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# Calculus Cheat Sheet

Limits

Precise Definition: whenever 0< We say lim 8 then

x---)a

f

**Definitions (x ) = L if Limit at Infinity: We say lim can make
**

E:.

x---)OO

f (x ) = L

if we

for every /::; 0 there is a 8 > 0 such that >

f (x)

as close to L as we want by

Ix-al<

If(x)-LI<

x---)a

**taking x large enough and positive. There is a similar definition for lim
**

x---)-oo

"Working" Definition : We say lim if we can make

f (x) = L

f (x) = L

f(x)

as close toL as we want

except we require x large and negative. Infinite Limit : We say lim canmake

by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a. Right hand limit:

x---)a

f (x) =

<X)

if we

f( x) = L. x---)a+

lim

This has

f(x)

arbitrarily large (and positive)

the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a. Left hand limit: lim

by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) withoutletting x = a. There is a similar definition for lim

x---)a

f (x ) = L.

This has the

x---)a

f (x) =

-<X)

except we make

f( x)

arbitrarily large and

same definition as the limit except it requires negative. x«a, Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits limJ(x)=L => lim f(x)= lim_f(x)=L lim f(x)= lim_f(x)=L

x---)a x---)a+ x---)a x---)a+ x---)a x---)a+

=> x---)a limf(x)=L

lim

f (x)

f:.

x---)a

lim_ f

(x) =>

x---)a

lim

f (x)

Does Not Exist

Assume lim

x~a

f (x)

and lim g ( x)

x~a

**Properties both exist and c is any number then, 4. lim g(
**

x~a

l.

~~[cJ(x)J=c~~f(x)

x~a

lim[f(x)]= Ha g (x) ~~[f(x)r

~~f(x)

x~a

lim g (x )

provided limg(x)f:.O

Ha

2. lim[J( 3.

x)± g(x) ] = limf( x)± x~a

x~a

x)

5.

6.

=[~~f(x)J

**lim[J(x)g(x)J=limf(x) x~a x~a a >0
**

x-+-oo

limg(x)

~~[~f(x)J=n~~f(x)

<X)

**Basic Limit Evaluations at ± Note : sgn ( a) = 1 if 1. lim e" = <X)
**

x---)OO

and sgn ( a) = -1 if

a<0.

5. n even:

x---)±oo

&

lim e" = 0

x---)o

lim x" = <X)

<X)

2.

x---)OO

limln(x)

= <X)

&

lim_ln(

x)

=-

<X)

6. n odd: 7. n even:

lim x" =

x---)±oo

& lim x"

x---)-oo

=

-<X)

3. If r > 0 then lim 4. If r > 0 and

x---)OO X

!_ = 0 r

for negative

lim

a xn + ---+ h x + c = sgn ( a) a xn + ---+ c x + d = ©

<X)

xr is real

x

8. n odd: 9. n odd:

x---)oo

lim a x" + ---+ h x + c = sgn ( a ) <X) lim sgn ( a ) <X)

then lim

x---)-oo

.!!_ = 0 r

X for a complete set of Calculus notes

x---)-oo

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu

2005 Paul Dawkins

···. (_1 -.. or lim I( = ± <X) then x) x) x----)a x----)a g (X ) x----)a g (X ) ± <X) ' ° Continuous Functions and Composition f (x) is continuous at h and lim g ( x ) = h then x----)a lim x----)a I (x) g (X ) = lim x----)a I' (x) a is a number g' (x) .. Some Continuous Functions Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous. 1.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins .. h] and let M be any number between I (a) and I ( h) .math..Ix (n even) for all x ~ °.) = lim_. 6...--_=:_ H9 li (x + 9) (3 + Fx) 2 g(x)={X +5 1-3x x2 + 5= 9 ifx< -2 if x ~-2 Compute two one sided limits.-271".. 2' 2' 2' 2 ' cot ( x) and esc ( x) provided x f:. lnx for x>o.. cos( x) and sin( x) for all x. Polynomials for all x. .. f:.Ix (n odd) for all x. Then there exists a number c such that a < c < h and I( ) = M c . 8..-71" . 5.Calculus Cheat Sheet Continuous Functions Iff( x )is continuous at Evaluation Techniques L'Hospital's Rule a thenlim I(x) = I( a) If lim I( =.[x. l!.0. x~-T x~-2+ == -1 (18)( 6) 1 108 lim g( x) = lim x~-T x~-2+ Combine Rational Expressions lim. Visit http://tutorial.Q. x 9. . If the two one sided limits had been equal then lim g ( x) would have existed = h!] h x (x + h) li 1[ -h J =li x (x-1+ h) =-71 h!] x~-2 and had the same value. <X) or -<X) ~~f(g( · 1im x)) = I(~~g( 1· =urn x)) = I( h) Factor and Cancel Polynomials at Infinity p(x) and q(x) are polynomials..lamar. 7..!!.2X2 where 2 x2 x2 (~ - (3-~) = lim __ x_2=_~ 3-~ x 2 2) H-CD ~ - 2 2 Piecewise Function -1 limg(x) H-2 =1 1m H9 · 9 -x (X2- 81)( 3+ == -ix) = m -----.!.d d division by zero.4 = 5x .. Rational function.!.271" . Suppose that I (x) Intermediate Value Theorem is continuous on [a. _ 371"_!!.71". 2. tan x an sec x provi e 3. lim X~±CD To compute x2+4x-12 2 x~2 x -2x (x-2)(x+6) x~2 x(x-2) x~2 X p(( x)) q X factor largest power of x out of both =~= 4 2 Rationalize N umerator/Denominator =limx+6 P (x) and q( x) and then compute limit. 371". eX for all x. l!.. except for x's that give () d () . lim H-CD lim H-CD 3-Fx lim 2 x -81 H9 -li - H9 3-Fx 3+Fx m2 x -81 3+"\IC x 3x .(x+ h) h~O h x + h x h~O h x (x + h) lim g ( x ) = lim 1- 3x = 7 x~-2 J One sided limits are different so lim g ( x) doesn't exist.!. 4.

lamar.Quotient ( g (x) )) = I' ( g (x) ) g' (x) This is the Chain Rule Common Derivatives dx(x)=1 ~(sinx) d d -( cscx) = -cscxcotx dx = cosx ~(cotx)=-CSC2 dx ~(sin-lx)= ~( dx d aX) = aX In( a) dx ~( cos x ) = . I'(x)=y'= dl = dy =. =I'(x)±g'(x) -(c)=O dx dx (xn) = nxn-1_ ~ (I d d Power Rule (I g) = I' g+ ~ I g' _ Product Rule Rule 4. . xlna x>0 Visit http://tutorial. 2. 6. time x then I' (a) the object at x = a. 7. =cl'(x) . = dfl dx = x=a dx x=a dyl = DI( a) Interpretation of the Derivative If y = 1. x 1 x>0 dx -(cos- 1 d -( sec x ) = secxtanx dx x)= l-x2 dx (lnlxl) = -:. 1(x) (c/) (/±g) and g (x) Basic Properties and Formulas are differentiable functions (the derivative exists). notations for derivative evaluated at x = a. n are any real numbers.!!_(/(x))=DI(x) dx dx dx 1'( a) = -L.I( x) .math. h If y = then all of the following are If y = I( x) all of the following are equivalent equivalent notations for the derivative.sin x dx d -( tan x ) = sec? x dx d h l-x2 ~ 1 x dx (ex) = e" ~(ln( dx x)) = _!_.Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives Definition and Notation If y = I( x) 1(x) then the derivative is defined to be I' (x) = lim h~O I( x + h) .' x:.a) . I' (a) is the instantaneous rate of is the slope of the tangent change of 3. 3. (. is the velocity of I( x) at x = a and the I (x) is the position of an object at equation of the tangent line at x = a is given by y = I (a ) + I' (a ) ( x . If l.) f' g. ./ g' .edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins . m = I' (a) line to y = 2. 1(x) then.t:0 ~(loga dx d dx d ( -1) 1 dx tan x = 1+ x2 (x)) =_1_. If I (x) at x = a. c and 5.

6. If f' (x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then f (x) is constant on the interval 1.I' (x )sin[/( x)] 1'(x)sec2 [/(x)] ] 3.edu © 2005 Paul Dawkins .lamar. = I' (x )ef(x) ! x)]) !(tan[/(x)])= (cos[/( = . so products/quotients of x andy will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. f' ( c ) = 0 or 2. the derivative the (n_l)st derivative.cos(y) .Concave Up/Concave Down Concave Up/Concave Down 1.i. e. for a complete set of Calculus notes I( x) is concave down on the interval 1. If f' (x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then 2. Inflection Points x = c is a inflection point of concavity changes at x = c . . 2. the J'" (x) = (/(n-l) (x))' . f (x) is increasing on the interval 1.ge2x-9y . After differentiating solve for y' . . I(n-l) first derivative.2e2x-9y _ 3x2 y2 y=-------2x3 Y .2e2x-9y -3x2 y2 Increasing/Decreasing Critical Points x = c is a critical point of 1. 4. for all x in an interval I then Increasing/Decreasing 1. If I" (x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then I (x) provided either I' (c) doesn't exist. l.math. If f' (x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then f (x) is decreasing on the interval 1. I' (x ) . Implicit Differentiation Remember y = y( x) here. !([f(x)T)=n[/(x)T-1/'(x) !(ef(x)) ~(ln[/( dx 5. Find y' if e2x-9y + x3 y2 = sin(y) + llx. 11. i.Calculus Cheat Sheet Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions. I( x) if the Visit http://tutorial. I" (x ) < 0 3.9y') + 3x2 i + 2x3 Y y' = cos(y) y' + 11 2e2x-9y _ 9 y'e2x-9y + 3x2 y2 + 2x3 Y y' = cos(y) y' + 11 (2x3y _ge2x-9y -cos(y))y' = 11. e2x-9y (2 . -(sec dx [f(x)]) = f'(x) sec [f(x)] tan [f(x) (sin[/( 8. ! x)]) = 1'( x) I(x) x)]) = 1'( x )cos[/( x)] d 7. If is concave up on the interval 1. I( x) 2. (x). The ''trick'' is to differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y' (from the chain rule).1+[/(x)T Higher Order Derivatives The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as 2 f" (x) = f(2) (x) = d { dx f" and is defined as derivative of the J'" (x) = d I d~ n and is defined as of (x) = (f' (x)) . dx d(tan-1[ I (x)])- I'(x) .e.

is a relative minimum I (x) in [a. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of I(x) if/(c)~/(x) for all x near c. I( b) . of I (x) if I' (x ) > 0 to the left of x = c and I' (x ) < 0 to the right of x = c . Evaluate 2nd Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of I( x) such that I' (c ) = 0 then x = c 1. a rel. b] and differentiable on the open interval IS (a. Newton's Method If x" is the n'" guess for the rootlsol ulion of f (x ) ~ 0 then (n+ I)" guess is x provided H. b] use the x) following process. x) Extrema Relative (local) Extrema 1. in [a. If I( x) Mean Value Theorem is continuous on the closed interval [a. x) 2. 2. I( x) I( a) at all points found in Step 1. Find all critical points of I( . and 3. I(b)-/(a) b-a . b] then there exist numbers c and d so that. x = c is an absolute maximum of/( if I( ) ~ c 2. d ~ b . Find all critical points of 2. I( d) is the abs.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. is a relative maximum of/( 2..Calculus Cheat Sheet Absolute Extrema 1. x = c. l. in [a. > O. or neither if I" ( c ) = 0 . x) of I( x) (c) if I" (c) if I" <0. a number a <c<b such that I (c) = . may be a relative maximum. x) x) I( for all x in the domain. max. min. ~ x" . Extreme Value Theorem If I ( is continuous on the closed interval x) [a. 1. x =c is an absolute minimum of/( if I( ) ~ c Fermat's Theorem If I (x) has a relative (or local) extrema at 1stDerivative Test If x = c is a critical point of 1. then x =c is a critical point of I (x) .b]. Visit http://tutorial. not a relative extrema of I (x) if I' (x) is the same sign on both sides of x = c . relative minimum. of I (x) if I' (x) < 0 to the left ofx = c and/'(x) > Oto the right of x = c. 2.lamar. b ) then there . i~ l I' (xn) exists. 3. Identify the abs. min. Evaluate 3. min. max. Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points 1.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins . Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function I( on the interval [a. b] .math. a ~ c.2. 4. x) I( for all x in the domain. max. I( c) is the abs.b].3. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of I(x) if/(c)~/(x) for all x near c. (largest function value) and the abs. I( x) then x = c is a rel. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd derivative test on each critical point.

01) = 50 x' = 0..:on ~ Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating.5 rad? is the top moving after 12 sec? l~ -x'=-7. Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity. x' sec (0.2).".x secB =-.01 rad/min. -t)+.2)2 and the Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of x+ 2y = 500. Two people are 50 ft apart when one The bottom is initially 10ft away and is being starts walking north.5)( 0. We can use various trig fens but easiest is.5) tan ( 0. A'=500-4y ~ y=125 nd By 2 deriv. add on a derivative every time you differentiate a function of t). At what rate is the distance between them changing when B = 0. © -t) . Ex.72 = .05 so plug in B' and solve. findx.Ji76 y' = 0 ~ y' = 4~ ftlsec Optimization Sketch picture ifneeded. -t) and (. x2 + i = 152 ~ 2x x' + 2y y' = 0 After 12 sec we have x = 10 -12 (t ) = 7 and so y = ~152 . max.~. 0.2 i( ~ ~ n IBmldillg ~~ ~~ ~:xn x yl Minimize 1= d = (x2 0)2 + (y.---------------------------------~ Ex. Ex. Solve constraint for x2 and plug into the function.L 2 2 -$ The 2 points are then (~. x2 = y -1 ~ I= x 2 + (y . and want to find x' . How fast 0. and so is the answer we're after. ~ x = + .3112 ftlsec Remember to have calculator in radians! St.2) 2 = y_l+(y_2)2 = y2 -3y+3 Differentiate and find critical point(s). We're enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Using tMOmng.2(125) = 250 The dimensions are then 250 x 125.01 rad/min.lamar.. test this is a rel.""""" 1'<. Determine point(s) on y = x2 + 1 that are 500 ft offence material and one side of the closest to (0. 2005 Paul Dawkins .Calculus Cheat Sheet Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verif that the are minimax as needed . field is a building. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall.( x' is negative because x is decreasing. . 7( We have B' = 0. x2 = 1. -1 = 1. A= y(500-2y) x=500-2y ~ =500y-2i Differentiate and find critical point(s).math. Write down equation relating quantities and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes constraint is y = x2 + 1. Determine dimensions that ~ 3 will maximize the enclosed area. I' = 2y-3 ~ y=-t nd By the 2 derivative test this is a rel. Solve constraint for x and plug into area. The angle B changes at pushed towards the wall at tftlsec.. Finally. e. x . and so all we need to do is find x value(s).Jfi6. min.~ secB tanB B =-50 50 We knowB = 0. x = 500.. . Plug in and solve for y'. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into first equation. write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Visit http://tutorial.

e.a) Jkdx=kx+c = Jxn dx n!l xn+l+ c..!!_JU(X)(t)dt=u'(x)f[u{x)]-v'(x)f[v{x)] f dx v(x) J f(x)±g(x)dx= s: J f(x)dx± J g(x)dx Properties f(x)±g(x)dx= J: f(x)dx± J: J cf (x) dx = cJ f (x) dx. F (x).!!_ dx r (X) (t) dt = u' (x) f [u (x) ] f f (t ) dt = . c is a constant b a f (t) dt f(x)dx If f (x ) ~ g (x) on a ~ x ~ b then If f (x ) ~ 0 on a ~ x ~ b then J: s: f (x ) dx ~ r g (x) dx f (x) dx ~ 0 IJ:f(x)dxl~ J:if(x)ldx If m ~ f (x ) ~ M on a ~ x ~ b then m (b .b] into n subintervals of width 11 x and choose Xi" from each interval.a ) ~ J: f (x) dx ~ M (b . Part I : If f (x) Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is continuous on [a.F ( a) .lamar.b].lnlax+bl+ c X-I ax +b a Jlnudu = uln(u)-u+ c Jeudu=eu+c Visit http://tutorial.b]. c is a constant g(x)dx J:f(x)dx=O S:f(x)dx=-L a J J: b a cf (x ) dx = c f (x ) dx = J J: f (x) dx. Divide [a. b] and g' (x) = .. b] then Variants of Part I : g (x ) = LX f (t) dt is also continuous on [ a..-l J dx= J?dx = Inlxl+ c J-l-dx=. .v' ( x) f [ v ( x) ] v(x) Part II : f(x)is b a continuous on[ a. where F (x) is an anti-derivative of f( x) .l. Indefinite Integral: s: J f (x) dx = F (x) + c f( x )dx = ~~~ f( Xi")11 x. such that F' (x) = f( x) .Calculus Cheat Sheet Definite Integral: Suppose f( x) Integrals Definitions is continuous Anti-Derivative: An anti-derivative of f( x) on [a.edu J cosu du = sinu + c J sinu du = -cosu + c J sec? udu = tanu+ c J secutanu du = secu+ J cscucotudu = -cscu + J esc? du = -cotu+ c U Common Integrals c c J tanu du = Inlsecul + c J secu du = lnjsecu-r tanul+ c J du = -. J f(x)dx) . Then is a function.math.i-tan-l(~) + c Jh du= sin' (%)+c -21 a +u -2 a2_ u2 for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins .!!_ !J: dx J a x f (t) dt = f (x) . n f::. F (x) is an anti-derivative off(x)(i. then F(x)= J f (x ) dx = F (b) .

or 2. Use either 1. 2. n odd and m even. Trig Formulas: Ex.Calculus Cheat Sheet Standard Integration Techniques Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class. 5 L lnxdx I I xe- u =x dx= -xe- X + e. cos(2x)) I 1. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and convert the rest to secants using tan" x = sec" x-I. I tan" I tan" X X sec' x dx sec" xdx = tan 2 xsec" 4 I X tan X sec xdx = J( sec? x-I )sec x tan xsec xdx I cos x dx sins x sinS dx = I sin xsinxdx = I (sin2 x)2sinxdx Ix 3 4 cos x 3 (u = secx) cos3x = (I-cos2 sinxdx x)2 cos3x I = -I cos3x (u = cos x) 1-2u2+u4 u3 (1-u )2 2 u3 du = -I du = tsec2 x+ 2lnlcos xl. then use the substitution u = sinx . or 2. sin( 2x) = 2sin(x )cos(x). For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration. then use the substitution u = tan x . 4.x )1: = 5ln( 5).I: v du. Ex..lamar. Strip 2 secants out and convert rest to tangents using sec? x = 1+ tan 2x.-----------~-----------------------. du 3 x=1 => u=13=1 :: x=2 => u=23=8 Integration by Parts: = tsin( u )1: = t( sinj S] . 3. n odd. then use the substitution u = sec x . cos" (x) = HI +cos( 2x)). Use double angle andfor half angle formulas to reduce the integral into a form that can be integrated. 4.math. Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest to sines using cos 2x = 1. 3.sin 2x. 2. then use the substitution u = cosx . m even. u Substitution: The substitution u = g (x) will convert I 2 bf a (s (x) ) g' (x) 8 dx = I g(b) g(a) f (u) du using du = g' (x )dx.sin(I)) I u dv = uv .3In(3). n odd. Use either 1.dx = -xeX I => du = dx X v = _e- X u = In x _e- X +c I: dv = dx => du lnx dx = x In xl~- I: = 1. nand m both even.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins .2 Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions For I sin" x cos" xdx we have the following: For tan" x sec" xdx we have the following : 1. Each integral will be dealt with differently. nand m both odd. I:. dx x v= x dx = ( x In (x) .cos 2X . Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to cosines using sin 2x = 1. II 5x 2 2 3 cos] x ) dx I125x 3 cos ( x ) dx = I1 t cos ( u ) du u = x3 => du = 3x2 dx => x2 dx = 1. Choose u and dv from integral and compute du by differentiating u and compute v using v = dv . n even and m odd. I xeX X dx dv = eX . sin" (x) = HlEx.I v du and I: u dv = uv Ex. Ex. m odd.tcos2 x + c Visit http://tutorial.

. 3x+16 +4 7x2+13x (x-l)(x2+4) (x-I) 7x2+13x (x-l)(x2+4) dx = J_4_+ = J_4x-I dx + . Ixl= L::-:} ....math.1. so.J4.cose 3 f ~sin2 e(2 16 cose) (1. Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression.D A ax+b Ax+B ax' +bx+c Factor in Q ( x) (ax+h)k 2 (ax +bx+c A --+ ax+b Term in P.cose) 3 de = J__lLde 2 de = -12cote +c ~4..+ = Bx+C x-I x2+4 A(x'+4)+(Bx+C) (x-l)(x2+4) t Ex. 7x2 +13x = (A+B)x2 + (C -B)x+ 4A-C Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve to get constants.F.L + .D A2 (ax+h) 2 + ..F. From substitution we have sine = {.D.J4.. X J 16 x2J4-9x2 = l.F. An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants. For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5A which gives A = 4.Jh2x2 _a 2 ~ x=tsece ~a2 +h2x2 sec? ~ x =ttane 2 e = 1dx ~ e de 2 tan" e = sec? e-l e = 1+ tan e sin 8 Ex.+4) dx x-I. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.1.~x2 .9x = . Start with setting numerators equal in previous example: 7x2 + 13x = A (x2 + 4) + (Bx + C) (x -1). Partial Fractions: If integrating J P(x) Q(x) J 16 x2J4-9x2 dx=_4~ x +c dx where the degree of P ( x) is smaller than the degree of Q (x). + 2 ax' +bx+c (ax +bx+c =. ~a2 _h2x2 cos 2 ~ x = tsine sin 2 ..:cl.. Visit http://tutorial.lamar. In this case we have .9x2 = 2cose.Calculus Cheat Sheet Trig Substitutions: If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions. {x-x ~fx ~ 0 if x-c 0 So.)4-9. Ifwe had a definite integral we'd need to compute e 's and remove absolute value bars based on that and..-l sirr' Recall e = . Factor in Q ( x) ax+b ax' +bx+c Term in P. For each factor in the denominator we get tenn(s) in the decomposition according to the following table. Because we have an indefinite 3.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins . integral we'll assume positive and drop absolute value bars. Chose nice values of x and plug in. + Ak (ax+h)k t AkX+Bk Ax+Bl + .sine 3 2 dx = l.). From this we see that cote = ~4..J4cos e = 21cosel = J12csc2 Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to x's.. This won't always work easily.2 = Ixl. A+B = 7 C-B = 13 4A-C= 0 A=4 B=3 C=16 = 4ln Ix-11 + ~ In ( x + 4) + 8 tan -1 ( -T) Here is partial fraction forrn and recombined.L dx x2+4 x2+4 2 Set numerators equal and collect like terms. J J 2 7x +13x (x-l)(..

Vert. y ~ a y=j(x) . Axis use f (radius) (width I height) Limits: x/y of rightlbot ring to x/y of left/top ring Horz. Axis use f (x) . Visit http://tutorial. g ( y) . Rings Cylinders A= tt ((outer radius)2 . A (y) and dy. g ( x ) . A (y) and dy. Here are some sketches of a couple possible situations and formulas for a couple of possible cases. to x/y of outer cyl. Y = f( x) ~ A = L b [upper function] . Axis : y = a ~ 0 y g(x~ ~(' j(x) x outer radius: inner radius: a . Axis : y = a ~ 0 y Limits: x/y of inner cyl.r-: Y y=«x) A= L f(x)b y=g(x) g(x)dx A= a Ld f (y ) . Axis: y = a > 0 y Vert. Ex.[left function] dy If the curves intersect then the area of each portion must be found individually.g (y ) dy A= s: f(x)- g(x)dx+ r g(x)- f(x)dx Volumes of Revolution: The two main formulas are V = A ( x) dx and V = A (y ) dy. Ex.f (x) a. Axis use f(y). Axis use f( x). A (x) and dx. Area Between Curves: The general formulas for the two main cases for each are.math.Calculus Cheat Sheet Net Area: J Applications of Integrals f ( X ) dx represents the net area between f ( x) and the b a x-axis with area above x-axis positive and area below x-axis negative. A ( x) and dx. Ex. (y ) . Axis : y = a > 0 y g ( x) . Ifaxis of rotation is the x-axis use the y = a ~ 0 case with a = o. For vertical axis of rotation (x = a> 0 and x = a ~ 0) interchange x and y to get appropriate formulas.g( x) lal+ g (x) inner radius: lal+ f(x) outer radius: radius: a- y radius: g(y) lal + y g(y) width: f(y)- width: f(y)- These are on!y a few cases for horizontal axis of rotation.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins .[lower function] dx & x = f(y) ~ A= L d [right function] . Ex.lamar.(inner radius)2 ) J J A = 27f Horz. g ( y) . H ere is some general information about each method of computing and some examples.

ds = 1+ (! r dx if y = f ( x). The three basic formulas are. Discontinuity at a < c J f ( x) dx Discont.It.xj] X J f( J: a b x) dx '..""2 Lh [ f( x )+ 2f( Xl)++2f( o 2)+ -.b] into n subintervals [xo. f( x) dx '. ac y c b ds = ds= (~ f + ( 1i-f dt if x = f (t ) . at b : r f (x ) dx = ~~ J~f ( x) dx < b : J:f (x) dx = J~ (x) dx + J: f ( x) dx provided both are convergent. . This is typically a Calc II topic. a ~ x ~ b dy if x=f(y). )+- --+ f( x:) X J. 3.)+ f( x. Improper Integral An improper integral is an integral with one or more infinite limits and/or discontinuous integrands.math.lamar. Useful fact: If a > 0 then J 7 dx converges if 1. oo ] 2. aX p > 1 and diverges for p ~ 1 . then J: f( x) dx divg. J a b Discontinuous Integrand 1. the work done is W = b Average Function Value: The average value of f (x) on a ~ x ~ b is L.-+ 2f( ] n_l)+ f( xn) X f( x) dx '. Discont.Calculus Cheat Sheet Work: If a force ofF (x) moves an object in a ~ x ~ b . For given integral L f (x ) dx and a n (must be even for Simpson's b Approximating Definite Integrals Rule) define Lh = b~a and divide [a.a+ b t 2. y = g (t). Infinite Limit l. If 00 Comparison Test for Improper Integrals: If f (x) ~ g (x) ~ 0 on [a. xj" is midpoint [xj-J. Lh[f( x. L= L ds b SA = L 2n Y ds (rotate about x-axis) b SA = L 2n x ds (rotate about y-axis) b where dsis dependent upon the form of the function being worked with as follows. a ~ t ~ b a~e~b dS=~I+(:r r2+(~~f de if r=f(e). J: f( x) dx conv. ~ [f( xo)+ 4f( xl)+ 2f( x2 )+- --+ 2f( xn_2)+ 4f( n_l)+ f( X n) ] Visit http://tutorial. Integral is called convergent if the limit exists and has a finite value and divergent if the limit doesn't exist or has infinite value. Loof(x)dx=~~~J~f(x)dx L:f (x) dx = roo f ( x) dx + Ioo f (x) dx provided BOTH integrals are convergent. With parametric and polar you will always need to substitute. .It.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes © 2005 Paul Dawkins . then J: g( x) dx conv. Xn] with Xo= a and xn = b then. f t___:.. With surface area you may have to substitute in for the x or y depending on your choice of ds to match the differential in the ds.It. If J: g( x) dx divg. then. at a: f (x ) dx = lim 3. [xn-1. Xl]' Midpoint Rule: Trapezoid Rule: Simpson's Rule: J: [Xl'X2]. = 1 b-a L F ( x) dx Jba f (x) dx Arc Length Surface Area: Note that this is often a Calc II topic.