CHAPTER 4 : THERMOCHEMISTRY

An exothermic reaction is a reaction that releases heat into the surroundings.The dilution of concentrated acid using water is an example of an endothermic reaction.The energy level diagram is a graph that shows the energy content of the reactants and products of the reaction.

Table 13.1 Heat is released from the chemicals into its surroundings during an exothermic reaction The energy level diagram is a graph that shows the energy content of the reactants and products of the reaction.Heat energy is absorbed when chemical

bonds of a compound are broken.

Table 13.2 Energy level diagram of an endothermic reaction

On the other hand,heat energy is released when the chemical bonds are reformed.The exothermic and endothermic reaction are used in the making of hot and cold packs.Heat of reaction is defined as the heat change that occurs when 1 mol of substance reacts or when 1 mol of product is formed. A negatively marked heat of reaction, shows an exothermic reaction.A positively marked heat of reaction shows an endothermic reaction,Heat change is the quantity of heat that is released or absorbed in a reaction. Heat change in a reaction can be calculated using yhe following formula: Heat change = solution mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change = mcø The heat of reaction can be calculated using the formula:

Heat of precipitation is the heat change when 1 mol of precipitate forms.Heat of displacement is the heat that is released when 1 mol of metal is displaced from its salt solution by more electropositive metal.

Table 13.3 Types of heat of reaction The heat of displacement that is obtained from the laboratory activity is less than the actual value because part of the heat has been a) lost to the surroundings

b) absorbed by the container Heat of neutralisation is the heat that is released when 1 mol of hydrogen ions,H+, neutralises 1 mol of hydroxide ion,OH-, to form 1 mol of hydroxide ion,OH-, to form 1 mol of water,H2O.The heat of neutralisation value of a reaction that involves a diprotic acid is twice that of the heat of neutralisation value for a reaction that involves a monoprotic acid. The heat of neutralisation of a reaction between a weak acid and a strong alkali .This is because heat must be absorbed to overcome the bonds in a weak acid molecule,in order to ionise it.Heat of combustion is the heat that is released when 1 mol of substanc is fully burned in excess oxygen Heat of combustion is the heat that is released when 1 mol of substanc is fully burned in excess oxygen .The more carbon and hydrogen atoms per molecule of alcohol, the more heat that is released when 1 mol of fuel is combusted.The fuel value is a measurement of the energy content of a fuel.The fuel value is a measurement of the energy content of a fuel.The fuel that is chosen must be one that has a high fuel value but low fuel price.

Table 13.4 Fuel values of various types of fuel

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