displayed The top part of the BeamTool relates a section ID number to a subtype (and. . The subtype dimensions are also documented in the SECDATA command description. Save the model.4. Overlap the areas (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap> Areas) or glue them (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Glue> Areas) where appropriate. 15–6 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . The dimensions defined by the SECDATA command are determined by the subtype selected. you must create a user mesh file. if needed [SECOFFSET]. This procedure is outlined in greater detail below: 1. and then click on the Help button on the BeamTool. Creating Custom Cross Sections with a User-defined Mesh If you need to define a cross section that is not common. © SAS IP. For documentation about a particular variant of the BeamTool.

Creating Custom Cross Sections with Mesh Refinement and Multiple Materials When doing a plasticity analysis. you will see the following message: Line element sizes may need to be specified for desired cross-section mesh. When defining a multiplematerial cross section. MESH200 with KEYOPT(1) = 7 and PLANE82 are the only valid plane element types. To calculate the section properties and use a custom section in the analysis. ANSYS may display bad shape messages during the mesh . 8. However. (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Builtup> Refine Mesh) Modify the cell materials. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Pick the area(s) of the cells. Inc. define the materials.0 . ANSYS Release 9. If you do. 2. you may need to refine the cross section mesh. Please refer to the LESIZE command.SECT file out to a unique name in the Write Section Library File dialog box and click on OK. To create a custom cross section with a refined mesh and/or multiple materials. 15–7 . 6. (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Builtup> Modify Material) If you want to create a multiple-material section. 15. If you have already set the line element size. Note — Even if you have already set LESIZE. you will need to specify the material that each cross section cell is made of. read in the user mesh file (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Read Sect Mesh).Section 15. a plane element type must be defined if the user issues the SECWRITE command explicitly. Set the number of line divisions for all lines (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> ManualSize> Lines> Picked Lines or use the MeshTool).. 5. 5. This is necessary to calculate the shear correction factors and material-weighted centroids. Read in the user mesh file (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Read Sect Mesh) to calculate the section properties. Select Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Write From Areas. When creating cells on the area using the GUI.SECT file using SECWRITE (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Built-up> Save).SECT file. ANSYS creates cells on the areas. If you have not already set it. (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Built-up> Edit Custom) ANSYS displays a MESH200 plot in the Graphics Window. 3. © SAS IP. you do not need to define a plane element type. perform the following tasks: 1. 6. You may take a previously-created cross section and modify it. material-weighted centroids and the shear centers. Material properties must be defined to calculate the cross section shear correction factors. you may see an "Unable to mesh area . reinforcements or sensors.. A picker appears.. Refine the section mesh. clear the elements from all areas (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Clear> Areas) and repeat steps 4 and 5. A cross section consisting of more than one material may be defined to represent layers. Either read a common section (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Built-up> Edit Common) from the ANSYS database or read a custom section from a .these messages can be ignored. issue LESIZE with the appropriate information.4: Creating Cross Sections 4. 4.3. Save the section to a ." message. Write the . click on the Close button to continue.4. 7. 002114 . On the other hand.

Sections defined at the end points must be topologically identical..station-1.SECT file.0 . and linearly tapers to (3*0.1: Using the Beam Tool to Create Common Cross Sections 15. At each of these end points. the element averages the stresses across material boundaries.0) Continuing with this example. When creating a composite section. you can then use 3 as the taper section ID when assigning mesh attributes with the SECNUM or LATT command. ANSYS Release 9.y2. and /ESHAPE is used to produce contour plots of stresses (and other quantities). y1. 002114 .1.station-2.20.2. © SAS IP.rect secdata. two SECDATA commands are required to define the taper as shown below. You can save composite cross sections as custom cross sections.0. Defining Composite Cross Sections A composite cross section is a cross section consisting of at least two materials and meshed with a user-defined mesh. define the materials before running the SECREAD command. you can define tapered beams using the TAPER option on the SECTYPE command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Taper Sections).0. Inc.beam. y2. z2).5 sectype. Defining a Tapered Beam For BEAM188 and BEAM189.z2 The following is a typical command input stream used to create a tapered cross section: sectype.0001.0. z1) and (x2. the elements inherit the material attribute from the area and this attribute is written to the .rect secdata.x2.4.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections Note — If you redefine a material after creating the section. you must reissue the SECREAD command to recompute the cross section. To limit this behavior. During meshing.beam.4. the multiple materials will not be displayed in an element plot with /ESHAPE. Thus.taper secdata. a valid beam section ID must be input (station-1 and station2 in the example below).20. use small cross section cells around the material boundaries. see Section 15.5) at end 1. The multiple materials can be verified by viewing the cross section in the Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Custom Sectns> Edit/Built-up> Edit Custom submenu. The following assumptions apply to tapered beams defined with this method: • • 15–8 The end sections must be defined prior to defining the taper.3. 15.5.SECID.y1. When a cross section has multiple materials. For information on custom cross sections.0001*0. This is necessary to calculate the shear correction factors. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you must reissue the SECTYPE and SECREAD commands to recompute the cross section.4.5) at end 2. material-weighted centroids and the shear centers. a section with multiple materials can be created by assigning material attributes to the areas. When using the SECWRITE command explicitly.0. (x1.0.2. . SECTYPE.0 ! define cross section at first end point ! define cross section at far end ! new Section ID for tapered beam analysis ! section 1 at location (0.0.3.1.5 sectype.0.0 secdata.TAPER SECDATA.4.1.z1 SECDATA.x1. When a cross section has multiple materials. Note — If you redefine a material after creating the section.0.0) ! section 2 at location (0. The tapered section varies linearly between two specified locations. The resulting beam cross section is (0.

T ) ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . • • KEYOPT(12) = 0 .. The program performs a number of checks (although not completely comprehensive) to ensure topological equality. Using Nonlinear General Beam Sections The nonlinear general beam section (SECTYPE.GENB) is an abstract cross section type that allows you to define axial. The arbitrary beam section type (ASEC on the SECTYPE command) is not supported for tapered beams.T ) γ S2 2 G A2 ( γ 2 . Therefore. 002114 . the input of generalized beam sections may be a result of a prior detailed slice analysis (for example.5. but expensive) KEYOPT(12) = 1 . flexural.T ) κ1 M1 E I2 ( κ2 . and transverse shear behavior as a function of axial strain. ANSYS will produce error messages when this is not the case.0 . The following items are compared: • • • number of section nodes number of section elements section type If both end stations refer to custom cross sections with multiple materials. The tapered section treatment is significantly more expensive than a constant cross section (since recomputation is necessary).T ) ε E N E 0 I1 ( κ1.5: Using Nonlinear General Beam Sections • • A section cannot taper to a point (or zero area) at either end.Linear tapered section analysis (more accurate. 15–9 . The generalized section form of input does not require cross section geometry data or material data independently. or for including complex behavior such as cross section distortion (not possible when using normal beam sections). © SAS IP. If this is a concern. Using this information. Inc. but faster) 15. a segment of pipe analyzed using generalized plane strain elements). twist. ANSYS Release 9. and transverse shear strains. At a Gauss point of integration. ANSYS assumes a unit area of cross section. a linear interpolation is performed for the cross section mesh. use KEYOPT(12) of the beam element to specify the tapered section treatment. This form of data is useful for including an experimentally measured nonlinear response of a beam-like structural component.Average cross section analysis (an approximation of the order of the mesh size.T ) S1 γ1 G 0 A1 ( γ1.T ) M2 κ2 = χ τ JG (χ.Section 15. bending curvature. you must ensure that material IDs for the cells are the same for both ends. Nonlinear general beam sections also allow a nonlinear relationship of transverse shear forces to the corresponding transverse shear strains. The behavior of beam elements is governed by the generalized-stress/generalized-strain relationship of the form: A (ε. For purposes of evaluating mass matrices. the BEAM188 and BEAM189 elements will find the closest point on the line defined by station-1 and station-2. torsional. it is very important that the Gauss point be located within the end points. Often.

as a function of torsion and temperature A1 (γ1.2 ANSYS Commands for Specifying Nonlinear General Beam Section Data Command BSAX [1] BSM1 [1] BSM2 [1] BSTQ [1] BSS1 [1] BSS2 [1] BSMD [2] Quantity Defined and Data Specified Axial force and strain N. Defining a Nonlinear General Beam Section Each of the following commands specifies a particular component quantity necessary for defining a nonlinear general beam section: Table 15.T) = Flexural rigidity as a function of curvature and temperature in plane XZ I2 (κ2.T) = Transverse shear stiffness as a function of shear strain and temperature in plane XY T is the current temperature G G E E Thermal expansion coefficients and mass density for the section as a function of temperature complete the definition of a generalized cross section. χ.1. 002114 . T 15–10 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. T Bending moment and curvature in plane XY M2. κ1. ANSYS Release 9. γ1.T) = Flexural rigidity as a function of curvature and temperature in plane XY JG(χ. © SAS IP. T Mass density of the beam section (assuming a unit thickness) DENS. κ2. T Transverse shear force and strain in plane XY S2.5. ε. 15.T) = Transverse shear stiffness as a function of shear strain and temperature in plane XZ A2 (γ2.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections where: N = Axial force M1 = Bending moment in plane XZ M2 = Bending moment in plane XY τ = Torque S1 = Transverse shear force in plane XZ S2 = Transverse shear force in plane XY ε = Axial strain κ1 = Curvature in plane XZ κ2 = Curvature in plane XY χ = Twist of the cross section γ1 = Transverse shear strain in plane XZ γ2 = Transverse shear strain in plane XY AE(ε. .0 . γ2.T) = Axial stiffness as a function of axial strain and temperature I1 (κ1. T Bending moment and curvature in plane XZ M1. T Transverse shear force and strain in plane XZ S1.T) = Torsional rigidity. T Cross section torque and twist τ.

1.240 bsax .100000 ! Elasto-plastic response For an elastic nonlinear beam section subtype (SECTYPE.ELASTIC).0014.1. and up to 20 strain values. You can define a maximum of 20 generalized stress-strain points at each temperature value. The terms generalized stress and generalized strain describe the data defined via the BSAX. If you issue a command for a temperature specified earlier.plastic bsax. bending. ANSYS Release 9. BSTQ. you must define all section components with two or more stress-strain points. Temperature dependencies (T) You can define each of the generalized section data components as temperature-dependent.5: Using Nonlinear General Beam Sections BSTE [2] Thermal expansion coefficient ALPHA. For a plastic nonlinear beam section subtype (SECTYPE. 002114 . For all nonlinear beam section specifications. no permanent deformation.plastic bsax .1. you can define a linear behavior for any section component by specifying a larger maximum strain value.0. torque.1. the following conditions apply: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .0. © SAS IP. BSM1. The generalized stress to generalized strain relationship can be nonlinear.200 bsax .0014.001 . the most recent data supersedes the previous value.0 . Force of 240 Axial Strain 0.10000 bsm1. Repeatable for six different temperatures.001 . 2. 15–11 . BSS1.Section 15.0014.0008. 15. the stiffness disappears if the structural response is beyond the maximum strain value of the section data.. BSM2.300 ! bending bsm1.0008.200 bsax. but bending response is linear: sectype. Inc. When using nonlinear beam section data. Considerations for Employing Nonlinear General Beam Sections You can define nonlinear general beam sections only when using element BEAM188 or BEAM189.240 bsax. The option of a purely elastic or elasto-plastic response (SECTYPE) applies to all components of a beam section definition.0. T 1. and fully recoverable deformation even though the behavior is nonlinear--or elasto-plastic.0. Following is an example where axial behavior is nonlinear. Force of 200 Axial strain 0.1.2.GENB. and transverse shear) can be a nonlinear function of the corresponding strain. 15.300 ! ! ! ! Elasto-plastic response Axial strain 0. Repeatable for six independent temperatures.0008.0. The range of strain values must cover the anticipated maximum deformation of the structure. Force of 300 ANSYS conventions for defining a uniaxial elasto-plastic response apply.genb.001 .5. and BSS2 commands. The following input illustrates a typical (temperature-independent) nonlinear axial behavior: sectype.PLASTIC). However.5. It is possible to specify up to six temperatures (T) by reissuing any command as necessary. a single stress-strain point is adequate for defining linear behavior.GENB.0. The nonlinear response can be either purely elastic--that is.1..genb. Strain Dependencies Each component of a nonlinear beam section definition (axial.0.

Only the temperature of the beam axis is relevant.2: “ANSYS Commands for Specifying Nonlinear General Beam Section Data” is associated with the section most recently defined via the SECTYPE command. edit the Jobname.4: “Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam”. SECDATA.LOG file. Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) You can use BEAM188 and BEAM189 elements to model not only straightforward beam bending and shear response but also to model beam response that involves lateral-torsional buckling.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections • The section data defined by each command listed in Table 15. however. 15–12 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . you will need to create an adequately fine mesh of beam elements. create one or more cross sections. Managing Cross Section and User Mesh Libraries Cross section data for common sections such as CHAN and RECT can be stored in cross section libraries.0 . • • • • 15. ISWRITE) is not feasible. ISFILE. Section offsetting (SECOFFSET) is not available. These predefined cross sections can later be read into a model using the /SECLIB command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Section Library> Import Library). and SECOFFSET commands into a separate file with a SECT extension. © SAS IP. Beam stresses are not available for output. To create standard cross sections for later use. 15. 002114 . . To create this type of model. Initial stress specification (ISTRESS.6. ANSYS Release 9. the stress resultants are available as ETABLE quantities. You typically need to model a single beam member using a series of short beam elements. Inc.7. and copy the appropriate SECTYPE. as shown in Figure 15.

Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: Young's modulus = 1. “Buckling Analysis” in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide documents buckling analysis in detail.4 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam. followed by a nonlinear load versus deflection study. 15–13 . 15. ANSYS Release 9.0 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Problem Description A straight.7.1. which causes lateral-torsional buckling.0 .0 X 104 psi Poisson's ratio = 0.7: Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) Figure 15. 15. © SAS IP. This sample problem shows what happens when a cantilever beam is subjected to a concentrated end load.Section 15. The objective is to determine the critical value of the end load (indicated by P in Figure 15. Inc. Modeled With 60 BEAM188 Elements (Displayed Using /ESHAPE) Chapter 7.2.5: “Diagram of a Beam With Deformation Indicated”) at which the beam undergoes a bifurcation indicated by a large displacement in the lateral direction. slender cantilever beam has one fixed end and one free end. The model is analyzed using eigenvalue buckling calculations. A load is applied to the free end. 002114 .7.

You can also perform a nonlinear load versus deflection study. Eigenvalue Buckling and Nonlinear Collapse Eigenvalue buckling calculation is a linearized calculation. © SAS IP.5 Diagram of a Beam With Deformation Indicated 15. Problem Sketch Figure 15. a collapse analysis may be computationally intensive. The imperfections added should be small when compared to a typical thickness of the beam being analyzed.7. This type of analysis tends to need less computation time than a full nonlinear buckling analysis.7. 15. You can add imperfections by using eigenvectors that result from an eigenvalue buckling analysis. 002114 .3. The eigenvector determined is the closest estimate of the actual mode of buckling. since a perfect model will not show signs of buckling.4. ANSYS Release 9.2 in Loading for this problem is: P = 1 lb. which employs an arc length solution strategy to identify critical loads. 15–14 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections The following geometric properties are used for this problem: L = 100 in H = 5 in B = . While the approach is more general. The nonlinear collapse analysis must be performed on a structure with imperfections built in to the model. It is customary to use one to ten percent of the beam/shell thickness as the maximum imperfection introduced. Inc. The UPGEOM command adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration. The yielding of materials occurs usually at loads lesser than that predicted by eigenvalue buckling analysis. The imperfections remove the sharp discontinuity in the load-deflection response. .0 . and is generally valid only for elastic structures.

In the lower half of the BeamTool. Select keypoints 1 and 2 in the Graphics window and click on OK in the Create Straight Line picker. The Element Types dialog box appears. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 3.7.0. Click on Apply to set the cross section dimensions. there is no need to change the subtype. Since you will be creating a rectangular cross section. Define Element Type and Cross Section Information 1. ANSYS Release 9. Click on OK to continue. 3 node 189" to select BEAM189. Create a straight line through keypoints 1 and 2. Define the Material Properties and Orientation Node 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences and select the "Structural" check box. you will see a diagram of the cross section shape with dimension variables labeled. 7. 4. Enter buckle. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. 2.7. 002114 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS.. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .7. and enter these keypoint numbers and the coordinates in the dialog box as indicated: Keypoint Number 1 2 3 X Location 0 100. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. click on "3D finite strain. 2. You can also preview the mesh of the cross section by selecting the Meshview button. Enter the height of the cross section. in the box labeled B. Click on the Close button in the BeamTool to continue.6. In the scroll box on the right.0 50 Y Location 0 0 5 Z Location 0 0 0 Click This Button to Accept Values Apply Apply OK 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Save As. Define a rectangular cross section for the beam. 5. Click on the Preview button on the BeamTool. and then click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.2. and the subtype to RECT (signified by a rectangle on the subtype button) by default. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Beam> Common Sectns. Set the Analysis Title and Define Model Geometry 1. 0. ANSYS sets the section ID to 1. Click on OK. Inc. Click on Add .0 .5. 6. 5.7: Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 15. In the scroll box on the left. 9.. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.db in the Save Database to box and click on OK. Enter the width of the cross section. Use the BeamTool to display information about the cross section. in the box labeled H. 15. Start the model creation preprocessor and define the keypoints for the beam. 8. Enter the text "Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis" and click on OK. The Create Straight Line picker appears. click on "Structural Beam" to select it. 15. 15–15 .Section 15. A diagram and data summary of the cross section appear in the Graphics window. © SAS IP. Save the model. 5. The BeamTool is displayed.7. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.

and then click on OK in the Mesh Lines picker. Mesh the Line and Verify Beam Orientation 1. 5. and click on OK. 15–16 Define a boundary condition to the fixed end. The Line Attributes dialog box appears. Identify keypoint 2 as the free end. then click on OK. Select the line and define the orientation node of the line as an attribute. The Apply F/M on KPs dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Keypoints. In the Material Models Available window on the right. select FY. and click on OK. Click on Close in the MeshTool to close it. The Apply U. 6. press the Enter key. Isotropic. ANSYS Release 9. and the section attribute pointer to the section ID 1 by default. 15. Select ISO and click on Close. click on OK. Replot the line by choosing menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. In the picker. Enter 0. Zoom.9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections 2. Click on MESH on the MeshTool and the Mesh Lines picker appears. 10.8. 15.7. The Line Attributes picker appears. Linear. press the Enter key. Type 3 in the picker. 6. Verify the beam orientation. Save the model. Pick the line in the Graphics window. 7. If the buckle.db file is not already selected.0 . press the Enter key. 8. and click on OK.0 for PRXY (Poisson's ratio). Define keypoint 1 as the fixed end.ROT on KPs picker appears. Rotate tool appears. Define the mesh size and number of divisions. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> ManualSize> Lines> All Lines. 3. The Apply F/M on KPs picker appears. The Pan. The boundary condition information appears in the ANSYS Graphics window at keypoint 1. 2. Click on "All DOF" to select it. 4. ANSYS includes the material attribute pointer to the material set 1. Select the radio button next to the /ESHAPE label to turn /ESHAPE on and click on OK. Apply a force to the free end. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Keypoints. Rotate the meshed line. Elastic. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and then click on OK. Select OK. 3. . Enter 1E4 for EX (Young's modulus). Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Lines. Select the line in the Graphics window and click on Apply in the Line Attributes picker. the element type attribute pointer to the local element type 1. Mesh the line. 002114 . Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Save As. A dialog box appears. type 1. double-click on the following: Structural. In the drop down list for Direction of force/mom. Inc. 3. © SAS IP. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. The beam is rotated in the Graphics window. 5. 4. Click on the radio button beside the Pick Orientation Keypoint(s) label to change it to Yes and click on OK. Define the Boundary Conditions 1. Choose menu path Material> Exit to close the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. select it. of Element Divisions box and click on OK. 4. Type 2 in the picker. 9. and when ANSYS prompts you if you want to overwrite the existing file.7.ROT on KPs dialog box appears. Rotate. The Apply U. 2. Zoom. Enter 10 in the No. The Line Attributes picker reappears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape.

Section 15. Plot the first mode shape of the beam. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. The Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box appears. and click on OK. When the Solution is Done! window appears. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. 15. Set the element calculation key for the MXPAND command. make sure that Sparse solver is selected in the drop down box beside the Equation solver label. Select the Block Lanczos option. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. 5. © SAS IP.10. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape. ANSYS Release 9. and click on OK. Display the results summary. Be sure the radio button beside the label Display of element shapes . 17. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step window to begin the solution. click on Close to close it.7: Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Click on OK and when ANSYS prompts you if you want to overwrite the existing file. click on Close to close the window. which will be stored for later use in the eigenvalue buckling calculation. After you have reviewed the results. change the No to Yes beside the Calculate elem results label. 2. then select Close from its menu bar. 10. click on Close to close it. enter 4 in the No. 16. Select the "Eigen Buckling" option. 12.0 . 15–17 . ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Review the summary information in the /STAT command window. The Eigenvalue Buckling Options dialog box appears. In the Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 6. (/ESHAPE) is set to On and click on OK. click on OK again. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. of modes to expand box. 18. Solve the Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis 1. The force symbol appears in the ANSYS Graphics window at keypoint 2.. of modes to extract box. then click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes. 9. then select Close from its menu bar. Use the sparse solver for the solution. If the buckle.7. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Results Summary. then click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Save As. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. In the drop down list labeled Stress stiffness or prestress. 7. 14. 8. 15. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step window to begin the solution. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. select it. 002114 .. Select Def + undef edge and click on OK. Include prestress effect. 13. select "Prestress ON. 3. When the Solution is Done! window appears." Click on OK to close the Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box. Review the summary information in the /STAT command window. In the Expand Modes dialog box. Save the model. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.db file is not already selected. Enter 4 in the No. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Set analysis options. Enter 1 for the Force/moment value in the Apply F/M on KPs dialog box.

Click on OK. The Define Nodal Data picker appears. 15. then select Close from its menu bar.rst in the Selection box. Solve the current model. Choose the pull down menu next to the Lab label and select Displacement lim. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.11.7. Be sure the Ref number of variable and Node number are both set to 2. In the Update nodes using results file displacements dialog box. 2. 002114 . You should review the information in the message but you do not need to close it. 1 in the Load step box.0 in the Max desired U box. pick node 2 (the end node on the right side of the beam) and click on OK. Choose the Every substep for the File write frequency radio button and click on OK. Inc.7. Select the radio button beside Large deform effects. 7. Select the Arc-length method on/off radio button and set it to On. and file. 8. 2. When the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. Replot the beam. You may receive a warning message. Define the load point deflection to be read from the results file. Define the number of substeps to be run during this load step.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections 15. Enter TIPLATDI in the User-specified label box. Click on OK. 3. When the Solution is Done! window appears. Enter 10000 in the Number of substeps box and click on OK. enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. A Nonlinear Solution window with a Stop button appears. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File and be sure the drop down lists display All Items and All entities respectively. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. and set parameters for the termination of the solution. Enter 1. 6. Choose Add from the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box.12. Click on OK. Continue waiting for the solution to complete. 3. 10. 5. choose the Reaction forces radio button and then click on OK. Solve the Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 1. Choose the pull down menu next to the Degree of freedom label and select UZ. ANSYS Release 9. When the Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. be sure the Nodal DOF result option is selected. 9. In the Graphics window. 5. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step window to begin the solution. 1 in the Substep box. A convergence graph is built. 15–18 . © SAS IP. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Update Geom. and can take several minutes to complete. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Define the total reaction force to be read from the results file. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. click on Close to close it. select Add. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. Select the "Static" option. then click on OK. 4. When the Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. Introduce model imperfections calculated by the previous analysis. then click on OK. 7. Review the summary information in the /STAT command window. Plot and Review the Results 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Arc-Length Opts. Enter 2 in the Node number for VAL box. Set the arc-length method. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Define Variables. Select Translation UZ from the menu and click on OK.002 in the Scaling factor box.0 .

Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Math Operations> Multiply. click on Quit.0. In the ANSYS Toolbar. Plot the load versus deflection curve to confirm the critical load calculated by the eigenvalue method.50.0 LSTR.FY.1. Pick the end node on the left side of the beam and click on OK. 1 MP. RECT SECDATA. and click on OK.NUXY.0. Close the PRVAR Command window. © SAS IP. Display the X variable. . Inc. and 3 in the 1st Variable box.1. List the variables versus time.1.0 SLIST. In the Multiply TimeHistory Variables dialog box.0. 1.POWER /GST. Expected results are: Critical buckling load. Command Method Here is the input file for the problem described in the previous section: /GRAPHICS.0 .1.BEAM189 SECTYPE.0 FINISH /SOLU PSTRES.EX. Pcr = 0.1.GRPH /PREP7 K. 15. 13. 14. .S. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Graph Variables. 1. 1. Enter 2 in the 1st variable to list box and 4 in the 2nd variable box and click on OK.0 K. Check the values in the PRVAR Command window to see how they compare against the values generated by the eigenvalue buckling analysis. . Command Method 8.8: Sample Problem with Cantilever Beams.0 LSEL. Be sure the Ref number of variable is set to 3 and Node number is set to 1. 17. ANSYS Release 9.BUCKLE.1. .2 ET.1. 12. 3. 15–19 .all /VIEW. box.3. 15.ON /SHOW. Sample Problem with Cantilever Beams. Enter 4 in the 1st variable to graph box. . 9.Section 15.1 EPLOT DK. The Define Reaction Force Variable dialog box appears.100.SPARSE ! EQSLV. -1.8.5.1E4 MP.2.0.1. 16. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> List Variables. 002114 .10 SECNUM. Select Struct Force FY from the menu and click on OK.1.01892.0 K.SPARSE is the default for static and full transient SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .1. Click on OK. 1 LATT. enter 2 in the Single variable no. Click on OK. all..0.1 /ESHAPE. The Define Reaction Force picker appears.0. 10. . .0 in the 1st Factor box. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. Click on Close to close the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box.ALL FK.1 LESIZE.2. enter 4 in the Reference number for result box.1 LMESH. .2. 5. 0.1.1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph. . 11. BEAM.0.ON EQSLV. Choose the single variable button. Choose a save option and click on OK.

1.file.3.rst /SOLU ANTYPE. .2. describe additional beam analyses.Chapter 15: Beam Analysis and Cross Sections ANTYPE.TIPLATDI RFORCE.1 XVAR. .1.0.9.1.1..ON.25.3.Y PROD. . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program.4 MXPAND. However.1 /VIEW.-1..2.4 PRVAR. .1.U.1. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.ALL NLGEOM.0.002.U.Z.ALL. 1 .F.Warped Cantilever Beam 15–20 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .UZ NSUBST.ON ARCLEN.0.4 FINISH 15.YES SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.0001 ARCTRM. Inc.1 PLDISP.4.0 .2 PLVAR.1 /ANG.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.1. © SAS IP.BUCKLE BUCOPT.1. The ANSYS Verification Manual contains one beam test case: VM222 .LIST SET. . ANSYS Release 9.0.STATIC OUTRES. 1 SET. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.LANB. .2. 002114 .4.2 FINISH /PREP7 UPGEOM.2.

ANSYS Release 9. Alternatively. you can define homogenous shell section behavior directly via preintegrated shell sections. Define the section and associate a section ID number with the section. which is a 3-D finite strain shell element. and significant improvements in cross section data definition. material type. Define the geometry data for the section.4: Using Preintegrated General Shell Sections. How to Create Cross Sections The general procedure for creating cross sections consists of the following steps: 1. SHELL131 and SHELL132. With preintegrated shell sections. Each layer may vary in thickness. 2. and coupling properties. The method for defining shell sections described here can also be used to define the cross-sectional properties of the layered thermal shell elements. An Overview of Shells Shell elements are used to create a mathematical 2-D idealization of a 3-D structure. viewing.0 . Through the section family of commands. For more information. The discussion in this chapter applies to SHELL181. 002114 .3. SECFUNCTION Specifies shell section thickness as a tabular function. 16. Inc. orientation (from element x-axis). and for managing cross section libraries: Table 16. SECNUM SECOFFSET SECPLOT Identifies the SECID (section number) to be assigned to an element Defines section offset for shell cross sections Plots geometry of a shell section to scale ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . and visualization. a method commonly used in analyses involving laminated composite structures. you can describe the z direction of the element by defining consecutive layers. .1 ANSYS Cross Section Commands Command SECTYPE SECDATA Purpose Associates section with SECID (section number) Defines section geometry data SECCONTROLS Overrides program calculated properties. and listing cross sections. you can directly specify the membrane. © SAS IP. The preintegrated method also allows analysis of complex geometry (with repeated patterns such as corrugated sheets) using equivalent shell section properties. as compared to other ANSYS shells. 16.1. ANSYS supplies the following commands for creating.Chapter 16: Shell Analysis and Cross Sections 16. analysis. This shell element provides more robust nonlinear analysis capabilities. Discussions in this chapter relating to integration points (NUMPT on the SECDATA command) and section properties (SECCONTROLS command) do not apply to SHELL131 and SHELL132.2. bending. What Are Cross Sections? A cross section defines the geometry of the shell in a plane parallel to the shell x-y plane. see Section 16. and number of integration points. They offer computationally efficient solutions for modelling shell structures when compared to solid elements.

the following command assigns a section identification number (2) to a shell section: Command(s): SECTYPE. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. Figure 16. You may designate the number of integration points (1.3. For example. the point is always located midway between the top and bottom surfaces. material.3. 2. 7. SHELL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Add/Edit 16.1. orientation. 002114 .2. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number Use the SECTYPE command to define a section and associate it with a section ID number. An exception occurs when designating 5 points.) The layer orientation angle is the angle between the layer coordinate system and the x-axis of the element coordinate system. © SAS IP. 3.Chapter 16: Shell Analysis and Cross Sections Command SLIST SDELETE Purpose Summarizes section properties Deletes a cross section For complete documentation of the cross section commands.1 Plot of a Shell Section 16. (The number of integration points input on SECDATA is not used by thermal shell elements. is represented here: Figure 16. Each consecutive SECDATA command defines the next layer's thickness. along with material and orientation of each layer. ANSYS Release 9. . 5. or 9) located thru the thickness of each layer. Defining Layer Data Use the SECDATA command to define the layers of a shell section. and number of integration points.1: “Plot of a Shell Section” shows the layer stacking of a shell section. The layer order. 2 points are located on the top and bottom surfaces respectively and the remaining points are distributed equal distance between the 2 points. If 3 or more points. When only 1.0 . Inc. where the quarter point locations 16–2 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .

A table that describes thickness with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system may be associated with a shell section. If a shell section has only one layer. 0.6.5. 1. 0. 3 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Add/Edit 16.3. 3 SECDATA. SECOFFSET.3: How to Create Cross Sections are moved 5 percent toward their nearest layer surface to agree with the locations selected with real constant input. . . 2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Define> Default Attribs 16. -45. SECFUNCTION.3. Command(s): SECNUM. 1. and the number of section integration points is equal to one.5. and all layer thickness values. and SECCONTROLS commands (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Add/Edit) are all associated with the ShellTool in the GUI. the program calculates shear correction factors and mass for each element based on the input section geometry and material properties. © SAS IP.7. Any values input on the SECCONTROLS command will replace the defaults.4. the new elements are associated with the section specified on the AATT command.3. (SECCONTROLS does not apply to thermal shell elements. By default. ANSYS Release 9. Command(s): AATT. . The default for each layer is 3.3.5. 16–3 . This thickness is interpreted as the total thickness of a shell. SECDATA.3. and may affect convergence adversely. When the area is meshed. 1. Setting the Section Attribute Pointer Use the SECNUM command to associate an element with a particular section. The total thickness of a layered shell. will be scaled according to the tabular function. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide .5. Associating an Area with a Section Use the AATT command to associate an area with a shell section type. 3 SECDATA. Command(s): SECFUNCTION.8.) Command(s): SECCONTROLS. 2. Command(s): SECDATA.3. 0. 002114 . 0. 0. then the shell does not have any bending stiffness. Specifying a Shell Thickness Variation (Tapered Shells) Use the SECFUNCTION command to associate a tabular thickness variation with the section. The section specified by the SECNUM command is ignored. 45. 2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> All Areas Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Areas 16.0. 45. .0 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Add/Edit 16.8.0 . This may result in solver difficulties.Section 16. Inc. Any element created after the SECNUM command will have this section identification number (2) as its section attribute. Overriding Program Calculated Section Properties Use the SECCONTROLS command to override the program calculated section properties. Using the Shell Tool to Create Sections The SECTYPE. %table_name% GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Shell> Add/Edit 16. 0.

. The default added mass per unit area of the section is always zero. hourglass coefficients and drill stiffness of the sections are calculated from the section geometry and material properties.) The bottom contains the fields for section offset information. 002114 .Chapter 16: Shell Analysis and Cross Sections Figure 16. optionally. Figure 16. a section name) [SECTYPE]. if needed [SECOFFSET]. resembling that stacking of the layers. You can define tapered shells by specifying a section function relating thickness to global coordinates [SECFUNCTION]. ANSYS Release 9.3 Shell Tool With Section Controls Page Displayed The transverse shear stiffness.0 . The middle part of the page of the ShellTool defines each layer in the positive Z direction of the element [SECDATA].2 Shell Tool With Layup Page Displayed The top part of the Layup page of the ShellTool relates a section ID number to a Shell section type (and.) 16–4 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . (The Section Controls page does not apply to thermal shell elements. © SAS IP. you can override the program calculated quantities [SECCONTROLS]. On the Section Controls page. Inc. Note that the order of the rows in the spreadsheet ascends up the page. (Integration point data for each layer is ignored by thermal shell elements.

T B ε I M − (T . SECDATA. preintegration requires fewer system resources because numerical integration through the thickness of the shell is not required. The behavior of shell elements is governed by the generalized-stress/generalized-strain relationship of the form: N A = T M B [S] = [E]{ γ } { where: {N} = {N11. ε12} are membrane strains {κ} = {κ11. 16. SECFUNCTION. you can review the section properties.κ12} are curvatures {S} = {S1.. To create standard cross sections for later use.T ) D κ BT 16–5 . N12} are membrane stress resultants per unit length {M} ={M11. and copy the appropriate SECCONTROLS.4 Shell Tool With Summary Page Displayed On the Summary page. M12} are bending stress resultants per unit length {ε} = {ε11 .GENS) when using the SHELL181 element. 002114 .Section 16. Managing Cross Section Libraries Cross section data for shell sections can be stored in cross section libraries. 16. provided that linear elastic material behavior is acceptable.LOG file. Compared to standard shell usage with independent material and section definitions. and [E] are the section-stiffness matrices for membrane. and SECTYPE commands into a separate file with a SECT extension. and shear behavior. ANSYS Release 9. ε22.4: Using Preintegrated General Shell Sections Figure 16. respectively {MT} are stress resultants caused by a unit rise in temperature on a fully constrained model {BT} are bending-related stress resultants caused by a unit rise in temperature on a fully constrained model ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide . [D].γ2 } are transverse shear strains [A].0 . N22.4.8. Inc. © SAS IP. SECOFFSET.3. bending. [B].κ22. create one or more cross sections. coupling. Using Preintegrated General Shell Sections You can use preintegrated general shell sections (SECTYPE. S2} are transverse shear forces per unit length {γ}={γ1. M22. edit the Jobname.

2 ANSYS Commands for Specifying Preintegrated Shell Section Data Command SSPA SSPB [1] SSPD [1] SSPE [1] SSMT SSBT [1] SSPM Quantity Defined and Data Specified Membrane stiffness -. 16.1. the only relevant quantities are membrane stiffness (SSPA). T Transverse shear stiffness -. the most recent data supersedes the previous value. • 16–6 ANSYS Structural Analysi