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North Carolina State University
Omcc of Cootinlling Eduation and Rofariod Development Dirkion of Univerdty Ertcadon
Short Course Participants
Tho Offico of Continuing Education C Profomsional Dovelopment (OCECPD) welcomes you to this North Carolina State University short
course. We hope your e%periences here are pleasant and rewarding. If you have noeds while you aro h u e that aren't baing met, please let um know. liko to call your attontion to o n important a8pect of your . You will be awarded Continuing participation in thi8 cour80. Education U i . (CEDs) for muccessful completion of this program. nt One CEU is awarded for u c h 10 hour8 of iMtruction, with the undustanding that tho 8tudurtmut bo pro8ont for at least 908 of the instruction. The CW is a nationally recognized uniform unit of moamuramont providing the participant vith educational units which can be accumulated and u e d a8 evidence of profemsional development. In an incrusing number of irutances, CEWS are used for certification, licuming and am a factor in promotion.
The staff greatly appreciate. your comment. about the program you are attending. We also welcome suggestions for new courses to meet your educational needs, as we are continually goarching for subject areas not included in t h o more than 600 conferences, workshops, short courses and seminars now being .offered. Again, we are pleased to have the opportunity to s e n e you and hope you return often.
B. Marston, Director of Continuing Education Professional Development
North Carolina State University College of Textiles
The North Carolina State University College of Textiles Serves the citizens of Nonh Carolina through .education. research and extension programs. Founded in 1899, this institution with an enrollment of close to 1.OOO students, now dominates textile education in the United States. At the present time, nearly half of all textile university-based undergraduate degrees are awarded here. Fifty percent of all master’s candidates and 75 percent of all textile Ph.D.’s are currently enrolled in the college. Reflecting the diversity of the industry itself. the curriculum includes Bachelor of Science degrees in texules, textile and apparel managemenL textile science, textile engineering and textile chemistry. Within some of these degree programs, a student may specialize in textile design. textile technology. textile management, apparel management, polymer chemistry. dyeing and finishing science, dyeing and finishing technology, and dyeing and finishing management students interested in pursuing advanced degrees in scientific and technical disciplines. Students studying textile chemistry can concentrate on dyeing and fmishing science, polymer ‘science,dyeing and finishing operations. and dyeing and finishing management. These students are in great demand in the numerous textde operations that emphasize dyeing and fmishing. many of which are located in North Carolina. or in polymer-related research and development activities throughout the fiber and textile indusmes. Students studying textile engineering leam how to apply scientific principles and engineering prar;tices to the widely diversified aspects of texule processes. products and machinery. This degree program is operawf jointly with the College of Engineering. The NCSU College of Textiles offers
m a programs leading to the Master of Science. ut e Master of Textiles. and Doctor of Philosophy degrees.
Graduates with advanced textile degrees are constantly in short supply and great demand.
The textiles degree program is designed to provide a broad foundarion in textile technology. beginning with the basic raw material and progressing through to the finished fabric. Students enrolled in this curriculum may sptcialize further in the areas of textile design or advanced textile technology. Textiles program graduates typically fill design and manufacturing management positions in fiber and texule manufacturing fms.
Students enrolled in the textile and apparel management program will obtain a solid background in texules, in addition to management concepts and applications. Specializationsin textile management or apparel management arc possible. Graduates of hese programs are in demand t fill positions in o production, tezhnical services, sales, markuing. purchasing, personnel and other related management and staff functions.
The curriculum of the college i v e d e and s comprehensive, providing instruction both on and off campus. Extension programs provide numerous short courses, conferences and workshops on a grtat variety of subjects o interest to the fiber, textile and apparel f industries. In addition to these programs, Textiles Extension also offers a wide variety of in-plant courses.
Credit courses via the Textile Off-Campus Televised Education (TOTE)Program are offered internationally. Enrollment averages approximately 160 students pcr academic year. Courses are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Students can eam a Master of Textiles with a specialization in Textile and Apparel Management and Technology: Textile Engineering and Science: and Textile Chemistry. TOTE classes an available to any individual seeking an improved textdes education or background. In addition a visual aid rental seMce is available u) the industry.
Another program offering outstanding opportunities for students is the textile science program. which emphasizes research, development, o and applications of advanced technology t the fiber and textile industries. It is also a good choice for
August 24 8:OOam 4:OOpm Embassy Suites to College o Textiles f College of Textiles to Embassy Suites Thursday. August 22 7:45am 4:OOpm 6:30pm 9:OOpm Embassy Suites to College of Textiles College o Textiles to Embassy Suites f Embassy Suites to Simpson’s Simpson’s to Embassy Suites Tuesday.25.WEFT KNITTING FUNDAMENTALS BUS SCHEDULE AUGUST 22 . August 23 8:OOam 4:OOpm Embassy Suites to College of Textiles College of Textiles to Embassy Suites Wednesday.1994 Monday. August 25 8:OOam 12:OO noon Embassy Suites to College of Textiles College of Textiles to Embassy Suites .
Smith 1 Knitting Yarns: . Plied Spun Yam Classifications And Comparisons Ring Open-End Carded Combed strength cost uniformity twist cover count range b. A.WEFT KNITTING FUNDAMENTALS Gary W. Filament: Flat vs. Textured Influence of Filament Count and Stretch 1 . Yarn Classifications: a. Spun: Singles vs.
count variation c.c. uniformity c. friction f. Elastomeric: Elastomeric Yam Comparisons Bare Single Covered Double Covered cost extensibility stability B. colorhhade h. friction d. Implications of New Yam Developments: a. strength b. packaging 2 . joining techniques C. uniformity d. package sizehhape . elongation g. b. Yarn Requirements: a. twist e.
Purl 3 . Yam Numbering Systems: a.D. Classifications: a. Direct: Denier: weight in grams of 9000 meters of y a m Decitex: weight in grams of 10000 meters of yam Comparisons of Yam Deniers 1/70/13 l/70/34 2/70/34 cost thickness Uniformity Count Importances: 2. Structure aa. Indirect: Cotton Count: number of 840 yard lengths per pound Comparisons of Yam Counts 20/1 30/1 3012 cost thickness uniformity b. Rib cc. Weft Knitting: A. Jersey -- bb.
Weft Knitting Machine
7 . Tubular bb. Small bb.b. Dial and Cylinder 3cc. V-Bed dd. Purl c. Single Cylinder bb. Machine aa. Float loop: C.an actual course Visual: . Large B. Wale: . Course: . Definitions: a. Diameter aa. Flat d.a vertical column of loops WPI: Knit loop: Tuck loop: e. Format aa.a horizontal row of loops W Feeder: .a visual course CPI: b.
Single Jersey Technical Face Technical Back 8 .
an element which forms loops and wales '. 77 Interlock Gaiting: p. needles and (sometimes)sinkers k. Negative Feed: .slots which guide needles during knitting j.a horizontal plate which contains slots and horizontal needles 1.the amount of yam required t o knit one complete course cnruuy Run-In: Ravel length: Draw: n.a unit which guides a yam to the needles g. Tricks: . Timing: .1 h. Loop Length: . Needle: .the arrangement of two sets of needles Rib Gaiting: cr/ u 77 IIIIIIIIIIII 0. Sinker: . Feeder: .the average amount of yam in a loop m.a cylinder drum which contains slots.yam pulled from the yam package by the action of the needles 1 0 .Course length: . Cylinder: .relative movement between two sets of needles or ~ -- needles and sinkers q. Dial: .an element on jersey machines which assists needles hold fabric during knitting i. GuageKut: .normally the number of needles per inch Gaiting: .f.
yarn metered to the needles at a preset rate s. Yield: .r. Positive Feed: .the weight per unit of fabric Oz/yd2: Oflinear yard: Yarddpound: Conversions: 11 .
Knitted Fabric Properties: a. Bulk: 12 . Stretch and Recover: b. Pilling: g. Crease Resistance: d.C. Snagging: f. Shrinkage: c. Spirality: e.
Verbal: b. Examples: 13 . Symbolic: Knit Face Rear Tuck Face Rear Float Face Rear B E I Examples: E l m 17 0 d. Graphic: c.c . . Diagrammatic: mit(Face) G Knit (Rear) Tuck(Rear) Floatwear) 2L A A Tuck(Face) \d Float (Face) Y Interlock Gaiting 0 m c ' RibGaiting o .D. Notation: a.
Knitting Zone: c. Introduction to Machine Functions And Considerations: a. Fabric Take-up And Collection: 14 . Loop Classifications And Fabric Modifications: Knit KnitfI'uck length width Knit/Float thickness cost extensibility effect weight knitability CPI F. Creel: b.E.
Jersey Knitting: A. Plain Jersey: b. Tuck Jersey: c. Jersey Knitting Cycles: a.3. Camming Systems. Raceway U i s And Notation: nt 15 . Float Jersey: B.
Needle Cylinder n 16 .
Ty picaI Cam System of Single Jersy Machine Direction O Needle Travel f * I NeedleMotionReuuired Cleating I m Running Knockover F I Loop Pulling L 17 .
b I 18 .
Latch Needle Activation 3 i + 3 e 19 .
Movements of Latch Needles and Web Holding Sinkers A a D 20 .
A Knit Loop B Tuck Loop Formation Tuck Loop 21 .
A Float Loop 22 .
Tuck Stitch Formation Y Y @ ! 6 4 P A Y 4 23 .
Float Stitch Formation Float Stitch Formation 24 .
yam characteristics: b. yam purchasing and storage: d.1 j. Factors Influencing Knitability And Productivity: a. yam specifications: c. machine character and tensions: e. preventative maintenance: i. cleanliness: h. fabric structure and tightness: f. operator/technicianload: 25 . inventory policies: -.C. ambient conditions: g.
Single Knit Fabric Classifications: Plain Jersey Striped Jersey Flat Jacquard TerryNelour Plaited Jersey Tuck Jersey Fleece . training: 1.k. Plain Jersey: b.E. detector usage and monitoring: D. Tuck Jersey: 26 . Specific Jersey Fabric Characteristics: a. Striped Jersey: c.
Knit Loop Tuck Loop Float Loop 27 .
Laying-In Weft Knit Fabric 28 .
TerryNelour: f. Jersey Fabric Modifications: 29 .d. Fleece: g. Plaited Jersey F. Flat Jacquard e.
Tension Control: 30 . Starfish Concepts: a. Course Length Control: c.G. Yam Control: b.
Complex Ribs: aa. Gaiting Considerations: C. Simple Ribs: 1x1 2x2 6x3 Half' Cardigan b.- Blisters cc. V-Bed Machines: B. Flat Jacquard 2 Color 3 Color 31 . Rib Fabric Classifications: a. Rib Knitting: A. Plain Interlock 2x1 Full Cardigan 3x3 Thermal Ponte de Roma bb. Needle Timing Considerations: D.4. Dial and Cylinder Machines: b. Relief Cords -. Rib Knitting Cycles: a.
Cylinder and Dial w Tricks d 32 .
Rib Gaiting 33 .
Feeder 2 (Short Needles) m 34 .
Rib Camming Dial Needle I swingcam Guard Cam - / Clearin Cam (Tuck dight) 35 .
Numbers 3 and 4 show the location of swing cams which work along with the tuck cam to take needles up to knitting position. L SwingCam3 SwingCam 5And6 . / /- short Needle Swing Cam (In Action) ShortNeedle (In Action) Tuckcams’ Long Needle Tuck Cams 2 ( u Of Action) Ot 7a 36 / / I LongNeedle Swin Cam4 ( u 8 f Action) Ot .Dial Cam Section Numbers 1 and 2 show the location of cams which change needles from inoperative position to tuck position. Numbers 5 and 6 show the location of adjustable stitch cams controlling the size of loops.
Timing CYL TRICKS CLEAR I. Cast DELAYED TIMING SYNCHRONIZED -.- TIMING ADVANCED TIMING Ll \ADVANCED Dasned line depicis cylinder needle pathSolid line depiz:s dial needies path 37 .
'V' Bed Rib 38 .
1 x 1 Rib 39 .
Rib Fabric Characteristics: a. Simple Ribs: 1x1 2x2 2x1 3x3 Half Cardigan Full Cardigan 41 .E.
Plain: Interlock Single Pique’ 42 .Thermal Modified F. ComplexRibs: a.
Relief Cords 43 .Ponte-de-Roma Swiss Double Pique’ Milano Rib b.
Fabric Packaging And Handling Considerations: 44 . Flat Jacquards: 2 Color 3 Color 5.Blisters c.
Knitting Action: 7. Rotary b. Machinery Classifications And Overviews: a. Jersey f Ribfir1 45 . Fabric Classifications: a. Purl Fabrics: A. Indentification And Knitting Sequences: B. Mechanical d. Fancy B. Reciprocating c. Hosiery: A. Electronic -- ~ e. Plain b.6.
1 x 1 Purl Face course Back course 46 .
Stitching f- --- 5#Plain I - C 1 2 B i 3 47 I 4 (Rib) -- .
Half-Hoser 48 .
Special Considerations In Hosiery: 49 . Trends: G. Pattern Capabilities: F. Product Classifications: D. Machinery Vs. Shaping: E.C.
TrialResults d. Considerations: a. Developments: B. Warrantees. Cost b. Machinery Developments And Purchasing Considerations: A.8. Reputation c. Maintenance and Service f Productivity and Quality g. Diameter 50 . Creel Design -- ~ h. Automation and Patterning e.
Cleaning System p. Set-up and Plant Requirements 0. Training m. Feeding System .i. Gauge j. Monitoring System r.- s. Capacity And Doffing System 51 . Inventory n. Lubrication q. Spreader 1. Feeds k.
Productivity .9. Production Calculations: C.
..Name: Date: Style: Weft Knit Analysis Yarn Type: Yarn Count: Courses Per Inch Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5 X Wales Per Inch SamDle Tech Face Tech Rear Loop Length And Run-In Feeder Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reading 5 LOOP Length ..- Diameter: cut: Total Needles: Calculated Run-In: 54 .
lint. needles or sinkers Improper threading of yarn Faulty take down-spreader system Machine vibration 55 . color. yam fragments in the cam system. twist direction Uneven oiling or waxing of yam Malfunctioning of storage or tape feeders Crooked dial needle bed Different stitch settings Faulty cylinder or dial cam settings Dirt.size. Barr6 . Yam count variations (count uniformity) Twist yam tension variations Wrong yam .Knit Fabric Defects A.11. tricks.Horizontal bands following courses around the tube. blend level.
sinkers Dial and cylinder needle misalignment (timing.sinkers Dirty needles Bent or stiff latches Closed latches Worn tricks . Vertical Lines .needles. Broken needles Bent needles .needles rub Improper setting of yam guides Machine vibration Spreader abrasiodcreasing Improperly set spacers on take-up Folds from too narrow spreading at take-up Oil lines Wrong needle Mixed needle lots 56 .Following the wales up the length of the tube usually mechanical.stem.needles. hook .B. gaiting problems) . sinkers Dirty tricks .
trash Lint (low twist. poor cleanliness) Low humidity static Improper setting of yam guides Feeder problems (tight. Holes . extreme hairiness. rough places) Faulty height adjustment of sinkers Baa! c!6417.Yarn or mechanical in nature. High friction .between yam and guides Insufficient wax o r oil Poor quality (strength.fl3 57 . elongation) Too much yam tension Knots Improper yam size for gauge Snarling of yam (twist lively) Slubs.C.
D.knots Too high machine starting speed Low yam tensions during running Incorrect feeding of the yam Inaccurate setting of distance between dial and cylinder Improper take-down tension Defective needle Defective sinker Machine vibration 58 .Random Or Continuous. Yam tension too high (check yam path) Yam snagging Yam snarling . Stitch Runs .
Dropped Stitches Improper setting of yam camer Obstructed yam carrier Improper needle timing between dial and cylinder Twist liveliness of yarn Bad needle (bent latch.E. hook) Too tight of stitch (run-in or cam setting) High yam tension Too high of a dial height Too high take-down tension 59 .