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Unit 10

Unit 10

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E3065/10/1 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION

UNIT 10

TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION

OBJECTIVES

General objective : To understand the concept of telemetry and data acquisition.

Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: • Identify the main concept of telemetry system and data acquisition. • Describe the structure of data collection system. • Define the specification of data acquisition system. • Identify the types of telemetry system. • Explain the function of multiplexing system.

E3065/10/2 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION

INPUT

10.1

INTRODUCTION OF TELEMETRY.

Telemetry means the transmission of data for monitoring and control over long distances. Data can be sent directly as a DC voltage or current up to a few meters. At long distances speed is severely limited, and noise becomes a serious problem. The original Morse trans-Atlantic cables of 19th century used DC which transmitted at less than one word per minute. For longer distances, we convert DC voltage or current to audio tones and send them over wire. This is called modulation, and the reverse (i.e. converting the varying signal to data) is called demodulation. A device to perform it is called a modem. An analog signal is a continuously varying wave. If we measure its height at specific points in time, we obtain a series of voltages with numeric values. These values can be represented in binary form and transmitted as a series of bits. A bit is a binary digit, either 0 or 1, whose combination in form of a code represents information in digital communication.

Figure 10.1(a) : Converting the analog to digital signal.

In other words, as indicated earlier, sensors in telemetry systems generate electrical signals which change in some way in response to changes in physical characteristics. An example of a sensor is a thermistor, a device used to measure temperature. A thermistor’s

Each of these signals is typically amplified. Digital system require converts to change analog voltages into discrete digital quantities or numbers. 10. filtered. the resistance decreases. Many simply have varying DC outputs. Digital systems range in complexity from single-channel dc voltage measuring and recording systems to sophisticated automatic multichannel systems that measure a large number of input parameters.2 STRUCTURE OF DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS. The type of data acquisition system whether analog or digital. Digital systems are used when the physical process being monitored is slowly varying (narrow bandwidth) and when high accuracy and low per-channel cost is required. such as the biomedical. The thermistor becomes one channel of an frequency division multiplexing (FDM) system. The thermistor is usually connected into some kind of a resistive network. frequency or resistance and are typical found in such areas as electronic component testing. Data acquisition systems are used in a large and ever-increasing number of applications in a variety of industrial and scientific areas. which varies in accordance with temperature and which is transmitted to a remote receiver for measurement. and otherwise conditioned before being used to modulate a carrier. Signals originating from transducers such as strain gage and thermocouple. In general. digital information may have to be converted back into analog form such as a voltage or a current which can then be used as a feedback quantity controlling an industrial process. All of the carriers are then added together to form a single multiplexed channel. b. . analog data systems are used when wide bandwidth is required or when lower accuracy can be tolerated. readout. and recording. Data acquisition system are used to measure and record signals obtained in basically two ways: a. Data acquisition systems often use magnetic tape recorders. environmental studies and quality analysis work. Digital data acquisition systems are general more complex than analog systems.E3065/10/3 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION resistance varies inversely with temperature: as the temperature increases. compare against preset limits or conditions and perform computations and decisions on the input signal. while others are AC in nature. aerospace and telemetry industries. The result is a DC output voltage. these may include dc and ac voltages. signals originating from direct measurement of electrical quantities. both in terms of the instrumentation involve and the volume and complexity of input data they can handle. such as a voltage divider or bridge. and also to a DC voltage source. Conversely. depends largely on the intended use of the recorded input data. Other sensors have different kinds of outputs.

Data acquisition is divided by two types.2.2 DIGITAL DATA ACQUISITION. Digital systems handle information in digital form.2. Signal conditioners – amplifying. storage oscilloscope. The function of each of the system elements of figure 10. modifying. a. . or selecting certain portions of these signals. acceleration. such as a plot of voltage versus time. analog systems and digital system. also may be measured directly. making the measurement. Magnetic tape instrumentation – acquiring input data. Transducer – translate physical parameters to electrical signals acceptable by the acquisition system. a. A digital data acquisition included some or all of the elements shown in figure 10. b. Graphic recording instruments – obtaining permanent records of the input data. An analog signal may be defined as a continuous function. preserving their original electrical form. Visual display devices – continuous monitoring of the input signals.2. optical recording systems such as mirror galvanometer recorders and ultraviolet recorders. analog data acquisition and digital data acquisition. and velocity frequency. d. or displacement versus pressure. e. Analog system deal with measurement information in analog form. A digital quantity may consist of a number of discrete and discontinuous pulse whose time relationship contains information about the magnitude or the nature of the quantity. pressure. These devices may include single-channel or multi-channel oscilloscope. Transducers – translating physical parameters into electrical signals.2. converting and handling digital data and internal programming and control. 10. Some typical parameters include temperature. 10. An analog data acquisition system typically consists of some or all of the following elements. weight displacement.2. and reproducing them at a later date for more detailed analysis.E3065/10/4 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Instrumentation systems can be categorized into two major classes. These instruments include stylus and ink recorders to provide continuous records on paper chart. numerical display and others. panel meters.2 is listed below.1 ANALOG DATA ACQUISITION. The essential function operations within a digital system include handling analog signals. c.

gage bridge balance and power supply unit. balancing circuits. d. and calibration elements. Signal converter – translates the analog signal to a form acceptable by the analogto-digital converter. c.Converts the analog voltage to its equivalent digital form. This circuitry may provide excitation power. Digital recorder – Records digital information on punched cards. . The digital recorder may be preceded by a coupling unit that translates the digital information to the proper form for entry into the particular digital recorder selected. An example of signal converter is an amplifier for amplifying low-level voltages generated by thermocouples or strain gages.2: Elements of digital data-acquisition system. Typical auxiliary functions include linearizing and limit operation. or a combination of systems. Signal conditioner – generally includes the supporting circuitry for the transducer. magnetic tape.E3065/10/5 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION b. Auxiliary equipment – This section contains instruments for system programming functions and digital data processing. g. e. typewritten pages.2. 10. An example of signal conditioner is a strain. The output of the A/D converter may be displayed visually and also available as voltage outputs in discrete steps for further processing or recording on a digital recorder. Fig. f. Analog –to-digital (A/D) converter . These functions may be performed by individual instruments or by a digital computer. Scanner or multiplexer – accept multiple analog inputs and sequentially connects them to one measuring instrument. perforated paper tape.

1 10. What is the basic principles of telemetry ? Describe that TWO categorized system of instrumentation. What the differential between analog and digital data acquisitions ? Hii !!!!!….2 10. ..Good Luck and Try your best ….E3065/10/6 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Activity 10A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 10.3 10.4 Name THREE places where telemetry is used.

analog data systems are used when wide bandwidth is required or when lower accuracy can be tolerated. compare against preset limits or conditions and perform computations and decisions on the input signal. 10. or displacement versus pressure. Digital systems handle information in digital form. This is called modulation. Analog system deal with measurement information in analog form. depends largely on the intended use of the recorded input data.1 Three places used a telemetry : telephone system. both in terms of the instrumentation involve and the volume and complexity of input data they can handle. semiconductor industries.3 Instrumentation systems can be categorized into two major classes. and the reverse (i. . analog systems and digital system.e. 10. 10. An analog signal may be defined as a continuous function. For longer distances. modern radio and TV broadcasting. A device to perform it is called a modem. Digital systems are used when the physical process being monitored is slowly varying (narrow bandwidth) and when high accuracy and low per-channel cost is required. In general. Digital systems range in complexity from single-channel dc voltage measuring and recording systems to sophisticated automatic multi-channel systems that measure a large number of input parameters.4 The type of data acquisition system whether analog or digital. converting the varying signal to data) is called demodulation. Digital data acquisition systems are general more complex than analog systems.2 Telemetry means the transmission of data for monitoring and control over long distances. A digital quantity may consist of a number of discrete and discontinuous pulse whose time relationship contains information about the magnitude or the nature of the quantity. such as a plot of voltage versus time. telemetry convert DC voltage or current to audio tones and send them over wire. control system and others.E3065/10/7 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Feedback To Activity 10A 10.

the system is not sensitive to amplitude instability. Deviation ratio is defined as the ratio of deviation of the carrier from the center frequency to the signal frequency.3 FREQUENCY OF TELEMETRY.E3065/10/8 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION INPUT 10. Two important factors in telemetry recording are deviation ratio and percentage deviation. or δ = ∆ƒ ƒm where δ = deviation ratio ∆ƒ = carrier deviation from center frequency . Since the data signal is contained entirely in the frequency characteristics of the frequency carrier. Instability in tape speed therefore reduces the dynamic range of the system. the carrier frequency is varied above and below its center value (modulated) in accordance with the amplitude of the data signal. The rate at which the carrier frequency deviates from its center value is a function of the frequency signal. The amplitude and frequency characteristics that define the data signal are therefore contained in the frequency variations of the frequency telemetry carrier around its center value. When this modulated frequency demodulator by detecting the number and rate of zero crossings. In the frequency of telemetry process. It is clear that frequency telemetry recording is extremely sensitive to variations in tape speed (flutter) because tape speed variations introduce apparent modulation of the carrier and are interpreted by system as unwanted signal (noise).

The application itself may require multiple signals and money can be saved by using a single communications channel to send multiple information signals. Alternatively . In satellite communications. a demultiplexer is used to sort out the signal into their original form. multiplexing is essential to making the system practical and for justifying the expense.4 MULTIPLEXING SYSTEM. Multiple input signals are combined by the multiplexer into a single composite signal that is transmitted over the communications medium. the multiplexed signals may modulate a carrier before transmission. At the other end of the communications link. There are many instances in communication where it is necessary or desirable to transmit more than one voice or data signal.7(a). Multiplexing has the effect of increasing the number of communication channels so that more information can be transmitted. Multiplexing is the process of simultaneously transmitting two or more individual signals over a single communications channel. The concept of a simple multiplexer is illustrated in figure 10. .E3065/10/9 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION ƒm = data signal frequency 10.4(a) : Concept of multiplexing. Telemetry and telephone applications are good examples. Figure 10.

Each signal to be transmitted feeds a modulator circuit. the result is illustrated in figure 10. The multiple signal to be transmitted over this channel are each used to modulate a separate carrier.1(a) shows a general block diagram of FDM system. The carrier frequencies are usually equally spaced from one another over a specific frequency range. SSB. The carriers for each modulation fc is on a different frequency. As for the type of modulation any of the standard kinds can be used including AM. .4.4. FM or PM. Frequency division multiplexing is based on the idea that a number of signal can share the bandwidth of a common communications channel. Figure 10.1 FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM). The modulated carriers are then added together to form a signal complex signal that is transmitted over the single channel. Generally speaking .1(b).4. Each input signal is given a portion of bandwidth . FDM systems are used to deal with analog information and TDM systems are used for digital information. 10. Each carrier is on a different frequency.E3065/10/10 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION There are two basic types of multiplexing.

Figure 10. .7.1(b) : Spectrum of an FDM signal.7.E3065/10/11 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Figure 10.1(a) : The transmitting end of an FDM system.

E3065/10/12 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION The modulator output containing the sideband information are added together in a linear mixer. Instead . each signal is transmitted for only a brief period of time. Once all the signals have been transmitted.4. Alternatively. In a linear mixer.2(a). the composite signal itself may be transmitted over the single communication channel. To transmit multiple digital signals. the data may consist of sequential bytes. four signals are transmitted over a single channel each signal is allowed to use the channel for a fixed period of time. in figure 10.2(a) : The basic TDM concept Here.4. However . For example . The third . Time division multiplexing may be used with both digital and analog signals. In TDM . In FDM. This concept is illustrated graphically in figure 10. One byte of data may be transmitted during the time interval assigned to a particular channel. each time slot might contain 1 byte from each channel.4. each signal can occupy the entire bandwidth of the channel. modulation and the generation of sidebands do not take place. the cycle repeats again and again.2(a).4. This signal is then used to modulate a radio transmitter. In other words. This is done by allocating each signal a portion of the spectrum within that bandwidth. all the signals are simply added together algebraically. For example. multiple signals are transmitted over a single channel by sharing the channel bandwidth. Figure 10. one after another. the multiple signals take turns transmitting over the single channel. The resulting output signal is a composite of all carriers containing their modulation. One channel transmits 8 bits. Another option is that the composite signal may become one input to another multiplexer system. 10.2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING. the data to be transmitted is formatted into serial data words.

In this way. One transmission of each channel completes one cycle of operation called a frame. The cycle repeats itself at high rate of speed.E3065/10/13 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION channel then transmits its data word and so on. the data bytes of the individual channel are simply interleaved. . The resulting single –channel signal is a digital bit stream that must somehow be deciphered and reassembled at the receiving end.

5 Describe the concept of multiplexing process.6 Describe briefly the differential between . ƒ and ƒm . 10. 10.E3065/10/14 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Activity 10B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 10.7 Referring to equation 10(a). frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM). what is the meaning of δ . Equation 10(a): δ = ∆ ƒ ƒm Are you ready to check your answer ?? .

6 Please refer to Input 10. 10.4.5 Multiplexing is the process of simultaneously transmitting two or more individual signals over a single communications channel. The application itself may require multiple signals and money can be saved by using a single communications channel to send multiple information signals.1 and Input 10. In satellite communications.4. Telemetry and telephone applications are good examples. ∆ƒ = carrier deviation from center frequency and ƒm = data signal frequency .7 The answer for this question.2 for the answer. There are many instances in communication where it is necessary or desirable to transmit more than one voice or data signal. 10. δ is deviation ratio. Multiplexing has the effect of increasing the number of communication channels so that more information can be transmitted. multiplexing is essential to making the system practical and for justifying the expense.E3065/10/15 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Feedback To Activity 10B 10.

Question 10-2 a. Describe the function of thermistor according to telemetry concept. Good luck. List FIVE elements in analog data acquisition and describe each item. If you face any problems. discuss it with your lecturer. Describe that the two ways of data acquisition system. . Figure 10(b) : Converting the analog to digital signal. what is an analog signal ? b. describe that how to convert the analog signal to digital signal ? c. Based on figure 10(b). Data acquisition system is used to measure and record signals obtained in basically two ways.E3065/10/16 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION SELF-ASSESSMENT You are approaching success. b. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment given on the next page. Question 10-1 a. Referring to figure 10(b).

. describe the relationship of each element according to digital data acquisition. describe briefly the concept of multiplexer and de-multiplexer.E3065/10/17 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Question 10-3 a. List TWO basic types of multiplexer. b. Figure 10(c): Elements of digital data-acquisition system. Referring to Figure 10(c). Referring to multiplexer diagram.

modifying. environmental studies and quality analysis work. b. Signal conditioners – amplifying. i. The thermistor is usually connected into some kind of a resistive network. whose combination in form of a code represents information in digital communication. A thermistor’s resistance varies inversely with temperature: as the temperature increases. b. and also to a DC voltage source. these may include dc and ac voltages. A thermistor is a device used to measure temperature. Two way of data acquisition system are used to measure and record signals is.E3065/10/18 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Feedback To Self-Assessment Answer 10-1 a. signals originating from direct measurement of electrical quantities. . The result is a DC output voltage. which varies in accordance with temperature and which is transmitted to a remote receiver for measurement. The thermistor becomes one channel of an frequency division multiplexing (FDM) system. These values can be represented in binary form and transmitted as a series of bits. the resistance decreases. An analog signal is a continuously varying wave. we obtain a series of voltages with numeric values. c. ii. readout. frequency or resistance and are typical found in such areas as electronic component testing. A bit is a binary digit. ii. such as a voltage divider or bridge. and recording. i. or selecting certain portions of these signals. An analog data acquisition system typically consists of some or all of the following elements. Transducers – translating physical parameters into electrical signals. Signals originating from transducers such as strain gage and thermocouple. either 0 or 1. Answer 10-2 a. If we measure its height at specific points in time.

perforated paper tape. and reproducing them at a later date for more detailed analysis Answer 10-3 a. An example of signal conditioner is a strain. Auxiliary equipment. The output of the A/D converter may be displayed visually and also available as voltage outputs in discrete steps for further processing or recording on a digital recorder. Signal conditioner . The digital recorder may be preceded by a coupling unit that translates the digital information to the proper form for entry into the particular digital recorder selected. Alternatively . numerical display and others. translates the analog signal to a form acceptable by the analog-todigital converter. Typical auxiliary functions include linearizing and limit operation. storage oscilloscope. v.E3065/10/19 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION iii. Visual display devices – continuous monitoring of the input signals. converts the analog voltage to its equivalent digital form. generally includes the supporting circuitry for the transducer. magnetic tape. These functions may be performed by individual instruments or by a digital computer. These instruments include stylus and ink recorders to provide continuous records on paper chart. accept multiple analog inputs and sequentially connects them to one measuring instrument. acceleration. b. At the other end of the communications link. typewritten pages. This circuitry may provide excitation power. Analog to digital (A/D) converter . iv. or a combination of systems. balancing circuits. a de-multiplexer is used to sort out the signal into their original form. Graphic recording instruments – obtaining permanent records of the input data. Some typical parameters include temperature. Signal converter. optical recording systems such as mirror galvanometer recorders and ultraviolet recorders. also may be measured directly. An example of signal converter is an amplifier for amplifying lowlevel voltages generated by thermocouples or strain gages. preserving their original electrical form. the multiplexed signals may modulate a carrier before transmission. Magnetic tape instrumentation – acquiring input data. the function of transducer is translate physical parameters to electrical signals acceptable by the acquisition system. This section contains instruments for system programming functions and digital data processing. Digital recorder. weight displacement. and calibration elements. These devices may include single-channel or multi-channel oscilloscope. Scanner or multiplexer. . panel meters. Multiple input signals are combined by the multiplexer into a single composite signal that is transmitted over the communications medium. pressure. Refer to figure 10(c). Records digital information on punched cards. and velocity frequency.gage bridge balance and power supply unit.

FDM systems are used to deal with analog information and TDM systems are used for digital information. .. Generally speaking . HAVE A FUN AND NICE DAY. There are two basic types of multiplexing.E3065/10/20 TELEMETRY AND DATA ACQUISITION Figure 10.May success be with you always…. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM). CONGRATULATION S!!!!….4(a) : Concept of multiplexing.

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