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Mechanics of Solids and Structures
David W. A. Rees
Brunel University, UK
Imperial College Press
Published by Imperial College Press 57 Shelton Street Covent Garden London WC2H 9HE Distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. h e . Ltd. P 0 Box 128. Farrer Road, Singapore 912805 USA office: Suite IB, 1060 Main Street, River Edge, NJ 07661 UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Copyright 0 2000 by Imperial College Press
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ISBN 1860942172
Prinied in Singapore by UtoPrint
V
CONTENTS PREFACE
CHAPTER 1
xi
STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION
1.1 ThreeDimensional Stress Analysis 1.2 Principal Stresses and Invariants 1.3 Principal Directions as Coordinates 1.4 Matrix and Tensor Transformations of Stress 1.5 ThreeDimensional Strain Transformation 1.6 Plane Stress 1.7 Plane Strain EXERCISES
1 1 5 9 16 20 27 32 36
CHAPTER 2
PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY
2.1 Elastic Constants 2.2 Relationship Between Elastic Constants 2.3 Cartesian Plane Stress and Plane Strain 2.4 Cartesian Stress Functions 2.5 Cylindrical Plane Stress and Plane Strain 2.6 Polar Stress Functions EXERCISES
43
43 46 48 53 65 69 86
CHAPTER 3
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
3.1 Membrane Theory 3.2 ThickWalled Cylinders 3.3 Interference Fits 3.4 Rotating Cylindrical Bodies 3.5 ThickWalled Sphere under Pressure 3.6 Thermal Stresses in Cylindrical Bodies 3.7 Thermal Stresses in Spheres References EXERCISES
93
93 101 103 108 118 121 129 130 I30
vi
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 4
BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES
4.1 Bending Of Straight Beams
137 137 140 143 149 158 165 171 179 183
4.2 Combined Bending and Direct Stress 4.3 Beams with Initial Curvature 4.4 Elastic Bending Of Composite Beams 4.5 Reinforced Sections (Steel in Concrete) 4.6 Asymmetric Bending 4.7 Bending of Circular Plates 4.8 Rectangular Plates EXERCISES
CHAPTER 5
THEORIES OF TORSION
5.1 Torsion of Circular Sections 5.2 Torsion of Thin Strips 5.3 Torsion of Prismatic Bars 5.4 Circular Shaft With Variable Diameter 5.5 Torsion of ThinWalled Closed Sections 5.6 WagnerKappus Torsion of Open Restrained Tubes Bibliography EXERCISES
197 197 204 208 219 223 23 1 245 245
CHAPTER 6
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION
6.1 Single Span Beams 6.2 Clapeyron's Theorem of Three Moments 6.3 The Moment Distribution Method 6.4 Continuous Beams 6.5 Beams With Misaligned Supports 6.6 Moment Distribution for Structures EXERCISES
253
253 256 262 264 270 27 1 275
CONTENTS
vii
CHAPTER 7
FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW
7.1 Shear Stress Due to Shear Force in Beams 7.2 St Venant Shear in Prismatic Bars 7.3 The Shear Centre and Flexural Axis 7.4 Shear Flow in ThinWalled Open Sections 7.5 Shear Flow in ThinWalled Closed Sections 7.6 WebBoom Idealisation for Symmetrical Sections 7.7 WebBoom Idealisation for Asymmetric Sections Bibliography EXERCISES
281
28 1 287 29 1 292 302 310 319 32 1 32 1
CHAPTER 8
ENERGY METHODS
8.1 Strain Energy and External Work 8.2 Castigliano's Theorems 8.3 The Principle of Virtual Work 8.4 The Principle of Virtual Forces (PVF) 8.5 The Unit Load Method (ULM) 8.6 Redundant Structures 8.7 The Principal of Virtual Displacements (PVD) 8.8 The RayleighRitz Method EXERCISES
331
33 1 337 344 346 35 1 357 367 372 377
CHAPTER 9
INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES
9. I Perfect Euler Strut 9.2 Imperfect Euler Struts 9.3 SemiEmpirical Approaches 9.4 Buckling Theory of Plates 9.5 Buckling in Shear 9.6 Flexural and Torsional Instability of Thin Open Sections References Bibliography EXERCISES
389
389 393 403 41 1 42 1 423 429 429 430
viii
CONTENTS
C H A P T E R 10
FINITE ELEMENTS
10.1 The Stiffness Method 10.2 Bar Elements 10.3 Energy Methods 10.4 Prismatic Torsion 10.5 Plane Triangular Element 10.6 Plane Rectangular Element 10.7 Triangular Elements with Axial Symmetry 10.8 Rectangular Element for Plate Flexure 10.9 Concluding Remarks References EXERCISES
435
435 436 442 443 447 470 473 483 492 492 493
C H A P T E R 11
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
1 1.1 Yielding of Ductile Isotropic Metals 1 1.2 General Yield Function for Isotropic Metals I 1.3 Anisotropic Yielding 1 1.4 Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials 11.5 Strength Criteria for Lamina
497
497 506 512 517 523 530 535 535 537 537
I 1.6Comparisons with Experiment 1 I .7 Concluding Remarks References Bibliography EXERCISES
CHAPTER 12
PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE
12.1 ElasticPlastic Bending of Beams 12.2 Plastic Collapse of Beams and Frames 12.3 Collapse of Structures 12.4 Plastic Torsion of Circular Sections 12.5 Multiaxial Plasticity 12.6 Plasticity with Hardening References EXERCISES
539
539 544 555 559 566 575 585 585
CONTENTS
ix
CHAPTER 13
CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY
13.1 The Creep Curve 13.2 Secondary Creep Rate 13.3 The Equation of State 13.4 Brittle Creep Rupture 13.5 Correlation of Uniaxial Creep Data 13.6 Creep in Structures 13.7 Multiaxial Stress 13.8 Viscoelasticity 13.9 Design Data References EXERCISES
591
59 1 593 597 601 603 605 610 614 624 625 626
C H A P T E R 14
HIGH AND LOW CYCLE FATIGUE
14.1 High Cycle Fatigue 14.2 The Stress Cycle 14.3 Environmental Effects 14.4 Low Endurance Fatigue 14.5 CreepFatigue Interaction References EXERCISES
631
63 1 632 642 644 654 659 660
CHAPTER 15
FRACTURE MECHANICS
15.1 Blunt Cracks 15.2 LEFM 15.3 Crack Tip Plasticity 15.4 Fracture Toughness Measurement 15.5 Energy Balance Approach 15.6 Application of LEFM to Fatigue 15.7 Application of Fracture Mechanics to Creep Crack Growth References EXERCISES
663
663 665 670 673 676 683 688 689 690
X
CONTENTS
APPENDIX I
PROPERTIES OF AREAS I. 1 Centroid and Moments of Area 1.2 Parallel and Perpendicular Axes 1.3 Principal Second Moments of Area 1.4 Matrix Representation 1.5 Graphical Solution EXERCISES
693
693 693 695 696 696 703
A P P E N D I X I1
MATRIX ALGEBRA
11. I The Formation of a Matrix
707
11.2 Matrix Addition and Subtraction 11.3 Matrix Multiplication 11.4 Transpose of a Matrix 11.5 The Inverse of a Matrix 11.6 Matrix Types 11.7 Matrix Operations EXERCISES
707 707 708 709 709 710 71 1 71 1
A P P E N D I X 111
STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
111.1 Introduction
715
111.2 Tension and Bending of a Flat Plate with a Central Hole 111.3 Tension and Bending of a Flat Plate with a Double UNotch 111.4 Tension of a Flat Plate with Shoulder Fillets 111.5 Tension and Bending of a Flat Plate with a UNotch 111.6 Tension, Bending and Torsion of Circular Bars and Tubes with CrossBores 111.7 Tension, Bending and Torsion of a Solid Bar with a Circumferencial UNotch 111.8 Tension, Bending and Torsion of a Solid Circular Shaft with a Shoulder Fillet 111.9 Bending and Torsion of a Shaft with a Keyway Bibliography
715 715 716 717 718 7 19 72 1 722 724 724
INDEX
725
xi
PREFACE
This book has been developed from subject matter and examples that I have used in my teaching of solid mechanics, structures and strength of materials in Universities over the last two decades. It is intended for engineering degree and diploma courses in which solid mechanics and structures form a part. Postgraduates and those preparing for the membership of professional institutions by examination in these subjects will also find this book useful. The contents illustrate where overlapping topics in civil, aeronautical and materials engineering employ common principles and thereby should serve engineering students of all disciplines. In the author's experience this broadening of the subject base is also aligned to the teaching of applied mechanics within enginering science degree courses. A concise approach has been employed for the theoretical developments in order to provide the space for many illustrative examples. It should become obvious that these calculations are all related to the load carrying capacity of materials used in engineering design. Amongst the requirements are the choice of material, its physical shape, the assessment of the nature of imposed loading and its effect on life expectancy. The text illustrates where and how the necessary techniques are to be employed in each case. The reader will soon recognise, for example, that under elastic loading, the solution to the stress and strain suffered by a material invariably becomes that of satisfying three requirements: equilibrium, compatibility and the boundary conditions. The style adopted has been to provide mostly selfcontained chapters with a logical and clear presentation of the subject matter. Earlier material underpins the analyses given in later chapters. This allows occasional reference to other chapters without detracting from the main argument. The choice of general chapter titles, that contain many specific topics, emphasise the more wide ranging principles of the subject. The first three chapters of the text are arranged to cover the necessary fundamental material on stress and strain analyses and plane elasticity theory. A structures theme follows with the full treatment of theories of bending and torsion. This theme continues with coverage of the moment distribution method, shear flow and strut buckling. The chapter on energy methods and virtual work precedes chapters on finite elements, yield and strength criteria. Thereafter, the mechanics of inelastic solids appears with chapter on plasticity and collapse, creep and viscoelasticity. The final two chapters on high and low cycle fatigue and fracture mechanics reflect some of the more recent developments in solid mechanics. Each topic, as it appears, is illustrated by worked examples throughout. Many exercises on these topics appear at the end of each chapter. The interested reader and user of the book may, at a later date, wish to consult a solution manual to the exercise sections, which is now in preparation. Acknowledegementsare made to Imperial College, London, Kingston University, Trinity College, Dublin and to the C.E.I. for granting permission to include questions from their past examination papers as worked examples and exercises. The author also thanks Mrs M. E. J. Williams forproofreading the manuscript and his past teachers, colleagues and students who have all helped to shape this work. D.W.A. REES
1
CHAPTER 1
STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION
1.1 ThreeDimensional Stress Analysis
In dealing with the state of stress at a point we consider the element in Fig. 1. la, set in a Cartesian coordinate frame x, y and z. Nine stress components a,, a,, uZ, trX, t, r,, T ; , ~ , rXy, , and tn. on the six rectangular faces, as shown. The three stress components existing on any act one face might arise as the components of an oblique force applied to that face. In general, these component stresses are a consequence of any manner of combined loading, consisting of moments, torques and forces. In the double subscript engineering notation used to identify shear stress, the first subscript denotes the direction of the normal to the plane on which that stress acts. The second subscript denotes the direction of the shear stress. Some authors reverse the order of these subscripts but this does not alter the analysis because of the complementary nature of the shear stress. This means that tv = t y x , = qx and txz = t7y, which is a moment equilibrium requirement. As a consequence there are six independent stress components: three normal ax,a,,and q and three independent shear components. A stress tensor contains the nine Cartesian stress components shown in Fig. 1. la and is conveniently represented within a 3 x 3 matrix. We shall also represent these components later with a single mathematical symbol qjwhere i and j = 1, 2 and 3, so that:
sZ
‘x
0 ‘J E ..
‘cxy
‘cx2
‘I1
‘I2
‘22
‘13 ‘23 ‘33.
Tyx
‘y
T2y
‘yz
‘2
J
’
‘21 ‘31
.z z x
‘32
1.I . I Direction Cosines
In Fig. 1.lb ABC is an oblique plane cutting the volume element to produce the tetrahedron OABC. On the front three faces of the element in Fig. 1.1a the stress components act in the positive coordinate directions. Negative directions apply to the back three orthogonal faces in Fig. 1.1b. It is required to find, for Fig. 1.1b, the stress state (0,) on the front triangular t face ABC in both magnitude and direction. To do this it becomes necessary to find the areas of each back face. In Fig. 1.2a, we let the area ABC be unity and construct CD perpendicular to AB and join OD. The normal vector N to plane ABC is defined by the direction cosines I, m and n with respect to x , y and z,
1 = cow, m = cospand n = cosy
(l.la,b,c)
Then, as area ABC = %AB x CD and area OAB = %AB x OD, it follows that Area OAB/Area ABC = ODKD = cos y = n
2
MECHANICS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES
X
Figure 1.1 3D stress state for an oblique plane ABC
Hence area OAB = n and, similarly, area OBC = 1 and area OAC = rn. The direction cosines I , rn and n are not independent. The relationship between them is found from the vector equation for N: N = N,u,
+ NYu,+ N,u,
(1.2a)
where u, , u, and u, are unit vectors and N, , N,, and N, are scalar intercepts with the coordinates x, y and z respectively, as seen in Fig. 1.2b. The unit vector uNfor the normal direction is found by dividing eq( 1.2a) by the magnitude I1 of N: N uN= (NJINI) U,
+ (N)ANl)U, + (NJINI) U,
(1.2b)
but from eqs( I . 1ac) 1 = c o w = NJINI, m = cos,8= NJINI, n = cosy = NJINI. Hence eq( 1.2b) becomes
uN = 1 u , + rn u,. + n u, ~
(1.2c)
I2
Y
Figure 1.2 Normal to an oblique plane
/ I 1l2 = 1 N 1 2 + rn2 + n2 = I 1. and into the normal direction.z+s. y and z respectively.. This gives u= S.cos y = S../ IN1 l2 + [A’. m and n are the intercepts that the unit normal vector u. this becomes (1 Sa) The resultant force on plane ABC is expressed in two ways: s2=s. force components resolved .1.. the magnitude IN1 reveals the relationship between 1.3) (a) Magnitudes The normal and shear force (stress) components u and r respectively act upon plane ABC. Now S is also the equilibrant of the forces produced by the stress components acting on the back faces. from eqs( 1.+s.)’ = lN12 [N.3 Stress state for the oblique plane ABC As the area of ABC is unity. and S.4c) li Figure 1. makes with x . 1.. Furthermore.)’ + (NJ2+ (A’.cos a+ S.c).3a./ IN1 1’ + [N.2 Normal and Shear Stress on Plane ABC (1.b. m and n: (N.n where.4a.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 3 Clearly 1. . with the coordinate components S S.as shown in Fig.=u*+ t2 . Their resultant is S .l+ SYm+ S.4a) (1.. .cosP+ S. S. then uis the sum of the S S . Hence the following three equilibrium equations apply to its components: ( 1.4b) (1.
+ mr.3b). .678 = rn.2 Directions of Shear Stress The direction of a i s defined by I . r.. y and z component forces are S..4 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES r 2 = S 2 a 2 = S ~ + S ~ + S ~ u2 Substituting eqs(l.= aco s y + r c o s y . r. = 7. + l t . The direction of r.21]/14.6a. a.5b) enables r to be found. .. m = .212= 223.% (S.95 = 0.21 MPa + (6/14)( 7)] Now. T = aXl2 + q. + It.1 The state of stress (in MPa) at a point is given by a. .21]/14.rna)/r=[4/414 .l o ) / r rn.1/d14) x 19. = .5a) into (l.62 from which r= 14. = 35. a...vt S.(2/d14)7 . m.r= lo.7 and ryz ro = 0..3) = 19. = ucosp+ rcosp.c). (see Fig.b.19. from eq( 1 Sb).4a. from eqs( 1. v r from which the direction cosines of rare 1.6b) (1.= cos /3. y and z components of aand t. = 14.z = .. + nq. . the x . = q.(2/d14) x 19. = ma+ rnVr S. = cos a. m and n since a i s aligned with the normal vector N.) = (14 x 4/14) + (10 x 1/14) + (35 x 9/14) + 2[(.6a) (1.( . and n . What is the direction of the shear stress acting in this plane? Substituting the stress components into eq( 1 Sa). = 10.415 = .4a. S. = (3/d14)35 .l a ) / r =[0 .6~) Example 1. Determine the normal and shear stresses for a plane = whose normal is defined by 1 = 2/d14. + n q z = (2/d14)14 .. (1 Sb) 1. 1...0 .1 . = nu.95 MPa.(1/J14)7 .0.  a2= 0 + 16/14 + 912/14 .+ hr.c) and (1. is defined by 1. = cos y..n o ) / r (1.1.rna)/r n. + niq. Because S. from eqs( 1.v (S.. = ma.c).95 = . = .b.= (S. + S: + S'.2/14)7 + (3/14)0 = 4 + 5/7 + 45/2 + 2 (.(3/d14)7 = 0 S.b. lying tangential to plane ABC. and S7 are the x ..m2+ q n 2 + 2 (lrntv + mnr.it follows that S x = u co s a+ rcosqs=la+ l. = n a + n . . The direction cosines for this shear stress are..(1/d14)10 +'(3/d14)0 + (2/d14)7 = 4/d14 S. 1.1/d14 and n = 3/d14.v= (S. the shear stress acting along the plane is t2= S '.(1/d14)0 = 91/d14 Then. = (S.
z) chosen to . + nrxz 0 = l r . y and z are a.o) Tsy 7yr .a ) + mr.597 The corresponding inclinations of r to x .. Equation (1.= cos'(0.. u2and 4 to this cubic equation give the principal stress magnitudes. + rn (q..37' 1.597) = 53.? + lr.J . u becomes a principal stress.u)=O I (a.95= 0. (1.2.415)= 65. for the plane ABC in Fig.7a) (oxo) TF T* 7ry 5xz (a.+rnr. S. u 2 + J . = O (1... y.8a) The three roots (the eigen values) u..4a. COS.687) = 133. Resolving forces in the x.(3/d14) x 19.(. + niz.b.O (1. .=nu=nu.la.J . + nr.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 5 n.c) to be written as S. Rearranging. .7b) (azo) Expanding eq( 1.8a) is simplified to u'. nru + S. = m u = mu.+lr. u J .. It follows that the coefficients J .. then by definition.5" y\ = cos ' (0.+n(u. and J ..4" = p.a ) + nr. = la= la. the shear stress r is absent. = ( S .7b) leads to the principal stress cubic equation: (1. y and z directions allows eqs( 1. = 0 lr.21]/14. l.0.8b) There is a unique set of principal stresses for any given applied stress system.1 Magnitudes of the Principal Stresses When. will be independent of the coordinate frame (x.2 Principal Stresses and Invariants 1..+mr.. .n u ) / r = [91/d14 .
Hence the invariants may be written in both general (subscripts x. S..n = S ( 1 cosa. y and z directions (Fig..88" = 0. Resolve the resultant force S (stress S acting on unit area ABC) in the x. z ) or principal (subscripts 1 . Thus J .. intermediate ( a 2 and ).41 MPa Sz= ti q + 1 rrz+ tn r. the major (a. y. 216 cos 43" = 0 .the invariants and the principal stresses. the shear stress is t2= S 2  a' =+ r= ~ ' ( 2 1 6 ~152. = 50. denote summation for i andj = I .+mt. > a > q? ) must be found from the solution to the . = S cosar.c).= 23. and Sz= S n. S = S mr= S cosp. + m cosp.=la.Otherwise.866 cos 75" + 0.15 MPa + (0. the principal stresses are more convenientlyfound by expanding the determinant in eq( 1.) = 152. T~.71 MPa Now.8a) must include the case where the x.b.387 x 23) a. = m q . z frame coincides with the principal stress directions 1.1 and trZ 57 (MPa). from eq( 1. .76 MPa  Substituting into eqs( 1. 2 and 3.1) + (0.3167 x 3.repeated subscripts on a single symbol.3167 x 57) a.L + S. . Find the normal and shear stress on a plane whose direction cosines are 1 = 0. J .(0. 2 and 3. are called the invariants of the stress tensor. or within a term.7b). a resultant stress of magnitude 216 MPa makes angles of rxr = 43".with numerical values having been substituted. 2 .88") = 152.= 55.1) .387 cos 43" + 0.6 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES define the applied stress components. . Where there are exact roots. + n cosy..+tzr.3167. and J . = 369. Given that the applied shear stresses are rx.3 167 cos 50. = = determine q . m + S. 1.1 MPa S.4a.88" with the coordinates x.866 x 23) + (0.3. 3 8 7 + ~ ~ (0..387. 3 ) forms: For the shorthand tensor notation used in eqs( 1.866 x 3. m = 0. Example 1..866 and ti = 0. = 75" and y. y and z respectively.) = 216 (0. 216 cos 50. p.9ac)..5b).387 x 57) .(0.a. Equation (1. The normal stress in eq( 1Sa) is then a= S. 8 6 6 ~ ~ .8b).3167q 4. = S cos yr . ) principal stresses (a. + n r2!+ 1rxy 216 coS75" = 0 .71. ) minor (a. = 310. y. characteristic cubic equation(1.3a) to give S = S I.2 At a point in a loaded material.q.
(57 x 55. f ' ( a ) = 78761.32~+ 148323.1 .(23)2 .05 (ii) (iii) One root lies between 50 and 60. A closer approximation is then given by ~ .13 c = a3.66 .c).15 x 310.61 = 148323. agives a= 1 53.(53.(145240.15) + (369.45)=53.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION I Substituting into eqs( 1.1 X 55. .(23 x 3.05 310.7 3 4 .15 J3 = det 23 57 = 310.36 Thus U' .1 57 3.13)(aa2+ ba+ C) = a3.53.1 + 55.b. a. :.3787.3.(.13 b ) a .15) . . b = .22 = 0  (i) Using Newton's approximation to find the roots of eq(i). :. giving an even closer a= 53.41 3.ru = (310. 2 2 2 = a.66 .05.1 [(55.41 x 369.22 The principal stress cubic (eql.66.7 3 4 .05~5956556.1 x 57)] + 57[.b ) a 2 +(C .6 8 1 .41 x 369.2335. + a.9a.(3.1 =55 Again.53.rxJ .( .03/76585. = 310.22 f'( a )= 3 a 2 .15) . a..(.8b) becomes U' .45.05~ 5956556.681.66 178761) = 53. c = 112113. + a.66.66~'+ 148323.1)2.13 a .05~5956556.53 c .15 = 734.1469. 6 6 ~ ~ + 148323.(57)2 = 1521 10.1) .13 .734. f ( a )= a3.+ a.36=0 .22 au3 .1)2].03 and f ' ( a) = 76585.66~~ + 148323. Take an approximation a= 55 MPa so that the numerical values of eqs(ii) and (iii) are f ( a ) = 145240.05~5956556.13 b = 148323.734.1 369.. = J2 a + u.53.1 23 55.a2.f ( ~ ) / f ' ( ~ ) .3. from eqs(ii) and (iii). u.T.22 Equating coefficients of a3.41) + (55.1) .23[(23 x 369. the invariants are J. 5 3 ~ + 112113.13 MPa The remaining roots are found from the quadratic a u 2+ bu+ c = 0 where ( a .53.41 + 369. 6 6 ~ ~ + 148323. f ( a ) = approximation to the root:  2335..b = 734.41) = 5956556.
). n 2 ) and (1. (1  u)(u. = 1 . . + n .b.u)l+rn+n=O lrnu+2n=O 1 + 2rn .= u. . Example 1. between the 1. the dot product of any two is zero. . + rn. rn.llb) (1. u. ) leads to three simultaneous equations in l . rn. uz= 0. = 1 and u.7a) with u = u. = 4. u.rn3+ n . + rn u. . n.3). = 404. u. . .) = 0 Now u. given the following stress components: ox= 3.1. lob) ( 1. . u.2. For the 1 and 2 directions u.2 kN/m2. ).46. Hence. .lla) (I. + rn .1 OC) Since these are orthogonal.+rn. ( 1. = 0. They are u. u2= 1 2u. 2 ~the principal ) sets of direction cosines (1.8 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES for which the roots are 404. 3 and 2.2 Directions of Principal Stresses Substituting for the applied stresses into eq(l.u. m 2+ n .. n3 ) will define unit vectors aligned with the principal directions. = u. and n .13 MPa. . A similar deduction is made for the separate substitutions of u2( I . ( 1 2 .1.07 or 277. n 2 = 0 + m 2 m 3+ n 2 n 3= O 1 . rn2.7a). + n u. 3 directions leads to three orthogonality conditions: 1. + r n 2 q + n2u.7a) becomes ( 3 . the principal stresses are a. 1. 1 .Equation (1. a. together with the relationship l I 2+ rn12+ nI2= 1 from eq(1. rn. rq = 2.46 and u3= 53. = 1 and = .u.+n. . n2) and (1. = 1. + rn u.u. Similar dot products .4)(u+2)=0 The roots are principal stresses a.of which only two equations are independent.. n .1Oa) ( I .c) are the only conditions that satisfy eq( 1.nu= 0 (i) (ii) (iii) . u. (1.= u. n . sZ 30 det 1 00 1 1 1 2 00 = 0 2 Principal stresses are found from the expansion of eq(i). Now from eq( 1 . rn. . . .1 la. u. rxz ru = 1 and = rzy 2 (kN/m2). rn.uy+ nIu2) ( I 2u. u2 = 277. This confirms that the principal stress directions and their planes are orthogonal. n 3= O z (I. + n . u3=l. u = u. u2 = ( I u. rn.u. 1.Show = = that the principal directions are orthogonal.07.3 Find the principal stresses and their directions. uy= 0.1 Ic) The following example will show that eqs( 1.
.direction becomes + A.direction becomes U. *.2 in eqs(i) . = 1/~'6.4n. Figure 1.. 1.= 0 Because only two of eqs(iv)(vi) are independent. (T=o2= 1 and o= u3= . stresses in turn. =A. u .(iii). The unit vectors for these directions are U* = U) = ( 1 / J 3 ) ~ . = (A.. + (A.u.4. > > a. = O I ..u3 = u2 *. Thus the unit vector for the 1 .u.3 Principal Directions as Coordinates When the applied stresses are the principal stresses a. Because shear stress is then absent on faces ACO. ( 1/J2)UY. = (A.+A. ~ + (AJA I)u. . 2 and 3 as shown in Fig.4 A. + 2m.4 A v + 2 A . + m.. + n./IA I). .The unit vector aligned with the 1 . = 1 (say) to give A.directions are similarly found by substituting. = 0 We may solve these by setting A. = n .u. + m .u2= u. Hence 1. + 2 n . 4 = . . The directions are orthogonal as u. Ap:. ( 1/J6)uZ . = (A. we can let any vector A = A.T/IA I)u. = 1. + n ... n .=O A.. = J2/3 and m .r + 2 A. + u.4m. lie in the 1 .(1/J3)~./IA I)u. the coordinate axes become aligned with the orthogonal principal directions 1. = O 1./IA I) and eqs(iv)(vi) become A.direction. ( 1 / J 3 ) ~ . = Yz.1. m .4 Principal stress axes .u3= 0. the expressions for the normal and shear stress acting on the oblique plane ABC are simplified. Substituting o= 0. Then IAl = J(3/2) thus giving 1 .u. = 0 A.+A.T/IA I). = (A. ABO and BCO.STRESS A N D STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 9 Equations (i)(iii) supply direction cosines for each principal stress. *. 1. + The direction cosines for the 2 and 3 .( 1/J2)u. = J ( 2 / 3 ) ~ + ( 1 / J 6 ) ~ .
= mu2. 111.a) I t = ( S .b.ila.n = 0..a=S. + a. = la.5.14a) (1. .m+S.n u ) /t= n (u7. = ria. for the plane inclined at 45" to the 1 and 3 directions (1 = n = 1/J2 and m = O).a ) I t 11. 1. = (S.6a.= S . I 3a) :. . .3. 2 and 3 respectively and setting qy= t := t : 0 gives the reduced forms to the coordinate forces and oblique plane stresses.b. 1. For the 1 .10 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Replacing x .c).I Mnxiniuni Shear Stress It can be shown that the maximum shear stresses act on planes inclined at 45" to two principal planes and perpendicular to the remaining plane. + u7112 1 (1.l+S.12a. .15a) Similarly. the magnitude is ( 1 . Figure 1.5 Maximum 45" shear plane Substituting 1.13b) with associated directions. . the shear stress is .n i a ) / r =m (az.c) ( 1 .1 a ) / z = 1 (a. ni and ti into eq( 1.b. 3 . = (S.14b) (1.c) and (lSa.b) by 1. . normal N to the 45" plane shown has directions 1 = m = cos 45" = 1/d2 and n = cos 90" = 0.14~) in.13b). S. y and z in eqs( I. from eqs( 1. 1.a)/t ( I .2 plane in Fig. for example. (1. S .
.17a) ( 1.( w 3 ) + 0. = ( a . The octahedral shear stress q.) = and.and r.will determine whether the .c) t..= t13.0.+ 4 ) / 3 + (1. 1. .1 a) gives the octahedral normal stress (a..15b) = rn = 1/d2 and 1 = 0.is the average of the principal stresses it is also called the mean or hydrostatic stress u.c7.3) that the direction cosines for the normal to the plane equally inclined to the principal directions are 1 = rn = n = lid3 ( a =p= y = 54.acts with equal inclination and intensity it causes an elastic volume change which is recoverable irrespective of the principal stress magnitudes. U. For example.6. Since a...[ 0. (1/d3) = (a.14a.13a).. As the magnitude of q. (1. + a2). act on each plane while r.17c) When the eight octahedral planes are joined they form the faces of the regular octahedron as shown in Fig.16b) or. + (0.. > a..0.4.c) supply the direction cosines for z. In Chapter 1 1 it is shown that g yield criterion may be formulated on this basis. tZ3 t13 along the edges. )/ 3 l2 +2 = (21 9)(012+ + 41. = (2/3) d( r122r232 r . where ii (1.[(a. 1.5. 1.b. The normal stress acting on the planes of maximum shear stress is found from eq(l.3). depends upon differences between the principal stresses...=a..16a) Since a.u 3 ) 2 + (a. 3 2 ) + + (1. Substituting these into eq( 1. a critical value of z. is found by substituting 1 = rn = n = 1/d3 into eq( 1. .. with 1 = rn = 1/d2 and n = 0 for the 45" plane in Fig. o ~ ) ~ ] r. Superimposed on this is the distortion produced by r.) a../d3)2+ ( +( . from eqs( 1. 4 . a + a. o= Y2 (0... a.2 Octahedral Planes It follows from eq( 1. (see Section 1. deformation will be elastic or elasticplastic.a.U2 4) = (119) [(a. . Here q.l6b)..)z] + (I/&) * ] (1. z = ( 0.b. is r. > a.8').3. a2)'+ (0. for the plane inclined at 45' to the 2 and 3 directions. The greatest shear stress for the system a. and act The deformation occurring under any stress state may be examined from its octahedral plane..16~) Equations (1.1 Sa. given in eq(l.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 11 r13 k '/2 (a.13b) : ..17b) ( 1 .1 2 + u2rn2+ 3 n 2 = a l ( 1 / d 3 ) 2 + a 2 ( 1 / d 3 ) 2 + 0 3 ( l / J 3 ) 2 u q . When the 45" shear planes are joined from all four quadrants they form a rhombic dodecahedron. = '13 d [ ( q + (a2.2+ UZ2+ 4 2 ) / 3 ..
6 Regular octahedron formed from octahedral planes Example 1.14 MPa S = n a.5311.46’ . + Inr.l u ) / r =[5. the normal and shear stress on a plane whose unit normal vector equation is uN= 0.Z .= ! l 2 0 4 2 4 0 Substituting a = 6. rv = 2. qL= 2 and sZ .% = (S.7711. I. the x .77 x 4) + (0.46 MPa Then.14 .216)] / 3.) .77 x 0) + (0.732 MPa The direction of r is defined by directions supplied from eqs( 1.35 x 4) = 2.77 x 2)] = 6.. = 5. + = (0.35 x 2) + (0.c).77 x 6.57 m.4 The given matrix of stress components qj (MPa) describes the stress state at a point.216 MPa a I * + q .+2[(0.732 = 0.35 x 0.( 0. = 4 MPa in eq( 1 Sa) with 1 = 0.35 x 0) + (0. + r= 3.53 x 6. ~~ the greatest shear stress and the stress state on the octahedral plane.42 ..53)*.53 x 0.u2 ’. .53. + Now. from eqs( 1.6.53 x 6) + (0.. from eq( 1.42 MPa S. = 0. y and z stress resultants are S = la.4a. + 0 .m u ) l r = [4.53 x 2) + (0.46.x+ nt.35 x 6.216’ = 13. = ( i .216)] 13. 5 = 0.(0..Z + S. a.b.12 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 1. + 1~~ + nTy = (0. m 2+ q n 2 + 2 (Lm%y mnq.6a.77 x 4) + (0.35 x 2) + (0.732 = 0.c). + 1 rxz m z. .= m a . the shear stress is r2= S + S.526 = n. 6 2 2 0.b..nu)/ r = [2.v (Sv .0. . in magnitude and direction..(0. = (0.35 and n = 0.5b).77 x 2) = 5.142 + 2. Find. + mz.422 4.53 x 0.93. Determine the principal stresses.732 = . m = 0.53 x 2) = 4. 3 5 + 0.77 gives U= = 6(0.216)] / 3.623 S .
e. = 2 and u3= .u 2 ) 2 + ( 4 .y.17a.' = 1 . u.=(a. + m . The octahedral shear stress is found from eq( 1. . and q.a n ) / ( d 3 q .)/ (d3q.m = 0. I Figure 1.7 Maximum shear and octahedral planes .4 MPa The greatest shear stress is found from eq( 1.4 .STRESS AND STRAlN TRANSFORMATION 13 These cosines may be checked from eq( 1. 9 ) = 0 .q. 1. The unit vector in the + + = . (i.16a) q.u3)2] 0 1 = '13 d[(8 . = '/2 (a.o ) ( o .= 8.) = (2 .2) * + (2 + 4) + (8 + 4) 2 ] = 4. = (a. a.4 )] = 6 MPa .9) = .e.q.9 MPa with direction cosines. 1.(.16b) q. ) = ( 8 2 ) l ( d 3 x 4 .. = ( q .=1/3d[(a1 .+ q )/3 = (8 + 2 +  4)/3 = 2 MPa which acts in the direction of the normal 1 = m = n = 1/d3. y Y n. 2 and 3 (see Fig.0 us = 1. 0.0. 90" to 2) n.c) l. from eqs( 1.e..3) when 1 '.9) = 0 .5711.7b.2) / (d3 x 4. direction of r with respect to x ..8) = 0 u.2) / (43 x 4.. 135" to 3) The stresses q. + 0 . relative to the principal directions 1.707 (i.45"to 1) m. The normal stress acting on the octahedral plane is found from eq( 1. 7 0 7 (i. n = 1/d2. .3 ) 2 + ( u .15b) r. = (0. y and z becomes + mA2 n. 5 2 6 ~ ~ . h which acts along the plane defined by the normal 1 = 1/d2.)/ (d3qJ = (.u3) = ! [ 8 .b. 6 2 3 ~ ~ The principal stresses are found from the determinant: 60 det 2 00 4 2 4 = 2 2 0 =+ 00 ( a +4 ) (2 .7a).. are shown in Fig.$u.
eqs( 1. = ? h ( q + + 4 1 )  . > 4 are all tensile.C with inclinations of p on each side of the vertical through a. and C. and C. Point Y gives the greatest shear stress and its associated normal stress as t I 3 = ! h ( a . and a. I I. (vi) With centres C. (v) Draw lines a. and t13 rZ3 respectively (iv) Draw the line a. 2 and 3 directions...8..3.D and a. draw the arcs DC and AB (vii) The intersection point P has coordinates aand t as shown B I Figure 1. . The Mohr's circle is constructed as follows: (i) Erect perpendicular aand t axes (ii) Fix points a. Y and Z represent the state of stress for the maximum shear planes..3 and lSa.4 Geometric Representation When the applied stresses are the principal stresses a.b) combine graphically. > a. Assuming a.8 Mohr's circle for applied principal stresses Note that for all planes.. C. . point P is mirrored about the a . a construction due to Otto Mohr ( I9 14) enables a and r to be found for a plane whose normals are defined by a = cos .14 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1.axis.. a. 1. p= cos'm and y = cos'n relative to the I . draw circles of radii t. . Points X.AB inclined at afrom the vertical through a. a.q ) a n d a .. and a3to scale from the origin along the a axis (iii) With centres C... as shown in Fig.
9 Mohr's stress circle construction The graphical values are confirmed from eqs( l. The octahedral plane is defined by ) a = p= 54.b.732)2+ (1 1.439).52 1.632 + t = 3.  12. u2= 1 1.73' which.8)/ 3 = 11.17 MPa J[(u..m2 + u3n2 = 15.521)*+ (6. when applied to Fig.51MPh  r. + u3)/ + 3 t = 13 " / = (15.. z.16a..11.7322+ 0.6.38 MPa a.8)2]=3.3 6.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 15 Example 1.439)2= 12. gives another intersection point P.3 + 6. n = d[1 .5 1 MPa.. with coordinates q) 11.3 MPa is the radius of = = the largest circle. The greatest shear stress t13 4.5212)]= 0.3 MPa = = . = rI3 '/z (u.439.8 x 0.17.4 + 11. = (01 a.9 gives u = 12.8 (0.4 (0.521)2+ 6. The resultant stress S = d(u2+ t2 = 13. The Mohr's circle construction Fig.. Find also the stress state for the octahedral plane.u3)2 (u. 1.3 x 0.)2] + =1/3J[(15.(0.38 MPa. u. L 2 + u.8)2+(15. = 15. 1.63 0 a M Pa 4 Figure 1. t = 3.u2)2+ (u.65.9.732 and m = 0.8) = 4.b) and 1. u = a.4 x 0.5 Given the principal applied stress system a.4.3 and u3 = 6.6.8 (MPa).63 MPa r 2 = ( u l ~ ) 2 + ( u 2 m ) 2 + ( uu2n ) 2 ~ = (15.3 (0.4. determine graphically the normal and shear stresses for a plane whose direction cosines are 1 = 0.4.732)2+ 11..c). r n = 12.= 3.3)2+(11.l3a.15 MPa becomes the length of OP.( 1 2 + m 2 ) ] = d[1.4 . Check the answers numerically. u3) '/z (15.
4 Matrix and Tensor Transformations of Stress 1.4. We now abandon x.. p = 1. and u2. In double subscript tensor notation.13a. Note that here x . That is .I Tensor Subscript Notation Equations (ISa.10 Generalised stress components with rotation in orthogonal axes Equations (1. 18a) defines the rotation completely within 9 direction cosines. 18a) where q 4 the six independent components of stress lying in coordinate axes xI.19a) (1. x2 and x3 can be either the generalised coordinates x. 2 and 3 used previously. I l i p = cos ( X i ...194 .8a) are the direction cosines defining each primed direction with respect to each unprimed direction.x3)are the direction cosines of the rotated axis 1' relative to directions I . I = cos (xl. the shear stress components are a...c) show how the nine direction cosines appear within the unit vectors' expressions for the l'.. q2and 4..) ( I . = cos(x. 2' and 3' directions.. 1. They are (1.16 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1.etc.4 0 1 1 ( 1 . lob.b) obey a more general transformation law defining any symmetrical tensor of second rank. this law appears as u.3) in eq( 1. For example. The components lipand h4 ( i . Equation( 1. 1.10a). = cos(x.. The first subscript denotes the normal direction and the second the stress direction. Hence the normal stress components are u.2. The shear and normal stress components are each identified with two subscripts.=/.b) and (1. 1 8b) Equation ( I . L. . 1. (see Fig. y and z or the principal stress coordinates 1. of which stress is a member. ..2b.P V I 'P 1. x2 and x.x 2 ) . x. xI).. 2 and 3 respectively. following the coordinate rotation shown in Fig. a... . l. iX3 I t Figure 1. and are x2 x. I9b) (1. y and z in favour of these equivalent mathematical coordinates.18a) will transform these components of stress to those lying in axes x .
and B = U.'3l '22 '32 '2 'I2 '32 '33 03.2. eq( 1. '3.1.. In full..2' 0 3 . S ' and L represent the nine components urn. and xz. In the analytical solution.'I3 ' 2 3 Example 1. .3. normal and shear stress referred to in eq( 1. I 1 5 5 s= 5 0 5 0 0 1 .4. conversion of eq( 1.20a) in which LTdenotes the transpose of L. and lip(and l j .'3l '22 '23 '21 '22 '32 'I2 'I3 '22 '23 (1.20c) '2. 02.2. . This leads to the correct order of matrix multiplication as follows: ti' (1.2a) was found.20b) reduces to '11 '2. (als3' )' 3.20b) that the individual components are given as the dot products When the coordinates xi become aligned with the principal directions.2. The stress components associated with this plane are ulsl. 1.6 Given the following matrix S of stress components.18a) to matrix form can be made. . are aligned with the vectors A = u. '2.1.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 17 1.. ul. and l . '2'3' i '21 . + u2 .20a. (previously I. Clearly T is the resultant shear stress acting on plane ABC and u. '3rl* '12 'I3 '23 '33 'I '11 '21 '22 '31 ( 1.5a. + 2u2 + 3u. Before the 0. and u.?.19ac) and (1.3' are its components in the 2' and 3' directions.3. '32 '33.. m and n in the engineering notation).20a) becomes '11 '12 '13 '11 '12 '13 '23 '33 'I1 '21 '31 '32 '33 '2.'31 Equations (1. . Let the 3 x 3 matrices S. determine s' when the coordinates x .2 Matrix Notation Equation (1. eq( 1. . '3.b) becomes u= u. ) respectively..2 '3. the ul.20b) 03.u ~ . 3 .18a) may be converted to an equivalent matrix equation. .1. 3) frame. '21 . We can identify ABC with a plane lying normal to xIm (say) with directions I .and T = J [ ( U ~ + ~ ) ~ . In the analytical method the stress state for a single oblique plane ABC (Fig.. similar subscripts must appear adjacent within each term. It follows from eqs(l.b) provide the normal and shear stresses for three orthogonal planes within the xi' ( i = 1. I .
Figures 1. 12. 1.20b). .e. The mean stress (Fig.. by definition U.( 1/J42)u3 and from eq( 1.= l/J3.+ a.. I.980 2.762 5.a. i. .389 1.l l J 3 .'= a. normal stress components a. l ... I. . The subtraction of a.+ q ) / 3 and the deviatoric stresses (Fig. IBI = J3.3 Deviatoric Stress Tensor A deviatoric stress tensor qi is what remains of the absolute stress tensor qj after the mean (hydrostatic) stress a . divide the vector equations by their respective magnitudes IAl = J14. = 4/J42.1/J3 The cosines for the third orthogonal direction x.a.381 = 1lJ3 51442 llJ3 11J3 5 / 4 3 251J42 4143 26lJ42 41J42 . = 1/43..1/43 llJ42 3lJ14  5 0 51442 4lJ42 11/14 21J14 5 0 1 31J14 .1 Ic) are a. .389 6. and does not alter the shear stresses when they are . Thus. a. ( 1. To ensure this.b). 11414 21J14 S' = 31J14 1 5 5 0  11J14 21J14 1lJ3 5lJ42 11J3 41442 1lJ3  11J3  . 1 . = (u. 1 1b) is u. a' = a. = C/ ICI = (. present. Substituting into eq( 1. will apply only to the .. ) = 1/J14.667 1.19~): = .4.286 1. I .llJ42 201J42 = 4lJ14 51J14 8lJ14 11/43 1.19a. = 3/J14 1 2 .. I . .). . if a vector C lies in x. 12.1/J42.11442 1. ' then.5/J42. to give the unit vectors: The coefficients are the direction cosines in eqs( 1. . has been subtracted.= . are found from the cross product. + 4. 2 and 3. and a' = a..18 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Firstly. l.= ( u.a.1 lac show how the principal triaxial stress system in (a) is decomposed into (b) its mean and (c) its deviatoric stress components.. = ..21 a) Similar subscripts together (kk) denote summation over I . = 2/414.5/J42)uI + (4/J42)u2 .+ a. 4 and 4 .980 2. the deviatoric stress tensor is written as .762 1.
eq(l.11 Hydrostatic and deviatoric coinponents of principal stress Thus.’. eq(l.2 la) the shear stress components remain unaffected since the Kronecker delta 6 . 1. A summary of the important equations used for transforming stress and strain is given in Table I . . This reveals that the one important deviatoric invariant. a normal stress deviator but the shear stresses from eq( 1..2la) is written as S D= S  ’ / 3 (tr S) I ( 1. q 2and q3.2 I b) where S is a 3 x 3 matrix of the deviatoric stress components. For example. are expressed in a scalar functional formf(q. this is known as a yield criterion. identified with the von Mises yield criterion. and qi and 02i the original shear stresses a.. is proportional to the expression (1.21b) appears as ( 1.. ) = constant..21a) is composed of o. We shall show in Chapter 1 1 how the yield criterion governs the inception of plasticity under any rnultiaxial stress state.. When the invariants of 0. I is the unit matrix and tr S is the trace of S (the sum of its diagonal components).2 1c) The components of deviatoric stress agree with those found from eq(l.21a) gives.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 19 Figure 1. with i = 1 and j = 1. The matrix equivalent of eq(l.2 1 a) are unaltered It follows that the deviatoric stress tensor qi in eq( 1. In full.214. is unity for i =j and zero for i # j .16b or c) for q.2 and 3. in eq( 1.
. and e. z ) and v = v (x. 1.e.. for one corner of an element 6 x x 6 y x 6z in the x . (ii) angular distortions e. t and T . and 5 are associated with the The displacement of the corner point from 0 to 0’.. direct strains E.and cZarising from direct stress a.1 The Strain and Rotation Matrices The analysis of the distortion produced by the stress components a. Figure 1. t and t..la reveals two types of strain: (i) direct strain zx. 1.* 5. y .z . = avtdx (1. and e. i. = av lay (1.y plane These are given as e. It is necessary to subtract rotations from the angular distortions to establish a shear strain component responsible for shape change.. for example.. the direct strains zX= autax and E.y . Let the respective components of this displacement in the x and y directions be u and v. = autay + avtax (1. = dutay and e. and rotations due to the differences in direct strains.20 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1.b) Because 6 x * 6 y and E. Now 6 x and 6 y change their lengths in proportion to the displacement gradients. 5.then ev * eYx. The distortions in (ii) are composed of shear strain due to t. which are each functions of the coordinates u = u (x. and in Fig.12b) reveals two. ]. e.e.12Distortion of one corner in the x ..23a. arising from shear stress zr. y plane are shown.22a. In Fig.b) The engineering shear strain is defined as the total change in the right angle y.5 ThreeDimensional Strain Transformation 1. the angular change in the right angle.. complementary tensor shear strains: .. the angular distortions e.24a) Rotating the distorted corner so that it becomes equally inclined to the x and y directions (see Fig. z).12a. i. ~ rigid body . ay and a...5.
1b. z).21)( 1. Referring again to Fig. = . the expression for the normal strain is identical in form to the corresponding stress expression (1 Sa).25) Equations (1. z and y.and that the rotation matrix is skew symmetric mjj = .y2(auiaY aviax) = . OAB and OBC are known and that we wish to find the normal strain for the oblique plane ABC.vqauiay . y.gradient relationships.'/z(auiay + aviax) = '/z( auiay . e. let us assume that the strain states for the coordinate planes OAC. z planes. 1.STRESS AND STRAlN TRANSFORMATION 21 The corresponding rotations are ux).aviax) 5.direction and further displacement . Given the direction cosines for plane ABC. The normal strain on plane ABC will then appear in terms of coordinate strains cil as . Consequently.25) as follows ex exy ex* eyx eY eP = (+I 1 2 au av ay ax av aY 0 0 0 This shows that the strain matrix is symmetric qj = q. msx= ep  cv = auiay . for the z .aviax) + With an additional displacement function w = w(x. However. the complete distortion of an element 6 x x d y x 6 z may be expressed as the sum of the corresponding strain and rotation matrices (1.x = aviax . which is defined as Yzy.23) then appear as particular components within each expanded matrix in eq( 1.qi. similar decompositions apply to normal and shear distortion in the x. the conversion requires t to be associated with the tensor component of shear strain.Recall that the 3 x 3 stress matrix is also symmetric ( q j= q)and it may therefore be deduced that the transformation properties of strain qj will be identical to those of stress.
' ) = 4 x l o . = 1.' ) E ' . .(5049.27) follow from the conversion of eqs( 1. principal strain and a root of eq(i).75 x are then As the direction of E~ (= c Z )is parallel to the z .22 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (1.4 .c) (1. >E.=O (1. t .5 0 4 9 . enables a .3 x IO')&+ (20069.'') = 0 (1) For the plane strain condition.26a) ( I .7 3 0 0 Substitutingthestrainst.I: a = 1 [c2]:b . the absence of shear strains tnand E ~ . m2 = 0 and n. the normal strain cz= 4 x 10.8b) &' l.') = 0 and 67 x lo'.7a). ~ x y = ~ Y x = 3 3 ~ 0 = and E.b.=65~l O .z.( [E]: 4 1~ . The remaining two principal strains become the roots to the quadratic: E' + (8 x (5017. The principal strains e l > E . it follows that the cosines are 1.3).(5049.28b) 65 33 0 0 4 x r. Thus. = evz 0 into eq( 1. It follows from eq(i) that [E (4 x 10')](m' + be+ c) = E' + (4 x .. = . 3 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ ~ =5.27) leads to the principal strain cubic E.' is a . + (4 x ~ O . = 1 33 . [&.7 3 x 1 0 .. The strain equivalent to eq(l.direction.9a. giving E = . together with eq(1.27) The strain invariants in eq( 1.' .2 x 10. the principal strain cubic may be deduced from eq(l.3 x 10.' .&2+I2E I.3 x (20069.4 .26b) Similarly. + b = 8 ~ 0 c.28a) (1. 3 =+ 1c 0 ~ ~ 0 1 7 .is a consequence of the absence of associated shear stresses 7 and q. ~ z = 41X .2 x lo'') Equating coefficients.( 4 ~ l O ~ ~ b ) = . = 0.
Of the three such transformed normal strain components.29a. = 0.b) provide the nine components of strain following a rotation in the coordinate axes (see Fig. = .As f. To show this we must refer eq( 1. rn. =+ E' = LELT (1. = . + 4 rn.(iv) give 33 1. 1 2 0 ~ ~ .12Ouy. . IOa. Equation (1. + 33 m. 9 9 3 ~ ~ ~~ 0 These are orthogonal when the dot product of any two unit vectors in the I .4 1. = 0.0.29a) to the mathematical notation and set i = j = 1. = 0 and 158 n3 = 0 280 1. . + nEXz= 0 I&.(8.120. E. = 0 .280m.29a) provides the strain state for this plane and two further orthogonal planes. = 0 and . = 0 and 1. = 0 and rn. this gives the direction cosines for the = (iii) For E.26b).* + n 1 2 1. Substituting E = 67 x 10. Substituting into l j 2 + rnj2 + nx2 I gives cosines for the = minor principal strain as I . 331. Upon the plane lying perpendicular to a rotated axis there is one normal strain and two shear strains.993 and n3 = 0 (iv) Substituting eqs(iii) and (iv) into eqs(l.b.2 Strain Tensor Transformation The strain tensor transformations.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 23 calculation of the cosines for the remaining two directions....120 and n .993.lob).E ) + n q . Clearly u . . = 0 + m. 2 and 3 directions are zero. = 0 1.+ 2n (t7 E ) = 0 (ii) (iii) (iv) Only two of equations (ii) . + 2m( E. 1.* major principal strain as I . Thus n.29a.126 11. 21 (E.c) provides the unit vectors aligned with the principal directions: u.E ) + n q Z= 0 Lqr+ mET. 9 9 3 + 0.25rnI.b) Equations (1. one is the normal strain given in eq(1. = 0 Thus n . and u j = 0 . = 0.20a) are = 1. r n .2513) I.. = u.30a) is equivalent to a shortened matrix multiplication .75 x eqs(ii) . %uZ = u. = 8. l. = . + 33 nil = 0. w. +u..(iv) are independent. That is.and the given strain components leads to the three simultaneous equations: .u2 = u. equivalent to eqs( 1. = 0.5. This gives The second expression in eq( 1.
is required.31b) In the engineering notation eq( 1.29a) with different valued subscripts i and j .30b) are equivalent between the two notations.30a) and (1. and x2'. We see that the direction cosines of xI. whose initial perpendicular directions are specified.. Equations (1.30b) and uI. The vector equation uI.is the unit vector normal to plane ABC and u2' is the unit vector aligned with z.26b) and (1. We use eq( 1.These vectors are expressed from eqs( 1.3 la) is equivalent to the matrix multiplication I'2' = llI '2 I &II + 'I2 '22'13 l22 4 2 )&23 + l I 3 '23 4 3 + ('I I '22 + '21 '12 )&I2 + ('I2l23 + (111123 + I21 113)E13 (1.31 a) may also be written as dot products (1.19a.32a. define the respective rotations of the axes 1 and 2. These are summarised in Table 1. use is'made of the octahedral and deviatoric strains in Example 1. setting i = 1 and j = 2 in eq( 1. The reader will now recognise the similarities in stress and strain transformation equations.b. eqs(1. I .b). ) and (12. For example.and u2'are the unit vectors for the pair of perpendicular directions xI.32b) where E is the strain matrix in eq( 1. The six components of tensor shear strain appear in eq( 1. Note that n2) eqs(1. m2.32a) (1.31~) where (II. and x2 relative to xl.b) also provide a generalised shear strain expression for when the angular change in a right angle.c). m.6a. n . This shear strain is associated with shear stress r in eq( 1Sb).29a) will yield the expression for a transformed shear strain component Equation (1. To complete this comparison.employs the direction cosines for ABC and u2'employs the direction cosines given in eqs( 1.8.2 4 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Clearly.1).31b) appears as (1.32b) where uI. x2 and x3 appear as the coefficients (scalar intercepts)for each unit vector.
E2 = %J[(u.'I tan 2 a = y .) r.U1' U I .e Strain tan 2 a = 2 r q / ( q .~PY = uY*E u. E D = E ..1/3 (tr S) I q = qj .) r.. u IP 19 PY I E = LELT el.*s.%yq cos 2 a c g ) * + y..J . . 1.2=~z(u~+q. = J [ ( q . = % E M =1/3("1+&2+&3) !hy. = 0 J.a y ) r.u2+ J2a. = ? '/3  &..~=~.)~l/2J.a.PliquPY=UI'.+ a.& J 2 + y. &PY IP JY Oblique Plane Max Shear Plane Octahedral Plane ul<l<= l.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 25 Table 1.=ul.u2 u= % (u.I.. Ekk 0 V Principal &3 . u3. ..u..+ a.%(trE)I & .1 Stress and strain transformationequations SYSTEM STRESS STRAIN General s = LSL' up. ~ = % ( Z ~ + y)+%J[(e. = 0 = ukk I = 'kk 1 Iz=%(&ii&.S.)+%(qa.sin2a+ oxcos2a+ rq s i n k E = 5 sin2&+. =? !h (ul .) E. E ..U j ) 2 ] q. 1. = det z i j Invariants J2 = % ( a i i j j . = f '/3 J[C(Ui .'/3 6i a .j&ij&ji) I.=1.)2+4r$] q[(ux % y = % (E. . ~~)cos2a+?hy~sin2a Stress & r= % (a.)sin 2a.. E 2 + I . ) + % ( E . .)cos2a+ rv sin2a = % ( E . = E..J.u2) u. / ( ~ .) 2a ..u i j u j i ) u J3 = det u i j Plane u= q.:] C . + ~ .E ~ ) = & I . = '/3Ukk = = 1/3 (a. + a.). = llpll.I . T = l. Ymnx .rxy 2 a sin cos al.~up.) YmuX=f(&1 urn q.1. E..= &..) &= + &..~~~E~~=u~. . = ?h( .  5.=1..'/3 4.* ! (El h + u.q ) 2 4tq2] + .)2] Deviatoric S D= S .. cos2a+ %yq sin 2 a & =%(a.
= (2/3)u. .25)(2/3)](. (b) the shear strain between the 100 PE. = 1/3.4 0 0 ) ( ~ 1OO)(E .1 = (2/3)'100 + (1/3)2200+ (2/3)'200 + 2[(2/3)(1/3)100 + (1/3)(2/3)200 + (2/3)*(..1. + 5 ) = 1oop (e) Table 1. = 2001. 7 ~ The octahedral shear strain is . Substituting these into eq( 1.942) + (.0. eI3 .25)(1/3)]100 + [(1/3)(.. .221) + (0..0. = loop.221)200 + [(2/3)(0. l .30b) gives the normal strain E.25)lOO + (1/3)(0.26 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES strains ( l p = 1 x ).942)(2/3)]200 + [(2/3)(.T . = 2/3.1 gives the expressions for the octahedral strains. .942 and I. cj3= 2001.loop and = into eq( 1.200) = 0 + E. E. E.. + (2/3)u.1 and c3 = . ~ 2 = 3 2001.221) + (.loop (d) The maximum shear strain expression (see Table 1. = (2/3)(0. The mean or hydrostatic strain in the normal direction is &.19a. l.100)/3 = 1 6 6 .100) = 2 1 3 . I.0.b) I . 7 ~ (b) The unit vectors' equations yield the direction cosines (see eq 1.0. f. = ..25.942)200 + (2/3)(0. = 2/3.1) applies when c I> E? > E~ The norm1 strain on this plane is & = Y2( &.. c ..100 200 = 400p.(a) the normal strain in a direction defined by the unit vector: u.0..221. + q ) / 3 = (400 + 200 . = 200p.=(El + &.31b) with the given strain components. ! I = 100 .100 200 200 E 100 200  = 0 (E .0.100 200 100 200 (a) Substituting E . = . E. 0 5 ~ 100  E 100 E . + (1/3)u.loo)] = 1 9 6 .. = 0. ~ = loop.
6 Plane Stress 1.l7a.. (recall Si. (g) Deviatoric strains will remain when the mean or hydrostatic strain z.& 3 1 2 1 ~ = (2/3) J[(400 . = 0 for i it j ) . 1. 13a.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 27 v .21a) gives the strain deviator tensor These normal deviators. = 1 6 6 . has been subtracted from the normal strain components.6. in that plane (direction cosines being given by eqs l.. Correspondence with eq( 1. (f)The elastic dilatation (volumetric strain) is W / V = E l + E~ + z3= 3&.b) may be reduced to plane stress states. .. together with the given tensor shear strains.c). constitute the deviatoric strain tensor E.b.13 Reduction to plane stress states . Say we wish to find expressions for the normal and shear stresses on each of the oblique planes in Figs I .I Analytical Method The previous analytical expressions (lSa.. Figure 1. = ( 2 / 3 ) J [ ( ~ ~E ~ ) ~ + ( && 3 ) ’+ ( & l . 7 ~ .b. = 5 0 0 ~ which equals the strain invariant Il and from which the mean strain E .200)’ + (200 + loo)*+ (400 + lOO)’] = 41 l p This is a radian measure of the angular change between two perpendicular directions: one aligned with the normal to the octahedral plane and the other aligned with the direction of the shear stress r. The six independent deviatoric components of strain define unsymmetrical distortion.
rn = sinaand n = 0. cosa.(u.cosa)2 . cosa and S. relative to x. cos2a+ oYsin2a+ T~ sin2a = '/z (a.q..b.) L/z (a.rx.. + u.rx. y and z.a)= sin a. .u2)2sin2acos2a r= Yz (u. 3 3 ~and this lies at 45" to ) the principal directions.. the shear stress (1... = u.34b).. the oblique plane has normal direction cosines 1 = cos a.. I . sin'a = Yz ( 0 . = 0 s. cos2a+ a.28 MECHANlCS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES With principal stresses a. J . c o s a + 5.b..34d) supplies the directions of two perpendicular principal planes upon which a.34d) Equation (1. = 0 The principal stress cubic eq( 1.a.r = cos (90".[a.c). = a. q. 2 and 3... Substituting I.a. The maximum shear stress is again given by eq( 1 . and u..33b) has its maximum value (1.. rn and n into eq( 1S a ) provides the normal stress on the oblique plane as u= q. q.' + s + s..)o+ q q ..cos 2a Now from eqs( I . Substituting into eq( 1.u2) h (1.c) and (1 S b ) sx= a. s i n a + r.34c) (1.) (1.?sin2al2 = 'A (ux.)Q/id[(c7.a.  0.cos2a+ u2sin2a)2 = ( a . act. tan 2a= 2rx?/(u.. the invariants become J ..cos2a+q .r rxy The cosines are again 1 = = . .+q.)2+4r.4a.=%(u.. ) 2 ~ i n 2 2 a rxy(ux a. c o s ~ a +z.sin2a (1.2)= 0 ( giving the principal stresses as its roots u..33a) r2= uI2cos2a+ u2'sin2a.)sin2acos l a + rr.) sin 2 a .a.rxy 2a ] ' cos (1..u .. relative to I .j sin 2 a .xsina)2+ ( q .34b) r= '/z (a..u2) 2 a sin When a = 45".13a.)cos2a+ + + zx. 2 a = "/z (a. .. + q. and J .33b) r.rx. ) cos 2a (1. T2 = S = q. s i n 2 a + t. and u2in Fig.x sina.13a.sina+ rxy .9a.b) n n u= u.21 The directions of a principal plane AC are found by setting r= 0 in eq( 1.+ 4) + Yz (a.33c) Figure 1.34a) The shear stress on this plane is found from eqs( 1.8b) reduces to a quadratic u 2  (a. :  U2 = ( u . Equations (1.and '~.13b shows a general plane stress state ox. = ! (u.. = 0.34ad) may be reduced to simpler plane systems by .cos .a.
36 MPa respectively.14b).33a. F may also be located by projecting the normal to plane BC in a similar manner. orientation of the principal planes and the maximum shear stress. relative .b) because. (points of zero shear stress on the circle).and u are the principal stresses .6 MPa and a. and Fa. Example 1. in the absence of shear stress.34a. 14a determine graphically the principal stresses. 1. A Figure 1.48' and a+ 90 = 134. and q. For example. 1.13a.14 Mohr's circle construction for a general plane stress state The normal to other planes of interest may be projected from F.b) will reappear when rq = 0 in eqs( 1.14a. on AB is plotted downward. 1. Given the stress states for two perpendicular planes AB and BC (Fig. = 144. thus enabling the circle to be drawn (see Fig. and r. Indeed F is the single focus point of intersections between all such normal projections.6. 1.become the principal stresses a. where u.2 Mohr's Circle The plane stress state (a. are positive. 1.= 50 MPa and rq = 65 MPa in Fig. normal stresses cr. and q. 1.65) and BC (50. A focus point F is found by intersection with the projection of the normal to plane AB through the corresponding coordinate point AB in the circle.?.9 Given ux= 100 MPa. The point of intersection with the circle shows that both a. 65). A construction similar to Fig. The circle yields major and minor principal stresses of a. Thus the stress state on plane AC is found by projecting the normal to AC through the focus F. These locate two coordinate points for planes AB and BC lying on opposite ends of a diameter.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 29 setting one or more of the applied stress components to zero.14a)..48".b) may also be found from a simpler Mohr's circle construction. the normal stresses a. In particular. = 5.are plotted to the right if tensile and to the left if compressive. so their directions are as shown in Fig. The orientations of their planes are a= 44. the major and minor principal planes lie normal to Fa. Clockwise shear stresses on BC are plotted upward and anticlockwise shear stress 5. a. eqs( 1.14b has coordinates AB (100. The line joining F to the top point ( r m a X )the is normal to the maximum shear plane. Check your answers analytically. the. I . r ) on the inclined plane (Fig. and u2.
..48' to AC. . . The mathematical notation is now used to define the coordinate directions x .sin8 and l. S and L are multiplied as the 2 x 2 matrices (1. . = cosB l.50)] = 33. = Y2 (100 + 50) f Vi J[(lOO . x2. Subscript i refers to the primed axis and j to the unprimed axis. The matrix multiplication in eq(1... = cos (90".36) = 69.48" and 124. .35) The components of the 2 x 2 matrix of direction cosines L are I. and x2 and the stress components. = cos x. eq( 1.5 ) + 4(65)'] = 75 a.= C O S ~ .3 Matrix Method Figure 1.xj..62 MPa. this being inclined at a+ 45" = 89. and .6.. Jbx a.8)= sine I.62 MPa 1.. x2 into axes x . The vertical radius identifies with r. 1 Figure 1. = cos ( B + 900) = . = u.36 MPa * 69.6  5. as shown. .6 MPa and u2= 5.64 Equation (1. complementary shear conditions u.15 shows a plane element with normal and shear stresses applied to its sides. when it is reduced to a plane transformation..35) yields the transformed stress state in which the = uz. = 69. Checking analytically..20a) to transform stress components following a rotation from axes x . = 144. This gives I.34~) yields the major and minor principal stresses: 0' a .48' Equation ( 1 .30 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES to AC.15 Plane rotation in coordinate axes We may again use eq( 1.3 3 ~gives the maximum shear stress ) tmax = Vi(144.. have been applied.34d) gives the respective orientations of their principal planes as a = YZtan' [2 x 65 / (100 .. That is.
= 5 .83 . cos 2 8 u.. q2 sin28+ u12 2 8 sin a??=u l . 1.34a. a.34c) The principal stress directions follow from eq( 1. 1.7b) to det 1 011 0 012 = o 0 (1.37a) or (1.cos2B..16 .a) = 0 (1.5: = [ 11.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 31 uIml.1. = 0 la. Example 1. uI2 a. cos .37a) (1.0. = 0 gives = '' [ = 4312  112 4312] 4312 112 [ i] [ 4 3 1 2 . Principal stresses follow from reducing the determinant in eq( 1.? . 1. all = 10.8+ = a.36) 021 022 Equation (1.10 Determine the state of stress for an element inclined at 30" to the given element in Fig.1..s i n 2 8 +a2.. We may interpret the change in sign of the shear stress by reversing their directions along the xIand x..83  1.7a) 1 (all . What are the principal stress values and their directions? Figure 1.67 4. axes in Fig.35) for B= 30°.36) expands to agree with eq( I .16a. Either eq( 1.2.112 4312] = 1 I 11.u12sin2 8 sin 2 8 + q .33 . .37b) define the unit vectors aligned with the two principal directions.37b) where 1 and rn are the direction cosines for a given principal plane. . + m (u.15.a ) + n t q .83 .b). This will restore the sign found by alternative analyses for an element with shear directions shown in Fig.14a.83 . as the following example shows.Y2 (qI = These agree with the form of eqs( 1.16 Plane stress transformation Substituting into eq( 1.
rn = cos (90".17a.38a). = 0 .2. Alternatively.= 0. 1. The principal stresses follow from expanding the determinant in eq( 1. and n. a.. I Reductions to 2 0 Equations Putting 1 = cos8.3.38b) The shear strain between the primed directions x' and y' is found from eq(l. 1.25)] u. for the major plane eq( 1. = cos (90" . in turn for u in eq( 1.9239~1.lo). may be derived from an arbitrary vector lying in each direction in the manner of Example 1.38a) The normal strain in the direction of y' can be found from setting 1 = cos (90 + 8)= . = cos 8 and ti. m. aligned with principal directions.This gives cy. These directions are perpendicular as n. = 12. 7. = cXsin28+ &. yf P' P Figure 1. 3 8 2 7 ~ ~ .36) 100 5 . rn.8)= sin 8 and n 1= cos 90" = 0 I.cos28%yxr sin 2 8 (1. = 0 . Note that the matrix supplies the complete stress state for the rotated element.37a) will provide I and rn for the principal directions. 3 8 2 7 ~ ~ + n.32 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES which act as shown in Fig.7 Plane Strain I.07.5" and 1 = cos 8= 0. pz= 0. = . rn = cos Band n = 0 in eq( 1.sin 0. The direction cosines of x' and y' are respectively 1.1 0 ~ U' .0.sin 8.4(. = cos 8. = cos (90 + 8) = .31~). 1.17 Plane strain transformation (1.25 = 0 + O= 10/2 2 $4J[(.26b) leads to the normal strain in the direction of x' in Fig. The following unit vectors n. .923911.9239.34d) gives tan 2 8 = I .8) = sinBand n = cos 90" = 0 in the normal strain expression (1. n.and a. 0 .07 MPa Substituting u. from which 8= 22.16b..
39a) The magnitudes of the two principal strains are found by eliminating 6 between eq( I .=  = sinBcos8+ 5.38a.)sin 2 8 + 1/2yxYcos 8 h 2 E...b) 1.39a) and eqs( 1. E~ and yxrto zero. and c 2 exist along two perpendicular directions for which shear strain is absent..?. and u' and v' are the displacements of P along x' and y'.sinBcosB+ %yXy (cos28.~ y ) (1.2 Analytical Method The strains given in eqs( 1. Setting y.b) and (1.sin28) ! (E.. = aiv lax' + au*/a y = (av'/ax) (ax lax') + (av'lay) (ay/ ax') + (au'/ax) (ax lay') + (au'/ay)(ay/ay') = [ . Principal strains E . 38~ ) Equations (1.(du B y ) sinO+ (&lay) cosB]sinB + [(&/ax)cosB+ (av /ax) sin 8 ] ( .. .38~) gives the orientation of the major principal plane as tan 2 8 = y q / ( c .38a and b) may be reduced to simpler strain systems by setting E. y. 1.24a).b) and (1.23a.. (1. r .23a....7.sin8) + [(&day) cosB+ (dvlay) sin81 cos8 .38ac) may be confirmed by direct differentiation of the displacements according to the infinitesimal strain definitions in eqs( 1.u sine+ v cos8 where u and v are the displacements of P along x and y .5.17b reveals the following relationships between the coordinates: X=X'COS 8y'sin 0 y = x' sin 8+ y' cos 8 The displacements of a point P as it moves to P' are given by u' = u cos 8+ v sin 8 V' = ..STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 33 :. = 0 in eq(1.(dulax)sinB+ ( M a x ) cos8] cos8+ [ . ~zy. The geometry in Fig. The normal strain and shear strains in the y' plane are found from eqs( 1.24a) X I .
yo) intercept point shows tensile strain ( E ~ in a direction normal to AC.  ) sin 2 8 + ?h y.7.'/2 ( = E ~ E\. the directions of the principal stress and strain will be coincident. and y.18.sin26) %yX. Since the normals to planes AB.1 1 shows how this very useful experimental technique does not require the shear strains associated with nonprincipal directions to be known. The inset diagram shows how to interpret these in terms of a translation and a rotation of plane AC. cos 2 8 1. Joining each of these extreme points to F will again provide the associated planes. The .34 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES = .?. are positive for the plane BC. In practice. as shown in Fig..3 Mohr's Circle Because of the identical nature of stress and strain transformations. E. Points on the circle along the horizontal diameter provide the principal strains E . E ~ and points along the vertical . accompanied by a net ) clockwise angular change of yo between AC and its normal.(au/dx)2sin8cos8+ (av/ay)2sin8cos8+ [(avlax)+ (au/ay)](cos20. electrical resistance strain gauge rosette. The focus F is then found by projecting the normal either to the plane AB or to BC through the corresponding point on the strain circle. .. .. Knowing the inclination between the gauges (usually 45" or 60") allows the principal strains and their orientations to be found. 1. a geometric similarity exists between the Mohr's stress and strain circles. A threeelement. t Figure 1. is negative for plane AB while both E\. . These locate two diametrically opposite points on the circle thus enabling its construction. and act. the magnitude and direction of the major and minor principal strains at the surface of a structure may be determined by the measurement of surface strain in any three orientations. we see that all normal strain directions converge upon F. Example 1.. when bonded to a point on the surface..18 Mohr's strain circle construction showing focus point F For the stressed element (inset) is positive. Moreover. BC and AC are the respective directions in which ex. A Mohr's circle can therefore be drawn for strain and a focus located within axes of c and ?h y. y. For any plane AC the state of strain ( E ~ ?h is found by projecting the normal to AC through F as shown. will measure the direct strains along each gauge axis. diameter supply the maximum shear strains 2 Yz y.
4 Matrix Method Equation (1.635p. (ii) and (iii) provides the x and y components E~ = 700p. Use both analytical and graphical methods. . as shown in Fig./2) sin 240" = 300 0.' = 9.250p and 3 0 0 ~ respectively.direction.6" and 72. E ' = LELT .0.200) '/zJ[(700 200)2 + (635)'] 2 + e l = 8 0 0 .4" 1.635 l(700 + 200) 6= . That is.39b) provides the inclination of the major principal direction to the gauge 1.. 8 ~ c2 = .425 ~~ E.17.433 yx. sin'60" + COS' 60" + (yJ2) sin 120" = .' = Y (700 .appear as matrix components.29b) contains a matrix representation of a plane strain transformation when the mathematical shear strains E.. Determine: (i) the maximum shear strain and (ii) the principal strains and their orientations to the 1 .19a.250 0 . sin ' 120" + tx cos ' 120" + ( y. = '/z ylz.38a) to give the three simultaneous equations (microstrain units): ex= 700 (1) e.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 35 Example 1.433 yx.= 125 (ii) (iii) The solution to eqs(i). 8 ~ and * Equation (1. = . &. 1.axis.. as shown. 3 I$ \ €1 €1 2 I7. These gauges record direct tensile microstrains along these axes of 700p.200p and yry= .39b) gives E. 7 5 + 0.6"f I Figure 1.. Substitution into the principal strain expression (1.= .7. substitute for the three values E for 8 = 0". tan 2 8 = .75~~ ..19 Mohr's strain construction for a 3element rosette For the analytical solutions.3 0 0 . 60" and 120" in eq( 1.11 A strain gauge rosette is arranged with the axes of gauges 2 and 3 lying respectively at 60" and 120" anticlockwise to gauge 1.
31.7.32". 56.. I .40~~) as (1.6.17.75".1 Working from first principles. find the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress for each element in Fig.(b) 171.38ac). 11. .48.8. 173.9.4.So(c) 102.9. 72.x T ) (see Fig.7S0. will differ between their corresponding reference states.6". 166.76.20 Shear distortion in the engineering and mathematical notations EXERCISES Plane Stress Transformation 1. ~ . ? . We have seen that the sign of the shear strain term can differ from the corresponding stress expression.b show how the distortion. Answer(MPa): (a)342.32" . = tllcos28+ q2sin2$+ tIZ 2 8 sin t T 2 .38.1.6. 94.1.21ad..20a. Figure 1.64.E. x2) and (x.40a) The direction cosines li. I .3..5".2 ) + E 1 2 C O S 2 e = 2 vqtI1 When these are converted into an engineering notation we confirm eqs( 1. = ~ . Figures 1.36 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES becomes. s i n 2 8 + E~~ cos2$.8. in full (1. 15) to give eq( 1..t I Z 2 8 =E sin t l .135. . (d) 197.83.40b) Matrix multiplication gives three independent strain components along the primed axes 8. 86. 27.i= cos ( x i x i ) are applied to directions (xl.6'. which accompanies an element in each notation.
S.5 MPa.23 1. If the ultimate compressive and shear strengths are: U.22.ure 1.4 MPa in the same plane. 1.65 MPa. = 30 MPa and U. If the major principal stress is limited to 208. = 17 MPa respectively.0085 mm over a 50 mm length.9 MPa. > 75 mm 125mm.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 37 92.4 MPa.S. %u. U.3. stressed in plane perpendicular directions.036 mm and 0. 45". Find the inclination 0 to the length for a plane whose normal stress is 60. Take E = 82.5 0 t 4.45kN A ! i 7 1. Answer: 30" .S. determine the maximum permissible shear stress that may act in these directions.s. 193 MPa.c.5 mm thick.6 A flat brass plate. a uniform stress exists for all parallel planes 6 \ \ \ \ Fig.5 MPa acts at 90" to a compressive stress of 154. Find the normal and shear stresses acting on the 30" plane AC. 135". 67". Answer: 1 and 5 MPa. Determine the stress state for this plane and comment on the result.2 At a certain point a tensile stress of 123. 6.S. find the planes along which the material would fail when the appTied stresses are increased in proportion. is subjected to the forces in Fig.5 The states of stress in MPa for two elements with a common plane are shown in Fig.C. 1. State the condition for compressive failure Answer: 1 1 MPa. 22" 1.3 A block of brittle material. gave respective extensions of 0.S.23. 9. What is the maximum shear stress and the orientation of the major principal plane? Answer: 133.7 GPa and v = 0. C 8 kN 4 1 c 1.
find the shaft diameter. 650 mm.25 . Determine the stress state on the seam at a test pressure of 27. as shown in Fig. If the shaft also carries a bending moment of 3. find the major principal stress. 1.87 MPa 1. for a point at the position of the greatest compressive bending stress (a) the normal stress on a plane inclined at 30" to the shaft axis and (b) the shear stress on a plane inclined at 60" to the shaft axis. 1. for this condition W = 10 N and d = 10 mm. has a density of 1 kg/m3. If.24 in order that the maximum bending and torsional stresses are equal. find R when the maximum shear stress is limited to 80 MPa. 1. Answer: 68. 1. 880 mm d' Figure 1.12 A steel bar withstands simultaneously a 30 kN compressive force.9 MPa.9 At a point on the surface of a shaft the axial tensile stress due to bending is 77 MPa and the maximum shear stress due to torsion is 3 1 MPa.5 m and 20 mm respectively. 45 MPa 1. 240 mm inside diameter and 300 mm outside diameter.10 A steel shaft is to transmit 225 kW at 150 rev/min without the major principal stress exceeding 123.04 kNm.24 1. check that these are nowhere exceeded.38 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1. Determine the tube diameters. Answer: 130 mm. Answer: 53".7 Calculate 0 for the cantilevered arc in Fig.13 A fibrereinforced pipe. Determine. a 5 kNm bending moment and a 1 kNm torque. Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of the maximum shear stress and the principal stresses. The pipe is simply supported when carrying fluid of density 12 kg/m3.5 bar when the mean diameter and thickness are 1.25. 23.11The bending stress in a tube with diameter ratio of 5: I is not to exceed 90 MPa under a moment of 80 kNm. Figure 1.5 MPa. What is the maximum shear stress and its plane relative to the shaft axis? 1.8 A cylindrical vessel is formed by welding steel plate along a helical seam inclined at 30" to the crosssection. If the allowable axial and bending stresses in the pipe are 150 and 8 MPa respectively. If the moment is replaced by a torque of 80 kNm.
Answer: 70 mm. There are three gauges A. I 14 MPa. with A and C at 30" on either side of B.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 39 1. both measured in the same direction. What is the value of the vertical shear force at this position.0125 mm diameter reduction? Answer: 0. The angles between gauges A and B. all angles measured anticlockwise.5".6 MPa. (CEI) 1. What is the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft? Take G = 77. be 6 2 5 ~ . If E = 208 GN/m2and v = 0. 1.3 1 2 . calculate the principal stresses and the orientation of their planes on the compressive side of the shaft. If the maximum bending stress is 155 MPa. .5 mm wide x 50 mm deep and the web is 25 mm thick x 200 mm deep.3 MPa at the webflange interface? The flanges are each 152. What will the change in this strain be when a 150 mm length of this bar is simultaneously subjected to an axial force causing a 0. 27. Take E = 200 GPa and v = 0. line elements in the x and y directions increased by 17% and 22% respectively and change their right angle by 7". 5 ~ . Answer: 164. B and C are 50p.21 A strain gauge rosette is bonded to the cylindrical surface of a 40 mm drive shaft of a motor. gauge B is at 60" to gauge A and gauge C is at 120" to gauge A.= . (b) the web top and (c) at the neutral axis of bending. find the principal stresses and the change in plate thickness at the rosette point. the principal stresses and planes for (a) the flange top. When the structure is placed under load gauges A. 110". what is the maximum uniformly distributed loading that the beam can carry when the bending moment is not to exceed 95 MPa? Determine. the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress in the shaft.4" 1.25 mm length change and a 0.18 A 25 mm diameter solid shaft is placed under torsion.2 7 5 ~ .26b) fixed to the centre point D of the horizontal portion gave the following strains: e. calculate T.20 A strain gauge rosette is bonded to the surface of a 20 mm thick plate.26a is 100 mm 0. B and C are found to ' . a 60" strain gauge rosette (see Fig. B and C read 5 x 10 '.2 GPa.22 The rightangled cantilever steel pipe in Fig. for the section at which the shear force is a maximum. When the motor runs and transmits constant torque 7 the readings of gauges A.4 MPa 1. form a rosette which is bonded to a structural member made from an aluminium alloy having a modulus of rigidity G = 25 GN/m2.14 Calculate the diameter of a solid steel shaft required to transmit 89.5 kW at 200 revlmin if the angle of twist is not to exceed 0. If the flanges are 50 mm wide x 5 mm thick and the web is 65 mm deep x 5 mm thick.3 1 2 . Answer: 3 12 kN 1. B and C and the centre line of gauge A lies at 45" to the centre line of the shaft.00 13 1.17 In plane strain.31 MPa. For the three gauges A. (CEI) 1. given that the major principal tensile stress is 92. 5 ~ . f 77 MPa at f 45" 2D Strain Transformation 1..25. 2.23.13"/m. What is the percentage increase in an element of line originally at 45" to x and y and by how much has this line rotated? Answer: 27%. the strain values from A. A strain gauge records 800 x 10 ' when it is bonded to the shaft surface in the direction of the major principal strain. 100.19. Three strain gauges A. B and C. 177.15 The fixed end of an Isection cantilever is subjected to a bending moment of 190 kNm. 95 MPa. 1.2 MPa. When forces P and Ware applied at the free end in the directions shown.respectively.16 An Isection cantilever is 150 mm long. 700p and 375p respectively. (CEI) 1. Assuming that the stress and strain do not vary with thickness of plate. 20°. When the plate is loaded. B and C are both 60". B and C. 1 x 10 and .d. and respectively. . Find the maximum shear stress in the material at the point of application of the rosette. .7 kN/m.4 x 10. with 6 mm wall thickness.3.
= 50 MPa.. 29.. (CEI) IOOmm din. a. = 20 MPa and that J .5.87 .23 The state of stress (MPa) at a point is given by u.9. Answer: (MPa) 14. what will the principal stresses then be? Show that the principal stress directions are orthogonal. r. Determine the normal and shear stresses on an oblique plane whose normal makes respective angles of 67" 13'. determine the remaining normal stresses..34. uv= 26.8". Answer: 48.25. the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress.7.22.: = 6. = .28 Given that the partial state of stress at a point is rw = 30. rK. = 13. r.47. 14.24 At a point in a material.: = 7. = r.1".4.65.. = 2.14 and 48. Calculate P and W. = 20 MPa.7. u. 1 CI W Figure 1. I may be assumed. Also find the direction of the shear stress relative to x and y.4 MPa.: = 30.32. rr:= 10. 23. This resultant stress acts on a plane with normal direction cosines 0.: = 0. Answer: 144. i 42.24.40. If r.28. = 27.497.v = 0. Determine the normal and shear stresses on a plane = whose normal makes angles of 48" and 71 " to the x and y axes respectively. 5. find the normal stresses when invariant J .40 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES E.3. 152. u. 89.656 and 0. Answer: (MPa) 10. r. 99. 10. Determine the normal and shear stresses on this plane.20.27 Find the invariants and principal stresscs for the following stress components (MPa): ur= 9.1 MPa 1. = .86 MPa.67.59 1.43.25 A stress resultant of 140 MPa makes angles of 43".: = 1 1 and r.26 3 D Stress Transformation 1.12. 2.31. = 27.38..89 and rrz= 10. given E = 200 GN/m*. 69.38.68. 24. 12. r.5 MPa and rc:= .28.35 1.31 MPa. 276. r..4.34') 1. . u: = 41.47. = 926. 2. 28.56. 388.78. a. 640.2. = 12.. = 14.8.26 A resultant stress of I70 MPa is inclined at 23" and 72" to the x and y directions respectively.259 relative to x and y respectively. Answer (MPa): 23. Given component shear stresses r.75" and 50"53' with the x and y axes. 30. Plane strain transformations in Table 1 .6.6 MPa 1.. 137. Answer: 98.21. the state of stress in MPa is given by the components u. 30" and 71 "34 with these axes. or = 17. = 198p and E.44. uz= 5 1.45. 55. = 35.8 MPa. Determine the stress resultants and the normal and shear stresses for a plane whose normal makes angles of 50" 7 0 and 60" with the directions of x and y respectively.65. r.15.9 MPa.34.15.208p when gauge a is aligned with the pipe axis.3. rt: = 10.
37 At a point in a stressed material. Answer: (MPa) I . 3 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 1 .579 1. Answer (MPa) .3 and 0.29 The stress components at a point are u.75. If J . then determine graphically the normal and shear stresses on the octahedral and maximum shear planes. What are the direction cosines for the normal to the major principal plane? Answer: 26. = 2. llJ2. normal and shear stresses on a plane whose normal is inclined at 45". (c) 2.57 1. Determine the direction cosines for the two greatest principal stresses. I . (b) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose normal direction cosines are 0. .2.0.32 Given principal stresses u. 60" and 60" to the I .8 . 4. The normal projection on the I .1 and u.898.7. Find (a) the magnitude and direction of the normal and shear stresses acting on a plane whose direction cosines are 0. (b) the principal stresses. 3 plane. .1/J3.0.2 plane is inclined at 45" to the 1 . 6.25.4.2 and 3. Answer: (MPa) 71.01 MPa.5. = rv:=0.25 1.. 2. = 130.33. .axis. u2 = 2 MPa and r. 2 and 3 principal stress directions.: = 12 MPa.28 1.8. 91.667. (d) 1.).2 0 . (c) the state of stress existing on the maximum shear and octahedral planes and (d) the unit vectors which define the planes in (c) relative to the principal directions.326 relative to x and y. Answer: u: = 0. the normal and octahedral shear stresses.631. 0.3 I and . = 2.0018.742. (c) the maximum shear stress and (d) the normal and shear stresses acting on the octahedral plane.STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 41 1.05. u.6.34 The major principal stress in a material is 6 MPa.11J3 1. 1. = 2.33 If uI = 6 MPa.30 Principal stresses of 77. 2. rm= 10.4 MPa. Answer: (MPa) 2. find the remaining principal stress and the resultant. Answer: 4.5. Find .1 I . = 8 and r. = 5.5. Show that their directions are orthogonal. 2. (b) 4. u2= 3. 2 plane is inclined at 55" to the I ..36 Find the principal stresses in magnitude and direction and the invariants for the given stress matrix (MPa).5 MPa. 1fJ2. Determine the normal and shear stresses for a plane whose normal lies at 30" to the 3 . 4.4.23.4.0.O. in= 2.31 Given the principal stresses u. 2. O. the state of stress in MPa is defined for the given matrix components. IIJ2.967.83. 5. J(2/3).2. = 4 MPa and J3 = .O.138.axis. uN = ( 1/J2)(ul + u. uN = (1/J3)(u.2.24 respectively.0.6. Answer: (a) 1. the magnitudes of the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress. . . . 3. 1/J6. Answer: 2. 16. = 30 MPa. ~ 4.0. = 2.67 and 0. 2.axis. 3. 8. find graphically and analytically the maximum shear stresses.48 (MPa)' find (a) the remaining principal stresses.I . a = 6. 4.0. 0.41. .. 0.35 Find the principal stresses and directions for the components of the stress tensor (kPa): a.2. The projection of the normal in the 1. + u2+ u3) 1. Find the principal stresses.516. r. .2.2. Sketch the planes on which (c) and (d) act with respect to the principal planes..441.0.= 7. Answer: 4. r.I/J2.39. 11J6. I . 1/J3.055 MPa 1.0 1.46 MPa act in directions 1..1 2 2 6 ? 2 atj = ? 0 4 L2 4 ? .2. = 1. 1. I .4 1.38 Complete the stress matrix (MPa) given that the first and second invariants are 6 and .245.3.85.37. u: = I . = 7. u. determine the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose normal makes an angle of 60" with the 3 .0. = 40 and u. r..
the octahedral normal and shear strains. I. when the principal strains are 6800 x 10 '. = 300. 133p. = 138. = 1/43. Answer: E .32611. + (I/J2)u. = 400p and 1.. = 400.2 (X 10 ' = ) ~ 600 200 200 &. = I/J3.I7u.40 Given a major principal strain of 600p and strain invariants I ..276..2 and 3.75311.. . . 822p 1..(1/2)u. remaining principal strains. &I. E. Answer c = 128.100.4 8 0 0 ~find the . . Answer: ( l p = 1 x 10 ') 20Op.1/J6.. Answer: 600 x 10.= u. E . 9. E .1..' = 0 ' 1.. = . 622 (X 10 ') 1.9. = 60. 600. Determine the normal strain in the direction defined by a unit vector u = ( 1 1 2 ) ~ ~ . and x.' = 200.J2 1. . ~~ ~~ Answer: 800..732. c.100 . (b) the magnitudes of the maximum and octahedral shear strains and (c) the normal strain for a direction defined by the unit vector u. c2' = ... 1540 x 10 ' and 1 130 x 10 respectively.= 30. Check analytically. rn = 0.& = ex: = 0.1/46.7 kN/m2. E. = .. 0 1 E. E... = 2/46 1. + 0 .20. = 0. and A. 13. in magnitude and direction. 198. 3 5 + O. = . and xT as: A . 1768. 0. = 500 500 0 0 x 0 . + 2u2 + 3u. = . cT3. and xy given the respective vector equations for directions x. and the shear strain between this direction and + a perpendicular direction u = . = 10. ~ ' 1. Comment on the result. Also find the unit vector + 1600 905 1445 that describes the direction of the shear stress upon this plane.1. l . in which the microstrain components are E .400p.8.42 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1860 3400 1600 1. = 20.0. = . ~ 2 = .46 Transform the given microstrain tensor from xT reference axes x. Answer: pstrain c I = 80. Determine the normal and shear "ii = 3400 3920 . c.45 The given microstrain tensor applies to a point in an elastic solid. = llJ3. = . . = 1J 200 0 400 0 x 200 400 100 500 .44 The strain state at a point is given by the following matrix of its components.41 Determine graphically the normal and shear strains for a plane whose direction cosines are: I = 0. c..500 E.20..67~1. c: = 400.42 Determine the principal strains and the corresponding transformation matrix L for the principal directions relative to orthogonal axes. = 800. en'= c.100. 3 J2 x = 3 1 42 4 J2 . = . cv= 700..: = 200..9 0 5 stresses on a plane whose normal direction is given by the unit vector u. = llJ2. &.400.. . = uI + u..521 and n (positive) with respect to the principal directions 1.= 538. = .7. I. Answer: 7097. .. I .66811. to axes xI. = 0 . cjj . = 400.... 5 3 + 0 . = 0. E. Answer: I264 x 10 ' 662 x 10 ' .200. E ~ = . + ( 1 1 2 ) ~ ~ (l/J2)u. Find.1/J2. 3 6 2 ~ ~ . direction cosines l .'. Find (a) the principal strains.x.. 5 7 3 ~ ~ +0 3 D Strain Transformation 1. c2*=10.20. = 666.u. + 0.39 At a point in a material the stress state (kN/m2) is given by the following matrix of components.. 13.(1/2)u.u.43 Determine the principal strains and the deviatoric strain tensor in respect of the absolute microstrain tensor components E.:' = 200.6.
the elastic modulus of a material is relatively insensitive to changes in its microstructure arising from alloying and heat treatment. These moduli define the stiffness of a given material structure and are related to the strength of the interatomic forces bonding that material. Since these forces are controlled by interatomic spacing. I The Modulus o Elasticity (Young's Modulus) f Thomas Young (1773.1) . 2. when the axial load W is elastic. the moduli will fall with increasing temperature as the forces between atoms decrease with the increase in their spacing due to thermal expansion. will fully recover upon unloading.1 Elastic Constants Four elastic constants can be defined when isotropic materials are stressed elastically. 2.43 CHAPTER 2 PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 2. The four constants apply to both metallic and nonmetallic materials provided the stresses produce reversible. proportional strains. ~ ~ l t i m atensile strength te Engineering strain. it follows that the ratio between the engineering stress. the axial displacement. Because elastic strains are normally small. This ratio is the modulus of elasticity and is defined as E = IT/&= I ) / ( A x ) (W (2.1 Uniaxial stress For a bar of length 1 and section area A. and strain. & = xil. x. three different elastic moduli may be calculated from the ratio between engineering stress and strain depending upon the manner of the applied loading. c = x/l Figure 2.1829) defined his elastic modulus E under uniaxial stress (see Fig.1). That is. Most metallic materials are linear in their loaddisplacement relationship. IT= W /A. is a constant for a particular material. However. I.
To make the ratio positive. 2.3 The Modulus of Rigidity (Shear Modulus) In the elastic region.4) In taking the reference length 1 to be the block height. Poisson's ratio refers to the constant ratio between either of the lateral strains. 2. from combining eqs(2.1. I ) and (2.2 Poisson's Ratio SimonDenis Poisson (17811840) identified a further elastic constant v under the uniaxial stress state in Fig.2) increases linearly with the tangential shear force F. constant and normally lies in the range '/4 to '13 for metallic materials. then v = . c i j . in Fig.2).4) how a shear mode of deformation corresponds to a uniaxial mode of deformation.1.2 Shear deformation . a minus sign must accompany the lateral strain within the definition. 2. Y = tan 4 Figure 2. Provided 4 is small we may write tan@= xll (rad) and hence G becomes G = z / y = (Fl )/(Ax) (2.Thus. The modulus of rigidity. = . It follows that the two lateral strains may also be found from E for a given uniaxial stress u. the shear displacement x (see Fig. 4 Ultimate shear strength Engineering shear strain. if x is the increase in length 1 under tension and y is the contraction in the width dimension (or diameter) w .2) is also valid for compression when x and y are respectively the decrease in length and the increase in width.2) Equation (2.1. 2. Each of the lateral and axial strains is a diagonal component of the infinitesimal strain tensor. The sign of the lateral strain is always opposite to that of the axial strain. The distortion produced is referred to the angular change in the right angle rad. we see from eqs(2.( I y)/(wx) (2. .1.1) and (2.44 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2. That is. E~ or E ~ and the axial strain E .E 2 / E . is identified with the constant ratio between the shear stress T = FIA and the shear strain y = tan@. G. Poisson's ratio is a therefore a dimensionless elastic .
l ( 3 ~ ) When the normal stresses are unequal the mean stress is defined from eqs( 1. 6VIV. 2. K = a.5a) remains positive irrespective of whether a . This gives. (2.initial volume. = ' a. is tensile or compressive because 6V will change sign accordingly..a. = '13 (a1 a.5a). K = a.1. Assuming hydrostatic tension of a unit cube ( I = I). m / v = (1 + El)(l + E2)(1 + E 3 ) . typical of fluid pressure (see Fig. e l . and volumetric strain. E . That is. = distortion without volume change.. + 4 ) / 3 + (2.a. from eq(2. Figure 2 3 Hydrostatic stress . N/V=(l+ &)3 .21a) as (2.3).4 Bulk Modulus Stress and strain are also linearly related when deformation is produced by hydrostatic stress. and E ~ in the sides of a unit cube (V= I).6b) .a and 4' a3.1 = 3E Then. With associated length changes (strains). /(6V/V) (2.5a) Hydrostatic stress arises directly when a solid is subjected to mutually perpendicular equal stresses.1 6VIV = E l + c2 + E j = Ekk . are responsible for . Note that the remaining deviatoric stress components (see Fig. K. the increase in length of each side is x = E x 1 = E. defines the ratio between the mean or hydrostatic stress. The bulk modulus.1 lc) q'= q .6a) which causes elastic compressibility only.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 45 2. 1. and the volume change is 6 V = strained volume . ignoring E* and t 3 terms. Equation (2. a.5b) a. = a2. a.
29 0.6 400 210 10 72.1 E.5 43 82 76 77 82 42 157 80 4.2 Relationship Between Elastic Constants Engineers have now become used to working with four elastic constants E . but they are not independent constants. three independent elastic constants were sufficient to describe all possible modes of deformation.5 39 44. resulting from the shear force on opposite faces.1 73 534.5 167. Figure 2.4a shows that shear stresses.26 0. 2.31 0.50 75.31 0.1  2. cannot exist z .27 0.22 0..4 4 0. Table 2 1 Elastic Constants at 20°C .17 0. G and v This relationship is established from the stress state under pure shear. G.001 0.2 29.+u4+~)l(~. .26 0.2.6 157 50. Material E(GPa) G(GPa) v K(GPa) Aluminium AICU Alloy Brass Bronze Carbon Steel Cast Iron Chromium Copper Iron Nickel Stainless (1 818) NiCr Steel Titanium Tungsten Nimonics Concrete Glass Quartz Tungsten Carbide Timber Rubber 70.8 101.46 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Using the summation convention.3 1 0. and rHC.6~) Typical roomtemperature elastic constants for engineering materials are given in Table 2.23 0.2 21 1 200 200 206 112.1 28. Gabriel Lam6 (17951870) first showed that.6 65.5 117 207 113.8 81 45 115.3 1 0.21 0.3 0.5a) becomes K='/3(u.30 0.28 0.3 160.5 175.K and v. provided a solid is isotropic.. we should expect a relationship to exist between any three of our four engineering constants.33 0.1.5 58 37 318.+~+~) = '/3Ukt/Ekk Um/(3Em) = (2.20 0.4 167 143 104 290 184 13. eq(2.4 279 115.5 102.345 0.3 107.34 0.50 0.3 31 219 1.3 75 103.003 26.34 0. Thus.
rABand rcD. One gives a direct strain a / E and the other a lateral strain . t . is tensile and the other e2 is compressive..PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 47 without complementary shear upon each adjacent face.b) to . V U ~ ) t2= (1/E )(a2  VU.each having a magnitude equal to r.7a) (2. = ( ~ / E ) ( u.'. found from taking moments about point are A. = r. ) E. Figure 2.4 Analysis of stress and forces under pure shear The complementary shear stresses. rr/1 = rnc and since rAAnrncthen rArJ z Similarly.4b) (2. eq(2.yl2 reduces both eqs(2. 2. = This shows that all shear stresses are the same. we apply eqs( 1.b) yields coincident principal stress and strain systems (see Fig.8a. To determine the states of stress and strain following a rotation in the axes. Correspondingly. which will be simply labelled z hereafter. and a minor principal compressive stress q. In particular.r. (2. .40) to give (2. one principal strain E .9a.b) Thus pure shear is equivalent to a major principal tensile stress a.35) and ( 1. Both stresses contribute to the strain in each principal direction. u2= . each with magnitude y12.va/E: E. when B= 45".9b) = y12 and E~ Setting a. 1.7a. For a thickness. = = ) ..7b) where the primed axes define the rotation shown in Fig. with = .9a) (2. moment equilibrium gives rncx (BC x t ) x AB = rc/)x (CD x t ) x AD .15. taking moments about C gives rAn rA. The corresponding shear strain is y= rlG.
axial .)='/3 u.3 Relationships Between G. plane stress refers to a body with small thickness in the zdirection. This mean strain is the sum of three contributions: the direct tensile strain.6~) (2.12a). in Cartesian coordinates x. the stress in the plane of the plate is two dimensional.y.l(3&". the mean stress and strains become connected through G and v and cm.2v)/[2G ( I + v)] = where 8 = % .6~) when for K=u". (2. 2./ E . (2.V U .13a).13b) 2.)is zero.11) into eq(2. which are each vu./[(u. The total strain is E= u . K and v are found by eliminating E and v between eqs(2.12a) and E~~1 ( 1 .2.3).(I . v Further relationships between G./E)(1 2v)] E= E . K. / E .2 E.12b) 2.4). For the thin plate in Fig. since G = r/yfrom eq(2. Specifically. U". on the other hand.E)=3K(I . for any one direction under hydrostatic stressing in Fig. / E ) ( I . it follows from eq(2.9~) (2. 2Sa. and urn= % q. while the stress through the thickness (a. refers to a body with a large dimension in the z .z.9~) that E=2G(I + v ) (2.12a) To connect the mean stress and strain we combine eqs(2. and two lateral compressive strains produced by the remaining stresses.2~ )ukk /E (2.13a) From eq(2.lE.3. Plane strain. / E = ( U . E and G.2 ~ ) / [ 2 ( 1 v ) ] + (2. These are G= 3 K E / ( 9 K .2.10 and 2. from eq(2.48 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES y/2=(1 + v ) r / E and. u./E.~ V ) Substituting eq(2.6~) (2. K. E= 3 K ( I  2 ~ ) (2. K and v Consider the total strain E.VU.3 Cartesian Plane Stress and Plane Strain Many problems which are plane in nature may be analysed using a reduced form of the general theory of elasticity.10) 2.1 1) = c2 = z3 from which.
are each functions of x and y only.5 Plane stress and plane strain in Cartesian coordinates 2. q = q. The plane strain constitutive relations are (2.14b) (2..15d) Since cZ=G. compatibility will apply to both plane stress and plane strain.14a) (2. then from eq(2.5b) and this gives either zero axial strain if the ends are constrained or some constant value (say c.15c).15b) (2. . A 4 Figure 2. appropriate to plane polar coordinates.E + v (a. The theory of equilibrium and compatibility. 5)..14d) where the throughthickness strain cr. will be derived later from transforming the Cartesian coordinate relationships. q.and r. follows from this that + It plane sections will remain plane when the stress sum (a.is not zero. is constant.and rq may be functions of x and y but not z.. since + a. In plane stress q = 0 and the strains become (2.15a) (2.q. 4 )is a constant. 2.14~) (2.15~) (2. the following analyses of equilibrium and .3. Moreover.1 StressStrain (Constitutive) Relations The nonzero stresses a.).PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 49 direction (see Fig.
i. but. y coordinates. due to selfweight.5a. The displacement gradients in eqs( 1.b) and (1.16a. Body forces.6 Stress variation in the x and y directions Assuming unit thickness in Fig.12a).50 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2. 2.3. 2. define the normal and shear strain components. are ignored. vertical force equilibrium gives (2. 2. u and v do not depend upon z. Plane sections remain plane when all points in the body displace only within the x .e.3.6a and b.6a.16b) Equations(2. the x and y forces are separated. from Fig. For plane deformation the u and v displacements defining the shift in the origin from 0 to 0' are different functions of the x .2 Equilibrium Let the stresses vary over the elemental dimensions 6 x and 6 y in the manner illustrated in Figs 2.6b.24a). as shown in Fig. 2.b. found from the partial differentiation of u and v with respect to x and y. In confirmation of this. for clarity.23a.16a) and. These act together. 1.3StrainDisplacement Reiations In Chapter 1 it was shown that initially unstrained perpendicular line elements 6 x and 6 y stretch and rotate whilst translating into a new position under stress (see Fig.b) are plane equilibrium equations. They apply to plane stress states in which there are x and y variations in the stress components from point to point. for horizontal force equilibrium (2. Figure 2. the normal strain components identify with the corresponding length changes in dx and Sy The small angular distortions are approximated by . y plane.
2(1 + v ) a 2 q . when expressed in radians.v U. i a y 2 = o + (2. .15a. a2E..19a) The corresponding plane strain relationship is.19b) in which the following substitution for a... i a x 2 + 2 ( iv ) a 2 u .i ax ay (2.a2u.20a) and. i a x z = .2 q .v a2q. i ax2 Subtracting eq(2. )/ ay2 + a (a.i ax2= . = [(avi ax)6x]/6x= adax Their sum gives the net change in the right angle.b).15~): 4.b and c) that the three strains E.d) leads to a (a. .16a. defines the engineering shear strain y. i a x 2 .17~) 2.19a. With plane stress.19a).19a) lead to a 2 0 .v a2a.. lay2 + a2EV lax = a2yx. for example. has been made from eq(2. )I axz = 2( I + v ) a 2txyiax ay (2.= EE.14a..5 The Biharmonic Equation and Stress Components The requirements that both equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied in plane stress and plane strain are met by combining eqs(2. / a y 2 .2( 1 + v ) a2u. cr and yxydepend upon the two displacements u and v.b) and (2.  (2.v q . from eqs(2. which.3.1 ay2 + a2q. For plane stress eqs(2. + aviax (2.18) may further be written in terms of the stress components. substituting from eqs(2. i a y 2 va (2.b.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 51 e.b.17 ac).20b).20a) from (2. This condition ensures that the material deforms as a continuum without a discontinuity arising in the strain distribution. A mathematical expression for strain compatibility is found by eliminating u and v between eqs(2. a 2 qI ay2. / a y 2 + a 2 q .3.2 1a) a2q.16a and 2.lax2 .d) (2.18) Equation (2. + 4 ) 2. = auiay .+ v ((7.17a.i a x 2 = o lay2 .4 Compatibility It is seen from eqs(2.Ty [(auI ay)syl/dy = auiay = e. from eqs(2..v a 2 q .20b) 2(1 + v ) a 2 ~ . The relationship between the strains expresses a condition of compatibility.16b) and (2.
antay (2.24a.g. t a ~ ~ ~ + a ~ ~.16a.24a./ay2 + a'q.b) with the appropriate compatibility condition.24b) where X and Yare the Cartesian body force componentstunit volume..25a.tax= . the equilibrium equations (2.52 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Adding eqs(2. tax +a?. When the latter are present. 2.b) are modified to ao.tay + atxytax+ Y = o ao.1 ay2 + a 2 qa x 2 = o ( a*/ ax2 + a*/ ay2)(ax q.a+y= rx? .3.2(1 + v ~( a 2 . in the form of components X and Y of self weight.t ax2 + a2q. from either eq(2.22a and b) may be written as a biharmonic equation in any one of the following three forms: ( a 2 / a x 2 + a 2 / a y 2 ) (2 # t a y 2 + a * @ t a x 2 ) = o a ( a * / ax2 + a2/ ay2)2 =o @ V 2 ( V 2 # ) = v"= 0 (2.19b).25a.20a and b). Individual solutions may be derived by combining eqs(2. e.~ aa *~ a 2 a .. A closed solution is possible in which the body forces are derivatives of a potential function 62 (4Y 1 x= .miax.22a.2 1b) It is seen that the equilibrium eq(2. = al@ ay2 and a. the shear stress is given by at..b) (2.23) apply to plane strain when eqs(2.= a*@/ax2 and.) = o + (2.b) Combining eqs(2.16a) or eq(2.23~) where 'delsquared' is defined as V = a'/ 8x2 + a2/ay'.21b) with eqs(2. ti aa *~ ~ ] = / a ) ~ ~ t ~ +~ ~ x ) a2a. Y= .. The reader should check that identical eqs(2..Airy 1862) in the following manner a.16a.22) and (2.26b) .b) and (2.y ) (G.21a) is satisfied when axand uyare defined from a stress function #= @(x.a*@/ax ay =  (2.24a) (2. 2 [ a 2 q f a y 2 ~ a ~ ~ .22c) The result of combining eq(2..23b) (2.6 Body Forces The biharmonic equation V 4 @ = 0 applies to plane stress and plane strain only in the absence of body forces.b) are combined with eq(2.23a) (2.16b).26a) (2.b) a3@tax2ay (2. /ay + x = o (2.B.
v)V2Q=0  v)(a2a/aX2+ a 2 a / a y 2 )= o (2.27a. is either zero or a constant leads to a4@/ax4 2 a4@/ax2aY2a4@/ay4 [( 1 . .b.b) In plane strain the compatibility condition (2.lay2= a2&. That is. .26a. upon the inplane stresses a2&.b) are combined to give a single equation to be satisfied by @ and in plane stress a4@/ax4 2 a4@lax2ay2 a4@/ay4 (1 + + + V 4 4 + ( 1 .y (2.29a) requires three additional equations which @and should satisfy: 2a2a/a~2+a2(~2@)/a~2=~ 2 a2a ay2 + a2(v2@)/ay2 o I = 2 a2a ay + a (v2@)iaxay = o /ax In the absence of body forces (X= Y = 0) we see again from eqs(2. Strictly.2v)/(l +v)]V2Q=0 + v )](a2alax2+ a2a = o lay2) (2.2~ ) I ( I + + + V4@+[(1.4 Cartesian Stress Functions If a function @(x.30a) (2. a2 and a3 are constants. moments and torques applied to its boundary. additional compatibility conditions accompany eq(2. which will in general vary throughout the volume of the body. y) will satisfy eqs(2. the internal stress distribution.29b) where a .27a.28a) (2.28b) will provide stress components (2.19b) remains unaltered.19a) and (2.30b) This approximate solution is acceptable for thin plates.y) can be found that satisfies V 4 @ = 0.22a.. 2. These arise from the dependence of the throughthickness strain & . eq(2. = a + a2@/ax2.28b) Functions @ (x.Constants appearing in the function @mustmeet a final requirement to satisfy the boundary conditions for a particular problem. must be made to contain the known forces. = a2&. Otherwise. it will satisfy both equilibrium and compatibility in plane stress and plane strain. Note. + a 2 x+ a.19a). y) which satisfy eq(2.30b) that both plane stress and plane strain simplify to V 4 @ = 0.y) using Airy's eqs(2.= a + a2@/ay2. when body forces are present in plane stress.29a) = a . however.c).26a. Combining this with eqs(2.26a.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 53 A stress function @ (x. ay = o /ax2 /ax which shows that cZshould obey an equation of the form & .28b) and (2. (2.b) which must also be made to match the boundary conditions. The stresses are found from @(x. that eq(2. = .b) and noting that E.b) as follows: rIy a.29b) will not be upheld when eqs(2. y) and (x.a2@/axay (2.
the given stress expressions satisfy the equilibrium equations(2.v ) + v c x ' ] / E u = (1 + v )[c(y2x + x2)(1 . from eq(2.v ) . Since E. The following examples illustrate the usefulness of certain combinations of these terms.( 1 +V)[CX2(I .= .(i .. a..16a. Show that the corresponding strains are compatible.15c). Example 2.).2cy when 6.1 Polynomial Functions The stress functions of most common use in plate and beam problems are taken from the polynomial function @(x.v = b y 2 is compatible.54 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2. we have. Clearly.. ~ E c. Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into (iii).d)..18) separately.v ) . = c(y2+ Zr).V I = ( I +v)[c(y2+2x)(1 ..2 Derive the displacements corresponding to the following stresses in plane strain a.v ) + v c ( y 2 + 2 x ) ] / E v = .and righthand sides of eq(2.= v (a.v 0. = w (ii) (iii) Equations (i). + Then. Linear and constant terms are excluded since these disappear with the second derivative.b). = 0..=au/ax=(i + v ) [ ~ (. we see that Example 2.y) = a x 2 + bxy + cy2 + dx' + ex2y +fxy2 + gy3 + hx4+ ix'y +jx2y2+ kxy' + ly4 +.v ) + v cx'/3]/ E + f (y) a y = ( I + v )[a.b.1 Show that the plane displacement system u = ax2y2. = 0. . from eqs(2. The following strain components are found from eqs(2.v>+vcCy'/3+2xy)l/E+g(x) E.cx2 and zxy= .17ac): Applying the left. a.4. (ii) and (iii) clearly satisfy the compatibility condition given in equation (2.y E = .15a.1 8). 4.( 1 +v)[cx2y(l .
2)lE ~ Y ) I v = .b. 2.7 is subjected to the plane stresses shown. ) / E = A ( x / a . Example 2. Determine. y) in the plate.16a. + + f(v) = ay  Ay'/(2aE) . the general expressions for the u . . v displacements at any point (x. from eqs(i) and (ii) u = ( I + V ) [ C ( ~ ~ X + X ' ) ( .b).d) and (2.( 1 +v)[cx2y(l .2)lE 1+ for) = C' ( 1 +V )v Y (  2)/ E The displacement expressions are then. it follows that f'b)Ay/(aE) = a. For plane stress.7 Plane stress plate The given stresses obviously satisfy the equilibrium eqs(2.14a. Note that u and v will differ for plane stress where a. eqs(2.v ) + v c ( y 3 / 3 + 2 x y ) l / E Constants of integration have been omitted here as no boundary conditions are given.V)/E v = A ( X Y / U vy)/E + g (x) + Q  (ii) (iii) Substituting (i) and (ii) in (iii) gives f'(y) + Ay/(aE) + g'(x) = 2B( 1 + v )/E Since the righthand side is a constant. say a+ p= 2B ( I + v )/ E. . = a v / a y = ( q .v ~ . = 0. for the given boundary conditions.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 55 from which it follows that g'(x) = 0 and f'(y)=2vcy(l + v ) / E ~ C Y ( v ) / E = 2 c y ( l + v ) ( v .V ) + V C ~ / ~ ] / E + C+ v ~ (( v .3 The square plate a x a in Fig. What are the displacements for a point originally at the origin? =o aU aY %++ v=o II Ila=B Figure 2.17ac) give E .
eqs(iv) and (v) become u = A x [ 1 .a a =.A y 2 / ( 2 a E )+ A a / ( 2 E ) v = Ay(x/a .v x 2 / ( 2 a ) ] / E + a y A y 2 / ( 2 a E ) +P v = A(xy /a . y = 0 : a = 0.8 Plane strain bar .v )/E + 2 B ( 1 + v )(x .A a 2 / ( 2 a E )+ P . : 0 = a a . If all the points along the zaxis are fixed.a ) / E which give the displacements at the origin ( x = 0. determine the displacements beneath the load. y = 0) u = A a / ( 2 E ) and v = . Figure 2. + P = Aa/(2E). y = a .4 The rectangular section bar in Fig. Q = . du /dy = 0 at x = 0.p a v=Oatx=a. derive the stresses and displacements from the stress function #= A x 3 . y=O : 0 = p a + Q.56 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Hence eqs(i) and (ii) become u = A [ x . . 2. Assuming plane strain conditions.8 is line loaded as shown. . + p=2B(1 + v ) / E Finally.v x / ( 2 a ) ] / E.2Ba( 1 + v )/E Example 2. .v y ) IE + p x + Q The following boundary conditions apply to eqs(iv) and (v) u=Oatx=O.
PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 57 Since @ satisfies V4@= 0.= a2@/ax2 a2(AX3)/aX2= a ( 3 ~ x ~ ) t = xAX = a a = rxJ 0 .15~) gives a.Fv (1 + v)x2/(a2E).F[h2(1 . + ~ = 2 F ( .v 2 )y2/(a2E) = .direction.v2)/(3aE) . Then eqs(2. = 0 and a.= vq.v2)/a24v(l + v ) / 9 ] / E v = 4Fh (1 . A may be found from moment balance 2 a F /3 = 1q.v 2.FV( 1 + v )x2/(a2E)+fb) C .. for unit thickness in the z . from eqs(2. eq(2. = 0 since u = v = 0 for x = y = 0. y = h ) eqs(iv) and (v) give u = . at the boundary.x dx 6A knx2 dx.v ')y /(aZE) 0 = fb) . eqs(2. = C. F = J 0 a' .v )XY/(a2@+ g( x ) + C2 (1) (ii) Since rxy 0. g'(x) = 0 and : Hence eqs(i) and (ii) become u = . the stress components are. d x = 6 A J0' x d x = 3 A a 2 n : A = Ft(3a2) and .F (1 .. = Now. F is the resultant of the internal ay distribution. = 0. At the load (x = 2 d 3 . + v = 2F( 1 .15a and b) become Integrating these leads to the u.v2)~y/(a2E)+C2 1 where C .15d and 2 . a.F(l .. . y2/(a2E) C . v displacements u = .22ac) q. =+ A = F/(3a2 0 = ) Since c. That is.= 2Fx /a2 Alternatively. 1 7 ~ become = ) (iii) Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into (iii) gives f'b) 2 F (1+ v 2 )y /(a2@+ g'(x) = 0 f'b)+ 2F( 1 .
Ax2+ Bxy + Cy'. Figure 2.9 Thin plate under uniform stressing Clearly @ satisfies V 4 4 =0. The stress components are.2 ( 1 + v )B/ E = a + p Since the derivatives are the respective constants aand p.14 and 2.6 Show that the stress function @ =Dxy' + Bxy provides the stress distribution for the cantilever of depth 2h and of unit thickness in Fig. the function here provides a solution to a thin plate under the action of uniform stresses along its sides (see Fig. The displacements follow from eqs(2. .10. thenf(y) = ay and g(x) = f i and eqs(i) and (ii) become u = 2(C. 2.9.9).+ Q PX 2 Example 2. 2.v 4 )I E = 2 ( c .17) E.v A)IE u = ~ ( C vA)x/E+f(y)+Q. 2. Apply these to the plate in Fig. when it is loaded by a concentrated force P at its free end. .vA)x/E + a y + Ql v = 2(A . = autax = ( C I .58 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 2 5 Determine the stresses and displacements from the plane stress function: @ = .  (ii) Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into (iii) leads to f'Q)+ g'(x) = .22ac) That is. from eqs(2.v C)yIE I.
y plane.$13 :1 = 4Dh3.3Dh’ .PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 59 Figure 2.2 Sinusoidal Function If a stress function of the form @ = f ( y ) sin (nnxlL) =f(y) sin ( m ) (2.3 la) . + D = f/(4h3) From eqs(i) and (ii) ax= fxy /(2h3/3) = (Px) y 1 I = My/l fry = 3f(hZ. 2.y 2 ) which are distributed in the manner shown in Fig.4. Note that the stresses agree with the separate applications of bending and shear flow theory. 2.10 Plane cantilever with concentrated end load Equations (2. since there is no shear stress along the free edges.y’)/(4h3) = [P/(21 )](h’ .27ac) gives the stress components The boundary conditions are (a) rxx 0 for y = A h. That is P= 1 rxxdy=3D h h h (h’  y’)dy = 3D I h2y . x and not z is used to denote the length of a plane stress beam within the x. = + B = .(B + 3Dh‘) = 0 (b) f is the resultant of the internal rxydistribution acting at the free end.10. In the stress function approach. Then y bounds the depth and z bounds the thickness.
1 1).(p + Ja2hsinh &)I( d cosh ah) F = .Hh cosh ah + J h sinh ah] = p By addition and subtraction.axis.2 a 2 d 2 f(y)ldy2+ a4f0. The plane stress components are found from eqs(2.7 A long thin strip of depth 2h is subjected to a normal stress distribution p sin(ax1L)along its longer edges (see Fig.= d241dy2= [a2(E cosh ay + Fsinhay) + Ha(yncosh ay + 2 sinh ay) + J a b a s i n h ay + 2 cosh ay)]sin ax (ii) (iii) In eq(i) the boundary condition is q. F. H and J to be found.ay) = E cosh a y + F sinh ay + Hy cosh ay + J y sinh ay (2.F sinh a h .)= 0 The solution is f Cv) = ( A + BY)exp (ay)+ (C +DY)exp (.b). 2.y = .. Example 2. This gives  a2[E cosh a h + F sinh ah + Hh cosh a h + J h qinh ah] = p .= d2i$/dx2 = .d2@/dxdy = .= p sin ax (tensile) for y = k h and all x. Determine the constants in eq(2.60 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES is to satisfy V 4 4 = 0.[ E cosh ay + F sinh ay + Hy cosh ay + J y sinh ayldsin ax 2. E = .a2[E cosh a h .3 1 b) where a = nn IL. X P pW (1) Figure 2.[ a ( Esinh a + F cosh ay) + H (yasinh ay + cosh 4 ) y 1 + J b a c o s h ay + sinh ay)]acos ax a. The function will apply directly to sinusoidal edge loadings where the particular boundary conditions enable the constants E. a.22ac) and eqs(2.3 1 b) and the stress state along the x .11 Sinusoidal wave edge loading Here a=nIL since I I = I .31a. the following condition is found d4f (y)ldy4.(Hh) cosh ah I sinh ah .
aF (coshah) / (hgsinhah + cosh ah) J = .. and b. a.[ a ( . When y = 0 the stress state along the x axis is.31a.33a) are found by identifying @(x) with each part of g (x) and integrating over the range L. as follows: * lL + a. .E a 2sin m = p sinm (sinhah + ah cosh ah) / (sinhah coshah + ah) a.. in eq(2.. cos (2nxlL) + b.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 61 In eq(ii) the boundary condition is qy= 0 for y = h and all x. cos ( n x / L )+ b.aE (sinh arh) / (hacoshah + sinhah) Substituting eq(iv) into (vii) leads to J = a p (sinh ah) / [$(sinhah coshah + ah)] E = . sin ( n n x / L )+ b.[ a ( E sinh ah + F cosh ah) + H (hasinh ah + cosh ah)+ J (hacosh ah * + sinh ah)]= 0 .( F a + H ) a c o s m = 0 = 2.. The stress function in eqs(2./2 + a . the coefficients a.cos (nnxlL)] (2.. cos (3nxlL). Thus.b) then becomes #(x...L@(x)&+ S _ .= ..J(hacosh a h + sinh ah)]= 0 By addition and subtraction. OD = a. L p ( x ) c o s ( n n x / ~ ) d x l+ . y) = [E coshay +F sinhay + H y cosh ay + J y sinh ay] g(x) (2. /2 + n .(iii) a. L @ ( x ) s i n ( n n x / ~ ) d x .sin (nlrxlL)sin (nnxlL)+ b.32) where g(x) = a.. which is a consequence of the common amplitude p for each edge distribution. I [ a..cos (nnxlL)cos (nnx/L)]dx [a./2 L = S_.3 Fourier Series (a) Full Range Series When the edge loading is not sinusoidal it may still be represented by a sinusoidal series function g(x) of period 2L.33a) If @(x)describes the actual edge loading.E sinh ah + F cosh arh) + H (hasinh ah + cosharh) .= ( a Z E+ Ua) sin m = p sin ax [.. from eqs (i) . sin ( n x / L )+ a2sin (2nxlL) + u3 sin (3nxlL) + 6 ..p (sinh ah + ah cosh ah) / [$(sinh ah cosh ah + ah)] (vi> (vii) Substitutingeq(v) into (vi) gives F = H = 0.(sinhah + ah coshah) / (sinhah coshah + ah) + 2 sinhah / (sinhah c o s h d + ah)] qv .4. H = ...
7.33a) will not.at x = U2.33d) Note that when x lies outside the range . Example 2.33a). represent @(x) unless @(x)is itself periodic. . the result from Example 2.33b .12.62 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES This gives (2. If L = 4h.. y = 0 using .33b) (2. determine a and a. Determine the Fourier series loading function g(x) in eq(2.d).33~) b. 2.L 5 x s L. as shown in Fig.. = (l/L) / L @(x) cos (nnx/L)dx (2. Figure 2. g(x) in eqs(2.12 Rectangular wave The loading function is + p for O i x i L p for L i x s Z L From eqs(2. in general.8 A rectangular wave loading of amplitude p and period 2L is applied normally to the longer edges of a thin plate of depth 2h.
= (4p/n)[sin ( n x / L )+ (U3) sin (3nxlL) + (1/5) sin (5nxlL) +. When @ ( x ) = @(x + L).. = 0. when it follows for y = 0..1/3 + 115 . that the plane stresses are a. as in this example. ] x [ .. 3 Now.111 1.@(XI. the Fourier series will contain odd harmonics only.( .PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 63 = [p/(nn)J[(l. n . since the functions x and y in eq(2. 0 3 6 ~ (4p /n)[0.cos nn) sin(nnx/L) for n = I . I x [ s i n h ( n h / L ) + ( n h / L ) c o s h ( n h / L ) ] /sinh(nh/L)cosh ( n h / L ) +nh/L] [ ox= (4p/n)[sin ( n x / L )+ (1/3) sin (3nxlL) + (1/5) sin(5nxlL) +.. h/L =1/4 ~7.0 .]1.33a) becomes g(x) = C [2p/(nn)1(1 ... 3 . resulting in a Fourier cosine series. when p(x)= .737311 1. = contains sine terms only.cos n n ) ] = [p/(nn)][O 01 = 0  Equation (2.sinh( nh/L) .z U.@ ( x ) .7543] [ . sin ax n .l = (4p/n)[sin(m/L) + (1/3)sin(3m/L) + (1/5)sin(5m/L) +. In addition.34a) where a = n n / L .. the hyperbolic function in y may be taken from the previous example where similar boundary conditions were applied. 5 . 0 and the Fourier representation g ( x ) b.. These are g(x) = C a.9801 / 1. which gives a. For an even loading function @(..x ) = . = (4pln) [ I ...1..32) are separable.1/7 + 119 .835 = 1 . the series appears in even harmonics. Simplified Fourier sine or cosine series may be applied over the halfrange 0 < x 5 L. It is sufficient to take n = 1 within g(x).@(x + L). 1 2 7 ~ (b) Odd and Even Functions For an odd loading function (1.( n h / L )cosh ( n h / L )+ 2 sinh ( n h / L ) ] / sinh ( n h / L )cosh ( n h / L )+ nh/L] [ Taking x = L/2.. I  (2.x ) = .835 = .. and .9801 + 1.cos n n ) + (cos 2 n n .
b) may be written as a.9 Find the expression g(x) for the edge loading in Fig.64 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES a.34a. J’h Figure 2. The loading function becomes 2pxlL for O s x i L I 2 2 p ( l . cos ox (2..axis. the sine series will extend @(x) by alternating it in positive and negative y with period L about the x . = ( 2 1 ~ ) loL sin ax cix @(x) m g(x) = a.1 b. Halfrange series’representations of odd and even functions are identical to the full series representation of each function.34b) a.. Example 2.. L 2p ( 1 . since @(x) alternates about x with period L.. The cosine series duplicates @(x) with period L along the x ...13. + n . 2.= ( 2 / ~ ) I0 Li2 ( 2 p x / ~sin m dx ) + (2/t>S.x / ~ sin ox cix ) Using the following result from integrating by parts: eq( i) becomes .x l L ) for L I 2 s x i L Equations(2. = (2/L) loL @(x) cos ax dx Beyond the range of L..axis.13 Triangular edge loading Here g ( x ) will follow from the halfrange sine series.=(IIL)joL@(x)dr b.
. z0and yro are found from the distortion occurring to the cylindrical line elements 6r x r60. This gives . the straindisplacement relations.35a) For the tangential (hoop) strain in OQ.sin(nnx/L) = (8p/n2) n. compatibility and the stress functions in terms of r and 8. I ( I / n * ) sin(nn/2) sin ( n n x / L ) = ( 8 p / n 2 ) [ s i n ( m / L ).(1/32)sin(3nx/L)+(1/52)sin(5nx/L)  . Hence the radial strain is rr = [ 6 r + (au/ar)6r .6 r]/6 r = a d a r (2.14 Plane deformation in cylindrical coordinates The radial displacement of OP is (au/ar)6r. the number of derivations in the theory may be reduced by transforming the Cartesian coordinates' relations. I StrainDisplacement Relations Strain components E.I 2. 2. equilibrium. 2. Figure 2.8). Fortunately. g(x) = : n.15) where r and B now replace x and y respectively ( z is a common coordinate). Firstly. we should note that the constitutiverelations are identical in form to the Cartesian eqs(2...14 and 2..14).. For this it is necessary to reexpress the constitutive relations.5. 1 a. the increase in length of rd8 is due to both the rate of change of v with respect to 8 and the change in radius from r to r + u as 0 displaces to 0'.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 65 = [8p/(L2a2)] sin(nn/2) = [8p/(n2n2)] ( n n / 2 ) sin m  .5 Cylindrical Plane Stress and Plane Strain Many plane problems are better represented by cylindrical coordinates (r. as point 0 displaces to 0' with radial and tangential components u and v respectively (see Fig.
15 Stress variation on a plane cylindrical element For radial equilibrium along the centreline r in Figs 2.35b) The true change in the angle aPOQ defines the shear strain.35~) 2. and rrovary with 80.= (dv/dr)dr/dr . That is.v/r+ ( a u / a e ) [ 6 e / ( r d e ) ] yv0= dv/dr . This must omit the rigid rotation (v/r rad) which also contributes to the new position O'P'.15a.radial a. these must be resolved parallel to r and 0.0.5. cos (68/2) + 1 and sin (68/2) t 6 8 / 2 rad. Note that the force components lying in each direction have been separated in (a) and (b) for clarity. . Now when 68. This gives where rro= zOr Neglecting products of infinitesimals leads to . Figure 2. Since the inclinations of a. and shear rrfl stresses vary across the element in the manner shown when taking positive rand Balong the centreline directions indicated.v/r + (11 r)(au /as) (2.66 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (2.The following derivations apply in the absence of body forces.15a.b. assuming unit thickness of the element. yr.2 Equilibrium Equilibrium equations are found from radial and tangential force balance for the cylindrical element in Figs 2. The hoop uo.b.
These relationships are used to derive the first and second derivatives (2.23b) is transformed to If we let V 2 = [ V4(r. and y = r sine..36a) For equilibrium along the tangential centreline B in Figs 2.15a.b. the biharmonic eq(2.37a) Adding eqs(2.B)4 = 0 1. x = r cos8.5. this leads to the second equilibrium equation (2/r)tr.36b) 2.15a. (2.. with similar reductions.uu)/r+ ( 1 / r ) a t.b show that the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates are related by r 2= x2 + y2. (a. ( trU6 ra tro/ar)(r + 6 r )68 + tro r6B + ( rur+ 68 a tor B ) 6 r sin( 68/2) /a  + tr0 r sin( 68/2) + (oU 6 B a u U / a 8 ) 6 rCOS( 6&2) 6 + uU6r cos(68/2) = 0 and.38a) becomes [V2][V2 which i s abbreviated to 14.PLANE ELASTtCITY THEORY 67 Dividing through by (r6B 6 r ) gives the first equilibrium equation.37a and b)./ar = 0 (2.+ (Ilr) auu/aB+ a t r o / a r =0 (2. the LH side of eq(2.3 Biharmonic Equation Figures 2.Ja 8 + au.38b) .
5.41ac) must satisfy The expressions (2.39b) (2.39ac) satisfy the two equilibrium equations (2.42a. However. Equations (2.36a. and q.22a and b) into a and a. The shear stress tro follow .b).= a.39ac) must satisfy V 4 @ ( 8 .)=  (2.. 2. an example of a radial body force R is the centrifugal force produced in a rotating disc or cylinder. @and P in eqs(2.a. ../aB+ au. a thin disc).15a..42a) For cylindrical plane strain (a cylinder). This gives three plane polar stress functions: a. will from either of the equilibrium eqs(2.b) are satisfied by the stress functions (2.39a) (2. For cylindrical plane stress (e.4 At this stage a distinction is made between plane stress and plane strain as their constitutive relations differ..b) are modified to (a..= ( 1 / r ) a @ / / a r + ( i / r 2 ) a 2 @ / a s ’ a.40a. This force derives from a potential B ( r ) as R = 8 2 lar.b) may then be used to transform a.40b) (2.40a) (2.30b)./dr + an /ar = 0 ( 2 / r )tro ( 1 / r ) aaJaf3+ a qo/ar = 0 + Equations (2.)/ r + ( 1 / r )a z.36a or b).g.b) are identical to their Cartesian counterparts (2. r ) + ( I.= a 2 @ / a r 2 t.28b) and (2. so that the equilibrium eqs(2.b).4 (2. we see that a.v ) V 2 Q ( r ) = 0 (2.36a. @ and Q in eqs(2.39~) a[( I / r ) ( a @ / a B ) ] / a r = ( I / r 2 ) a @ / a B ( I / r ) ( a 2 @ / a r a 8 ) The reader should check that eqs(2. and a.68 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2. the meaning of V * will now differ between the first and second terms of eqs(2.5.b.5 Body Forces Apart from selfweight..4 (2.(eqs 2.. They are respectively These forms may be employed for the analysis of cylindrical bodies rotating about an axis of symmetry (see Chapter 3).42a.37a.4 Stress Componetif Functions When 8= 0 in Figs 2.= a.
R.38a) becomes which simplifies to d4@ld04 4 d2@/dB2 0 + = The solution.) which gives C = T / [ 2 n (R. so that the following three classes of function are considered.43) where A. I Stress Functions in 8 The function @ =@(8)is independent of r...44b) Any part of eq(2. The corresponding stress functions eqs(2..Ri)].39ac) gives a. 2. then C is found from the equilibrium condition T=2rr! R rror2dr=2nC which gives C = T I (2nR) and rro=TI (2nR r 2 ) .16a) the equilibrium condition becomes T=2n/Rorror2dr=2rrC R f : R. These may depend upon Band r alone or together. = 0 and eq(2. dr=2nC(R. where N and N m are constants. and outer radius R.6 Polar Stress Functions There is a number of useful stress functions @ satisfying eq(2. = 0 with q=(l/r2)d2@/dB2 tro= r 2 )d@ldB (11 (2. Thus a/ a r = 0. which is obtained from a substitution of the form @= exp(mB). In each case rro varies ... B and C are constants. (see Fig. Here a.43) is a valid stress function..Ri)] and rro= T I [2rr 2 (R.. = a.When a torque is applied to the axis of a thin annulus with inner radius R.44a) (2. The following functions are of interest. (a) Torsion of a Disc The simple function @=CBapplies to the torsion of a thin disc or rotating wheel.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 69 2.44b) gives the shear stress as If the torque is applied to the axis of a solid disc of radius R. has the final form @ = A cos28+ B sin28+ CB (2. and the biharmonic eq(2.38b). 2.6.
For the hollow tube r. Figure 2. as shown in Fig. Example 2. varies from a maximum value at Ri to a minimum at R. = (11 r2)(2Bcos 28+ .b) with q5= B sin2a+ Ca yields the radial and shear stress components. 2.17 Wedge with tip moment Applying eqs(2.10 Determine the stress distribution in the body of a wedge of unit thickness and apex angle 2 a when a moment M is applied at its tip in the direction of 8 negative (see Fig.17) Figure 2. a.70 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES inversely with r z .. . c) T .44a. 2.16 Hollow disc under axial torque (b) Wedge with Tip Moment The following example shows how the function q5= B sin28+ C8 can be applied to a wedge with a moment applied to its tip.4 B I r ’) sin 2 8 T. = ( .16b..2Bc0~2a .= ~ (1) (ii) 0 for 8= ? a in eq(ii) (iii) The constants B and C are found from the two conditions: (a) which gives C=.
b) These two strains depend upon a single displacement u. = 0 and (2.axis.cos 2a) 1 (sin 2 a .46a) is #=AInr+Br21nr+Cr2 The stress function eqs(2.35ac) give z. expresses this dependence as E.17) that a.38a) reduces to [d21d? + (llr) dldr][d2qjldr. E. = . All points in the r .39ac) yield zr. the shear stress is zero at the edges and with a maximum value on the centreline . = (M 1 r2)[(1 . = duldr.2acos2cx)] C = .2 a c o s 2 a ) l z Both stress components diminish rapidly with the square of radii away from the wedge tip. q. A compatibility condition.2acos2a)I t. = duldr = d (rc. we find the constants 4 B = M I [2(sin 2 a .u= (MI r2)[(c0s2B. = ulr (2.2 a c o s 2 a ) Substituting for B and C in eqs(i) and (ii) prescribes the stresses in the body of the wedge as a.2 a c o s 2 a ) I Equations (iv) and (v) show (see Fig. Substituting from eq(ii) and (iii).= r d&. 2. : .!+ (llr’) dqjldr = 0 + (2..2M sin281 [r2(sin2a.46b) . the solution to eq(2.. Thus v = avlar = aular = 0 and eqs (2.45a. is zero along the centre line of the wedge and reaches a maximum in tension and compression along the outer edges of magnitude a r = + 2 M I [ r 2 ( I 2acot2a)l In contrast.6.! + (llr) dqjldr] = 0 which gives d4@ldr4 (21r) d3@ldr3 (l/r2)d2qj/dr.ldr Since qj is independent of 8. 8 plane must displace radially.cos2a) I [(sin2a .46a) Following a change of variable. = 0 with the strains E.. then a@/df?=0 and eq(2. with the substitution r = exp(t).ldr E~  + E.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 71 and (b) M = I zro r 2d8.2 Stress Functions in r The stress function qj=qj(r) refers to a body with symmetry about the z .M c o s 2 a l (sin2a .)ldr = r dE. 2.
A plane strain condition may then be applied in which the axial strain E . The cylinder wall in then unstressed axially (a. (b) Thick Cylinder Under Pressure Taking the stress function 4 = A In r components as + C r '.49) If the cylinder is built in to rigid end closures.r.47a) (2. concurrent forces.A l r 2 (2.pr:r<. Other functions that follow employ the C r 2 term to match boundary conditions for axisymmetric bodies. They exist in the wall of a long.= 0)..46b).48a.. = 2C.48a) leads to the two simultaneous equations: p.'t( r.eqs(2.48a and b) .47a.' . thick cylinder subjected to internal (and external) pressure..=2C+Atr: 0 = 2C + A I rc: Subtracting (ii) from (i) gives A = .r:).b) supply radial and hoop stress u r = 2 C + A / r 2 and u 0 = 2 C .') Substituting for A and 2C into eqs(2. is set either to zero (see Example 2. Plot the distribution of q. = 0 for r = r. and uzand derive a general expression for the radial displacement. (1) (ii) 2C=pr. given that the cylinder is subjected to internal pressure only and that the axial strain is zero. When closed ends contain the pressure. The boundary conditions are a. The following three functions are of practical interest. (a) Equibiaxial Stressing Applying eqs(2.11 Determine the constants A and C in the Lam6 equations. = a. .p i for r = rj and a. ..47 b) where # may be the sum of any combination of righthand terms within eq(2. The axial stress q depends upon the end condition of the cylinder. Example 2.b) to the function 4 = C r gives equal stresses a. These describe uniform plane stress states (i) within the wall of a thinwalled spherical vessel under pressure and (ii) in a thin plate subjected to coplanar. its natural extension will be prevented. The ends are said to be open when an internal pressure is contained by bore pistons. u. q is found from a horizontal force equilibrium equation between the forces exerted by the axial stress in the cylinder wall and the internal pressure acting upon the end plates: (2.1 1) or to a constant value to find the axial wall stress.b) These are the Lam6 stresses (Gabriel Lame 17951870). Substituting into eq(2.47a. = .2/ (r.72 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES ur= ( I t r ) d#ldr u0= d2#/d? (2.
A / r z + B (3 + 2 In r ) + 2C (2.= . B and C.)+ 2 C = O (2. To find constants A. is a maximum in tension.45a or b): (c) Bending of a Curved Beam Taking the complete function @ from eq(2. .. we let a hogging moment M be applied to a curved rectangular beam of unit thickness and with inner and outer radii ri and r .19 and reference p.75). is maximum in compession and the hoop stress a.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 73 Equation (v) differs slightly from the closedend cylinder expression (2. = 0 for r = ri and r = r.b): a. the radial stress a.. The stresses in eqs(iii)(v) are distributed as shown in Fig.50b) Golovin (1 881) recognised that eqs(2. a. 2.50a. From eqs (2.49) but both give constant a.: + B(l + 2 In r.5 1b) .18 Stress distributions within the wall of a thick cylinder under internal pressure At r = r. respectively.. (independent of r). The radial displacement follows from eq(iii)(v) and either of eqs(2. the following radial and tangential stresses are found from eq(2. normal to the outer surfaces.b) are the exact solutions to the stresses in a curved beam under pure bending (see Fig.46b).50a) or= [(I/ r)d@/drIr.18.47a.50a) (2. = A / r * + B ( 1 + 2 In r) + 2 C u. + B (1 + 2 In T i ) + 2 C = 0 a. = A / r. The first boundary condition is that of zero stress.= [(I/ r)d@/drIr = A / r. 2.47a) and (2. at Figure 2.51a) (2.
compatibility of strain and a match to the boundary conditions.51a and b).5la.b) satisfy both compatibility and the boundary conditions and will provide exact solutions to the stresses everywhere in the beam.r.47b) M = frou0dr = r ri J : (d’@/d?)r d r = I r d@ldr ’1‘ ri l: (d@ldr) d r (2.53b).19 Bending of curved bar . M= I@ = .74 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The second boundary condition refers to end moment equilibrium and uses eq(2.. Even if this end condition is not met exactly.52b).46b). In rj) + C ( r.: In r.52b) The constants A .b) and (2.53a.19. Integrating eq(2. provided that the applied moments correspond to the a. .l rj) + B (r. St Venant’s principle (SaintVenant 17971886) assures us that the solution will be accurate at a distance equal to the beam depth beyond the ends.. B and C are found from the simultaneous solution to eqs(2.[ A In (r. enddistribution. Equations (2.52a) and substituting into eq(2. This results in the final expression for the radial and hoop stresses (2. ) ] (2. The position of the neutral axis can be found from setting u.5 3a) Equation (2. These are equilibrium of forces. 2.52a) It follows from eqs(2. as shown. The principal cannot guarantee similar accuracy for approximate solutions to this problem where they do not satisfy the three fundamental requirements of elasticity theory.53b) is the bending stress with the distribution shown in Fig.: ?I lr”  r.= 0 in eq(2. Figure 2. that the first term is zero.
3 General Function. taking a zero value for 8= 2 n / 2 and a maximum value 2C/r for B= 0.54) gives the stresses as uu= cu= 0 and ur = ( I / r) d @ B r+ ( I / r 2 )J 2 @ / J 8 * = (C/r)BsinB+ ( I / r2)(d/aB)[CrsinB+ CrBcosB] = (2C / r) cos 8 (2. Then P is replaced by . P.2. The constant C.rirc?/y.39ac) to eq(2. in Fig. as shown in Fig.55a). see Tirnoshenko S.54) Applying eqs(2.20a. Theory ofE/u. 1984 2nd J.P/t to give .20a.[2P/(ntr)] cos8 Consider the circle of diameter d . lying tangential toy at P. is found from the horizontal force equilibrium equation within a plate of unit thickness P= l.when eq(2.55b) .55a) This radial stress arises from applying an outward point force normally to the straight edge of a large (semiinfinite) plate.20b). a. it is more common for a compressive force to act in a line across a plate of thickness t (see Fig..nR In practice.20 Radial stress under il point force on a semiinfinite plate For a given radius. McGrawHill.38b) is that attributed to Boussinesq (1 885)” and Flambert ( I 892)’. nn o. (r d 8 ) cos8 .P / f = Cn.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 75 2. Figure 2. varies with cos8 as shown.55a) supplies a compressive radial stress a. in eq(2. 2. Their function has the following form: @= CrBsin8 (2. and Goodier J. @ =@(@ r) (a) Point Normal Force on Semiinfinite Plate One of the most useful functions to satisfy eq(2. edition. ’= P = 2C/ cos 8 d 8= C I8+ YZ sin2 B 12 C n = (2. 2..6.= . N.
. gives tmm= q12 = PI( nd).. = (u. )12.. Example 2. from eq(2. The theory is readily confirmed from point loading the straight edge of a birefringent transparent polymer and viewing the image under polarised light.... ] In v= j{ [2vPl(ntE)] cos8+ [2Pl(ntE)] (cos8) In r . = 0.b. = r.20b.55a) becomes ar=2C/d=2Pl(nd)=constant (2. each being inversely proportional to its diameter (r.(2P/(nrE)] (cos8) In r + f ( B ) Substituting (iv) in (ii)  (1) (ii) (iii) [ ~ P / ( T ~ E(cos8) In r + f ( 8 ) +aviae= [ ~ V P I ( I ~ ~ E ) I )] : avld8= [ 2 v P l ( n t ~ )cos8+ [2Pl(ntE)] ( C O S ~ )r .a.f ( B ) ) d 8  = [2vP/(ntE)] sine+ [2Pl(ntE)] (sine) In r j f ( 8 )dB+g(r) From eqs(iv) and (v).3Sa.. and r. = au/ar = (a.c).[2P/( n Etr)] cos8 uIr+ (Ilr) avla8= [2vPl(nEfr)] c o s 8 a v lar .vl r + (11 r)aula8 Substituting a.v ) s i n B + r g ' ( r ) + j f ( 8 ) d B .. are constant around the given tangent circle./G = avlar . Referring to Fig..55~) Note also that the maximum shear stress in the plate is given by r. the partial derivatives of u and v are auldB= [2Pl(ntE)) (sin8)In r + f ' ( 8 ) avlar = [2P/( ntEr)] s i n e + g'(r) Substituting eqs(v).is nor the stress component q.. with a.= q.= 0 and a.b. each of a constant shear stress value. eq(2.. An example of an isochromatic fringe pattern is shown on the front cover of this book.d) with the polar strain displacement relations (2.14a.This means that both a. .= . = u / r + ( l / r ) a v l ~ 8 = ( u f l va. The photoelastic method reveals the tangent circles as isochromatic fringes.[2P/(ntr)] cos8.)IE c .)lE y. semiinfinite plate when a compressive point force is applied normal to the straight edge. gives aular = . C....).55b).f ( B ) .76 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Since r = d cos8.g(r)=O (vi) (vii) .v I r + ( 1lr) auld 8 = 0 Integrating eq(i) leads to u = ... 2. the displacements follow from combining the plane stress constitutive relations eqs(2..12 Determine the displacement expressions in the body of a thin. (vi) and (vii) into (iii) gives f'(8)+[2Pl(ntE)](l .VU.S5c). Substituting from eq(2.
+ g(r)=A. apex angle 2cand inclination .(1 .v)BsinB] B v=[fl(nfE)][(l +v)sin8+2(sinB)In(r/r..[2Pl(ntE)](1 . from eq(xi). (b) Tangential Force on Semiinfinite Plate The radial stress expression eq(2.v)t?cosB] (xiii) (xiv) When 8= O". This shows that the displacement under P falls rapidly to zero as r 4 r .. and u become infinite for r = 0 indicates that localised plasticity would occur if it were possible to achieve a true point force.A. are given by u = [ P / ( n t E ) ] [ 2 l n ( r . 8 ..axis aligned with the force direction. into eqs(xi) and (xii). as shown in Fig.v )[Pl(ntE)]Bsin8 The general u. from eq(xii).55a) may also be applied to point loading of finite bodies when the constant C is redefined.axis (where t?= 0"). Any yielding that does occur at the load point will result only in a local disturbance to the predicted internal elastic stress distribution. then.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 77 The righthand side is zero.21a. from P along the x .v ) c o s 8 The solution to eq(ix) is f(B) = A. .v)sint?+ J f ( t ? ) d B = O d 2 f / d B 2 + f = .[2Pl(ntE)] (cos8)In r . the plate displacements at a point Band r < r. and A. This gives u=A. cost?. so the sum of the separate functions in rand Bequals zero: rg'(r) . ~ l r ) c o s (1. A.(1 .g(r) = 0 or dg/g = dr/r :. A. sin8+ A. r.55a) also applies when a tangential shear force is applied to the straight edge of a semiinfinite plate. For example. Figure 2. (c) Point Force Applied to Finite Bodies Equation (2..v)[P/(ntE)]t?sint? v = (1 + v)[P/(nrE)] sinB+ [2Pl(ntE)] (sin€') In r . The fact that both a. sine (xi) (xii) Since v = 0 when B= 0 along the x .(1 .r and f'(B)+[2P/(n. 2. eqs(xiii) and (xiv) give v = 0 and u = [2P/(ntE)]ln(rJr). = [2P/( n t E ) ]In r. . Because deformation is localised.cosB. r + A.tE)](I . = .[2Pl(ntE)]Inr : A.axis.v)[P/(ntE)]BcosB + A .sinB+A. Substituting for A.2 1b shows a wedge of unit thickness.(1 .A . Thus. this equation supplies the radial stress distribution within the body of a wedge when an inclined compressive force is applied to its tip. cost? .. it is assumed that u = 0 at some radius r. of its compressive tip force P . = A = 0 for all r. This requires that B be measured from an x . u = O = A .Ing=lnr+InA. . . This condition can only be satisfied by A. Yielding is less likely to occur in practice where the force is distributed over a finite area. v displacement expressions are found by substituting eqs(viii) and (x) into eqs(iv) and (v).) .
= . distributionscorrespondingto each load applied separately may be superimposed to give a net stress distribution. In this case we set p= 90" =n/2. = . r = 50 mm and a = 15" in eq(i). 2. On the bottom edge 8= 75" and on the top edge 8= 105".13 The wedge in Fig.21 Further applications of the Boussinesq function By taking 8 anticlockwise from the force line. y ) .56).C +PP)) cos28dB (a = . 2. = 0 along the wedge axis. t = 20 mm. Also when 8= 90°. to give a. find the maximum stress on a radius of 50 mm. Let x define the wedge axis in Fig. the a. Example 2. a.56) The wedge stresses arising from horizontal and vertical tip forces will be found by substitutingp= 0 and P = n / 2 respectively in eq(2.10).4 MPa in tension. The radial stress on the bottom edge becomes: or= 219. If the wedge thickness is 20 mm.( P cos8 )/ [ r r (a.(2P cos8) / [ r t ( 2 a + sin2acos2P)I : (2. The radial stress distribution resembles that obtained from bending a cantilever beam of rectangular section (see Fig. Indeed.sinacosa)] (1) Since 0 is measured from the force line. = 219. When P= 90".c Ie + ' / 2 s i n 2 e ) ( u * P ) = . In addition P = 10 x lo3 N.PI [ t ( 2 a + sin%acos2P)] .4 MPa in compression and on the top edge a. Show that the simple theory of bending will provide 75% of the maximum radial stress when 2 a I 10".21b has an apex angle of 30" and supports a vertical downward force of 10 kN.~ ( 2 a + s i n 2 a c o s 2 ~ ) (aP) C = . the bending stress at Q is u= My11 (ii) where the bending moment M = Px and the second moment of area for the transverse plane .56). the horizontal equilibrium equation becomes : PI t = .2 c . 2. When these loads are combined. a. we may apply bending theory to a slightly tapered cantilever beam to provide an approximation to these maxima. in eq(2.78 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 2.21b so that a point on the sloping side has coordinates Q (x. the wedge interior is defined by 75" I 0 s 105". J.
This gives an equibiaxial tension as shown: a. Substituting into (ii) gives U = ~ P X (2 1 t y2 ) When a 5 5".B) in the disc.Cl(2d).57) (2. a.so that eq(i) approximates to a tensile bending stress. the stresses eqs(2.22a. A stress function of the following form applies: #= CrBsinB+ Dr2 Equations (2. for any point (r.x)(r+x) = 2 x ( r . = P I [ t (r . 58~ ) The resolution in a. stresses of equal magnitude with no shear stress..x ) Substituting eq(iv) into (iii) gives u= 3P I [4 t ( r . (d) Disc Under Diametral Compression Consider a disc of diameter d and thickness t subjected to diametral compressive force P . This condition can be matched when eqs(2. = U. sin&= a. 2.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 79 containing Q is / = t (2 y ) j I 12. = o.= 2 0 tro 0 = (2.b). Hence. The same approximation holds for the compressive side where negative signs accompany eqs(v) and (vii). as shown in Fig. we may write p z = r 2.b) due to a single force are .58a. 2. The combined stress state at any point A on the boundary.= (2C Id) + 4 0 ( 2.58a. resulting from each force P . = 0.c o w ) ] =Pl[rt(lcosa)] and setting cosa= xlr in eq(vi) gives a. the disc diameter is d = r/cosB= r'lcos8'.x 2 = ( r . Referring to Fig.58~) the normal that stress will be zero when D = . will give two direct .. This is necessary to account for the interruption caused to the stress field by the disc boundary.58a.22a. and a normal and parallel to the boundary at A.b) The term in D superimposes a uniform biaxial tension upon Boussinesq's radial stress field.P c o s ( 9 0 + a ) l [ r t a ( l ..39ac) give the stress components as u. is given by the sum of eqs(2.. = (2Clr) cosB+ 2 0 and a. Neither a normal stress nor a tangential shear stress can exist around the boundary. It follows from eq(2.x) I When a i s small.x ) ] (vii) Comparing eqs(v) and (vii) shows that bending theory approximates to 75% of the maximum tensile radial stress.b) superimpose to give u.58a.
2.62b) (2. cos28 uosin28 + a.22 Stresses u.61~) For the right half of the disc.62a) (2.)sin28 (2. a.a..b) into (2. from eqs(2.. The stress transformations for the left half of the disc are a. to give a.b) The constant C is found by applying the horizontal equilibrium condition across a section aligned with the y .cos28+ a.62a) into eq(2.60).61ac) is replaced by . uo=C l d (2. cos28 = rxy % (a. P +2t (a. cos2e+ a. 2Cld+2D Figure 2.direction.f / ( r t )Thus.62~) The sum of eqs(2. = a. sin28+ a.61~) and (2. = a.. 0 in eqs(2.a.63a) leads to p +2ct 1' 0 n (4 cos20. Substituting for dy and o. = a.C l d .61b) (2.tdy=O (2. is the sum of the the radial and hoop stresses resulting from each force resolved into the x .63b) Equation (2.sec28)d o = 0 (2. .22b. sin28+a.) sin 2 8 = (2.80 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES q=(2Clr)cosB. sin28 q.63b) gives C = .. for they . sin2B)dy= 0 (2.axis. and a.8.61a) and (2. a.62~) confirms that Ct. then dyldB= (d 12) sec28..63a) Since y = (d 12) tan8.59a. and usin a disc under compression At point B in Fig.axis P+ a.6 1a) (2.60) where x is aligned with horizontal force line. from eq(2. cos28 r x x r =!h(a. = 0 along an axis of symmetry. Substituting Ca.59a. .
= 0).2P ( 3 d 2+ 4y2)(d2 . 0 at the boundary (y = d /2). = .6P/( n d t ) and q.65a.l)sin28+(2P/ndt )c os20  (2.4y2) / [ ( n d t) ( d 2+ 4 y2)] q. B. substituting cos0= d / d ( d 2+ 4y2). in compression and tension .shown in Fig.1) cos20+(2p/ndr ) sin20 C q.= 2P/( lrdt ). Equation (2.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 81 1 a. of radius a. these attain their maxima a = .64b) Finally.66b) in which A.38b) whenf(r) is written as (2.66b) may be applied to the uniformly stressed plate with the small central hole.64a) (2.64a. (e) Stress Concentrations A function of the following form d ( r .= [2P/(ndt)](4cos28.23a. respectively.65b) Equations (2.65a) (2. C and D are constants. 0 ) =f (r) cos 2 0 will satisfy eq(2.b) lead to a.= 2P ( d 2.66a) f(r)=Ar2+Br4+C/r2+D (2. ‘t 3s Figure 2. = . 2. eqs(2.4 y2)2/ [( n d t ) ( d 2+ 4 y2)] (2. At the disc centre 0. = [2p / ( n d t )](4 cos20.23 Stress distributions around a hole in a uniformly stressed plate .b) show that a = q.
a.5) = 30°.70b) (2.. the hoop stress distribution around the hole is found by substituting r = a in eq(2.b).71a.a2S12 and F = S 14. = S cos28=(S 12) ( 1 + cos 2 8 ) r.' (0. D = a2S12.. #(r. B )shown. Now at the position ( b .67) where E and F are constants.70a) (2.axis.. where alb 0.=(SI2)[(1 .69b) (2. On a transverse y . is shown in Fig.23b.70b)..c). where B= n12 and B= 3 7r12. This is written as # = #(r) = E In r + F r 2 (2.(SI2)(1 + 2 a 2 1 r Z 3 a 4 1 r 4 ) s i n 2 e (2. 150°. the radial and shear stress components are a.b. The boundary conditions for eqs(2.70b) shows that these points occur at B= Y ~ c o s .8 mm central hole. 2.7 la) (2. . they give z = 0. a uniform radial LamC pressure Si2 appears as a result of transforming the horizontally applied stress.68b) and that part of eq(2. ur = 0 and when r .U ~ / ~ ) ~ C O S 281 From eqs(2. It follows that for r 5 b.(r .39a. stress is distributed according to eqs(2. This shows that the stress changes from tensile to compressiveat the four singular points (P. C = . B = 0. the stress distribution is not affected by the hole.23a. and r. the stress components a.B) = ( A r z + B r 4 + C/r2+ 0 )cos 2 8 + ( E In r + F r 2 ) (2.66a) and the stress functions (2.67). it may be assumed that at any radius b >> a. = Applying conditions (i) and (ii) to an infinitely large plate.69a) for which eqs(2. 200 rnm wide L72 duralumin plate with a 50.68a) (2. or 2 0. Equation(2. = 0.210" and 330".b) are (i) or= tro 0 for r = a and (ii) q = S12 and zro= .68b) The accompanying tangential shear stress component (2. E = .39ac) supply the stress components.70a. (2. Equation (2.g.82 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The full effect that the hole has in concentrating stress is determined by superimposing the LamC stress function (2. S.39a.b. = 3S.(Sl2) sin2Bfor r = b.@ = (S/4)[r2.c). At radius b.Sl4.46b).w.68a) which is q = (S /2) c0~2Bare derived from eq(2.7 1 b) Clearly when r = a. are the result of summing the stress functions (2.. Using St Venant's principle. The manner in which I . The two distributions agree with experimental data given for a 10 s.a 2 / r 2 ) + ( l 4 a 2 1 r Z+ 3 a 4 / r 4 ) c o s 2 8 ] aO=(S/2)[(1 a 2 / r 2 ) ( 1 + 3 a 4 / r 4 ) c o s 2 8 ] + so=. = .a4S14.68a.66a) and (2. passing through the centre of the hole. That is. u = S.c) are particularly useful for determining the stress concentration factor. a.70~) Equations (2. In Fig. They confirm a threefold magnification (the stress concentration factor) in the axial stress for two transverse points A and B on the hole boundary. leads to A = .2a21n r . IOa. R and S) where u.69a) becomes  t$(r. Q. u. and .(S 12) sin 2 8 (2. within intermediateradii a < r < lOa. 2.
S.)(l  (2.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 83 Figure 2. It follows from eqs(2.+s. 2 5 ~ .b show the manner in which eqs(2.73b). Where these axes intersect the hole (r = a ) . .a. 135'.S ) for the y .24 Hole in a plate under uniform shear The solutions (2. (2. the equivalent stress system given in Fig. the hoop stress around the hole is a. This reveals unstressed points for 8= 45". (see Fig.74b) (2.26a). = .direction are found by replacing B with 8.72~) Adding eqs(2. This gives upon factorisation.72b) (2.=Yz(s.)(I + 3 a 4 / r 4 ) ~ ~ s 2 8 q .72a) (2.S ( 1 .72) gives the stress state under pure shear a. in eqs(2.4 cos28.70ac) may be extended to pure shear loading of a plate with a hole.= ..7 3b) (2.70ac) that the stress components under the uniform compressive stress (. 2.)(I . For this.70ac) gives a. = .74a) (2.'/Z(S.L/2(sXsJ)(1 + 2 a 2 / r 2 .70) and (2. for when S.73a and b) are distributed along the y (8= n /2) and x (8= 0') axes respectively. The principal of superposition can again be applied to the general case of inplane biaxial stressing of a plate with a hole under under S and S.z/2. shown in Fig. Setting 8= B .=S(I + 3 a 4 / r 4 . s 225" and 315" in Fig.24a.4 a 2 / r 2 ) c o s 2 8 u.S ( 1 + 3 a 4 / r 4 ) c o s 2 8 rr..3 a 4 / r 4 ) s i n 2 8 or= ! i / (s. Setting r = a in eq(2.=. 2.a ' / r 2 ) + %(S. gives the stress components for the combined loading 4 a 2 /r 2+ 3 a 4 / r 4 ) cos 2 8 u.70ac). and rrufor S.. S = S. Adding these to eqs(2.)(I + a 2 / r 2 ). acts alone. a.73~) Figures 2.25a.+ S.S.7 3a) (2. 2.3a4/ r 4 + 2 a 2 / r 2 ) sin 2 8 (2. 2 . acting alone. is magnified by a factor of 4 in both the x and y directions.90" with .24b is employed.74~) .
74b) allows the stress concentration at the hole ( r = a) to be determined for given ratios K = S. 2. To eliminate this.14 Determine the thickness of reinforcement necessary around a circular window in a pressurised fuselage in order to eliminate the stress concentration In a thinwalled tubular fuselage.26 Stress concentrations for a plste with hole under biaxial tension Example 2./S.uo/S.25 Stress distributions around a hole in a plate under pure shear Equation (2. For 8 = 0" this gives uo/Sx 3K . In the absence of reinforcement.1 and for 8=n/2.1. the hole bead reinforcement must serve to reduce stresses to those .) upon K is shown in Fig. the pressure produces biaxial stressing in the ratio Sv/ S.K . As K increases beyond 3.26b). 2.26b. = 2. the greatest stress concentration would be 5 (see Fig. the stress concentration increases positively for 8= 0" under biaxial tension and decreases negatively for 8= n12. e=o Fig. This includes the previous cases of uniaxial tension when K = 0 and also pure shear when K = ..84 MECHANICS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES 'T Figure 2. 3 . 2. The = = linear dependence of a normalised stress concentration ( uo/S.
e for r >> a in eqs(2. T.74a..c). The inner surface is force free.T=O + 0 to give (iv) where small products have been ignored.0 we may set cos (68/2) + 68/2 rad and sin (68/2) qta+dQld8. + dT/d8+ Q = 0 (v) Combining the two equilibrium equations (iv) and (v) leads to a differential equation dZTIdB2+ T = ra (q . dT b0 d0 Figure 2. Tangential force equilibrium (Fig. and rrofrom (i) and (iii) into (vi) gives d2TldO2+ T = (3 S./d8) Substituting for a.27a) leads to z ta .Tsin (6812) = o As 68.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 85 values existing away from the hole.(a68)t respectively. 2. These are (dT/d8)68and (dQ/dO)dBrespectively in the direction 8positive. That is.ra/2)(1 .[T+ (dT/d8)68]sin(68/2) .r ( a d e ) + (dQ/de)decos (6812) . (0 (ii) (iii) Let the reinforcement consist of a circular section bead bonded to the hole at radius a. Also shown are the variations in the tensile force T and transverse shear force Q carried by the bead.ta/2)[1 + 1 / 3 ~ o s 2 8 ] (viii) ( 4 (vii) The constants A and B are found from a horizontal force equilibrium condition across the .cos 2 8 ) The solution to eq(vii) is T= Aco s 8 + B s i n B + ( 3 S.27a shows that the radial and shear forces exerted by the fuselage plate (thickness t) on an adjacent element of this bead are u. Figure 2.b. i.27 Forces on a reinforcing bead Radial force equilibrium gives o.dr.(aSB)t and rr.
= e +fxy (2 y 2 . the bead volume becomes v = 4 (xii) \ 0 nI2 [O*I ( 3 + cos 213) de v) + 1 (xiii) [3(i  (1 +V)COS 2131 It is left as an exercise for the reader to evaluate eq(xiii) numerically. Equation (viii) gives 2aSxt = A + US.(ii) E. This shows that by taking v = '13 for an aluminium alloy bead.g2) + where u . This shows that V =. for a bead of area A . The volume of material required is v = 4 Sb(nA/.fand g are constants.d y 2 .. y. y. = q (x2 + y 2 ) .e. y + C .t = B + S. = 2qxy and (iii) u = &y2. using Simpson's rule. the disc volume must be introduced as a bead to remove the stress concentration. = my. t. E. v = bid.^ 0. EXERCISES Equilibrium and Compatibility in Cartesian Coordinates 2. The sheet is under biaxial tensile stresses 0 and a. Since the volume of the disc removed is nu2t. Symmetry holds in the remaining quadrants. 10 a2t. v = cy 1 + d ( 2 y + y 3 / 3 )+ x4y. E.27b). 2 T = 2aS. 2. = y.tta/2)[1 + '13 cos 26'1 (ix) A final compatibility condition is required to match the hoop strain in the sheet with that in the bead.t when B= kn12 (see Fig. A. . y.v ) and for B= ~ 1 2A.t = 2a(2Sx) t .86 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES vertical section. b. i.according to A . = a t ( 3 + ~ 0 ~ 2 6 ' ) / [ 3 ( 1v ) + ( l + v ) c o s ~ ~ ' ~ (xi) For B= O". Substituting into eq(viii) gives aS. Substituting from eqs(i) and (ii) and (viii) into (ix) [3Sxtd(2A. and the bead is under a direct . from which A = 0. = c + d ( 2 + y 2 ) +x4 +y4.t $15 + C4x+ C2 .E)][1+ ' / 3 ~ 0 ~ 2 8 ] = [Sxl(2E)][3(1 .. = 2at 4 2 .2 Analysis of plane strain (E: = y.2 T = 2aS. Answer: u = Ax + b(x'/3 + y'x) + 25 + y4x + C. .1 Show that the following strains and displacements are all compatible in plane stress: (i) E. = at/( 1 .. Show that these are only possible i f f = 4 and b + d + 2g2 = 0. Thus eq(viii) simplifies to T = (3S.: = 0) shows that nonzero strains can be represented by: E. The corresponding strains are equalised when. 2. = qy2. c. from which B = 0. = c . Hence derive the displacements from the strains. a dB Substituting eq(xi) into eq(xii).ta. E. . = by'. = a + b ( x 2 + y 2 ) +x4 + y 4 . d. tensile force T. for vertical force equilibrium across the horizontal section (8= n). Similarly. e.v ) + ( l +V ) C O S ~ ~ ] This shows that the crosssectional area of the bead must vary with 0. its area increases from 6at/5 to 3at as B increases from 0" to 90".2v ). then 10 l n times .
1 3 / 3 ) + [ f h 2 / ( 2 C I ) ] ( x. where c and = k are constants.x ’ / 6 1 ’ / 3 ) + [ f h 2 / ( 2 G 1 ) ] ( x . .2 / 6 .vxy2/2 .=ax’ + b x 2 y + cxy2 + d y 3 .3 Find the conditions for which the shear strain yn. u.f. which lies at the origin. kr’ Determine the necessary relationship for these constants if the stress distribution is to be compatible.12y+ v $/3) . Terms with E are deflections due to bending.4 A thin plate is subjected to the following inplane stress field components: u.v C)/E. What are the displacements existing at the comer (a.d = .A 2 / ( 2 a E ) and at (a.12 If 4 in Exercise 2..v A ) / E .6 The general expressions for the two direct stress components of a plane stress field have the form u. = K .a).?y and v = a’y + bxy.O). b) are: u = 2 a ( C . u = Axy/(aE) . = 3 2 y . cx. tn.v ) . Answer: u =2x(l + v ) [ C ( l . D = b.Cv]/E E: = 0.? + Dy is compatible with the 2. Answer: ( 6 a + 3k + c)(3a . c.v ) . Find the constants and identify the terms in the final displacement expressions for each of the following boundary conditions: (i) u = v = 0 and &day = 0 at (1. Given .Av ] / E . f and h are unconstrained 2.vxy2/2. d.k.cx. v = [ f / ( E I ) ] (12x/2 . = cy. n are constants.b) . Answer: (i) u = [ f / ( 2 E I ) ] ( n ’ y . rv = . (ii)u=[f/(2EI)](n’y.1 1 applies to a thick plate in plane strain. where displacements at the comer ( a . Determine rw Answer: rn = .v Ay2/(2aE) + 2Kx( 1 + v)/E . 2. For the special case where a = c = d = k = m = 0.axis fixed in direction ( au/Jy = 0). shear stress r.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 87 2.7 A square plate of side length a and with sides along the coordinate axes is fixed in position at the origin and with the side along they . Answer: B = a(a + b ) . If the stresses in the plate are or Ay/a.8 Derive general expressions for the displacements at any point (x.u=Aa(l  v)/E. a.3a)(2b + 1 + 3 4 = 0..cxy‘ 0 ...11 The stress function q5 = A? + Bxy + Cy” provides the direct and shear stresses in a thin rectangular plate. b.v=Aa(l  v)/(2E)+2Ka(l + v ) / E 2. 2. 1. A = 2 a . is position. g and h so . . c.v AxIE. and r.f.10 Find the condition for which the stress function q5 = Axy4 + B 2 y 2 is valid.28). v = Ay/E . uv= y 3 .1 ). determine expressions for the compatible stress components or.= ay’ + bx‘y .f 2 y + v y 3 / 3 ). y ) in the cantilever of Fig. Show that the displacements for the diagonally opposite corner (a. c y 3 / 3 together .I ) . Taking the thicknesses to be unity.(m .= A.3xy2 2.13 Show that the stress function q5= DX’ matches inplane bending of a thin plate of width 2 a under end moments M (see Fig.5 The stress system in a plate consists of direct tensile stresses or= c y 2 .1 ) .9 Derive the stress function supplying the stress components a. c = g = 0. Terms with C are deflections due to shear Cartesian Stress Functions 2.. 2.y‘ + gn’y .and directionfixed. where a . (CEI) u.0). b = .6 2 y .a)? (IC) Answer: r.f y ’ / ( 6 G I ) . One comer. Answer: A + B = 0 2. find expressions for this shear stress and the = general displacements. u. Answer: c ( 2 + $ ) / 6 +h y 2. C = c + Bxy + C.h. rv =f. d. v = 2 y ( l + v ) [ A ( 1 . v = 2 [f/(EI ) ] ( / 2 x / 2.?y displacements u = ax2yz+ bxy2 + c.= with a 2.10. 0 = dy’ . rn.= + L r 2 y + m y 2 + n y 3 .[ f y 3 / ( 6 G I ) ] ( 3 h 2 / y . e. derive the displacements.e.f / 3 . (ii) u = v = 0 and &/ax = 0 at (1. v = 2b(A . uv= A with a consistent value of shear stress. determine the 2. that the stress field satisfies both equilibrium and compatibility? Answer: a = 2f / 3 . b). e. b. What are the constraints on the constants a.= 2x’ . k.
2h3/3).C. Given that the nonzero stress components are u. The end x = 1 is builtin and a concentrated force P is applied at the free end (x = 0) in the + y direction. v = 0. 2.v FIE. v = 2Fxy/(Ea2). + 2h2/5 .) . v = Mxy/(EI ) + C.x + 3 = 0. Answer: u = . The latter has constant I and depth 2 h relative to the neutral xaxis. Taking the thicknesses to be unity. How could these stress distributions be made to represent those for an encastre beam carrying a central concentrated load? Answer: u. where Ci are constants Figure 2. Given that the plate origin (0..h i y 5 h and 0 < x 5 I.2y2/3). Check that both equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied.= [qx/(2/)](h2 y 2 ) .15 Derive the stress components from the stress function q5 = A q ’ + BAY + Cy3.16 The stress function q5 = AJ? + BJ?y + C?$ provides the exact solution to the distribution of stress in a beam of depth 2h with unit thickness when it is simply supported over a length 215 and carries a uniformly distributed load qlunit length. = F(h2 . Answer: u = . 2. v = [5q//(24E1)][1 [ 1 2 h 2 / ( 5 l 2 ) ] ( v / 2 + 4 / 5 ) ] + ~ 2. F is the total force applied to the plate of width a ..uv= [q/(2/)](y2/3 yh2 . (CEI) 2. x = 0 on the side x .x + C. where C. (Hint: Use Table I .0) and (iii) the normal and shear stresses at Q on an oblique plane whose edge is given by y .Mv a2/(2EI) and v = 0.19.2. 2.28 Figure 2. .14. a = 2 mm.29 2. derive the stresses and compare these with those from simple bending theory. are constants + 2. for the cantilever in Exercise 2.a 5 z 6 a . . derive the displacements.88 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES that the plate centre is position fixed.17 Determine the state of stress represented by the stress function 4 = A? . 1 = 10 mm and P = 1 kN determine (i) the Airy stress function from which the stresses derive.? ) / ( 2 l ) 2.18 Show that the stress function q5 = [q/(8c3)][?(y3 3c2y + 2c’) . 1 in Chapter 1 for appropriate plane stress transformation equations. r.29.2c2)]is valid and determine the problem it solves when applied to the region: y = f c.O) is position fixed show that the displacements at point (a. r. Show the variation of stress on the plate surfaces. h = 4 mm.given that the stress resultants are a shear force F and a bending moment M at the section x = 0 of a beam. show that the displacements at the point (a.x + C. 0) are u = .M ( V ? + y2)/(2EI) + C . (ii) the principal stresses at the point Q(5.0) are given by u = .20 If.y + C.19 A cantilever beam with rectangular crosssection occupies the region .1.(y3/5)(y2. With the origin at the beam centre. Show that the stress function q5= Dx’ applies to linearly varying edge loading of the plate shown in Fig.By’ when applied to a thin square plate (a x a) with origin at the centre of the left vertical side. What is the vertical displacement at the centre? Answer: ur= [qy/(20](? . = Cxy and rn = A + By2 show that the constants become 2B + C = 0 and that C = 3P/(4ah3) when the stresses satisfy force and moment equilibrium at the free end.positive.y + C.F (v J? + y2)/(Ea2) C . = Fxy/l+ My/l.
[ x 2 / ( 6 d ) ] ( 3+ W ] ) y is proposed as an Airy stress function.q  r { I cQ I .25 The function Q = . Take the origin of coordinates to lie at the centre of the free end.26 A cantilever beam of length 1 and depth 2h carries a downward acting uniformly distributed load wlunit area along its top and bottom faces under plane strain conditions. y quadrant with one comer at the origin. acting in the plane of the strip. To what extent does Q satisfy boundary conditions and compatibility? (CEI) 2. The expression Q = [3w/(4t ) ] (Ly’/(30d3)1(5x2 y’ . The expression Q = [9/(4 t)][xy . The lower edge of the plate is not loaded. Using the stress function Q = f g y + Qn’y+ R$ + S$ .33. 2.33 2. Is the condition that the cantilever is unloaded at its free end met by the function? ’t I Q . To what extent are the boundary conditions satisfied in relation to the ratio U a ? 2.32. 2. Investigate whether the direct stress expression satisfies the boundary equilibrium conditions. Check that this satisfies V 4 Q = 0 and determine the component stresses.B = D 2. 2.xy’ /c’ + 1 y’ I c + 1 y’ I c2 ] is proposed as an appropriate stress function.23 The rectangular plate shown in Fig.= + d)a uniformly distributed load.24 Show that the stress function Q = nryl2 . (CEI) .31 2. 1 Figure 2. X = (2C + 3 0 + 4E)d’. 2. when the plate lies in the positive x. as shown in Fig.51’ + 2 d ’ ) .31 is of uniform thickness t and is built in at the end x = 0. (CEI) . find the constants from a consideration of the known conditions existing at the beam surface.30 Figure 2.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 89 2. Determine further reltionships between the constants.xy’ [ f / ( 4 a 3 + Q/(4azL)]+ y’ [ f U ( 4 a 3 )+ Q/(4a2)] xy2Q/(4aL)+ 3 Q / ( 4 a )+ ) x y [ 3 f / ( 4 a )+ Q/(4L)]is proposed for the loaded beam in Fig. S = .30.32 Figure 2. Answer: 3A + C + 3E = 0. w per unit length.22 A rectangular strip of thickness t is simply supported at its ends (x = i 1 ) and carries on its upper edge 0. It is loaded along the upper edge y = c by a tangential shear flow 9.21 Establish the relationship between those constants in the quartic stress function Q = Ax4 + B 2 y + Cgy’ + Dxy’ + Ey4 if the function is to be valid.(B + 2C + 3 D ) d = ( 3 8 + 2 C + D)a3. from a consideration of known resultant normal forces X and Y and shear force S acting on the sides of a square plate of side length a and unit thickness. Show that Q satisfies the compatibility condition and determine expressions for the direct and shear stresses in the strip. I  I I Figure 2.xy’ /c .q ’ / ( 2 c Z ) aby3/(2c2) biharmonic and that it may + is be used to supply the stresses in the cantilever of Fig. Y = (4A + 3B + 2C)a3.
34)... 2.(2p1n) [sin (&I) + (113) sin ( 3 d f ) + (115) sin (5Irxlf).27 The stress function q5= [3F/(2c)][xy xy'/(3c2)]+ Q$/(4c') is to be used to determine the stress field in a cantilever beam of length L.. (CEI) Fourier Series Loading Functions 2.. 1 ~ (c) g(x) = p / 2 .?+a I ' Figure 2. at + i'*it 2pwP ' x I ...[2p/(2n)] ( 2 n x i l ) + [ 2 p / ( 3 n ) sin ( 3 n x l f ). subjected to a given loading. Determine the nature of that loading. sin ] (b)g(x)=(2pln)[[... Answer: (a) g(x) = (2p1n) sin ( n x l f ). and u. the origin in terms of p . Hence find the plane stresses u.(4p/n2)[cos (nxll)+ (1/3') cos ( 3 n x l f )+ (1/5') cos (5nxlI) .90 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2.35 I I I I 21 Figure 2..33) and (2.34 2... ] (d) g(x) = 3p/2 .35 is given by g(x) = 5p14 + (2p/nZ)[sin(rrxlf) + (1/32) sin (3rrxlf) + (1/52) sin (5ndl) .34ad and derive the appropriate Fourier functions g(x) in eqs(2. ] 't 'f 't Figure 2.36 . unit thickness and depth 2c..cos(wI/L)+(Ufn) sin(nI/L)] sin(rcclf) + { % cos (272 I/L) + [U(4 In )I sin ( 2 UL)) sin ( 2 d L ) . 1.28 Identify full and halfrange series for the edge loadings shown in Figs 2..29 Show that the full range Fourier series for the sawtooth edge loading in Fig.
Taking the origin at the load end with 8 measured anticlockwise from unloaded edge.)2]/[(ru/r.p. 2. show that there is no discontinuity in shear stress at r.(p.) r./S. If the torque is transmitted to the disc by a keyed shaft of radius r. : in terms of stress i s rv duJdr r(l .37. loaded with a uniform pressure p under guides which are equally spaced along its edges. Find the expressions for the constants A and C in the corresponding stress function q5 = A In r + C ?. inducing tension along the top edge.)2 . to= E = y. z) are E . = yZr= 0.8..41 Match the stress function q5 = (Ar' + B/r + Cr + Dr In r)f(O) to each of the thin cantilever arcs in Figs 2.)2 . . Answer: .21b is loaded at its tip with 15 kN compression across its 5 mm thickness. derive expressions for the polar stress components a.[q/(27r)](cos28.= ye.(ro/ r. thinwalled pressurized cylinder is idealised as a large flat plate containing a hole with normal boundary stresses in the ratio S.2 MPa 2.I] 2.. If the hole is to be free from stress concentration.78.35 Examine how to modify the stress distributions in the body of the wedge in Fig.). u.= 0.I). what thickness of hole reinforcement is necessary? 2. show that the stresses at radius r in the plate are a.p. 2. Use this stress function to find the normal stress uvat the origin (see Fig. .v )du.= . and T.b takingf(8) = sinBandf(8) = cos8 respectively. A very large plate of thickness r is subjected to a membrane tensile stress u.(9/7r)(%sin 2 0 + 8 ) and r. State the nature of a problem represented by the above equations. with an inclination of 5" to the axis./4. = 3/2 applied to the plate boundary. (IC) Cylindrical Coordinates 2.b) provides the solution to the problem of a long flat strip with its axis in direction x./dr + u. 2.86.33 Determine the hoop stress at the inner and outer radii of a curved bar of 45 mm mean radius and 45 mm square crosssection when it is subjected to a pure moment of 300 Nm..36) in a strip of depth 2h.) and externally (p. . from the Lam6 equations. show. (IC) 2. under a sinusoidal edge loading of wavelength 2L.38 The stress function @ = [q2/(27r)] (95 sin 2 8 .17 when the tip moment is produced by a force applied vertically to the wedge axis at a distance s from the wedge tip.30 The stress function in eqs(2. Examine the local distributions of stress at the fixed and free ends and show their effects on the stress predictions from the stress function. 2.. Answer: 54.31a.applied around its periphery. . If a small circular hole is cut from the middle of the plate.:/[(rc. Show that the appropriate compatibility equation dr. when f = r. 2C = b)..36 Find the maximum radial stress at a radius of 75 mm when the 30" wedge in Fig. .= . in the body of the plate and hence find the maximum stress concentration at the hole.39 A hole of radius n in an infinite plate is loaded with an internal horizontal pressure p . and ro respectively is pressurised both internally (p.37a.u. under torsion..32 A thickwailed cylinder with inner and outer radii r. . Taking the origin of coordinates at the hole centre and assuming that the outer boundary is stress free. (CEI) ~ 2. for the case when h = L. = dddr.. that the maximum stress at the edge of the hole is 2u.I]..31 For a particular plane strain problem the straindisplacement equations in cylindrical coordinates (r.77 MPa on the load line 2./r.8 ) prescribes the stresses in a semiinfinite plate when a normal pressure q is applied over one half of the plate straight edge. 2.PLANE ELASTICITY THEORY 91 2.. 2. 2. Answer: A = .40 A window port in a large diameter.34 The stress function q5 = CB prescribes the shear stress distribution in an annular disc of thickness I and inner radius r.6 MPa.
6u.8= [2M/(ar?)]cos20.39 a linear distribution of loading is applied to the edge of a semiinfinite plate.)] case.38 Figure 2.43 In Fig.2(a2 + b 2 )r In r]/ ( 2[(aZ.the stresses are reduced to 0. sin2a. = [2P/(lrt)][ .37 2. y) in the body of the plate.38). (Hint: do. .b 2 )+ (a2+ b 2 )In (bla)]) and & = .= . = [2M/(nr2)] sin28. r.= .( p c o s 0 / [ 8 ( a + b ) ] ) [ ~ + a 3 ( a + 2 b ) / r + 4 a b r I n r ] P Figure 2. 2.39 2.) C O S ~ .a2b'/r . 2.42 Employ the Boussinesq function r$ = Cr0 sin0 to obtain separate solutions for the stresses at point A in a semiinfinite plate of thickness I . Use the Boussinesq function and plane stress transformations for the given coordinates to derive integral expressions for the Cartesian stress components at a point P(x. Figure 2.)] c o s ~sin'a. due to two concentrated forces which constitute a couple Pa (see Fig.[2dp/(rr)] sin0cos20) .(Vr) cosB+ (Ur.8= [P/(xrr.cos2cr].[26p/(xr)] c0s38.[26p/(xr)]cos0sin20and 6r.g8= [ZPi(mr. f78=0and r.= . Show that when a + 0 and the couple Pa is replaced by a moment M . Resolve forces at A to show that the stresses in the 0 direction are given by U.92 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES Answer: r$ = F sin0 [i.
sphere. with thickness t . including a cylinder. 3.93 CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY There is a wide variety of load bearing structures possessing axes of symmetry.1 Membrane element . Figure 3.1 Membrane Theory Thinwalled pressure vessels. may be treated together within the membrane theory. selfweight and centrifugal effects. including cylinders. ellipsoid and toroid. In the previous chapter a stress function was applied to plane stress and plane strain problems with axial symmetry. body forces and temperature gradients. This chapter considers plane cylindrical elasticity with axial symmetry. We may solve for the internal stress and strain by employing first principles or by starting with an appropriate stress function. can sustain additional loadings.walled vessels with symmetry axes. spheres. wall radii ro and r ) be subjected to the hoop and meridional stresses uoand o+ due to combined pressure p . Thicker. toroid and rotating rims. density p. and discs. Let an element of any membrane in Fig. The membrane theory is concerned with pressurized thinwalled vessels having axes of revolution. It will be shown how this theory provides the membrane stresses in the wall of the more common vessels. direct concentrated forces. sphere.1. distributed loading including selfweight coupled to a temperatureinduced loading and centrifugal forces from rotation. These loadings can be a combination of pressure. 3. including the cylinder. conic. ellipsoid.
When the effect of bending is ignored. = u. = r (pI2t + p 2 r) When the internal radius r increases by the amount 6 r . 1 (3. r" = r. = prl2t and a. ( u0. This is because the horizontal radius from the axis to the shell wail varies along the axis. sin(6012) + 6012 and sin(6412) + 6412 and this equation simplifies to r . r S ( p 2 r + pg cos@+plt ) = u. the following radial equilibrium equation applies to the biaxial stress state in the plane of the wall: In the limit. too. or volumetric strain 6 VlV. Ignoring bending effects and assuming that the radial stress a. pressurised sphere of negligible weight w = 0. The analysis of strain will be restricted to cylindrical and spherical shells where to and &+ take their simplest forms.1) with a second equilibrium equation isolating the action of one stress within a given vessel.. 3.r + pg cos4 + plt = uolro+ u.)IE + (3.2~) The dilatation. on the horizontal diameter where r = ro = rd .1 Sphere For a stationary. The solid may also rotate about its axis of symmetry with an angular velocity w at radius r to induce body forces.. can be found.)IE = ( U .2ac).94 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The sides subtend angles 68and 64 at their centres of curvature.4) yields a..lrd By combining eq(3. the volumetric strain is .r. = prl2t (3. A ratio between the change in internal volume to the original volume will depend upon the symmetry of the shell. For example. within a unit cube of unstrained material is 6 v / v = ( l + & . So.v (a. ) ) ( 1 + & d ) ( 1 + & r")&" + & $ + & . both stresses uoand a. 0. through the wall is negligibly small compared to uoand u.3) It follows that 6VlV may be expressed in terms of the two independent stresses using eqs(3.1) and (3.4a. will the dependence of the strains upon the displacements.2a) (3.VU. the deformation arising from membrane stresses at the midwail are found from C" = C . Combining eqs(3. = r.1.2b) (3. the vertical equilibrium equation is p n r 2 = 2nrtu.b) These stresses will be neither constant nor equal when the sphere rotates about a vertical axis (say).)IE =. ro pw. I ) reveals equal membrane stresses u. when eq(3.VU. + u. The strains will also alter the internal volume of the vessel.
1) reveals that tensile stresses are induced. In the simplest case of a stationary pressurised sphere. m/v 3a0= (3/E)(a. The greatest stresses depend upon a. . u+= pgr and a. when a = 90".v ) (3. m Figure 3. 3.6a.2 with radius rand solid angle 2aunder no other external loading.i.1) also applies when selfweight stresses are required.6a) (3. With r = ro = r9.vu+) = (3. defining the change in the circumferential length as a n = [ n ( r +6 r ) . this gives p g cos#= uolr + u+I r The stresses may be separated when the vertical equilibrium equation is referred to the horizontal section defined by 4.5a) becomes N I V = [3pr/(2tE)](1 . depends upon the stress state existing at the midwall.5b) Equation (3.cos#)Isin2#=pgrI(l +cos#) uo= pgr cos# . the element of a suspended spherical dish in Fig. uo= u4= pr12t. Take.1/ ( 1 +cos# )] + (3.3). = .u+= pgr [cos# .b)that o+= uo= pgrl2 when #= 0 at the crown. sin#= 2 n r 2 t p g fo sin@ d# u+= .pgr.e.2 Selfweight loading The selfweight term in the radial equilibrium equation (3. The radial stress can be neglected when (rlt > 10) and eq(3. for example.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 95 Now 6rlr is the hoop strain. .6b) It is seen from eqs(3.n r ] / n r = 6rIr From eq(3.pgr(1. then 2 n ( r sin#) tu.5a) Clearly E. Noting that the elemental surface area is 2 x ( r sin#)(r&$).
3a. then. 3. = 0 and uo= p 2 which defines the hoop stress in a ?. I ) . = pr/t + p 2 r Z+ pgr cos@ (3..1. 3.96 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 3. Let the initial length 1 and inner radius r of the cylinder increase by 61 and 6r respectively.3a). 6V/v = [pr/(2rE)1(5 . u4 becomes the axial stress a. The volumetric strain becomes The axial and circumferential strains are defined as e. 6V/v= 2E0 + E . eqs(3. =6 I / 1 and e0= 6 r/r.b) give a. (3. 3. rotating rim or cylinder. From Fig. the radial stress may be ignored and equilibrium equation. = prl2t Since ro = r and rd = 00.3 Membrane stresses for a thinwalled cylinder Provided that rlr 2 10.7a) a. We can confirm this by taking a second equilibrium equation 2u0tl = 2pr1. Figure 3.7b) Equation (3.8b) . in which the pressure acts on the plane projected area 2r x 1 in Fig.4v ) (3.3b. a is found from a horizontal .2 Cylinder For an internally pressurized cylinder of inner radius r and wall thickness t (Fig.8a) Substituting uo = pr/t and ud = prl2t into eq(3. In the absence of pressure and selfweight and with 4 = 90°.7b) gives uo= p r / t for a stationary vessel with negligible selfweight.8a) leads to the volumetric strain for a stationary cylinder. from eq(3. p x n r Z =27crtq us= O.7a. (3.
4v )V. = 2 x 17.1) + 1005. wherep.4v)+pV.v )V. .68 x 10') = (0.14 x 150/400= 12. = ( 2 t u / r ) .86 x 1273. Using subscripts s and c for sphere and cylinder respectively the equality in hoop strain at the interface follows from eq(3. show that the thickness of the sphere must equal 3/7 that of the cylinder to ensure no mismatch in hoop strain at the weld./K = [ p r /(2Et./(2t.31 + (12.43 x 10' mm3 Oil compressibility has a far greater contribution tha the strained volume. )][7( 1 ./(2tcE)J(5. = E X 4002 x 2000 = 1005. and 2. 3. = 1273. Substituting from eqs(3.68)IO' m m 3 = 5.86 x 400 x 10")/(2 x 40 x 207 x 10')][(7 x 0.63(1005.5a). = 4 n r ' / 3 = 4 n x 400'/3 = 268. from eqs(3. + 6 v.to be pumped in is given by 6 v.4.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 97 Example 3. 3. SV..= 17.1 x lo6mm' V.14 mm..5b. = 40 mm and t.3 x lo6mm' V. For r.1 A cylindrical steel pressure vessel has two hemispherical caps welded to its ends. The cylinder portion is 800 mm inner diameter.] + pV.b).286bar) ~ The total additional volume SV.2a) Substituting for uu.8b. Given v = Vi. pressurised conical vessel as shown in Fig.= [3prV.7a.86MPa(1.75 x 268./K where V. d and E are common. the limiting stress must correspond to the lesser of the two water pressures: p = (to/ r ) = 40 x 150 / 400 = 15 MPa (1.v ) + [prV. = 6 v.u$ and a.53) + (4. 2 m long and 40 mm thick.1.E)](I.3 Conical Vessel Consider a rotating. = [(12.4 x 106/3500) = 310.4a. + (5 . + V. + 6 v. What additional volume of oil could be pumped in to attain a working stress of 150 MPa within the vessel wall? Take E = 207 GPa for steel and K = 3500 MPa for oil.5 bar) p .4 x 10'mm' Substituting into eq(i) S V .3 + 1407.b) and (3. 3. = V.75 + 4.
is greatest at the base of the cone where r = r. may rotate about a vertical axis when it contains a gas at pressure 3 bar.06 .98 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 3.9b) Example 3. tan a= 2 tan 15"= 0.8) x = [0.0.4 Ellipsoidal Vessel For a stationary. y) as shown.p / t .000018](262. 2 rn long and 5 mm thick. Substituting into eq(3.8 .9a) Substituting eq(3.9a) into eq(3. Since centrifugal forces act horizontally they will not appear.2 Determine the speed at which an upturned 30" cone.67 rev/min . 3.87 x lo3)= 55303.9659)/535. 3.2704 .2588)/10y)]10'2/(7100 535. Equation (3. .(3 x 1 0 ' ) / ( 1 0 " ~ ) 5 . = l.12 : w = 235.81 x 0. ellipsoidal. Take a density p = 7 100 kg/m3for the cone material.9b) reveals that the contribution from selfweight is negligible w 2 = [( @r) c o w . if the maximum allowable hoop stress is 150 MPa.5) the meridional stress u$may be found from a consideration of vertical equilibrium on horizontal plane.4 Rotating Cone A second equilibrium equation is taken vertically above any horizontal plane of radius r = ro cos a.17 rad/s or N = 6 0 0 / ( 2 n ) = 2245.pg sina 1 / ( p r) = [(150 x 0.(7100 x 9. The balance between the force due to us and that due to pressure and selfweight of the cone wall become: us' ( 2 n r ) c o s a = p n r 2 us= pr/(2r cosa) + pgr/(2 sina) + nr'tpg / tana (3.5358 m.agives: uu= (r/cosa)[p/t w2pr + pg sincx] + (3. pressurised vessel (Fig...0. The ends of this plane have coordinates (x.9b) shows that a.1.1) with rs = CQ and @= 90 .
= (1/ b2)\l(a4y2 b 4 x 2 from the ellipse geometry.b. Substituting eq(3./Et)[M( + r.0)..l0a.L/z(r.= r6= a 2 / b .b)./(Et)][l . [(pr.giving equal maximum stresses: = U. / r 6 ) .v ] 1 E..10a) where radius r.b) into eqs(3. compressive for a/b > J2. r .r . (3./ t ) [I . lob) in which the meridional radius rd = (b '/a4 )rO Particular stress values of interest.a 2 / ( 2 b 2 ) ] The equatorial hoop stress a can produce buckling in the knuckle region when it becomes . where t.= E. are (i) at the crown (0. (3.1) leads to the hoop stress a = (pr.r u / r d ) N/V=[prU/(2Et)](3 v (6 .3) will give the strains and the dilations at these positions. giving different stresses: ad= pa/(2r) a. 4 2 t ) . and (ii) at the equator (a./rd+ v)] c6 = [(pr. = b ' 1 a . where r. /(2r6)] . = pa2l(2bt ) '.r.lOa) + ) into eq(3. from eqs(3.5 Ellipsoidal shell Ignoring selfweight this gives 2rrx I u6sin#= lrx'p a = px /(2t sin#) = pr. = a./ r 6 ) I )  .STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 99 Figure 3.2a.c) and (3.lOa. Substituting eqs(3.= [(vpro/(2Et)](3.= ( p d t ) [ l .b).
100
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
3.1.5 Toroid
In the case of a closed, stationary toroidal shell of thickness t and radii r and R (see Fig. 3.6), the hoop stress follows directly from the equilibrium equation referred to section XX.
X
Figure 3.6 Toroidal shell under pressure
Ignoring selfweight, this gives 2 x u0(2nrt) 2 p n r ' =
: u, = pr/(2t .
)
To=
(3.1 la)
r + R / sin# leads to
Substituting eq(3.1 la) in eq(3.1) with rd = rand
ud/ rd = p / t  pr/(2tr0)= @It )[ 1  (r/2)(r+ R / sin#)] U, = [pr / (2t ) ] [ ( 2 R r sin#) / ( R + r sin#)] +
(3.1 1 b)
Example 3.3 Determine the maximum membrane stresses in a stationary toroid of thickness 10 mm, with cylinder and mean radii of 0.25 m and 1.5 m respectively, under a pressure of 10 bar. By how much do the inner and outer diameters change? Take E = 207 GPa, v = 0.27. Equation (3.11b) is a maximum when
4 = 3 n / 2 , giving
ud= [pr/(2t )1[(2R r ) / ( R  r)] = [(l x 0.25)/(2 x 0.01)][(3  0.25) / (1.5  0.25)] = 27.5 MPa
and from eq(3.1 la), the constant hoop stress is
a, = pr/(2r)= ( 1 x 0.25) / ( 2 x 0.01) = 12.5 MPa
We can convert these stresses to c,, from eq(3.2a),
E,
= ( I/E)(u,  v
0 )= ,
[ 12.5  (0.27 x 27.5)]/ 207000 = 2 4 . 5 ~
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
101
The change to the inner diameter is then
A di = d,E, = 2.5 x lo3x 24.5 x lo' = 0.061 mm
At the outer diameter @ =n/2, when eq(3.1 Ib) gives
as= [pr l(2t )][2R + r ) / ( R + r)] = [( 1 x 0.25)/(2 x 0.01)][(3 + 0.25)/(1.5 + 0.231 = 23.2 MPa
The hoop strain and the outer diameter change are
E,
= [ 12.5  (0.27 x 23.2)] / 207000 = 3 0 . 1 3 ~
A d , , = q , d,,=3.5x 1 0 3 x 3 0 . 1 3 x 10~6=0.105 mm
3.2 ThickWalled Cylinders
In thickwalled, cylinders it becomes necessary to consider the variation in radial stress a, through the wall. Unlike a thinwalled cylinder the radial stress is not negligible compared to the hoop (a,) and axial (a,) stresses. The boundary conditions must ensure that a, is the pressure applied to the inner and outer diameters. With the axial and hoop stresses also present, a principal triaxial stress state exists within the wall. To convert this into the corresponding strain state requires the following 3D stressstrain equations:
( l / E ) [ u ,  v(q.+a,)] E , = ( I / E ) [ a ,  v(a,+a,)]
E,=
& , = ( l / E ) [ a , v(o;+a,)]
(3.12a) (3.12b) (3.12~)
Consider, firstly, the solid cylinder under internal pressure p in Fig. 3.7a. Let cylindrical coordinates r, 0 and z describe the triaxial stress state which we wish to find for any radius r in the wall.
Fig. 3.7 Thickwalled pressurised cylinder
102
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Vertical equilibrium about a horizontal diameter for a cylindrical element of radial thickness 6r, over which a,.varies (see Fig. 3.7b), is expressed by 2 a O 6 r L +a,(2rL)=(ar+ 6 u r ) x 2 ( r + 6r)L in which a, (assumed tensile) acts on the inner and outer projected areas. In the limit this leads to a radial equilibrium equation,
u, u,= r d q l d r
(3.13)
The stresses in eq(3.13) may be separated when it is assumed that a, is independent of r. This must be so if plane crosssections are to remain plane, i.e. the longitudinal strain E, is constant in the length for all r. From eq(3.12c),
u, +
a,.= ( uz E , E)lv = 2a
(3.14)
where 2a is a constant. Eliminating a, between eqs(3.13) and (3.14) and integrating leads to 2 Jtdr.1 r) = da,l(a  a,) 2 I n r =  l n ( a  a,)+lnb
(3.15)
where b is a constant. Combining eqs(3.14) and (3.15) gives the radial and hoop stress expressions as u,=a  b l r 2 a, = a + b I r 2 (3.16a) (3.16b)
in which the constants a and b are found from the conditions existing at the boundary (where both internal and external pressures act). Equations (3.16a,b) are the Lam6 (1 852) equations which were previously derived from a stress function (see eqs 2.48a,b). Also discussed previously were the three end conditions used to determine o, and the distributions in a, and a, through the wall (see Fig. 2.18).
Example 3.4 Find the necessary thickness of a hydraulic main, 130 mm internal diameter, required to contain a gauge pressure of 100 bar when the maximum hoop stress is limited to 15 MPa.
Since a, is a maximum (tension) at the inner diameter and the pressure equals the compressive radial stress at the inner diameter, the boundary conditions are (i) u,, = + 15 MPa for r = 65 mm and (ii) u, =  10 MPa for r = 65 mm. Substituting into eqs(3. I6a,b) gives
15 = a + b/(65)* 1 0 = a  b/(65)2

from which a = 2.5 and b = 528 12.5. At the outer diameter the pressure is atmospheric, i.e. zero gauge pressure and eq(3.16a) becomes
0 = 2.5  528 12.5 I r(,’ r,, = 145.4 mm and t = 80.4 mm
STRUCTURES WITH S Y M M E T R Y
103
Example 3.5 A pipe, 150 mm i.d. and 200 mm o.d., fails under hoop tension at an internal pressure of 500 bar. Determine, for a safety factor of 4, the safe internal pressure for a second pipe of the same material and internal diameter, but with walls 40 mm thick.
The boundary conditions for the first pipe are (i) a, =  50 MPa for r = 75 mm and (ii) a, = 0 for r = 100 mm. Applying these to eq(3.16a) gives
 50 = u  b (75)2 0 = u  b/( 1 00)2
from which a = 64.29 and b = 642.86 x lo3. Then, from eq(3.16b) with r = 75 mm, the hoop stress that caused failure in the bore is
a,= a + b / r 2= 64.29 + (642.86 x 10')f152 = 178.6 MPa.
Hence the safe working hoop stress for the second cylinder is uo= 178.6/4 = 44.65 MPa. Applying eqs(3.16a.b) with new constants a' and b', 44.65 = a' + b/(75)2 0 = a'  b'/(1 15)2 from which a ' = 13.32 and b' = 176.16 x lo3. The corresponding internal pressure p =  a, for r = 75 mm is found from eq(3.16a)
 p = a '  b ' / r 2 =13.32 ( 1 7 6 . 1 6 ~ 103)/752 p = 18 MPa or I80 bar
3.3 Interference Fits 3.3.1 Shaft and Hub When a solid cylindrical shaft or disc is forced into a hub, the external diameter of the shaft and the internal hub diameter are both subjected to compressive radial pressure p. The magnitude of this interface pressure is controlled by the initial difference in diameters. This interference (A 6)depends upon the difference between hoop strains at the common radius ( r c )which in turn is a function of each biaxial stress state (uo,a,) in the adjacent components (see Fig. 3.8a). Since the stress in the shaft cannot be infinite at r = 0, eqs(3.16a,b) become
uo= ur =

p = constant
Within the annular hub of outer radius r,,,the constants a and b in eqs(3.16a,b) may be found from the two conditions, (i) a, =  p for r = r,.and (ii) a,= 0 for r = r,,. These enable the hoop stress uoat r = r, in the hub to be found. In the absence of axial stress az in a thin disc/hub assembly, the relative hoop strain at r, is given by (3.17a) (3.17b)
104
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Figure 3.8 Interface stress states
Then A d, = 2u, in which u is the radial displacement of the common radius r,. If the hub is pressed on a shaft, condition (i) ignores the concentration in a, occurring at the edges of the hub (see Fig. 3.8b). This problem may be complicated further in the presence of axial stress in the shaft, when eq(3.17a) is modified to
It will be seen that q can usually be found from either a condition of zero axial force or a zero axial extension. Applications of eq(3.17b) appear in the following two examples.
Example 3.6 An oversized steel plug is pressed into a steel hub 12.5 mm i.d. and 38 mm 0.d. If the maximum stress in the hub is not to exceed 465 MPa, calculate the necessary interference. Take E = 208 GPa, v = 0.3.
Here a, = 465 MPa for r, = 6.25 mm. Also for the hub, a, = 0 for r,, = 19 mm. Equations (3.16a,b) supply the simultaneous equations 465 = a + b I (6.25)’ O=a  b/(19)2 from which a = 45.4 and b = 16390.5.The radial stress a, at r, = 6.25 mm is, from eq(3.16a),
a, = a
=


b/r2= 45.4  16390.51(6.25)2 374.2 MPa
Thus, p = 374.2 MPa and eq(3.17b) becomes
u 16.25 = [(465 + (0.3 x 374.2)) + 374.2( 1  0.3)]/ 208000 u = 6.25 (465 + 374.2) 1208000 = 0.025 mm :. A d, = 0.050 mm
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
105
Example 3.7 A steel hub, 115 mm outer diameter and 75 mm inner diameter, is shrunk on to a solid aluminium shaft to give a circumferential strain at its outer diameter of 0.07%. Determine the interface pressure, the greatest tensile stress in the hub and the interference. For steel, take E = 207 GPa and v = 0.27 and for aluminium, take E = 75 GPa and v = 0.33. The hub's boundary conditions are (i) a, = 0 for r,, = 57.5 mm and (ii) .c0 = (ao v a,)/E = 7 x for r,, = 57.5 mm. It follows from (i) and (ii) that the circumferential stress at the 0.d. x 207 x lo3= 144.9 MPa. From eqs(3.16a,b), is uo=7 x
0=a
 b/(57.5)2 144.9 = a + b/(57.5)2
giving a = 72.45 and b = 239.54 x 10'. At the interface radius, r, = 37.5 mm, the hoop stress is a maximum in tension and the compressive radial stress equals the interface pressure:
a,= a  b I rc2 72.45  239.54 x lo'/ (37.5)2=  97.89 MPa = a,= LZ + b / r,' = 72.45 + 239.54 x lo'/ (37.5)2= 242.79 MPa
It follows that the interface pressure is p = 97.89 MPa. The interference follows from eq(3.17b)
3.3.2 ThickWalled Annular Discs
When one thickwalled disc is shrunk fit with interference on to another there results a compressive residual hoop stress distribution within the inner disc. This becomes effective in reducing the tensile hoop stress resulting from subsequent internal pressure. The effect is to produce a more even hoop stress distribution over the compound thickness. Where internal pressures reach high values, several discs may be compounded to enhance the benefit. For two thin annular discs in different materials, the relative hoop strain at the commom interface radius ( r , ) is again found from the adjacent plane stress states (see Fig. 3.9).
Figure 3.9 Stress state at interface
106
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Taking respective subscripts I and 0 for the inner and outer discs, the relative hoop strain at the interface is (3.18a) (3.18b) where A d is the initial interference, p is the common interface pressure and a, is supplied from eqs(3.16a,b). The constants are found from the boundary conditions. In I , a, = 0 for r = ri and a,=  p for r = r r . In 0, a,=O for r = r,,and a, =  p for r = r , .
3.3.3 ThinWalled Rings
When two thinwalled rings are shrunk together with a common compressive pressure p at the interface diameter d, , the membane theory gives
(a,) = p d , /(2t0) (tensile) ( a,) I = pd, / ( 2 t , ) (compressive)
The interference is required to give an interface pressure (u,), = (a,)o=  p . Neglecting the small lateral strain term v p / E , eq(3.18b) approximates to
Ad = @ d C 2 / 2 ) [ 1 / ( E , + l/(Eoro)] t,)
(3.19)
3.3.4 Thick Walled Cylinders
The plane stress analyses in subsections 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 ignore residual axial stress q at the interface following shrinkage. Plane strain conditions may be assumed when compounding long thickwalled cylinders, as with gun barrel manufacture. Taking E~ = 0 gives an axial stress a, = v ( a ,+ a, ). With a triaxial stress state (a,, a,, a,) now present at the interface, eqs(3.18a,b) are modified to
The subsequent pressure stress distributions in compounded, thickwalled discs and cylinders are found from assuming a monobloc cylinder. The net stress under pressure is then the sum of the residual and pressure stresses. This is illustrated in the following example.
Example 3.8 A brass sleeve 55 mm i.d. and 70 mm o.d., is fitted within a steel hub 100 mm 0.d. to give a common interface pressure of 30 MPa. Determine the initial difference in diameters between sleeve and hub. Plot the residual stresses resulting from the interference. Assuming plane stress, determine the net hoop stress distribution when a subsequent internal pressure of I kbar is applied. Take El, = 90 GPa, v I , = 0.33, E, = 210 GPa and v , = 0.28.
Within the brass sleeve the boundary conditions are a, = 0 for r = 27.5 mm and a, =  30 MPa for r = 35 mm. Equation (3.16a) gives simultaneous equations
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETKY
107
0 = u  b/(27.5)'  30 = u  b/(35)2
from which the constants are a =  78.5 and b =  59.5 x l o 3 . The hoop stress at the brass interface ( I in Fig. 3.9) is then
a, = a + b/r: =  78.5  (59.5 x 103)/352  127.1 MPa (compression) =
Within the steel hub, the boundary conditions are a, = 0 for r = 50 mm and a, =  30 for r = 35 mm. These give
0 = a'  b'/(50)2  30 = a'  b'/(35)2
These give a' = 28.82 and b' = 72.1 x lo3from which the hoop stress at the steel interface is
a, = a' + b'/r: = 28.82 + (72.1 x l o 3)/ 35 = 87.62 MPa (tension)
Now from eq(3.18b),
A d / d , = [ ( I / E ) ( a o +v ~ ) l , [ ( I / E ) ( o o + v ~ ) l , , ~= [87.62 + (0.28 x 30)]/ (210 x 10')  [  127.1 + (0.33 x 30)]/ (90 x l o 3 ) = 1.7595 x 10.' = [0.4574  (  1.302 M = 70 x 1.7595 x = 0.123 mm
Note that if both these cylinders were long (plane strain), the resulting interference is, from eq(3.20), A d = 0.108 mm. The stress state at r = ri in the brass is a,= 0 and
u o = a +b / r i 2 =  78.5  (59.5 x lo')/ (27.5)2=  157.2 MPa
At r = r,, in the steel, a = 0 and ,
a, = a' + b'/ r(: = 28.82 + (72.1 x lo')/ (50)2= 57.66 MPa
These residual stresses are distributed in the manner of Fig. 3.10. For a subsequent internal pressure of 1 kbar the monobloc boundary conditions become a, =  100 MPa for r = 27.5 mm and a, = 0 for r = 50 mm. From eq(3.16a),
 100 = a"  b"/ (27.5)2
0 = a"

b"/ (50)
Thus a" = 43.37 and b" = 108.43 x lo3.The hoop stresses due to the pressure at the three radii are (a,= a" + b"/ r 2 )
r = 27.5 mm: a, = 43.37 + (108.43 x 103)/(27.5)' = 186.7 MPa r = 35 mm: uo= 43.37 + (108.43 x 103)/(35)2 131.88 MPa = r = 50 mm: a,= 43.37 + (108.43 x 103)/(50)2 86.75 MPa =
108
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Superimposing these upon the residuals in Fig. 3.10, the net hoop stresses at the inner and outer diameters become
a,=  157.2 + 186.7 = 29.5 MPa for r, = 27.5 mm a, = 57.66 + 86.75 = 144.41 MPa for r,, = 50 mm.
At the interface a discontinuity appears with two net hoop stress values
a,=  127.1 + 131.8 =4.7 MPa a,= 87.62 + 131.8 = 219.4 MPa
Figure 3.10 shows the benefit derived from compounding in reducing stress levels at the inner and outer radii. The design should ensure that the interface stress (219.4 MPa) remains elastic if the interference is to be effective under pressure.
27.5
I
Figure 3.10 Residual and net stresses
3.4 Rotating Cylindrical Bodies
3.4.I Annular Disc
(a) Solution from First Principles When a thickwalled annular disc rotates with uniform angular speed w rad/s about its axis, the centrifugal force will induce a radial (a,) a hoop (a,) stress distribution through the and wall. Provided the disc has a small, constant thickness, a plane stress condition (az= 0) applies. Consider unit thickness for the disc element shown in Fig. 3.1 1.
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
109
Figure 3.11 Rotating disc element
The radial force equilibrium equation is
Putting 6 V = r x 68 x 6 r and sin (68/2) = 6812 in the limit leads to
a, + r du,/ d r  u, + p 0 2 r 2 0 =
(3.21)
The relations between stress, strain and displacement for axial symmetry are
E,
E,
= u/r = ( 1/E)(u, v a,) = du/dr = (Ill?)( a, v a,)
Combining these leads to the compatibility condition: de, ldr + ( E ,  E,) = 0 r (du,/dr  v du,/dr) + (1 (3.22a) (3.22 b)
+ v )(a,
u,.)= 0
Then, from eqs(3.21 and 3.22b) r (duo/ d r + du,/ dr) + ( 1
+ v ) p 2 r 2= 0
d ( u , + q ) / d r =  (I + v ) p 2 r Integration gives
u o + q . = 2 a  ( I+ v ) p 2 r 2 / 2
where 2a is a constant. Eliminating a, between eqs(3.21) and (3.23) leads to
(3.23)
110
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES
2ar + r da, I dr = 2a  (3 + v >p‘ / 2 r2 (11 r ) d ( r 2a, ) I d r = 2a  (3 + v )pw2 r 2 / 2
: .
r 2 cr, =
[2ar  (3 + v )p2 / 2 ]dr r3 (3.244 (3.24b)
= ar2  (3 + v )p2I 8  b r4
q = a  Dlr’ ( 3 + v ) p 2 r 2 / 8
u,=a+blr2(1 + 3 v ) p 2 r 2 / 8
This gives The constants a and b are found from the condition that a, = 0 for r = ri and r = r,>.
a = pw2(r;+ r,,’)(3
+ v) 1 8
(3.254 (3.25b)
h=pw2ri2r(:(3+v)/8 Hence the maximum hoop stress lies at the inner radius,
u,= [(3 + v )pw2r,:/4
I{ 1 + [ ( 1

v ) r i 2 ]I [(3 + v) r,,Z])
(3.2%)
The radial displacement u at any radius r follows as a result of setting Substituting from eqs(3.24a,b) and (3.25a,b), we find
= ulr = (a,  va,)/E u = [ p w 2 r ( 3 + v ) ( 1  v)l(8E)][ri2+r,,Z
E,
a, = 0 in eq(3. 2a).
+(I
+ v ) ri2r,;/(1
 v) r 2  ( I
+ v) r 2 / ( 3+ v)]
.26)
(b) Solution from a Stress Function We can arrive at eqs(3.24a,b) by coupling a plane polar stress function @ that accounts for the axial symmetry with a body force potential Q. The terms within tor the stress function in eq(2.46b) provide the Lam6 stresses. The centrifugal force derives from potential Q, as follows: dQldr=p’r
so that:
Q=pw2r2/2
For axial symmetry, d W d B = 0, and eq(2.42a) (where @ now replaces @) becomes d4Wdr4+ (2Ir) d3Wdr3 (1/r2)d2(91dr2+ (I/r’) dWdr + (1 [d2QId r 2+ (Ilr) dQ ldr] = 0 Both (D and Q are to satisfy eq(3.27b). This gives
@ = A In r + Cr2  (3 + v ) p 2 r 4 / 3 2

(3.27a)
v) (3.27b)
an additional rotational term: (3.27~)
The radial and tangential stress components follow from eqs(2.47a,b) and ( 3 . 2 7 ~ as )
a, = (I1 r)d@/dr = 2C + A1 r 2  (3 + v )pw2r218 a,= d2Wd r 2 + r d Q l d r = 2C  Alr’  (1 + 3v ) p o 2 r 2 /8
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
111
Clearly these are identical to eqs(3.24a,b) when we set a = 2C and b =  A . Note that both solutions are approximations as an exact plane stress analysis requires additional compatibility conditions to be satisfied (see eq 2.29a). Example 3.9 Determine the hoop stress at the inner r, = 50 mm and outer r,, = 150 mm radii for a disc when rotating uniformly at S O 0 0 rev/min. Show the a. and a, variation with r and the radius for which a, is a maximum. Take v = 0.3 and p = 7480 kg/m'. o = 2 n N / 60 = 2 n x 5000 / 60 = 523.6 rad/s and, from eqs(3.25a and b),
a = 7480 x (523.6)2(502 1502)106 3.3 / 8 (kg/m' x (rad/s)2x m2 = kgm/s2x m  2 = Pa] + x
=21.15 x 10hPa=21.15MPa b = 7480 x (523.6)2x 5 0 2 x 1502x = 47.583 x lo3N Then, from eq(3.24b) with r = 50 mm, x 3.3 / 8 {kg/m' x (rad/s)2x m4 = kgm/s2 N ]
a, ~ 2 1 . 1 5 +(47.583 x 103)/502 [ 1 . 9 ~ 7 4 8 0 ( 5 2 3 . 6 ) ~ 1 05 '0 ~/ ~ ~  2] 8 = 21.15 + 19.033  1.218 = 38.97 MPa
F o r r = 150mm,
a,= 21.15 + (47.583 x 103)/1502 [1.9 x 7480 (523.6)2x 1502x 10'2]/8 =21.15+2.115  10.96= 12.31 MPa The radial stress is a maximum when, from eq(3.24a). dar/dr=2b/r' p u 2 r ( 3 + v ) / 4 = 0 r 4 = 86 /[pu2 + v )] (3 Substituting forb from eq(3.25b) leads to
The corresponding maximum radial stress is found from eqs(3.24a) and (3.25a,b)
(a,),, = a
 b/ (rjr,,) (3 + v ) p w 2 r i r , , 8 /
= [(3 + v ) 0 2 p /8](r: + r,:  r i r ,  rjr,,) (a,),,, = (3 + v)(r,, r j ) 2 w 2 p8 /
(ii)
In this example eq(i) yields r = d(50 x 150)= 86.6 mm, when from eq(ii),
(a,),,, = (3.3 x 1002x 523.62 x 7480 x
8 = 8.6 MPa
The a, and a. stress distributions are as shown in Fig. 3.12.
112
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Figure 3.12 Stresses in rotating disc
3.4.2 Solid Disc
The stresses in a solid rotating disc are also given by eqs(3.24a.b) but with b = 0 as infinite stresses are not possible at the disc centre (r = 0). This gives
ur= a

(3 + v )p2 / 8 r2
u,=a ( I + 3 v ) p 2 r 2 / 8
(3.28a) (3.28b)
Since or= 0 at the outer diameter, the constant a in eqs(3.28a,b) becomes a = p2 (3 + v )/ 8 r,; (3.28~)
Equation (3.28~) defines the stress state (q= u, = a ) at the disc centre. Compare this with the stress state at the inner boundary of a hollow disc, where the radial stress is absent but the hoop stress (first term in eq 3.2%) is doubled when the hole is small. For the radial displacement in a solid disc, set r, = 0 in eq(3.26), to give
u = [ p o 2 r ( l  ~)/(8E)][(3+v)r,? (1 +v)r21 
(3.29)
Equation (3.29) gives the change to the outer diameter Ad = 2u for r = r,,, as Ad = p 2 (1  v)/ (2E) r,;
3.4.3 ThickWalled Cylinder When a long cylinder rotates about its axis, a similar analysis to the annular disc applies but with an assumed plane strain condition, q = &, = constant. This leads to the triaxial stress , distributions
“,=a
b / r 2  (3  2 v ) p 2 r 2 / [ 8 ( 1  v ) ] u , = a + b l r 2  ( 1 + 2 v ) p 2 r 2 / [ 8 ( 1 v ) ]

uZ= Ee,, + v (a,+
)
(3.30a) (3.30b) (3. 30~ )
Since or= 0 for r = r, and r = r,, , the constants in eqs(3.30a,b) are
STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY
113
a = p w 2 ( r j 2+ r,,2)(3  2v)/ [8(1 b =pw2ri2: (3  2v)/ [8( 1 r,


v)]
v)]
(3.31a) (3.3 1b)
Substituting eqs(3.31a,b) into eq(3.30b) gives the maximum hoop stress in the bore u o = ( [ ( 3  2v)pw2r,,2]/[4(1  v)])(l + [ ( I  2v)ri2]/[(3 2v)r,,2]) (3.31~)
Plane strain modifies only the compatibility condition (3.22). The reader should check that eqs(3.30a,b,c) satisfy the same equilibrium equation (3.21) appearing in the plane stress analysis. Alternatively, in seeking a stress function Q, for this problem, both Q, and the body force potential Q in eq(3.27a) must now satisfy eq(2.42b). This gives d4@/dr4+(2/r)d3@ldr3 (l/r2)d2Q,/dr2 +(l/r')dQ,/dr + [ ( I  v )/ ( 1 + v )][d2Q /dr2 + (I/r) dQ /dr] = 0 from which
(3.32a)
The radial and tangential stress components follow from eqs(3.32a.b) as
u r = ( 1 / r ) d @ / d r = 2 C + A / r 2  ( 3  2 v ) p w 2 r 2 / [ 8 ( v ) ] 1
a,= d' Q,/d r 2 + r dQ /dr = 2C  A/r2  ( I
+ 2v )pw2r2/[8(1  v )]
(3.33a) (3.33b)
Clearly eqs(3.33a,b) are identical to eqs(3.30a,b) when we set a = 2C and b =  A . Both solutions are exact since there are no further compatibility conditions to satisfy. When E,, = 0 in eq(3.30c), the axial extension is constrained, but if the cylinder is allowed to extend, an expression for E,, follows from the absence of an axial force. That is,
I,"
2 n r q dr = 0
(3.34a)
where, from eqs(3.30ac), q = E ~ , , + v ( 2 a  ~ ~ r * / [ 2 ( ] ) v)1 Substituting eq(3.34b) into eq(3.34a) leads to
q , , = v p ~ ~ ( r , ' + r , , ~ ) l [  E ( l  2av/E 4 v)]
(3.34b)
(3.34c)
Substituting eq(3.31 a) into eq(3.34~) gives the axial strain
E,,
=  vpw2(rj2 r,,2)/(2E) +
(3.35a)
The axial stress follows from eqs(3.31a), (3.34b) and (3.35a) as (3.35b) Finally, eqs(3.12a) and (3.30ac) provide the radial displacement
. Comparing eqs(3. + b.pw2r 2( 1 + 3v )/8 pw2r ( 1 + 3v )/ 8 (3.=a( 1 + 2 v ) p w 2 r 2 / [ 8 ( 1 . For example. rotating solid shaft b = 0 in eqs(3.36a) when r = r. + v (au a.b) supply the stresses in the annular hub and eqs(3. = a .3%) 3.c) as both u.37a.4 Solid Shafr For a long. .2. + b. stress and radial displacement for a solid rotating shaft. 2 / r 2 (1 + v ) ( I ..8).36a.37 b) it follows that eqs(3.36d) shows that drilling a small hole along the shaft axis will again double and the maximum hoop stress induced by the centrifugal force.35a.) + The constant a in eqs(3. + a. The initial interference and the shrinkage stresses have been found previously in section 3. = b.) + (6.(3 .24a. .v )] u<.:/[8(1.36b) (3.p 22(3 + v )/ 8 ) (3.2v)pw2r.b) supply those for the solid disc.’) 2v)(1 + v ) r j 2 r . and b. The net stresses are the sum of the rotational ( R ) and shrinkage ( values.30a. + [ a + 6/r2 .4.2 r 2 ) u = ( po2 r / [ 8E( 1  v )] ] x [(3 .vpw2rC.2v ) r 21 3.v)])[(3 +(3  5v)(ri2+r.b. the radial stress becomes r ( ur = aN. eqs(3.’/(2E) u z =( v p 2 / [ 4 ( 1 .. This gives a.v ) ] ) x(r.36a) (3. + = (a. must be finite at the shaft centre.b) supply net stresses By putting aN= a. a = ( 3 . + a. and a.v)] u: = E E . = . .31~) (3. E.3 (see example 3.p 2 r 2 ( 1 3v )/ 81.114 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES u = (po2r/18E(1. When the assembly subsequently rotates.4.v ) ] (3.28a.b N /r .5 v )r.36d) It follows that a defines an equal stress state ( a u= or= a) at the shaft centre. Setting ri = 0 in eqs(3.c) gives the axial strain. at a given radius r in the hub. the initial interference between their diameters may be chosen to prevent slipping and also to limit the maximum hoop stress.2 v ) r 2 ]  (3.36~) (3..:  (1 + v )( 1.37 a) Similarly. the 9 net hoop stress is N = S + (‘Uo) H = [ a + b/r2].b.5 Disc and Hub with Interference Fit When a thin dischub assembly is to rotate at high speed.b) is found by setting ur = 0 in eq(3..)/r  = aN+ b N /r .2v )pw2r2/[8( 1 .
b). 3. 446.13 (a) and (b) respectively. Show that the initial diametral interference of 0.p 1 a. a. Figure 3. a residual compressive pressure a. Following shrinkage.66 .p Figure 3. v = 0.p 0 . Example 3.132p.= .p exists at the interface radius (r') of the disc and hub (see Fig.132.. p a.28a. = 216.46 = 446.3) x 230. a = P . = .10 mm is maintained between the hub and disc at a speed of 10. Applying two boundary conditions.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 115 directly.p /  p a N a = 3.p for r. It follows from .3 x 7835 x (1047. Using the boundary condition a. . = 355 mm gives a = (3 + v ) p 2 r .7 rads).b)give a residual hoop stress. = 355 mm and (ii) a.66 = .3 and p = 7835 kg/m3. This approach can simplify the analysis considerably when net limiting stresses are specified at a given speed. (i) or= 0 for r. to eqs(3.2 .. aa = 3. are shown i n Figs 3.230. at the hub interface. shrunk on to a solid disc.46 = 216.66 = 446.= .13 Compound cylinder assembly Treating the assembly as a single solid disc.913.(2551355) x 446. = 255 mm.66 The rotation stresses at r.2 .69 = 313.66 .13a).= . = 0 for r. = 216.16a. the rotation stresses are found from eqs(3..1328 .2 MPa go= 446.p U.66 .000 revlmin (104. = .2)' x 3S21(8x = 446.d.13(c) gives the net stresses at the interface between disc and hub.10 A compound steel assembly comprises a hub with 5 10 mm i.d. = 255 mm are 0. and 710 mm o. Assume plane stress conditions and take E = 207 GPa. 2 / 8 = 3.97 MPa The residual and rotational stress states at r.(1.
5 x 10.116 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES eq(3. Applying eq(3.97 +3.97 .132~ v p ) . v = 0. assuming a plane strain condition uo= a + bIrc2 u0= . the original interference M is found from M /510 = t(3.2 .14) the boundary conditions within eq(3. Find the angular speed at which the disc becomes loose.( .4 For the axle (Fig. 8 2 x510)/207000=0. 8 ~  .10/510= ([(313.~)]]/207000 Hence p = 9.132 ~ 9 .[(313.16a) give ur= 0 = a .) z z 0.b/402 : a = . 6 6 6 ~ p ) = .' mm at the common radius.l0mm 3 This condition will always apply to a dischub assembly in the same material because the rotation stresses cancel within eq(i). 2 . b = . = v ( a .~ ( 2 1 6 .I . 3 3 ~ _ and at r.= .5 3 3 .p ) l . Example 3.132p)..18b)to Fig.11 A steel disc of outer radius 250 mm is shrunk on to a hollow axle which has an outer radius of 40 mm and an inner radius of 20 mm. = 40 mm.p + ~p)]/207000 + M=(4. Both the disc and the axle are made of the same material.33~140~ 1 . 3 3 3 ~ 533.p) .b/202 u.0 .3 and p = 7860 kg/m'. for which E = 208 GPa. Find the radial stress at the common radius when the system is stationary. 3.p = a . (CEI) Figure 3 1 Discaxle assembly .1 .823 MPa. The radial interference between the disc and axle is 2. 3.v (216.18b) that the required interference is given by 0.333p. + a. 6 6 6 ~ =U .13a.3(.1 .
b"/202.4 ) ~ 2 .3(.4 ) ~ 2 .0. = 0. This is a consequence of the increasing axial stress in the axle when its axial extension is prevented. Equation(3.(7860 x 3.)=0.64 x 10')02 x 2O2/8)u2 (1) U.= (2.09 x 1 0 .3 x 0 = a". Treating the rotating assembly as a solid annular disc the boundary conditions become u .01 x 10" o 2from a zero axial force condition in eq(3. = 0 = c(' .3 p)disc [ .0394 x 1 0 .081060~ b" At r. The .18b) E(ulr.24a)gives U .1.04 p/402= I . =(148. It is assumed that when rotating with increasing speed. = 2 .297 x 10'))o2 b"/2502 . b = 1642.35b). 0 = a"= b"/202 . = 40 mm.245 MPa at r. a' = O.16a) gives O.0394 x 1 0 . = 250 mrn.(7860 x 3.p .b"1250'.O2627p.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 117 For the disc's boundary conditions. = 0 for ri = 20 rnm and r. a.. eq(3.(202.0525p+ 0.081060~/40~ (7860 x 1.0.3(251.) = (1.04~ and for r . = u1+ b'/r: = 0.b'1250 u.91 x 1 O " o 2 (iii) Compare this with a = 1. ' ) ~ ~ u 0 =(2. = 40 mm . 0 9 ) 1 0 " ~ ~ = 1 119.3 x u .3 x 0 = a".62+ 4 8 .0394 x 1 0 .24a. = v ( u .4785 x 40) = 5.0525p + The radial interference u follows from a relation similar to eq(3.4 ) ~ 2 + 0. 4 7 8 5 ~  from which p = (208 x 10' x 2.. relative hoop strain under the stresses at speed is simply: .6661.. = 40 mm. the radial and hoop stress in eq(3. the disc will begin to slip on the axle when the interference is reduced to zero.= 0 = a" x 2502/8)w2 (ii) Solving eqs(i) and (ii) a" = (2.02627~ 1642.0.5.62 x 10")w2 x 402/8)w2 x 40'/8)0~ Hence.9 x uU= (251.b'/402 :.5 x 10')/(2.081060~/40~(7860 x 3.245 MPa : ur= .(1. . + ~.p = a'. = .b) become u. the axial stress at the interface becomes u .8p)]..
39a) (3. = a d .v ra. w = 5430. Figure 3.)] (3.40) .118 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Substituting a: from eq(iii) into eq(iv) and setting u = 2. This gives Neglecting products of small quantities.( I . this reduces to a+. = u/r = (I/E)[a4.a.15.v ) r duJdr (3.5 x 10jmm. vary by the amount 6 q and assume the radial and hoop stresses are tensile.38) = du/dr = (]/I$[ a.Since these two strains depend upon the single displacement u .3 x 119.]/dr ( 1 + v ) ( a . .5 rad/s + N = 5 1.+ a$)] c4 = c.91 x x : .) = v r d q l d r .858 revlmin 3.39b) where a.( 1 .v ( a . 3.) = d[ra.ar= (r/2)d o./dr The constitutive relations for the inset triaxial stress state are E.5 x 103)/(40 0.v (LT.2 v a. the following compatibility condition applies (u. (3.v ) . the slipping speed is w 2 = (207 x 10’ x 2.15 Element of sphere Let the radial stress a. + a..5 ThickWalled Sphere under Pressure Consider the equilibrium condition about a horizontal plane for the hemispherical element of radial thickness 6 r in Fig..
42a.v)da.40) and integrating leads to (r/2)( I .ri3) b = @. . = . 3u.b) (3.b) approximate to 3.44a. = [ .43a.38) and (3.45a. = A ./dr + r (I ? da.p.BI(2r') Setting constants a = 2A/3 and b = B. .44a) (3.: .42a) (3./2 = 2A/3 . 3..[ 1 + ? h ( r i / r ) 3 ] p .41) where A is a constant.: .45a. eqs(3. to eq(3.ri3) (3.3 )/(r. r(.p.)ldr = 2A ar = 2A13 + Blr' a. Combining eqs(3.r)3] .45b) If ri << r.41).5. for r = r. ldr + da. .  v)da.:/(r./dr = 0 (3.b) are written as ar = a (3.44b) Substituting eqs(3..(rilr.)3] u. / [ 1 . = uo=a b/(2r3) where a and b depend upon whether the pressure is applied to one or both boundaries..42b) (3.u. = .5. .43a) gives a = (pi r.p i ) ri3r.b) into eqs(3.2 External Pressure Only Setting p i = 0 in eqs(3.STRUCTURES WITH S Y M M E T R Y 119 Substituting eq(3.=. eqs(3.1 + ( r i / r ) 3 1 p .ldr = 2A (11 r z ) d( r 3 a.45a) (3.I Internal and External Pressure Applying the boundary conditions u. + r du.43a) (3....b) gives a . l [ I .43b) + b/r3  u. = A .(ri/r.p i for r = r i and o./dr = 0 h : Yz ur + U ..38) into eq(3.
= (2/E)[ u+v ( u. ' / [ E ( r... u= ( ~ r . + v ) r.)]  and substituting from eqs(3.b) gives (3. It follows from eq(2.12 Find expressions for the dilatation and the radial displacement at a point in the wall of a thickwalled sphere under internal fluid pressure p.v (u+ a. we find that 6V/V is independent of r.: .b) into eq(i)...46a. u+= + Y ( r j/r)']p./2 around the hole.In particular. = us and substituting eqs(3..46a.b) provide the stresses around a spherical cavity when a uniform pressure is applied to the boundary.. .39b) as u = (r/E)[u+ v ( a . The shape of the boundary need not be spherical provided that it lies on all radii r .r~j ' ) ] ) [ ( l 2 v ) r + (1 .47a. for r = r.ri3)]=pir.rj3/[E(r.b).46a) (3. eq(ii) shows that the wall material will change its volume elastically by SV = 4npr?/3K.3.47b) Note that eqs(3. 11 z (3. Example 3.47a) (3.:/(2r2)] which may be checked from eq(3. The radial displacement follows from eq(3.)]+ ( 1 / E ) [ur.r i 3 ) ] (ii) Now as V = 47r(r.46b) Equations (3.+ u..b) apply when finding the strains and displacements in each case..3p. eqs(3. sV/V=3(1  2v)p.39a..)] + (i) Setting u.6b) that the dilatation of the sphere material is m / v = E 4 + E D + E .rj3)/3is the volume of the wall..47a.. 3.39a).120 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The following approximate forms apply when r.b) show that the hoop stress is concentrated to a magnitude u+= ..5.3/[K(r. for which r.'.3 internal Pressure Setting p. = 0 in eqs(3. >> T i : u r = [ I +(ri/r)3]p. >> r.+ u.45a.
6.I Short. at the interface. = 90 GPa.18)10'x 25 x 10'1 /((810/2)[1/(210 x 7. 12 x 10.5) = 7. The ) radial and hoop stresses induced at the common diameter d.p exists. steady temperatures.49a. ) . radial and hoop stress variations will exist through the wall. Now. a.' "C' = and E. = 210 GPa. unloaded disc are held at different. ) = ( a .).STRUCTURES WITH S Y M M E T R Y 121 3. 1 3 ~ 8 1 0 ) / ( 2 ~ 5 ) = 10. this leads to Equations (3. The following are of most practical interest..49ac) may be used together to determine the net stresses following a temperature rise in discs with initial interference stresses at ambient temperature. a. = 810 mm. stationary.= I8 x 10.49a. (i) a mismatch in expansion coefficients and (ii) radial temperature gradients.53MPa 3.5) + 1490 x 5)]} =0. ThinWalled Mating Rings Consider an inner ( I ) and outer (0 ring that fit together initially without interference.5 mm. f L = 5 mm. = .6 Thermal Stresses in Cylindrical Bodies Stresses can also arise in thin.b) into eq(3.and thickwalled cylindrical and spherical bodies due to two temperature effect.' "C'. 3. =7. radii of a thickwalled.=( 0 . a common compressive radial stress ( a .02 MPa (0.6.> a . Substituting eqs(3. The membrane hoop stresses are assumed constant within I and 0 as .13 MPa and the stresses from eq(3. with d. when the temperature is raised by 25°C above the unstressed condition. due to a temperature rise Tare found from the compatibility condition: when a.19) and (3.48) leads to Neglecting the effect of the small lateral strain v plE. .b) ( ~ 7 =~ ) ~ x 810)/ (2 x 7.49~) p = .13 (a. Take E . The interface pressure follows directly from eq(3..[(I2 .2 ThickWalled Annular Disc When the inner r i and outer r.and t . Example 3.13 Determine the membrane hoop stress for an inner copper / outer steel composite annular disc.
ldr) + E a r (dTldr) Substituting eq(3.24a.)+ a T = ( I l E ) d [ r ( a . .122 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND SRUCTURES Assuming plane stress conditions.50a. = constant. and r = r.vu.b ur= a .EaT r'a.T+(EaIr2)l T r d r . will apply here.52a. eqs(3.3 ThickWalled Cylinder Temperature variations arise within the long piping used in processing plant.E a T r ) dr .. If the disc rotates in the presence of a temperature gradient.b) and r.Ea(dT1dr) :.Tr d r .6.v u .( E a / r 2 ) J" Tr dr a.13) remains valid..50a) (3Sob) (3.52a.2.. = duldr = (I/E)(u.= a + b/r2 . = J" (2ar .vu.r:)] b = mi2 [Ear:/(r. Where both external and internal pressure loading exists with the temperature gradient. Thus .Ed.b/r2 . then the appropriate rotation terms from eqs(3.r.ldr .b) remain valid.5 1 b) leads to 2 a .5 la) leads to du. u.53a).52a.b).5 (3.v da.13) into eq(3.EaT where 2a is a constant.)ldr] = 2a . the radial equilibrium eq(3.( E a l r 2 ) l Tr dr (3 + v ) p 2 r 2I 8 u .ldr = 2a . = a ' + b ' / r 2 . Let the temperature vary with the radius r in the wall according to the function T = T(r).5 3b) Tr d r For a solid disc b = 0 in eqs(3.52b) Equations (3.a.13) again applies. Although the equilibrium eq(3.13) from (3. = 0 in eq(3.52a) (3. This gives the constants a and b as a = [Ea/(r.) + dir c.: = 1.(1 + 3 v ) p 2 r 2 1 8 3. with cZ= c.E d + ( E a l r ' ) J" Tr dr (3.b) corresponds to the compatibility condition: (llE)(ur. Subtracting eq(3.52a.:  (3S3a) (3. The constitutive relations are E.ldr + d q l d r = .Edir (11 r) [d(r2u..b'/r2. = a' .vu.=uIr=(l/E)(cro. .b) but with different constants due to the change in the boundary conditions. since they contain the Lam6 eqs(3.b) may be superimposed upon eqs(3. + r du.)]/dr+d(rflIdr ( 1 + v ) ( q .16a.b) may be solved for a given function T = T(r) with the boundary conditions ur= 0 at r = r.. ) + a T Eliminating u in eqs(3.)] [.)= r (du. + or= 2a .5 (3. a plane strain condition. This gives u. .
. How . the constants in eqs(3.?.EaT/(I . Determine the maximum radial and circumferential thermal stresses in the wall and examine the effect of free and fixed ends upon the axial stress.)]}/dr+ d( a rT)/dr Substituting for a./dr + du. v (ar+ a.. when the cylinder is constrained.v ( a . . = E(&..55a) and (3. = u/r = ( I/E)[a. a = b / r .v )  Making the comparison with eq(3. Substituting eqs(3.v ) + ( E a / [ r 2 ( 1.13) leads to (1 v )(do. .. = E ( E ..v ) ] ) I T r d r u a = a + b / r 2 .+ a . b = {Ear:/[(l  IrroT r d r (3. .34a) leads to into e.. = a .54a.54c).)]) Example 3.+ a.EadT/dr a.v ) ] ) I T r d r ~ .)]+ aT = (l/E) d ( r[ a.v ) ]  (3.. + a . c0 = 0 and the axial stress becomes q = E d / ( ] .54b) (3..b/r2 .=[2a/(r. and employing eq(3.54a) (3.56a) If the cylinder is allowed to extend freely E.v ( a . Substituting these into eq(3.54c) It is known that or= 0 when r = r i and r = r.56b) (3S6c) oZ=(2Ea/[(1 v)(r.v ( a r+ a.)] + aT from which the axial stress becomes a.v ) + 2 v a (3. = (1/E)[0 .STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 123 c.a T ) + v [ 2 a .ri2)]) . 2 = ( E a / [ ( l v)(r.+ a.r./dr) = . in a cylinder are 200 and 100°C respectively..54a). the compatibility condition becomes ( 1/E)[a.=du/dr=(I/E)[a. Assume that the absolute temperature T varies with radius r according to T = A + B In r.aT ) + v ( a r+ a .E a T / ( I ..5 1b) it can be deduced that the factor ( 1 here in the final stress expressions: v ) will appear a.r.')]} J .( E a i [r2(1.)]+ aT Eliminating u and a. follows from a zero axial force condition.b) are found. ) I + a T E . .14 The temperatures at the inner 100 mm and outer 150 mm radij.')] I Trdr ITrdrEaT/(l .?.aETl(1.r. = 2 a .v ( a . .55b) v)(r. ' T r d r In eq(3..54~) eq(3.. ) The radial and circumferential strains are now e.v ) (3.55 a) (3.
(Ea/[2? (1  v )] ) x I A r 2 + (B?/2)(2 In r . and a = 11 x "C.8 x 104)/r2 In the absence of axial strain. From eq(i) the constant a in eqs(3.v ) + 2 v a = .r:)]) x I Ar2 + (Br2/2)(2 In r = 0.56a) gives the axial stress as oz=.87r2.6 + 395.4772.(1608.33 r 2 ( 2In r .IOO')] 11608.458 x l o .604/ r 2 ) Ir 100 (ii) u .4 + 791 In r When the cylinder is allowed to extend freely. ) ] ) x I A r 2 + ( B r 2 / 2 ) ( 2 1 n r 1) = 1.'= 667.21(1608..z .123.8 x 104)/r2 = 667.283[(3619.(100/r)2]. eq(3.246.E a T / ( 1 .b) is J'Trdr=J'r(A+BInr)dr = Ar2/2 + (Br2/4)(2In r .1 b/r' .87.'.3.54a.123.1713.v)(r.124 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND SRUCTURES are these stresses altered when the internal gauge pressure is raised to 2 kbar when all other conditions prevail? Take E = 207 GPa.56b) gives the axial strain e.67[1 + (100/r)2].1) = .67 [ I .96.48%  1) : .(1.r .55a) becomes (in units of .1012.5 In r + (288. 3 7 3 = A + B I n 150 + B In r follow from substituting the : A = 1608.33r2(2In r .67 x lo4 Equations (3.123.87 .67 x 0..56~) gives the axial stress .8 .29.29) 1 I:00 (iii) = .1) = .v ) ] ) I A r 2 + ( B r 2 / 2 ) ( 2 1 n r 1)1:00 x 1608.65.283 x 104)(520. With the given temperature function the integral in eqs(3.67 x b = at.65 In r) + (1. B = .= (2a/[2(r.246.207(1608.21 10.246.E a T / ( I .4 l o 4 )= 667.(288.604/r2)11608.b) become ur= a  : .65 In r) + (2 x 667.2503.33 r'(2In r .87 .1 I00 = [(I1 x 10')/(1502 . eq(3.3.? = 0.87 r 2 .I ) and eq(3. mm and K) a = ( E a / [ 2 ( 1 .5 In r .87 r 2 .54)] = (1.8 + 395.54a.1 ) 1' 100 = 667.23) . = a + b / r 2 .v ) + ( E a / [ 2 r 2 ( l. v = 0.1) The constants A and B in the temperature function T = A boundary values 4 7 3 = A + B I n 100.
8 MPa .:.1 MPa for r = 100 m m and 139. =  u.207 (1608. 459.r.. 3..3.9 m m .2 x 104)/ r2 These supply the stress distributions given in Fig.87 .16b.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 125 u7=(2Eal[2(1v)(r.Equation (iv) shows that the axial stresses become unacceptably high when the cylinder expansion is prevented.1 ) l : z .4) .8 + 395. With free expansion.5/ r ..[ E a / ( I .e.5 In r .6 x IO4/r = 0 : r = 120.5 + 791 In r (v) Figure 3. eq(v) shows that the axial stresses are reduced to equal the hoop stresses at the inner and outer radii.= 1950.8 MPa for r = 150 mm. . = 0 for r = 150 mm) gives the Lam6 pressure stresses (eqs(3. The maximum radial stress follows from eq(i) d q l d r = 395. =+ ( u ~ ) . The boundary stress values are u. = . A superimposed internal pressure of 2 kbar (i.9 c 100 0 .2 x 104)/r2 1553. = .(71.b)) o r = 160.v ) ] ( A + B I n r ) = (2.200 MPa for r = 100 mm and u.16a.5 In r + (71.)]) xIAr2+(Br2/2)(21nr. .distributions from eqs(ii) and (iii).(360 x 1o4)/rZ u. are .8 a (MPa) 338.6 + 395. ~16.16 Radial and hoop stress distributions Particular values of u.3824.65 In r ) = .18 1.16a shows the urand u. . a.566 x 520.= 160 + (360 x 104)/r2 (vi) (vii) Adding eqs(vi) and (vii) to eqs(ii) and (iii) the net stresses become u.200 Figure 3..246.577.
57a) The hoop stress is also discontinuous across this junction. = . = 459.17b).. Consider any two adjacent rectangles 1 and 2 shown in Fig.8 MPa from eq(vi) and (vii). are assumed constant. = 0 for r = 150 mm. At the outer radius of I the hoop .4679.17 Disc of variable breadth At the junction between I and 2 there will be a discontinuity in radial stress.These must + satisfy equilibrium Hence the change in radial stress across the junction is 6 ~ .4 Discs with Variable Breadth Donath's numerical method ( 1 929) provides thermal stresses in discs whose crosssection can be approximated with a number of stacked rectangles (see Fig. These are .d.6 + 791 In r (viii) Equation (viii) shows that there is a slight reduction in the axial stress. be the . even in a high strength steel.1036. ( b l / b 2 1) =  (3.200 MPa for r = 100 mm and a. ) = 92. the cylinder would yield in compression if it is prevented from extending. The elastic constants E and the thermal coefficient afor each rectangle must be referred to its mean temperature within the distribution over the disc (Fig.17a). a . 3 .9 MPa.. The axial stress (v) remains unchanged when the cylinder ends are free.8 MPa.and at the inner radius of 2.3. This gives a. the radial stress is ar. and 6. it is a. a. 1 7 ~Their breadths b .2 MPa at the 0. 3. Figure 3. = .716. Let r j and r.> do.. . inner and outer radii of rectangle 1. and . .6. At the outer radius of I . 3.d. a.126 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND SRUCTURES = 338. Therefore..9 MPa at the i. When the axial extension is prevented we must add to eq(iv) aI = v ( ar + a .
as follows: s. = ( a .b/rj2 Let S and D be sums and differences of the stresses. u.18.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 127 stress is a.. (rilr.57d) (3.ari) = 2b/ri D.Two calculations are required.5 Figure 3. Table 3.2.) .5lag) respectively.1 accounts for both thermal and mechanical effects assuming zero stress (ur u.) = ( a .. = (a&. Taking the corresponding values for E and a a s given and assuming v = 0.57ce). + a. this gives in which it has been assumed that v = vI = v 2 .57ag) only for when the disc is at constant temperature and equal stresses ( a ..57e) The following example shows how to implement eqs(3. and at the inner radius of 2.= v 6 q ..2 2 200 7. D.b) as aa.2.15 The smooth profile of a turbine disc is approximated in steps as shown in Fig. calculate the stress distribution in the disc due to thermal effects. When the stresses in each calculation are then adjusted to give zero radial stress at the rim.3 is constant.37b)reduces to the single mechanical effect: &a. the thermal stresses will remain.= uo= 10 MPa) are assumed for the disc centre. 60.. eq(3. .18 Approximation to a turbine disc profile . (IC) Step 1 T 1°C 100 al(lO~hxoC~') 7.' a . uri= a . Example 3. 3..3 3 300 8.)= 2b/r..16a. Table 3...8 179. The radial and hoop stresses at successive radii are given by the Lam6 eqs(3. u. = a + b/ri2. In Table 3.5 EIGPa 186.)2 Solving eqs(3.0 169 4 400 8. Since the hoop strains must be + compatible..blr. The disc is heated asymmetrically so that the average temperature at each step is as given. (3S7c) (3.r.2 employs simplified calculations from eqs 3.'= D..57ag).= a + b/r. = s. it is am.. = a . = = 0) at the disc centre. Note that the rows (a)(g) in each table correspond to the calculationsfrom eqs(3.= 2a = ( U @+ u.
63 18. .06 0 0 .2 Mechanical effects 0 30 OuantitvNnit I 0 30 100 186.223.6 8.141.5 200 179.6 8.06 .265.19 .36 .94 ./ b.810 .45 4.25 2.T.69 0 0 0 RIM 190 25 400 158.0.0 8.8 8.303 11.145.58 .145.0 158.T.5 8.128 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D SRUCTURES Table 3.1 1  150 18 300 169 8.28 3.54 11.o.44 21.5 ..32 .5 7.05 b.16 v or.21.93 ~ ' .IE.333 .5 10 10 20 0 0 0 10 10 1.36.0.25 0.64 0 00.52.52 0 Table 3.lMPa .JMPa L1Z)o.154.16.5 15  2 75 12 3 4 165 25 400 158.51 34./MPa (d) Di/h4Pa 1 2 3 4 RIM 75 150 165 190 12 18 25 25 100 200 300 400 400 186.5 10.70.754 1 (el D.70..15.04 6.42 0 ..145.3 7.0./MPa q.J2 0 0.1000 0 E2(alTla.57 17.59 0.85 .69 10.194.41 0.54.94 10.194.335.840 .i /MPa (c) Si=S.77 ./MPa 0 .22 4.06 0.0 20.2 7.5 15.36.45 (i) E.02 2.0.6 158.47 7.)MPa 0 .91 .27 ..a 2 7 .132.28 0 la) GaJMPa 0 18.2 179.TII 0.16 14.1 1.49 .3 169.698 0 0 &.90 (Ti l'.826 28.74.0.2 .27 .55 14.01 (h) (a.' / 750 1560 2400 3400 a.22 0 vda.186.90 .34 .21 0 .16 .22 &@ 4.27 .91 15.14 .145.06 0 (f.53 19.jMPa 0 .09 0.1 Thermal and mechanical effects OuantityKJnit riImm blmm T1"C EIGPa d(T x a.258.91 15.296.32 .84 .91 1 19.)/MPa145.8 14.826 0.I .194.16 0 ./MPa 0 5.22 4.21 .333 7.158.jMPa 0 .6 7.754 19.38.5 18.90 79 .191.5 25 39./lO" 1560 2400 3400 3400 a1T.33 .27 .206.va.27 .5 0. .0578 .16 .5 0 .259.0612 0 (h) x (i)/MPa 4.037 .48 .335.03 0.265.70.48 .265.244.142.53 26.
Table 3..=A  Edl"/(l  V) (3.4 71.468. Then.b) depend upon the single displacement u : ( u r 2vu.6 149.492.3 Thermal Stresses r.530. mm uo.3.4 112.(lv) VO.1 and Table 3.60b) Setting a = 2A/3 and b = B .v r (dqldr) + ( 1  v) r (du.v( uo a.v(u.59b) 3 u .59) and integrating leads to !&.]+rEaT)/dr (1 + v)(u.60a.9 .38) for a sphere is unaltered when there is a temperature gradient in its wall. MPa 150 165 0 75 149.=oo=ab/(2r3)EaT/(1.+ uo)]= (l/E)[~.59a) Combining eq(3. .2va + ) ur E.v ) ( l / r 2 ) d ( r 3 u r ) / d r = 2 A 2Edl"/(l: .2 79. from which n = 14.. + r d u r / d r = 2 A . 3.4 149.58a) (3.573.58a.v)+{Ea/[r'(l (3.2 by n and adding the result to the corresponding stresses in Table 3.)] = (l/E)(ur .6 1 b)  v)]] J T r ' d r The constants a and b in eqs(3./2 =2A/3 E a T / ( I .{ 2 E a / [ r ' ( l .69 n = 0.60a) u. I leads to the thermal stresses given in Table 3. V) ur=2A/3+Blr'.2EaT/(I.(l .60a) and.2 173.4 373.) = E a r (dT/dr) .3 .+ u.59b) Subtracting eq(3.1  190 492. A new compatibility condition is required to account for the thermal strains aT appearing in c.MPa o.v ) ./dr) (3. = a + b / r 3 .61a.61a) (3.b) will depend upon whether the sphere is solid or hollow.=A ~ EaT/(I B/2r'  V) .6 .7 Thermal Stresses in Spheres Referring to Fig.b) are written as q .70. The two strains in eqs(3. eqs(3.~.v ) ] ] J T r ' d r (3.58b) where uo= u.38) from (3.16 + 4.= + + aT  c 0 = u/r= (I/E)[u. Across the step the stresses follow from adding rows (f) and (b) and (g) and (a) so that two stresses values appply to each radius.v ) + { E a / [ r 3 ( 1 v ) ] ) J T r ' d r (3. from eq(3. = du/dr = ( l / E ) [ .3 . The correction applies to the outer radius stress components within rows (0 and (g). the equilibrium eq(3. multiplying stresses in Table 3.365.vo.] +aT (3.1 0 0 3.1 ..(2Ea/[r3(l .15.)+EaT=d(r[u.  u.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 129 It follows that the radial stress at the rim is removed between Table 3.38) and eq(3.2 by writing .4 149.v)]}J T r ' d r u.4 260.96.59b) and (3.
62a. Substituting these into eq(3. The remaining constant a is found from the boundary condition u.?(l  v)]]Jo Tr2dr Equations (3.b) cannot become infinite at the centre of a solid sphere. and r = r.130 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D SRUCTURES 3. References [ I ] Lame.7. (a) the axial strain is to be the same and (b) the hoop stress is to be the same. 1852. Berlin. across the weld. [2] Donath. Substituting into eq(3.62a) (3. .)]} ud=[[Err/(lv)][((2r3+r:)l[r3(r.r.1 Solid Sphere The stresses in eqs(3.T] 'i in which T = T(r) expresses a radial temperature gradient similar to that in the wall of a thickcylinder (see Example 3. EXERCISES Membrane Theory 3.6 1 a. Die Berechtiung Rotierender Scheiben urid Ringe nach eitiem tieuen Verfnhretz.:) Joro T r 2 d r + ( 1 / r 3 )J o r T r 2 d r . Lecoris sur la theorie de l'elasticite'. GauthierVillars. 1929. M.(l/r3)JorTr2dr] u d =[Err/(I .61a. = 0 for r = r.v ) ] [{(r3.rj3)/[r3(r.b) into eqs(3.7.T ] 3.(l/r3)l r T r 2 d r ] re r:)]} 1 T r 2 d r + ( l / r ' ) L r T r 2 d r . G.: Jr T r 2 d r .v)][(Z/r.6la) gives the constants a and b as a = (2Eal[(l . 112 . Paris.61a.:.b) then become or = [ 2 E a / ( I  v)][(l/r.1 Determine the thickness ratio required between the spherical ends and cylindrical body of a pressurised vessel when.v)(r.= 0 for r = r n .. This gives b = 0..b).2 Hollow Sphere The boundary conditions are u. Answer: 312. ro o r = [ 2 E a / ( l .:) JOro T r 2 d r .61a) yields ro a = {2Ea/[r. Take v = %.14).62b) Substituting eqs(3. ro  r:)]} Jr Tr2dr (3.
615 mm. knuckle u r = .27. given that the u.4 A spherical vessel 1525 mm diameter with 75 mm wall thickness is made from a material whose ultimate compressive strength is 77 MPa. 1. Answer: sphere u . determine the safe depth and the corresponding reduction to the internal volume. Using a factor of safety of 8.3 A thinwalled steel sphere with 600 mm mean radius and 25 mm thickness contains oil at atmospheric pressure. = u = pb/2.) 3. when the knuckle radius is a and the sphere radius is b.I84 kN/m2. when the ends are (a) closed and (b) open. Take p = 2400 kg/m’ for concrete. Determine the increase in diameter. A t = .t. v = 0.20: 0. with walls 15 mm thick and diameter 2.s.t. is subjected to an internal pressure of 5. Take E = 207 GPa. u6= I84 kN/m2 3. 9.r/( bcosB)]/(2cosB) (with B as for torus) . The u.7 What is the bursting speed of a thinrimmed cast iron flywheel of mean diameter I m if the u.083 x 10 mm ’ 3.5 bar whilst being rotated about its axis at 300 rev/min. 3.e. (Hint: 6V/V for oil and sphere are the same. A d = 0.5 m and thickness 50 mm.p(a + b cosB)/(2cosO) . and density of the steel are 450 MPa and 7760 kg/m3 respectively. Answer: A1 = 0.25 for steel and K = 3445 MPa for oil. Calculate the bursting pressure. Answer: 45.5 bar.10 A thin steel rim. To what depth may the sealed sphere be immersed in sea water of density 1040 kg/m’ if the maximum compressive stress in the sphere wall is restricted to 92. I . The rim is to be constructed in two semicircular halves with each simple lap joint held together by a single bolt. 3.5 m diameter and 150 mm wide.11 A hemispherical concrete shell.8 MPa. 3. Determine the changes in length. Take E = 166 GPa and v = 0. Determine the bolt diameter when the permissible shear stress of the bolt material is limited to 69 MPa. Determine the maximum stresses in the shell due to the combined action of selfweight and a normal pressure of 1 bar over its external surface. the end pressure is contained by moveable pistons? Answer: 10. is constructed from 20 mm thick steel plate. under an internal pressure of 10 bar.0579 mm.12 Determine the maximum stresses in a hemispherical shell. Answer: u g= .25. Answer: 1080 rev/min. rests on its annular rim.p r [2.5 MPa? Take constants E = 207 GPa.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 131 3. 3. u g = . i.1. determine the maximum permissible speed in rev/min. 10 mm thickness. when it is filled with water of density lo00 kg/m3 and simply suspended around its annular rim.2 mm thick and 250 mm diameter has an ultimate tensile strength of 9 MPa. of mean diameter 1.20 MPa 3.5 What are the axial and hoop stresses induced in a long cylinder with 25 mm wall thickness and 1 m inside diameter.2 A thinwalled cylinder of internal diameter 75 mm and wall thickness 3 mm is 3 m long. diameter and thickness for an applied internal pressure of 1. Find the maximum value of the hoop stress in the material and the factor of safety used in the design.t.s.13 Derive the membrane stresses arising in the torispherical ends of a long thin cylindrical vessel containing pressure p .s. for the rim material is 463 MPa. of cast iron is 138 MPa and the specific weight is 7200 kg/m3? 3.85 3. v = 0.1 m.8 Find the diameter of the largest thinwalled rim that may revolve at 500 revlmin if it is to be made from steel of density 7756 kg/m’ when the maximum tensile stress is limited to 46 MPa.6 A spherical balloon 0. 56 mm 3.9 A thin steel cylinder.5 m diameter. If the internal pressure of the sealed vessel remains constant as it is submerged in the sea ( p = 1040 kg/m’ ). Take the elastic constants E = 210 GPa.
and 178 mm o.56.29.17 A thickwalled cylinder of steel has an i.19 Figure 3.. Determine the axial. both having a uniform thickness of 75 mm. What is the safe internal pressure a second cast iron cylinder can withstand for an i. The vessel supports a central concentrated core load of 200 t and a total rim load of 1800 t.d.d.33 MPa .d. Monobloc ThickWalled Cylinders and Spheres 3.93. is subjected to an internal gauge pressure of 700 bar. subjected to a ring of loading at radii r . v = 0. determine the outer diameter.46.132 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D SRUCTURES 3.27..10.5 mm thick is subjected to a radial compressive force of 2.d. Calculate the membrane stresses in the dish and cylinder when an additional pressure of 6. for each 25 mm of radius.15 Part of a reactor vessel is simplified in Fig. of 100 mm and an 0. Find a suitable external diameter and the magnitude of the strains at the outer surface. If the total effect of the load is W .d. as shown.0: u: = 23. 3.3. Determine the maximum hoop and shear stresses in the cylinder and the change in the outer diameter.70.16 A steel cylinder 203 mm inside diameter is not to be stressed beyond 123.21 A pressure of 400 bar exists within the 50 mm bore of a pipeline.17. hoop and radial stresses and strains at the inner and outer diameters.19 A cast iron closed cylinder. with 75 mm wall thickness.67.5 bar is applied over its top surface (a) when the dish selfweight is negligible and (b) when the dish selfweight is 78 kN/m'. The internal and external pressures are 550 and 70 bar respectively. Answer: u.20. Take E = 207 GPa.. Calculate and plot.d. 3. Take E = 200 GPa and v = 0. 150 mm i. 152 mm and thickness 25 mm. u.5 m radius. and 12. I f the maximum stress is not to exceed 120 MPa. can safely withstand an internal pressure of 170 bar. The spherical dish.14 The vessel in Fig.d.5 mm radius. Figure 3. the distribution of radial and hoop stress through the wall.28.83. of 200 mm. 3. and r. and v = 0.35 kN/mm of inner circumference. 3.19 comprises part of a sphere of radius a . contains fluid at a pressure of 350 bar.18 A cylindrical steel vessel 127 mm i. with closed ends.(MPa) . of 114 mm and wall thickness 25 mm. derive the membrane stresses in the vessel.(MPa) 116. 3.d. whilst the outer edge remains unloaded.66. 3.5 MPa under an internal pressure of 3 10 bar. 3.28. with i. 5. Take E = 210 GPa.22 A closed cylinder.75. when the greatest tensile stress remains the same? 3. 10..20 An annular plate 305 mm 0. rests on a cylinder.20 3. Compare the hoop strcss distribution with that when a force is applied around the outer edge whilst the inner edge remains free.
Plot the residual stress distributions.d. Calculate the interference fit required.4. assuming a coefficient of friction LA = 0. calculate the initial interference.. Calculate the force required to fit the sleeve on to the shaft..23 A steel bathysphere. diametral interference 6 and show that if D/d is large.d.3 for steel and E = 1 17 GPa.d. 3.d.33 A 25 mm thick steel cylinder. The assembly is required to satisfy the condition that the Derive the relationship for the maximum hoop stress in the disc shall not exceed a value of ulimi. Compound Cylinders with Interference 3. and 50 mm long. v = 0. (CEI) . 50 mm o. The diameters of the assembly are 152 mm internal. determine the initial difference in the common diameter and the maximum hoop stress in the blank.2. Take E = 200 GN/m2. is to be shrunk on to a hollow steel wheel to give a radial pressure of 40 MPa.. is pressed on to a 76 mm diameter hollow steel shaft whose internal diameter is 51 mm.. and 50 mm long. 127 mm o. 3. 76 mm 0.33 for brass. with an interference of 0. 3.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 133 3.26 A copper bush. has shrunk on to it a second steel cylinder of 300 mm outside diameter.077% external hoop strain. 30 mm 0.d.06%. v = 0. 20 mm i.04 mm..3 for steel and E = 100 GN/m*. The diametral interference of the assembly is 0. Find also the diameter and thickness changes under this pressure. v = 0. 102 mm i. Determine the torque to cause slipping between hub and bush. is to be force fitted onto a solid shaft of diameter 50 mm.5 MPa.d. is fitted to a solid shaft of nominal diameter d using an interference fit. is force fitted on to a solid shaft. Take E = 207 GPa.30 for copper. 3. The coefficient of friction for the pair is p = 0. prior to assembly.5 mm thick walls.d. containing a central hole of diameter d. with 12.2.29 A steel wheel ring. If the external hoop strain is 0. Calculate the necessary initial difference in the common diameter when the radial thickncsses are both 25 mm. (CEI) 3. is pressed firmly into a cast iron hub. Take E = 207 GPa.03 mm. 3. Take E = 207 GPa. 3.d.d.. E = 140 GPa. Find the necessary thickness if the maximum stress in the vessel is limited to 230 MPa. with an inside diameter of 200 mm. shrunk on to it. v = 0..016%. is to withstand an external fluid pressure of 1000 atmospheres.32 A compound tube is made from shrinking one steel tube onto another. if both tubes are to suffer the same maximum hoop stress when the compound tube is pressurized to 60 N/mm2. If the hoop strain for the blank 0. What magnitude of torque would initiate slipping for a 50 mm length of contact between blank and shaft? Take E = 207 GPa and u = 0. has a bronze sleeve 102 mm 0. v = 0. 50 mm i.24 Derive expression for the stresses and displacements in a thickwalled sphere subjected to an external pressure when filled with (a) air and (b) an incompressible fluid which prevents a reduction to the internal volume.30 A steel gear blank.d. The disc and shaft are of the same material. 51 mm i.d.28 A circular disc of outer diameter D. calculate the radial pressure at the common diameter and the maximum tensile stress in the sleeve. 100 mm 0. 305 mm common and 355 mm external. 3.33 for bronze. is 0. v = 0. If the common radial pressure is 27.d.27 A brass sleeve. (CEI) 3. If the shrinkage process results in 0. Take E = 207 GPa.25 A steel sleeve. and 102 mm o. determine the initial interference and the maximum hoop stress.d. then 6 is proportional to d. with Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio v. 500 mm i.31 A hollow steel tube.25 for cast iron and E = 100 GPa..
3. 3.40 At what speed may an annular disc of 30 mm 0. Show graphically the radial and hoop stress distributions. (CEI) 3.d. 3.3 and p = 7850 kg/m3. 120 and 140 mm.38 Find the maximum stress and the stress at the outer 228 mm 0. Find the radial and tangential stresses at the common 200 mm radius due only to the shrinking process.s.5 mm i.43 An internal combustion engine has a cast iron flywheel that can be considered to be a uniform thickness disc of 230 mm 0.d. rotating at an angular frequency o. 120 mm is subjected to a radial tensile stress of 110 MPa at its 0.42 Determine the general expression for the circumferential stress in a solid disc of radius h. determine the stresses due to centrifugal effects. Take material constants E = 200 GPa. and the density p = 7480 kg/m’.5 mm thick rotates at 2000 revlmin. (CEI) 3. and 12. and are made to give an interference on the common radius of 0.. Take v = 0. due to the blading when rotating at 7000 revlmin.. Ignoring the method of grip. v = 0.36 The nominal dimensions of two cylinders are 40 mm and 80 mm for the inner cylinder and 80 mm and 120 mm for the outer cylinder.d.when a radial stress component of magnitude u. Take E = 208 GPa.41 A thin uniform steel disc with 0. I80 mm 0. (CEI) 3. Take v = 0.d.d.37 The nominal radii of a compound cylinder are 100.d. Find the required interference at the common diameter for a radial shrinkage pressure of 92. calculate the speed at which the flywheel would burst. Take E = 21 0 GPa. Determine the magnitude of the interaction pressure at this pressure and the initial interference.d. (CEI) 3.44 A thin turbine rotor has inner and outer nominal radii of 40 mm and 125 mm respectively..5 MPa. rotate if the maximum shear stress is limited to 35 MPa? Take p = 7600 kg/m3 and v = 0. The rotor is shrunk onto a solid shaft with a radial interference of 6.34 The two components of a compound cylinder have inner and outer radii of 175. and density of cast iron are 200 N/mm2and 7 I80 kg/m3respectively. v = 0.33 for bronze. 3.25.d.28.d. 127.3 for steel and E = 1 17 GPa. When an internal pressure of 15 MN/m2 is applied to the assembly. shrunk on to it.3.1 mm. Given that the u.t. free to slide) on the shaft.3 and p = 7835 kglm’. (tensile) is applied to the periphery of the disc. v = 0.3. 3. Take E = 200 GN/m2 and v = 0. Take E = 208 GPa.e. The effect of the rotating turbine blades is to set up a radial tensile stress of 25 MPa at the outer radius.35 A hollow steel tube. determine the interference in order that the maximum bore stress for the compound cylinder does not exceed 60 MN/m2 when it is pressurized to 60 MN/m2. Hence determine the position and magnitude of the maximum circumferential stress in the disc. 500 mm and i. 230 mm o.200 and 250 mm. and 50 mm i. has a bronze sleeve. v = 0. Plot the residual stress distributions following shrinkage and find the net hoop stress at the inner diameter of each tube when a pressure of 770 bar is then applied to the assembly.39 A steel disc 255 mm o. and 50 mm thick. If both cylinders are made from the same steel. and 20 mm i. stating where these occur.134 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND SRUCTURES 3. Take v = 0. Determine the maximum radial and circumferential stresses and the change in diameter.d. (CEI) . (CEI) Rotating Cylindrical Bodies 3.d. of a solid disc when rotating at 12000 rev/min. Determine the necessary interference fit 6. it is required that the maximum circumferential stress shall be the same in both components. The fit is to be designed using the assumption that at a speed of 10000 rev/min the rotor would become loose (i.d.3 and p = 7500 kglm’ for both rotor and shaft.
v = 0.3.46 A thin solid steel disc. Determine the necessary hole size for the disc and the maximum allowable rotational speed if slippage does not occur. for the common diameter. (CEI) 20mm Figure 3. Determine the maximum stress in the disc when it is rotating at 1500 rev/min.49 If. Take E = 207 GPa. ) Temperature Stresses 3. Take E = 200 GPa. calculate the mean hoop stress when the temperature of the assembly is raised by 25°C. . 3. If the disc outer diameter is 710 mm. at what maximum speed can the assembly be rotated? Find also the magnitude of the stresses at the shaft centre and at the disc outer diameter. for the thin annular disc in example 3. (Hint: The common interface pressure p is found from p = W / ( p n d f ) . If the outer diameter temperature is reduced to 140°C. the diametral interference before assembly and the radial pressure due to shrinkage.3 and p = 7380 kg/m3. v = 0.45 Figure 3.48 A solid steel disc of thickness f = 50 mm and 760 mm diameter weighs 7844 kg/m'. when the disc rotates at 6000 rev/min. it is 160"C.47 A rotating disc and solid shaft steel assembly is designed for a pressure of 34. (CEI) 3. The toothed disc is cut from a single sheet of uniform thickness. Take E = 200 GPa.d.21 3.5 MPa and a hoop stress of 207 MPa at the common 508 mm diameter.5 mm.50 The temperature at the 60 mm i.3 and = 0.29 and p = 7756 kg/m3.13 thk initial mismatch is 0. 3. determine the increase in rotational speed that is possible when the circumferential stress at the inside diameter remains constant. v = 0. has a steel ring of outer diameter 610 mm and of the same uniform thickness shrunk on to it.d. of a turbine disc is 60°C whilst at the 200 mm 0. so that when it is pressed onto a solid steel shaft of diameter d = 102 mm. assuming that the combined centrifugal forces at the roots of the teeth due to rotation are uniformly distributed around the central 250 mm diameter. it will not slide on the shaft under an axial force of W = 30 kN. If the interference pressure is reduced to zero at a rotational speed of 3000 revlmin. 455 mm diameter.21 shows a disc with 36 integrally machined teeth of uniform crosssection arranged symmetrically around the disc. v = 0. Constants areE = 207 GPa. Take v = 0. A central hole is to be machined in the disc.STRUCTURES WITH SYMMETRY 135 3. a = 1 1 x 10 '/ "Cand p = 7500 kg/m3.25.28 and p = 7756 kg/mg. calculate.
0. Take E = 200 GPa. u.r. After a rise of 100 "C./r) . and p = 7850 kg/ml for steel and E = 69 GPa. u.)) ...*)] In(r(. v = 0. a = 1 1 x 10 '/ "C. Z ( r 2 + r c . Find also the position and magnitude of the greatest hoop stress and the changes in the inner and outer diameters relative to a surrounding temperature of 295 K.d.T./r) / ln(r<. is shrunk onto a solid steel shaft of 200 mm diameter.. when it carries oil at a pressure and temperature of 35 MPa and 800 K. Find (i) the temperature to which the assembly must be taken in order to loosen the ring and (ii) the angular speed at which the assembly just loosens when operating at 40°C. shrunk on to it. v=O.. 400 mm o.51 Use the principle of superposition to establish the net stress distribution in a thick walled cylinder.6 / "C and p = 2720 kg/ml for aluminium alloy./r.3 and a = 12 x 10 ~6/K.).=  ( . ~ a ~ / [ 2 (v1l.u: = ( ~ a T / [ 2 ( 1 v)]) ( v  2 In(r./r.= { E ~ T / [ ~ v() ]I) (..3. Take E = 207 GPa.r : ) ] ) xIn(r.Z)l)x 1n(r. . ) / [ r 2 ( r t r. the whole assembly is raised in temperature uniformly.d.and uzwhen the temperature gradient for a constrained thickwalled cylinder is given by T ( r ) = (T.(CEI) 3./r.2 m diameter. v = 0. 100 mm i..d..I ./ r )  [2vr.)/[rz(r. Take E = 208 GPa.3 m 0.136 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND SRUCTURES 3. a = 1 8 x 10~h/oCforbronze. a = 1 2 x 10 '/"CforsteelandE= 112GPa.( r .2/r. the bush can just be moved along the shaft. Neglecting any effect of temperature in the axial direction. v = 0. 3. calculate the original interface pressure between the bush and shaft.d.In(r..)) x . At n 20°C.?.53 A aluminium alloy ring.52 A solid steel shaft.33. and 200 mm o. a = 23 x 10 . The outer pressure is atmospheric and the temperature is 310 K.Z/(r.3.2 mm.54 Derive the following expressions for u./ r) + 1 r : ( r 2 . (CEI) 3. v = 0. the diametral interference fit at the common diameter is 0. In order to remove the bush.( \n(r... has a bronze bush of 0.) ln(r..)) ) } u.r.29.
2a): M = (EIR) J A y 2 d ~ EIIR = (4. into eq(4.lb.2b) . \ Figure 4. to give EIR = a / y (4.1). from first principles.. 4. 2. distance y from the neutral axis in Fig. 4.137 CHAPTER 4 BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES In Chapter 2 it was shown how a stress function provided the distribution of direct and shear stress in a cantilever beam (see Fig. The engineer's theory of bending is also applied to the bending of circular and rectangular plates with various loadings and edge fixings. 4.1 Beam with hogging moment and positive curvature The longitudinal strain in the fibre CD is E = yIR where R is the radius of curvature of the unstrained (neutral) fibre AB.2a) Substituting u = EyIR from eq(4. This chapter examines. A n8 . the direct stress due to bending of straight and curved beams and beams with asymmetric and composite sections. la. Flexural shear stresses in beams will be treated separately in Chapter 7.1) The bending stress o acts on an elemental area S A .10). The moment balance (equilibrium) equation is (4. The longitudinal stress and strain are connected through the elasticity modulus E = U I E.1 Bending Of Straight Beams Let an initially straight beam hog under an applied moment in the manner of Fig.
Use the form I = C(bd3/3).If we imagine a sagging (negative) moment instead of Fig. a hogging moment produces positive curvature.2) leads to the engineer’s theory of bending M 1 = E lR = a/y 1 (4.Divide the section into the sum and difference of rectangles with their bases lying on the centroidal (neutral) axis.3) The longitudinal bending stress a = M y / l applies to any section in any beam where the moment M is known (see Fig.138 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES where I = force.1 b. tension below the n.2) is simply supported over a 5 m length.y ) l l and compression above it.a. g. where the centroid position lies at a height .a.82mm Second moment of area: . 1” dA y2 A is the second moment of area of the section. The sign of y is positive when locating fibres above the n.) passes through g in Fig. = (. That is.as follows: Method I . i. The sign of M shown is positive. (. 4. As the beam carries no axial fAadA= (EIR) y dA = 0 (4.2~) The condition fA y dA = 0 from eq(4. Equation (4. the neutral axis (ma..a. where y is negative.1) will provide the tensile stresses a. Example 4.3). 4. from eq(4. Calculate the distributed load per metre length that can be carried given the maximum tensile and compressive stresses of 50 MPa and 40 MPa respectively. shows that the reference axis for y passes through the centroid. What is the radius of curvature? 15 120 Figure 4.5 + 15) + (120 x 15)(90 + 7.1 A steel girder of unsymmetrical Isection (see Fig.M)(+ y ) / l .la.e.2 Unsymrnetjcal Isection Taking first moments of area C A yi= AY about the base.2c).5) =[(12Ox 1 5 ) + ( 7 5 x 15)+(4Ox15)]y. 4. The following two = examples will illustrate how eq(4.y ) l l exists in all fibres beneath the neutral axis. = (+ M)(+ y ) / l in all fibres (including CD) lying on the positive side of the neutral axis. + =67. then we can expect. 0.1) and (4. and negative for fibres beneath the n.5) + (75 x 15)(37. Combining eqs(4. of the section. 4. The signs for y must be independent of the direction of M.M)(. (40 x 15 x 7. a .3) is applied in practice.la). Compression o c= (+ M)(.
32)2] +[40(15)'/1 2 + ( 1 5 ~ 4 0 ) ( 6 0 . simply supported beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 30 kN/m together with concentrated loads of 20 kN at 1.45 MPa). then the maximum tensile stress exceeds its allowable value (u. Here I .=a. .Use the parallel axis theorem I = I. 4. were taken to attain the maximum compressive stress. 4.95 x 10' Nrnm = The lower value must be equated to the maximum sagging bending moment M . = u c I / y c (.y .= M .25(52. 3 2 ) ~ ] = 4 .82)3/3 . 4 ~ 10'Nmm M .605 x 10'/37.2 A 6 m long. 6x 5 0 10'mm4 Two bending moments are calculated based upon the allowable stresses for the tensile (t) at the bottom and compressive (c) at the bottom edges of the section M.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 139 I = [120(37.82)'/3] Method 2 .18)'/3 .3 Fabricated Isection . a sagging curvature of 280.36 x 10' mm That is.280.=50~4. = 198 x 10' mm 4 .605~ lo'/(67. / l = 27. The beam crosssection consists of a symmetrical Isection 0.40) x4. y.4 x 10') = . = (207 x l o 3x 4. + Ah2 for each of the three rectangles which comprise the section. /I = 72.4 x 10')/(25 x l o h ) =1.30kN/m Figure 4.36 m.605 x 10' mm4 + [40(67. riveted to the top and bottom flanges (see Fig.3 m wide x 18 mm thick.3 . I = [120(15)3//12+(120~ 15)(29.3a).wl 2 / 8 to find the uniformly distributed loading w. with top plates 0.82)=./12 = (8 x 3.= M .18)'/3] = 4. In this design the maximum tensile stress is reached. If the larger moment M.105(22.//y.9 MPa). Example 4.09 N/mm (kN/m) The radius of curvature is R = El / M .4.68)2] + [15(75)'/12+(75 x 15)(15.3. = bd3/12and h is the distance between the centroidal axis and the neutral axis for each rectangle.5 m from each end (Fig. = .18 = .3b). but the maximum compressive stress is not ( a . This gives w = .3 m deep ( I . Calculate the maximum bending stress and find the percentage increase in strength owing to the addition of the plates.8M.605 x lo')/(.
where M.1 A Beam Carrying an Axial Force F arid a Bending Moment M The stresses produced by F and M both act along the beam in tension and compression.806 .33 x lo6 mm4 The bending stress corresponding to y = 150 + 18 = 168 mm in eq(4. For the beam in Fig..54% : 4.5 x 20) + (3 x 1. z = I / y . by parallel axes (see Appendix I) I = I.5 x 30) . for the strength comparison.806 x 10' mm' . Figure 4.32) x 100 / 1.150) / (198 x 10') = 125 N/mm2(MPa) For the strengthened section.33 x 10') = 58.33 x 10') / 168 = 2.. tension is combined with a hogging moment. The direct stress arising from tensile and compressive forces are superimposed upon the bending stresses.2. 4.2 Combined Bending and Direct Stress Combined loading occurs when a beam carries an axial force or when a column is eccentrically loaded.4) We have seen how the sign of M and y can account for tension and compression on opposite sides of the n.4a. The maximum moment occurs at the centre.(3 x 110) = . This gives Unstrengthenedz=l/y=(198x l o 6 ) /150= 1 .165 x 1O6)(I50+ 18) / (471. it is only necessary to employ a section modulus. They are added to give the resultant stress. u = + FIA + M y / l (4.140 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Each support carries 110 kN.1. A positive F refers to tension and a negative F to compression. Strength increase = (2.165 x lo')(.a.4 Beam under combined bending and direct stress . 4. = (198 x 10') + 2[(300 x 18')/12 + (300 x 18 x 159')] = 471.32 = 1 12. but as M la= I / y . 3 2 IO'mm' ~ Strengthened z = I / y = (471.165 kNm (sagging) For the Isection alone. eq(4.3) is u = M y / l = (.81 N/mm2 The measure of strength is the maximum moment the beam can carry for a given allowable bending stress.= (1.3) gives the maximum tensile stress as u = M y / l = (.
03 + (.656 x lo')( . hogging moments.5 m length.4 1 mm beneath the centroid of the section .50 x 103/1850) +. M .2 = .50 x 10'/1850) = .12.12. This gives a= FIA + M . For this.37.2 Eccentric Loading Let a normal tensile force F lie in the positive x .23 MPa and for the bottom surface. is found by equating (4. together with an axial compressive force of 50 kN. + M.5.a.27.. The sign of y is positive above and negative below the n.x I I.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 141 Thus both F and M are positive.656 x 10') Nrnm (sagging) = when from eq(4. M. 4 . with that in which the force is applied.2 = 131.4).a.(12.ve) 0 = FIA + My/I = .4b and tension in Fig. (4.y ) l ( 3 x 10') : y = + 6. O= FIA + M y / l = (.4d shows that the net stress is the sum of the distributions due to bending in Fig. 4.y).27. 4.e.185.5) l ( 3 x 10') The zero stress position lies on the side of y (. = Fk and M y = Fh.27..2.a. The net stresses are respectively a= + F / A + MylI (above n. 4.(. it is convenient to identify the first quadrant.5a) The stresses in other quadrants are also determined from eq(4.17 MPa +( 12. .= w12/8 . k ) of the force to the centroidal axes x and y . Example 4. are produced by the eccentricity ( h . The resultant tensile stress at any point P ( x . 4.03 .(45 x l50O2)I8= . i. and M. In this example.. Within this quadrant.656 x lo')(.) a= + FIA .656 x lo')(+ 37. positive x and y. Determine the distribution of stress at the midsection and the depth in that section for which the stress is zero. 75 mm deep with I = 3 x 10' mm4.03 + 158.5)/(3 x 10') = .3a are reversed and so they are negative in eq(4. .. the addition of F modifies the position of zero stress which . The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 45 kN/m over its 1. with y = .5 mm for the top surface. y quadrant in Fig.5 mm.37. the directions of F and M in Fig.) Figure 4. with y = + 37. y I I ..4).4) to zero.3 A simply supported beam has a rectangular section 1850 mm2 in area. (T= FIA + MyII = (. 4 ~Clearly.MyII (below n.5a) using the appropriate signs for the coordinates P(x. y ) is the sum of a direct stress due to F and bending stresses due to M .158.
6).5 MPa? The position of the centroid is found by taking first moments of area about the right vertical side.5b) gives the extreme position h for F along the xaxis as 0 = F/(bd)+ (Fh)(. when Flies on the xaxis.7. it is eccentric to y only. Hence the stress at point P (.4 A compressive force Facts normally to the column section shown in Fig.5) . It can be shown further from eq(4. In a circular column. diameter d. the extreme position for F applied along the yaxis is k = d/6. Similarly. y + P 3Yk F d h Figure 4. M. only one bending stress term will appear. the corresponding safe area is a circle of radius d / 8.6 Rectangular section Example 4.b/2. 0). Determine the maximum eccentricity k if there is to be no tensile stress in the section. Then. Equation (4.5b) In a rectangular masonry compression column. 4. = 0.142 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 4.(100 x 125 x 137. For example. 0 ) should be zero when the force is applied at F(h.8 mm . What is F if the maximum compressive stress is to be 92. (see Fig. 4. (150 x 225 x 112. it must be applied with the shaded area shown. =+ = 97. That is.5a) becomes U= FIA + (Fh)x I I .5 Eccentrically loaded column When F is applied either along the x or the yaxis.b/2) / (db3/12) from which h = 616.5a) that when F is eccentric to both x and y . My = Fh and eq(4. tensile stress is to be avoided. (4.5) = 21250.
from eq(4.[ I O O X 125'/12+(125 x 1 0 0 ~ 3 9 .7*)].75) / (52. the theory is similar to that for straight beams. The maximum compressive stress occurs at point P(127..26 mm. the centre of initial curvature C does not generally coincide with the centre C.3 Beams with Initial Curvature The theory depends upon the relative magnitude of the radius of curvature R and the dimensions of the crosssection.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 143 Figure 4.26F)(75)/ (52.5~ = 113.3. 0 = F/21250 + (Fk)(.97. = 225 x 1503/12 . M . = F and My= 14.5a).6 kN 4.8) / (113. = [ 1 5 0 ~ 2 2 5 ' / 1 2 + ( 1 5 0 ~ 2 214.75) is made zero.87 x 10') + (14. but the remaining two terms become positive. 4.06 + 34.2) / ( 1 13. the first term on the RHS of eq(i) is negative. Beams with small and large curvatures are treated separately. is accounted for in the longitudinal strain expression. From eq(4.2.87 x l o 6 mm4 I .7 Column section From this h = 1 12.97.7F)(127.7 x lo6) from which F = . then tension cannot exist elsewhere in the section. . as is the case with thin rings.8a.42 + 16. we have.125 x 1003/12= 52.8 = 14. Referring to Fig.7F)(. 4.7 x l o hmm4 Taking x and y positive as shown. The same analysis applies provided the initial curvature R.92.I Large Initial Radius (Small Curvature) When R is much greater that the dimensions of the crosssection.7 x lofi) 0) Note that with F as a negative compressive force.75).944.5 MPa. with parallel k axes where appropriate.8.45)106 + (24. if stress at point Q ( .5 . induced by applied bending moments.5 = F/21250 = F (47.7F.87 x 10') + (14. Setting this to 92. . the second moments are: I .5a) . Using bd3/12.7 mm. In fact F cancels in eq(i) leaving an equation from which k = 24.97. 7 * ) ] ..
. Since the length of 00 remains unchanged: R ( 8 + 6 8 ) = R. What is the radius of curvature under the maximum bending moment? Take E = 207 GPa.9 is supported on rollers at each end and .O (4. Example 4 5 The semicircular steel arch in Fig..)] = U / Y (4. from which y is measured.144 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 4. The stress analysis is identical to that given for straight beams. Thus combining eqs(4. is where the denominator is the initial length of AB. 4.a.(l/R.6) and (4.5 upon an allowable stress of rt 300 MPa...8 Bending of beams with (a) small curvature (b) large curvature The tensile strain in fibre AB.2) gives M / I = E [ ( l / R ) .. Find the section depth by applying for a safety factor of 2.7) Combining eqs(4. is 100 mm in width. distance y from the unstrained neutral axis 00. must pass though the centroid of the crosssection.7) gives provided y << R.9) that (i) the bending stress aagain varies linearly with dimension y and (ii) the n. .8) with eq(4.9) It is seen from eq(4.
(4 x 10.. = 5 + 10 + 7.1 1) where R and R.48 mm Now M . *R H = 1 1.3. with I = bd3/12 .5 kNm (sagging) u= a.2 Small Initial Radius (Large Curvature) When R and the section dimensions are of the same order (see Fig.625 kN The maximum moment (at centre) and the working stress are M = . R. .264 x 10') R=4.264 x lo6 mm4.ve) and y = d/2 M / (bd'/12) = ~ / ( d / 2 ) :. i. From eq(4.9). . The bending stress must now be written as The total axial force is zero F = l a d A = [ E ( R .9 Steel arch The support reactions are 8R = (5 x 2 ) + ( 10 x 4) + (7.8) becomes invalid. = 17. it increases the initial radius.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 145 Figure 4.5 x 6). = .ve).5 = 120 MPa Then. + R.5 x IOh)/(lOO x 120)] = 127. with M (. R)/R] [ y d A / ( R . the resisting moment M for the section is given by .875 kN + R.. from eq(4.e.15m + 1/4000 4. is sagging (. the new radius R becomes l/R = M/(EI ) + I/R. 4.8b). the approximation made in eq(4.625) + (2 x 5) = .ve).= 10.32. a ( . are constants for a given crosssection./S = 3W2.(32.5.9).5 x 106)/(207000x 17. Furthermore.. + y ) ] =0 (4. d = J[6M/(ba)]= J[(6 x 32.
a. 0. The corresponding threepart formula is found from eqs(4.16) . Taking first moments of the crosssectional area A about the n.10 Neutral axis shift M = E[(RoR)IR]A. Let R . a negative sagging moment produces compression above and tension below the n. the integral in eq(4.146 MECHANlCS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (4..8b. towards the centre of curvature C in Fig. Since eq(4.3 and 4.10 & 4.  d/ {In [ (R...+ d 12) / ( R .11 & 4. = R. R .10. a positive hogging moment will produce tension above the n.y must be found relative to the section‘scentroidal (or mean) radius.14) where R is the radius of the n. under M.a.d I2) I } (4. 4.a. 4.15) shows that a i s no longer proportional toy. and R. is negative).+F. although y is still measured from the n. the variation in aacross the section is nonlinear.When applying eq(4. Conversely. be the initial radius of the n. (4.a.15).9) Note that when R < R. 4. when R > R. M becomes M = E[(R. (y is positive) and compression below the n. I2).14) to complete the counterpart of eqs(4.a. in eq(4.11. . of the section but shifts by an amount..12) Combining eqs(4.11) gives 7 = R. eq(4.15). AU = J y dA and eq(4..13) becomes t Figure 4. in Fig.11) reveals that this axis will not now pass through the centroid g. as follows: (a) Rectangular Section For the rectangular section shown in Fig.R )lR] J y dA (4.a. the radius of the centroidal axis.13) However.a.
4.11 Rectangular section (b) I .18b) ! n Figure 4. It is convenient to introduce a parameter..BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 147 Figure 4.11) becomes U.18a) Web 0. z = y measured from the centroidal axis so that with mean radius R.12 Isection .y . the integral in eq(4.Section In the Isection of Fig. = b dz dA (4. . (4. = R.12 the web and two flanges are taken separately.
.15) to give the radius of the n.6 Compare the maximum tensile and compressive stresses and the radii of curvature of the neutral axes for the initially curved beam in Fig.15) and (4.05)/(20 x lo3x 17.82.148 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Bottom flange 0 .95)/[(20 x 10')17. Example 4.95 mm o= M Y U y (R.a. From eqs(4. as .18~) The n.16).a.(100 .13 Beam with large initial curvature The rectangular section properties are A = 20 x l o 3mm2. Take E = 207 GPa.+ Y)l = 200 For maximum tension.95) mm at the outer radius. .18ac) to zero.dA = B dz.17) between negative limits (4.17.95 MPa For maximum compression. Note that this is not equivalent to integrating eq(4. Rm= 200 mm. position j is then found by equating the sum of eqs(4.05 mm. From eq(i) u= (10 x 10' x 117.17) and then integrate between positive limits for z of Dl2 and d/2. y = .13b and c under M = + 10 kNm.200/ In (300/100) = 17. y = + (100 + 17.13a for two sections given in Figs 4. when from eq(i) u= 10 x 10' x (. Figure 4.82.22.95 x 100) = .95 x 3001 = + 10. 4.85 MPa Rearrange eq(4. Since the area now lies wholly beneath the centroidal axis it is simplest to change the sign of z in eq(4.b = 100 mm. d = 200 mm.95) = .
. . radius as R = ( 2 0 0 . u = (10 x 10' x 128.17.95)/{1 + [ ( l o x 106)/(20x 10' x 207 x lo3x 17.dn dr/r= 0 from whichy agrees with eq(4. /[ 1 + M/(AE? )I = (200 .1 I) becomes ? i.4 Elastic Bending Of Composite Beams A composite beam section may be built up from vertical or horizontal layers of different materials.88 x 300) = + 20. taking the rectangular section in Fig.10d. differs little from its unstrained value R. in eq(i). from the centroid g.0. .8473 (200 .15) supplies the n. d = 160 mm and R. = 100 [ ( I 0 0 .88) mm.80) .. Since R. + the integral in eq(4.0.. = 200 mm. A = 7200 mm2. 1 2 ) / ( 7 2 0 0 x 2 8 .12 mm. = b x 6 r and eq(4. y 7)s R. Equation (4. 4.a.069 (200 i f 2 = 100 [(I00 . triangular and trapezoidal sections.(200 .95)]1 = 182.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 149 R = R.88) / (7200 x 28.16).71.)I y ?) r)] (iii) (iii) (iv) Since i.L ) +?) dA/ r = 0 (4. is more conveniently found by the introduction of a new variable r = R.a. R.10.1823 (200 .(200 . 4.. . This integral may be evaluated for circular.j )In (280/120)] =20 [I60 .=20 [I60 .18ac) yield.B = 100 mm.88)/[1 + ( l o x 106)/(7200x207x 103x28. A ..0.88)]= 171. The respective eqs(4. For maximum tension with y = (100 ..b(R.88 mm.66 MPa and for maximum compression with y = . For example.. (c) Complex Sections The shift in neutral axis . in eq(i) l u = ( l O x I O h ) x ( .(100 . + i + i.dn R .?)I i.19) / dA/r=O A from which can be found once the integral IAdAlr is known. 4.34. 8 8 ~o o ) = . D = 200 mm.section.19) becomes bd . for a large curvature beam with any given crosssection.) In (300/280)] = 100 [20 ..20MPa The typical variation in the stress between these limits across the section is shown in Fig.+ y in Fig. 6.. + 28.03 mm (ii) For the I .. i.= 0.7 1 . b = 20 mm.88) = .28.08mm It is seen that for each section the radius of the strained n.28.1 1: A = bd. = R.80) + (200 In (100/120)] = 100 [20 .( R . These arrangements can exploit the properties of each material to provide the . eqs (ii)(iv) give? = 28.
4. determine the central load that can be applied when the beam is simply supported over 2 m.150 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES strength required for a given weight.where b and d are the dimensions of an individual layer (Fig.20). Four common types of crosssection arise. For example. = MA [ 1 + ( E l )/ ( E l ) A ] = M. 4 B A B A Figure 4. The bending stress in each material is a. Such designs must ensure that the strains between materials are compatible and that force and moment equilibrium is obeyed.22) Equations (4. I = 1 (bd3/12). A beam can also be strengthened by reinforcement. . (4.b) (4.3) are referred to each material. 4. a. If the allowable stress for each material is 110 and 80 MPa respectively. When E .b) are not independent because of the relation (4. 4. The total moment carried by the section is its moment of resistance M = M + M. in this design.I A . Consequently.2 la.21a. Which material is understressed and by how much? For steel take E = 210 GPa and for brass E = 85 GPa.7 The composite beam in Fig. they will attain the same radius of curvature R in bending. steel reinforcing rods embedded in concrete provide the bending strength required on the tensile side of a beam.14. 4. only one material can be fully stressed.14 Composite beam Provided A and B are fully bonded at their common interfaces.I Vertical Layers Let materials A and B comprise the balanced vertical layers of the beam section shown in Fig. Example 4. = (My11 ) .14).15 is fabricated from a central steel strip with outer brass strips. I and M in eq(4. the curvature is m I_ from which the moments carried by each fully stressed material are related in In eq(4. [ 1 + ( E l )A/(El ). = ( M y / [ )*.20) between the moments. 4.
= ( M y / I ) .= 22.04x 10') = 45.21b) shows that the brass is safely understressed to a value a. v = (bd3/12). Equation (4.67(210 x lo3x 26.92 = 32..+ M.04 x IO'IIUTI~ When the steel s and brass b are fully stressed.4.9).04 x lo6rnm4 I.= = (1 10 x 26.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 151 LIO1 20 JlO] Figure 4.19 kNm which shows that the steel would become overstressed..1 may be further applied to composite beam sections made up of horizontal unbonded layers. With bonded horizontal layers calculations are based upon an equivalent section of the . the steel moment is M.41 x 10' x 125)/(26.33)/2 = 64.15 Composite section I .04 x 10')/125 = 22.41 + 22. eqs(4. When the steel is fully stressed the brass moment is. when the brass is fully stressed.41 kNm For this condition. 0 4 x 10')/125= 16. M. .4. = ( 8 O x 2 6 .92[(85 x 103)/(210x lo3)] = 9.66 kN 4.2 Horizontal Layers The approach given in Section 4.04 x l o 6 ) = 41.67 kNm M.21a and b) give M h = ( a I / y ) .= 9.= (9. = 20 x 25O3/I2 = 26.04 x lo')/ (85 x lo3x 26. Provided the layers are thin and the interfaces between layers remains in contact under load.17 MPa...20).20). from eq(4. = 2 x 10 x 2503/12 = 26.92 kNm From eq(4.22) supplies the maximum moment for the beam as M = M. = 2(bd3/12).33 kNm The corresponding central concentrated load is W = 4M/L = (4 x 32. = 16. eq(4.. a common radius of curvature may bgassurned (see Example 4.
6 B must be the same across the original and the 6 equivalent sections. When A is stiffer than B (E.).1 6a).16 Composite beam in A and B with the equivalent section in A At a given depth the fibres in the equivalent section are required to reach the strain in the original section.152 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES stiffest material. and o .2 1a) supplies the bending stress in the equivalent section The true stress in material B follows from eqs(4.26) to give the stress in the nth layer as where A defines the equivalent section in the stiffest materia1. 4.25) as Because of the dependence between a. The correct design ensures that one material is fully stressed while the other is understressed.the maximum allowable stresses for materials . and a. Figure 4. when a.For many layers of different materials we may generalise eq(4. With identical limits for y . the integrals cancel to give a = b (ERIEA) (4. > E. . Thus. the strains are Also the moments of the forces oA A and a. we need to define the web thickness for an equivalent I section in material A (see Fig. act on an elemental areas 6 A = a 6 y and 6 B = b a y shown. 4.16b). A and B cannot be reached simultaneously. Consider a beam with three bonded layers in two materials (Fig.23) and (4.24) Equation (4.
)/( = (0. The second moment of area follows from parallel axes: 1.) in which unsubscripted terms refer to the equivalent section in steel.025.168 252. Calculate the position of the neutral axis and determine the safe value of uniformly distributed loading when the stress in the core is restricted to 20 kPa and the maximum deflection is restricted to 10 mm.. (CEI) 280 0. 16 mm = x 50 x 13*)] + (28 x 402)] + [(OS x x 5O3/I2)+ (0. )(MY// ) M = (u.17b shows the equivalent section in steel.26a) to find the allowable moment.)= (20 x 70)/200 = 7 mm mrn Figure 4. of the neutral axis above the base is found from 1 A i y i = AY (20 x 4 x 2) + (50 x 0. Using eq(4.. a core of expanded plastic ( E = 5 MPa) and a bottom plate of steel ( E = 200 GPa).8 The composite beam in Fig.MPa Figure 4./E.17a by the equivalent widths in steel s: s =p(E. = [(7 x 4'/12) + .5 x 10" x 29) + (7 x 4 x 56) = 108. The beam length of 1 m is simply supported at its ends.43 mm4 The maximum bending stress in the plastic will be reached at the top interface where y = 38 mm. up= (E..1E.02 x 60633.5 x + [(20 x 4'/12) + (20 x 4 x 14')] = 60633.126 0. steel 336.6 ...02 0. The position j . I E .17a is composed of a top plate of duralumin (E = 70 GPa)./E. 4.8 YO€ o.17 Threelayered beam Using eq(4.43 x 200 x 103)/(38x 5) = 1276.5 Nm YE.) = (20 x 5)/(200 x 10') = 0.24). 4. replace the duralumin d and plastic p in Fig..5 x s = d(E. The corresponding distributed loading is: .0063 0.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 153 Example 4.
If the stresses in the steel and brass are not to exceed 140 and 70 MPa respectively.5 ')/(83 x 25 ')I = 113..58[(207 x 12.18 Rectangular composite with equivalent section (a) In the unbonded case each beam can bend separately.26b).17d. / ( E l ) h (El M . ). Therefore. 4. the steel is fully stressed and the brass understressed.= 364. when the brass is fully stressed. determine the maximum bending moment that the beam can carry and the maximum bending stresses in each material when the beams are (a) unbonded and (b) bonded at the interface. w will need to be reduced to 8. ( a l / y ) = 70 x (50 x 25?/12)/12. eq(4. and the strains from Example 4.= 140 x (50 x 12.5 mm deep. r 50 Figure 4.43)= 11.= ( a l / y ) .5 mm in section is placed on top of a brass strip 50 x 25 mm in section to form a composite beam 50 mm wide x 37.21 x 1 0 ' 2 ) / ( 3 8 4 ~ 2 0 0 x 1 0x60633.2 la. stress discontinuities arise at the interfaces as shown in Fig.154 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES w = 8 M / 1 2= 8 x 1276.20) gives M. The stress values shown are found from the equivalent section in steel.5 = 364. For the same interface radius of curvature.5'/12)/6. M.17~ shows the linear strain distribution which ensures compatibility at the two interfaces.9 A steel strip 50 x 12.1 Nm . The elastic modulus of steel is 207 GPa and that for brass is 83 GPa. From eq(4. The moment for the brass is ..92mm ' Since the deflection is restricted to 10 mm. The maximum moments for the given allowable stresses are.58 Nm = .5 N/mm.b).21 N/mm The central deflection is 6=5wl4/(384B3)=(5x 10.25 = 65. In order for this to be possible. the steel is overstressed.66 N m Thus. from eqs(4. Figure 4. = M .5 / l 2= 10212 N/m = 10. M.
1 + 208. / ( E I .96 x 2.1 8b).25) gives the bending moment M = ( ~ l / y ) .15MPa As the brass is overstressed we must ensure that the stress in the brass is reduced to 70 MPa along the bottom edge. from eq(4.82Nm 7 Now from eq(4. the linear expansion coefficients will obey a.62Nm ~= Under this moment the maximum stress in the brass is found from eq(4. ) = 6 5 . When the elastic moduli obey E .04 mm.92 Nm The maximum stress reached in the brass is q. straight strips of dissimilar metals 1 and 2 joined along their longer sides to form this beam. 4. 0 9 M P a (b) In the bonded case the equivalent width of steel is.59= 1266.59 mm ’ I.91)/(132x 103)]=88. q. 50 x 83/207 = 20.04 x 25) = (625 + 501)i and.25) + (25 x 20.59)/(132 x 10’) = 111.26a). Consider two thin.= (M y / l ) . In a thermostat the beam is arranged as a cantilever that bends and deflects to operate a switch as the temperature changes. =$ y = 14.09’/3) + (20.82 x lo3 x 14.82 Nm The stress in the steel is correspondingly reduced to q = M y / I = (1005.22) the total moment carried by the section is M = 65. 4. For the equivalent steel section (see Fig.= (4 >(MY/[ IE.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 155 M .5 x 6. 4. 1 [ ( 8 3 ~ 2 5 ’ ) / ( 2 0x 12S3)]=208. = (50 x 14.4.62 / 88. . > E x . = M .5 x 1 2 ) / ( 5 0 ~ 2 5 ’ ) = 4 0 . using I = bd /3 for the second moment of area.17 MPa This condition governs the design.3 Bimetallic Strip Bimetal beams can be used as a switch to control temperature.59’/3)  (29. From eq(i) the corresponding bending moment is M = 70 x 1266.62~IO3x22. 4. 140x 132x 10’/14.> = ( 2 0 8 . beam will bend as shown in Fig.91 ’/3) = 132 x l o 3 mm4 With the steel fully stressed along its top edge eq(4. the centroidal position from the top is found from y (50 x 12.8 2~ 1O’x 12.19a when it is subjected < The to a temperature change AT .04 x 22.24).82 = 273.15 = 1005. =(83/207)[(1266. < ( E I ) .
eq(4.30).27a) . 1 2 WJ I 1 Combining eqs(4. Because there are no external forces or moments applied to the beam.X Longitudinal tensile and compressive forces F. in either material is u= 2 FIA 2 Myll (4.a. = F. arise due to restrained thermal expansion. This means that the beam fibres in 1 and 2 are stretched by greater and lesser amounts than their free expansions. respectively.3) supplies the relationships R = R . a bending strain (MyIEl) due to M and a temperature strain ( aIAT I 1 = a AT ) due to AT. and F.156 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES T'" Figure 4.29a) (4. (b) section on X.27b) . I . of a cantilevered strip of length L may be found: .31) Referring to Fig. 4 . + t. That is (4. Since the total strain in 1 and 2 must be compatible at the interface then.19b requires that F . from the F and M directions given. two equilibrium conditions apply: (i) Horizontal force equilibrium normal to a crosssection in Fig.19 Bimetallic strip (a) induced F and M. = F (ii) The couple F(t MI + M . M. = MI ( E . The axial stress at distance y from the n. the corresponding end deflection 6 .30) The behaviour of the strip is thus reduced to the simultaneous solution to F from eqs(4. (4. +E212) (4. = F(t MI and M2acting in the opposite sense. ( t . 4.20. . = (EI Ih4) = (EI IM). Assuming that the radii of curvature of the central neutral axes of each strip are the same. MI = FE.27b) and (4. = R.)/2 In any fibre the total longitudinal strain is composed of a direct strain (FIAE) due to F.29b) .29b). + t2)12produced from these forces must be resisted by internal moments (4. + t 2 ) / [ 2 ( EI.29b4.
each material having the same rectangular crosssection and length. for brass.20) follows from Example 4.28) may be rewritten as . > E2 and a .)*+(L)~ Neglecting the small quantity 6 ..21a we identify 1 with steel and 2 with copper so that E. 4. For steel. = L 2 / ( 2 R ) The deflection 6. E = 103 GPa. Neglect distortion and transverse stress. E = 207 GPa.20 Strip deflection R2=(Rc~.10 A bimetallic strip in a temperature controller consists of brass bonded to steel.21 Strip showing stress distribution In Fig.19a. 4. at the centre of a simply supported bimetallic beam of length 1 (see Fig. < a2as in Fig. 4.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 157 P 1 L 1 Figure 4. Calculate the stresses set up at the outer and interface surfaces in the longitudinal direction for an increase in temperature of 50°C in the strip. Hence eq(4. 6.' "C I.4 D Figure 4. a = 1 1 x 10' "C'.. a = 20 x 10. (CEI) 25.
+ E .E.[ a 2 A T .)E. = )AT ] / [ 12E.4MPa u. ) = .t / R = Substituting I /A = (bt3/12)/(bt) t 2 / 1 2into (iii) provides the ratio Rlt = Rlt= [ 1 2 E l E . = R .5 E 2 ) / [ b t ( E .) A T ] 2 Equation(4. and I = I.  where MI = FtE. + ( E l+ E. + ( E l+ E2) 2 ] = 8.[ ( E l.E.). / R .)/[bt ( E .158 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES SubstitutingM. I . for steel and brass are the same.F 2 / A 2 + M 2 t / ( 2 1 .=E.3MPa u.+E..)= . = Ft F = b t 2 (E. A T + F .+ E .)AT][12E. Substituting eq(ii) into eq(i) leads to ( a .F.+ E. ) E . F/(br) = [E.a ..) = F (7E.( E l .F2/A2M 2 t / ( 2 I 2 ) = F ( 7 E . + E.4 MPa and these are distributed in the manner of Fig. [ a . = FtE.5 Reinforced Sections (Steel in Concrete) The following theory is concerned specifically with reinforced concrete./(E.+E2)I(12R) in which R = R ..+E.31) provides the stresses at points A. / R . /(El + E. Both the tensile and compressive sides sides may be reinforced where necessary.)AT]/[12E. ) ] F U.+(E. = I .3 MPa = l uc= . ( a 2 a. ) ] u. (a2 a. a . =I.)2] = .)2]=25.(E.. C and D as MI t /(21 .+(E. F./(A2E.E2) . E 2 + ( E .21b. Now from eq(ii) and (iv). ) 2 ] / [ 1 2 E I E 2 ( ~& .25. / A . E 2 ( a 2 a. [(7E. + E .)] = u C = .t / R ] (1) where the areas A .). ) E .) . w h e r e ! .5E.)(a. B. 4. + ( E . a n d R .+E. + MIt 421 . A similar theory will apply wherever a horizontal line of reinforcing rods is inserted into a section of material which is inherently weak in bending. = E .+ E.) = F(E25El)/[btE l+ E.+E 2 ) E l E 2 ( a 2a. = F l / A .29a) yield ( E l iR). ) A T + I (El + E2)’/(AtRE. a n d M .)] ( u.)’] Substituting eq(ix) into eqs(v)(viii) provides the stresses from the information supplied u A = [ ( E 2 5 E . Equations (4.E. = R. + E. E.)AT]/[12E. + E l ) / [ b t ( E l + E . E . ) A T ] / [ 1 2 E .[ ( 7 E . + (El iR). = bPl12. and A.)] = . Concrete is weak in tension so when used for a beam section it requires steel reinforcement on the tensile side of the neutral axis.) and M. E. 4.E. l ( A I E l ) . I . .27b) and (4.] = 42.
22b). When A.36b) With an uneconomic section A.35) If s = D . /h /( when.34) applies with the concrete understressed. .32a. C = a Bh/2. Compression Figure 4. 4. the moment of resistance M is given by either one of the expressions i. will not obey eq(4.33). because C = T. will modify the n. in the steel. to a noncentral position h (see Fig. ~ .h) = a. (4.. is specified. 2 2 ~are found from .1 Rectangular Section With Single Steel Line The presence of steel. .32b and 4.(Fig. This neglects any tensile stress in the concrete (broken line in Fig. = CS= (Bh/2)(D .is the modular ratio. = m(D .h)a. 4. If the section is to be designed economically. from eq(4..then A.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 159 4.A. of total area A ./EJq. and the tensile strain in the concrete E .5./aS) (4. M. is found from the balance between the average compressive force.h/3) Ms = TS = A . D .= (Bh/2)(q.. h is found from (4. ) E. then.22a). are compatible at the interface (Fig. and the total tensile force T = a. That is.=+ a.a..36a) (4.a.33) a. 4.is the distance between C and T.. so that 6 ucBh/2= U. = E. 3 A.h/3) (4. A. h is again found from the zero net axial force condition C = T where eq(4.35).. = ma. are the maximum allowable stresses for the steel and concrete respectively. Now from Fig.22c).b) where m = E. the tensile side of the section of breadth B with on steel line depth D. 4 ./ h (4. = h/3) of the stress distribution for the concrete area above the n. 2 2 ~ q. u. = (E.(D .34) where a. acting at the centroid . the corresponding stresses a and q.22 Single line reinforcement Since the steel strain E . 4 . and a./E.
h/3) = 4.5(200 x 115. eq(4. 1 2 h . position h is 2 0 0 h 2 + ( 2 ~ 3 1 4 .14 x 125 (400 .mD=O (4.h/3)] = (2 x 14. beam in each section could carry.= M.mh.a..74mm M is then the lesser of M.= Ts=A.74 / 3)] = 3.39 MPa w = 8M / l 2 = (8 x 14.4=0.37) Example 4.74 / 3)IO.S.74 / 2)(400 .19 kNm ensures that the steel is fully stressed while the concrete remains understressed.23 when the steel reinforcement (i) consists of 4 bars each 10 mrn diameter and (ii) is chosen economically based upon allowable stresses in the steel and concrete of 125 and 4.5 MPa respectively.2A.115.18848./h] from which a quadratic in h results: Bh2+2A.19 kNm Taking M.(D ./ [(Bh/2)(D . = 14.u.(Bh/2)(D . 4.h/3) = 314. position h as .19 x 10')/[200 x 115. 115)h .=4 xn(10)'/4=314.77 N/mm (kN/m) = (ii) Economic Design With both steel and concrete fully stressed.115. 400 Figure 4. 1 4 ~ ~ 4 0 0 ) = 0 4~ 15 h 2 + 4 7 .115.19 x IOh)/(8000)2 1. the concrete stress is q. = CS= q.74/3)10' = 18. = M. Take m = 15. Find the maximum distributed loading an 8 m length S. Finally.82 kNm M.74(400 .34) defines the n.h)u.23 Reinforced section (i) Uneconomic Design A.a.37) the n. + h=115.( 2 ~ 3 1 4 .160 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES qBh/2=AS[m(D .11 Determine the moment of resistance for the section in Fig.14 mmz From eq(4.' = 14.
24a) it is seen that the same strain and stress distributions (Fig.79 kN/m = 4.3 x 106)/(8000)2 2.Fig.140.= mA a.37)apply sincey = h/3.39. in the web .34) remain valid but eq(4. 4. two positions of the n. are possible: (i) n.3kNm w = (8 x 22.(D ./2)[Bd + b(h . M=504. in the flange .5.bd + 2mA s) ... however.a.2mA = 0 The moments of resistance expressions (4.26/3)10'=22.39b) where y locates the centroid of the compressive area from the top edge .h)/h: bh' + h(Bd . 2 4 ~ d) apply as with the rectangular section. + h = 140. 'I LL  (b) Figure 4.2 Tsection With Single Steel Line With a single line of reinforcement at the web bottom (Fig.324.a.36a) is invalid since C now acts upon the area above the n..38) d)l(D  y) 3) (4.32) .A ./2)[Bd + b(h M.36a.a.39a) (4.94x 125(400.b) are also modified to M. (ii) n. That is. 4.d)] = a. 4 . All the previous relationships in eqs(4.24b. and * As B.(4.Fig.h)4. = CS= (q. Equations (4.5 x 200 x 140.36b). A s = (4.24a.94 mm2 and the moment of resistance by eq(4. (q.26) / ( 2 x 125) = 504. U.26 mm Then the steel area is supplied by eq(4.a.24 Reinforced Tsection (c) Here. 4.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 161 125 = 15(200 . with C = T. = TS = US As ( D  (4.5/h.
Working in cm. when A.(52.12 Find the moment of resistance for the Tsection in Fig.1600 = 0.j ) }= (2 x 304.87 / 673.d)](D .162 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES [ Bd + ( h . = (7/2)[(175 x 17. Otherwise. Equation (4. =+ h = 19.stressed.75) + (1.026)103= 304. The moment of resistance is the lesser of eqs(4. is given this implies an uneconomic design.39a and b) may be equated for economical design.4/21 (4. Take m = 15.026) x 103/10h 673.5 x 18.17 MPa ' = ..d)[d + ( h . The concrete stress is found either from eq(4..5 x 8.a.. the centroid is found from eq(4.87 x 10')/(192431 x l o 3 )= 3.17.95y = (175 x 17. = 40 cm2 / Figure 4.40) Again.5(19.51)7 = 3.(2 x 15 x 40 x 70) = 0 h 2 + 63.026 cm Selecting M I ensures that only the steel is fully. must be determined. eqs(4.5) + (2 x 15 x 40)] .39a) with M .78 x 52. Example 4. Normally. If the n.34) that an economic design would require h = 32 cm for the given allowable stresses.9. by the proportion of the allowable concrete stress q..d)b]i = Bd(d /2) + b(h .480 = 0.38) give: 52.37) gives 175h2+ (2 x 40 x 15)h .17 MPa or. .857h .40). A.5)](70 . = M I o. the position of the n.(2 x 40 x 15 x 70) = 0 h 2 + 6.5 x 17.a.25 and establish the magnitude of the stresses in the steel and concrete.9.25 Reinforced Tsection Firstly. selecting the lesser value of M avoids overstressing the concrete. = 2M1/([ B d + b(h .39).39 a and b) M .87 kNm 4 i = 9.69h .5) + 52. =+ h = 18.28 .75 cm This shows that the n. eq(4. (304.5h2+ h [(I75 x 17.a.51 kNm = M I = 125 x 40(70 . 4. lies in the flange. given respective allowable values of 125 and 7 MPa. u = (Ml/Mc)uc.28 cm Note from eq(4. 3155. must lie in the web.5) .
passes = through the centroid. u .h / 3 ) B h ~2 /.. for an economic section.(h .k )A.k )Asm ( h .I ) A . That is.41a) (4. Let u . When the same steel areas are employed with an uneconomic section..( D .5. it becomes necessary to solve eqs(4.. = mu. = (4.k ) q / h .. a. t S = t C I + uSr m q ( h . the n.h + 2h/3) (4. That is. The strains in the steel and concrete at the tensile interface are denoted by E. ( D .41a and b) that D .h = h . ( D . M .Bh / 2+ m(h . using C = T and M.A.424.h)/h + (m  1)A.h)/ h .k ) + ( r n . s M. and uSc the respective tensile and compressive stresses in the steel lines and ocbe the be maximum concrete stress at the compressive surface. ( h .~ ) A .( D . the position h of the n.k)q.4 1b) For an economic section with the same maximum allowable tensile and compressive stresses (osf a./h = o. = u .A.42) (4. .( h .). where these are C = o. Figure 4.h/3)/(D.43) Since M.k ) / h ] (4.26ac.42) and eq(4.44b).k. = a. on the tensile and compressive sides. if the section is to remain economic.k )As(h . If the steel areas on each side are different.k ) q / h + (qBh/2)(D . Assuming the same steel area A.3 Rectangular Section With Double Reinforcement The stress and strain distributions in the steel (S) and concrete ( C ) with a line of reinforcement on the tensile ( t )and compressive ( c )sides are shown in Figs 4.k ) / h L . = M. the moment of resistance is found from either the concrete or the steel. = M.(h  k)/h] (4.44a) = ( D . and t c . this area is found by equating horizontal forces C and T. mu.26 Double reinforcement in rectangular section Strain compatibility at each interface provides the relationships: = t C r=.k)q.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 163 4./h .a. follows from equating .[Bh/2 T = A us= A.k )q / h + ( D .44b) The moment arm s is found by combining eqs(4. it follows from eqs(4.and at the compressive interface by t S c and tCC respectively. ( D . = CS= ( D . = TS = A s U.k ) [ ( B h R ) ( D .44)simultaneously for h and each area.a.
s = M .39.h ) = . M.39 mm For the lever arm s.75) / 178.72 mm2.75)[(300 x 178.178..3 ..h/Im(D .88 = 77. given 0.32h ..178. In compression the steel stress is a.38 = 435.19 MPa.39/2)+ (15  1)1413.03 / 99. s is independent of the concrete stress actually achieved.a.k )ac/k = a.98) = 4.43).42 and 4. eq(4.45) Example 4. = 1413.164 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES (4.6 MPa. a. 40.03 kNm This is the allowable moment which indicates that the steel is fully stressed in tension while the concrete is understressed.27. = ( h . from eq(4.98 x lo’ / 229.1)As2mAs(Dh)=0 (4. = ( h . 4. This gives the following quadratic in h.39)]= 4.88 mm Note that as a. 0 = 5 0 0 mm.44a and b): Bh2+2(hk)(m.75) + (14 x 1413.44a).39 / 2)(500 . The lesser M is. = 125 MPa and m = 15. Find the maximum stress = in the understressed material.391 = 99.75) / 178.80582. The maximum compressive concrete stress is 6 (77.h)] = 125/[15(500 .34) a.cancels.44b) the concrete moment is M.42) gives C = 6[(300 x 178.73)(178. = CS= 6(500 . The latter may also be checked from eq(4. / C = 99.= 2 ( n x 302)/4= 1413.13 Determine the moment of resistance for the uneconomic reinforced concrete section in Fig. 30 4 Figure 4.1 = 0 + h = 178.62 MPa The reader should confirm that the removal of the compressive steel line results in M = 76.62 MPa.72 x 125 x 435.391= 229.27 Double reinforced section With B = 300 mm.k )as/(D . k = 7 5 mm andA. position is found from eq(4. from which the moment of resistance is the lesser of eqs(4.98 kNm : .39.72(178.39 / 3)/(300 . the n.45) h 2 + 273.38 kN and from eq(4.
4.MysinO M.I . 4.~ !h(1 + I .) + 4 I '] r).28 Axes of bending Let M. or axes x and y in eccentric loading.46~) The bending stress oat any point P(u.a. the moment axis x in beam bending.. do not align with the principal axes u and v for the section. In beam bending.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 165 kNm ( h = 204. v quadrant the right hand screw rule gives the net hogging bending moments as a sum of their components M u= Mxcos8.47c) I . It then becomes necessary to resolve the applied moments M. (4.be hogging within the positive x.28).46b) where 0 is the inclination between positive u and x ....47b) (4. for example.u/I. In the positive u.47d) . where the coordinates are u = x cos8+ y sin0 (4.+M.v) is then u=M. which only slightly impairs the bending strength of this section.6 Asymmetric Bending Bending theory has so far been applied where the moment axes for a given section have coincided with its principal axes. In the more general case (see Fig. the area of an additional compressive steel line may be chosen to stress the steel fully on both sides and so improve the resistive moment. M. is a horizontal axis of symmetry about which the bending moment has been applied. this arises when the n.xsin0 and the principal second moments of area are (4.) (4. however.) ? %J[I = I . and M yinto M uand M.v/I..46a) (4. Figure 4. y quadrant..sin 8+ M ycos 0 = (4.4 mm).  I..yand M. Appendix I shows that 0 is found from the second moments of area for axes x and y as tan 2 8 = 2IJ(I. With an economic design.47a) v=ycosB.
A: x= .6 103 (0) = 72.47d).46a. M y 0.14 Calculate the greatest stresses induced at points A.60(10.7071 kNm a=(0.b) and (4.= WL = (1 x 1) = + 1 kNm.4 cos 45" + 22. = 2.277 (3 1.19.22.6)(+ 16.4 mm = X The second moments of area are.4 sin 45" = 0. 4. y = 22.87~ 1 104mm4 = %(2 x 73.68) + 0. They are.16.4) + (60 x 12)(.46x104mm4 l x y (72 x 12)(+ 13.4) = 42. has been outlined in Appendix 1. I .4)'/3+ 12(49.29 Equalangle section First moments of area about AB give (72 x 12 x 6) + (60 x 12 x 42) = [(72 x 12) + (60 x 12)]. 8 7l o 4 ) ~ = 2. Figure 4.O5x 104)+(0. v coordinates of points A. :. and I .46 x 10') k At the fixed end M. Example 4.68 mm.166 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The determination of the principal second moments of area I . tan28= m.6)3/3=73.4)3/3 . u = 22. cr.y = 22..c) and (4. B and C. . v = 22.1 3 MPa .7071 kNm. M . =115.7071x I O h ) u / ( 1 1 5 .0=0.28.6103 u (1) The stresses follow from eq(i) and the u. 8= 45" and %d[O + (4 x 42. B and C when the equalangle section in Fig. Note that M. using I = Cbd3/3 I.05~104mm4. and M.6)(. in eq(4.41 x lo')] 1u=31.47b).=72(22. .7071 x 1O6)v/(31.=I.46) are negative when sagging relate to positive x and y.4 sin 45" = 3 1.277 v + 0.4 mm.4 mm.4b.4 cos 45" + 22. The signs all follow from those positive directions given in Fig. 4.29 is mounted as a cantilever 1 m long carrying a downward vertical end load of 1 kN through its centroid g.47a) give = 1 M u =1 xcos45" . = xsin45"+0=0. from eq(4. and I . from I .41 x lo4mm4 = Then from eqs(4. Equations(4.
29. 4.19.22 mm e. v quadrant in Fig.78 MPa and at C ( 50.21.92.. y = 22. = F e .6 mm.50. y coordinates of the force point are (. B and C.6103(. if Bis first eliminated between eqs(4. + u = 50. = . The x.29 is mounted as a vertical column to support a compressive force of 50 kN at the centre of its vertical web.22)=1061Nm(hogging) The stresses are. Determine the stresses at points A.277(. 31. eccentricities follow from eqs(4.19..6 mm.a.41d2 = 1.13.30 has bending moments of M. + u = .50~(21.92 mm.92.13.I Equivalent Moments In the above examples it was necessary to evaluate I.. from eq(4.13. v = .19. y = C: 49.19. + M y x 11. 4. 4.916 u (MPa) At A (0. . into eq(4. together with eq(4.47d). of bending .   (4. and v separately.92) = . y quantities u = M r y 11. = .319 v + 0. This may be u avoided.87 MPa  Example 4.98 mm The bending moments about u and v are simply the product of the force and its respective eccentricity.46ac) and the resulting expressions for u and v are substituted. at B (50.6.9 9 x 1O3)v/(31.4.0.22. e. = .48b) (4. uA= .47b. the corresponding e.6103 (50. however.48a) where the equivalent moments are (4.24).92 mm.47a)..4 mm. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses and the inclination of the true n.6).68).BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 167 B: x = 49.. ax= 52.16.99 Nm (sagging).50 x 1. v = . M .24 mm uc= 2.24 mm a.11 MPa.24) + 0.12.c) e.4 mm. a = ( .24)..O5x104)+(1061x 103)u/(115. 0.41J2 .10. uc=.19. = .73 MPa x = ..40.87x l o 4 ) = .24) + 0.98 = .15 The crosssection in Fig.277(. = 600 Nm (hogging)M y = 400 Nm (sagging) applied along positive x and y as shown.19.50. For the positive u. I. = 2.92) = .47a).74. M u = Fe.16 A beam with the asymmetric channel section in Fig.5 1 MPa 4.16.61J2 = . Then.61J2 + 16. This results in a bending stress expression in terms of the x.48~) Example 4.
45 mm I.78)(.46~) (4.c).89)/ (4.= 60(9.47d) and tan 2 8 = 2(+ 3.89'/(36.79 x l o 4 mm4 : Method I Referring to x .3.506.55)3/3+ 10 (10.31 x 4.i (60 x 10 x 5 ) + (10 x 10 x 15) + (20 x 10 x 20) = 900.78)3/3 .36.78)(+ 4.22.30 Asymmetric channel Taking first moments about axes x.65 Nm 2.400 .48b.31 x 4. = 600(+ 2.168 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES t ' 20 P 1 I / ' Figure 4. 4.5.31) .31 .89 x l o 4mm Analytically.78)3/3+ 30(27. from eqs(4. from eq(4. y to find the centroid position in Fig.97)] / [ l . M I= [600 . the equivalent moments are. = 36.77 Nrn .30: (30 x 10 x 5 ) + (40 x 10 x 30) + (20 x 10 x 55) = 9% = 27.22)3/3. .22 rnm :.97" : I .= 20(32. = ?4(36.55) = 3.31)] / [ I 3. x =9.45) + loo(+ 27.89 / 4. : .6. I . . .55) + 200(.97)2+ 4 (3.20(17.22)(. = [. y coordinates. 6 = .55)3/3+ 40(0.31 x 104mm4 I. I .45)3/3+ 10(20.89 / 36.10(22.97) 2 ?h J[(36.600 (3.55)3/3 = 4.(.49 x l o 4 mm4.97 x 1 0 4 ~ ~ 4 I .89)2]x l o 4 .97)1= 996.89'/(36.9711 = . I . = 4.4.31 + 4.22)3/3 = 36.97 .10.400) (3.
55 sin (.469. it follows from eq(4.48a) up= (996.= 600 sin (.a.78 cos (. known as booms. for point Q eqs (4.27.45 mm 10.6.22 cos (.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 169 The maximum tensile stress will occur at the corner P(.97') = 12..48ac)again applies.2 ldealised Sections Thinwalled beam crosssections may be idealised into concentrated areas.30b are both sagging.45 sin (.97') . v coordinates.03 Nm M.10. 4.15 MPa 4.22)1(36.07 MPa Along the n.47b.132.. and M.30b).14.26 mrn Applying eq(4.14.97") .49 x lo4) Similarly.7 1 .31 x = 89.. Booms carry the bending stresses and webs carry shear stress only (see chapter 7).47 .196 12.85 Nm The coordinates P(u. eqs(4.45 cos (.6. are both hogging (Fig.21 = 197.93" (anticlockwise.97 x lo4) The maximum compressive stress occurs at the corner Q (9.47a) up= (547. 7 7 ~ 0 3 ) x / ( 4 .400) sin (.c) as u = . eqs (4.97') + 6.26) l(36.b) yield its coordinates as u = 9.68) = l(4.469.47a.400 cos (.22) for the fourth x.6.55.97") + 32.55)l(4.97') .78) for the second x.6. 9 7 x1 0 4 ) = 0 1 2.96.68 mm v = .48 + 151.25.78 sin ( v = 32. y quadrant.55 MPa lo4) + (.85 x = 46.22 sin (.b) give M.30b) : a = tan" ( y I x ) = tan .97") = 547.69 MPa lo3)(. see Fig. From eq(4.49 x l o 4 ) = . interconnected with thin webs.65 x lo')(. where the actions of M . 4.6.27. IM y xI 1 =0 (996.31 x l o 4 )+ (. . in the case of an asymmetric section. 4.79 x l o 4 )+ (.57 = 197. where the actions of M .. The longitudinal bending stresses in the booms are found from simple bending theory where.97") = .85 x 1O3)(12.65~ lO')y1(36.745~ 10.87 rnm uQ (547.6.65 x lo' x 32.03 x 10' x 31.45)1(4.10. uQ = (996.45. = 600 cos (.6.78) l(36.77 x 103)(9.6.97") = .79 x l o 4 )+ (.97") .55 cos (. Merhod 2 Referring the moments u.97 l o 4 ) x = .77 x lo3)(.469. and M I in Fig.25. v) follow from eqs(4.6.506.6.47)l(4.5 0 6 .46a.87) l(36.31 x lo4)+(.03 x l o 3 ) ( .745) = 74. 32.171.27.10.97") = .196~=0 (10.69 = .74.506.35 = .9.(.6.27.6. y quadrant. .97") = 31.48a) that I M x y I I.38.98 + 107.17 1.
2.125 = 100 MPa. = .25 x . take first moments of area about a horizontal through C : 2(200 x 100) + (200 x 500) = 2(200 + 500)y. If the areas of booms A and C are 500 mm * and the areas of booms B and D are 200 mm2. = 10 kNm (sagging).(lo)(101 lo)]/ [ I .5(. Assume that the webs do not contribute to the total x.17 The idealised section in Fig. + = l00mm * 3 = l00mm To calculate the second moments at g use the simplified form I = A h ' . Boom D (. 100): a. Boom B (100.10)*/(10 x 14)] = .O): a/) 125 MPa.c).10 x l o 6 mm4 The equivalent moments are.100): uc = 225.100)(100) + 500(100)(.17. and about the vertical passing through A and D: 200(500 + 200) = 2(200 + 500) i . y moments of area.M y= 5 kNm (hogging) w.O): aB= .10)*/(10x 14)] = . = 500(. the first x .5 kNm My= [5 .(.48b. from eq(4.25 y 1. M I= [ . Then. i. y quadrant. u = .100.48a).t. = .100.100) = .5 kNm  The stresses are then given by eq(4. I .125 MPa..22.e.100 MPa.1 0 / 14)]/[1.31 is subjected to bending moments M.31 Section idealised with boom area To locate the centroid g. I . 4.225 + 125 = .r. Figure 4. Boom A (. = 2[(500 x 100') + (200 x lOO2)]= 14 x lo6 mm4 I .find the bending stress in each boom. = 2 x 500 x loo2= 10 x lo6mm4.170 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 4.(.10 . Boom C (100.
32a that u = z4 in which 4 = dwldr. circular plate of outer radius r. it follows from Fig.7 Bending of Circular Plates Consider a thin. and uniform thickness t (Fig. and a. stresses will be constant in the same plane. initially flat. the biaxial constitutive relations are = duldr = (u. relative to the plate centre where 4 = 0 and w = 0. the following simplified theory enables w. and hoop a. Lc Figure 4. The neutral plane lies midway between top and bottom surfaces of the plate and is unstressed. distance z from the neutral plane. i. For a given radius r. subjected to a given axisymmemc loading applied normally to its faces. va.32a). to be found.)lE E.)IE e0 = ulr = (a.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 171 4. . the radial a. at a perpendicular distance z from the neutral middle plane.32 Plate Bending When the vertical deflection w of the middle plane is small compared to the plate thickness.va. a. 4. If u is the radial displacement. 4. 4. For any point ( r . Conventionally. z) in the plane of the plate (see Fig.32b). .e. the deflection w is positive upwards from the plate centre.
b)  M.32b).= D ( l / R . M.5 1) . moment equilibrium gives (M.33 Moment and force equilibrium for a plate element For the axisymmetric loading shown.v’) = E(u/r + v du/dr)/( 1 . where I = 1 x t’/l2.in the plane ZOO for these elements is found from r R.it follows from Fig. is the flexural stiffness./d r . 4.= E(E.F r 2 6 B = 0 in which the right hand screw rule determines the indicated moment vector directions and the effect of the normal loading over 6 r is ignored.v 2 ) + = E z ( @ / r + v d @ / d r ) / ( l v 2 )  The respective momentshnit radial and /unit circumferential lengths (see Fig. + vlR. = D (@/r+ v d @/d r ) (4.2 M o 6 r s i n ( & 9 / 2 ) + ( F + S F ) ( r +dr)2dB.33a. = u. These lead to the alternative expressions for the bending moments from eqs(4.The circumferential curvature R .172 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Inverting these. the vertical shear force F varies with r and not 8.l/ z and M.50a.49b) = E z ( d @ / d r + v @ l r ) / ( l .49a) (4.M.50a) (4. + v/R.).+ v t o )1 /( v’) = E(du/dr + v u/r)/( 1 . + r dM. Substituting from eqs(4. which produce these stresses are M.)(r+ 6r)dB.= D ( I / R . = u.v’) 0. v er)/( 1 . 4. M . For a small deflections w.rdB.v 2 ) (4.) Finally.32a that the radial curvature R. the stresses become ur = E ( E . I / z . when F = F(r) is a downward shear forcehit circumference at the inner annular radius r.M. Thus.b). @. ‘+6F Figure 4.v’)].+ dM. + Fr = 0 (4. In the limit this becomes M.50b) where D = E t 3 / [12(1. 4. = D (d@/d r + v@/r) M. of elements lying along axis Or and in the plane zOr is given by d r Rrd@.49a. a radial moment equilibrium equation is required for the central plane of the annular element r6BxGr in Fig.
+ C2 = 0.vd@/dr)= FID . 4. w = 0 for r = 0.. .52a) (4. 6B (r +6 r)(F +6F) + ( p x r 60 6 r) = r6B F + r6B 6 r t S d(Fr)ldr + pr .50a. = 0 for r = r. r2/2 + C .Pl(2nrD) 1 [ ( I / r) d (rdwldr)ldr] = . from eq(4.50a) and eq(4. That is. l 2 + C2/ r r w = .Str = 0 (4.[P/(2nD)] In r + C. when. r (rdwldr) = . P Figure 4.34 Concentrated Loading From the successive integration of eq(4. = 0.52b).FID (dld r)[( 11 r) x d (r dwldr)/dr] = . dwldr = . Equations (4.FID or.53) gives Fr = constant. in general.Edges Simply Supported In the absence of selfweight and normal pressure.54) The followingconditions determine constants Ci(i= 1.53) will now be employed to derive expressions for the maximum deflection and the maximum bending stresses in common cases.[Pr/(8xD)](2 In r .I Central Concentrated Force .b) into eq(4.52b) and (4. Applying vertical equilibrium for all radii r in Fig. (4.1) + C. 2. F now acts upwards around the sides of the plate opposing the central force P.I ) + C.[Pr2/(8nD)](2 In r . 4. . for which S is the selfweighttunit volume. d (r dw1dr)ldr = . Also M. (d/dr)[(1 r) d (r dw1dr)l dr] = .33b.1 ) + C.53) where F is found from integration.7. : (d/dr)[(11 r) x d (r@)/dr] =. Then. from which the shear force is F = PI( 2 nr). r2/4 + C 2In r + C. 4.52a) once the function F(r) has been established from vertical force equilibrium. if p = p(r) is a net upward pressure applied normally to the surfaces of the elemental ring in Fig. * C.54).52b) The vertical deflection w is found from successive integration of eq(4.4 l r .BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 173 Substituting eqs(4. (4. 3): dwldr = 0 for r = 0. eq(4.[Pr2/(8nD)](In r .51) leads to ( l l r ) ( d @ l d r +v @ r + r d 2 @ / d r 2 v @ r + v d @ l d r .34 gives 2 n rF = P .[Pl(2nD)]r In r + C.
49a. u r = .56) Equation (4.2/(4nEt3)](l .2/(4nEt3)](l.174 MECHANICS OF SOLIES AND STRUCTURES d @ / d r +v 4 .2/(16nD)][2+(1v ) / ( l +v)]=[3Pr.[P/(8nD)](1 2 I n r ) + C I / 2 + ( v / r ) ( ...b). = Ez [d w/dr2 + (v/r) dw/dr] / ( 1 . .1 ) + C ..e. + (1  v) / ( 1 + v)] (4.v 2 ) Differentiating eq(4..49a. / r ) u. . +C3=0 dw/dr= 0 for r = 0. wm. =$ C. = 0 dw/dr = 0 for r = r... 4.. = Pr..=[fr.56) is a maximum at the plate centre for r = r..[3P ( 1 + v ) / ( 2 n t 2 ) ] I n ( r .7. .Pr/(8nD)](2Inr. r / 2 ] = O + [ C I = [ P / ( 4 n D ) ] [ 2 I n r . = . * C. / r = d 2 w / d r 2 + ( v / r ) d w / d r = O ..I ) These give w = [Pr2/(16nD)][1.2 I n ( r / r . .54) becomes w = .Edges Clamped Equation (4.v * ) u o = E z [(l/r)dw/dr+vd2w/dr2]/(1 . and z = & t/2.b) gives the maximum tensile and compressive stresses for the top surface at the fixed edge. 0.54) remains valid for the following boundary conditions: w=Oforr=O. ) ] (4.56) and substituting into eqs(4. with z = t /2 for the compressive side.v)(3+v) From eqs(4. r = r.[fr2/(8nD)](lnr  1) + [Pr2/(16n0)][2In r. + ( l v ) / ( l +v)] Hence eq(4.. In practice.2 Central Concentrated Load .v 2 ) Substituting from eq(4.53.55)supplies the maximum central deflection for r = r.?/(16nD) = [3Pr. = [P/(4nD)](2 In r./ r) + ( 1  v) I (1 + v)] These apply only to finite r values and so they avoid the infinite stress values at the plate centre. w. the stresses will be greatest within the small surface area on which P acts..[ 3 P ( 1 + v)/ ( 2 n t 2)][ In (r. i.55) Equation(4.
... Substituting for Ci in eq(4. . act downward to include selfweight. = 0. 4.e.58) into eqs(4. = 0. ( 1 + v)/2 = 0 : C .? /(go) The general deflection expression is . i.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 175 4.4 Uniformly Distributed Loading . dwldr = 0 for r = 0. /( 1 6E t )] (5 + v)( 1  v) Substituting eq(4.. w.Edges Simply Supported Let the total distributed loading.3 Uniformly Distributed Loading .57).b) and using @ = dw/dr gives the maximum stresses at the centre. = Wr..?(3 + v) / ( 1 + v) . + C . W / unit area. Wlunil area Figure 4. Wr.Edges Fixed Equation (4.35 Distributed Loading Substituting F into eq(4. + C..7.. = C.53) gives F = Wr/2. = a . (4. = W r.50a) and (4. the general displacement expression is found w = [W r 2 / (64D)][2r.= 0 for r = r. = [ W r.In r + C..2 n F r = W n r 2 .r 2J (4. Alternatively.W = constant and S = 0 in eq(4. when. from Fig..*(3+ v) / (8 t 2 ) 4. The third condition is dwldr = 0 for r = r. Substitutingp = . + C. = 0.52b) with successive integration leads to w = . r 2 / 4 + C.57).*(3+ v ) / (160) + C. r = 0 and z = k t /2 a.58) and for r = rr.Wr4/(64D)+ C . Also M .57) remains valid and again C.49a.:(3+v)/[8D(1 + v ) ] .3 5 .7.57) The following conditions apply: w = 0 for r = 0. = 3W r. + F = Wr/2. from eqs(4.4 /(64D)](5 + v) / ( 1 + v) = [3 W r.
.7. For example.5 NonStandard Cases Many plate problems require separate treatment for their particular geometry.8.. The following examples illustrate how eqs(4.."l(16Et3)](1 .= 3 W r.14.494. With a fixed plate edge under similar combined loading. z = t/2) The expressions derived in sections 4.r 2 ) (4. Take v = 0. Determine the distribution of M.8...27. throughout the plate.53) are applied. 4. and M. loading and boundary conditions. inner radius ri= 38 mm and outer radius r. . cases 2 and 4 may be superimposed. w. 4.4 may be superimposed when a plate is subjected to combined loading. =165 mm is loaded by a uniform pressure p (N/mm2) on its top surface whilst being clamped around its outer edge and free around its inner edge (see Fig."/(64D)= [3Wr.2. / (4 t ) and a maximum compressive stress at the centre top surface (r = 0.176 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES w = [Wr2/(64D)](2r.49a) gives the maximum radial stress for the top surface of the fixed edge (r = r. u...= Wr(.59) into eq(4. the sum of the stresses and displacements for cases 1 and 3 apply to a simply supported plate with concentrated and distributed loading.18 An annular plate.59) and for r = r.36a). Example 4.v 2 ) Substituting eq(4. z = t /2). .
M .24(Inr2. = 38 mm.129.r 3 / 8 ] + C .054 x 106)/r2+ 279.635C.48 r 2 . = p [229.24 (In r 2 .054x1 O 6 ) / r 2 81.3249.C. r / 2 + C 2 / r I d @ / d r =@/2D)[(ri2/4) r 2 . The circumferential moment expression is found by substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into eq(4.24 x 2 / r) . = 0 for ri= 38 mm (as a check).7mm.( pr2/16)(l+ 3v) + D(1 + v)C.3r2/8+ r i 2 / 2 ]+ C .5C.= 2615.0.(2.66~ for forr.48 p for r.0.[ p/(2D)](r . from eq(vi).3r2/8+ ri2/2] + C . F = n p ( r 2. 1) .1). M .52b) and integrating leads to (d/dr)[(l/r) d (r@)/drl = .5 mm (by trial) and M.36b where M . r /2 + C2/r } } (iii) The following conditions apply to eqs(i) and (iii): [p/(2D)] { ( 3 8 2 x165/4)[111(165)~I]. = 165 mm. 4.r i 2 /r) Substituting into eq(4. = 165 mm.458..50a).r i 2 ) F = (p/2)(r .58~ ri= 38 mm. Mu= .37p/D + 0.974. vertical equilibrium gives 2751. = 0 for r.C2/r2 (In Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into eq(4. + C2/165= 0 (iv) M./ r 2 (1) (ii) + (v/r){ [ p/(2D )] [(Ti2r 14) (In r 2@ =dw/dr = 0 for r.1).= 1 6 5 m m a n d M U = O f o r r = 134.1 ) . Substituting C . = 0 for r = 97./2 + D(1.054 x 10') / r 3 0.67 p/D + 82.64 x 10')plD.1131r2+(2.(5. . 4. / 2 .. and C.031 (vi) This gives the distribution in Fig.r'/8 ] + C. A stationary value of M .36b where M.v)C2/r2 =p[229. M .08p/D and C2= (2813.= . = 622. .48 mm where.1)  0.50b). 1 0 8 ~ 0 6 ) = 0 1 from which r = 61. / 2 . in eq(vi) occurs for dMJdr = 0 = (229. / 1 6 5 = 0 .971 This gives the distribution in Fig.0554x 104)C2 0 Solving eqs(iv) and (v) gives C . = D{ [ p/(2D)][(ri2/4)(In r 2 ..2044 r 2 . M .( 4 . M.6404. = .4088 r + 2 (2.1) .1).(165)3/8}+ 1 6 5 C l / 2 + C .= (ri2p/8)(l+ v)(ln r 2 .r i 2 /r) @=[p/(2D)][(ri2r/4)(n r 2 . into eq(iii) leads to the radial moment expression for all r.4088 r 4 .14 p . = 1504.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 177 For any radius 38 5 r i 165 (mm).
/r (ii) Now #= 0 for r = 150 mm in eq(ii).37 Clamped ring Working in N and mm the plate is considered in two sections: (I) 05 r 5 50 mm.178 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 4. = .(8.v) 0.1) + B .534x 103)/Dand B. which gives (iii) O = . r /2 + A. 0 8 2 x lO')/D.52b) gives @ = . + F = Pl(2nr) Equation (4. Solving eqs(iii.27 for steel. Figure 4. = 0.= 0 in eq(i). ( I + v ) l 2 = .667 x lo.488 x 103)lD+ 0.292 x B. in eq(4. 300 mm diameter and 12 mm thick.(1. Take E = 207 GPa and v = 0.(B2/r2)(l.( 1 9 9 0 . this gives A. Integrating eq(4. r12 + B.0768 x 10h)/D+ 7 5 8 . 7 ~ 103)lD (v) The central deflection is found from matching the deflections at radius r = 50 mm.19 A solid circular steel plate.) B .635A.[P/(8n0)][2(1 + v ) I n r + ( l . Determine the central plate deflection. integrating eq(i) w =A. for which F = 0. 150 mm.=.=(14.[Pr/(8nD)] (2 In r . iv and v) provides the constants A I = ( 2 .50a) must be the same for r = 50 mm. B. This leads to A .v ) ] + B .52a) gives r 4= A . iMoreover. ( I +v)l2.(0. but as w = 0 for r = 0 then A . Firstly.635B. . For r = 50 mm . for which the vertical equilibrium equation is 2 n r F = P. is clamped around its outer edge and loaded by a force ring P = 20 kN at a 50 mm radius (Fig.r214+ A . 37). + (6. 4. eqs(i) and (ii) may be equated for r = 50 mm (iv) Also M ./ (11) 50 5 r 5 Since @ =dw/dr = 0 for r = 0.
+ (viii) Equating (vi) and (viii) gives B.8 Rectangular Plates The foregoing theory of circular plates and the theory of elliptical plates are particular cases of the general theory of rectangular plates. the positive downward displacement w = w(x.767 x I06)/D =(5. lying in the x. y.[Pr2/(8nD](lnr  (4 1) + B .(4. The new convention used is summarised from Fig. = (5. (vii) which becomes.767x IOfi)x12(1.ln r + B .BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 179 w = (2.4972 x 10fi)/D B . y) must satisfy the governing equation in any one of the following three forms: .082 x 103)(50)2/(4D) (1. z coordinate frame in Fig. for r = 50 mm.0. w = . 4.27. 4.38 Bending and deflection of a rectangular plate When a uniform rectangular plate. putting r = 150 mm in eq(vii) gives the central deflection w = (5.3013 x lO')/D = and integrating eq(ii) w =.38. P J Figure 4.)/(207x 103x 123)=0.38a.179mm 4. Finally.7985 x 10')lD. is loaded with a normal pressure p over its top surface. r2/4+ B.
acting on the y face in Fig.62b) (4.aM. the shear force S. = [ aM.~ [ a ~ ~ i a y ’ + ~ ) a.180 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES D ( a4wlax + 2 a wiaX2ay + a wiay4)= D ( a2wiax2+a2Wiay2)2W=p D (VZ)’w = D V 4 w = p where V 2 = a2w/dx2+ d2wBy2 and D = E f I [ 12(1 .61~) The corresponding moment componentsilengthof side are (4.ia YI = . Then w = 0 and aw/ax = 0 for x = 0 and all y (iii) where one edge.60b) (4. /ax] = . is found from moment equilibrium s. (2 (4.64a). is s.V) a3wiax ay2] R . 4. = 0 for x = 0 and all y (ii) where the edge is fixed along its edge (y . . 4.62a) and (4.64b) There are three common boundary conditions: (i) where the plate is simply supported along its edge (y .39b). is free then M.D [ a’ wiay3+ a3d a y ax21  (4..D [ a) wiax + (2 . acting on the x face. the shear force S.63a.~ [ a ~ ~ i a ~ ~ + a ~ ~ v ) a 3~ i a ~ a~ 2+ ( i . 4. = [ aM.62a) (4.60~) The Cartesian stress components (4.axis in Fig.D [ a3w i a 2 + a” wiax ay2] (4. .~ ~ i a y a ~ ~ ] .64a) (4. = [sr a ~ .i ax . (4..i ay aM.aM.i wa y y ] = . 4.62~) In general. Then w = 0 and M. = .b) enable the reactions for the edges x = 0 and y = 0 to be found. = [s.6 1b) (4.axis in Fig.38b.63a) and similarly. and R. . say x = 0.63b) Equations (4./ ayl = .61a) (4.v in the plane of the plate (Fig.38b) are given by 2)].60a) (4../ ax 1 = D [ a3wiaY3+ a3wiay ax2+ (1 . R .v ) a3wiay ax2] = . are both zero in the respective eqs(4.39a).
by) + v (x’ . a uniform pressure. a wiax2ay2 4 = ~ a.2bx .pEt3 [( y’ . X y ’ a 2 W i a y 2 = A ( a 2 2 ~ ) a.60a) gives p = 8A = constant. .2AD[(x2.M ) + v (y‘ . = . M .2bx .a~ ) + v (y’ . From eqs(4.v ’ ) ] M .by)] = . i.p E t 3 [(x’ .bx‘y  m y 2 + abxy) a2wiax ay = A ( ~ y .M ) ] = .M )]/[48(1 .b ) = A(x’Y’ .40 Rectangular plate w = AXY(X u)O.v)A (4xy .39 Typical plate boundary conditions Example 4.c).u)(y .2 ~ + ab 1.b ) is valid for a rectangular plate a x b under normal pressure p .b.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 181 X )’ Figure 4. Figure 4. = . Determine the loading and moment distributions along the edges and the stresses at the plate bottom centre.62a.e.by)]/[48( .20 Show that the deflection function w = Axy(x .2 ~ + ab) y = p E t 3 (4xy .by) + v (x’ .2uy + ab)/[96(1 + v)] . a2wiax2= ~ ( 2 y .v ’ ) ] 1 Mxy= D( 1 . wiax4= a4w/ay4= o Substituting these derivatives into eq(4.2by).2AD[( y2 .3 w i a x 2 a y = ~ ( 4 y2b).2bx .
d'w/dxay= ( n 2 c / a 2co~(nx/a)cos(ny/a) ) ) a 'w/axay2= .41 Plate reactions The derivatives of the deflection function are awlax= (ncla)cos(nx/a) sin(ny/a). What are the edge reactions exerted by the simple supports? (I v)uzp~/2n~ 4n \ u / Figure 4.2y)/[96(1 + v)] ' For edges y = 0 and y = b: M.v')] M .pEt'y( y . pE t (a2v + b2)/[32(1 .c): Substituting A = p/8. 4.b)/[48(1 . = .v')] M. Assuming a deflected shape of the form w = c sin (nx/a) sin ( n y / a ) . x = a/2.~)/[48(1 v2)] M. = pEt3b (a .21 A simply supported square plate Q x a is subjected to a normal pressure distribution of the form p = p.40.pEt'X (X .v 2 ) ] = Example 4.pEt'x (X..( n ' c / u ' > c o ~ ( n x / a sin(ny/a). y = b/2 and z = t/2 gives qy= 0 and the tensile stress state at the bottom centre o.determine the maximum deflection and bending moment.b)/[48(1 ..182 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES For edges x = 0 and x = a. = . = . M.(n3 c/a )cos(nx/a)sin( ny/a). azw/dx2= .61a.pEt3y(y ..( 2 n c / a 2 )sin(nx/u) sin(ny/a) a3w/ax'=. The following stress components are found from eqs(4.v 2 ) ] and or= p E t ( a 2+ vb2)/[32(1 . = +_ p E t u (b ..2~)/[96( + v)] 1 * These moment distributions are shown in Fig. = .~)/[48(1 v2)] M. a w/dydx2= .sin (nx/a)sin (ny/a).b.(n3 )sin(nx /a)cos( ny/a) c/a .
where x = y = a/2. .. It carries concentrated forces 25 and 30 kN at respective distances of 0.1 Derive expressions for the position and magnitude of the maximum bending stress in a tapered cantilever with solid circular section carrying a concentrated load at its end.3 A 5 m square floor is simply supported on parallel timber joists 150 mm deep x 50 mm wide spaced at 500 mm intervals.v)/u3] sin ( n y l a ) = [ap. . / ( 4 ~ ' ) ] (+ v) sin (nx/a) sin (ny/a) ~ This is a maximum for x = a/2 and y = a/2. / ( 4 n 4 D ) = w = [ a4p. 6 2 ~ ) EXERCISES Bending of Straight Beams 4.62a. that forces of magnitude 2M. 4 [ ( n 4 c / a 4 )sin ( n x l a ) sin (nyla)] = p / D 4[( n4c/a4) ( m / u )sin (ny/a)] = (p. = (1 .v)a ' p o / ( 2 n 2 ) will prevent the plate from rising at the corners (a m o m e n t h i t length has force units).5and 1 m one end. = [ D n 3 c (3 . / D + c = a 4 p . 4. Mx=M./(4n4D)] sin ( n x l a ) sin ( n y l u ) (iii) T h e maximum deflection occurs at the plate centre. a l(4D n4) .(3 . 4.5 m long is supported in bearings at each end.b) supply the following edge reactions for this plate R . Note..v)/(4n)] sin ( n y l a ) R.2 A solid circular stepped shaft 1.b). Calculate the greatest floor pressure that can be carried when the bending stress in the joist is limited to 6 MPa. From eqs(4./D) sin ( n x la ) sin ( n y / a ) sin 4n4cla4 p . giving Equations (iii) and eqs(4..BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 183 a 'w / ~ =x( n'C /a ) sin (nx/a) sin ( ny/u) = a ~ a 'wiax ay2= ( n c /a4 ) sin ( n x / a )sin ( n y / n ) w/ay (i) (ii) Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into eq(4. Substituting into eq(iii). Determine suitable shaft diameters if the maximum stress in the material is everywhere limited to 65 MPa.=(Dn2c/a2)(1 + v)sin(nx/a)sin(ny/a) = [ a 2 p . from moment equilibrium.60a) in order to validate the assumed deflection function. this gives w.>(3 v)/(4n)] sin ( n x la )  which are shown graphically in Fig. These forces are found either from the substitution x = 0 and y = 0 or x = a and y = a in e q ( 4 . .. = [ D n ' c (3 ...41.. 4.v)/a3] sin ( n x l a ) = [up. = p.64a.
2 m long. Find the maximum bending moment and the greatest stress in the material when a concentrated force of 20 k N is applied at centre span.4 A beam with a Tsection is 5 m long and rests upon simple supports with its flange at the top.46.44. wall thickness t = 20 mm and density 5600 kg/m’. mean diameter d = 1 m. is rigidly supported at 10 m intervals.5 A steel pipeline.184 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4. 4. 4.45. 4. simply supported. is to support a It uniformly distributed loading of 300 N/m together with a concentrated load of 250 N at a point 0.42is to act as a 1 m long simply supported beam. 4. has the channel section shown in Fig. The web depth is 150 mm and its thickness is 30 mm.9 An applied moment of 30 kNm causes compression in the flange of Tsection shown in Fig..42 Figure 4. 4.45 4. .10 Calculate the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in a cast iron beam due to its own weight.5m from the free end.43is to carry soil within its channel over a length of 3 m.44 Figure 4.Take the density of cast iron as 6900 kg/m’.8 A cantilever beam. with the section given in Fig. 4. Take and the maximum central moment to be w/‘/24 the hoop stress due to pressure as p d /2t. What are the maximum tensile and compressive stresses due to bending? Figure 4. 4. calculate the greatest distributed loading in Nlm the beam can carry if the tensile and compressive stresses are limited to 40 and 60 MPa respectively. Calculate the maximum stress in the pipe from bending and pressure effects when it carries liquid at a pressure and density 7 bar and 800 kg/m’ respectively.6 The bored rectangular section in Fig. If the ends are simply supported. Find the maximum bending stress and the radius of curvature under this moment. 4. r 165 20 Figure 4. 500 I 20. The flange is 160 mm wide and 30 mm deep.43 4. The beam is 10 m long. Calculate the greatest distributed loading the beam can support when the maximum tensile and compressive stresses are limited to 75 and 40 MPa respectively. Take E = 210 GPa.7 The section shown in Fig. 4.
25 mm on the opposite side. 4.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 185 1 Figure 4.48 4. 4. 4.11 The working stress for the Isection in Fig.13 A cantilever beam is subjected to an end force of 15 kN inclined at 15" to the horizontal axis of the beam. I50 mm 0. The beam is 150 mm long with a rectangular section 50 mm wide x 25 mm deep.14 A simply supported Ibeam. but decreased by 0. Determine the maximum stress in the material. simply supported beam.46 160 J Figure 4.d. Figure 4.48 is fabricated from 350 x 150 mm joists with I = 2 x 10 m4 and plates 370 x 150 mm as shown. it was found that points. Take E = 210 GPa. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses and the position of the neutral axis. carries a central concentrated force of W = 15 kN in addition to a longitudinal tensile force of F = 60 kN. Take E = 207 GPa.75 mm along one side.16 In a tensile test on a round bar of 30 mm diameter.47 is limited to 100 MPa. carrying a total load of 200 kN distributed uniformly over the length.25 x lo6 mm4. What is the permissible eccentricity of the load if the maximum tensile stress is not to exceed 40 MPa? Determine the maximum stress in compression. its crosssectional area is 1800 nun2and its second moment of area is 3. The section is used as a 8 m long.12 The section in Fig. ' Combined Bending and Direct Stress 4. 4. originally 150 mm apart. Find the axial stress distribution.15 A vertical load of 25 tonne is applied to a tubular cast iron column. . the axial elongation and the eccentricity of the load. Determine the net stress distribution across the fixed end section. separated by 0. 2 m long. Find the maximum moment and the radius of curvature under this moment. 4. and 100 mm i d . The depth of the section is I00 mm.47 4.
If the maximum tensile stress in the material is limited to 250 MPa. 200 mm external diameter and 165 mm internal diameter. In addition. 4.18 Figure 4. Answer: dl6.49 Holes 25 mm diameler Figure 4. r I so Figure 4. the stress nowhere becomes tensile. When a compressive force F is applied at position /i shown. 4.52 has a circular section 100 mm in diameter. Repeat for the case of solid and tubular circular sections.186 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4.50 4.17 The central section of a riveter is shown in Fig.49. + i +A . the left edge of the section is to remain unstressed. dl8. What is the maximum tensile and compressive stress in the section when a compressive force of 300 kN acts at the anvil position C. Calculate the maximum value of P when the tensile and compressive stresses in the material are limited to 35 and 125 MPa respectively. so that when a compressive load is applied along a centroidal axis parallel to d.50 shows the crosssection of a short column. an axial compressive load of 750 kN is applied along the tube axis. find the greatest end force that can be carried.23 The semicircular cantilever in Fig. 4. R A d=lW Bending of Initially Curved Bars 4.19 Derive an expression for the maximum eccentricity h from the centroid for a rectangular section b x d. (Dl+ d2)/(2D) 4. Find a value for h and the maximum compressive stress in the section when F = 250 kN. 1= 25 k = I5 .20 A Compressive force P is applied at 300 mm from the axis of a tubular cast iron column with dimensions.
.26 The Ubeam in Fig. in a beam with large initial curvature of mean radius R . Do not neglect the additive effect of the direct stress acting on the section X . 4.55 4. the maximum stress in the material and the radius of curvature for a uniform crosssection 100 mm wide x 20 mm deep.25 Compare the maximum stresses from the large and small initial curvature theories in the case of a splitring of trapezoidal section when a 5 kN force is applied.24 The arched beam in Fig. that the neutral axis shifts by y = R. 4. 4. . 4.. when it is subjected to a sagging moment of 15 kNm tending to straighten it.54.53 carries the concentrated vertical forces shown.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 187 2 \N 4 kN Figure 4.J(R. for a solid circular sectinn of radius r.. What would be the greatest compressive stress in a straight beam with the same crosssectional dimensions? .: .54 Figure 4.55 has a 75 mm diameter crosssection. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam when a compressive force of 30 kN is applied at the free ends.r 2 ) ] .30 Find the necessary wall thickness for a tube with mean section radius 100 mm when it is to be subjected to a pure bending moment of 10 kNm which decreases the initial 200 mm mean radius.28 Plot the variation in stress across the depth of a curved bar with rectangular section dimensions 75 mm wide x 50 mm deep. Take E = 200 GPa. as shown in Fig. 4. Determine.X where the moment is a maximum. . I3OkN Section XX Figure 4. without the maximum compressive stress exceeding 65 MPa. with mean radius 125 mm.27 Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses for a curved beam 150 mm mean radius with rectangular crosssectional dimensions 5 0 mm wide x 150 mm deep.52 Figure 4. for the point of greatest bending moment.29 Show.%r2[R. when it is subjected to a decreasing curvature moment of 15 kNm. 4.. 4..53 4. 4.
given allowable stresses for the brass and steel of 70 and 105 MPa respectively. determine the maximum moment for this section. 4. when the materials (i) each bend independently and (ii) are bonded along the interface. Calculate the maximum stresses in the steel and the timber.57 4.5 GPa.58 is fabricated from wood and steel as shown.5 mm. 25 mm x 6. 260 mm deep x 150 m m wide. E = 8.58 Figure 4. 40 mrn x 10 mm. 4. E = 82. The brass is to lie beneath the steel when the beam is simply supported over a length of 750 mm. 150 m m wide and 10 m m thick.of a beam in Fig.34 Rectangular sections. to give a composite beam. Take &steel) = 20E(timber).188 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Bending of Composite Beams 4.of steel and brass form the composite section. (b) the ratio of the maximum stress in the steel to that in the brass and (c) the radius of curvature of the neutral axis when the steel stress reaches its maximurn allowable value of 70 MPa.33 Find the maximum allowable bending moment for the composite section in Fig.on to a brass strip. Calculate the maximum central concentrated load that may be applied.5 GPa respectively.59 1 200 . 4.56 Figure 4. Take E = 207 GPa for steel. What load that could be applied to this beam at the centre of a 2 m simply supported length? What are the maximum stresses actually achieved in each material? For steel.57.When the beam is bent into a circular arc about its longer side. 4. Their elastic moduli are 210 and 8. If the allowable stresses for each material are 10 and 150 MPa respectively. is reinforced with steel plate.31 The bottom edge of a timber joist. given maximum permissible stresses of 150 MPa for steel and 8 MPa for wood. m I I 150 Figure 4. 4. 25 mrn x 12. E = 200 GPa and for wood.5 mm. 40 m m x 20 mm. A distributed load of 15 kN/m is spread over its simply supported 5 m span.32 A compound beam is formed by brazing a steel strip. find: (a) the position of the neutral axis.56. 'I 1 0 Figure 4. Take E = 84 GPa for brassand E = 207 GPa for steel.35 The composite beam in Fig.8 GPa for brass. I50 m m wide and 250 mm deep. 4.
If the section were to be economically designed. 4. Where in the crosssection does the neutral axis lie? 4. 4. E = 12.5 mm diameter.6 / "C for steel and E = 120 GPa.36 A composite beam is constructed from a steel strip surrounded by timber joists as shown in Fig. where there are 3 rods each 12. The moment of resistance of the composite beam is to be four times that of the timber alone whilst maintaining the same value of maximum bending stress in the timber. For steel: E = 205 GPa and a = I I x 10 '/ "C. The beam length is 20 times its total depth. and the modular ratio is 15. M (mm) Figure 4. Calculate the common radius of curvature and deflection at the free end for a temperature rise of 50°C. find the steel area and the distributed weight that can be simply supported over a span of 10 m.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 189 4. Calculate the net stresses induced at the free and interface surfaces.5 x 10 '/ "C.5 for timber. Reinforced Concrete 4. Take E = 200 GPa.38 A 500 mm long glassfibre beam is reinforced along its outer edges with carbonfibre to the same 15 mm width and occupying 25% of the total beam volume. If the maximum permissible stresses for steel and concrete are 125 and 5 MPa respectively and the modular ratio is 15. Explain why there should be several steel rods each of small crosssectional area rather than one of large area. 4.5 mm diameter. 80 mm wide x 160 mm deep. Calculate the moment of resistance for the section when the maximum bending stress in the timber is 8. What then is the maximum bending stress in the steel? Take E = 210 GPa for steel. If stresses in the concrete and steel of 5 and 125 MPa are to be reached under economic design conditions.59. The respective moduli are 15 GPa and 125 GPa.60 is subjected to a temperature rise of 65°C. 4. If the maximum permissible stresses for the steel and concrete are 125 and 4 MPa respectively. For Cu: E = 105 GPa and a = 17. 500 mm deep and 50 mm deep to the centre of the steel line where there are 4 rods each 12.37 Aluminium sheet is attached all along the top and bottom surfaces of a timber beam.42 A reinforced concrete beam section is 250 mm wide.5 MPa. a = 20 x 10 '/ "C for bronze.60 4. Take E(AI) = 7 x &timber). The steel and bronze strips are each 100 mm long and 15 mm x 1 mm in crosssection. calculate the moment of resistance for the section and the stress in the concrete.40 A bimetallic cantilevered strip is to operate a switch at its free end.43 A concrete beam with steel reinforcement is I50 mm wide and 375 mm deep to the steel line.41 A reinforced concrete beam is 300 mm wide and 500 mm deep to the centre of the single steel line.39 The coppersteel bimetallic strip in Fig. Determine the maximum central concentrated load a simply supported beam can carry when the allowable bending stresses for each material are 210 MPa for glassfibre and 1050 MPa for carbonfibre. a = 10 x 10 . what would the steel area and the moment of resistance then be? . 4. calculate the moment of resistance for the section. Ignore self weight of the beam and take tn = 15. 4. Determine the thickness of the aluminium sheet and the ratio of the maximum bending stresses in each material.
The limiting stresses are 7 MPa for the concrete and 125 MPa for the steel. 4. find the stresses actually sustained by each material. = IS. (CEU 4. If the permissible stresses in the steel and concrete are 125 and 7 MPa respectively. find the value of h and the limiting F if tension in the concrete is to be avoided. 4.61 supports a compressive load F . find its position when the maximum stresses in the steel and concrete are limited to 1 10 and 4 MPa respectively.5 MPa and tn = 15.54 The short column of reinforced concrete in Fig. 300 mm wide with 450 mm steel depth. The web steel line is 300 mm from the flange top. find the remaining dimensions of the rectangular crosssection that will support the bay. calculate the steel area and the moment of resistance for the section when the modular ratio is 15. Assuming economic design. Take tn = 15. calculate the moment of resistance for the beam crosssection and the area of steel reinforcement. The width of the beam is half the effective depth and the compressive steel line lies at 1/10 this depth.50 A reinforced Tbeam has flange and web widths of 750 and 150 m F respectively. The maximum allowable stresses for the steel and concrete are 125 and S MPa respectively. If both materials are to be fully stressed. What are the stresses attained in each material? Take tn = 15.5 m wide x 150 mm deep. 4. 4.2 kNlm. 4. The tensile reinforcement is to be 2% of the effective section area. Find d and the steel area. 4.51 A reinforced concrete Tbeam has a flange 1. given that the area of tensile reinforcement is 3750 mm2. applied at the centroid 0. What is the safe value of F if the maximum allowable stresses for steel and concrete are 125 and 4 MPa respectively? If F is moved distance h away from 0 as shown. If the limiting stresses for steel and concrete are 110 and 4 MPa respectively and the neutral axis is to coincide with the lower edge of the flange. 4. The web width is 450 mm and the depth to the steel line is 600 mm from the flange top.6 x the depth to the steel line. Determine the moment of resistance for the section with permissible stresses of 125 and 5. If the maximum uniformly distributed load plus self weight is 9.5 m wide and 100 mm deep and the steel line in the web lies 375 mm from the flange top. 300 mm wide with limiting stresses in the steel and concrete of 138 and 10 MPa respectively.52 The flange of a reinforced concrete Tbeam is 1. Take m = 15. 4.53 A doubly reinforced concrete beam is to sustain a bending moment of 135 kNm.190 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4.46 A reinforced concrete beam with steel line depth d and breadth b = d/2. If the neutral axis is to lie within the flange width. Take m = E.47 A loading bay 18 m x 6 m is to be supported by 12 evenly spaced tensionreinforced concrete cantilevers.49 A concrete beam.6 kN/m2.5 kN/m over a span of 6 m in addition to its selfweight of 1. 4.2 kN/m.44 A reinforced concrete beam covers a span of 12 m and carries a uniformly distributed load of 1. If the allowable stresses for the steel and concrete are 125 and 7 MPa respectively and the modular ratio is IS. The steel reinforcement consists of four 25 mm bars. carries a uniformly distributed load of 1. calculate the section dimensions and the steel area when the breadth is 0. . find the concrete section dimensions and the steel areas. spans 9 m and carries a uniformly distributed load of 8 kN/m. Each beam is 6 m long.45 A rectangular section concrete beam is 300 mm wide and 200 m m deep to the steel line. What then is the area of steel reinforcement and the moment of resistance for the section? 4. Find the maximum stresses in the steel and concrete given that tn = 15.48 A 500 mm x 250 mm rectangular concrete section is doubly reinforced with two pairs of 28 mm diameter steel rods set 400 mm apart. given that the allowable stresses for steel and concrete are 124 and 4 MPa respectively and m = 15. Take m = 15./E.5 kN/m in addition to the beam's selfweight of 1.
5 m apart with its longer side vertical and the shorter side at the top. find the slope of the longer side with respect to x when the bending stress reaches a maximum. Find the inclination of the neutral axis with respect to the xaxis. Find the greatest bending stress and the inclination of the n.61 Asymmetric Bending 4.5 mm is supported by bearings and carries a load of 9 kN at midspan. Calculate the maximum stress in the angle when a concentrated force of 10 k N is applied at midspan.59 The thinwalled triangular tube in Fig. Find the maximum moment which may be applied about the xaxis. 4. 4. 4. 4. 380 4 Figure 4. If the beam is rotated slowly. 4.62 is restricted to 30 MPa. to x.5 mm angle section rests on two supports 4.5 m long steel bar of rectangular section 100 x 37.57 The stress at point P for the beam crosssection in Fig.as shown. 4.62 Figure 4.2% 6% 5 o BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 191 (rnm) I .63 4.58 The section in Fig.56 A 1.a.64 Figure 4.55 A 100 x 75 x 12.64is subjected to a bending moment M v . kfl 50) A? 6 rn Figure 4.63 is subjected to a bending moment of 90 Nm about the xaxis.65 . P 3 0 4 Y 1 Figure 4.
It is clamped around its periphery and subjected to a uniform pressure of 0.68 Figure 4. 4. E = 70 GPa and v = 0.68 supports a vertical downward force passing through the centroid which results in a bending moment of 1 kNm at midspan. 4.67 is to be used as a 1 m long cantilever for carrying a vertical end load passing through the centroid.66 Figure 4. Find the bending stress at the corner A. 4. 4.67 4. as shown in Fig. 4. Take. the position of the neutral plane and the maximum tensile and compressive stresses.192 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4. Calculate the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses. (CEI) 4. (CEI) c 1 25 I05 4 Figure 4.63 A simply supported beam of the section given in Fig. (CEI) .65 An aluminium alloy plate diaphragm is 510 mm diameter and 6.69 4.60 The angle section in Fig. Determine the maximum value for this load if the bending stress is not to exceed 120 MPa. as shown.65 is subjected to a bending moment of 1 10 Nm about a centroidal axis inclined at 30" to the xaxis.69 when a bending moment of 225 Nm is applied about the xaxis in the manner shown.66.7 bar.3.61 A cantilever 500 mm long is loaded at its free end.62 The equalangle section in Fig. for aluminium. Bending of Circular Plates 4. 4. Calculate the values of the maximum bending stress and deflection.5 mm thick.5 Figure 4.64 Calculate the maximum tensile stress and the position of the neutral axis for the section in Fig. Calculate the principal second moments of area. stating whether it is tensile or compressive. 60 I 225 N m f 12.
66 is replaced by a ring of edge bending moments M. circumference is applied in the absence of outer edge loading.05 mm from the surface of a clamped circular plate which is then subjected to a uniform pressure on one side. (Ans.2 mm with E = 250 GPa. horizontal circular flat plate is rigidly built in around its circumference at radius R.68 A simply supported circular steel plate of diameter 1 m and thickness 50 mm is subjected to an increase in pressure of 0. (CEI) O ' O 7 E P X Figure 4.73 Figure 4. A contact block X is centrally positioned 0. for steel.02 N/mm2. per unit of outer circumference.27.3..71 The flat end of a 2 m diameter container can be regarded as clamped around its edge.71 . It is required to double the central deflection by adding a central concentrated normal force W. Given that density of steel is 7750 kg/m'.70 shows the arrangement for an overload pressure warning device.69 A diaphragm of diameter 220 mm is clamped around its periphery and subjected to a normal gas pressure of 2 bar on one surface.70 A uniform circular flat plate is rigidly built in around the boundary at radius a. 4. The plate is 30 mm diameter. Take v = 0.65 mm determine the thickness and maximum bending stress. Determine the distribution of radial bending moment and find the position and magnitude of the maximum value. Find an expression for W. thickness 0.72 A thin.70 1 P 77777 Figure 4. whilst the inner edge remains free. What is the maximum tensile stress in the plate and the safe pressure when the deflection is restricted to 0. (CE!) 4. In order to reduce the central deflection under W to one quarter. Find an expression for the required value of p in terms of W and the relevant constants. calculate the total deflection at the plate centre due to the pressure and self weight. 4. Plot the radial moment distribution and per unit of repeat for the similar problem when a ring of inner edge bending moments M. gradual falls in M . and Mr2with 1/r2to zero) .67 The loading for the plate in Exercise 4. and is subjected to a pressure p acting normally on one surface. 4. v = 0. Take E = 210 GPa and v = 0. v = 0. Calculate from first principles the maximum deflection and the required thickness of the end plate if the bending stress is not to exceed 150 N/mm2.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 193 4.27. (CE!) 4.5 bar above atmospheric.3. E = 207 GPa. Electrical contact is made between the block and the plate when the pressure exceeds a set value.d. E = 200 GPa and v = 0. If the central deflection is not to exceed 0. and 76 mm i. a uniform pressure p is applied to the opposite side of the plate.1 mm? Take.66 A circular plate. (CEI) 4. 330 mm 0. It supports a vertical central concentrated load W. Determine the pressure required to activate the warning device and check whether deformation is elastic at this limit. is loaded all around its inner edge by a total vertical force P (W) whilst being simply supported around its outer edge.d. Under operating conditions the plate will be subjected to a uniformly distributed pressure of 0.3 and a tensile yield stress of 200 MN/m2. 4..
7 1 to the applied pressurep for a plate rigidly clamped at a 50 m m radius with thickness 2 rnm. producing an edge moment m. with radius 200 mm and thickness 10 mm.75 Identify clearly the loading condition for each plate in Fig. Take E = 200 GPa and v = 0. Figure 4.is subjected to a uniform pressure p = 1 MNlm’ acting normally on the surface of one side only.3. (CEI) 4. State the particular boundary conditions that should be invoked to obtain the bending stresses.74 Derive an expression relating the radial strain measured by the gauge G in Fig. Find the largest radial stress in the plate and the central deflection.72ac by deriving the shear force per unit length of circumference at radius r. 4.3 (CEI) . Take E = 208 GPa and v = 0.4. = 2 kNrn per metre of circumferential length.194 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4.76 A flat circular plate.72 4. It is semirigidly built in around its outer edge.
. where w.4 MN/m2.77 A cylinder head valve (Fig. Show that the deflection is given by the expression w = w.74.. as shown in Fig.4z2/r2).: is the shear f o r c e h i t length of y.. << R . sin ( a x l a ) and the resulting deflection by w = [9a4/(Da4)][l+ A cosh ( a y l a ) + B ( ~ y l a ) sinh (ay/a)]. u. cos ( a d a )cos(3ay/a).80 Given that the equilibrium condition du.at . find 4. for a simply supported circular plate subjected to a normal pressure p.and M. are firmly clamped concentrically on either side.: over the thickness I is given by the expression rT: (2S. is the central deflection. Take D = 260 Nm and v = 0. the edge support reactions and the bending moments at the plate centre. Two circular metal blocks of radii R. (CEI) 4.( 1 . Take v = 0.3. 4. or=+ 12pa2b2(b2 v a 2 ) / [ r 2 ( 3 b 4a2b2+ 3aJ)]. a.82 A thin elliptic plate. = (pa4b4)/[8D(3b4+a2b23a4)]. Find the surface loading.. If the surface loading of the plate is given by 4 = 4. (CEI) Figure 4. .79 Show.73 Figure 4.81 The deflection w of a square plate a x a lying in the xy plane. Determine the top surface stresses.where S. with centre at the origin.78 A thin circular plate is rigidly clamped at radius R .52b) where F = p d 2 . with thickness t and semiaxes a and b (a > b).= 1 2 p a 2 b 2 ( a 2 + b 2 ) l [ t 2 ( 3 b 4 + n 2 b 2 + 3 a J )r .73) of diameter 38 mm is subjected to a gas pressure of 1. the plate centre and at the ends of the major axis. 4. that D V J w = p reduces to eq(4. show that the distribution of shear stress r. (Hint: Use the same conversions from Cartesian to polar coordinates as with V 4 4 = 0 given in Chapter 2.= 6pa2b4/[~2(3a42 b 2 + 3 b 4 ) ] . Assuming simple supports and that the stem applies a concentrated force P at the centre of the plate.) 4.83 A simply supported rectangular plate a x 2a lies in the xy plane so that the xaxis bisects the longer sides and the yaxis is coincident with one longer side.x 2 / a 2.. and 0. = 4.= 6puJ6 ' / [ I (30' + a b2 + 3b4)I ' 4.30.. . + + v u] +a u. is rigidly clamped around its edges and subjected to a uniform normal pressure p.. is given by w = w./dx + d r J d y + dr.:/dz = 0 applies to a thin rectangular plate. Answer: w..74 4. A and B and calculate the central deflection and the bending moments M.. Derive an expression for the block deflection when a normal force F is applied at the centre. calculate the movement of the stem necessary to lift the plate from its supports../2 I)( 1 . (CEI) Bending of Rectangular Plates 4.y2/ b 2 ) 2 and find the value for w<.BENDING OF BEAMS AND PLATES 195 4. (CEI) .
Take E = 210 GPa.28. If the plate carries a uniform normal pressure of 20 kN/m2.86 A rectangular plate. 4. carries a uniform normal pressure of IS kN/m2.87 A rectangular steel plate. The remaining edges are free. 4. Take the elastic constants as E = 200 GPa. .025 m is subjected to a sinusoidal loadingp = p.sin ( d a ) sin(ny/b) with maximum amplitude 2 kN/m2 for the origin at one corner of the plate. Find the maximum values of deflection and bending moment when the plate carries the pressure distribution q = 2sin ( n x / I .27. lies in the xy plane with the origin of coordinates at one comer.84 A simply supported rectangular steel plate. 7 5 (kN/m2).85 A simply supported thin plate of edge dimensions 1 x 1.28.25 x 1. Find the maximum values of the bending moment and deflection.35. 3 m x 2 m and 30 mm thick. v = 0.determine the maximum deflection and the bending stresses. v = 0. Find the maximum deflection and the greatest bending stresses. with plane dimensions 3 m x 4 m and 25 mm thick. I . Take E = 207 GPa and v = 0. 4.Take the elastic constants ) as E = 210 GPa and v = 0.5 m and thickness 0. is built in along one 3 m side and simply supported along the other 3 m side.25) sin ( ~ y / 1 ..196 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 4.75 m and 30 rnm thick.
a line AB shears through an angle @into position A' B' so that the angle of twist of B' relative to A' is 0. Consider the action of the torque upon a cylindrical core of this shaft at radius r (Fig.la shows the crosssection of a solid circular shaft of radius R subjected to opposing axial torques T about the zaxis. tan@= @ and eqs(5. The core will experience a proportion of the applied torque. For elastic deformation ycan also be expressed as the ratio between the shear stress r i n the shaft at radius r and the shear modulus G. That is AA' = re12 = L412 and from this.1 Core element and section of a shaft under torsion The length of the arc AA'in Fig.1) and (5.3) .197 CHAPTER 5 THEORIES OF TORSION 5.1 Torsion of Circular Sections Figure 5.2)combine to give y = rlG = rBlL (5. T Figure 5. 5.1b). 5. This gives y = riC = tan@ (5.1b connects q3 to 8 when they are given in radians. over a length L.2) Because @ is small. Consequently. the shear angle is The strain yis the tangent of the shear angle.
.6) gives 2TI[n(R.la).)4]) 2 ~ 3 5 .6) The torque carried by a rotating shaft used to transmit power P = T u (unit .W) is found from T = f l u = 60Pl(2nN) (unit ..Nm) where the speed of the shaft is u rads or N rev/min.'R) : R. Rearranging eq(i). 5..7) gives the torque as T = (60 x 450 x 1 0 3 ) / ( 2 n x 120) = 35..:  R:)] = t.. the outer radius is R . At radius r.4) to the solid section of outer radius R.. 8 1 1 O h I { ~lx O [ 1 . Equation (5. For the solid shaft. R. What diameter of solid shaft can meet both conditions? Take G = 83 GPa.4) Extending eq(5.7) Example 5.198 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The core material resists the torque by becoming stressed in shear. . ~ = 2 T I ( ~ t . gives the torque equilibrium condition: T = 2n(GBIL) I r 3 dr which is written as T N =ce/L where J is the polar second moment of area. [ . Combining eqs(5.3) and (5..81 x lo3 Nm The maximum shear stress occurs at the outside radius. calculate the diameters required. R (5. If the maximum allowable shear stress is restricted to 100 MPa and the angle of twist is not to exceed 2" over a 3 m length. .1 In a generating plant a tubular drive shaft with a diameter ratio 315 is to transmit 450 kW at 120 rev/min.3) 6 T = 2n(GOIL) r ' 6 r (5. J = 2 z S R "r 3 d r = 2 n l r 4 / 4IR0=(n12)(R. The torque carried by the annular area is cV=2 n r 6 r x z x r. the shear stress t is induced within an annulus of radial thickness 6 r (Fig./R. Substituting from eq(5.(3/5)4]) I = x O . Equation (5.5) gives the simple torsion theory TIJ = COIL = T Ir (5.(RilR. (5.5) J = 2n10 r 3dr = 2n1 r414 1" 0 = n R 4 / 2= n D 4 / 3 2 With a tubular section of inner and outer radii Rj and R.
= T r .7 mm The greater radii of each shaft must be selected in order to keep within the twist allowed. the outer radius is (ii) R.6) as 2Tl[n(R. JA = ~ ( 1 2 ..8) (5.29 mm : Setting R i = 0 in eqs(i) and (ii) gives outer radii of a solid shaft to meet each condition as R=[2T/(~r)]'~'=61.= (T/G)[(L/J ) I + (UJ)2 + (UJ) 3 +. It is only the outer fibres that reach the maximum shear stress and therefore the understressed core material may be removed without altering the angular twist and torquecarrying capacity significantly. I Stepped Shafr When a stepped circular shaft is subjected to an axial torque T. etc as r . (radians) 8.lJ.=Tr. R i = 43.641 x 103mm4 .726 x 10' mm4 J N = n(104. Using subscripts A and N for aluminium and nimonic. 5.4 . 5.( R j /Ro)4]} = (2 x 35. find these lengths when the total twist is to be 5".. / J . R j = 38. Let subscripts I .54)/2=22. r.4 = 2TU( n C 6 [ 1 .9) Example 5.06rnm R =[2 TU(n G 6 ) ] 1 / 4 = 6 9. The radii of the hollow shaft are 72. 3 etc refer to lengths over which the diameter is constant. is welded to a nimonic alloy tube.16 mm and 43.I( 180 In)(degrees) The maximum shear stresses in each section occur at the outer radii rl .~ 5 104)/2= 14.(3/5)41) x . from eq(5. . If the maximum allowable shear stresses for aluminium and nimonic are 35 and 75 MPa respectively and their rigidity moduli are 30 and 80 GPa respectively.6) 8.= [TL/(JG )II + [TU(JC)I2 + [TU(JG )I3 + .7 mm.2 An aluminium alloy tube. t . 199 R. 2. (5. = 72. and r. the total twist 6.29 mm.98 mm. The total angular twist is. the given angle of twist appears within eq(5.R:)] = G81 L Rearranging eq(ii) and converting 8 to radians.2).I. determine the maximum torque that the assembly can carry. = 63.81 x lo6 x 3 x lo3x 180)/( z2 83 x lo3x 2[1 . r2. . This design saves a considerable amount of material when compared to a solid shaft of radius 69. Given that the length of the nimonic tube is to be twice that of the aluminium tube.e t c ..16 mm. = T r . is the sum of the twists in each each bar..39 mm Also. l J . 10 mm inner diameter and 20 mm outer diameter (see Fig. inner diameter 20 mm and outer diameter 25 mm. R.THEORlES OF TORSION : ...
8 mm .3 Composite shaft section There are two common features to the torsion of each composite shaft: (i) the angular twist in each shaft will be the same.= (75 x 22.45 Nm T. Figure 5. If we let subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the two different materials comprising the composite shafts in Figs 5.b and apply (i) and (ii). and (ii) the torque applied will equal the sum of the torques taken by each shaft.3a.1.2 Composite alloy bar Applying eq(5.3a.9 mm : LN= 817... may be treated in a similar manner.4 Nm The lower torque is the maximum permitted for the assembly. then .200 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 425 Figure 5.2 Composite Shaft Coaxial shafts. either fixed together at their ends or bonded along a common diameter (see Figs 5.b). provided no slipping occurs. = ( r J / r ) A= (35 x 14.9). + 1/(30 x lo’ x 14.726 x lo’)]} 5.5= 63.73 x 103)/12.8) gives the total twist as and therefore the length of aluminium is where 8.641 x 10’) = = 408.4 x lO’)[2/ (80 x 10’ x 22.64 x 103)/10= 110. the maximum torque in each bar becomes TN= ( t J / r).. Equation (i) gives = LA 0. 5 xn/180 = 0.0873 rad.0873 / { (63. Equation(5.
from eq(5.0466 rad = 2. / ( G 2 J 2 ) Substituting eqs(5.04 Nm The twist in the aluminium. = t . l T . The outer cylinder is aluminium with an outer diameter of 25 mm and the inner cylinder is nimonic with an inner diameter of 10 mm. at the outer diameter of each bar.b) give and T = ( z J / r) A + ( z J / r) = (35 x 14.c) Example 5. Figure 5. + T .b.5+ (75 x 22. for the twist in the nimonic B N = [ T U ( G J ) I N = ( l 6 9 .674" .10a. (5. T . 5. lOa). the angular twist and the distribution of shear stress through the wall. Find the torque carrying capacity. eq(5.3.3 The materials and allowable shear stresses given in Example 5.4a.10~) (5.64 x 103)/10 = (41. from eq(5.b) (5.4 Composite shaft showing shear stress distribution Replacing 1 with A (aluminium) and 2 with N (nimonic).10~) (5. J . 6 4x l o 3 ) 10 0 3 1 = 0.1 la. = z2J.2 form a composite shaft comprising the two bonded concentric cylinders shown in Fig. = G . T = T .726 x 103)/12. is from eq(5.808) x 10' Nmm = 21 1.THEORIES OF TORSION 201 8l=[TLI(GJ)]l.233 + 169. Check.1 la. l r . 8 0 8 ~ 3 ~ 5 0 0 ) / ( 81 0~ ~ 2 2 .IT./r2 and T .) where. . J . 82=[TUGJ)]. = T .10c).1 lac) into (5. lob). T . ( l +T. The cylinders are bonded along a common diameter of 20 mm for a 500 mm length.
+ T4) 1 4 4 G 4 J 4 ) Substituting eqs(5. across the interface (see Fig. + e./(G.5 Stepped shaft under concentrated torques The relative twist between the ends is zero: 8.+T.726 x 1 0 3 ) = 2 8 M P a (r..) i 2 + (TI+T.h.+T.) . and T.726x 1 0 3 ) = 3 5 M P a (Ti).13d.13b. relative to the r./J).. .14) The maximum shear stress in each portion is found from eq(5. 5MP a (r. 5.J. ~ . is found from eq(5.9. = (TI + T2+ T.=(41.J.= (169.5 shows a stepped shaft with fixed ends carrying concentrated torques TI./J).c) (5. T. there must exist a drop in the shear stress from 75 MPa to 28 MPa. T. end.6). 8. = o (5. Figure 5.8.).202 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Equation (5.808 x l o 3 x lo)/ (22.=(Tl+T2)i21(G. ~ ( G .13a) and taking all torques to be clockwise. J e.13a) The twist in each parallel portion.= The shear stresses at the inner and outer diameters of the nirnonic are (ri).= (Tr.=(Tri/J).641 x 103) =37.3 Varying Torque Figure 5.e) T 1l/(GiJi 1 + (Ti + T2) / 2 / ( G 2 J 2 )+ (Ti + T + T3Y.= (41.. + e.13be) into (5. at the positions shown. = (TI + T2+ T3) 4 4 G 3 J 3 ) .1. (5. 5.) 14/(G4J4)= 0 (5.).1 la) provides the shear stress at the inner and outer diameters of the aluminium (Tri/J). el = T .641 x 1 0 ' ) = 7 5 MPa These show that as the allowable shear stresses are imposed at each outer diameter.=(Tr.233 x 1 0 3 x 12.=(169.4b).233 x l o 3 x 10)/(14. The stress in each material varies linearly with rand therefore each distribution passes through the shaft centre. + e.).808x l o 3 x5)/(22.5)/(14.
~ 6 1 . = . eqs(5. = . = 21.)/1O= .517" o4 8.5 m I T.13bd) give the relative twists as 8 .15a.15c.35 x I 0 ') = 0. + T . L @) Im I Im .1.6 Stepped shaft under concentrated torques When d ..d) The denominators in eq(5.THEORIES OF TORSION 203 (5.15ac). / ( G .14) will cancel in the case of a uniform shaft in a single material. section follows from eqs(5.1 300 Figure 5. 6 ~The maximum shear stress in each .6a and find the maximum shear stress and angular twist in the shaft. + ( T l + T 2 ) + 8 ( T l + T . Using J = nd4/32. 0 2 6 r a d = . + 9T2+ 8T3 = 0 T I = .=]o ) 1 0 T . 3 l6 ~ ) = . Example 5. = (200 x I 0 x 500) / (80 x 1 0 x 38.36 x l o 4 )= . ) [ T .(8T3+9T.1300Nm indicating that the direction of TI is reversed.( 1 3 O O x 10'x 1O3)/(8Ox10.350" 8.006 = .0 . from which it is evident that the maximum torque is 1300 Nm. 5 .0.0326 = 1.867" Their sums are distributed in the manner of Fig. eq(5.6b shows the variation in T with shaft length.14) reduces to I .4 Construct the torque and twist diagrams for the stepped shaft in Fig.Nm . J .b) (5.) / (80 x 10' x 61. = d 2 = 2 d 3 and I I = I . Figure 5.0. The sign change implies stress reversal . 5.0.(300 x 10' x 10. Take G = 80 GPa.
. become an inversion of Fig.' z is assumed to be related to r.. .36 x l o 4 )= .(1300 x 10' x 25) l(61.2 Torsion of Thin Strips Consider the twisting of a thin strip of width b and thickness t as a torque T is applied about its centroidal axis z..= qA) acting on the sides. Elastic distortions are small.e. Figure 5. r=Gy=2Gy 6016~ (5. by r'.5) l(38.18a) shows that z varies linearly with y and thus r.18a) Equation(5.7 Torsion of a thin strip Let 60 be the angular twist over the length 6 2 as point A rotates into A'.t tan& (5.7b.35 x lo') = 65. The horizontal shear stress r = r.36 x l o 4 ) = .7b.8).16) becomes where 60 I6 z is the rate of twist. 5. This figure also shows the linear distribution in vertical shear stress r' in which the maximum value . The total change in the angle between originally perpendicular sides in Fig. so that tan@.. = tr.19 MPa 5. From eq(5. with y negative.16) where @.. 5. i. .5. 5..e. i.204 MECHANlCS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES r .. adjacent corner points of a crosssection displace axially in opposite directions but with the edges remaining straight.52. = z = 0. is reached at the longer edges (see Fig.17)..7a. Note that the centroidal plane y = 0 retains its original rectangular shape. The warping displacement 6w and the spanwise distortion y x 60are shown in the plan view of an element & x 6x lying at a distance + y from the xaxis in Fig. is the angular rotation in the chord and @ 2 is an equal rotation in the span due to the complementary nature of the shear stress ( r .22 MPa z3 = (200 x 10' x 12. 5. lying in the plane at height + y is. from eq(5. since y= 0./ b.7b defines the shear strain yas y = tan@.. = @2 (rad) and eq(5. = .17) the distortions to an element beneath this plane.97 MPa t2 = (300 x lo' x 25) l(61.. as shown in Fig. = @.12. Plane crosssections do not remain plane due to warping.
y coincides with a point that does not warp. r' = t r / b. y) in the crosssection.18a). 5. = 3T/(bt2) (5. This point is known as the centre of twist and will lie at the intersection between axes of symmetry. = 4Gb (68/6z)(t3/12) (5. Let torque TI be due to r in eq(5.18a) gives an expression for the vertical shear stress distribution. Substituting from eq(5.22a. distance y from x (see Fig. =I ( z b d y ) y = 2 G b ( 6 8 / 6 z ) f'" y 2 d y = 2 G b ( 6 8 / 6 z ) ( t 3 / 1 2 ) 112 The vertical shear stress r ' in eq(5.8). '/I T = TI + T. rand r' are similarly related.18b) acts on an elemental strip of thickness 6 x and distance x from y (see Fig. the warping displacements w can be found from w = J y (68/6z) dx (5. : I ( r ' t dx) x = 2G t ( t / 6) '(6816z)1 bl2 .b) . Setting y = % t /2 in eq(5. is therefore T.18b) in which y = (t/b)x. The applied torque is the resultant of the two shear stress distributions.bl2 x z dr = 2Gb( 68/6z)(t 2) = T.20) Combining eqs(5. r ' = 2 G x ( t l b)*68/6z (5. 5.8).Since 6 w / h = y 68/62.21) Equation (5.THEORlES OF TORSION 205 6 I Figure 5.6). The additional torque contribution T.21) gives the angular twist and maximum shear stress for a uniformly thin rectangular sections as 8= TU(JG) and r .20) and introducing the St Venant torsion constant J = bt 13 gives a threepart formula: G do/&= r/(2y)=T/J (5. Since r will act on an elemental strip of thickness 6y. for circular shafts.8 Shear stress distributions from torsion of a thin strip For any point (x. = .21) is similar to eq(5.18a and 5.19) An integration constant is unnecessary when the origin for x. then T.
206 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5.313 0.’13 + b. 5 . 5. = T l ( a b t 2 ) (5.22a) is written as J = % C ( b t 3 ) =b. 5. in which t is not small compared to b..24a.313 0.2.9b. where the thickness of the rectangular components varies.307 0.2.299 0.1 ThinWalled Open Tubes Equation (5.333 . the torsion constant in eq(5. 5.1 shows that the coefficients aand P depend upon b I t. Table 5.t:/3 +b3t3313 (5.281 0.5.141 0.246 0. Figure 5.9 Thinwalled open sections under torsion In the case of Fig.2 ThickerWalled Open Tubes For a uniform rectangular section.299 0.1 Coefficients II and p in eqs(5.9a.282 0.333 0. J=Y3 I t’ds (5.23b) The primary warping displacement that occurring in these tubes and the effect of constraining this warping is examined in Section 5. eqs(5.b) where Table 5..21) will also apply to thinwalled open tubes shown in Fig. As b I t increases both a and approach the 1/3 values for a thin strip.299 0.24ab) blt 1 2 4 6 8 10 00 a / 3 0.t.208 0. 9 then t = t (s) ~ and the torsion constant is found from the integral. provided that the thickness t is small compared to the perimeter dimension b in each case.22a and b) are written as 8 = T U ( P b t 3 C ) and r.23a) When the thickness tapers gradually with the perimeter dimension s in Fig.307 0.
8bt3 (i) Let s originate from the bottom right and top left corners so that the thickness of the sloping sides of the trepezia varies as f = s113. I and U extrusions and others fabricated from welded plates. If G = 29 GPa calculate the position and magnitude of the maximum shear stress in each component rectangular area and the rate of twist.74 s 3 + 1707. / ( a bt ' ) .10 Angle section with tapered edges The section may be split into two trapezia and one square. r3= T31(abt 2 ) .3457 x rad/mm = 19.23 mm4 +'"I 446.g. .2 + 446.b. r2= T 2 / ( a b 2 ) .s(s~13.13 = 7482. . in which f is not small compared to b.27a.5 + 2.10 gives the dimensions of an extruded crosssection in light alloy that .3 = 7036. e.5)4 0 = (1/3686. eq(5.8"Im The torque carried by each trapezium is . is to withstand a torque of 75 Nm applied about its longitudinal centroidal axis.5 +2.141(7.THEORIES OF TORSION 207 For thicker sections composed of n rectangles.24a) becomes (5.c) Example 55 Figure 5. t (5.5)3ds+0. Equation (i) becomes J = (213) J67.5 for 0s s 5 67.8= 0. To find J for the section we must evaluate J=(2/3) I [ t(s)I3ds+.59 s 2 + 38409. For the square bl t = 1 and .7) I s 4 / 4+ 33.23) = 0.7 mm.25) i. I The twist experienced by each component rectangle will be the same is the where T = T I + T2+ T3and rmax greatest of r l = T .13 The rate of twist is d e / d z = TI(GJ = (75 x l o 3 )1(29 x 103x 7482. Figure 5.141 from Table 5.1.
5 / = 255 MPa 5 3 Torsion of Prismatic Bars . not coincident with 0. Figure 5.3457 x x 446.5/ 3518. For example. will displace to P by the amounts u and v in the x and y . so that for a unit length of bar u = .27 x IO3)7.03 = 75. passing throught the centre of twist 0. These displacements take the signs of x and y.19 (7.directions respectively. eq(ii) shows that r is raised to (ii) r= (7/4) 75.11 Prismatic bar under torsion Figure 5.r B sin a = . y . r= (2y)T1/J. the maximum shear stress in the square sides is z= (4. ( t / r ) . = (35. = (&?/dz)J. applied about a longitudinal axis z.3457 x x 3518.c= 0. if the fillet radius was 1 mm. z).r B ( y / r ) = .5 mm.10 x 29 x 10' = 35.1 la shows a solid shaft of any arbitrary crosssection carrying a torque T.= TI t / J .19 MPa The torque carried by the square is T. where t = 7.13 x 29 x 10' = 4.1 1b shows that a point P(x.208 in eq(5. The effect that the fillet radius has on raising rmax be assessed from Tefftz's equation: may r = (7/4) r.y B v = r e cos a = r B ( x / r ) = x B (5.47 Nm Taking a = 0.24b).27 Nm Equation (5.208 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES T. Figure 5.5') = 51 MPa These maximum shear stresses occur at a point along the longer edges nearest the centroid.21) gives a maximum shear stress at the thicker end.= ( d e / d z ) J l c= 0.47 x lo3)/(0.208 x 7.28a) (5.28b) in which B is the angle of twist of the bar defining the anticlockwise rotation of P to P in the ..
= au lax.30a.31a) (5. boundary is also a trajectory.z are absent and that.29b) It follows from eqs(5. Point P will also displace in the z .1' + ra2). from eqs(5.~ = q. Lines of constant @in the section (Fig.34).31a) from eq(5.y plane. z. eq(5. is assumed to be proportional to the rate of twist 6816z and a function +?(x.32) becomes a2qjiax2+a2@lay2= 2 ~ ( 6 8 1 d ~ )  (5. Once qj has been found. The warping displacement w .28~).3 1b) gives Introducing the Prandtl stress function @. 5. The components of shear stress present are those associated with the nonzero shear strains. These are. since yv = au/ay+ avlax = .)in the directions shown in Fig.= r. the crosssection does not shear in the x. usually associated with qj= 0.12a. since 5.29a) (5.8+ B= 0.3 1b) Subtracting eq(5.y ) describing the variation in w over the crosssection.30a) (5.12b) are trajectories of constant resultant shear stress r = . d( 1.The distortion of the crosssection out of its own plane is defined by the following two shear strain components (5.. From eqs(5. E.30b) which act together with their complements ( rx. the warping function +?followsfrom eq(5. . = avlay and c2= aw1a. will The .17ac) that direct strains E.34) The determination of the shear stress distribution consists of finding a function @tosatisfy eq(5. (5.THEORIES OF TORSION 209 direction of the torque. 5. be zero for the exterior surface.28ac) and eqs(2..direction as the crosssection warps out of the x . This gives the warping function where +? is to be determined. examine the strains associated with a displacement vector PP. Next.. (5.b).29a and b). y plane.
Integrating over x and y.b). Tis found from the double integral T= 11w.35) applies to all torsion problems including thin strips and open and closed tubes.(5.13a.YTrr)hdY Substituting the stress function 4 from eqs(5.. with @= around the boundary.210 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES Figure 5.x 2 / A .33) .12 Shear stresses and their resultant trajectories Figure 5. the applied torque becomes The final term in eq(5. [x@]= b4]= 0. Hence..33a. is x / A + y / B = 1.12a shows how the resistive torque is the resultant of the two shear stress distributions. Determine the stress distribution and the manner of warping and show that the equations reduce to simple torsion theory in the case of a circular shaft. Example 5. given in Fig. 0 and. X Y .y 2 / B 2 ) provides a solution to the torsion of an elliptical shaft whose section. 5.13 Elliptical section . Equations(5.6 Show that the function 4= C (1 . Figure 5.35) apply to all prismatic bars but they are unable to provide closed solutions to all but a few bar sections.
c a [ i .x 2 /A 2 ) T=(8CB/3) I A A (1 . the resultant shear stress is .A 2 ) / ( B 2 + A 2 ) .(x/y)(B2/A2)drwherey= d(1. for a given twist rate 68/6z. Fig.x ~ / . The stresses are then found from eqs(5. i.THEORIES OF TORSION 211 The constant C is found from eq(5.X ~ I A ~ .x 2 / A 2 ) 3 ' 2 d r With a further trigonometric substitution x = A sin /?.Y~~ / B ~ ] / ~ x A = 2x B2G (68/6z)l(A2+ B 2 ) (iii) The warping function is found from equating (iii) to 5.2 C / B 2 = .~ / ~ ~ ] / a y ~ = . 5. @ ( x .2 A 2 / ( A 2 + B 2 ) ] = y ( B 2 .35) where T=2 4 dr dy = 2C J J (1 x2/A2. to give T=nABC= [nA3B'/(A2 + B 2 ) ] G ( 6 8 / 6 ~ ) (ii) The fact that the term in square brackets is the polar second moment of area for an elliptical section confirms the validity of the function 4.33a.30b). Thus.2 C / A 2 .y = . For example.=a#/ay=ca[i .b).e. Putting A = B = R in eq(ii) facilitates a circular section of radius R.y 2 / B 2 )dr dy B Substitutingdy= .2yA2G(68/6~)l(A2+B2) rzy= a@/ax=.2G(68/&) :_ = A C B G (68/6z)/(A + B 2 ) The check on the function is made through eq(5. = ~ ( a @ / a x y)(68/6z)=.13b shows these to be upward in quadrant 2.2 y ~ ~ ~ ( 6 8 / 6 ~ ) / ( ~ ~ + ~ ~ ) :. downward in quadrant 3.2y A 2/(A + B 2 .30a ? . r. and from eqs(iii and iv). y ) = y x ( B 2 A 2 ) l ( B 2 + A 2 ) : from which the warping displacements are given by Equation (v) may be checked from eqs (iv) and (5. There is no warping at points along the x and y axes. Equation(v) describes hyperbolas of constant w .34) when . when x or y is zero. a @/ax . a@/ax=y[l . integral is evaluated using the result the in eq(i). eq(v) describes the manner in which every crosssection warps.
Example 57 Show that when a prismatic bar has a rectangular section for which breadth 6 .6)in the form where it also becomes apparent from eq(v) that when w = 0 for circular sections. Find the warping function for the strip when the dimensions are 6 = 100 mm and t = 5 mm. which may be integrated directly.34) becomes a 2 # l a y 2 = . Figure 5.At 12 + B Adding and subtracting gives A = 0 and B = G(68/6z)(t2/4 ) It follows from eq(5. 5. the corresponding stress function confirms the thin strip theory given in Section 5.32b) that the vertical shear stress component is . D thickness t (Fig.212 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (vii) Combining eqs(vi) and (vii) recovers eq (5.G (68162) t’14 .14 Rectangular section bar The curvature of a thin strip allows a simplification Equation(5.14a). plane crosssections remain plane.G (68162) t214 + A t 12 + B 0 = .2G (68162) a ‘# I a x ’ = 0 for the xdirection. to give #=  G (68/&)y2+ A y + B Taking the boundary y = k t12 to be the contour # = 0 gives 0 = . Find the twist rate and the manner in which the section warps under a torque of 10 Nm. Take G = 80 GPa.2.
= a@/ay= .y 2 ) d y [*‘‘dS 112 bl2 Combining eqs(i) and (ii) confirms the previous derivation in eq(5. x = y = 0 and w = 0 (see Fig. The plan and sectional elevations of the membrane. Membrane Analogy I Prandtl showed that eq(5. .3.5) xy) w. . 5.15b is adax. Resolving the tangential forces leads to a vertical equilibrium equation for the element.b). 5.5) @ C (.2~ y (6ei6Z) (i) which reveals a linear variation across the thickness.15b.THEORIES OF TORSION 213 That is. shown in Fig.. This gradient increases by the amount a/ax(azlax)& = (d2dax2)&at the right edge as shown.3.5) @ D (. Equating (i) to (5.21). from eq(5.75 x 10. The integration applies to x.30b).03x 1 0 . 68/6 z= T I ( G J ) = ( l O x 103)/[(100x53/3)(80x10’)]=0.3.30a) supplies the warping function cc/ This is readily confirmed from eq(5. Note.33a).14a.50.15a.75 x mm w. 5.75 x mm w8 = + 3. are found from eqs (iii) and (5.1 2 ( r 2 / 4 .75 x mm Along each axis of symmetry.50. 5.14b.’ mm w c = . The nonzero r. that the minus sign arises because this derivation employs a positive anticlockwise torque.35a) T= 2 1 1 @ d x d y = 2 6 ( 68/ 6z ) / r.2.15a) and tangential to the surface in Fig. The surface element 6x x 6 y has forces S6 x and S 6 y acting parallel to x and y (Fig.14b). The twist rate is. (Figs 5. + 2.2. y axes of symmetry with an origin at the centre of twist where w = 0.5) @ B (+ 50. The gradients of the left edge of the element in Fig.03 x 103rad/mm and the warping displacements.19). + 2. The torquetwist relationship is supplied from eq(5.=+ 3. 5. 5. = . . having a maximum value along the longer sides for y = r r/2.3 @ A (+ 50. from the comparison with eq(5. The pressure p deflects the membrane in the zdirection and stretches it with a uniform surface tension S (N/mm). 5. reveal the forces acting on an element of the deflected surface.34) is similar in form to the differential equation governing the deflection of a membrane pressurized from one side. the vertical shear stress is disregarded when b horizontal shear stress is. D t in Fig.28~): w=o.
36) Now.b).p/s The volume beneath the deflected membrane is given by (5. the stress function becomes @= x G (68/6z) = Deflection of membrane x G ( 6 8 / 6 ~ ) z (5. when we compare eqs(5. become .39) as J = T / [ G(68/62)]= Twice the volume under the membrane (5.37) with (5.33a. which are partial derivatives of @ (see eqs 5.214 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES xx Figure 5. For convenience if we set p/S = 2.39) (5.38) and the torque becomes T = Twice the volume beneath the membrane x G (68/6z) The St Venant torsion constant follows from eqs(5.35) and (5.34) and eq(5.15 Deflection of a membrane under lateral pressure which simplifies to a2zlax2+ azz/ay2= .36) with (5. the membrane analogy becomes clear.33.40) The shear stress components.
..16a. The righthand side of eq(5. cos a = dy/ds d@lds= rrrcos a .b) and noting (inset Fig.. Hence the shear stress vector must lie tangential to the contour line. 5.r Z ysin a (5. = z. It follows from eqs(5.5.42a) is zero. cos a . = 0..THEORIES OF TORSION 215 z. the normal and tangential vectors are n and s with magnitudes respectively. since d@/dsis zero when @ is constant for a contour line (by analogy z is constant in the deflected membrane).G (6e/aZ) x adax = .41) apply to the deflection of a membrane covering a hole of the same shape as the bar crosssection. refer to the plan of a contour in Fig. That is.42a) defines the projection of the two shear stress components upon the ndirection.16b) that sin a = dx/ds.6 At point A. from Fig..42a.16a.38 .42a) The lefthand side of eq(5. Taking measurements of the gradient of tangents lying on a contour enables the components of shear stress to be obtained experimentally for sections of complex shape.the gradient is d@/ds= (a@/ay)(dy/ds)+ (d@/ax)(dx/ds) II and s Substituting from eqs(5.b) that r.42b) The shear stress is zero normal to the contour. To show this.4la. v t S #constant \n Figure 5 1 Membrane analogy . = adlay = G ( 6 r 9 / 6 ~ )aday x = G (68/6z) x slope of membrane in the ydirection (5. 5.a@/ax= . If a bubble is blown over the hole then the stress function 4 can be identified with contour lines of constant deflection 2. At a given point on the contour.rzy a sin (5. the maximum shear stress is found from the gradient of the normal to the contour.G (68/6z) x slope of membrane in the xdirection (5.41a) qy= . Projecting the two shear stresses .4 1b) Equations (5. r. Now along the contour line S. 5.
dy/dn. Figure 5. It is clear from this that contour lines are flat in the central region of section AA but not of section BB. we see from the geometry in Fig.8 Confirm the torsion theory of a thin strip breadth b and thickness t ( b D r ) from the membrane analogy..17 Torsion of a thin rectangular strip Imagine a membrane stretched over a thin rectangular aperture b x t.dyldn) + (.16b that sin u = .Z + r.17 shows two further views of the membrane deflection under lateral pressure.43b) shows that the magnitude of the shear stress is the slope of the normal to the membrane. B 4L AA Figure 5.43a) Substituting from eqs(5. Example 5.216 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES at point A into the s .2. cos a= dxldn r= (a@/ay)(.16b that the resultant shear stress is rmrx = J(r.36) reduces to d2z / ax2= .direction (see Fig.a#/dx)(dx/dn) = . 5.16b) gives r= t.x+czy+c3 . 5.. 5.:) (5.d@/dn (5.b) and noting from Fig.4la. Integrating these for z z=x2+c. Also.43b) Equation (5.43c) We shall first apply the membrane analogy to confirm the known solution to torsion of a thin strip and then show how the result can be employed to describe the torsion of an aerofoil section divided into thin strips. Thus d2z / dy2=0 and eq(5.sin a+ tzv cos cz (5.
39) .(5. as shown in Figs 5. since for x = 0. zzx 0 .x2+t2/4 z= The encosed volume eq(5. Also for x and t /2. z = 0 which gives C. The section is divided into thin strips.18a. C2 are zero. = This shows that zzyis the the resultant shear stress for which a maximum occurs at the edges where x = t /2 .18 Aerofoil section .39).Hence the deflection equation becomes .37) becomes By the analogy. it follows from eqs(5.THEORIES OF TORSION 217 = where both C.. dddy = 0.41) that J = bt'/3 T = 2G ( d B / d z ) ( b t 3 / 6= GJ (dB/dx) ) z = 2Gx (dB/dx). = t2/4. = Gt (dBIdz) = 3T/ ( b t 2 ) 5. but two approximate solutions are available from eqs(5. I9 I i=O I Figure 5.3. adax = 0 and for y = 0.z .2 Aerofoil Section There is no stress function appropriate to a prismatic bar with an aerofoil section.21) and (5.b. Here it is necessary to align the long side of the strip with the ydirection and call this the thickness as shown.
t 2 .3 (5. Substituting (i) . b and c are found from the following conditions: (i) y = .h s y 5 h.4 t. + t 3 ) [ ( t 3 t . B . ) + 4 t:(4 t + t.'(20 t 2 .45a). is given by eq(i) &'= ( Ix z h dx)dy = [ I . . The second solution avoids the error associated with a varying thickness within each strip. the torsion constant eq(5.16 t I t . t = t. A .2 t .45b .21).) (5. the semiwidth) . t= 2tTl J when t is its maximum semithickness (i.47b .. with t positive.47a) where.46) Substituting eq(5.the volume beneath a membrane covering the elemental strip (shaded) T x S y . + t 3 ) 3 Substituting eqs(5. .2 t .47b) (5. The maximum shear stress in the aerofoil is.45a) where the constants a.44) where i = 1.47c) (5.18b)..2 + 2 t 2 t .2t. Using the result in Example 5. U C ) = [ 3/(40 h4)](t. t = t .47d) (5. t . 5. B=u + b z ) = [ t2/(4h2)](2t . gives a = f. . + t 3 ) l + (UC D = c 3 / 7 =[1/(56hh)](t. .40) that J is twice this total volume..3 t .8. This applies the membrane analogy across two strips adjacent to xaxis (see Fig. and (iii) y = h.2 t . h in Fig.18a as J = (h/3) i . Recall from eq(5.(iii) into (5.45a) into eq(5. C and D are found from eqs(5. + t 1 2 ) C = ( 3 ~ / 5 ) ( 6 .+t3)/(2h2) b=(t. + t 3 2.TI2 '"(T2/4  x 2 ) dr] S y = (T3/6)Sy (5.47a) leads to V=(2h/105)[13 t .I1 t. t 3 ] t3.)/(2h) c = ( t . the whole volume beneath an aerofoil membrane may be found. Let the profile within the region .d) as A = a 3 =t 2 . t = t.2 t .(t I .e ) into eq(5.48) By taking further pairs of strips. ) ' + 2 t.e.23a) is applied to strips of equal spacing.3 t I ) .h. where N is the number of strips and t i is the "thickness" at the i th position. be given by the parabola: t = a + by + cy2 (5..47e) (5. (ii) y = 0. I c N t. from eq(5. N .218 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES In the first solution.. 5. 2 . t.46) with T = 24 the volume beneath the two strips becomes V=(4/3) I h ( a+ by + c y 2 ) ' d y The integration leads to V = (8/3)(A h + B h 3 + C h' +Dh') (5. ' + 64 t: + I3 t 3 3 ) + t12(20 2 .
eq(5.49a) in which 4 now replaces B as the symbol for twist (Bis a polar coordinate).19 Torsion of a shaft with varying diameter (a) Twist Rate Since all crosssections are circular. This gives J = Y2n [r(z)I4from which the angular twist 4 for the shaft is 4= [ 2 T / ( n G11 1d z [ r (z )I (5. eq (5. Band z.19b.49a) may be expressed in terms of the single variable z by substituting the relationship r = r(z) describings the sides. (b) Equilibrium The only nonzero stresses are the shear components r.19a).as shown in Fig. 6@/6z=T I ( J G ) (5.To find 4 over a finite length. . 5. r. Band z are used to describe the torsion of a shaft whose diameter varies with length (see Fig. as shown. . and z = zro. and rmacting with their complements T . 5.49b) in which T and G are assumed constant. These stresses must be allowed to vary with .THEORIES OF TORSION 219 5. Figure 5. so that the tangential equilibrium equation for the element becomes .6) may be applied to find the twist rate in this shaft.4 Circular Shaft With Variable Diameter Polar coordinates r. = z.
. l a @ ] d r 6 z sin (68/2)+[2.laz=a~. y.50) will be satisfied by a stress function x ( r . Clearly eq(5.52b).e.8 and and 8. / a z )= o (5.50) (c) Compatibility The shear strain occurs within two planes in Fig.laz = 0 a ( r 2 t o ..52a) G y r o and to= .. r . sin (6812) + 6 8 / 2 and we can cancel 68 throughout and also ignore terms in ( S r ) 2 .52a). + 6 ~ a r o .laryoz/r t.220 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES r o r 6 r 6 zsin (6812) + [ r . ) / a r+ r 2 ( a t o . This means that the front face and the top faces will both distort in shear.5 la. Let v describe the tangential displacement accompanying twist...19b. to give ar. the shear strain in the 8.. = (5./ar . (5.b).+ 6z (at..z plane is simply This gives The distortion in the r 8 plane is found by setting au/a8= 0 in eq(2./az)68 leads to the required equilibrium equation 2r.51b) Since the two shear strains depend upon a single displacement the compatibility condition follows from eliminating v from eqs(5. Thus.35~)..52b) (d) Stress Function The exact solution must satisy both eqs(5.z. When compatibility is written in terms of stress. i.. u = w = 0. 5.to give Dividing throughout by r 6 r 6z and ignore the product (ar. z ) in which the two shear stress components are given by .rozIr G t s zin (5.v/r ./ar + at. Partial differentiation of eq(5.+ 6 r ( a r r o / a r ) ] ( r +6r)686z + [ t....50) and (5.51a) ay..laz=ar.laz)](r + S r / 2 ) 6 8 6 r + t. we set eq(5. It is assumed that this point does not displace radially or axially.lr + ato.5 lb) with respect to z leads to and substituting from eq(5. = av far . r 6 8 6z = 0 When 66 0.
..20a also shows that zmax from eq(5. (e) Boundary Conditions The complete solution to the problem is reduced to finding a stress function x= ~ ( r . Hence the projection of the forces due to zo2and t o .)cos a .56b) Equation (5.53b) Substituting eqs(5.b). The second condition is that eq(5. Figure 5.that z) satisfies eq(5.56a) where cos a = 6 d 6 s and sin a = 6 r / & (see Fig.b) into eq(5.. for any . 6 r .20a) must in sum to zero. and z act on the same area & x . 5.20 Boundary conditions This gives ( 2 n r 6s x r..b) into (5.53a. 5. for a given position (r. Referring to Fig. z). Substituting eqs(5. z) must remain constant along the boundary. r.53a) (5. sin a = 0 tor) sin a= 0 (5.52b) leads to Looking at the side face of Fig.. the maximum shear stress is the resultant of eqs(5.53a. a normal direction n to the boundary (see Fig. Thus.19b.]. 5.55) and is independent of 8.= J ( r .53a.56a) gives (21 r2)(dXlds)= 0 (5. Figure 5.20b).2) (5.( 2 n r 6s x r. it is known that there can be no force acting normal to the boundary..55) lies tangential to the boundary.THEORIES OF TORSION 221 (5. 0 2+ r. 5.19b we see that both r. In the first.53a) must obey torque equilibrium.56b) shows that x ( r .r ..54) and the following two boundary conditions imposed upon x. cos a .
from eqs(5. the constant gradient to the sloping boundary as cos a = z / { J[(z2+ (r .over length L. we can derive the stress function ~ ( rz ) from .49b).a ) d L and drld z = ( b .4.[2TU[3Cn(6 . Finally.a ) ] } 1 f3(* @ =(2TL/[3Gz(b.'/3c0s3a) where the constant C is found from the second boundary condition (5. 5.21) is a special case of the foregoing theory. can be shown to be x(c0s a ) = C ( c o s a .a)/L in eq(5.b). The twist 8.53) and (5.222 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES section of outer radius a T=2nr'to.dr=2n 10" (ax/ar)dr Thus.21 Conical shaft under axial torque b @= (2TL/[Gn(b . the function xmust satisfy (5.a ) 1) = constant (5. on every crosssection defined by T = 2 n [ ~ ( aZ) .57) to be T=2K[C(COSaThis gives C = T/ ( ~ ~ [ ( C O S.54). follows from substituting r(z) = a + (b . The latter substitution gives the twist as Figure 5.56a.55). s which satisfies eq(5.57) 5. Conical Shaft I The torsion of a conical shaft (Fig.60a) (COSP'3 C O S ' ~ ) ] } 1 (5. .~ ( 0z .59a) The correct function x ( r . )I z.' 3 C O S ' ~ ) a 1 '/3COS3a) (5. z ) = ~ ( c o a). .60b) where cos p= z / d ( z 2+ a 2 . defines the angle shown.58) 1 b b') From the first boundary condition (5. the shear stresses are.59b) C(C0Sp '/3C0S3p)] (5.a ) ] ) F 4 d r = .u ) ] ) ( ~ / u /~ 3 ) = [ 2 T U ( 3 n G ) ] ( ~ ~ + ~ b + b ~ ) / ( a ' (5.
= r. In the BredtBatho torsion theory the torque is assumed to act about a longitudinal axis passing through a point in the crosssection known as the centre of twist. = C/a3= 3 T / ( 4 n a 3) Equation (ii) gives the maximum torque as T = 4nr. thinwalled.21). find (i) the end diameters and (ii) the maximum permissible axial torque. r.THEORIES OF TORSION T.61a..61c) Example 5. = fro= 223 r..61C).b) show that at the smaller end. The shear force introduces a flexural shear dealt with in Chapter 7.9 A steel shaft tapers for a length of 1.5 Torsion of ThinWalled Closed Sections Closed. Where the torque axis is displaced from the centre of twist we may take a statically equivalent system of a torque plus a transverse shear force at the centre of twist. 5 ~ 1 0 . The latter point does not rotate or displace axially and will lie at the intersection between the axes of symmetry within the crosssection. From eq(5. = 0 and r.b) (5.. when eq(5.. 5. . At this position z = 0 and r = a. where z = 0.' ~ 1 8 0 ) / l O '~ n x 4~ ( 9 x8 0 ) = 12. eq(5. .61a.60b) gives C = 3T/(4n).. Take G = 80 GPa.53)~/3 = 0.58) gives the angle of twist as q5= 7TL/ (12Gna4) (1) The maximum shear stress occurs in the outer fibres of the smaller diameter. (ii) (iii) a = (7rmdxL)/(9Gq5) = ( 7 ~ 6 0 ~ 1 .c r 2 / ( r 2+ z 2 ) 5 / 2 = c r / ( r 2+ z * ) (5.53 mm and from eq(iii) the permissible torque is T=4n~60~(12.a3/3 Substituting eq(iii) into (i) and rearranging for a. .495 kNm Equations (5. If the maximum shear stress is to attain 60 MPa as the angle of twist reaches 4". c r z ( r 2+ 2' )5'2. When b = 2a (see Fig. single and multicell tubular sections are able to withstand torsion by means of a constant shear flow around the wall.5 m between end diameters one of which is twice the other.. the components of the maximum shear stress are z. 5.
Note that z= q/t is constant only when t is constant. S.22a enclose an area A within its mean wall centre line.63) where q is known as the shear flow and remains constant around a thinclosed section regardless of its shape. as follows: sT= (q ds)R T=q$Rds (5. this produces shear stress r in the wall which varies over an element ABCD of dimension 6 s x 6z in the manner shown.62a) and neglecting the product (dz/ds)6t leads to t ( 6 t l h )+ t (drlds) = 0 (5.22 Torsion of a closed singlecell tube (a) Shear Flow The following equation expresses the force equilibrium of this element in the z . When the tube is subjected to a torque T. as 6 t and & approach zero.64a) . 5. Firstly.5. eq(5.direction: r d z t = [r+(dtlds)&](t+6t)d~ Expanding (5.62b) becomes a differential product d( ~t )/ds = 0 from which it follows that q = t t = constant (5. (b) Torque It is apparent from Fig. Figure 5.224 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5.62b) In the limit.22b that the torque T is resisted by the shear flow. it is assumed that the thickness t varies with the perimeter length s in a similar manner for every crosssection at position z in the length.62a) (5.1 Single Cell Tube Let the closed tube in Fig.
66a) is integrated around the section. 5.direction.68) .67a) to give a convenient formula: (5.(68/6z) $ R6s (5.23 Shear distortion within a wall element Figures 5.64a) and (5.66b) Equations (5.THEORIES OF TORSION 225 Now R ds is twice the shaded area shown.67) Introducing the St Venant torsion constant J. in Fig.64b) (c) Twist Rate The rate of twist 66/62 is found from a similar analysis to that previously employed for thin strips.23a.66b) give the twist rate as d8/d z = [T/(4A ' ) $ (ds/t) = [q/(2AG )] G] $ (ddt) (5.23a) 4. WD Figure 5.64) and (5. Substituting from eq(5.5.23b) q52 due to warping.23~ point A displaces to A' by rotating an amount R68 in the s direction and by warping an amount 6 w in the z . due to twist and (Fig. and therefore the path integral $ R ds describes twice the area enclosed by the section.64b). The torque is simply T = 2Aq = 2Art (5. +tan @ 2 = R ( 6 8 / 6 z )+ 6 w / 6 s (5. For example.5. The shear strain becomes y = tan 4.b show that the distorted shape of the surface element ABCD is the sum of two distortions (Fig. (5.65) Equation (5. J = 4 A 2 / [$ (ds/ t ) 3 we may combine eqs(5. 0 = [T/(2AG )] $ &/t . for the element. the warping displacement will be zero.65) gives the warping displacement.66a) When eq(5.
. then w. it follows from eq(5.. to give B= [TLI (4 A C )] $ (ds/t ) = [qU(2AC)] $ (ds/t ) L (5..64b) and (5.66a) supplies the warping displacements w at distance s from this datum..67) may be integrated directly.71a) When the datum is chosen to coincide with an axis of symmetry.(R ds) [ T / (4A C )] w .. = d t .. I i = A. eq(5. A is the total area enclosed by the section and A. The area enclosed is A =nR * and the path integral is i = 277 R/t. 5.. I A (5. Within a segment of area A.67).. we see that eq(5.22a the warping displacement is w.7 la) may be written as w = [ T i l ( 2 A G ) ] [ i .= [T/(2AC)] J'(ds/t) 0  w = [T/(2AC )][ 1'ds I 0 $ (ds/t ) [ T / ( 4 A 2 C ) ]$ (ds/t) I' Rds ' 0 f  [ I / (2A)]$ ds/ t f 0 ' R ds ] + w.. Where a warping displacement w. = 6ds/t.67) gives the angle of twist as 0 = 'A [ IoL ( z ) T dz / [A(z)12 } $ [ds/(Ct )I (5.72) is also satisfied by a uniform thickness triangular tube and a rectangular tube ..w.. 5.. is the segment of area enclosed between & and the centre of twist (see Fig. added to the right side of eq(5.7 1b) where i = dslt.(R ds)(dB/dz) = [T /(2AG )] ds/ t . The integration in eq(5.. and i..72) Consider a circular tube with mean radius R and of uniform thickness.71b) that a section will not warp when i. is Otherwise.226 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES For a uniform section in the same material.71b). w....72) is satisfied (slt) / (2nRIt) = (Rs/2)/(nR2) Equation (5.67) is modified to B = [ l /(4A2G)] I0 T(z )dz $ ( d s l t ) (5. i. /A] (5.22b).. (5. Substituting from eqs(5... occurs at the origin for s.. eq(5. = 0 and eq(5.70a) The torque Twill vary with z in uniform tubes of length L under wind loading and under multiple torques.70~) (d) Warping Assume that at the datum for s in Fig. Equation (5. = Rs12.... dw = (z/G ) ds .70b) When both T and A vary with z (say) in a tapered composite tube. / iA ..
= 15 kNm.67/2 = 33. Assuming the section is free to warp. . the maximum shear stresses within the walls at the fixed end can be found r= Tm.z ) (Nm) Setting z = 0 for the free end gives a maximum torque T.5 x l o 3 ) ’ ] dO/dz = 8..THEORIES OF TORSION 227 in which the ratio of the side lengths equals the ratio of their thicknesses.’ ”rad/mm Integrating eq(i) over the length gives the free end twist.67/4 = 16.10 Figure 5. Working in units of N and mm dO/dz = [T (z) 4 4 A 2 .780) = 14./(2A t ) = (15 x 106)/(2 x 1 12.33 MPa. find the greatest values of shear stress attained in each material.154 + 1. Example 5.493 x lo’] / [ 4 x (1 12. A tube of similar section is held at one end when subjected to a uniformly distributed anticlockwise torque of 3 k N d m over a length of 5 m. Using eq(5.64b).67 MPa In this example the twist rate follows from eq(5..3125 + 5. the angular twist and the twist rate.z ) x l o . 3 Ip [ d ~ l ( G t ) ] = [3 x lo3x (5000 .59(5000 .67/6 = 10. r= 66. Tubes that do not warp are known as Neuber tubes.493 x l o e 3 mm2/N With the origin for z at the fixed end.24 Singlecell tube A=?h(150+300)200+1/2(150+300)300= 112.67/ t steel webs: r= 66.5 x 103mm2 4 ds/(Gt) = 2 [150/(80 x lo3x 6) + (752+ 3 0 0 2 ) ” /(2 x 30 x l o 3 ) + (75 + 2002)”/ (4 x 30 x l o 3 )] = 2 x lo’ (0.24 shows a composite aluminium section with vertical webs in steel.5 x 10’ t ) = 66.67). Take G = 30 GPa for aluminium and G = 80 GPa for steel.Z) x 14. the torque varies as T (z) = 3(5000 . \ 4 I 1501 IS0 Figure 5.11 MPa aluminium spars: z= 66.
I So00 (5000 .q. the structure is statically indetermittate. This equilibrium condition follows from eq(5. 5.2. t .74a) (5.z2/2 Ism = 8.3 and 4. and t34can vary between cells. To find SB/& we must modify eq(5. These rates are (5. The twist rate for the end cells 1 and 4 is modified by the shear flow in a single adjacent web.2 MultiCell Tube In a multicell tube (see Fig.'" x 50002/2= 0. Also. .74c) .59 x 10.59 x lo"' J. t3 and f4 and the web thicknesses t 1 2 . T Figure 5. G 1 2 etc will differ if the cells are manufactured from different materials.74b) (5.25) the wall thicknesses t.. f.z ) dz = 8.228 MECHANlCS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES B= 8. and q4 be the shear flows around individual cells 1. The shear flows follow the direction of the applied torque T so that the latter will equal the sum of the torques due to the shear flow in each cell.0107 rad (0.73) cannot be found from equilibrium alone.64) as Because the q's in eq(5.59 x lo"' 5000 z .615') 5.67) to account for the opposing shear flows on each side of each web. q 2 . The solution to the shear flows employs an additional compatibility condition that the twist rate Sd/& within each cell is constant. it is possible that the shear moduli for the wall and the webs GI . G . The twist rate for cells 2 and 3 is modified by the shear flow in two adjacent webs.25 Shear flow in a multicell tube '4 Let q1. .5.
9 x l o 3 mm2 The line integral appearing in eq(5.26b to make a twocell tube. There are many simplifications that can be made to these equations. . r2= q2i t .85 kNm over a length of 10 m (a) the shear flow. = q 3 /t. 5.85 x 106)/(2x 34. (d) the angle of twist and (e) the warping displacements at points A. (5. when the tube supports a torque of 1. each with area A and in a single material. For example. B. 5. 5. q l = q2= q3 = q4= q and T = 2nAq. C and D when the torque is applied at the position shown. r4= q4/I .26 Thinwalled closed tubes section under torsion The enclosed area within Fig..b. r. Take G = 79 GPa.2 (a) q = Ti(2A) = (1.Once the q’s are solved the shear stresses in the walls are given by r l = q l i t I .73) and (5. (c) the twist rate.75a.5 Nimm .THEORIES OF TORSION 229 The compatibility condition is The six eqs(5. Examine the influence on the twist and the shear stress when a vertical web is placed at the position shown in Fig. (b) the shear stresses in the walls.54 + 10.c) and in the webs.74ae) are sufficient to solve q .11 The crosssection of a thinwalled.26a Determine. Figure 5. q 2 . with n identical cells. . Example 5.(125)2]”2 = (24.67) is $ (ddt) = ( X X 12514) + 2(150/2) = 248.q3 and q4.9 x 10’) = 26. singlecell tube is shown in Fig.36) x l o 3 =34.26a is A = ~ ( 1 2 5 ) ~+ 2 / (250/2)[(150)’ .
54 x lo') 4. = 24.175/ 248.2 . (Sdslt)..36 x LO' and their path integrals are ($ ds/r).=(125/2)(1502. i.(29. are relative to any warping that may occur at the torque point.182 x 10')/(34.85 x 10' x 248.08 4 . = ( n x 125/4) + 250/ 0.s = i /2.63 MPa t 2 q / t 2= 2 6 3 2 = 13..73 x lo' mm2 i.(5. 5. Taking A as the datum for s measured anticlockwise (i.. then clearly wc = 0. A.6835 x x 79 x lo'] "/mm (d) For a 10 m length under a uniform torque the angular twist becomes 8= 0. out from the page in Fig...514 = 6.36 x lo') 92 1850 = 49. Only when T is applied at the centre of twist does warping become an absolute displacement. The = warping displacements wB and w. + 20.v Areas (OAB + OBC + OCD) and i.67 = 373.08327 mm TheareaOABisA. From eq(5.54 x lo'..1 and for the vertical web. for the path ABCD = A.9 x lo')] = .26a.7 1 b).7 1 b) is applied to point C where A.1 Equation(5.. the same direction as T ) eq(5. The coefficient in this equation is T i / (2AG) = (1.1252)"2=5... = q/t.08327[75/248.v A/2 and i.726 x 10')/(34...0128 mm The positive sign for wBmeans it follows positive z.08327 [173.7lb) is applied to find the warping displacement at B. = 26.25 MPa = (c)d B / d z = [T/(4A2G)1$ (dslt) = (1. the cell areas are A . + 2A2q2 1..182x 103mm2. Thelineintegral from A to B is i.71b) shows further that warping at D is of similar magnitude but of opposite direction. = 10.9 x lo')] = 0.e.85 x 10' = (2 x 24..) = 0. + (2 x 10.125')/2 + ~ ( 1 2 5 ) ~= 2 / 29. Here we have A.193 x 10.= 150/2 = 75.0128 mm When eq(5...67 = 471. = 250/0.2) / [4 x (34.9 x = 1.6835 x x 10 x l o'= 0. wH= 0.85 x 10' x 248.684" (e) Warping is absent at points A and C along the axis of symmetry. For the twocell tube. q . Equation (5..2 .e. = 2( 150/2) + 250/0.2) / (2 x 34.. = 150/2 + ( n x 125/4) = 173.73) becomes (units of N and mm) T = 2A . = (12512) (150' .18 w.230 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (b) r .67 = 523.0.72 42 .3 ($ ds/r).9 x lo3 x 79 x 10') = 0...' rad/mm = 0.
b. we may equate (ii) to (iii). This reciprocal relationship between the two centres was used to show their coincidence (Hoff 1943). length s lie along the midwall perimeter and R be the direction of the normal to the midwall (see Fig.67 = 6.39 x 373. r1= q1/ t .( q 2 x 373. 5. The centre of twist will not coincide with the centroid of the section in general.82 x 471.1)] .82 .54)[(ql x 471.39/2 = 11.27a).69 MPa r I z = . 1897q. Similarly.648' The web has only a small influence in reducing r2and 66/6z.75a.62 MPa (ql The twist rate follows from eq(ii) as 68/62= [1/(2 x 24. : (iv) Substituting eq(iv) into eq(i) gives q2= 23.d).648 x x 10 x l o 3= 0.(42 x 373. from eqs(5.3) . .32 x 10')][27.1)] = 1. The analysis of an open tube is simplified by knowing that the centre of twist coincides with the shear centre E of the section (see Chapter 7). The shear centre refers to that point in the section through which a transverse shear force must pass if it is to bend and not twist the section.q 2 ) /t I 2 = (27.( q l x 373. = 23.27a.6 WagnerKappus Torsion of Open Restrained Tubes Consider a thinwalled open tube subjected to an axial torque about a longitudinal zaxis passing through the centre of twist.36/24. other than z in Fig.x 523. The shear stresses in the walls and web are.1)] = (10.(23.1)] x = [1/(3877. a torque must be applied at the centre of twist if it is not to bend the section.3) .3) . The latter refers to a point in the crosssection where there are to be no resultant moments about axes.74a.54 x 10' x 79 x 103)][(q1 471.e.THEORIES OF TORSION 231 The twist rates in each cell (see eqs 5. it stiffens the tube. q1= I .648~ O/mm The twist in a 10 m length of this tube becomes 6= 0..b) become (ii) (iii) Now.39 N/mm and q 1= 27. to give [(q. = 27. as (dB/dz). Let the coordinate axis z pass through E.1) .82/4 = 6. 5.95 MPa r2= q2/t . i.23. = (d8/dz). 5.82 N/mm.39)/0.131 x lO~'rad/rnm=0.
z and n .76) 5. as shown.232 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES S \ I n Figure 5.28 Normal and tangential radii to median line Note that the elemental length & subtends an area at E: f3AE=V2R..28b. and R . as shown in Fig.27b the shear stresses z.27 Element of a thin walledopen tube under torsion In Fig. the tube will warp freely in its length. Let the tube twist by the small amount 6 8 a t E so that point C moves to C' in Fig. 5.. .6.b. The tangential and normal components of this displacement are R . Two warping displacements of C: 6w. 5.28a.. They are found from the shear distortion of the element in the s .& (5. R. 68 respectively. are centred for C at E. within an element 6s x 6 z of the wall are shown .and &.I Unconstrained Warping When there are no constraints to twist. Consider a point C lying on the median line s. Restraining warping will introduce an axial stress a. 68 and R . with their complementary actions. 5. If we draw the tangent to s at this point then normal and tangential radii. are aligned with the length.z planes as shown in Figs 5. and q . S r E E Figure 5. respectively.29a..
ds = .30 Areas enclosed by mean wall perimeter W=O .( 2 A. .29b. . the primary and secondary warping displacements are respectively. 68.30a). = .2R. .77a) (5. S=O w=o Figure 5. 5. 5. the direction of 2.)(68/6Z) (5. the datum s = 0 (where w = 0) and the perimeter length s (see Fig..77b) w. = G y.vz G y. to be independent of n. are to equal zero along the midline it follows = that the warping increments are Now from eq(5. = ! k 2 ( 6 ~ .(68/6z) 1’ 0 R . The shear strain yvzin the s .z plane and is constant across the wall.. 5.n (rsB/Gz) = where A.29a) occurs in the s . S S E \. C also displaces tangentially by the in amount R ...z plane is the sum of the two shear angles Secondary warping occurs in the n .29 Distortion to the wall of an open tube under torsion Primary warping (Fig.z plane and varies through the wall in the manner of Fig..THEORIES OF TORSION 233 n FW Fz 2 Figure 5.. is the area swept between E. The shear strain is given as y . ( 6 8 / 6 ~ ) + If the shear stresses z. The corner C will warp by an amount &. / 6 n )R ... . & = 2 6 A E‘ Taking R . w.. .76) R . and z.
79c) in We can then interpret eq(5.2A..78b) into eq(5..t d s .79a) becomes Js 2A. However.77a. That is. secondary warping w .30b).6.77a) will be incorrect by an amount A.. Equation(5. 5.77a) correctly supplies the relative displacements between points.78c) (5.c). eq(5. in eq(5. be the total area swept from s = 0 in Fig. The analysis proceeds with primary warping w . when s = 0 does not coincide with a point of zero warping displacment (see Fig.from ~ eq(5.tds=O (5.' 1't d s = O as (5. + w. (5. = A E + A. this displacement will be found to be independent of the position of the centre of rotation E.78a) where uzfollows from Substituting eq(5. eq(5.= .79b) gives A = J' y d s / J' ds (5. 5. the swept volume required is overestimated by an amount A. 5.. 5. ~ usually negligible although we shall look at is the influence of this in paragraph 5. 5. but ~ note that A.' (see Fig.b). n ) then w = w .78a.79~) the manner of Fig.6.30b). u..79b) Writing = 2A.79a) Let A.3..31 Graph of y versus s .30b... from eqs(5.31. and when applied between free surfaces. To correct for this we must use the fact that axial stresses induced from constraining warping have no resultant force. t S Figure 5. therefore. varying only with z and.However.sand taking t as a constant.' and y = 2 .. /'2A.234 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES If we wish to find the total warping displacements at point (s.78b).2 Constrained Primary Warping It may not be obvious where a point of zero warping exists and so by taking an arbitrary origin for s.2 A E E ( d 2 6 / d Z 2 ) Now B is independent of s.
78~) eq(5.z and n .83a) . + a r. t as x Substituting eq(5.b show the two planes s .6.81b) is used later (see section 5..8 1 b) Equation (5.=JqR. 2AE=2A.v. 4 (a) rsz  Z  (b) Z r. In primary warping.32a becomes which gives The horizontal equilibrium equation for the n .82b) The WagnerKappus torque then follows from the shear flow as T..32b becomes which gives a 0.82a).3) for a secondary warping analysis. 5. [ 1 ' ( 2 A E ) t d s ] d s (5.z in Fig. in which the axial and shear stresses are allowed to vary with 6s in the manner shown..80) Figures 5.32 Stress variations across element The horizontal equilibrium equation for the elements .27b.z element in Fig.THEORIES OF TORSION 235 This shows that is the ordinate of a rectangle with the same area as that enclosed between y and the perimeter length s. 5.81a) supplies the shear flow as q = r./an = o /az (5.7: within Fig.<2A.'= y  y (5. Figure 5. into 4 = f? (d BldZ ) I (2A )Id S (5.77a).32a. eq(5. Hence in eq(5.ds =E(d38/dz3) 1R . 5.
21) as T. + T.z ) I / cosh (pLL)) (5. the twist rate varies with length z.can be identified with the ordinatey in Fig. i.)’tds (5. = .86a).83~) a property of the section known as the primary warping constant r. d301dz3 (5. = 0. from eqs(5.76).. and T. T / (p PI)] { sinh [ p ( L . )].84b) we may interpret the first integrand as t x the square of the ordinate in Fig. diminishes to T / coshpL.. The latter follows from eq(5.[l/(pL)] tanh(pL}) (5.84b) If t is constant in eq(5. Hence the first integral in eq(5.83b) reduces to i i. r.87) z Equation(5.31 and the second integrand as I x the perimeter length.88a) .E r.87) shows that at the fixed end.85) supplies a solution to the rate of twist as where p = d[GJ / ( E I?.83~) (5. where .83b) becomes zero.86a) and substituting z = L gives the angular twist at the free end. in a tube constrained at one end.e.where from eq(5.23a.83~) is The integral term in eq(5.80)shows that 2A.83c).78~) (5. = GJ (68/6z).86b) The second term is the amount by which the free twist in the tube is reduced by the constraint.79b). At the free end (2 = L) T.85) where the form of J has been defined previously in eqs(5.12 A . Integrating eq(5.b).31.E(d’O/dz’) 1(2A.236 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES where c refers to the whole length of the midwall perimeter.z)] / C O S ~ p L ) [~ ( (5. T. 5. it does not disappear. = J y 2 t ds .= . Writing. Equation(5.86a) as and uz= . Finally.i’Jd s t (5. all the torque is due to bending. T.. 8=[TU(GJ)]{[1 .83a) by parts and substituting from eq(5. This gives T = T.83b) For a tube of constant thickness eq(5. the sum of the areas lying above and below as shown. i. The axial stress is given from eqs(5. Equation(5.. T=GJ(d8/dz)  Er. the Wagner torque. the total torque is the sum of the Wagner and St Venant torques. = T.(d ’ 8 / d z’) = T C O Sp ( L . Integrating eq(5.e. 5. Tw=E(d’8/dz3)[(2AE) 1( 2 A ~ ) f d s 1(2AE)’tds]  (5. Thus. This may be evaluated as follows: Substituting from eq(5.
5.88a) in terms of the free warping displacements w. 88~ ) which shows that a.33a../ cosh ( p L ) ] So'sinh [p (L w = w.88a. = I. Equation(5. is proportional to w. f 6 \ 5 J=h2/4 L 0 h 2h Figure 5.78b) gives the constrained warping displacements at position z.section in Fig.w. eqs(5. we see that a.section showing swept areas With the origin for s at point 1. The following examples will show how to apply the WagnerKappus theory to open tubes.THEORIES OF TORSION 237 Hence uzis zero at the free end and attains a maximum at the fixed end..CJ T / (PI?. w=(l/E) J ' q d z Substituting eq(5. Applying eq(5.b). .z )I/cosh ( F L) 1 ( 5. However.89a) z dz ) ] (5.. Show that the flanges carry all the bending torque.89a) and integrating. { sinh [P ( L . Fig.88~) eq(5.) =  /A E w. exists only at the free end and is eliminated at the fixed end.. Using eq(5. Example 5.79~) where J y ds are the enclosed areas and J ds is the perimeter length.33b shows twice the area swept out from a centre of twist at point 3. 5. (5.z )] / C O S ~ p L ) } ( Equation(5.77a) we may write the coefficient in eq(5.88~) (5. into w = [ p w. . The problem of constrained warping in closed tubes is more complex than in open tubes.89b) and still apply. { 1 C O S ~p [ (5.89b) ( L .12 Determine the warping constant and the unconstrained warping displacements for the I ..88b) Combining eqs(5. 4 h 7 T h 1 h2/2 t y=um 4 5 / l .89b) shows that free warping displacement w.33 I . for doubly symmetric tubes...L E w. (2A E ) T /(&) = .
say through building in one end. as shown for the free end of the cantilever i n Fig.238 MECHANlCS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 3h y = 2(h/4)(h2/4)+ 4 (h2/4)(h/2)+ (h/2)(h2/4) from which j = h2/4.84b) requires the equations of the straight lines in Fig. = 2t (h5/96+ h5/32 + 7h5/96) .(0 .33b 12: y = h s / 2 f y 2 d s = ( h 2 / 4 ) h 1 2 s2ds=h5/96 s / 23: y = h2/4 y’ds = (h4/16) 34: y = (h/2)(~ h/2) y‘ds = (h2/4) 3 h 1 z ( ~ h/2)’d s = 7hS/96  lS lS 1 ds = hS/32 h LIZ / h Substituting into eq(5. (GJ/T)w5= ..77a) as w = .h ’/4 ) = .(h2/2 . = (GJ/T)w. the integral J y’ds in eq(5. so they are . F Figure 5. These stresses are proportional to w .(CJ/T)w.h /4) = h /4 (GJlT)w2 (GJ/T)w. 5.21) and (5.. axial stresses are induced along the length. 7 follow from Fig.80).= .(h2/4.t (h2/4)2x 3h = t hs/24 Employing eqs(5.84b). so tha.[T/(GJ)] (y where y  U) j at points 1.h2/4 ) = 0 = = = (GJ/ T)w..34. 5.h 2/4 = Thus a plane crosssection does not remain plane but warps. To find r.33b. (GJ/ T )w .34 Warping and twist at the free end of a 1section under torsion When the free warping displacements are constrained. r. 5. the warping displacements follow from eq(5. 2 .
) d2vldz2= M (ii) where If = th '/I2 is the second moment of area of one flange.THEORIES OF TORSION 239 distributed in a similar manner to w within the flange of an I . Take E = 80 x lo' MPa and G = 30 x lo3MPa. \ I 0 h 2h 3h 4h 5h S (b) Figure 5.35a is rigidly fixed at one end and subjected to an axial torque of 2 Nm about a longitudinal axis passing through the shear centre at the free end...85) shows that we can again write I. (i) the angular twist and the warping displacements at the free end and (ii) the axial stress distribution and the shear flow at the fixed end. (7 . Adding this to eq(iii) gives the total torque.13 The thinwalled Ssection shown in Fig. L = 2 m.is negative since it opposes the applied torque T. as shown.35 Ssection cantilever Let the origin for s lie at point 1.axis (E I.35b for twice the swept areas between points E. the shear centre E and a point of zero warping. 5. T = G J ( 6 8 / 6 z ) . = G J (68/6z).' ) enclosed by point 1. 1 and points 2. t = 1 mm. 5.= . Show that the primary warping constant for the section is 13 t h5/12. Example 5. 6. Applying eq(5. 3 . Determine. If h = 50 mm. At the section shown the bending torque is found from the shear force F in each flange TI.. We first need to find the area = 2A. for a length of 2 m. Construct Fig. The flexure equation will apply to the lateral displacement v of the z . = (h 2/2)1 = th /24 thus ' confirming that the flanges carry the Wagner torque.34). Noting that v = (h/2)8and substituting eq(ii) into eq(i) TI.(h2/2)EIf d'eldz' (iii) The contribution to torque T from a St Venant torque has the usual unconstrained form T.79c).(h2/2)EIf d'8/dz3 (iv) Comparing eqs(iv) and (5. 5.beam (see Fig.
3h) for 3h s s s 4h 56: y = .6076 TI ( C J )= (2 x l o 3 )/ (80 x 103x 83.'= h 2 The torsion bending constant employs both ordinates eq(5.84) becomes = 2. r.35b. Compare this with an unconstrained twist of .1716 rad (9.5h) for 4h s s s 5h The integral in eq(ii) is evaluated between the appropriate limits IOs y 2 ds = h 2 Johs2ds+ (h/2)2 / ( "s h + h ) 2 ds + (9h4/4) S l h d s 2h + h 2 I3.33 mm4 p = d[GJ/(Er.2 : y = h s for O s s s h 23: y = (h/2)(s + h ) for h < s 5 2h 34: y = 3h2/2 for 2h i s i 3h 45: y = . (ii) The first integral requires equations of the lines 12. = t [73 h W 2 .33)/ (80 x l o 3x 338.h(s .240 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES y J'ds=Iyds L(5 h )= 2 ( h 2x h/2) + (3h2/2x h ) + 2(h2+ 3h2/2)h/2  y = 2A.h(s/2 . From Fig. the following values apply r.'and y = 2A With t constant.86b). these are 1 .3 x 103rnm" mm' The angular twist at the free end is found by substituting z = L in eq(5. 23 etc within the coordinates y and s.54 x l o 6 mm6 J = C(h t3/3) = 5 x 50 x 13/3= 83. 5. Substituting the values given above into eq(iv) gives 8= 0.y + h' I S h ( s 5h)'ds 4h = h5/3 + (h2/4)(19h3/3) 9h5/4+ h2(19h3/12) h2(h3/3) + + (iii) Substituting eqs(i) and (iii) into eq(ii).(s/2 = 73h5/12 .= 13 t h5/12= 13 x 1 x 505/12= 338.54 x lo')] = 0.3h)'d.83').( h 2 ) *x 5h]= 13 t h s / 1 2 For the section given.)]= J[(30 x lo3x 83.3038 x 2 = 0.33) = 0.3038 x p L = 0.
=(a.0. This gives a.5 x .25 MPa ~ ) At the fixed end...1 0 . for points 1.[2AET/(pI?.)~ = ( u .3 ( y1 y) (vi> where.10.)] tanh (4) .). Writing this as w.25 MPa (Oz)2=(0.as the ordinate in Fig. (o. 2 1 Q h'l2 I 5 h'l4 S _3 6 h3/2 Figure 5.(dB/dz)(U.j . (2A.5 x 1 0 .36 Axial stress and shear flow distributions Equation (5.6 rad (91.3 ( h 2 / 2= .).) where 2A.88a) gives the axial stress at the fixed end a = . Equation(5.a ' = y . =.)5=0 (~7. 6.[ u ~ T / ( ~ r.. 5. 5.68') Substitutingz = 0 in eq(5.3 x  i) (vii) i) .10. 5 ~ 0 .5 x 103(h2)= 26. We can recognise y .= . = 2A.)](i e2rL) (1 + e2rL) / Substituting values into eq(v) shows that a = . 2 .36a.) =.THEORIES OF TORSION 241 8= TU(GJ)= (2 x lo3 x 2 x 103)/(30x 10' x 83.=.[T/(GJ )]( y = w. .33) = 1.=.10.87) shows that a similar distribution will apply elsewhere along the beam but that the magnitudes of q will diminish to zero at the free end.13.35b .77a) provides the uncontrained primary warping displacement... )= . the stress is distributed in the manner of Fig. when = h * is taken as the abscissa (dotted line).s .
6 are. 5. = .h ) Q = h Jos(s.82b) as q = E (d36/dz3) J '(U.4h) ds + Q .375 mm distribution is similar to Equations (vi) and (vii) confirm that o.s 2 / 4 .h J( 4s : 8 h 2 )+ h3/2 Q6'0 The distribution in shear flow (see Fig.h J3:(s/2 . = O a n d Q .).36b) is found from q = Et (d36/dz3)x Q where Q are the expressions within each limb given above. )= . over the length. w .y = h (s .4h) .. that for a.3 x ~ (h2/2)= .85) that q = ( t / I'.75 mm = ~ (w.y = .2h) .h ) ds = h (s2/2 .h ) = (M2) Jh'(s . 2 .3 x lo'(..42 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Using Fig. 5.4= (h2/2)J2:ds + Q3= (h2/2)(s..s 2 / 2  .h 2 )= 0.2.and therefore the w.)TwQ.h3/4 34: y . the displacements at points 1 .0. This shows that q varies in proportion with T. 5. as follows: v 12: y .)t d s = Et (d36/dz3) k( y  u)ds (viii) Differentiating eq(5.h ) ds + Q 2= (h/2)(s2/2.36a.h (s/2 . For this it is necessary to express y .35b in terms of s and add an integration constant from limb to limb. $is being a measure of the degree of axial constraint.from Fig. ( w . = h (4hs .15h2/4)+ h3/4 Q.= h 2 / 2 Q3.35b. The integral (say Q ) in eq(viii) is independent of length and may be evaluated separately. We see from eqs(viii) and (5. = h3/2 56: y QS6  = .2h) ds + Q 4= h (2hs . shown in Fig.0.h (S .86a) it is seen that d36/dz3 varies with length.h 3 / 4 Q 4= h3/4 45: y .0. At any section within the length of a constrained open tube the shearflow follows from writing eq(5.hs) Q .J 2 = ( W J .h3/2 Q 3= .. 5. (w. .hs + h2/2) .= . .2h) Q4.= 0 ( w . .h3/2 23: y Q23  = (h/2)(s . )= (wJ4 = .
xds)}dn ..93b) .3 Secondary Warping Up to now we have ignored the small contribution to axial warping occurring across the wall thickness.93a) (5.. r .90b).f"(au.n]dnx(dsxdn)R.. (5.27b. + R. (5. n ] d s x ( R .. and q./az) dn into eq(5.and rulwithin the shaded area 6 s x 6 n shown 6 T = r. in the WagnerKappus theory.n]dsx(dsxdn) R . To derive r. That is.=Ios [ A . d T = E ( 6 3 8 / 6 z 3 ) { 2 / o s [A.2 (68/6z)(A. Substitutingr. + R .. T = E ( 6 3 8 / 6 z 3 ) f o ' {2f0s/0s [A.. The reader should confirm that I'. in Fig.(aa.z plane.rul(6sx 6 n ) R. = f "2 ( 1' fos [ A .92) into eq(5. .n Idn x (R./az)dnx(dsxdn)R. This is acceptable for most open sections but not for L and T sections.= ./az) ds and rn.THEORIES OF TORSION 243 5.(aa.) Integrating for T. = . where the total warping constant I?.90a) gives d T = .90b) For the axial stress we must write the total warping displacement from eqs(5. .6. for components rL.(6s x 6n)R.90a) Recall that eq(5.E (6 3 8 / S z 3 )Jo" {2 Ion[A.b) as w = . x d s ) ) d n r.77a.91) from which the axial stress and its derivatives are (5.+R. + R . 5.n) (5. x d n ) ) d s (2f0" 1" (5. = 0 where the shear centre lies at the intersection between the limbs./az)dsx(dsxdn)R.+ fon(ao. + R... )  E(638/6z')(2/on [A.. we must admit contributions to the torque from both q. is the sum of the primary and secondary warping constants appearing as the respective integrals.81b) for the s .rz]dsx(R.92) Substituting eq(5. x dn))ds Jon Writing this in the Wagner torque form. n ] d n x ( R .81a) was accompanied by the second equilibrium equation (5. These sections employ a secondary warping constant r.+R. generally. .+R.. .
This leaves the the secondary (5.95) We have shown earlier how to evaluate the first integral r. is usually small enough to be ignored except for sections where F. = 0.2 t’ds r.t 12 to t 12 again leads to the eq(5..’R. = u ..us2 + s3/3 + I s3/3 3 1. is measured within each limb from E as shown.93b) as a sum where the first integral is zero between the given limits of warping constant defined by the second integral as 1 r2= 12 \orR. = ( t ’ / l 2 ) J0o ( a .14 Show that F. 5. We integrate eq(5..= lo’+ I.93a) by parts between limits 0 to s and n from .t d s 1 (5.244 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Integrating eq(5.” = (t3/36)(u’ + b’) . = r.: t’ds ( 2 A E ) . from eq(5. The secondary warping constant I?.94) where R. This gives R.s for limb DE and R. + r2 ? I?. = s for limb EF. Hence r.= 0 and there is no primary warping in this section.s)2ds+ (t’/12)Jbs2ds 0 = (t’/12) [I u2s .. = 0 for the angle section given in Fig..94) Hence the total warping constant for any open section becomes I. We determine I?. Example 5. The same applies as we move with s from E to F. in moving around the midwall line from the edge D to E no area is subtended when the corner coincides with the shear centre E.37 Thin angle section with unequal limbs Clearly.84a).37 and evaluate the secondary warping constant. Figure 5. I.“ 1.
J. Ellis Horwiood.d. 5. T. 5. Arnold. if. The shaft is coupled to a motor with a flanged joint containing 6 bolts on a 265 mm pitch circle diameter.2 Find the maximum power that can be transmitted by a 150 mm diameter shaft running at 240 revlmin. S.9 A tubular turbine shaft is to transmit power at 240 revlmin. Jl Roy. Ae Soc.. Pergamon. F. given that the allowable shear stress is 55 MPa. Take G = 82 GPa. The drive is taken by eight bolts each 12. (1943).6 A solid circular shaft is connected to the drive shaft of an electric motor with a flanged coupling. 75 mm o. Saada A.Find the greatest angle of twist for a 2 m length of shaft. 3583. find the power transmitted at a maximum shear stress of 70 MPa. Note that T i n eq(5.d and 62. 47. What power can a hollow shaft of 300 mm 0. transmit at a speed of 200 revlmin.1 At its limiting shear stress a solid steel shaft. 5..7 A solid shaft 200 mm diameter is subjected to a torque of 50 kNm. EXERCISES Torsion of Circular Sections 5.. Take G = 80 GPa for both shafts.3 Compare the ratio of the weights for solid and hollow shafts in the same material when transmitting the same torque.5 mm diameter on a pitch circle diameter of 230 mm. This shaft is to be replaced in the same material by a hollow shaft with diameter ratio 2 for the same torque and maximum shear stress.5 The drive shaft of a motor car is required to transmit 20 kW at 250 revlmin. 1987.which can sustain the same torque without exceeding the maximum shear stress.d. Ross C.. 5. and 200 mm i. Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students. = (3/5)(o. Show that these conditions are achieved when D = J [ d 3 / ( 8t ) ] and that the ratio between the solid and hollow twist rates is equal to dlD under a given torque.. If the allowable shear stress is 60 MPa and the i. What is the diameter of the equivalent solid shaft and the percentage saving in weight of the hollow shaft? .8 A hollow steel shaft is required to transmit 6 MW at 110 revlmin. Compare the ratio of their weights and angles of twist over a length of 3 m. 1960. Calculate the shaft diameter if the maximum shear stress in the shaft is to equal that in the bolts. 1974. Megson T.7) is the mean torque. Arnold. 1972.). for the hollow shaft. 40 mm diameter.THEORIES OF TORSION 245 Bibliography Hoff N. Elasticity. Advanced Applied Stress Analysis. calculate the maximum shear stress in the shaft when the maximum torque exceeds the mean torque by 20%.calculate the dimensions of the shaft and the angle of twist on a 3 m length. H. the outer diameter is twice the inner. Find the required bolt diameter when the maximum shear stress for the bolt material is restricted to 100 MPa. Take G = 83 GPa. E. E.d. when the maximum shear stress is restricted to 65 MPa? 5.4 A solid drive shaft of diameter d is replaced by a hollow tube of mean diameter D.5 mm i. 5. Williams D. 5. What diameter shaft of a similar steel can transmit 50 kW when rotating at 250 revlmin? Answer: 34.d. G. can transmit a torque of 3 kNm.4 mm 5.d.. If the shaft is hollow. Theory of Aircraft Structures. Theory and Applications. If the shaft is 1 m outer diameter and 25 mm thick.
If the length of the hollow shaft is 1 m. Find the greatest torque the shaft can withstand when the maximum shear stress is limited to 90 MPa. when transmitting torque. 45 mm wide x 1. Given the respective allowable shear stresses are 35 MPa and 75 MPa. 100 mm 0.d. .d. 1 m long and 80 mm diameter.d.5 Nm is applied along the axis of a thin rectangular strip. (CEI) Torsion of Thin Strips and Open Sections 5. is welded to a solid 1 10 mm diameter steel shaft. 20 mm 0.. length 0.9 5. It is to support a torque of 40 Nm without the maximum shear stress exceeding 55 MPa whilst restricting the angular twist to 3".13 A solid 25 mm steel bar is surrounded by an aluminium alloy tube so that both twist together without slip. 5.d.19 A strip of metal of rectangular section. If. what is the maximum torque that the shaft can carry? Take G = 30 GPa for aluminium and and E = 80 GPa for nimonic. is clamped in a torsion testing machine and subjected to a steadily increasing torque.11 A hollow steel shaft.3 m and shear modulus 80 GPa. and 30 mm i. nimonic: 10 mm i. If their respective allowable shear stresses are not to exceed 120 and 60 MPa under an axial torque of 2 kNm.d.18 A 300" circular steel arch is bent from 3 mm sheet metal. Take G = 28 GPa for aluminium and G = 80 GPa for steel.15 Draw the torque and twist diagrams for the stepped shaft in Fig. Calculate the torque distribution in the shaft.39 shows a stepped shaft ABCD which is rigidly fixed at both ends. and also determine the corresponding relative angular rotation of the two ends of the strip.16 Figure 5. Determine the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist over a 300 mm length. calculate the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist for the tube. Take G = 79 GPa. 5.17 A torque of 7. The shaft is ! + subjected to applied torques of 2 kNm and 6 k n at B and C respectively. determine the torque required to just cause yielding in the material.38 Figure 5 3 . 5. is bored to 50 mm diameter over one quarter of its length. 25 mm 0. 5.showing maximum values.. The dimensions are. What is the angle of twist between the ends? Take G = 80 GPa.5 mm thick.d. If the material yields when the shear stress exceeds 100 MPa.10 A 30 mm diameter solid steel spindle is fitted with a 2 m long tubular extension. 5. The diameter of the portion AC is one half that of portion CD. Find the necessary radius and length of the sheet and the warping displacements between its free ends.38. 40 mm 0. determine the aluminium outer diameter and the angle of twist over a 2 m length. and 10 mm thick. 50 mm I Im Im 2m  Im Figure 5. find the length of solid shaft which limits the total twist to 2" under a torque of 30 kNm.246 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5.d.14 A composite shaft consists of two concentric cylinders: nimonic within aluminium firmly bonded at the interface.12 A steel shaft. Assume G = 80 x lo3Nlmm'. the maximum shear stress in the spindle is 35 MPa. 5. 5. Determine the diameters of the shaft if it is required that neither the maximum shear stress nor the angle of twist should exceed 50 Nlmm2 and 1 degree respectively. 10 mm x 60 mm. Take G = 82 GPa. 5. and aluminium: 20 mm i.
If the maximum shear stress is limited to 100 MPa. 5.41.75 m of its length is a square section whose diagonal is equal to the remaining 100 mm circular shaft diameter.1. Show that the WagnerKappus torsionbending constant is given as r.41 5.40. IS IS 7 Figure 5.THEORIES OF TORSION 247 5.23 Find the torque T that can be withstood by the steel channel section in Fig.40 Figure 5. Take G = 80 GPa.24 Torque is applied about an axis passing through the centre of the vertical web for the aluminium channel section shown in Fig. 5. If T = 15 Nm estimate the position and magnitude of the maximum shear stress from a consideration of contours of constant shear stress. H H Figure 5. t = 1 mm and the torque is 2 Nm.42 shows the free end of an equalangle cantilever beam section. Assume that the square section is free to warp for the coefficients in Table 5.42 Figure 5. = f H 5 / 3 and determine the free warping displacements when H = 50 mm. 5.43 when the greatest shear stress is limited to 120 MPa. 5.22 Figure 5. when 0.43 5. determine the allowable free end torque and the angle of twist between the ends.21 Determine the St Venant torsion constant for the thin tapered section in Fig. 5.20 Determine the torsional stiffness for the steel drive shaft in Fig. 5. Hence derive an expression for the shear stress acting along the longer edges in terms of the torque T when the thickness 10 i f 5 1.44 Figure 5.45 . What angle would this section twist through in a length of 3 m? Take G = 83 GPa and use the coefficients given in Table 5.44. 1 0 Figure 5. I . The dimensions increase uniformly over its 500 mm length so that at the fixed end all dimensions become 50% greater. Take G = 30 GPa.
(Ans 30 MPa) 5.47 is given as: 136)(a + b3/4) Figure 5. 5. 5.25 Show that the torsionbending constant for the steel channel in Fig. Determine (a) the angular twist at the free end. similar A section. 5. Assume the Prandtl stress function 4 = D ( x 2 / a 2 .28 Show that the Prandtl stress function 4 = K ( x 2 / R 2 + y 2 / R 2 ) defines the shear stress in a solid circular section of radius R. 1 0 8 ~ . with I = 1. Answer: r.46 r2= (t 5. is mounted as a 1 m long cantilever with one end fixed. 5. = 0.27 Show that the secondary warping constant for the inverted Tsection in Fig. Confirm simple torsion theory and the absence of warping. Take G = 30 GPa and E = 80 GPa.46 for a rotation about the centre of twist E.248 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5. 5.y 2 ) represents torsion of a thin rectangular strip where b >> t.30 Find the rate of twist under a torque of 175 Nm for a solid shaft of elliptical section with major and minor diameters 2a = 50 mm and 2b = 35 mm respectively.0184 inS ' E Figure 5. The position of the shear centre E from the corner is given as e = 0 .1) where D is a constant and take G = 80 GPa. Determine the maximum shear stress under a torque of 2 Nm for b = 50 mm and t = 2 mm.26 Derive the primary warping constant for the thinwalled flanged angle section shown in Fig. .y 2 / b 2 .29The function 4 = G (68/6z)(f2/4. (b) the axial stress distribution at the fixed end and (c) the shear flow variation around the perimeter at midspan. = fH5/15. How is the theory altered when I is increased to 10 mm? Take G = 80 GPa.47 Torsion of Prismatic Bars 5.45 is r.5 mm and H = 60 mm.
5. Determine the St Venant torsion constant and find the maximum shear stress under an axial torque of 500 Nm. T a k e E = 2 0 8 G P a a n d v=O. If the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist are limited to 60 MPa and 4”respectively under a torque of 10 kNm.THEORIES OF TORSION 249 5. 5.37 A rectangular boxsection cantilever has walls 5 mm thick. .35 Figure 5. The 200 mm depth is constant but the breadth varies over its 3 m length from 100 mm at the free end to 200 mm at the fixed end. 5. Determine the side length s and the thickness f to minimise cost when the applied torque is 660 Nm for a maximum shear stress of 75 MPa. Derive from the constant A.4 + s / (1 00 I )] pence per mm2 of the section area per metre length.48 shows the dimensions (mm) of one half of an aerofoil section in aluminium alloy. Take G = 80 GPa.31 and hence establish the manner in which this crosssection warps.34 The diameter of a 0.32 Derive the warping function for the solid triangular section in Exercise 5. If the material cost C in pence per mm2 of tube section per metre length is given by C = 15 + s / ( 1 0 f ). when the shear stress is limited to 35 MPa. 5.(x’ . Take G = 80 GPa. 5. fC. the torsion constant J and plot the distribution of shear stress f Y z along the vertical to locate the maximum value. 5. when a torque of 100 Nm is applied at the free end. Take G = 80 GPa. = 0.2a2/27]provides a solution to the torsion of a solid equilateral triangular section of height a.38 A thinwalled equilateral triangular section is to withstand an axial torque of 500 Nm without the shear stress exceeding 40 MPa. 800 Figure 5.33 A solid steel shaft tapers for a length of 1. determine the tube side length s and thickness t that will minimise cost whilst sustaining this torque.27.v ’ ) ’ ’ ~ . If the side length is 50 mm. Take G = 80 GPa.3xy2)/2a.272E(r/R)3n/(1.5 m that is required to withstand a torque of 75 kNm.2 m and length L = I .31 Show that the Prandtl stress function 4 = A [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) / 2. find the torque which may be transmitted and the angle of twist between the ends. Examine the possibility of torsional buckling given the critical stress. Take G = 28 GPa. Find the maximum shear stress and derive an expression for the twist as a function of length. [Ans @ =( 6 8 / 6 z ) ( ~ ’ 3 x 2 y ) / 2a 1 5.5 m between end diameters for which one is twice the other. determine the angle of twist on a 2 m length under a pure axial torque of 100 Nm.5 m length steel shaft increases uniformly from 50 mm at one end to 75 mm at the other end. If the maximum shear stress in the shaft is limited to 95 MPa. determine the diameters.48 Torsion of ThinWalled Closed Sections 536 Calculate the angular twist and thickness r for a thinwalled circular steel tube of mean radius R = 0.39 The material cost of a thinwalled square tube is [0.
Take G = 28 GPa 2. 5. width b of the crosssection. sustains a torque of 300 Nm over a length of 3 m.44 Determine the warping displacements at the four comers of the box section in Fig. is much less than the mean free to warp is approximately 4 r2/(3b2). the material thickness.51 . 5.41 An Isection. Take G = 30 GPa: Figure 5. Find the angle of twist in degrees and the maximum shear stress. 5. Take G = 80 GPa. Find the position and magnitude of rWa.51 is subjected to concentrated torques at the two positions shown. with web and flange thicknesses 10 mm and 4 mm respectively. 5.50 5. Compare these with the corresponding values for a welded box section formed by splitting the web into two 5 mm plates.49 when it is subjected to a torque of 100 kNm. 120 mm wide x 300 mm deep.40 Compare the theoretical torsional stiffnesses according to the Batho and simple torsion theories for a circular tube whose wall thickness is 1/20 of the mean wall diameter.GN rn Figure 5. Calculate the position and magnitude of the maximum shear stress in the skin when the given freeend thicknesses are uniform throughout. 5. 5. (CEI) (Hint: In the derivation apply Batho to an elementary tube of thickness 6y to find 6T and 6 8 / 6z noting that y << b.) 5. Use the above relationship to show that for the same torque the ratio of angular twist per unit length for a closed square section tube to that for the same section but opened by a longitudinal slit and where t .43 Calculate the twist in a 2 m length of section shown in Fig. noncircular section and use this to derive the twist per unit length for a strip of thin rectangular crosssection.50 when it is subjected to a pure torque of 100 Nm.49 Figure 5.42 Develop a relationship between torque and angle of twist for a closed uniform tube of thinwalled.45 The twobay alloy wing structure in Fig. Take G = 27 GPa.250 MECHANICS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES 5.
01 MPa.39" \ 4 Figure 5.47 Figure 5. Take G = 30 GPa. determine the shear stress in each of the webs. Each tube is subjected to a constant torque and i s constrained to twist about an axis passing through the middle of web 14. 1. 11 1.53 represents the crosssection of two. with a twocell section shown in Fig. 37. (CEI) Answer: 0.48 A 5m length aluminium tube.54.04 MPa. 0. Take G = 30 GPa. Assume that the shear stress in the closed tube is given by Batho and in the open tube by St. Assuming that no buckling occurs. Calculate the warping of each crosssection in terms of the rate of twist. If the tube is subjected to a torque of 50 kNm. 5.53 5.195 MPa.106' Figure 5.THEORIES OF TORSION 251 5. 0.56 MPa.76 MPa.52 5.54 . the angle of twist and the warping displacements at the comers. thinwalled uniformly thick tubes differing only in that one has a closed section while the other is open. being slit axially at the centre of web 23. determine (a) the angular twist and (b) and the maximum shear stress in each wall of the tube.1 1 MPa.52 shows the uniform crosssection of a 5 m long tailplane. is subjected to a torque of 200 Nm.46 Figure 5. Answer: 55. 4. (CEI) Figure 5. illustrating the distribution with a sketch on which principal values are indicated. assuming that the centre of twist lies at the centroid. Venant.
A Figure 5. 5. Take G = 79 GPa. the rate of twist and the torsional stiffnessesh length. Compare these values with those for a similar single cell found from removing the webs.55 supports a torque of 2 kNm.49 The threecell tube in Fig.252 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5.55 . Calculate the position and magnitude of the maximum shear stress.
1. or that M is the area beneath the F.1 Relationships Between F and M In any beam the shear force F and bending moment M obey a differential relationship.1 b) that the maximum M will occur where F is zero.b) show that w is the derivative of F and F is the derivative of M .la. 62 Figure 6. A single bay beam resting upon two simple supports is statically determinate. two or more bays and many types of structure are statically indeterminate. Their analysis becomes more complex requiring both equilibrium and compatibility conditions to be satisfied. over which the force and moments vary by 6 F and 6M in the manner shown in Fig. Taking moments about 0 and applying vertical equilibrium. Method (ii) is more versatile and will be applied to both continuous beams and structures.diagram. Two methods are outlined: (i) the theorem of three moments. which employs known relationships between moments. 6. Consider an elemental length S z of beam.1.b) Equations (6. Note also from eq(6. ( M + 6M)+ 6 2 (w62)/2 = M F + w 6z = F + 6F F = 6 M / 6 z and w = 6F/& + ( F + 6F)6z (6. Beams with encastre fixings.1 Beam element .1 Single Span Beams 6. slopes and deflections and (ii) moment distribution in which moments at supports are balanced by trial. It will be shown that the application of equilibrium principles alone is sufficient to determine their force and moment distributions.253 CHAPTER 6 MOMENT DISTRIBUTION In the analysis of the stresses in loaded beams and structures it is necessary to know the manner in which moments and forces vary throughout their length. 6.1 a.
M. + R. M . Example 6.. A convention applies that a hogging moment is positive and a sagging moment is negative. + R. M.h. will sag the beam.. It may also be calculated independently as the net force arising from all forces to the right (or left) of that section.720 Nm Both M. and R.h.diagram: Plot F ( 1 + ve) from right to left along the length. = . The ordinate in the diagram is the shear force at a given section. 6.. . The F .diagram is the sum of the moments exerted by all forces lying to one side of a beam at a given position. = 360 N Apply vertical force equilibrium to find the left support reaction. end..254 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The following examples show how the distributions in shear force F and bending moment M may be presented graphically..( 3 x 3 4 0 ) = .2.1 Draw the F and M diagrams for the simply supported beam in Fig. In this example. the bending moment diagram is all sagging under concentrated forces and simple endsupports. and M.2 F and M distributions The support reactions R. 400 + 300 = R. (3 x 400) + (8 x 300) = 10 R . 4MN 300 N Figure 6. = .h.diagram: An ordinate in the M . Take moments about the left support to find the right support reaction. as follows: @ r. & 1.diagram crosses the horizontal datum. ends M = 0 @ C t o l e f t . = 340 N F .1020Nm @ D to right. M .(2 x 360) = . = 1020 Nm where the F . are found from force and moment equilibrium. This net moment may be calculated from working to the left or right depending upon which is easier.diagram must close on the datum line at the 1. =+ R.
.3 Inflection in M . the bending moment diagrams may show both hogging and sagging of the beam.diagnm Reactions RA and R.3 and determine the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment and the position of the point of contraflexure. (2 x 20) + (6 x 20) + (10 x 15) + (30 x 10 x 5 ) = 8R. A  231.diagram: Use the construction method where the distributed loading defines the gradient of the F .3 kN F . Discontinuities arise at points of concentrated forces. . = 226. A point of contraflexure (or inflection) lies at positions of zero bending moment.33 Figure 6. 6. z.2 Sketch the F and M diagrams for the beam in Fig. R. = [20 + 20 + 15 + (30 x lo)] .=.3 = 128. Example 6..=6.2 0 = 0 .3 0 ~ .1 5 + 2 2 6 .diagram (from eq 6.376m . The diagram reveals the position of zero F as F = O = .2 Point of Contrajlexure With other forms of loading. la).1. 3 . This is the point in the length of a beam where its curvature changes from hogging to sagging.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 255 6.7 kN R.226.
6.6 = 0 z = 2. = (15 x 6.4 Mohr's theorems .2 kNm M. M.2 Clapeyron's Theorem of Three Moments Clapeyron's theorem applies to any continuous beam but is derived by taking spans in pairs. = .= +(2 x 15) + (2 x 3 0 x 1) =90 kNm.64 m.21 1.(4.diagram: Working to left or right.3(~ 2) + 3 0 ~ ~ = 0 12 ..152. where F = 0 Point of Contraflexure: let this lie distance z from RH end M = 152 .376) + (2.376 x 226.(128.376 x 20) .= . To derive the theorem it is first necessary to revise Mohr's two theorems for finding the slope and deflection of beams.376) *I2 .32 + 452.7 x 6) + ( 20 x 4) + (6 x 30 x 3) = .33 kNm. The term three moments refers to the unknown moments at the central support and at the two ends of any pair of adjacent spans.256 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES M .7 x 2) + ( 3 0 x 2 x I ) = .197.237..4 kNm. : 15zZ.226. M. the ordinates are M. = . Figure 6.(128.3) + 20(6.
Thus.2b) (6. rest on nonlevel supports at positive vertical distances vA.4a. B and C are M A . let the second moments of area I . 6.2b) and (6.4b). given in Fig. In taking the moment of that area. and I . Furthermore. the theorems provide the change in slope 0 and deflection v over length 6 z of the beam as m= S Z I R = (M & ~ ) / ( E I ) 6B= ( ] / E l)(Area of the M diagram over 6 2 ) 6v=6Bi= (6z/R)i=(l/El)(M&)i 6 v = (I/EI )(Moment of area of the M diagram over 6 2 ) (6.3b) The geometric interpretations (6. that are not common to both diagrams. vR and vc from any horizontal datum 00. respectively. and A.3a) (6. form the net moment diagram.5d. 6. Consider any two successive spans L . Clapeyron applied Mohr's theorems to a beam resting on more than two supports. shaded areas A . so that M x 6 z becomes the shaded area of the M diagram_ in the region 6 z (see Fig.5 Continuous beam The corresponding free and fixing moment diagrams are superimposed in Fig. M. for each bay differ.5b and take opposing signs. and L. in Fig.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 257 Referring to Fig. 6. 6 . 5 ~In the general case let the beam . and M. 6. its centroidal distance z is measured from a datum where v is required.3b) require that I is constant.2a) (6. Figure 6. 6. . as shown in Fig. in each bay.5a under arbitrary loading where the moments existing at their ends A.
) + [ L .6a) (6. ( L .7a) becomes MA I L + 2M. = A v A / L I.) .c.vA)/LI 1 8.6a.258 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The centroidal positions zlgand z . .b).Z . L. sufficient equations are obtained to solve them simultaneously for all the fixing moments.8a) (6.d) into eqs (6.b) and (6.v A ) / L I )and within the second bay.( v H . /LI) .. / ( E f 2L. (6. l ( E f . with the origin at B for each bay.) + (v. z . By taking the spans in pairs.6b) Substituting eqs(6. Z I / LI + S2 Z /L2) (6. I l(EI L . + Z .5b.c respectively.S . Within the first bay.5.7b) Consider now the application of Mohr's first theorem to Fig.2b).8a. Eliminating 8 from eqs(6. .v A ) / L l = A . = I .4a.( v .6a.5) leads to the theorem of three moments. from Figs 6.4a) (6. .8a) is B . + 2MA) . 8. with hogging positive.v c ) / L .) + [L. + L .[Ll/(6EII)](M. Z .8b) is (6.8b) These changes in slope are both shown to be negative for v positive downwards with positive z originating from B within each bay.b) into eq(6. eq(6. when eq(6. = . the slopes become 8 A = [ S . The slope of the tangent at B is 8.4b)  in which Avc is negative upwards.l(6EI . in eq(6.)](MA 2M.S . Taking the origin at B and with the datum in turn at A and C .v A ) / L. and the intercepts made by this tangent relative to the ends A and C are A vA and A vc.9a) (6.(v. 6. The method is simplified when a continuous beam of uniform section ( I .9b) (6. From eq(6./(EIl)]( .3a) yields (6.5b./(6E12)](Mc+ 2M. L . ) rests on level supports ( v A = v. = v c ) . in eq(6. (6. . ~ refer to the free and net moment areas S and A in each bay of Figs 6.= .(v.8c.b) leads to where.) + M. = 6 ( S . (6.8~) Substituting eqs(6. 8.9~) .
8.. and 8.2b) and (6.(L. have been found from Clapeyron's theorems (6.+ 2M.6 Twobay.c) (6.[L2/(6EI)](M.3 Determine the bending moment diagram for the twobay beam in Fig.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 259 Equations (6.3b) become B= 8.) + = .10d) When the moments M A . so that. according to this convention.6b. / ( E l L . ) .10a) (6.b). i I /(EIL. eq(6. / ( E l )]( 1 .6a using the threemoment theorem. 6. distance z from 0 coincident with A.7a.= [S2/(El)](I .1 la) (6.7b) becomes 2M. + S i 2 / L . .) . Let the datum lie at a point within the first bay. and M . = 0 for a twospan beam. ) [L2/(6El )](Mc + 2M8) 2 + 8. + [ l / ( E l )][Area of net M diagram from 0 to z ] v = BA z + [ I / ( E l )[Moment of net M diagram from 0 to z about the datum] (6. Example 6.1 1 b) The areas and moment of areas of net M diagrams refer to the difference between the areas and moments of areas for the free and fixing moment diagrams. Take Ef = 100 MNm2.1Ob. Normally these are sagging (negative) and hogging (positive) diagrams.9ad) are again simplified for a uniform beam resting on level supports.S ~ . the shaded areas in Figs 6. + L2)= 6 (S./(6Ef ) ] ( M .[L.10).9) or (6. M lOkN 5 kN A 6m A 6 fl1 m 42 J 1 c c Yf Figure 6. = . Equations (6. simply supported beam Since MA= M .S. The deflection and slope at any other points in a continuous beam may be found by integrating Mohr's theorems with the origin 0 located at a support point of known slope.)+ [Ll/(6Ef )](MA 2M. at the support points follow from eqs(6. + 2MA) 8. M the slopes BA. Find the support reactions.5b. / L ) . i . (6. Taking the corresponding free moment diagrams from Fig. when they become BA= [S. the slopes and deflections beneath the 10 kN force in the first bay and at the centre of the second bay.c compose the net bending moment diagram. 6. / L .Z2/L2) . eq(i) becomes .
10d) When the moments M A .Z2/L2) . + S i 2 / L .= [S2/(El)](I .S. so that. Normally these are sagging (negative) and hogging (positive) diagrams.9) or (6. 8. / ( E l )]( 1 . ) [L2/(6El )](Mc + 2M8) 2 + 8. eq(6.10). M lOkN 5 kN A 6m A 6 fl1 m 42 J 1 c c Yf Figure 6..7b) becomes 2M. the shaded areas in Figs 6. Example 6.) + = . / ( E l L . + 2MA) 8. Let the datum lie at a point within the first bay. Equations (6.1Ob. (6.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 259 Equations (6.3 Determine the bending moment diagram for the twobay beam in Fig. i I /(EIL.9ad) are again simplified for a uniform beam resting on level supports.) . .1 1 b) The areas and moment of areas of net M diagrams refer to the difference between the areas and moments of areas for the free and fixing moment diagrams.(L. have been found from Clapeyron's theorems (6. the slopes and deflections beneath the 10 kN force in the first bay and at the centre of the second bay.b).6 Twobay.3b) become B= 8. = 0 for a twospan beam.[L2/(6EI)](M. 6. i . when they become BA= [S.c compose the net bending moment diagram. according to this convention.+ 2M. Take Ef = 100 MNm2. / L . simply supported beam Since MA= M . at the support points follow from eqs(6. ) .6a using the threemoment theorem. The deflection and slope at any other points in a continuous beam may be found by integrating Mohr's theorems with the origin 0 located at a support point of known slope. Find the support reactions.7a. 6.10a) (6.1 la) (6. distance z from 0 coincident with A. M the slopes BA. eq(i) becomes . + [ l / ( E l )][Area of net M diagram from 0 to z ] v = BA z + [ I / ( E l )[Moment of net M diagram from 0 to z about the datum] (6.6b. and M . Taking the corresponding free moment diagrams from Fig. = .5b.2b) and (6.c) (6. / L ) . and 8.[L.S ~ ./(6Ef ) ] ( M .)+ [Ll/(6Ef )](MA 2M. + L2)= 6 (S.
1Oa) and (6. / L . + M. Referring again to Fig. Then.80 kN. = 180 kNm2 and S 2 / L 2 108 kNm2were previously calculated in the three /L.333]= 0 The slopes at A and C follow from eqs(6.1 la.5 x 12 x 6) + (M. 6. ( I . are both zero here.13 kN (6 x 10) + (12 x 5) + 32 .( 12 x 32/6) = 44 kNm Now from eqs(6. is composed of its left.=11.8 and 16 kNm exist at each point within bay 1 and 2 respectively in proportion to M.67 = 21.R.67kN (1. = 32 kNm (iii) This value is confirmed later from the moment distribution solution (see Table 6. Q 10.L.867kN )Moments about A in bay AB: =+ QAL=10.EI=S.b) at the 10 kN force point.260 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 2M. : R. they are included to extend the generality to any continuous beam.5)] . . moment expression (iii).12RC=0.) .108) . Let the support reactions and fixing moment M.(15 x 32/6) = 100 kNm2 8.and righthand bay components Q .)12&.15QBL= 0.6a.2 in Example 6.M.i.867+21. . = 2700/15 + 1296/12.[4.180) .L2M.M. Check: C F = [ 1 0 + 5 + ( 1 2 x 1.(15 + 12) = 6[(1/15)(Moment of area of free LH M diagram about A) + (1/12)(Moment of area of free RH M .) . = 2Lh13 = 2 x 12 x 27/3 = 216 kNm2 Note that fixing moments of 12.333 kN Moments about C in bay BC: + Qn./L..)=09 * RA =4. Although MAand M. = (42 x 612) + ( 1 8 x 6/2) + (24 x 6) + (24 x 3/2) = 360 kNm2 S. The central reaction R.10d) with M A = M.j .16 = where S. where z = 6 m from A.13 + 11. eq(ii) yields (54/6) M.L and Q . Moments about B in bay BC: (1.= QnL+ n H = . ) .(I .6b. act as shown in Fig. EI = (2 I6 . from eqs(iv) and (v).5~12~6)+(M. + R.=0. 6. El = (360 ./6 B. = 0 B A E I = S . Moments about B in bay AB: ( 5 ~ 3 ) + ( 1 0 ~ 9 15RA+(MAM.M.80+6. = 32 kNm. the slopes are 8.diagram about C)] (ii) Taking LH triangular and rectangular constituent areas in kNm2and noting that the r. area of a parabola is 2Lh/3 (centroid 5W8 from tip).= 6. i. the free moment diagram areas are S .h.5). = (1/15)[(42 x 6 x 2 x 6) I (2 x 3) + (1 8 x 6 x 8/2) + (24 x 6 x 9) + (24 x 3 x 13/2)} + (1/12)(2 x 12 x 27 x 6/31 9M.
(2 x 15 x 28. Thus.7 Twobay encatre beam The free moment diagrams are given in Fig.7b. z are the moments of area of the free M diagrams about the left.4 Determine the fixing moments for the beam in Fig. are unknowns for this continuous beam.5) + (M. + 1.8 x 6 x 6)/ (2 x 3) .33MC= 101. Since S. the intercept between the tangents at C and B is zero with the origin at C and the datum at B.and righthand ends respectively. A v = [ 1/(2EI )](Moment of M diagram from A to B about B) = 0 (15MA 7.3) to each bay.513) = 0 x x 2M. 15MA/(21)+2M.4 kNm2 vE/=(100 x 6) + r(12.MA)(15 15)/(2 x 3) . .4 + M. $ E l = 44 + [(16 x 6/2) .67M.7a) becomes . M. 6. where t = 6 m from C.4 x rad v=4. 5 ) / ( 3 ~ 2 1 ~ 15) + [(24 x 6 x 612) + (24 x 4 x 2 x 4)/(2 x 3)] / ( I x 10)) MA+ 4. (ii) Furthermore.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 261 8 E I = 100 + [(12.25 .8 kNm3 and at the centre of the second bay. is assumed to be the greatest of these to coEespond with Fig.7a using Clapeyron’s theorem. The intercept between the tangents at A and B is zero. Ik N h l(1kN Figure 6. z and S. . = 56.(2 x 6 x 27/3)] = .16 kNm2 8= . The fixing moments MAand M. 6. 1 2 5 ~ 7 .I 6 x rad vEI= (44 x 6) + [(16 x 6 x 6 ) / ( 2 x 3) v = 1. Taking the origin at A and the datum at B.125 x 7.(42 x 6 x 6)/ (2 x 3)] =424.8 x 6/2) 8= 12.17 mm  (2 x 6 x 2 7 x 3 x 6 ) / ( 3 x 8)] = 117 kNm3 Example 6. together with the central support moment M.5b so allowing the application of the threemoment theorem.25 mm  (42 x 6/2)] = 12.[15/(21)+ 10/1]+ 1 0 M C / I = 6 { ( 2 x 1 5 ~ 2 8 . eq(6.. 6..05 0) Two further relationships are found from the application of eq(6.
Therefore the signs of the F. it is necessary to distribute the imbalance until the equality is achieved.12) where the directions of M and M. I provide fixing moments for the singlespan encastre beams shown. do not balance.M. M.1 Where a beam has simply supported ends. The method is as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Fix the beam at all supports and calculate the LH and RH fixing moments for each bay from Table 6. as calculated from fixing support B. must oppose the directions of M to maintain moment . Because an initial estimate of these moments does not balance.2 CarryOver Moments (C.3.b) to distribute unbalanced moments at inner supports and carry over.b) Use the distribution factors (eqs 6. The outofbalance moment M .52 and M.M..1) The net Mdiagram is then found from the difference between ordinates in the fixing and free moment diagrams Calculate the supporting reactions from the balanced fixing moments and construct the Fdiagram 6. That is.3.O. In a structure the sum of the moments at all joints should be zero.8.)(10~10)/(2x 3).(iii) gives M A= 21. MAX carried is over from MHA. release the fixing moment and carry over (eqs 6.1 Fixing Moments (F. A further compatibility requirement is that one half of each distributed moment will be carried over in the same direction to the opposite end.3) using the moment distribution method. 6.262 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES A v = [ 1/(El )](Moment of M diagram from C to B about B) = 0 (10Mc x 5 ) + ( M E .365.M. + 2M.M. Moments are only carried over to ends that are encastrC Construct the fixing moment diagram Isolate each bay and construct the free Mdiagram (see Section 6. and . . The values are confirmed in Example 6. alternate from negative to positive within a bay and on either side of each support. it is necessary to ensure that the moments to the left and right sides of all its inner supports are equal.44 kNm (least). equilibrium at B.18a.M's. = 12. = 38. is distributed into bays BA and BC as M = M + Mnc .M's are positive.at B.) Standard expressions given in Table 6..6 (Table 6.14a. it is assumed that the adjacent F.) In Fig. The convention adopted is that clockwise F. 6. MCRis carried over from M.3 The Moment Distribution Method Where a beam has two or more spans.333/2) + ( 2 4 ~ 6 ~ 2 ~ 6 ) /3)] = 0 x (2 M. 6. = 13.4 (iii) Solving eqs(i) . They act in the directions shown to hog the beam. (6.[(24 x 4 x 7.
Mohr's deflection theorem (6. + 39.and M must ensure that the deflection v. Figure 6.) 263 BEAM R. both MA.3 a 2 ) / ( 1 2 L 2 ) (Mb/L)(I .1 FixedEnd Moment Expressions (F. at B.x ) 2 d x (1/L2)J w x 2 ( L.M.8 a L + 3 a 2 ) / ( 1 2 L 2 ) wa2(4aL . is zero. and (ii) a sagging moment.3 d L ) (MaIL)(I .H. L. carried over.x) dx 6E16/L2 To show this.M.3b/L) (29.M.H. Wab ' / L 2 wL2/12 W wL2/12 r\ ( wa2(6L2.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION Table 6.)L2/60 (39.F. Applying .F. due to the reaction Rw at B. + 2 q 2 ) L 2 / 6 0 (1/L2)Jw x ( L .8 Distribution and carryover of unbalanced moment M .3b) to bay AI3 where the Mdiagram is composed of two parts: (i) the hogging moment MBA.
8 has the same sense with a magnitude./(2L. It follows that each C.14.M.1 and eqs(6. = 3MXA/(2L. then 8.O. L I ( L . M is divided between the two bays in the ratio of their stiffnesses.z12)(2Ll/3)= 0 R.M. at A and similarly the C.b) and (6.l(2EI.R"L12/2)=.O.3 Distribution Factors (D.13) The reacting C. must be the same for bays AB and BC. are the respective length and second moment of area for bay BC. = [ Il(E1 )](Area of M diagram from A to B ] =[ll(EI. 6.15 and 6. I2 = M. are the length and second moment of area for bay AB.L.M.18a.) (6. 6. If L.4 Continuous Beams The following examples illustrate the application of Table 6.18a. = [ lI(E1 )](Moment of area of M diagram from A to B about B) = 0 M.13).O. shown in Fig.b) That is. at B. 6.12) .b) are modified in the case of a simply supported end bay whose stiffness becomes %(I IL). IIL. at C take the opposite sense to the moments applied at A and C.16) leads to (6. = Mu.3.18a.F.14a.8 gives 8. b) 6.(R.3a) to Fig. and I.264 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES v.15) in which R. L.b) to continuous beams. . Similarly.) The net moment applied at A is then MnA [3M.16) Equating (6./2  (6.. if L.)jLI = .M.=  MncL. I2 (6.) A further compatibility condition is that the slope 8. the application of Mohr's slope theorem (6. is given by eq(6.)](M~ALI. and I. It should be noted that eqs(6.M. MAX M .l(2EII) (6.
O. M.M.M.H.F.M. Initial F. fixing and net moment diagrams ./M= (3/4)(1/15)/[(3/4)(1/12 + 1 / 1 5 ) ] = 4 / 9 (3/4)(1/12)/[(3/4)(1/12 + 1/15)] = 519 Fixing Moments: The distribution and carryover of moments given in Table 6.F. L. Note that the ?A factor cancels for a beam with simple supports throughout. = (10 x 9 2 x 6/152) + (5 x 3 2x 1 2 m 2 )= 24 kNm Bay BC. 6 ..5kNlm / Figure 6. 6.F. from eqs(6. Release @ A & C 2 C.b).F.18a.9 +36 21 +9 4 5 +32 32 C CA +18 18 0 Q The fixing moment diagram is superimposed upon the inverted free moment diagrams in Fig.5 x 122/12)= 18 kNm D.H. Find the support reactions.2 Distributions for Example 6. 9 ~ .9a . = (1.Fs at joint B. R.H. The shaded areas in Fig.E.9b.1: Bay AB. Unbalanced moment 1st Distribution Final fixing moments A AB .M.M.9 Free.M.24 +24 0 0 B BA BC 419 5/9 +24 18 +12 .6b represent the net moment diagram which has been rebased in Fig. 6. = L.=(lO x 6 2 x 9/152) + (5 x 122x 3/15’) = 24 kNm Bay AB. Table 6. 6.5 Joint Member D. showing the maximum values.2 ensure that the moments at B become equal and that there can be no moments at the ends A and C.F. IOLN bm I SkN I.M. t Modified F.H.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 265 Example 6 5 Construct the net bending moment diagram for the twobay beam in Fig. L./M= M.E. Fixed endmoments from Table 6.
5 .75 Unbalanced moment Distribution &C. + R.6 kNm D. t 6.37 B C BA BC CB 417 3/7 +18.M.H.M.87kN + R.'s are employed in calculations for the reactions.4 kNm L.6 Find the fixing moments and support reactions for the beam in Fig. = 21.l8a.= 0 = .75 . C M.75 kNm Bay BC: R.b): MnAIM= (21/15)/[(21/15) + (1/10)] =4/7 M.H.33 .03 kN Moments about B to left.M. Take moments about B to right (positive clockwise).F.M. = 5.(12 x l S ) .23 . Apply vertical force equilibrium.M.62 Final fixinp moments .21. = 10 x 4 2 x 6/102= 9.6 +14. = 10 x 62 x 4/102 = 14.2.3 2 .40 +9. = 1 x 15*/12 = 18.52 +12.1: Bay AB: L.F. Initial F. .18.E. .32. .M.'s at B from eqs(6.F.3 shows how to balance the moments at B and carry over to establish the moments at A and C.H.13.=O=+32+15RA(9X10)(3~5).= 6.10 Twobay encastre beam Fixing moments from Table 6.92 .44  10Rc .3.15 5. + RA=4.44 These F.894 kN + R.266 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The support reactions follow from applying moment equilibrium to the left and right of B.96 +13.12RC+(1.F. + R./M=(1/10)/[(21/15)+(1/10)] =3/7 Moment Distribution: Table 6. = 0 = (10 x 6) + 12.5.21.5) .H. This must include the fixing moments: CM. Figure 6..33 kN C F = 0 = 4. = 0 = .10 . 6.9.5x 1 2 ~ 6 ) .3 Distributions for Example 6.= R.13. C M.10. C M .1.(15 x 1 x 7.52 .O.6 Joint A Member AB D. = 8.M.87 + R. Table 6.37 + 15RA+15.8 kN Example 6.F.F.
M.894 .3. Introduce % factor for end bays within eqs(6.17 +0.0.1 1b using average F. Final fixing moments B BA BC 317 417 . 6.0.64 +0.F.27 . .3.4 kNm Bay BC.O.6 +2. Unbalanced moment 3rd Distribution C.36 +2.MOMENT DlSTRIBUTION 267 Vertical force equilibrium.M.34 +0.0.O.F.4.19 +0.1.F.F.25. R.19 0 0.64 +3.H.0. at B and C.4 .M.18a.M.F.08 +3.8 0 +4. Unbalanced moment 4th Distribution C.+5.05 0 .M. = 5 x 22 x 3/52= 2.17 . 1F = O = 8. = 1 x 5 2/12= 2.37 0 +0.2.M.0 0 C The free and fixing moments are superimposed in Fig. The net moment diagram is given by the shaded regions.b).24 +1.017 +2.08 D CD DC 317 . = 2.7 Joint Member D.21 0 +0.91 1.08 kNm Bay CD./ M = (3/4)(1/5)/[(3/4)(1/5) + 1/51 = 317 Moment distribution: In Table 6.2.015 0 +2.O.M.l M = (3/4)(1/5)/[(3/4)(1/5)+1/5] = 317 M. Net fixing moments Unbalanced moment 1 st Distribution C.F.0.M.03 +0.E.08 0.28 +0.023 + R.H.4 the moments are distributed until they balance at B and C and equal zero at A and D. 6.7 Construct the moment diagram for the beam in Fig.=(3~2’x3/5~)+(3 X ~ 1/52)=3.J M = ( I /5)1[(3/4)(1/5) + 1/51 = 417 MsB/ = ( I /5)/[(3/4)(115) + 1/51 = 417 M Ma.H.07 .32 0 .26 0.H.925 2. Release A & D & C.96 0.M.64 . from Table 6.M.08 .035 0 +0.1: Bay AB.2. L.2 2.O.91 A AB CB 417 +2.68 .M. L. Find the four support reactions.0.61 +0.0.02 0.3.12 . = R.O. Table 6.0. values.4 Distributions for Example 6.11 +0. Unbalanced moment 2nd Distribution C.10 0 +0. M. F.61 0 . = (3 x 3 2 x 2 b 2 )+ (3 x I * x 415 2 .64 kNm R. = 5 x 3 x 215 = 3.= 11.025 .F. L.36 .H.0.1 la.F.36kNm ~ X D.06 +0. Initial F.6 +1.08 +2.06 .M.083 kN Example 6.98 . R.05 +0.6 kNm.H.M.
M's = 0 Bay BC: L. fixing and net moment diagrams for a threebay S. 5 .! M = (3/4)(1/2)[(21/2) + (3/4)(I /2)] = 0. = 5. 6 . beam Reactions: Take moments to left and right of B and C including the final F. M E = 0 " D. Bay CD. M.(5 x 1 x 2.12a.J = 1.8 Figure 6.F.5 kNm = 3 x 2'/12= 1.'s at B and C.F. The rebased net moments in Fig. = 6 x l'/2* = 1.5 the moments are balanced at B and C and D.'s M. A?H  5RIJ.M.06 kN = 0 = .5 kNm (hogging). + R.2. .diagram. it must be ensured that M.52 kN ) Example 6.2. 6.b): M / M = (21 /2)/[(2I /2) + (21 /2)] = 0. + R. = w1'/8 = 3 x 2'/8 = 1.11 Free.S.92 .(8 x 5) . 1 2 ~ are consistent with the convention that hogging moments are positive.M. M. M.8 Draw the bending moment diagram for the continuous beam in Fig. = 5.M. Fixedend moments from Table 6.= 3 kN + RA=2.12b.5R. = W114 = 6 x 214 = 3 kNm.99 + 5R8 + (10 x 2. taking downward forces to be negative.27 Free Sagging Moments: .l8a.(3 x 5 ) . Calculate the support reactions and draw the F . M.99 Mu = 0 = 5RA+ 2. .73 . Further.H. from eqs(6. + (7x3) + (9x3) . M/ M = (21/2)/[(21/2) + (3/4)(I /2)] = 0.42) . = R.42kN = 0 = 2.1 : Bay AB: F.H.92 + (5x1~ 2 .5 = MA. Bay BC.=O= (3 x 2) + (3 x 4) .(10x3) + R..268 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 5 kN 1 kN/m 3kN 3kN 2m I 2m 5m 6 4. 6.F.0 kNm Bay CD: Bay DE: MI./M . These calculations reveal a net bending moment diagram within the shaded regions of Figs 6. The shear force diagram (see Fig.12d) construction starts from the RH end.5 kNm remains the net moment at D.. = 3 x 12/2= 1.5).5 kNm In Table 6.
5 0 BC 0.73 N k =$   3  0. Balance @ D C.5 Distributions fro Example 6.M.M.035 +0.75 +0.75 +0.O.012 +0.14 +0.73 +1.O.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 269 Table 6.55 0.2.07 0.0 +0.012 0.(6x 6.6.07 0.07 +0.0.86 ..006 0.3.14 0.082+ (3x 3 x 1.M's A AB 0 0 B BA 0.(4~5.E.F.972 0.5) 2R.14 +0. from which reaction is R.50 1. 3rd Distribution C.013 +0..67 5.1.67kN 1 F = 0 = 6 + (3x 3).2Rc .(4 x 6.07 +0. .5 1.M.006 +0. 6.37 +0.00 +1.5 CB C CD DC D E DE ED 0. 4th Distribution C.2kN = 1 MH = 0 = .5 0 +0.025 +0.01 +0.5).5  0 1 Mc = 0 = .R. 2nd Distribution C.O.02 +0.5 +1.48 +0.75 0.50 0. = 3.O.28 +0. Net fixing moments Unbalanced moment 1st Distribution C.48 + (6X 3)+ (3X3X5.2).86).+ R.085 1.05 0.080 +1.12 Continuous beam with overhang .M.0. Initial F.035 0.5 1.98+ (6x 1) + (3x 3 x 3.5 +0.86 kN 1 MA = O = + 0.25 0.2)..5 0 0 1.37 0.75 +IS 1. * Rc= 5..20 +0.986 +1.M.8 Joint Member D.5) 2R.O.48 Figure 6.M.27 1. Final F.27 0.10 +0. =+ RA=.026 0.
053 +0.0.1. Bay BC. 2nd Distribution C.13 Continuous beam with misaligned supports F. F./M= (101/24)/[[(3/4)(31/12)+ 1011241=0.016 +0. 6th Distribution C.443 . Example 6. i I2rn 24 m i (101) 12 rn j Figure 6.177 0.566 .885 +0.77 +3. L.004 +2.M's = 0 D.H.M.118 +0.333 +3. moments are induced at these points.F Initial F.13 when the support at B lies 40 mm below the level of A.007 0.M. from eqs(6.34 1 0.O.0. This applies to all misaligned interior supports and to the ends if these are encastri.9 Find the moments at B and C for the beam in Fig.045 0.F.333 kNm = R. 6.F. Rel.O.0.E.69 M / M = (101/24)/[(3/4)(21/12)+ 101/24 ] = 0.M.F.333 x lo6)Nmm = 3./ M = (3/4)(21/12)/[(3/4)(21/12) + 101/24] = 0.E.009 +0.H. Unbalanced Moment 1st Distribution C.M.021 2.024 0.M.77 .F.0.059 .M.. at A & D & C. 4th Distribution C.047 +0.333 0.007 +0.M. A AB B BA 0.M.102 0.761 . = (6 x 200 x lo3 x 3 x 4 x 10' x 40)/(122x 10') = 4 x lo6Nmm = 4 kNm = R. 1 = 4 x 10' mm4. Net F.007 +0. Final F.283 +0.E.M.E. 106 +0.9): MBAlM=(3/4)(31/12)/[(3/4)(31/12) 1Ol/24] = 0.6 Distributions for Example 6.460 +0. L.'s are found from M = 6E1S/L2(see Table 6.333 +1.0.0.354 +O.O.M.M.M.O.31 + M. Bay CD.008 Q +0.M.055 0.333 . Take E = 200 GPa. C and D.920 .014 +0.'s at B and C.23 0 D DC 0 4 +4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +3..1) Bay AB.002 +0.333 CB 0.122 0. 5th Distribution C.H. M.270 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 6.M.O.171 +0.333 C CD 0.5 Beams With Misaligned Supports If the supports for a continuous beam are not level.017 .O.3 1 4 +2 2 BC 0.9 Joint Member D.061 +0.H.767 2.0.413 .O. = (6 x 200 x lo3x 10 x 4 x lo6 x 40)/(24*x 10') = (3.F.69 +3.017 0 0 +3.769 0. 3rd Distribution C.398 +o.23 Table 6.014 .023 +0.
6 Moment Distribution for Structures The moment distribution method can be extended to structures.M. N bars the fraction of the joint imbalance moment M.l8a.H. = 0 at joints for structures that are rigid and for those that sway..M. for bay OA is the unbalanced moment for the joint 0.2 .carried by each bar.89 kN.M.467 The L.F. The ends A and B are encastre. C is pinned and 0 is a rigid joint.b) to all bars at each joint. which is distributed within Table 6.6 shows that.F.'s from Table 6. = 2 x 2 2 x 1/3*= 0. 6.=M. D.'s at 0.14 Threebar plane structure F. 2 kN 2 kN 0.1: Bay OA: L.1.44 kN.F. I Figure 6.M's will have the same sense within each bay but alternating from bay to bay..M. Struts OC and OB: F.1 (l/L). The F. 6. the initial F. defines the D.7: .19): MoA/M=(1/3)/[(1/3)+1/(3d2)+(3/4)(21/3)] =0.F.l Example 6.F. Table 6.579 kN m .19) The folloying examples illustrate the principles involved in attaining the required moment balance C M ./M=(IlL). without external loading. The D.'s are found from extending eqs(6. as N D. (6.14a.220 M M0J M = (3/4)(21/3) / [ ( I /3) + I l(3d2) + (3/4)(21/3)] = 0. For n = 1.10 Find the vertical reactions at A and B for the structure in Fig..F. The joints in a structure may connect two or more bars with various inclinations..0 hl 2 LN ni H.M..'s are found for all bays from Table 6. R.H.313 MOHI = [ I /(3J2)]/ [ ( I 13) + I l(3d2) + (3/4)(21/3)] = 0.H. .F.M's are zero. it is first necessary to release the moment at this point and carry over. = 2 x 1' x 2/3'= 0. n ./ n.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 271 Because the end A is simply supported. from eqs(6.
10 Joint C Member co D.0 . F and D when I is uniform throughout. with OA as a free body.= 0.1 Bay AB: L.098 kN Example 6.278 +0.M.H.M.123 M.O.M's +O OC 0. 196 0.M.89 +0.098 .'s from Table 6.F.416 +0.H.579 At the joint 0.67 kNm Bay CD: L.F.219 .7 shows that the final F.F.467 0 0 OB 0.5793RA.09& 0. = 1 x (1/2) x (1/2)2/12= 0.H..33 kNm.F.7 Distributions fro Example 6. 6 1 2 + ( 2 ~l)+0.'s at joint B. OB and OA sum to zero. Similarly for OB as a free body.F. = O = .19): M / M = (I /l)/[(I/l) + (3/4)(/ /4) + (I /3)] = 0.H.098 +0. + R. + RA=0. C M . 6.220 +O OA 0. from eqs(6.657kN EM.33 kNm Bays BE and CF: F.15 is built in at A.196 +0.M = 3 x 1'x 2/32= 0. 6.M.F +O Initial F.89 A A0 +0.658 . Find the bending moments at A. +O Final F.272 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Table 6.E. Table 6. The reaction at A is found by taking moments about 0.M.125 kNm Bay BC: L.M's in the three bars OC.F.F. = R. = 1 x 22/12= 0. 139 +0.313 0.M.H. Unbalanced moment 1st Distribution C.M. 4 4m E 2 F Figure 6.3Rn.15 Bridge structure F. = 0 = + 0. = 3 x 22x 1/32= 1.M's are zero. = R.612 +O.44 B BO 0 +0.4 16 +O. R. D.11 The bridge structure in Fig.196 + 0.M. MH$M=(3/4)(1/4)/[(I/1)+(3/4)(I/4)+(1/3)] =0. D and F and is hinged at E.14b. see Fig.H./ M = (I /3)/[(1/ I ) + (3/4)(1/4) + (I /3)] = 0.
793 +.015 .0014 .'s at joints C: M / M = (I /3)/[(1/3) + (I /4) + (I /2)] = 0.127 +.M. / M = (I /2)/[(1/3) + (I /4) + (I /2)] = 0.Fs ..040 .O. Assume El is constant.125 +.157 .00046 .00022 .0014 +.O..0028 .lo5 .0002 .M.8.1.0005 1. +.0785 +.00011 .67 The distribution is continued until the unbalanced carryover moments at B and C become negligibly small.M.I23 1nit. F and D lie in the first and final two columns respectively. .F. M.16 Moment analysis of a portal frame ..001 +.. Final F.030 +.12 Construct the bending moment diagram for the portal frame in Fig.397 2nd Dibn +.004 . .003 C. +.205 1 st Dibn +.MOMENT DISTRIBUTION 273 D.0003 C.007 4th Dibn +.65 Im (a) Figure 6.65 I m M.157 C F D CF CD FC DC . +.340 +.33 +. however.060 .040 . +. a horizontal force were applied along BE then the F.00062 .  3.M.658 .663 . calculated for E would need to be released and carried over to B.053 +. If..  3. M/ M = (I /4)/[(1/3) + (I /4) + (I /2)] = 0.33 +.231 .308 .E.079 ...00012 +.M.056 +.F.033 +.461 0 .132 ..0007 +.M.M. Joints A and B are pinned and joints B and C are rigid.0003 +.006 C.0007 ..020 +.002 .0019 . I 1 Joint A B Member AB BA BE D.006 .264 .1.00092 .017 3rd Dibn +.16a.461 The pinned end E cannot fix a moment and therefore need not enter into Table 6.M's at A. M .33 0 +.125 0 Imbalance .220 BC CB .551 .011 .030 .308 . Example 6.O.296 +.8 Distributions for Example 6.23 1 .013 +.219 . Final F.O.148 C.. 6.111 .965 +. Table 6.
04 .15.07 +0.70 +0.25 .28 0 +2.65 2.M.oo +0.40  0.0.M. Initial F.oo +0.29 3.28 +13.05 +3.9 shows the F..O.10  3.F. 2nd Dibn C.28 +13.57/20 = 0.9 Distribution for Example 6.M.Non swav F. C M = 0 = M.10 +1. CB 0. 6th Dibn .M.20H. 5th Dibn C.3 5.7 6..1.O.24 +0.13 +O.O./ = (3/4)(1/20)/[(3/4)(1/20)( I /15)] = 0.M.55 +0.12 Joint Member D.M.M.43 +2.H.10 0.29 +2.28 .4 +3. 13  CD 0.20HA.57 C.M's = 0 for struts AB and CD. From Fig. 1st Dibn C.45 3.15 +o.50 0.O.07 +0.15 +0.30 0.65 2. 2nd Dibn C.20 .55 t = .64 3 +21.7 + 10.20 0.0/20 = 0. = 5 x 10' x 15/15'= 33.63 . Table 6. 6.0. but they must then be corrected to account for the effect of horizontal side sway.. 4th Dibn C.85 0.05 .60 +1 .1.36 = Mc1 M M + Mnc/ M = ( I /15)/[(3/4)(1/20) + ( I /15)] = 0.O.F.30 0.16b.60 0.50 0.0 +5 .35 .O.28 +13.F. 4th Dibn Swav M Corr sway M Final F.O. Init sway M 1st Dibn C.03 +15.28 0 0 The nonsway F.M.10.M. A AB 0 B BA 0.64 +16.20 0 0 0 +0.67 .19 0.64 = McB/ M Table 6.'s for joints B and C Mu.0 0 0 1. 3rd Dibn C.778 t 1Mc = 0 = M .11.'s are distributed in the usual way.1. 1 1.60 +1 .20 . 15 3.73 .M.80 +0.36 0 6  D DC 0 + 1. + H. U .M.36 0 +I2 BC 0. 3rd Dibn C.=15x5'x 10/15*=16.8 +0.20 +0. =+ HA= 15..M's enable the horizontal forces at A and D to be found by treating AB and DC as free bodies.M.13.85 +1.0. . .M.H.10   1. D.M.57 0 +5  +11.'s for bay BC R.60 0.F.O.67tm L.0.40 +0.274 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES F.95 + 1.20 +O.M.05 +3.33 tm F.
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION
275
Horizontal force equilibrium of the frame yields
C H = 0 = H A  H I ) H , ,
+ H , = 0.778  0.55 = 0.228 t
The nonsway F.M's in Table 6.9 require a horizontal force of 0.228 t to be applied at B. Without this force, the frame sways sideways by an amount 6 at C . If 6 is known, moments M, and M at B and C are given by M = 3E16/LZ(see Table 6.1), each with the same , sense. Since 6 is unknown, we assume a value for M, and M (say 5 tm) for a second , moment distribution within Table 6.9 in order to find the sway moments of 3.65 tm at the rigid joints at B and C. These sway moments produce equal horizontal reactions HA= H I )= 0.1825 t, balanced by a force of 0.365 t applied to C (see Fig. 6 . 1 6 ~ ) However, there can be . no horizontal force at C since the horizontal reactions at A and D must balance. That is, between Figs 5.17 b and c, 0.228 + 0.365C = 0, where C =  0.625 is the multiplication factor used to correct the sway moments in Table 6.8. The sign of C depends upon the sense assumed for MBA M The final F.M.'s become the sum of the corrected sway and nonand , . sway moments in Table 6.9. The B.M. diagram is constructed in Fig. 6.16d. For bay BC, the net moments lie within the shaded areas, these being the difference between the free and fixing moment diagrams.
EXERCISES Clapeyron's Theorem
6.1 Verify the solutions previously found from moment distribution for the continuous beams in Figs
6.1 1 and 6.12, using the threemoment theorem.
6.2 Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams, showing maximum values for the continuous beam in Fig. 6.17. Determine also the slope and deflection beneath the 2 kN force. Take E = 200 GPa,
l = 8 O x 1o6mm4.
Figure 6.17
Figure 6.18
6.3 Find the central fixing moment and the position and magnitude of (i) the maximum bending moment and (ii) the maximum deflection for the continuous beam in Fig. 6.18. Take El = 15 MNm'.
6.4 A beam of flexural stiffness 30 kNm2 is fixed horizontally at the left end A and is simply supported at the same level at distances of 4 m and 6 m from that end, as shown in Fig. 6.19. A uniformly
distributed load of 2500 Nlm is camed between supports B and C. Determine the deflection at a distance of 3 m from A.
Figure 6.19
Figure 6.20
276
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
6.5 Use the threemoment theorem to construct the bending moment diagram for the beam in Fig. 6.20. Derive from the shear force diagram from the moment diagram.
Moment Distribution  Continuous Beams
6.6 A simply supported beam of constant crosssection is loaded as shown in Fig. 6.21. Draw the F and M diagrams, showing the maximum values.
Figure 6.21
Figure 6.22
6.7 The continuous beam in Fig. 6.22 rests on four level supports. Determine the bending moments and the reaction at each support. 6.8 The beam in Fig. 6.23 is of uniform section. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams, indicating principal values.
Figure 6.23
Figure 6.24
6.9 Calculate the fixedend moments at each end of the continuous beam given in Fig. 6.24. 6.10 The continuous beam in Fig. 6.25 is built in at one end and propped at the three positions shown. If the section varies as shown, draw the M and F diagrams, indicating salient values.
Figure 6.25
Figure 6.26
6.11 Draw the F and M diagrams for the propped cantilever in Fig. 6.26. What is the maximum moment?
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION
277
6.12 The beam in Fig. 6.27 has a uniform section throughout. Draw the F and M diagrams, showing the maximum values.
21
ISm
Figure 6.27
Figure 6.28
6.13 Determine the magnitude and position of the maximum bending moment for the beam in Fig. 6.28.
6.14 Calculate the bending moments at points B and C for the beam in Fig. 6.29 and hence construct the Mdiagram, showing maximum values.
IXLN
6kN
A
Im
Figure 6.29
Figure 6.30
6.15 Determine all the fixing moments for the continuous beam in Fig. 6.30. 6.16 A continuous beam rests on three simple supports A, B and C. If the level of B is 20 mm below that of A and C, determine the fixing moment at B, given that lengths AB = 5 m and BC = 10 m. Take IAH 12 x 10' mm4, I,, = 40 x Ionmm4 and E = 210 GPa. =
Moment Distribution for Structures
6.17 Construct the bending moment diagrams for the equallegged portal frame in Fig. 6.3 1 where El is constant and the legs are pinned to the foundations.
ISOkN
20 kN/m
4m
6m
1 .
Figure 6.31
6m
4
Figure 6.32
278
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
6.18 The symmetrical portal frame in Fig. 6.32 is rigidly fixed into its foundations. Establish the moment distribution diagram for the frame. 6.19 The frame ABC in Fig. 6.33 is simply supported at A and pinned at C. Find the horizontal and vertical reactions at A and C when a concentrated moment of 10 kNm is applied at the rigid joint B.
0.5 kN/m
0) 2m
I
Figure 6.33
Figure 6.34
6.20 The frame in Fig. 6.34 carries a concentrated horizontal force of 1 kN in addition to uniformly distributed loading of 0.5 kN/m as shown. Determine the reactions at the rigid foundations and the horizontal displacement at C. Take E = 75 GPa, I = 2.5 x lo3mm '. 6.21 The twostorey frame in Fig. 6.35 is manufactured with a central horizontal member 4 mm too short. Determine the resulting moment distribution for the frame when this bar is elastically stretched into position. The crosssection of each bar is rectangular 100 mm x 25 mm and E = 200 GPa.
Figure 6.35
Figure 6.36
6.22 The twostorey frame shown in Fig. 6.36 is subjected to a temperature increase of 25°C. Determine the resulting induced moment distribution given that a = 15 x 10 '/"C, E = 210 GPa and / = 2 0 x 10'mm4.
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION
279
6.23 Construct the bending moment diagram for the unsymmetrical portal frame in Fig. 6.37, where EI is constant, taking account of side sway. Show the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment.
6 ni
3m
6m
&D
I///
Figure 6.37
6.24 Find the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment for the structure in Fig. 6.38 when it is fixed at A, rigid at B and hinged at C.
SO kN
B
3.6 m
7
/
Figure 6.38
6.25 Determine the fixing moments and construct the bending moment diagram for the structure in Fig. 6.39, given that I is constant.
Figure 6.39
280
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
6.26 Determine the maximum of the true fixing moments for the structure in Fig. 6.40 when the effect of side sway is accounted for.
ImkN
SkN/m
ISOkN
Figure 6.40
281
CHAPTER 7
FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW
7.1 Shear Stress Due to Shear Force in Beams
In Fig. 7. la an element Si. in the length of a beam is shown, over which the shear force and bending moment vary by 6F and 6M respectively. These produce corresponding variations in the shear and bending stresses of 6r and doover the length $. Because both aand twill vary with y, it is necessary to consider the forces they produce when acting over any given slice, $ x Sy x x, lying at a distance y from the neutral axis, as shown in Fig. 7.1b.
n.a.
U
Figure 7.1 Flexural shear in a beam element
Neither anor zvaries with x and therefore, to find an expression for the vertical shear stress t across XX, it is necessary to express force equilibrium between the horizontal complementary shear actions and the bending stress a, shown in Fig. 7.lb. This gives:
( a +6 a ) x 6 y + ( t + 6 t ) x 6 z = o x 6 y + t x 6 z dux 6 y + 6 t x 6 z = 0 :. 6t=  6ox 6 y l ( x 6z)
Taking moments about point 0, in Fig.7.1 a,

(7.1)
M
+ (M + SM)  (F + 6F)dZ = 0
which gives F = 6M/$.With the hogging action shown, eq(4.3)gives 6a= 6 M y / l = (F$)y/l.
282
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Substituting into eq(7.1) gives
6t=  [F/(Ix)](yx6y)
(7.2)
When eq(7.2) is integrated between the neutral axis 0,= 0) and the top surface 0,= y,) we should expect a zero value of shear stress for the free surface. The shear stress is not zero at the neutral axis. To achieve this we integrate eq(7.2), as follows:
r =  [F/(Ix)] ’yx dy + C
0
1
(7.3a)
Now, r = 0 when y = y , and therefore C becomes
C = [F/(Ix)]
s,” yx dy
(7.3b)
Combining eqs(7.3a,b),
t=  [F/(Ix)]
r = [F/( Ix)]
1’yx dy + F/( 1’’ dy
[
Ix)] / o y I yx dy
y x0,)
(7.4)
Equation(7.4) provides the vertical shear stress at a point in the crosssection distance y from the n.a. It is seen that the limits of y apply to the shaded area above that point. Thus, the lower limit is the height in the section at which the shear stress is required, while upper limit y, defines the height of free surface. The width x , outside the integral, applies to the chosen section, while that appearing within x0,)l accounts for the variable width shown within the shaded area (see Fig. 7.2a). For a section with constant breadth, the x’s in eq(7.4) will cancel.
n.a. (a)
1.
Figure 7.2 Effective section area in shear
Recognising that the integral in eq(7.4) is the first moment of the shaded area A about the centroidal axes i n Fig. 7.2b provides the equivalent alternative expression for z:
t = F ( A j ) / ( I b)
(7.5)
where is the distance between the centroid of area A and the centroid of the whole crosssection as shown in Fig. 7.2b. Note that I in eq(7.5) is the second moment of area for the whole crosssection and F is positive when acting vertically downwards.
Example 7.1 Determine an expression for the vertical shear stress distribution in a beam of solid circular section of radius R (Fig. 7.3a).
FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW
283
Y
L
Figure 7.3 Circular section
Taking an elemental strip distance y from the n.a. and of width 2x,eq(7.4) becomes
r= [F/I(Zr)]/ 2y(R2  y2)Hdy
Y
R
(1)
Converting eq(i) to polar coordinates ( r , @ from the following: y = R sine, dy = R cos8dB and (R2 y2)’ = R cos8,
r= [FR7/(fRcoso)]
S,
n12
cos28sin8d8
=  [FR3/(31Rcos8)]
ICOS~~);’~
= [FR2/(31)]C O S ’ ~

= [FR2/(31)](1y 2 / R 2 ) =[4F/(3A)](l
y2/R2)
(ii)
in which f = n R */4. Equation (ii) is zero at the edges and reaches a maximum of 4F/3A at the n.a. The distribution across the depth is parabolic (see Fig. 7.2b)
Example 7.2 Determine the distribution of shear stress for the trapezoidal section in Fig. 7.4a when it is subjected to a vertical shear force of 20 kN.
F 15.62
a
1
50
(1 
Figure 7.4 Trapezoidal section
284
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
The position of the centroidal axis is found by taking first moments of area about the base. Let g lie at distance 7 above the base,
(50 x 25 x 25) + 2 (12.5 x 50/2)(50/3) = [(25 x 50) + (12.5 x 5 0 ) ] ?
from which F = 22.22 mm. Noting that, for a rightangled triangle base b and height h, I = bh /12 about the base, the total I about the base of the trapezoidal section becomes I = (25 x 50’/3)
+ (2 x
12.5 x 503/12) = 1.3021 x l o 6 mm4
Transferring this to the centroid using the parallel axis theorem,
I, = I  A? = 1.3021 x lo6  1875 (22.22)’ = 37.636 x l o 4 mm4
When applying eq(7.4) it is necessary to find the function xCy). For the coordinates (x /2, y) shown, the equation of the right sloping side passing through the top corner ( x , / 2 , y,) is y  y, = m(x/2  x, /2) y  27.78 =  (50/12.5)(~/2 12.5) x = 38.89  y/2 Substituting eq(i) into eq(7.4) with y, = 27.78 mm,
r= [F/(Ix)]JZ7”*(38.89Y
= [F/(Ix)l 38.89 y2/2  y3/6 )27’78
Y
I
= [ F / ( l x ) ][11433.16  (38.89 y2/2  y3/6)]
(ii)
where x is given by eq(i) and F/I = (20 x l o 3 )/(37.636 x l o 4 ) = 53.14 x N/mm4. Equations (i) and (ii) apply to positive and negative y for the coordinates shown. They give the following values:
r= 0 at the top free surface where y = 27.78 mm r= 15.14 MPa an intermediate value where y = 10 mm, x = 33.89 mm r= 15.62 MPa at the centroidal axis where y = 0, x = 38.89 mm r =: 0 at the bottom free surface where y =  22.22 mm r= 3.681 MPa an intermediate value where y =  10 mm
Equation(ii) supplies a maximum value r= 16.04 MPa at 4 mm above the centroidal axis. The variation across the depth is illustrated in Fig. 7.4b. Figure 7.5a,b shows the vertical shear stress distribution ( rv)when eq(7.5) is applied to the flanges and webs of T and Usections. Thus, for a point in the web, the r,, ordinate shown is proportional to the first moment of the area above that point (widely shaded). The distribution is parabolic in y with a discontinuity at the webflange intersection. Equation (7.5) may further be applied to find the horizontal shear stress distribution within the flanges of I, T and Usections under a vertical shear force. Here we need to work back from the free edge of the flange so that A; becomes the moment of the cross shaded areas in Figs 7.5a,b.
FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW
285
Figure 7.5 Transverse shear stresses in T and U beams
Clearly is now constant and therefore the horizontal shear stress r,, increases linearly from zero to a maximum at the wedge intersections.
y
Example 7 3 A symmetrical Isection beam, 300 mm deep, 200 mm wide with 25 mm thick . flanges and 10 mm thick web (upper half in Fig. 7.6a), sustains at a certain section a shear force F (N) and a bending moment M (Nm). Derive expressions for the distribution of shear stress in the web and flange and show them diagrammatically when F = 30 kN. What percentage of F is carried by the web and what percentage of M is carried by the flanges?
Figure 7.6 Isection under shear and bending
I = (200 x 300’)/12  (2 x 95 x 250’)/12 = 202.5 x 10‘ mm4
Applying eq(7.4) to a fibre in the top flange where b = 200 mm, y , = 150 mm, x = 200 mm gives
tf = [ F/(I x
200)]
/ ‘50200y dy = ( H I ) / ‘ ” y dy
Y Y
= ( F / I ) 1y2/21IS0 ( F / 2 1 ) [ 1 5 0 2  y 2 ] = The distribution is parabolic in y . When F = 30 x 10’ N in eq(i), t = (0.7407 x , [(2.25 x l o 4 ) y 2 ] t = 0 at the flange top where y = 150 mm , t = 0.51 MPa at the flange bottom where y = 125 mm ,
(i)
286
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
In applying eq(7.4) to a fibre in the web above the NA, both the web and flange areas above this section contribute to z. That is,
z = ,
[F/(IOI)]{ ~ I s o 2 0 O y d y + 1 Z 5 1 0 ~ d ~ ) ~
I25
Y
=[F/(101)][200(1502 1252)/2+10(1252 y2)/2] =(F/1)[(7.6563 x lo4)  y 2 / 2 ] This distribution is again parabolic in y. When F = 30 x l o 3N in eq(ii),
rH,=(1.482 x [(7.6563 x l o 4 ) y 2 / 2 ] tw= 10.19MPawithy= 125mm, t,, = 1 1.35 MPa with y = 0.
(ii)
Equation (7.5) gives the horizontal shear stress in the flange as
t h
= [F/(Wl A,y = [(30 x 10')/(202.5 x lo6 x 25)] A,x 137.5 = 0.815 x IO'A,
where A, varies from a zero value at the flange tip to (100 x 25) mm2 at the flange centre. Thus q, varies linearly with flange length between these positions ftom zero to 2.04 MPa (e.g. see Fig. 7.5a). These z values (see Fig. 7.6b) are mirrored in the bottom half of a symmetrical section. Figure7.6b shows the discontinuity in shear stress at the junction between the flange and web. For the elemental web strip in Fig. 7.6a, the shear force 6 F,"is
6F,= 10t,6y
Substituting from eq(ii) gives
6F,,= IO(F/I) [(7.6563 x l o 4 ) y 2 / 2 ] 6 y
Integrating for the whole length of web gives F,=(IOFII)I (7.6563 x 1 0 4 ) y y3/611f15 F , = ( 1 8 4 . 9 ~l O ' ) ( F / I ) F,,/F = 184.9/202.5 = 0.9 13 This shows that the web carries 91.3% of the applied shear force. For the elemental flange strip shown in Fig. 7.6a, the bending moment SM, is
6M,= (2006y)oy = (2006y)(My/I ) y
Integrating this across each flange depth gives
M,= 2 x 200(M/f) J'''y2
125
dy
= 2 x 200[M/(3/)] [1503 1253]=2(94.792 x 10fi))M/I M,/M = 2 x 94.192/202.5 = 0.936
FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW
287
That is, the flanges carry 93.6%of the applied bending moment. This example illustrates that Isections exhibit the desirable combination of high strength and low weight. Hence their common use as beams in structural work. It is shown in Section 7.5, from the fact that the web carries most of the shear force and the flange most of the bending moment, that a structural idealisation can simplify the analysis of shear stress distributions.
7.2 St Venant Shear in Prismatic Bars
The vertical shear stress distributions found in Examples 7.1 and 7.2 are not strictly accurate as they ignore horizontal shear. At the edges of these sections the resultant shear stress is directed along the curved or sloping sides and therefore a greater horizontal component exists in these regions. This behaviour will apply to all nonrectangular sections under shear and is accentuated where shear stresses follow the boundaries of circular and triangular sections of beams. St Venant's theory admits the horizontal component of shear. Figure 7.7a shows the point in the arbitrary crosssection of a prismatic beam under flexural shear.
Figure 7.7 Element in vertical and horizontal shear
7.2.1 Equilibrium
The vertical and horizontal components of shear stress, r, and rzyrespectively, must remain in equilibrium with the bending stress a,.Let these three stresses increase with the positive directions x, y and z, as shown in Fig. 7.7b. Three equilibrium equations follow from force balance in the x, y and z directions. From Fig. 7.7b,
which yield (7.6a) (7.6b,c)
288
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Equations(7.6b,c) require that r, and rq do not vary with z and they can therefore be applied to regions of a beam between concentrated forces where the shear force is constant. They do not apply when body forces are present, i.e. due to distributed loading and selfweight. Writing F = dM/dz, it follows that a q l a z = a(My/I )/az = Cy/OF. Equation (7.6a) becomes
7.2.2 Compatibility
Six components of strain, E ~ q,, E ~ ,yq, y,, and y, , exist and these depend upon the three , displacements u,v and w. Hence a relationship between the strains expresses a compatibility condition. This condition may be converted to stress from Hooke's law. For example, we see that 8, = awl&, y,, = avlaz + aw/ay and yq = au/ay + av/ax are satisfied by
Similarly E, = aulax, E, = av/ay and yq = au/ay + avldx are satisfied by
a2yq lax ay = a 2 8 , lay2+ a 2 E ,
/ax2
(7.9)
There are two further compatibility equations of the the type (7.8) and (7.9), making 6 in all. When we convert these to our three, nonzero components of stress from eqs(2.15ad) and combine with eqs(7.6ac), two compatibility conditions become appropriate to this problem: (7.10a) (7. lob) where a2qlayaz = F/I
7.2.3 Stress Function
Introduce a stress function @(x,y)to satisfy eqs(7.l0a,b) as
Substitute eqs(7. I la,b) into eqs(7.l0a,b) leads to
(aiay)(a2/ax2 a 2 / a y 2 ) @ = + o (a/ax)(a'lax + a lay2 @ = FV I[I ( 1 + v)] )
Integrating eq(7.12b),
a
glax
(7.12a) (7.12b)
(a 2/ax + a 2/ay2)@ = F v x / [ I ( 1 + v )I  agtax + f ( y ) + c
(7.13)
It follows from eqs(7.12a) and (7.13) thatf(y) = 0. The constant C= 0 when F is aligned with y as an axis of symmetry. Otherwise, C becomes the constant rate of twist about the z  axis when F is offset to y.
y) in the section. Thus.c + r. m = cos p = .14a) The bar is free from axial forces. We can therefore combine eqs(7.compatibility and the boundary conditions have been satisfied.rZy (dwlds) = 0 (7. Equation (7. it follows from eq(7.1 la.1la) and (7.14b). Let s define the perimeter so that the . 4 ~gives the forces on this plane as ) S.14b) The stress function (7.4 Boundary Conditions Figure7. to give It follows that #along the boundary is given by If we make #= 0 for a boundary curve f ( x .8a shows that when the element h x Sy x 6r..FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 289 7.15a) that Equation(7. intersects the boundary. 7.b) must also satisfy the condition at the boundary. the two shear stress resultants (7. "f Figure 7.14a) reduces to ra (dy/ds) .dx/ds and n = cos y = cos 90" = 0 (see Fig. y and z. the latter makes an inclined plane with x..1 la) pertaining to all points (x. m + a.= rz. Between eqs(7.1la) and (7.8 Intersection of element with boundary Equation ( 1 . n = 0 1 (7. so we can set S = 0.2.8b). direction cosines are 1 = cos a = dylds.1 la. y) = constant in which a function y = y(x) applies.15b) equilibrium.15b)will supply g(x) within the stress function (7.b) will match an .
b).t TCI. I la. From Fig. when For interior points (x.2 xy lR  tzJ = (1.15b) we can make @ =0 at the boundary. d '@/ dx + d '@/dy * = ( 1 + 2v)Fx / [ I (1 + v)] (ii) The solution to eq (ii) is @ = ( ( I + 2 ~ ) F / [ 8 1 ( 1 v ) ] } ( x 2 + y 2 .(1 Let us apply eqs(iv) and (v) to a material with v = VI and normalise with an average shear stress q. the stress function follows from substituting eq(i) into eq(7. (a) Figure 7 9 .1.v= F/A.y x2/7) (Vi) (vii) . Noting that I = A r 2 / 4 . 7.4 / R )(R .290 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES external vertical force F in the absence of an axial force. rtical an irizontal shear stress distributions in a circular section The equation of a circle with centre at the origin is x 2 + y 2 = R 2 .y).( 1 .13).7b Example 7. (iii) + 2v)Fxy / [4/ ( 1 + v)] t7y [(3 + 2v)(R * . the shear stresses are found from eq(iii) as t.y 2 ) .R2)x + From eqs(7.. Hence from eq(7.these give t.4 Examine the vertical and horizontal shear stress distributions in a solid circular section of outer radius R. Compare with the distribution found in example 7.1 from the elementary theory. = .~ V )'IF / [81(1 + v)] = X = .
e. It is often obvious from inspection where the shear centre is located. The horizontal shear stress ru is absent in 7.7b and c).9a and b. t Figure 7. there will be no twisting effect. has zero moment about any point in the line of that force. This must be so if their resultant is to lie tangential to the boundary at this point. Thus when the line of action of the vertical shear force passes through the centroid of these sections. . Shear stresses due to torsion as well as flexural shear are therefore induced. 7. is zero at the centre and is equal in magnitude to z.90 and 45" diameters (see Figs 7. It will lie at the intersection of the limbs in T..9 ac). which is statically equivalent to the applied shear force. Figure7. The shear centre of a singly symmetrical section lies on its axis of symmetry and the flexural axis will lie in the plane of symmetry. Twisting can be avoided in a nonuniform beam section when the forces lie on a flexural axis which is the locus of the shear centres for all crosssections. we can apply eq(5.1 . then the shear force must be displaced to pass through a point called the shear centre. e x .10 Superposition of pure flexural shear and torsion The shear stress due to torsion for the thinwalled. + F.. This ensures that the shear stress distribution.9~ shows that both components exist along a 45" diameter.21) to find the shear stress within Fig. angle and crucifix sections as this is the point of intersection between the force resultants of the shear stress distributions for those limbs. The flexural axis is then coincident with the centroidal axis.axis. 7.10~ when torque is T = F. the shear forces are not concurrent with the shear centre E (see Fig.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 291 Equations (vi) and (vii) have been used to plot the distributions of shear stresses on 0.7. open section shown has been dealt with previously in Chapter 5. If longitudinal twisting is to be avoided. reaching a maximum at the centre.10a). In practke. That is. The principle of superposition enables the net shear stress to be found by adding the separate effects of pure flexural shear and pure torsion (see Figs 10. The shear centre is a property of the section not generally coincident with the centroid.3 the sections were symmetrical about they . Predictions from the elementary theory are shown to underestimate the maximum shear stress and do not account for a variation across the horizontal diameter. The horizontal component r. 7. where the 45" diameter intersects the boundary. for a section that is not symmetrical about a vertical axis. The vertical component zzyvaries parabolically with x and y. It is seen from the above examples that the shear centre of a doubly or a multiply symmetric section does lie at the centroid.3 The Shear Centre and Flexural Axis In Examples 7.
In a beam these forces and their accompanying bending moments will generally vary with length. eq(5. When the slight variation in t with & is ignored. Let axes x and y pass through the centroid g and lie parallel to the directions of the transverse shear forces F. 7. so that positive hogging moments M. ru. 7. will account for variations in t.11 b. and M yappear in the first quadrant of x . and one normal to this midline. Y Figure 7. and F. the equilibrium equation for the z . y. The variation in these actions across an element 6s xdz of wall is shown in Fig. where the material is assumed to be concentrated.4 Shear Flow in ThinWalled Open Sections Consider a beam with an open section of arbitrary shape.direction becomes This leads to the following equilibrium equation where 4 and aincrease with positive s and z.. If the section is not to twist. is assumed to be uniform between the edges of a thin section but will vary with the perimeter length s. Because ru. is zero at the free edges.21) shows that the shear stress due to torsion of an open tube varies linearly through the thickness). q = t r .11 Open section in shear Acting in the z .292 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The following discussion illustrates how the shear flow distribution and the position of the shear centre may be found in the case of open and closed thinwalled sections.1 la).. (In contrast. A shear flow q = t q . as shown: . with t around the section in the positive s direction shown. its variation with t can be ignored.direction there is a midline complementary shear flow.. Also r. Within the plane of the crosssection there will be a component of shear stress t parallel to the midsection centre .. . 7. We shall let them act in the negative x and y directions as shown. and a bending stress adue to the bending moment. both shear forces must act through the shear centre E. The wall thickness may vary but must remain thin compared to the other dimensions (Fig. line.
x (7. are principal second moments of area of the section. i.19a. (7..b) That is..20) will give a positive q for the positive F.7. I . 7. 7. F. z.b) will connect the forces to the moments for any section distance z along the beam. Equation (7. The sign of 9 will indicate its true direction relative to the chosen direction for s. are positive shear forces associated with the hogging moments. The hogging moments for any section at a distance z from the origin in Fig.20) is not restricted to positive forces. and dM.4. 9 = ( F v / I x ) D+ (F.17) into eq(7. directions shown and with s measured counterclockwisefrom the free surface.12 Principal axes coincident and not coincident with shear force directions . ldz = F. and M. Equation (7. Equations (7.1 I(a) are M.1 la. I Principal Axes So far we have specified that x and y are centroidal axes lying parallel to the shear forces.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 293 Since both M..e.16) and integrating for the shear flow.. and F.20) also applies when x and y coincide with the principal axes for the section. y quadrant in Fig. 7. Substituting eqs(7.r= J y t ds and Dy J x t ds are the respective first moments of the shaded area about = the x and y axes in Fig. /dz = F. are positive (hogging) within first x. = F.19a.20) where D. the longitudinal bending stress is u = M.1 la. .b) into eq(7. 7. ylI.= F.17) Substituting eq(7. : dM.19a.18) gives. and I. z and M. shown in Fig.12a. and F.. + M yX I 1 ~ (7. fFx E c X Y Figure 7. lIy)D. Equation (7.
The moment due to one of the forces in eq(7. in Fig.*.13 shows a convenient method of finding the shear centre for an asymmetric section when no applied loading is given. Equation (7.12b.7.12b.21b.F. it is unlikely that shear forces will be aligned with the principal directions u and v. For example.'= F. For example. F.12a we need only apply a single vertical force to find the position of E from 0.23a) is modified to F. the following principle applies to any point 0 in the section: the moment due to q will be equivalent to the resultant moment produced by shear forces acting at the shear centre. taking moments about a point 0 on the xaxis in Fig.21b.* and F.' and F.I n 2 / I x l y )  (7.22a) (7. and horizontal F.20) becomes where equivalent shear force components F.' and F. ex = q' R ds I (7. . e.F.12b). 7. = q R ds I (7.22b) 7.12b.294 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Due to the asymmetric nature of the crosssection in Fig. 7.). We shall see that this method is adopted to find the shear centre for a section that is symmetrical about the xaxis. is applied though the shear centre E but is not aligned with either direction u or v in Fig.' may be derived from the equivalent moments employed with the asymmetric bending of beams (see Section 4.' in eqs(7.23a) can be eliminated when 0 is chosen to lie along a force line.23a) alone cannot locate the position of E for an asymmetric section.'= . I).c) In the more general case both vertical F. in the negative x and y directions (see Fig.I q / I y ) .23a.b) to eqs(4. If one of the applied loads is removed (say F. (see Example 7. Two equations are required to define the coordinates of E(a.19a...b) from point 0 and a further equation must describe the orientation of one of the assumed forces F.b) may then be solved for ex and e. shear forces are applied at the shear centre E for an asymmetric section.6.23b) where q' is the shear flow under Fy Equations (7./(Ix/Ix. 7. Equation (7.48b. 7.14). Applying eqs(7.2 Shear Centre To find the position of the shear centre E. Figure 7.c) as (7.4.23a) where R is the perpendicular distance of q from 0. ex . the resultant moment is F.. Take the common case where a single vertical shear force F. eq(7.c) gives: F. The principal of superposition gives equivalent shear force components F./(I .
in the web are resultants of their shear flows.d s = [F.13b q...~ .*. = ~ o ~ q .13a we must find q.. ../Iy (7.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 295 Figure 7.. l d s = ( F . Referring to Fig. in the flanges and the force F.*.24a) yields The forces F .13 Shear Centre In Fig. and F.* f / I x ) ( s 2  ..)]sIZ )~~sl F .s2/2)+ys.’ s ds + (F. ] 2 F..] s 3 . = F.b) where F.24a.* D. F. . ~ / 6 + j s .* D.)Io.7. F. F.*. and in Fig. due to F. These are q..* f s 2 / l X ) [ y s 2 /. = fo1q.*~f/(21.ds = (F. due to F. * ~ f / ls.* is inclined so that it will bend the section only about the yaxis. = F./lx q. 7. = ~ o s ~ . * f / I x ) .13% eq(7...* f / l x )s[2 ( y .* is inclined to bend the section only about the xaxis.* is perpendicular to F. d s = ( F . . 7.s ~2’)[+sy~ l 1 d s ~/ s  =(F..
872)+(71x 18.24b). + y = x = 18. and I . F2 and F 3 .* and F./3) (7. Locate the position of the shear centre. it has a magnitude of F.* a = F . When 0 is chosen at the intersection between two sides in Fig. i.) (7.433 Figure 7.16x 1 0 3 m m 4 I. but the method outlined above is more convenient for sections with straight sides.* to 0 follows from F.25a.sI2/(21.)](i .* = [ ( F . The essence of this solution to E(a.37 mm I . = F 2 / ( F . centroid g and I . the equalangle section in Fig. since F.7. An alternative method is to locate the centre from forces lying perpendicular to the principal axes.* is the resultant of F .25a) Finally. = (72 x 17. s 2 a = s 2 t.69 x l o 3mm4   . iof the y) Example 7 5 Derive an expression for the shear flow distribution along the midline of the .*.13b.14 Shear flow in an equalangle The centroid position g and the inertias are found from (71 + 72).25~) Equations (7.18. the perpendicular distance a from F.* and Fs* to be known. + F .s. = (72 x 1 x 1/2) + (71 x 1 x 36.* to 0 (Fig. Note that eqs(7.c) are sufficient to locate the shear centre.14a.25b) It is left as an exercise for the reader to confirm. their shear flows do not contribute to the moments. 1.) (7..e.2/(21. 7.87) + [71(.25ac) do not require the magnitudes F.296 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Moreover. . taking moments about 0.132)+(1x713/12)=76.13)(. = 1 . that the perpendicular distance b from F.. the intersection at E between F.13b) is given by b = ( t s2s.87)] = 45.3.17. ) 2 + F:]" and a direction of tan0. . + F. 7. from eq(7.b) lies in the use of single forces whose inclinations bend the section only about x or y.63 x 17.b. All that is required is the position ( . = ( 7 2 ~17.
6(45. the shear centre is found from F. in Fig.56 .69 /76.16)/ [ I .87 mm. ) Io5(53.16)/ [l .3.87ds + q 2 = .0401 x 103N/mm4.87)ds + ( F x / I y )fos.69 /76.' = 50 . In the case of a symmetrical section under a single shear force F.12a. = 1. t = 1 mm q = (FJl. . one or other term is omitted from eq(7.17. if F. is present or not.87 mm.161 x 103)(s2/2 17. Obviously. ' / I . x = 53. ' / I . y = 17. giving F .87)s . 0 2 0 1 )lo' ~~ The distribution is therefore parabolic. = 100 sin 60" = + 86.' N/mm4 For the flange 1 t 2.87 ds + (F.20).(1. t = 1 mm q = (FYII .s.3 Singly Symmetrical Sections The analysis is simplified when a section is symmetric about either of the axes x or y.F .s) ds = (1.433 N/mm at 2 to a maximum of + 1. varying from zero to a maximum value q2 = + 1.631 N/mm at s = 18.17. Jof 7.87s) + (0.b). ex= J" q R ds (7. = . varying from + 1.22a.~ The web q distribution is again parabolic. For the web 2 + 3. 7.0 .) ( s .14b shows these shear flow variations. is absent. Figure 7.63~s2/2) q = ( 18. This means that x and y are principal axes and that both the centroid G and the shear centre E will lie along the axis of symmetry ( x in Fig. At the free surface 3.direction) F.26b) and this applies irrespective of whether F.161 x 10. 7. The sections considered in the following examples all possess xaxis symmetry.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 297 The 10 N force is applied at the shear centre. .433 N F .433 = (1433 + 21.' = 86.50(45.16)2]= . For example.(45.12a).(45.87) s + 1.6 N (in they .056 N F.63. from eqs(7. y = .x = .6s + 0 .69 / 76. = 100 cos 60" = + 50 N (in the x .(0. ' ~17.16)'] = + 88.17. F.464s .49 mm. / I ..direction) when.).161 x lo' x 17. ) { ' 17. 5 8 0 5 ~ ~ ) 1 0 . where s = 71.0401 x 1 0 . point 2 is the shear centre since the moment due to F and to the two shear flows is equivalent to zero at this point.5 mm .87). the shear flow becomes With x an axis of symmetry. (or F.0.4.(s .86.5 mm.433 N/mm for s = 71.6 .401 x 103)(53. q3 = 0.69 /76.17.
)Ox + 9 h = (3. as with the previous example. = 18. = 3.W.2= 15.906 x 10.2 x 202)= 25600 mm4 and so F. a 28 Figure 7. either by continuing from c in an a.12 / 1.s2/2)+ 18. when a downward shear force of 1 kN is applied parallel to the vertical side.298 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 7 6 Determine the shear flow and the maximum shear stress for the section in Fig. from the free surface at e . Now. .75 N/mm for s = 0 at b and q. = + 1000 N applied parallel to a principal axis. Where must this force be applied if the section is not to be subjected to a simultaneous torque? 18.2 = 23. = 9. N/mm4.2 J (20  S) ds + 18. The maximum shear stress in the top flange becomes ~ ~ .63MPa.906 x x 1. . from which it follows that the greatest shear stress in the section occurs at c with magnitude z. /I. 7. the shear flow mirrors that found above.906 x lO’I y t ds = (3. distance s from a in the flange ab. Beneath c.2) ds = 0. The resulting shear flow is that shown in Fig.43 MPa.26a) is applied for I.75 The variation in qbLis now parabolic with extreme values of q./t = 28.c. /f= Working from b to point c ensures that y remains positive upwards. y = 20 .For P.374 + 18.2 x 403/12)+ 2(20 x 1.. = q .9374 x 20 = 18.w.15a. / I .. being zero at a and reaching a maximum value at b of qh= 0.906 x any point. for any point. This may be confirmed.75/1.= q.75 = 28.75 .04687 (20 s . Equation (7.i‘ 9 b = (F.’) (20 x 1. 7.75 N/mm. 18.15b. distance s from b in the web. The resultant applied shear forces along each side are then . = 3.14 N/mm for s = 20 mm at c.s and the shear flow is 9bc = v/\.15 Shear flow in channel section This is an example of a singly symmetric section with a single force F. direction or by working C. = (1.9374 s N/mm It follows that the variation in gobis linear.75 = 0.
1512. Lets and b subtend angles Band 68at 0 as shown in Fig. .04687 (20s .906 x 10. and I .ds = (Fy11. take moments about point c so that eq(7.5 N = F. For convenience..5 mm. F.235b) again applies. Figure 7. from parallel axes . Using A X = J x dA and & = R6B (KR r )X = /"(R sinB)(R d o t ) x = ( R I ~ JonsinBdB= 2Rln ) Both I. = J" x 2 dA =/ "(R sine)2 (R d et)= nR' t I2 and..lying parallel to the principal axes x and y as shown. direction as 4.. = 2F.16 Semicircular section under shear We must first find the position of the centroid g by taking the first moments of area about the Y .16a..5 x 20) + ( 1 87. This ensures that the applied torque at any point in the plane of the section is balanced by the moment effects of the resultant forces due to q at that point. 7.s2/2)+ 18..are required in this example: Ix=J"y'dA=2~"'2(R~~~B)2(RdBt)=nR't/2 I . 7. distance ex from the web. E.' x 24 (20'12) = 187.5 x 20) : e. = J" qbcds = / 20 [0.. Example 77 Determine the shear flow distribution and the position of the shear centre for .axis shown.. 7..16a.!. when it is loaded through the shear centre by shear forces F. If the section is not to be subjected to torque. ) I0ds 24s 20 = 3.!. = 7. The resultant forces are exerted by the crosssection in the same . = 1000 N. and F.751 ds = 500 N : F. shown in Fig. = 1' 4 . 1000 ex = (1 87.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 299 F. must act at the shear centre. F. the thinwalled semicircular section in Fig.
. This is q = [2F.20) results in the following expression for q in terms of t ? 4 = [2F. ex= 4R/n Example 7. 7. Now as F. which is later converted to q with the multiplying N/mm4. /(nR )] sinB+ 2nF. Substituting & = R60.Then.1)/[R ( n 2.5 x lo3mm4 Firstly establish the D. provided that they act through the shear centre E. the integral is conveniently applied between limits of 0 and nrad. = F. = F.5)3!j2+ (15 x 1. 7. and F. = + 1000 N (acting in the negative y . =J yrds distribution.direction) and I .(zR t ) ( 2 R l ~= ~ ( n I 2 .92 x = . acting in the negative x and y directions.5)252]+ (1. say distance ex from 0. In this case E will lie along the xaxis. = ~ r x d ~ = ~ ~ t ( 2 RsinB)(RdB) R/n= R2t 6 I 2 8 / n + ~0~81:R 2 t ( 2 8 / n + COSO. By taking moments about 0. When F. the solution applies eq(7.25b). ex = q R ds where the integral is applied around the perimeter. identified as 1 .5 mm thick extrusion in Fig. it is only necessary to consider moment equilibrium between Fyand the component of shear flow due to F.26a) to each leg of the section. are conventionally positive.5 in Fig.17a.20) are 6 6 D ..5 x 703/12)= 144. the shear flow varies around the perimeter as shown in Fig.8)] which is positive for the direction of s shown. to give 6 I F y e .300 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Iy=IyA X 2 = nR3f/2 . Substituting into eq(7. At what distance from the vertical web does the shear centre lie? Since x is a principal axis of symmetry and F. = R Z f0 q d 8 = (2RFy/n) fo’sin8d8= ./(nR)] sin8 From eq(7. factor FylIx 6.4 /n) ) R’t The first moments in eq(7.16b. ( 2 8 / n + cos8. F. The shear flow distribution is statically equivalent to the two applied shear forces.1) = Both F.(2RFy/n)I cos8(: = 4RFy/n : . = I t y d s = / o t ( R c o s B ) ( R d B ) = I R 2 f c o S B d 8 = R 2 r sin 8 D .8 Determine the shear flow distribution for the 1. 7.17 when a downward vertical force of 1 kN passes through its shear centre. is absent. = 2 [(20 x 1.
7. For flange 4+3.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 301 7.5 (35s . 5 s @ 5.5 mm D. y = 35  s. For web 23. t = 1. = 1. in order to eliminate the torque produced by q in the web. s = 15 mm : D.5 x 20) = 1050 mm3 .266 x 20)  17. . s = 0 : D. 5 ( 2 5 ~ .17 Shear flow distribution in an extruded section For flange 142.5 rnm3 . y = 35 mm. s = 10 mm : Dx3= 1500 mm3 .5 x 15) = 562. from the web and take moments about point 5.5 mm D.893  I Figure 7.s.25 mm3 . 1 D.s=O:. = (25 x 1S ) ds = 37. s = 20 mm : D. let Fy act at distance e.26b) becomes .. s = 25 mm : DX5 253 1.893 x 15 x 50) + ex= 3. = (95 x 7..626 mm. y = 25 ..266 (i x 7.5 s @ 1 .17b.5 mm3 For web 3+5. = (52. = 1500 + 562. D x 4 = 0 I @ 3... y = 25 mm.s2/2) + 1050 @ 3. The resultant coupling forces due to q in the horizontal limbs are given in Fig. t = 1. = 0 .5 = 2062.5 mm S) D.5 J (25  s ) d s + C D X 3 =1 .266 x 20 x 70) . @ 2. t = 1. = (37.= 1. = (35 x 1. lo00 e. = The corresponding q distribution is that shown in Fig.5) ds = 52. 1 7 ~From these eq(7.2 / 2 ) + 2 0 6 2 .5 J (35  ds + D. To find the shear centre. 7 .(Yz x 3.52 3.5s @4. t = 1.5 mm O x = 1.
5 Shear Flow in ThinWalled Closed Sections Pure flexural shear flow in a closed tube arises when the transverse shear forces act through the shear centre. Both the position of this origin and point P will govern the magnitude of q. the following analysis.b)).the torsional effects are accounted for solely in the effect that the position of P has on q.symmetry follows from putting F. 7. With a fixed origin for s. The net shear flow is usually dealt with by a more convenient method than is employed for an open section (see Fig. the shear flow is due to both bending and torsion... and I (see eqs(7. are applied to an asymmetric section through an arbitrary point P. 7.27b).22a. When the shear forces do not act through the shear centre. The reduction to a section with x .. This must correspond to a shift in the position of the applied forces in order to .' and Fy = F.20).18a two components of shear force F. By adding a constant to eq(7.. I.18 Closed tube under shear Equation (7. They can be defined in terms of the applied forces F.. in eq(7.' are equivalent forces referred to axes x and y when the latter are not principal axes. 7. A closed section has no free surface where 4 = 0. Now qbis actually the pure flexural shear flow for the equivalent tube when the wall is split at s = 0. Now q. Figure 7... and F.5. and the second moments of area I. the net shear flow q resulting from any shear loading may be calculated directly. and F . = F. is equal to a constant value q at the origin for s.10).302 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 7. We shall work with the applied forces for .20) becomes where in which F.' and F.I Shear Forces Applied at any Point P In Fig..
29) and equating to zero gives $ qbdslt + q. the position of the shear centre E. In order to restore the original loading. . The reasoning is similar to that in Fig. $ dslt = 0 (7.27a).30).5. F.70b) applies but where q now varies with s. e. can be found later from an equilibrium condition that moments produced by the net 4 are statically equivalent to the applied shear forces. multicell tube (section 5. 7.FLEXURAL SHEAR F%OW 303 become concurrent with the shear centre for the opened section. A yield criterion provides the necessary check that the shear stresses in the wall remain elastic (see Chapter 11)... in Fig.10. value in eq(7. Note that when point 0 coincides with P.. where $ R ds is twice the area enclosed by the midline of the wall section.28) cannot supply q.2). is found from eq(7. . that the rate of twist will be zero. with the corresponding coordinates exand e. the twist rate 6B/& due to the net shear flow q is For pure flexural shear. 7. a torque must also act when forces are translated to the shear centre of the opened section. it is convenient to assume that q.28) becomes zero. = 0 and e. Initially.30) Once q. Thus.2 Shear Forces Applied at the Shear Centre Equation (7. directly when the shear forces are applied at the shear centre E in Fig. Substituting into eq(7. Substituting from eq(7. = 4 q. The value of q. when finding qbfrom eq(7. 7. In general.b).. . 4* becomes the particular q. That is. It follows that q.27a.. e.18b. for any point 0 in the plane of the crosssection. i.F.5.e. The method amounts to converting a structure with a single degree of redundancy into a statically determinate one. 7. is effectively the constant shear flow within a closed tube produced by this torque.= 0 for s = 0.. A similar approach may be employed to determine the shear flow distribution in a closed..18b. follows from taking moments about any convenient point 0..31) When E is known to lie on a horizontal axis of symmetry. Different opening positions are associated with particular q0 values because of the resulting change in position of the shear centre.18b when the position of E is unknown. 7. may be determined from F. A derivation similar to eq(5.27a). for the directions given in Fig. R ds + q p $ R ds (7. the LH side of eq(7. e. This requires a compatibility condition to be satisfied. and 0 is also chosen to lie along this axis.
the maximum shear stress. these will not be covered here.9 The thinwalled tubular section r = 50 mm. as y = r sineand ds = r dB in Fig..5. = 0. Although simplificationscan be made for doubly symmetric idealised tubes. . 7. t = 1 mm in Fig.67). Determine the shear flow distribution.F. the rate of twist and the free warping distribution.(Ao. s x 2nr 2nr (a) Figure 7. distance s from o (see that Fig. To determine the contribution to warping from shear flow we replace the BredtBatho shear flow q = T l(2A) in this equation. 7.6) how axial stress arose from the supression of warping in an open tube under torsion. however. + 40 Now.19 Thinwalled tubular section (b) The section is symmetric with F .32) where A. From eq(7. . 3F. When warping displacements are prevented at an encastre support. with the net shear flow distribution q = q(s). = 500 N as shown. then eq(7. Example 7.18b). a system of selfequilibrating forces is induced which modifies the shear flow distribution.13 shows how to apply eq(7.32) to a closed idealised tube consisting of webs and booms. We saw in the WagnerKappustheory (Section 5. then .20). positive and F. Axial restraint in asymmetric tubes under shear requires a more complex theory. If. This gives the relative warping displacement: A w = Josqds/(Gr ) . there is no warping for s = 0.32) will supply absolute w values. The derivation of these displacements is similar to that leading to eq(5.304 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 7. usually at a point of symmetry.19a. may itself warp and a point on the periphery. 7. Example 7.3 Warping Unrestrained warping accompanies twisting of the section. Take G = 80 GPa. the net shear flow is 4 = ( ~ . / ~ x ) & .19a is subjected to a vertical shear force of F. This shows that the calculation of warping in an idealised tube is simplified as the shear flow is constant within webs connecting booms.</ ) A $ 4 ds/(Gt ) (7.v is the area enclosed between the centre of twist (coincident with the shear centre). when shear forces are applied away from the shear centre. a peripheral origin 0.
+ q . /(2n r)] J0 A.F. Example 7. / ( 2 n r 2 G t ) $ = 500/(2nx 502x 80000 x 1) = 0.2 c o s 8 ) r d 8 = F . 7. 7. 7.cos8).20a. / ( n G t ) ]sin8 which shows that all points on the periphery.. = ( F ! / I x )D.in Fig..2 sin 8) 8 q ds = [Fy/(2n)] 18.v = 0 ( 1 .2 sinB(? = F. = . becomes q = [F...775 MPa q Here the centroid 0 is clearly the shear centre. = y t ds = r 2 t {00sin8d8= r 2 t (1 . except those on the horizontal diameter.. / ( 2 n r t ) ] (1 .19a. r + 2 n r 2 q .e. at the rate supplied by eq(7. d 8 / d z = [ 1 / ( 2 n r 2 G ) ] [ F ./(nr](l. /(2nr t ) = (3 x 500)/(2n x 500x I ) = 4. This has the distribution shown in Fig. . 6A = r 6 s = t (a&?) . A w = .closed tube of uniform thickness t and radius a.cos8) = From eq(7..3978 x rad/mm Applying eq(7. J' q ds = [F. /(2nr) = [Fy/(2nr)](l .2 cos 8 ) r d 8= [ Fy4 2 n)]( . = 2 F .F.28).[ r28/(2nr2)]F.18a) . into the page within Fig.29). I.2 sin8) . The greatest q occurs at 8= 3 n / 2 rad.[F. [F.. I q. 1/21r ds = (r2/2) 0 f0 d8= r28/2 : GtAw = (Fy/(2n)(O. displace axially.r is found from the sum of the I 's for a rectangle and a semicircle: and substituting y = a cos8. t and F.cos8) : . with the moment centre 0 at the centre of the circle. q.10 Find the pure flexural shear flow distribution and the shear centre for the thinwalled. F y r = ( F y r / n ) $ ( l c o s 8 ) d 8 + 2 ( n r 2 ) q .. giving rWsx= / t = 3F.7. . values. . semicircular. = J' y 2 t ds = 2 r't /0= sin28d8= n r ' t D .32) to find the warping distribution with the given origin for s in Fig.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 305 I. . /(nr)](l . l(2nr) : Hence the net shear flow. q = q .2 cos8) ..19b for the given r. The section will therefore twist under F.. relative to + z (i.
= Jo” y t ds = Jo (a c o d ) t (a d 8 ) = a 2 t Jo c o s 8 d 8 = a 2 t sin8 @ 1 8= 0. for this singly symmetric section F. .. eq(7.a) t ds + 0 = t I s 2 / 2 . sin@/ [a( n / 2 + 2/3)] for 1 + 2 + qb= [F. qh= F.:. s (s/2 .20b is found from eq(ii).>. 0.27a) is written as Since.a’ t 12 1... applied through the shear centre. =0 @ 8= n / 2 rad. 7.. Llq/. a maximum and for 2 + 1 in the vertical web. 0 0 Dx. D.116F. D . = 0 and x is a principal axis. With the origin at 1 and s measured clockwise from 1 + 2 in the semicircular portion. D ..as @ 2 s = 0. Dl. D. the qbshear flow distribution in Fig..306 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 0.1165 OIJIFF __ (1 Figure 7. = 0 @ 1 s = 2a..” = t s (s/2 .= 0 @ 2 8= rrrad... = f0’(s . = 0 @ s = a. = / o s y t ds + D. = a* t. D . .a) Correspondingly.a )]/ [a ( n / 2 + 2/3)] for 2 1 . = .20 Thinwalled closed tube With F.. E.
q = F.11 The wing box structure in Fig. / [ t ( ~ / + 2/3)] . 7.l(1 : ex = u .1161 ) ~ 2 Provided the direction chosen for s remains the same for the determination of qh and q. 7. + n/2)(1+ 3 1 s / 4 ) (3 + n/2)/[( 1 + n / 2)( 1 + 3 A / 4)] = 0 . q=FysinB/[a(n/2+2/3)]. then q is given by their sum. so that where Fy= . [ fox (a d o ) / t + fOzads t ] = 0 / 2F.2F. Refer to Example 1. Example 7. the rate of twist and the position of the shear centre from this web.20d eliminates F. this qbdirection is reversed. 2 0 ~The net . in eq(7.. 7.0. / [3 t ( n / + 2/3)] + 4 u ( K + 2)/ t = 0 2 2 : . 7. Take G = 27 GPa. 4 4 7 ( ~ / ~ * .21a is loaded in shear along its left vertical web as shown.20b.20d is found from eq(i).a)/ [ a 3 ( n / 2+ 2/3)] . / [ a t ( n / 2 + 2 / 3 ) ] ) /oxsin8(adB)+ ( F J [ a 3 r ( n / 2 + 2 / 3 ) ] ) /2a(s2/2 . Calculate the distribution of shear flow. With sina = 1 10 / 610.naF. / ~ ) [ 0 .Fy [ u ( 1 + 3 X /4)( 1 + / 2)] ~ which represents the constant shear flow around the section shown in Fig. Here x is a principal axis of symmetry.F . to give F. as shown in Fig.as)ds 0 + q. (ii) the magnitudes of shear forces are not required to find the position of the shear centre and (iii) only the net shear flow for the web is needed to establish ex. to find q.. / [ a ( 1 + 3 n / 4 ) ( 1 + ~ / 2 ) ] = (F.. (when present) and q in the web.30).ex=2aF.0. Now apply eq(7.31) to find the shear centre.2oooO N. 5 3 ~ Note that (i) it is not necessary to calculate the xposition of the centroid.(U) /. s (s/2 . shear flow for the semicircular portion 1 + 2 in Fig.6 in Appendix 1for the calculation of I. ( F .FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 307 Because the latter gives negative qb for 0 < s < 2a./a)(0. / [a (1 + 3 ~ / 4 ) ( + n/2)] 1 = ( F . 7 .447 sin8.= f0" q a d s = a ZJon q d B F.e../(lr/2+2/3). Taking moments about the web centre 0 in Fig. = .F. Substituting for q. the contributionsto I from the web and sloping sides appear in the summation .1 16) For the web.
= ..150.s 2 / 2 ) = 0 @ 1 s = 0.y=40s.308 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 16. y = .21 Shear f o in a wing box structure lw I .. = 4 (300)’/12 + 3 (80)’/12 (for web) + (1 x 610)[802/2 + (80 x 610)(110/610)+ (2 x 6102/3)(110/610)2](for sides) = (9 + 0.(40s + I ls2/122)+ 0 = = = @2s = 0. D.95 19.D. D.4 i 16.. = 2400 mm3 (a maximum) s 2 + 3.4= .37 x l o 6 mm4 1 +2.s) ds = 3(40s .t=3mm DXl. Dxhz 0 = @ s = 40 mm.57950 = = @ 3 s = 0. . Dxb3 .102950 m m (a maximum) ’ . D...600s .128 + 12.24)106=21. t = 1 mm Ox/.95 Figure 7.y = s . = 0 @2s = 80 mm.150) ds + Ox/. t = 4 m m Ox/. 4 l0‘(s .(40 + 110s/610). J y t ds = 3 ‘(40 . 0 = ..57950 mm3 = @4 s = 300 mm.. Dx.f0’(40 + 110s/610)ds + DxbZ .57950 mm @ s = 150 mm..57950 mm3 (a maximum) @3 s = 610 mm. 3 + 4.’ 2s’ .
This direction controls the sense of the moments $ q.79 ~ 2 1 8 . in Fig. provided it is recognised that this product must be the the resultant of the moments due to the net q = q..28) x to find q. 7..).57950)(ds/l)] 300 + Jo (2s' . for 3+4) .(40s + 1ls2/122)(ds/l) (150s .FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 309 4 4 l .22.16.assumed c.1 q.359 x 120s' .s2/2)(ds/3) + 1 o l ' . $ d s / t ] where A = (300 + 80)600/2 = 114 x l o 3 mm2 (ii) .c.s = 0.28) becomes F. Applying eq(7. is given in Fig.93 x 818.95 N/mm and the net shear flow q = qe + q. Note that particular care must be taken with signs.21d.9.16.(q.. .e.9.110s/610) ds + Dr1.3 x l o 4 )+ (2.35 ..57950 (a maximum) = @ I .246/3 = 119..8 x 104)q.235)/3]300 = 24693.359 x 1 (2s' 300 . qo = .21b.18) ds] (a.s3/6IB0 1 20s2+ l l s 3/3661y0  . These may be equated to F y p x in this way. Since Force in 12 is 2 x 80 x 2. Alternatively. (20 x l o 3x 818.16.57950)(ds/4) + 0 lo 610 = . =+ 0 = (2020. R ds in eq(i) before numerical values are substituted.c..79 N Force in 34 is [54.67 = . R ds + Bq. with the given qb directions in Fig.403 x lo3N/mm $ qbds/ t = ( F J / l x [ 1"3(40s ) 0 ...18) + ( 1 19. + q.(9.8 x l o 4 )qo : q. 1636.w.. dB/dz= [1/(2AG)] $ q d d t = [ 1 / ( 2 A G ) ] [ $ q .600s .w.18)ds (c. 7.4 150s . .16..57950 = = @4.w. (1) 2Ox1O3(600+218.18) = (24693.36~10~ 0.6137 x l o 4 )+ (22. Px = Q q . it is convenient to take the moment centre 0 where the cover lines intersect so that no moments are exerted by them.. eq(7. Remember that the q.6126120s2s3/6~80(22.18)=.95[80/3+610/1+ 300/4 + 610/I] = .. distribution..95 x 1321.54. y = 1 5 0 .110s/610.9. for q b I + 2)  + (300 + 80)600q. ) Hence.t=lmm Dxh [o'(150 . Dxh= 0 The qhdistribution in Fig. In the application of eq(7.w.1 1s2/122.7657 12s3/3300s257950s + 0. expressions were derived for a given s direction.93 N :. = . 7.[. d s / t + q .29) for the rate of twist. For the webs.11s2/122 ..359 by N/mm4.. 7.The given directions correspond to positive q.95 N/mm (i.21~).21b is found by multiplying Dxh the constant F y / I x= .8 x 104)q.235 + 2(96.359 x 10~40[0803(40ss'/2)(218. a. 1 8+ (22.57950)(818. the moments about 0 may be found by multiplying the net web forces by the perpendicular distance. Dxlr4 .600s .$ dslt =. S = 610 mm.
axis 90 mm to the right of the longer vertical web. the shear centre lies on the x .403 + 32.842)10'] from which ex = 728.842 N/mm : Taking moments about the same cover intersection point 0 in Fig.' ] = . and the line integrals remain the same. This leads to the idealisations given in Figs 7. to E but q.80 x l o 6 Nmm x This is counterbalanced to give zero twist rate when Fyis translated distance x. Equation (7.6248 .?ds/t+ q.097 1 "/m To find the shear centre E..833 x lo') + 1321.359 x 104)[4. The areas above and below the neutral axis in Fig. distance ex from E. as shown in Fig.3 how little the flanges contributed to the vertical shear force in Isection beams. Thus. Also. 8 0 ~ 10' : x. which resist the bending moment.22b.30) gives $ q. 7.21b. may be considered to be concentrated as "booms" separated by the depth d of the shear web. 7.09 mm. That is.3508.24.659..18) + (24693. 7. by Maxwell's reciprocal law.1426.93 x 818.18) + [2 x 1 l4(.679. This is a particularly useful approximation to make for the analysis of the effects of longitudinal stiffeners and stringers on the shear flow in thinwalled aircraft structures.22ad for thin web sections.67 = 1.1 1 ~ ~ 1 3 . 7.359 x lo')[. dB/dz = (. = 0 .(9. $ ds/t = 0 (32. 7. = . = (1.300s2 . (20 ex)lO' = (1 19.1248 x l o 4 ]= 32. q.24.6943 x 10 ' rad/mm = 0.6b) does not vary greatly over the depth of the web. the vertical shear stress distribution (see Fig.6 6 57950s 1. to the shear centre.833 x l o 3N/mm Substituting into eq(ii).3833 . from the previous calculations eq(7.310 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES + % I 2s3/3 .57950 I. accounts for the transference of F.= 1 . as before. That is.6 WebBoom Idealisation for Symmetrical Sections It was seen in Example 7. 300 + I 150s2/2 . .70a). [ T / ( 4 A 2 G ) $ds/t=dB/&= 1 .1426.80 x 106)/(20x lo') = 90 mm.6943 x x 4 x (114 x 1 0 3 ) 2 27 x 103]/1321.(9. let Fy acting through this point.833)10'/(2 x 114 x 10' x 27 x lo') = 1. Alternatively.22a.22.2666. FYx. . From eq(5.30) is applied in which q.79 x 218.3833 ] l o 4 = . 6 9 7 3 ~ ] T = [1. the position of the shear centre may be found from the pure torque T required to produce the same rate of twist as under F.
= I . 1 The greater change in shear flow will be caused by the booms when which is normally the case for thinwalled sections under any flexural shear loading.20) gives the web or skin shear flow as where. A. Figure 7. the web shear flow becomes q = F.. Equation (7.22d). is applied parallel to the principal y .6.(for web or skin) + n A y.‘ (for booms) I .33) is removed by lumping the web or skin area into that of the booms. I The total second moment of area is given by I.33) becomes 4=(F. In the simplest of idealisations. 3 .axis. ( r = 1. 7.1 Open Section Consider an idealised.. Here for the web area (see Fig. I = 2A(d/2)2for an open section. where x is an axis of symmetry. t = q/t = F.) r . with Ay = Ad/2.34) This gives a constant shear flow over any shape of web connecting two adjacent boom areas.) (7.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 311 t1 d  %. (Ad /2)/[2A (d /2) 2 ] = FJd acting in a direction parallel to its midline. with the contribution to D. for example.. In Fig. 7. the first moment of area becomes O x =[ ‘ y t d s + 0 2 I .22c. from both the web and boom areas A. n)./(dt) is the average shear stress .22 Webboom idealisation for an Ibeam 7.lI. Equation (7.2. open structure in which a single shear force F.y.. J y t ds in eq(7. 1 c n Wry.
with I = A .1 (7. Equation(7. l I .%) r .24. of only those boom areas lying above the connecting web being considered.34) to Fig. .24 Symmetric open boom section under F. and F. the boom areas are balanced above and below the xaxis. 7.34).23 Webboom idealisation showing constant y between booms Thus. acting in the negative x and y directions. Y .312 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES In the application cif eq(7. 7. ) is the sum of the first moments about the n. 7.35) where C ( A y ) and C(Ax ) are sums of the first moments of those boom areas lying "above or below" the web being considered. at right angles to F. F't Figure 7. about the principal centroidal axes. where x and y are principal axes.35) will supply the following mean line web shear flows when there is no twisting of the section: Figure 7. + A4y. ) + ( F . in Fig. . ) C ( A . ~ I . y I 2+ A2y.a. the effect on the web shear flow is additive. C ( A y .1 n q = ( F . and F. In Fig.23a. + A3y. the summation of equations. Thus with F. gives n r . ) C (A.23a If the section supports a second shear force F. similar to e4(7.
and F.24b. is applied at the shear centre.37a) r . e. 1 where the determination of q. In this case let the shear centre E lie along the xaxis distance e. chosen to lie at the centre of the vertical web.5. With the moment centre 0. from the vertical web as shown in Fig.37a) then reduces to (7. Equation (7. Equation (7. 7. where the summation term accounts for the boom areas passed by the peripheral coordinate when taken anticlockwise (say) from its origin at boom 1.24b. and x is an axis of symmetry (principal axis).1. = qR ds = 2 1 (qA ) I (7. 7. nor the shear flow in the web will exert a moment. the shear flow follows from eqs 7. neither F.23b) becomes F.b.6. 7... E. for the relevant areas above and below the neutral axis in Fig. (7.37b) r . 1 s. 7. 1 I. Thus.25 shows a particular loading where a single force F.24b. has been discussed in section 7. as shown for qI2and q23 in Fig. Figure 7.35).FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 313 Now from eq(7.25 Idealisation of a singlecell closed tube .27a. I / Stillcncr Skin Figure 7.36a) The summation follows from q being constant along each web for whichJ Rds is twice the area enclosed by the web and 0.2 Closed Tube When a singlysymmetric closed tube is subjected to shear forces F.
Y? r . 1  A.26 Webboom idealisation of a single panel . (iii) The shear stress is uniform across the web or skin thickness and the direct stress is constant across the boom area. (7.25 and 7.314 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES For example. Y3 (7. This is assessed from the following consideration of bending of the section about its neutral axis.3 Calculation o Boom Areas f A structure under flexural shear will also carry direct stress due to bending. the net value of I about the neutral axis of the section must remain unchanged. 7. in the determination of 934 7 A. In the idealised structure the boom areas carry this direct stress. Figure 7. In addition.31). (ii) The skin or web carries only shear stress while the booms carry only bending stress. when the booms are to represent the finite stiffner areas at their given positions in the original structure. Thus in Fig.39) from which it follows that A. is large. The web or skin makes an additional contribution to I . the flanges and longitudinal stiffeners (see Figs 7. for example. Their areas reflect the combined effects that the skin or web. thereby interrupting the shear flow.29) have on resisting bending.6. Example 8. where similar summations replace the path integrals. The following simplifications are made in idealising a structure (i) The boom centroids lie in the plane of the web or the skin midline.22 considers shear flow in a symmetrical multicell tube within the general consideration of the application of the principal of virtual work to redundant structures. at the rth boom.38a) The position of the shear centre for this loading is supplied by eq(7. The boom areas abruptly alter the first moment of area.25. by increasing the net area of the boom. will approximate to the actual stiffener area only when y. 7.
39) and (7. (7. the area of the rth boom is influenced by both the adjacent webs r and r + 1.25.)/31 = A . The following conditions are to apply: (i) the net axial force must be the same.5 . With a linear variation in bending stress assumed between the two booms then.407.41) (ii) the moments about the neutral axis must be the same 0 2 s t (Y. 7.+ ~ .26a is idealised into two booms connected by a shear web of zero bending stiffness in Fig. 7.43a. (7.26b. Firstly the flanges have been assumed to be concentrations of area at the web centre line. The contributions to these areas from the web are found from eqs(7.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 315 The panel element in Fig.44) The net boom areas are then found by adding eqs(7. the stress is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis a. +A2 0 2 Y2 (7.786 mm2= A and the latter deals with the intermediate boom areas in the table: Position s.40) where.43b) The reader should verify that implicit in these conditions is the fact that I. In extending eqs(7.17a using a fourboom idealisation. u + A 2 a 2 . 7.42) leads to the boom area contributions.25 4 10 1. The former deals with the end booms.12 Determine the web shear flow for Fig.42) Combining eqs(7. In practice. A . A .Y.44).5 1. This leads to the use of an effective skin thickness in eqs(7. Example 7. = ( s t /6)(2 + u2/al ) A = ( s t /6)(2 + a . / a 2 ) (7. for the assessment of its contribution to the boom area.5/6)(2 + 25/35) = 6.44). st(a.43) and (7. y . + Y 2 W + [(a.5 25 .35 .44).  0 2 ) s t/21[ Y 2 + 2 ( Y . the skin or web thickness construction may not be fully effective in resisting direct stress where there is a risk of buckling. for example. the following examples illustrate that the actual thickness is normally retained in the line integral $ (dslt) when determining warping displacements and the position of the shear centre.27a. as shown in Fig. mm y .43a) (7. which differs from the actual thickness. 7.b) to the multiboom idealisation in Fig. Then. for the panel will remain unchanged./a2= Y I / Y 2 (7. However. = (sI ti /6)(2 + y 2 / y l )= (10 x 1. o . ) / 2 = A . mm t . . mm 1  35 2 3 10 50 1. from bending theory.43) and (7. 7.
91 N/mm The web shear flow in Fig. 7.44 N/mm 3+4 A . =+ q34= 8.25)] + (10 x 1.mm s.150 +150 610 80 610 300 4 1 3 1 . = 36.40 .786 x 35 = 1287. Example 7.91 N/mm 1 4 2 A.21.5 mm3.5. Now from eq(7.786 x 352)+ (43.25)] = 21 mm2 A3 The net boom areas are those shown in Fig.5 x l o 3 mm4 (as before in Example 7.mm t. = (1 x 103)/(144. 7. 7. the position of the shear centre and the warping displacements at the four corners.y. + A2y2= 1287. the following table applies: Boom y. 7.13 Using a fourboom idealisation for the tube in Fig.1 where C A . n r .mm 3 4 1 2 +40 .44 I A2 urboom idealisation Figure 27 Shear flow in ~. and q are + q. from which I . + A2y2+ A3y3= 2375 + 43.5/6)[2 + (.5 x 25 2 ) ] = 144.5(.25/25) = 21 mm’. y.25) = 1287.5/6)[2 + 25/(.5/6)(2 + 35/25) + (50 x 1. + q23= 16.17b.8) and F.28a. y . 7.5x l o 3 )= 144. ( 4 1 = (S 3 t. y . 2 .+ 3 A .2= 8.27a.‘ N/mm4.5 x 25) = 2375 mm3.34).27b is a reasonable approximation to that shown in Fig. determine the shear flow distribution. With reference to the chosen boom positions in Fig.3 3 4 . Take G = 30 GPa./ I .5 + (43.316 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES 30 mm’ = 16.5/6)(2 . /6)(2 + ~ 2 / ~+3 ~ t4/6)(2 + Y ~ /3 Y = (50 x 1. = ( S 2 t2/6)(2 + Y I 1 ~ 2+ (sj t3/6)(2 + y3/y2 ) = (10 x 1. = 2[(36.5 mm3.
23. From eq(7.9 ..37 x lo 6 rnm4 so agreeing with the previous value for Fig. /6)(2 + Y4lYI) + (S2f2/6)(2+ Y2/YI) = (610 x 1/6)(2 + 150/40) + (80 x 3/6)[2 + (.20000/ (21. : .363 x 2. = 0 q.37a).21 in Example 7..) + @4t4/6)(2+ Y 4 / Y 3 ) = (610 x 1/6)[2 + (. : :..(430 x 150) = .= (. = 0 12 2+3 3+4 41 D. = .l5O)l = 430 mm2 = A 4 I. D.(625 x 40) = 0 Dd.28 Shear centre and warping displacements Since there are no stiffeners to deal with in this case. the boom areas are directly supplied by eq(7.6.. = 2[(625 x 402)+ (430 x 1502)]= 21. = .1 1.l50)] + (300 x 4/6)[2 + 150/(.J I./6)(2 +Y*/Y. t .6.6.363)(.4 N/mm q1.5 x l o 4mm3.4 Figure 7. 3 6 3 ~ N/mm4. .5 x l o 4 ).37 x 10‘) = . Dxband q become q6 = .40)/(. 7. : . A .45) = 60. = (s.t.40)/40] = 625 mm2 = A 2 A.9.9.45 x lo4 mm3 = D . = 625 x 40 = 2. where F. .45 x l o 4 + (430 x 150) = 0.20kN 20 kN A A 23.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 317 F. = (s.44).5 = .39 N/mm qi. 0 . = (2.
4.8 . eq(7.93 x 610/1) = 10421..w I ) = ..4~10~’)A.1)/(114 x 10’) . it is convenient to take moments about the centre 0.05x 10’mm2 A..v A .. R ds + qc$ R ds = $ qb R ds + 2A q ..5)10 = 73.32 x 300/4) + (4.. = . eq(7.4 + 40.. Thus. N/mm 2+ 3 A. = ~ .5 + (4..31) becomes F..5 + 4.93s @ 3 s = 610 mm..28d.492. q/osds/r = 25 14. Taking moments about 0. 2 8 ~Starting at position 1. R ds + 2 q.4 x 80 x 600) .158 x 80) = . q/osds/r = (.(91.4 x 20.p. = + 4.5 G(w. A 0 = . . translated distance e.103mm2 4x J” q d s / r = ( .(23.) 25 14.28b.(300x90/2)]10’=40..45 x 10’ mm2 = I q dslt =  492.47 x 80/3) + (4.6.. = $ q.(20 x 10’)e.v A = + A. dslr = 0 [ . = (20. eq(7.30) becomes $ q]. 2 8 ~For the shear centre E. e.dslr + q .357 x 10.=’/2[114.3. + A.318 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES This establishes the qb distribution shown in Fig. to E in Fig. R ds + q. F..t.$ R ds = $ q .93 N/mm Thus the net shear flow. = (300 x 90)/2 = 13.28b.05)103= 60. of the left hand web. .492.x 10421. Now. $ qds/t= (.39 x 300/4) + 01 + q..4 + 40..05 + 13.5 . = . =+ q.direction).4) = . where there will be a warping . The warping displacements are found by applying eq(7. For the determination of q. = (20.45) = . . q = qb+ q.. mm2 (A...(91.95 x 10 mmz ’ ’ .2.8 G(w. 7.93 x 610/1) + (65. 0 = $ q .4 x 80 x 600) + (300 + 80)600q. .. 7.4 x 80/3) + 0 + (60.156s @ 2 s = 80 mm.. 7 . (for the positive s ..(80/3 + 61011 + 300/4 + 610/1) = 0 Hence q.6. displacement w. = 8 0 x 5 1 0 / 2 = 2 0 .(23. the shear centre E (see Fig.is that shown in Fig..5 x 10’ mm2 A.18.(23.955 N/mm.20.492.93/1) 1‘ds 0 = . 7 .1 A = (300 + 80)600/2 = 1 14 x 10.r.47/3) I S d s = . with . + A.vw. = 0 and eq (7. 7.. F.32) is applied by measuring A.01 x lo’ N/mm = 3+ 4 A...18./A)$ qds/t=(A.28) becomes.. J I+ 2 ~ .CAW= o‘qds/r(91.. .955 and again ex= 90 mm.600(300 + 80)2. ..w.32) to the net q shear flow distribution in Fig.2.4 x 60..
4 x 73.8 l G(w. 8 3 3 ~o 3 l Gw3=(.axis displace axially in the positive z .2.039.01 + 1. setting the shear modulus G = 30 x l o 3MPa. and F. Gw. 7.' and F. I ...7 WebBoom Idealisation for Asymmetric Sections The basic form of eq(7.061 mm. Points above the x .' and F.direction (see Fig. Equation (7. 357x 1 0 3 / 2 = + 1 .8 + 610s @1 s=610mm. its shear centre has been previously outlined in section 7.10 x lo 6 mm4 125 . .95) = + 0.29a. Gw2=(. 1 7 9 ~o 3 l lo3.wl) = 7413. w2 = . q i O s d s / = 7413.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 319 I q ddt = 2514. 1 1  1 where F. if we wish to refer the first and second moments of area to these axes.' have been previously defined in eqs(7. Assuming that the xaxis of symmetry does not warp and noting that Aw is linear in s throughout.) = 10421.(91.(91.8 + 16.75 x 10' mm4 Iq = (500x200~25)(500x75x200)+(500x200~75)( 5 0 0 ~ x 200) = .179)103=.5. 7. then  l G wI=+2 .18a) while those points beneath the x axis displace axially in the opposite direction.1 . as the xaxis passes through the centre of the depth.655 x l o 3N/mm 41 A.1 G(w. Locate the position of E.45) 1 .179)103=+1 ..1 . = (2 x 752x 500) + (25' x 500) + (1252x 500) = 13. w3 = .=(+0.0. when shear forces act at the shear centre E as shown. f q d s / r = 10421.35) is modified to (7.039.655+ 1.33s @ 4 s = 300 mm. = 0 at a free surface.14 Determine the shear flow for the flanges and the web in the unsymmetrical channel section of Fig. when forces are applied to a closed tube either at.b). or away from. However.179)10'=.3.~ 114 x 103 rnm2 = I q ds/t = 7413. because x and y are not principal axes it becomes necessary to employ equivalent shear forces F. Equation (7.0.357+1.1 . = 4 x 500 x 200 = 80 x lo6m 4 I .061 and w4 = + 0. . Example 7.32/4)is ds = 2514.w. are applied to an idealised section in negative x and y directions.1. x = 75 mm 4 and.22a. The determination of q .8 .. 8 3 2 ~ and finally. 7. The centroidal position  of the y .8 + (65.8 + (610/1) fOsds= 7413.axis is found from (500 x 100) + (500 x 200) = (4 x 500) x. 1 7 9 ~o 3 .35) applies when shear forces F.4 x 114) 0 (provides a check).45) will apply to both open and closed sections provided we set q. the warping displacements are wI = + 0.
50 N/mm. F. the shear flow between 3 and 4 is given by q34= (FYI/ Ix)[(500 200) + (500 x 200) . = (3. from 1 to 2.320 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 9. working clockwise from 4. q23 (F.10/13.5 x 103)/(80x l o 6 ) = 43.1O2/(8Ox 13.75 Figure 7.75)]/ [ l . q 1 2 = (F.75 N/mm. with Fy= + 5 kN and F.75)] = .150 x N/mm4 I . That is.)(500 x 200) + (F. Alternatively.2.75 x N/mm4 FYI/ In the application of eq(7. Working anticlockwisefrom 1. 7.(2.5 8 I 43 3. working clockwise from 4.=2.0625 x 103)/(13. is found by applying the summation terms to boom 1 only.29b.5 kN F.29b.'/I.'/I. That is.5 2 2  7.)[(500 x 25) .22). .'/ I . = 0.12.102/(80x 13.5(.'/1.(500 x 75)] = ..(500 x 75)] (iii) from which q34= 13.5 kN. working anticlockwise from 1. acting in the sense shown in Fig.2. i.5 .29 Unsymmetrical channel section Now from eqs(7.5 N/mm positive in the sense shown in Fig.5 Nlmm = x confirming the positive direction previously found. Alternatively.45) with q.'/1.10/80)]/ [l .e.)(500 x 25) (i) That is.0625 kN F.(500 x 200)] x + (Fx'// ? ) [ + (500 x 25) . = .)[(500 x 200) + (500 x 200)] + (Fx'/I. the shear flow between booms 1 and 2.)[(500 125) .75x lo6)= .5 q in Nlmm 3 13.75)] = 3. 7.2. q12 2. The shear flow between = booms 2 and 3 is found by applying the summations to booms 1 and 2. qZ3 (Fy'/Ix)[(500x200)(500x200)]+(F.(500 x 75)] = (ii) This gives q13=12.5(.tl qz12.(500 x 75) .75  L . = [5 + 2.. = .'= [.
A.5 x l o 3 )e. 1993. A second equation is required to separate exfrom e.Substituting into eqs(i). Then. F.O. 7. Arnold. and Fenster.P.5 x 400) = 5000 N.29b gives (2..S.22) the equivalent forces F..7.C. Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity. Bibliography Boresi. = (2..5 N/mm.M.)[.. 1951.75 N/mm. Ugura1.75 N/mm The magnitudes of q and the directions shown in Fig. This is derived from a reevaluation of the shear flow in the absence of one force. as shown. Aircraft Structures.(13.29c.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 321 q34= (F. .J.5 x 100) x 400 = (5 x l o 3 )ex from which ex = 60 mm. Plot the distribution showing major values. Derive equations in which the shear stress at any layer in the vertical sides may be found under a vertical shear force of 9 kN.N.' = 0.5 x 100) x 400 = (5 x l o 3 ) e.13.). 500 mm wide. the shear flows become q . Williams. (ii) and (iii). McGrawHill 1950.75 x N/mm4. = (12.Substituting into eq(iv) gives e. Hence FA'/Zy 50 x = N/mm4and FJZ.and Sidebottom.29b must be statically equivalent to the applied forces.5 x 100) . Theory ofElasticify. 10 = OSe. 1981.A..25eY  (2.J. (7..J. = 80 mm (independent of F.S.2 A rectangular channel section. D. 1960.)(500x 125) = .6875 kN and F... = 68. EXERCISES Shear Stress in Beams 71 Show that the maximum flexural shear stress in a rectangular beam is 50% greater than the mean . McGrawHill. value for the section. q23 12. Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students. Taking moments about 0.' = 5.. 300 mm deep and 25 mm thick. Taking moments about 0 in Fig.K. is used as a beam in the form of a trough. It is only necessary to multiply q by the respective web lengths in order to check this because q = rt. Kuhn. absent. .H. Thus in Fig.. F. Wiley.75 x 200) = .5 N/mm and q3.R..T.G. 1956.) of the shear centre. 1972.'/Z. 5th edition.. we have from eqs(7.e. The horizontal = forces are selfequilibrating and the applied force is the resultant of the vertical flow.= 3..5 kN..(500 x 200)] + (FA'/Z. Arnold.P.D.Schmidt. Timoshenk0.P and Goodier. 7. Find the fraction of the total shear force carried by the vertical sides. 2= 7. McGrawHill. Theory ofAircraft Structures. Megson. Advanced Mechanics of Materials. 7. Perry. with F. We shall use the applied loading to find the coordinates ( e x . Stresses in Aircraft and Shell Structures.2500 N..0.
F.33 is subjected to a vertical shear force . of 80 kN. 150 Ii (mm) I Figure 7.5. 7.4 The section of an Ibeam is subjected to a vertical shear force of 40 kN. horizontally.31 1 W  1 105 J Figure 7. corresponding . Determine the shear centres for each channel. Plot the distribution of shear stress through the depth. What is the percentage error when this stress is taken to be the mean value calculated from forcelarea? . What percentage of the shear force is carried by the web? Section details are flanges 175 mm wide x 25 mm deep. when a concentrated vertical force of 20 kN is applied at the free end. . when they are each subjected to a vertical shear force of 50 kN. 7. 7. to a shear force of 300 kN..31.322 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 7 3 An hexagonal bar section with 25 mm sides is used as a cantilever with one diagonal lying .30 7 6 Find an expression for the shear stress at any point in the flange and the web for the Isection in Fig. Calculate the shear stress acting at the top of the web and the maximum shear stress value.32. 78 Find the maximum shear stress when the Isection in Fig. total depth 225 mm.5 Plot the distributions of vertical and horizontal shear stress for the channel sections in Figs 7.0 lm[T (mm) 1 Figure 7. Derive an equation for which the shear stress at any layer in the web may be determined.30a and b. web thickness 10 mm. Where in the depth is the shear stress a maximum and what is its value at the neutral axis? 7.32 7 7 Draw the distribution of vertical shear stress for the crosssection shown in Fig. inserting major values corresponding to a vertical shear force of 400 kN. 7. Plot the distribution of shear stress through the depth.
( rv:) mar = 2F/[(1 + v) A] at the centre and ( rvz) = 4 F/[(1 + v) A] at the ends mar when b = a. as shown.9 The welded composite beam in Fig. 7. Determine the position for E and the magnitude and position of the maximum shear stress. 7. Find the magnitude of the shear flow at the two welded flange joints if for the channel section A = 3000 mm2.5 m length cantilever with the channel section in Fig. when it carries a vertical shear force F.mkN Figure 7 3 . 7.35a and b.34 7. 7. Determine the distribution of vertical and horizontal shear stresses within the section. I = 150 x 1 O 6 mm4 a n d 7 = 12.12 A 0.11 A solid elliptical section with lengths of semimajor and semiminor axes a and b respectively. is mounted as a beam.5 I 7.5 I [ 12.5 r . Examine the mar variation in vertical shear stress along the horizontal (minor) axis. Shear Flow in ThinWalled Open Sections 7. 4 L 1 I I 44 4 (b) Figure 7 3 .5 mm. with the major axis aligned vertically.Compare with the elementary theory in each case.34 is subjected to a vertical force of 250 kN. .3 Figure 7.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 323 12. the maximum shear stress and the shear flow carried by the rivets.10 Calculate for the crosssection shown in Fig.36 carries an inclined force of 25 N through the shear centre E. Show that (qZ) = 4F/(3A) = constant when b <( a. as shown.
through the shear centre. 3  Figure 7. 7.38. 7.75 m m 2 kN I SWN Figure 7. as shown in Fig. is is q = F.. Determine the maximum shear flow and the horizontal distance the shear centre lies from the vertical web.40 is loaded through the shear centre as shown. 7.40 4 p . Calculate and plot the shear flow distribution when a vertical force of 1 kN is applied downwards.axis and has a constant thickness of 1 mm.36 Figure 7. Draw the shear flow distribution and find the horizontal position of the shear centre.14 A thin tube of equilateral triangular section with side length u and thickness t is opened by a longitudinal slit.37 7.sz/u’ and that the position of the shear centre is e = 0 .41 . Figure 7. Show that the shear flow distribution along the sloping sides when a vertical shear force F.16 The open semicircular tube in Fig.39 7. 7.324 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 7. 2 8 9 ~ applied at the centre. Where does the shear centre lie? 7.13 The extruded section in Fig.15 The extruded beam section in Fig. 7.37 is symmetrical about the x .39 is subjected to an upward vertical shear force of 1 kN through the shear centre.38 Figure 7.
7.45a and b each have a downward vertical shear force of 500 N applied along their left vertical sides.41.18 Find the position of the shear centre for each of the open tubes in Figs 7. as shown in Fig.43. the force should be placed at e = 2r from the centre. 7.42ac. 7.21 The thinwalled tubes in Fig. as shown. Figure 7.44.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 325 7.  Shear Flow in ThinWalled Closed Sections 7.19 A uniform cantilever has a thin tubular crosssection of mean radius r and thickness f with a narrow slit cut through the wall at the righthand side of the horizontal diameter.42 7. (CEI) Figure 7. Determine the shear flow distribution around the section. in order to prevent twisting taking place. . when a downward shear force of 1 kN is applied along the web. the rate of twist and the position of the shear centre. when a vertical shear force of 500 N is applied downwards along the vertical web. 7.17 Establish the shear flow distribution for the equalangle section in Fig. Show that the twisting moment set up under a vertical shear force Q is 2Qr4n [ / I and hence that.43 Figure 7.20 Determine the distribution of shear stress in the flanges and web and their maxima for the Z section in Fig. 7.44 7.
6kN 0. offset to the right by 62. 7.5 m long uniform cantilever with the crosssection given in Fig.4 LN 2 @ 2 J Figure 7.47 7. .48 Figure 7.24 A 2. for the tubular rectangular section i n Fig.47.22 Find the position and magnitude of the maximum shear stress in the tubular parallelogram section in Fig. 7. 4 0. 7. inserting principal values. Take G = 30 GPa. 7.326 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES I Figure 7.23 Plot the distribution of shear flow.49 7.25 Determine the shear flow distribution and the position of the shear centre for the tube section in Fig. 7. Determine the distribution of shear flow over the section.45 I so I I 100 (b) 7. I f Figure 7. the maximum shear stress and the angular twist at the free end.5 mm. 7.48 supports a 60 kN vertical upward force at its free end.46 Figure 7. when a vertical shear force of 6 kN acts downwards along the left web.26 Determine the position of the shear centre for the trapezoidal tubular section given in Fig.46 when it is loaded vertically through the centroid with a 1 kN downward shear force.7.50.49 when two vertical shear forces are applied as shown.
50 when the given thicknesses are all effective in shear. 7.. 7.53. Compare with the shear flow found from Exercise 7. Figure 7. 7.FLEXURAL SHEAR FLOW 327 0 Figure 7. Webs 12 and 23 carry no direct stress but covers 14 and 23 carry direct stress equivalent to a thickness of 5 mm. Determine the flexural shear flow in each web and the position of the shear centre. 7.51 is loaded through the centroid by an upward vertical shear force F.28 Determine the web shear flow for the open section in Fig. when a downward force of 1 kN acts through the shear centre .52.. Hence determine the position of the shear centre.39.31 Idealise the box section in Fig.52 7.15 using a suitable idealisation of the section in Fig. 7.30 A 50 kN vertical shear force acts downwards through the shear centre of the section in Fig. Determine the warping displacements at the four corners.32 The crosssection of a beam is simplified into the webboom idealisation given in Fig. 7. WebBoom Idealisation For ThinWailed Structures 7.50 Figure 7. using a simple four boom idealisation.51 7.27 The square section tube in Fig.29 Confirm the position of the shear centre found in Exercise 7.37.7.13. 7. Calculate the flexural shear flow distribution corresponding to a vertical downward shear force of 200 kN applied through the shear centre. What is the horizontal distance of the centre from the open ends? . 7.
of the shear centre for the section in Fig. 7. = A. = 5 x l o 3 mm2.55 is subjected to an upward shear force of 2. = 200 mm2..54 7.5 mm. = 1.34 Determine the shear flow distribution..5 section in Fig. All areas are 250 mm2. . when the idealised section in Fig. = A.328 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 7. 7. the position of the shear centre and the warping displacements at the booms. = 3 x 10’ mm2. = t.55 7 3 Determine the shear flow distribution and the warping displacements when the octagonal box .54.A. . 7. Take A .A. Figure 7. Figure 7.56 supports a 5 kN downward force at its centroid. = 4 mm. = 500 mm2.. t . = 800 mm2.53 7 3 Determine the position e. assuming that the booms .A.3 cany direct stress and the walls carry shear stress. t .5 kN in the position shown. 6 = 2 m m and t. Take A . the rate of twist. = td5= t. = A.
7 the position shown.7. 1 to 4. Walls 12. 23. Calculate the position of the shear centre of the tube crosssection.56 7 3 Determine the position of the shear centre for the idealised wing section in Fig. each of area 1000 mm2. closed tube in Fig. Figure 7. the section being symmetrical apart from the missing skin 1 . SHEAR FLOW 329 50 50 300 Figure 7. All boom areas are 500 mm2.57. All walls have the same shear modulus and are assumed to be effective in carrying only shear stress. 500 500 500 500 500 i 500 800 Figure 7. The front cell is closed and the rear cell open.6 mm2 boom area carries direct stress and the 2 mm thick webs carry shear stress. 34 are straight.57 7 3 The idealised. Each 200 . Determine the shear flow distribution and the unrestrained warping displacements resulting from this force.38 The crosssection of a wing at the position of the undercarriage is shown in Fig. singly symmetric.58 carries an 5 kN upward vertical force at .59.4. (CEI) .58 7. Direct stress is carried by four equal booms. The enclosed area of the front cell is 120 x 10’ mm2. wall 34 is curved. 7. 7.FLEXURAL.
are further increased by a contribution from the upper and lower panels whose effective thicknesses are both 4 mm.330 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES r 500 1 Figure 7. Establish the net boom areas and the position of the shear centre. . which carry direct stress.59 7. 7. The 500 mm2 boom areas.39 The given thicknesses for the closed tube section in Fig.58 are those effective in shear.
j = 1. the total work done by these forces is equal to the increase in internal energy. 6 V = lir x Sy x &. j = x .1 Volume element under stress z Dependent complements of shear stress q . With an increase in these forces. a * zz). q2 q. Here the "system" is a body in equilibrium under applied forces.1 subjected to a generalised stress system The equivalence between the stress components in the tensor notation (i. r. y . and in the three independent shear stresses: a. and rq.. 2.SW ) that will result in a positive change to its internal energy 6 J When this process is C.. It then becomes possible to derive an expression for 6U. z ) is expressed in the three independent normal components: a. and q .331 CHAPTER 8 ENERGY METHODS 8. .e. u..1 Strain Energy and External Work The first law of thermodynamics states thatenergy is conserved within a closed system in the following manner: where @ and 6w are respectively heat and work transfers to and/or from a system which change to its internal energy U by an amount 6U. 6U becomes the increase in the elastic strain energy stored within the body. also exist to give a 3 .3) and the engineering notation (i. = ru. 4 . such that kinetic energy due to the rate of deformation is negligible. for any solid or structure in Fig. Figure 8. = x 3 stress matrix in either notation: ~y. q3= a.= = . external work is done on the body (. = = and = = q. When the forces are slowly applied. 8. adiabatic (dQ= 0) and it follows from eq(8..1) that i. In the general case consider a volume element.
332 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (8.~ . + 6r. The net increase in strain energy is. 2.)6x. .)(& x 6z). the action of complementary shear forces (.x. in the tensor notation. (8.)(6x x 6 z ) and (r. the sum of the products of these forces and the displacements along their lines of action.x &). T + Sr.5a) u3j&3j ~ 1 2 ~ 1 2 + ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 3 1 + [ ~ ~ 1 ~ 2 1 + ~ 2 2 ~ 2 ~ + + [ 4 1 &3 + u32 &32 + u33 &33 1 . j = 1. In addition.4a).~6yyz r. + + a. rxy=q. ) is twice the corresponding tensor component ( E ~ ~ . E ~ ~ . which embodies the properties of complementary shear.6y. the infinitesimal products 60 x & in eq(8. That is. The work 6 ~ X done by shear forces becomes ( 3. (a.Y. a.+ 6r.)(6y x 6x) do work against their respective displacements (1/26y.Work) is done by the normal stresses when E. forces (a. (6eEyx y ) and ( ~ E &).+ 6rxz)(& x x 6 y ) as they move their points of application through the respective shear displacements (%6ysx)6y. by the summation convention qj&ij= = [ ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ 1 1 + (8. y..3a) j Let the corresponding strain increments b j ( i .)&. may be neglected to give a simpler form of dU. Since elastic strains are small.~.&. 3) be produced by an elastic stress change 6 a j j where .+ &.)(6y x &).)6V (8. + rv byv + 'T. (%6yV)6z and (%dy.4b) is conveniently written as 6U = (qj&jj)6v because.)(& x &) and ( q +6a.= %6yv + '/26ysxetc.)(Sy x dz). (rv + 6rzy)(6y &) and ( r. (rx+ 6r. 6U = (q&.. + 6y.&.+ 6a.3b) from which it is seen that each component of engineering shear strain ( y. eq(8.)(& x 6 y ) move their points of application through their respective extensions (&. by superposition.4b) Note. (%6yJz)6yand (%6yV)6z.
a bending moment M .ENERGY METHODS 333 There are alternative ways of writing the scalar measure of work in eq(8.a shear force F and a torque T.lb shows the change in all the stress and strain components when an elastic relationship exists between them. Clearly the shaded area represents the change in strain energy per unit volume. bending.1 for each action: a direct force W. E. o. Table 8. or the strain energy density dU/m/= qjdeij.5~) Figure 8. I and J become constants and the integrals yield simple expressions all of similar form appearing in the final column. the formulation qj = qj ( q j )admits materials that are elastic and nonlinear. by the constitutive laws given in eqs(2.Generally. When the same elastic stressstrain path is followed between loading and unloading. E .5b) Equation (8.b. Elementary texts derive the integral (8.5a.5a) is identical to the the sum of the diagonal components when the matrices of stress S = a. ~ respectively. If we define column vectors of stress and strain increment as follows: o = [a. Only in the particular case where Hooke’s law is obeyed will the stress be linearly related to strain by elastic constants..6) for simple elasic loadings in tension.q.b). This is written as the trace of the matrix product: 6U = tr (S dE)m/= tr ( 6 E S>m/ (8.3a.Elasticity implies that strains and the strain energy are wholly recoverable.4a). rFlT E = and [ E . y.c) along the strain path and over the whole volume For Hookean materials the component of deij will depend upon each acting stress. They will be applied in the following examples. are multiplied. the area properties vary with the length z by writing these as A(z). When these variations are absent. I (2) and J(z). rq r.15ad). A. yn Y . shear and torsion. then ] ~ 6U = a T6 E m/ = u ( B E )T 6v (8. eqs(8. and strain increment 6 E = dcO.1 Strnin Energy Expressions Loading U U variable loading/section constant loading/section TensiodCompression Bending Shear Torsion ‘ I 2E o [W ( z ) ] d z W2L  A(z) I(z) 2EA MZL 2EI F ~ L 2GA I ‘ [ M ( z ) ]2dz 2E o I 1 2G L[T(z)]2dz o J(z) L T ~ 2GJ . The total strain energy stored in a body may be found by integrating any of eqs(8. These are summarised in column two of Table 8.
2 carries a vertical end force of F = 50 N. Determine the displacement v . from a consideration of the strain energy stored in each limb under bending. Figure 8.334 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 8.25 m UHC= /o'2s(50)2(0.25 m F = 50 N for 0s z 5 0. the net strain energy stored in AB is + )0 + UAH= 0 /0'50(50)2(0.5 m T = 50 x 0. shear and torsional effects.7854 x 10. 8.)= {0'25(50)2(0.5 Nm for 0 s z s 0.25 = 12. With the origin for z at B. J00'25 Adding eqs(i). under F.571 x IOmXm4 With the origin for z at A.25 . Take E = 200 GPa and G = 80 GPa.1 expressions and adding.25 z)'dz/(2EI)  + /o'Zs(12.5 m F = 50 N for 0 < z s 0. limb AB is subjected to the three effects M = 50 (0.25 m (iii) : Uc. With the origin for z at C.25.25 F = 50 N for 0 s z 0. .5 m Substituting into Table 8. 0 2=~ ) 0.3142 x m2 I = ( ~ / 6 4 ) ( 0 .50 .25 T = 50 x 0.' m 4 J = 2 1 = 1. M = 50(0.2 Cranked cantilever beam A = ( ~ / 4 ) ( 0 .z ) Nm for 0s z s 0.25 . they are M = 50 (0.5 ~ ) ~ d z / ( 2 E I {o'ro(12.5 Nm for 0 s z s 0. cranked steel cantilever in Fig.z ) Nm for 0 s z 5 0.1 The 20 mm diameter.(ii) and (iii) to give the total strain energy stored.~ ) ~ d z / ( 2 E I ) + (50)2dz/(2GA) .z ) Nm for 0 s z 5 0. 0 2 =~ ) 0.5)2dz/(2GJ)+ /00'25(SO)2dd(2GA) (ii) Limb CD is subjected to bending and shear.5)2dz/(2GJ) {0's0(50)2d~/(2GA)(i) Limb BC is also subjected to all three effects.25 = 12.
Shear deflection is comparable with the bending deflection only for short. in a rectangular section b x d. x = b and y . . r is a function of x.29 + 46.4) varies with x and y .3 Cantilever beams Associated with the shear stress distribution in a beam there is shear strain and hence a deflection due to this distortion./2 and U defined in Table 8.4) reduces to r= [12F/(bd3)1J d R y dy Y .5)’dz 42GJ ) + 4/00’25 (50)’dz l(2GA) = [33.53 mm Example 8.16/50 = 3. = d/2. FcV2 = LIT and the deflection is A = 2UJF = 2 x 88.z)’dz/(2EI) + 2J00’25(50)2(0.= /0. The shear strain energy enables the contribution to the total deflection from shear to be estimated for beams with a single concentrated (and uniformly distributed) loading.3a.~ FA. For volume element 6v = 6x x Sy x &.50(50)2(0. The external work done is W = J F dA. I = bd’/12. the integration leads to W = A FcV2. the triangular area beneath the F versus A diagram for loading.5. The shear deflection A follows from eq(8.20 + 8. y and z because the shear force F varies with the length z. Compare with the deflection due to bending.e.ENERGY METHODS 335 U. Then from eq(8. i. so eq(7.16 x J in which the contribution from shear is negligible. 8. L W F r L r Figure 8. In the general case. /2 = [1/(2G)] 11 1r2dxdydz X Y Z where r is the expression for the shear stress due to shear force in eq(7.2r( 12.4).05]103Nm = 88. and when a linear law F = K (K is a constant stiffness) is followed.2).62 + 0.b).1. However.25 z)’dz/(2EI)  + 3/00. deep beams (usually cantilevers in practice). and the first moment integral in eq(7.2) with W = F A .2 Find an expression for the shear deflection of a cantilever of length L with rectangular section 6 x d carrying (a) a vertical concentrated force F a t its free end and (b) a uniformly distributed load d u n i t length (see Fig.
Hence 6v = b 4 b i and eq(iii) becomes FA. F varies with both y and z.dn (d2/4 .3b. is also found from eq(8. the external work cannot be found when the load is distributed and we need to use the principal of virtual work to show that the end deflection is A. 8. Hence (iv) F A . : The freeend bending deflection A. 1: [d214 . 8.d 2 y 3 / 6 + y 5 / 5 = 3FZW(5bdG) A s= 6FU(5bdG) .3a) M = F(L .z ) '/2 into eq(iv) U = [w2/(8El)]JL(L .s = (1/G)[6/ (bd3)]'b fo F [L: (d2/4 . = wL4/(SEr) (see Section 8.. 8.3 for this derivation).~ ' ) ~ d y ] d z A. Substituting eq(ii) and 6V = b L 4 into (i) gives FA./2= [ 1 / ( 2 E 1 ) ] ~ L M 2 d ~ where. 8.z ) ~ dz However. The total freeend deflection is then A . F = w(L .y/2= [1/(2G)][6F/(bd3)1'bL.y = 3wL2/(SGbd) It follows from the Mdiagram in Fig.3b that the strain energy for bending is found from substituting M = w(L .z) dz A.z). 8.2) and Table 8. with the origin for z at the fixed end (see Fig. . = A.336 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES r= [6F/(bd3)][d2/4..1 as follows: FA.3b./2= [1/(2G)1[6F/(bd3)l2b from which L I0[I" L .z) and noting that the inner integral term [ ] = d5/30 A.y 2 ] (ii) (a) In Fig. + A b = 6FU(5bdG) + FL3/(3EI) (b) For the distributed loading in Fig. Thus r varies only with y.y2)'d y]dz Substituting from Fig.y212dy (iii) = [18F2L/(Gbd6)] 1d4y/16 .. 1 2 = [ F 2 1 ( 2 E I ) ] ~ o L ( L 2L z + z 2 ) d z 2 = F2L3/(6EI) : A h = FL3/(3EI ) ..3a the shear force F remains constant for the length of the cantilever. .s = (w/G)[6/ (bd3)I2(bd5/30) L(L .
For this Castigliano's theorems (1 879) may be employed.7) A Equation (8. 3 . 8. 8. employs the concepts of complementary energy and work.ENERGY METHODS 337 8. i.4 External work Wand complementary work W' The complementary work increment 6w' = A6F is that area W' in Fig.. The second part of the theorem. inline with that force.2) to an equilibrium structure carrying n external forces Fi (i = 1.7). which leads to a more useful result than eq(8.foA1F2dAZ fOA3F.7) states that the force F.. at point i may be obtained from differentiating U partially with respect to the displacement A . n).2) U= A 0 FjdAi in which the following summation is implied U = f A I F . d A . /oA'F.4. The external work integral W = J F dA has previously been identified with the area beneath the F versus A diagram.dA3 + + . A Figure 8. for which the associated inline displacements are h i .dA. then a u t a A j = a ( l ' F j d A i ) / a A j . 2. Let 6A correspond to a change dFj in these forces. The first theorem follows from the application of eq(8.. as shown in Fig. . This is stored as complementary energy U' such that . It can be seen that if all but one displacement be held fixed. .4 defined as W * =J F A d F 0 In physical terms W h a y be identified with the work done when the point of application of a variable force F undergoes a displacement A. From eq(8. This method cannot be used to determine deflections at the load points of a multiply loaded structure.2 Castigliano's Theorems Equating the strain energy to external work in the manner of the previous two examples will allow the displacement at the load point to be found. or 0 Fj=au t a A i (8.
8. M . the strain and complementary energies may be written from eq(8. E l is constant.3..n / 2 ) ] .dF. the rotation equivalent to eq(8.b)where the action within the energy expression W.9) appears in a more useful form: A = a u /a Fi (8..2. Assume that all the strain energy stored is due to bending. Equation(8..lOa) follows a similar proof #i = au aMj (8.. Taking clockwise moments as positive. Calculate the horizontal reaction FAat A.6) as U= [ fv a d & dV = E $.1 will be known from static equilibrium.338 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES In the case of a number of externally applied forces Fi with their corresponding displacements A.F n R [ l cos(Bn/2)] = F A R ( 1 . In the particular case of a linear Hookean material. if all but one force remains fixed.c o s 8 ) . (8. U = U' and eq(8. where u = EE.8) becomes U*= f 'A. as shown.dV=(l/E)[ f u d u d V = u2V/(2E)=u ~ V / 2 a v Thus.=a(S 'AidFj)/aFj A i = au't aF. then F dU'/aF.9) applies to any nonlinear elastic body.IOa.=FAR(l c o s B ) f o r O s 8 s n/2 M.. as outlined in section 8. fv c dE dV = E t 2 V /2 = u E V/2 U*= 1IV&do.I Statically Determinate Sfructures The following examples illustrate two applications of eqs(S. eq(8. lob) Castigliano's theorems are subject to the limitation that displacements cannot be found very easily at points where no loads act.5 is fixed at C and free to slide without friction at A.under externally applied moments M . at a given load point i. may be obtained by differentiating U' with respect to that force Fi. Example 8.10a) The theorem may be extended to include the rotations 4. the deflection A.=FAR[l + s i n ( 8 . the moment expressions at points p and q apply to AB and BC as follows: MA. For this we use the virtual work principle.s i n 8 ) f o r n I 2 s 8s5n14 (i) (ii) . 0 F and.3 The thin strip in Fig.. 8. For a Hookean material. when the strip supports a vertical force FB at point B. F and Tin Table 8.F n R ( 1 . Within the arcs AB and BC shown 8 is measured anticlockwise from A.9) That is.
6 Warren bay girder . [(5n/4 .l/J2 + 1/J2) .3562 F A + 7. 1 3 e / .1 u = u.4 Determine the vertical deflection at point Q for the Warren bay girder in Fig. P 5 Figure 8.5547=0.W+ case.F. from Table 8.10a).3.1 + 1/4)] = 0 0.F. is Substituting from eqs(i) and (ii) with ds = R d8.’ds The deflection inline with FA prevented when from eq(8.1062F.1062FH = 0 FA=3.( 3 ~ / ./7.~i cos 2eIsni4= o n I2 F A ( 3 r / 4.( n / 2 .411F..2 s i n 0 + 1 / 4 s i n 2 ~ 1 ~ ~ / ~ 2 ~ /~ n I2 . [R3/(El)1 InI2FAcos8) 2d&[R’/(E/)] (1 0 sn/4 n/2 [FA cos8) (1 ’FH(sine)( 1 cosB)]dB= 0 1 ~ . I ~ B .sine.2 s i n 0 + ~ i s i n 2 e ( : /+ F .5 Thin strip The total strain energy of bending is. = [1/(2EI)] MAH2dS+ [1/(2EI)] M. Example 8. Take E = 208 GPa for each bar with identical 10 m length and area 1280 mm’.2) + FA[(15n/8+ J2 + 1/4) . 8.6 when it is hinged at S and supported on rollers at P...1985FA .ENERGY METHODS 339 A b Figure 8. + u.2)] 4 .
~ 0 ~ 6 0"k T s = O . P = P ' + P' where P ' are the bar forces in the absence of F. sin 60" = 0.1. the total energy stored by the frame is u=c[P*U(UE)] (9 In the case where the bar forces P are induced by a single external force F. + k.2. .289 With a unit force applied at R bar forces k ' are obvious from inspection within Table 8.1 . it is still possible to obtain the deflection at Q from the first term in eq(v).289 + k QR + kQT cos 60". but in the presence of the other external force(s) and P" are the bar forces when FQ acts in isolation.2). + k .289 At S : T.144 sin 60". then P" = kFQ.0. 0.k .k . with a constant force P induced in each bar of length L and section area A . the deflection in the direction of FQ is Note that k is a dimensionlessforce coefficient and if FQ = 0. = . Bar forces'k are found for a unit force at Q from the followingjoint equilibrium equations by assuming tension at each joint. .0.866 + k .289 =+ kTs=0. it follows that P = kF and eq(ii) becomes F M 2 = ( F 2 / 2 ) c[ k 2 U ( A E ) ] A=FC[k2U(AE)] (iii) In this problem two external forces Fare applied to the frame.0.k. From Table 8.T = 0.0.kRs sin 60"= 0. sin 60". + k . When a unit force acts in isolation at Q.k p p cos 60" = 0. + k.. sin 60" = 0. = 0..25 + k . +. cos 60" = 0.k.1Oa) to eq(iv).433 + k . It is convenient to take the induced forces P as the sum of the two components.75 + k . the deflection A beneath F is found from equating the external work to U . At R:T.. That is. FA/2 = c [P2U(2AE)] (ii) If a unit force replaces F to produce bar forces k.From eq(i). 0.340 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The total strain energy stored is the sum of the tensile and compressive strain energies stored in the bars. + k. The symmetry of the given frame allows a further simplification to eq(v): A = [ U ( A E ) ] FR C ( k k ' ) +Fp C k ] [ Q (vi) where k ' are the bar forces when a unit force acts at R. the total strain energy in the frame is Applying eq(8. . = . from eq(8. to induce bar forces k. sin 60" = 0. . At Q: T. + k QR = .. At P: T. = . The deflection A Q is required at a node point Q where the force is FQ.
as the following examples show.2.0835 0.0. . However.2927)]= 4. Later in this chapter it will be seen that virtual work provides an alternative solution.0.0835 0.7a.144 .866 0.0835 0.866 0.289 0.1 cannot be found from equilibrium equations M it becomes necessary to employ the compatibility conditions.45 mm 8.ENERGY METHODS 341 Table 8.F and Tin Table 8. Establish the theoretical stiffness factor.289 k2 kk' PQ QT QR PT RT RS TS 0.144 k' .250 0.2927 0.5 During the elastic calibration of the proving ring in Fig.2.0835 0.7 Proving ring calibration To find the strain energy it is only necessary to consider one symmetrical half of the ring in Fig. Example 8. 8.188 0.2 Statically Indeterminate Structures When the actions W . Figure 8.2 Bar force coefficients Bar k 0.289 0.289 0.0835 0.0.7b.0. the inline deflection is measured under a vertical diametral force F. results in static indeterminancy.433 0.433 0.0622 0.0835 0. There are many socalled redundant or hyperstatic structures each requiring individual treatment by Castigliano.289 0..5409 Applying eq(vi) to the sum of the final two columns in Table 8.0622 1.250 0. the induced moment M.289 0.289 .8 1 x lo3)/( 1280 x 208 x 10')][(8 x 0. A Q = [(10 x 10' x 9.0835 0.5409) + (6 x 1.289 .A compatibility . The latter relates to what is known about the displacement or slope in the deformed structure so that we achieve the same number of equations as there are unknown actions.750 0.02074 0. 8.
Substituting for M and M. 8. K=FlA=EI/[R3(n/4217r)] Example 8. B + ( F R / ~ ) c o s B= ~ . Substituting this into eq(ii).FR=O IM : M...‘/z sin 2 8 ) + ( 1 / n ) case+ 81x2 = [ 2 F R 3 / ( E I ) ] ( n /. = (FR12) s i n e .6b.l0a.b).. from Fig. E = 210 GPa.l / ~ ) 8 1.6 If for the structure in Fig. AD = BC = 8 rn and for all bars A = 500 mrn2.e.l ) R dB= 0 I M .M. AB = DC = 10 rn. for n / 2 5 85 n i.M. in eq(i).n / 2 ) . 8. = F R / n .R I n ] ( Rd B ) = [ 2 F R 3 / ( E I ) J0*[%sin8. .The strain energy for the whole ring is given by Table 8.1 as U=2[1/(2E1)]J‘ M’ds Under F the deflection and slope are. from eqs(8...M. n .FRIn][(R/2) sine. /o’[(FR/2)sinB. determine the bar forces and the vertical deflection at C. a single expression for M applies. (a) lq C F Figure 8. with the given origin for 8. A = [2/(EI ) ] J ’ M ( JMIJF) ds qj = [2/(EI )] J’ M( JMIaM.8a: F = 2 t. M = (FR/2)s i n e . for 0s 85 lr/2 M = (FR/2)cos(0.342 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES condition requires that there must be zero slope qj under M.](. ) ds = 0 (i) (ii) where. .. A = [2/(EI ) ] 1“ [(FR/2)s i n e .8 Redundant structure .At.(l/7r)]2dB ] = ( ~ F R ’ / ( E I 1(1/8 ( 8 ...
Establish the bar forces k under the unit force.3 Forces coefficients and lengths used within eq(iv) Member L(m) P ' ( t ) k LkP ' Lk2 AB 10 2.984 3. Then remove all external forces and apply a unit tensile force k. 8.858 1. it must fit exactly between A and C..9.5 .8b becomes 'I.984 3.142 1.072 0.780 0 6. Determine the bar forces P ' under the externally applied loading in Fig.152 12.9.c(LkP'/A) The numerator may contain all bars when we set P ' = 0 to include the redundant bar.0 .0 0 12. 8.0. it follows that the bar forces become P" = kR.8a is redundant because either of the bars AC or BD could be removed without lessening the ability of the structure to support external forces.I 1 n.038 P"= kR .115 AC 12..428 .1.820 C = . 8.ENERGY METHODS 343 The structure in Fig.I (LkP ' / A )+ R E ( k 2L / A ) ] + RLk.428 .?/A] = 0 n n.830 p=p'+p" 1.8b.21 1.1 U= C (P'+kR)'L/(2AE) 1 where n is the number of bars in Fig.820 AD 8 2 .1.0.0..830 .1. This condition is ensured from eqs(ii) and (iii) when A c + x = 0.I n.I (ii) 1 1 The free extension of the redundant bar under R is x = RL / ( A E ) = R L k . Castigliano postulated that the forces in the members of a redundant structure adjust themselves to minimise the strain energy.3.115 CD 10 0 .=aU/aR= A = (I/@ C (P'+kR)kL/(AE) [ C (LkP ' / A ) + R C ( k ' W A >] n.80. the deflection of C in the line of R is A.lOa) to eq(i).I  c (LkP'/A) .1. The P ' and k values are given in Table 8.380 0.8a. 8. 8.428 1.:/(AE) = 0 n. n.3.084 BC 8 2 .1. at either joint A or C in the direction of the missing bar. Applying eq(8.0.81 0 1. First remove the redundant bar AC (or BD) to make a statically determinate structure in Fig.8b.624 . n.142 .1.830 . If now the redundant bar force R replaces k.78 19.084 BD 12.:/(AE) (iii) When the redundant bar is replaced. The net bar forces are P = P ' + P so that the total strain energy of the frame in Fig.624 .81 .50 6.62 7 = 44.858 .1 1 c (LkP ' / A )+ R [ I ( L k z / A )+ Lk. Table 8.41.1 (I/E)[ nI I c I n.
3 .3 The Principle of Virtual Work When a system of coplanar forces is in equilibrium then the resultant force is zero.19 mm The deflection at any point Q in a redundant structure under a number of externally applied forces is found from writing eq(iv) in example 8. c n k 2L = 27.344 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Following the procedure outlined above.75 x 103)/(500x 210 x l o 3 )= 5.429 .733 : .2.104 1..0.E k 2 U ( A E ) 1 n where k are the bar forces when a unit load is applied at C.9 which does not itself deform. They are found from dividing P in Table 8.4) A. under the action of some external agency that does not change the magnitude of Fk .83 t 1 1 This enables the determination of the bar forces P in the final column of Table 8.472 10. Associated with each redundant force calculation there will be separate P ' and k bar force calculations.82 10 12.873 1. Table 8.429 0.62 / 44.3.536 0. Assume that a similar system of forces Fk (k = 1.82 8 8 10 2.. 8. Let both the body and the forces be displaced by the virtual inline displacements hvk. .81 x 27. 8.= F.472 5. for constant bar areas in the same material.915 12.4 Final bar force coefficients Member k L(m) k 2L AB BC CD BD AD AC 0.3 by F = 2 t. R= c ( U P /c(Lk' n n ') ) = 80. (ii) with only FQ present to give k. the force in the redundant bar must be calculated twice from eq(iv) under each of the following loading conditions: (i) for all external forces present except FQ to give P '.690 0. That is. eq(iv) is applied to the sum of the fifth and sixth columns noting that the bar areas are constant.3 as n n 1 I First. In section 8. n ) act on the body in Fig. Finally the vertical deflection at point C under a single external force is (see Example 8.098 6.714 .7 it will be shown how the unit load method may be employed to find deflections more easily in structures with more than one redundancy.75 (m) and.038 = 1. eq(v) gives 1 A c = (2 x 10' x 9.0.
. That is.6) previously derived for the strain energy stored.13) W E +w. The expression (8.12) and (8.. it follows in the general case.9 Virtual work principle Clearly. 0 + + = FkAVk 0 = (8. Fk.12) Let the stress system qj be produced by a system of external forces Fk and the strain increment system bjj produced by the virtual incremental displacements &Ak. F.la. F. as a consequence of equilibrium. + F2K2 F3AV3 . principle of virtual work states the that the virtual work is zero under a virtual displacement as a consequence of the equilibrium state. A’.=o /oA‘FkdA. for example. that qj and SE. It follows that the internal work done. Equation (8. by the stresses is identical to U but with a change in sign. =  1‘1 ‘11 (ajjdejj) dV (8. .14b) in which the summation convention is implied over like subscripts. 8. Alternatively. are independent. represents the work done on the element. Now consider the deformable (nonrigid) volume element in Fig.13) and the virtual work is zero. it follows from eqs(8.b) express the virtual work principle its simplest mathematical form for a rigid body.When the be agency responsible for the latter is temperature.14a) Because the real and virtual quantities Fkand 6Ak are independent so too are qj and b U . since no external work is done by the forces. 1’1 ‘IJ (ajjdEij)dV=O (8. . The above principle will further apply where each element in a body is subjected to an equilibrium system of internal stresses and external forces which each contribute to the net work done.1 Ib) Equations (8. since the external work done is A W E = Jo ’ Fk dAk (8. Now.K.14a) integrates directly to FkAk lV(uijeij) 0 dV= (8. U .1 la) (8.. W.1 la. W.ENERGY METHODS 345 Figure 8. the . That is.
346 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES corresponding matrix form of eq(8. 8. the principle of virtual displacements) are considered in section 8./ o T e d V = A T F . Note that the principle was derived from the application of a virtual displacement (strain) in the presence of a real or actual force (stress) system. compatible.15a. j = 1.b) has been reexpressed as ./ rVT o d V = O V (8.14a)) in Table 8. Table8.7.E~~) dV= 0. equilibrium.14b) could also have been derived from any one of three alternative forcedisplacements systems: (i) A virtual. displacementstrain system.. Since the virtual forcestress system is independent.4 The Principle of Virtual Forces (PVF) The real strain ( q j )and displacement (Ak)system is produced by the actual loading.qds/(tG) r'=q"lt y=ql(tC) tdsdz $q'qdsl(tC) . The expressions in the final column apply to the unit load method (ULM) and will be discussed in the following section.5 for common states of virtual stress and real strain." E= dV  W. (ii) Both systems real as with Castigliano's theorems. (see eq(8. Applications of this approach (i. ( i . A A IT are column matrices of the force and displacements components.14~) where F = [F. 2 .15a) (8. it will apply when the actual loading is removed and a single virtual or dummy force F" is applied at the point where the actual displacement b is required.15b) F"A  (ov)TedV= 0 The second term in eqs(8. Applications of the particular principles of virtual forces and displacements are now considered.(ULM) Direct stress u' = P'IA Bending Shear Torsion Shearflow dA dL u ' = M ' y / l &=MyI(lE) dA dz Z " = F'/A y = FI(AG) dA dz PI(AE) z' = T'rIJ P' PU(AE) pPU(AE) J" M'Mdd(1E) J" mMdzl(1E) F"FdzI(AG) J"f FdzI(AG) y = TrI(JG) 2 n r d r d z J" T"TdzI(JG) J" tTdzl(JG) $q.F2 F.W. . Equation (8.SComrnonformsof W.=  ~v(uijY&ij)d. ITand A = [A. 3 ) (8.e.(PVW) . (iii) Both systems virtual .14b and c) become F"A  1 V V ((T. forcestress system with a real but independent. This is the principal of virtual forces which is particularly useful for the determination of displacements and forces in redundant structures. Equations(8.= ( d ) T ~ d V V V I Loading or.W. The virtual work principle is stated thus: A system of forces in equilibrium does zero virtual work when moved through a virtual displacement due to deformation of the body on which those forces act.which is of limited use.14b) is FTA.
What is the largest source of error from neglecting other effects? Table 8.[F'aAT.. The actual (real) uniaxial strain produced by a temperature variation in both y and z is cij aAT(y.7 Find the deflection at the free end of a cantilever in Fig.L (/3h) 1 L Example 8. Applying the .ENERGY METHODS 347 Example 8.L2/(3h) 0 = A = aAT. 8. For A. 8. use is made of the actual M . That is.FVaAT. Figure 8.1 Ic) under an isolated virtual vertical force F. Z) = a [ A T .8 Determine the slope and deflections at the freeend of the cantilever structure in Fig. .10 Cantilever beam A virtual force F' applied at the free end produces the virtual uniaxial bending stress.z)/(hL)] (ii) The volume element of beam is here: dV= dA x dz.z)'dz=O 0 F"A .10a when the temperature varies linearly in both the y and z directions. 8.: F'A L ( L ./(I hL)] J but I = / A y 2 dA . ( L .z) 1 (hL)](dAx dz) = 0 y 0 F"A .z)'dz 1y 2 d A . 8. y( L ..diagram under the distributed loading in Fig. =0 [F'aAT. Substituting eqs(i) and (ii) into eq(8.15a) to give both the vertical Ay and horizontal A x deflection at A.. integral in eq(i) to limbs AB and BC separately../(hL)] ( L . as shown.5 supplies the appropriate form of eq(8.' at A..15a) F'A  1 1[F(L A z   z) yll ][@AT.1 lb and the M' diagram (Fig. I 1 from a consideration of bending only. .
15a) determines the freeend slope 4 when a virtual couple C” is applied at that point.[ JLM.’L3/(4EI )I I z 1”: 3 =0 A y = wL4/(2EI) L (2El) % Figure 8.[ / o L ( F ~ ~ ) ( ~ ~ 2 / 2 ) d+ ( E l ) (F. 8. Equation(i) becomes F . (ii) C ” 4.[wF:L2/(4E1)] A I = 9wL4/(32El) I z2/2 ” :1 =0 The following form of eq(8.M ’ M dd(El) = 0 Applying the integral in eq(ii) separately to each limb.” applied at A. .the real moments (Fig.1 Id) with a virtual horizontal force F.1 1b.[ / M’M dd(E1) + 3LIZ M ’ M dz / ( E l )] = 0 in which M” are the virtual moments produced in each limb under C‘ (Fig. 8. Then.’ A x .348 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Fy’Ar. . A x ..”Mdzl(EI)]=O /03L12 F.1 lb) are used in conjunction with the virtual M.”A. 8.”L)(wL2/2)dd(2EI = 0 d /03L’2 )] F i A . 8.[ / (0)(wz2/2)dd(El) + (F: z)(wL2/2)dz1(2EI )] = 0 F.11 Cantilever structure For A x .” diagram (Fig. This gives ~ ‘ 4 J.’Mdz/(E1)+ 0 / 30 ’ 2 L M.1 le) and M are the real moments in Fig. .[wFYy/(2El) 1 z4/41i + [wF.
[l/(GA. arises from compression in BC F..12a.4. C"B....' A. the deformation arises from bending and torsion.wL)(3W2)/(AHcE)=O A.5. the perimeter distance.9 Derive an expression for the angle of twist and the vertical deflection under the end force P for the cantilever arc in Fig. replaces z and C' is a virtual couple applied at the free end.12 Cantilever arc Ignoring shear force effects. Figure 8. follows from Table 8.F i ) ( wz)dz=O F. are small compared to that from bending. The particular form of equation (8. . required for the angular twist. = 3wL2/(2AHcE) Both these contributions to A..)] A.(.if we draw the shear force diagrams under the real and virtual loading. 8.' A y .ENERGY METHODS 349 C.'A.'Ay..[ J M " M d d ( E I ) + J T " T ~ s / ( G J ) ] = O (i) where s. / L o F"Fdd(GA)=O I O L ( .15a). Example 8.{ [wC"L3/(6EI)]+ [3wC'L'/(8EI)]] = O @= 13wL3/(24EI) Effect of shear force . = wL2/(2GAAB) Effect of axial loading .. .F i ) ( .again A x is unaltered but a further contribution to A. it will be seen that shear increases only the vertical displacement by an amount: F..P'PU(AE) = 0: F.
([PF'R'/(EI)I A /.5.12b. from Fig.(1 . M "= C'cos a.n / 4 ) / ( C J) ] The vertical deflection A is supplied from eq(8. F' A  [ I M " Mds/(EI ) + I T' T ds/(GJ ) ] = 0 (iv) where eq(iii) again gives M and T under the actual loading. the required combination of eq(8.cosaI 8 . 8. 8. Substituting (ii) and (iii) in (i) with ds = R da.15a) and Table 8.( [ C " P R 2 / ( E I ) /n''cos2ada] /.[nPR3/(4EI)+(3n/4 2)PR3/(CJ)]=0 A=PR3[nl(4EI)+(3n/42)/(GJ)] ~ Example 8. )] 0  } =0 A . 8.10 Confirm the vertical deflection at point Q for the Warren bay girder in Fig.I (C"sin a)PR (1 .15) and Table 8. With ) I . each under direct stress.[ P R 2 / ( G J ) ] ( .9 ) = .'*. F ' A.6 (see Example 8. T'= C"sin a (ii) The actual moment M and the torque T produced by the applied force P at any section defined by R and aare.350 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The virtual moment M" and virtual torque T" produced by C' are found from resolution in Fig.P ( R .[C"PR2/(GJ)]%sin 2 a .n / 4 ) ) = O ) 1 8= PR2[ n/(4EI ) .'' cos2adcr+ [ P F " R ' / ( G J ) ]/y(lsin a ) 2 d a } = O sin 2 a ".sin a)(R da)/(GJ)] = 0 [CvPR2/(CJ)] C"8.5 is n F"A j 1 [P"PW(AE)Ii= 0 . The virtual force F applied at the free end produces the virtual moment and torque in which F' has replaced P in eq(iii). Hence the need for the minus sign in the T expression.bars in the frame.4).( [ P R 2 / ( 2 E I ) ] ( r / 2.s i n 2 a ) d a )= O } =O C'8([C''PR2I(2EI)] la+!hsin 2aI. using the principle of virtual work.12c. C'8 [I (C"cos a)(PRcos a)(R da)/(EI) .1 ( [PR3/(2EI)] I cr + Y sin 2 a "1 + [PR3/(GJ I 3 a / 2 + 2 cosa 2 .'' (sin a . Substituting eqs(iii) and (v) into (iv).PR(1sina) (iii) The moment vectors show that M and M " act in the same sense but the torque vectors T and T" oppose. M = P p = P R c o s a a n d T = .
Equation (8. Table 8.577 .167F" 2. 8.ENERGY METHODS 351 where P' are the bar forces when a virtual vertical force F' is applied at Q. the force at Q is not removed as in Castigliano's approach.6 Real and virtual bar forces Bar PQ QT QR PT RT RS TS  P' P P'P 0.624Fv  Then C P'P = 12. The following examples illustrate this widely used simplified form of the PVF.433F" 0. ~ ) 0 (8.13 Cantilever deflection .W.45 mm 8. moment or torque) applied at the point where the displacement A. the corresponding lower case symbols appear with .8.086F" and eq(i) gives F v A 1l n (12.15a) becomes A (or #or 8) Iv ( O ~ ~ ' ' EdV= .289F' . a force.042 3. Figure 8. It follows that F ' could be replaced by a unit virtual load (i. and P are the real bar forces under the actual loading.6 by any suitable method.e. rotation #or twist 0 is required.168F' 1.660 4.330  6.4.753 .866F" 0. When calculating P.0.0.144F' 7.503F' 0.625F" .5.81 x x 10 x lo3) (1280 208 lo3) A Q = 4.500F" 0.0.13a when. The reader should check the P and P" bar forces given in Table 8. (ULM) in Table 8.289F" 0.16) In order to distinguish between the virtual forces. moments and torques etc produced by the unit load. Example 8. I = 10' m m 4 and E = 207 GPa.0.506 0.577 .11 Determine the vertical deflection at the free end of the cantilever in Fig.289F' 0. for the crosssection.5 The Unit Load Method (ULM) It will be seen that in each of the above examples the virtual force F vcancels within the virtual work expression.086 F " = x lo3 x x 9.167F" 1.289F' .
from Fig.4) (kNm)for4 s z i 6 m M = 1O(z . 8. EZA = Id6 1O(z . under a unit force at the free end: rn =zfor 0 s z s 10 and from Fig.66 mm Example 8. 10 m Substituting into eq(i).16) is written as A  I rnM ds/(EI) = 0 (1) where.WR(1. for a unit horizontal force at the free end.7~/2)] = PR(1. Take El = 2 x 10 '* N m 2 . Equation (8.33 + 36) = 1786.667) + lO(133.sin$) for n/2 5 8 s 3x12 .+ve)for 0 s 0 s 3 n / 2 Figure 8. 8. M = f R [ l + s i n ( 8 . 1 3 ~ under the applied loading.4)+ 5(z . P=~kN ?+=I m = R ( l .6)] z dz = 10 I z3/3 .62 kNm A = (1786.cos8) .4) z dz + 16" [ 1O(z . 8 .14.352 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Assuming that deformation is solely due to bending.33) + 333. M=Ofor 0 s z s 4 m M = 1O(z .14 Cantilevered arc Under the applied loading in Fig.62 x 10'*)/(207 x l o 3 x 10') = 8. eq(8." +I0 I z3/3 .2z2 1": + 51 z3/3 .12 Determine the horizontal displacement at the free end of the cantilevered arc in Fig.7 ~ / 2 ) WR[lcos(8.6) (Wm) for 6 i.16) becomes A .3z21y = lO(10.22' 1.cosO)(c.4) + 5(z .w. z i . 8.14.13b.IrnMdzl(EI)=O where.
2 ) + [ R 3 1 ( E I ) ] [ P ( 3 n / 2 + 4 )W ( z + 2 ) ] 4 = [ ( 9 ~ /+ 2)P .1417 x 5)](1OY x l o 3 )l ( 2 x = .(n+2)W]R31(EI) 4 ‘/4 cos 2 8 ( 3 n 1 2 n12 1 Substituting P = 2 kN. M dsl(EI ) = 0 (ii) where. = . m y= 1 x R (CW for 0 s z s h in the straight portion AB) m. The horizontal deflection is found from A. 8. A = [(9.sine+ cos81 ~1~ = [ P R 3 / ( E I ) ] ( 3 n 1.‘2 + [R3/(EI) I { PI 3812 .0685 x 2 ) . under a unit horizontal load +. A Ignoring the effects of shear and compression. .2 sine+ ‘/4 cos 2 0 nl2~ . / ~ = WR hl(EI ) + ~t l(4EI ) WR = [ WR2/(EI)I(h + n R / 4) downwards 1.  I m. m.15. Substituting into eq(i) with ds = dz for AB and ds = R dB for BC..13 Derive expressions for both the vertical and horizontal displacements at the load point C for the davit in Fig. I1 1 Figure 8.15 Davit deflection $A. A.(5.z) anticlockwise for 0 s z < h in AB m. the clockwise moments are M = WR (clockwise in AB) and M = WR cosB (clockwise in BC). = f h 0 WR2dd(EI)+ lnl2B d 8 / ( E I ) WR3cos2 = WR2h/(EI)+ WR’l(2EI)I 8 + ! h ~ i n 2 8 1 .( R + h . = .wle.. 1 x R cosB (CW for 0 s 8s z12 in the curved portion BC) = Correspondingly.at C. under a unit vertical load 1at point C.R (1 .79 mm (opposing the direction of P ) Example 8. W = 5 kN and R = 1 m.ENERGY METHODS 353 A = [PR3/(EI)I I 3812 .. the vertical deflection is found from: msM dsl(EI ) = 0 (1) where.2 sine+ ‘/4 sin 2e1. under the actual load W.sine) anticlockwise for 0 s 0 s n12 in BC.3.
WR3/(2EI) = .43 I z3/3 1: + 1 120 I z 1. m = .2).[WR/(EI)](Rh+h* .0.2)(30z .71432 + l(z .5Oz + 80(z .0. 8. m = . RO kN 80 kN 70 kN Figure 8. m = .2857(2 . given El = 40 x 10 kNm ’.2)(11Oz . m = .0. 8.2) + 80(z .0.71432 M = .2) .571 Iz’/3 1: .2) M = .0.09mm .2857z .[ WR’/(EI )] I sinB+ % 2 8 cos i = . determine the horizontal and vertical components of the freeend deflection.45 kNm’ : A=(243. together with M in eq(ii).50z + 80(z .h2/2) .7) = 0 Substituting in eq(i) EIA = 35.14 Determine the vertical deflection at B for the simply supported beam in Fig.15 The cranked cantilever in Fig. what is the inclination 8 for which the tip deflection becomes aligned with P ? .50 z.78 I z2/21: + 8.180(z . the moments are AB (0 5 z s 2 ) : BC (25 z s 5): CD (5 s z 5 7): DE (7 5 z < 10): M = . = .715 I z’/31: .71432 + l(z .715 S 2 z 2 d z+ L’(O.560) dz = 35.2) + 80(z .2 ) M = .51.712 Iz2/21: + 320 I z 1: + 31. Ignoring the effect of direct stress.2857~. Taking bending and direct stress into account.16 Simply supported beam The ULM provides an alternative to the Macaulay method for the determination of beam deflections where With the reactions under the actual and virtual loading given in Figs 8.7 ) .W R ( R + / z ) ~ / ( ~)E I forwards + :1 Example 8.[ WR/(EI ) I Rz thz .16a and b and the origin for z at the left hand end.160) dz + L7(0.5 ) . Example 8.z2/21! .45 x 10’2)/(40x 10’2)=6.105. EIA = 243.16.71432 + l(z .502 + 80(z .17 carries an inclined force F at its tip.354 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Substituting.
with a unit force 1 at A. p.= z . = .F cos0 and p. = I M m.755 or . = M my dd(E1) + Pp. m.569 8= 60.ENERGY METHODS 355 I Figure 8.29. = 1 x L (both clockwise) P = . 3L A. Substituting with the previous M and P expressions into eq(iii). for a unit force + at A. .33" or ..17 Cranked cantilever The horizontal deflection is found from A... m = 0.0..= f0 (FLcosB+ FzsinO)zdd(2EI) + F(3L)sin0/(3AE) = 9FL3cos0/(4EI)+ 9FL3sin0I(2EI) + FL sinBl(AE) Dividing eq(iv) by (ii) and omitting the final direct stress term. M = FL cos0+ Fz sin0 and m. = [(9/4) + (912) tan01 / [(I 11 6 ) + (914) tan01 27 tan20.67' Only the first value corresponds with the Ax() and A. = 1 x z (both clockwise) P = F sin0 (tensile) and p. p ?' = 0 for BC.U(AE) (9 where M and P are found from the actual loading. M = Fz cos0 and m. tanB= AJA.( 1 ) directions. dz /(El ) + Pp. = + 1 for AB and m .L/(AE) ~ I (iii) where. Ax= 1LFZ2Cos0dd(EI)+ s)L(FL cos0+ FZsinB)Ldd(2EI) + ( F cos0)(3L)/(3AE) 0 0 = I1FL3cos0l(6El) + 9FL3sin01(4EI)+ FLcosB/(AE) (ii) The vertical deflection is found from A. = 0 for BC.1 (both compressive) Substituting into eq(i). for AB.32 tan& 27 = 0 tan0= I . and p. That is.
and p y are the bar forces under unit loads applied at C in the horizontal () and vertical (1) directions respectively and P are the bar forces under the actual loading.657 WL/(AE) The minus indicates that the direction of A x is 4.18 Cantilever frame Since bar deformation is caused by direct stress. EI is constant. This alternative derivation of eq(5.1 0 0 1 1 w .18. Table 8. 8.3WL C = 12. p .J2W 1 W 1 W .356 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 8.16 Find the vertical and horizontal displacements at the force point for the cantilevered frame in Fig.3 WU(AE)and A = 12. A x = .70) employs ULM corresponding to deformation under torsion. Equation (8.657WL Then. 5. the ULM gives the displacements A.7 Unit load method Bar Px Pi. Example 8. Figure 8. = pxPU(AE) and A = p yPU(AE) (9 where.23) subjected to an axial torque. from eqs(i). in the Table 8. P L L J2L L L J2L L PXPL 0 0 WL 0 0 2WL Py PL AB BC CD BD AD DE 0 0 .17 Use ULM to determine the rate of twist in a thinwalled tube of any crosssection (see Fig.J2 .42 .15a) is written as .7.J2W 2w 2 WL 2J2WL WL WL 2J2WL 4WL C = .
i. (iii) With the introduction of each unknown redundant load (force. by cutting the redundant bars. from the BredtBatho theory (eq 5. torque or moment) determine the strain cijexpression under the applied loading.6 Redundant Structures The PVF provides an alternative to Castigliano's theorem for the solution to redundant pinjointed structures.19a when the end displacement is zero and El is constant. Then. The method ensures that additional compatibility conditions between internal strain and displacements are also satisfied. for the actual distributed loading at distance z from B.16a).e.1 Propped Cantilever A propped cantilever (see Fig. the unit load method may be adapted to many other forms of redundant structure. (ii) Determine the virtual stresses qy corresponding to isolated applications of unit loads to each cut in turn. The ULM is applied as follows: (i) Render the structure statically determinate by removing the redundancies. That is. These stresses produce relative displacements and rotations at each cut. 8. 8. where the stresses cannot be determined from the equilibrium equations.18 Determine the deflection at the centre of the propped cantilever in Fig. Prior knowledge of the prop displacement is used as the additional compatibility condition in the ULM. RA and R . Moreover. the moment is .17) Equation (8.64) T" = T'/(2A t ) (T' = 1 in the ULM) y = rlG = T/(2AG 1) dV= t x ds x dz Putting 8= J' (d8/dz) dz and substituting into eq(i) gives. d B / d z = f ( T / ( 4 A 2 G t ) d s = [T/(4A2)] f ds/(Gt) 8.5).19) has three unknowns M A . Example 8. from eq(8. Iv uij''~ij 0 dV= (8. The following examples illustrate this common approach for a various redundant structures.ENERGY METHODS 357 where.17) enables the redundant loading to be found.17) depends upon the applied loading (see Table 8. foz(d8/dz)dz = 0 f s [1/(2A t)][(T/(2AG t)l(t ds dz) Differentiating with respect to z.6. 8. Remove the redundant prop (reaction R8). The particular form of eq(8. that cannot be determined from two equations expressing force and moment equilibrium. These correspond to zero virtual work at each cut.e. (iv) Apply the compatibility conditions necessary to eliminate the relative displacements.g.
19 Propped cantilever Thus.5wLz214+3wL2z/8)dz . = wz2/2 for 0 x z LL (1) (ii) and.U2)dz = [1/(2EI)] = 1 (wz2 [1/(2E1)] S L LIZ LIZ ( w z ' .U2)( L 3wLzI8 + wz 12)dz I(El ) . m + M .z ) d d ( E 0 = 0 =O I wz4/8 . for the redundant structure it follows from eqs (i) and (ii) that the moment at z is M = R .R. (iii) foL(R. with a unit upward force applied at B in the absence of w (see Fig.z + wz212)(.z+wz2/2 f o r O L z s L Now. from eq(8. zero displacement at B is ensured when I mM dd(E1) = 0 Substituting for m and M into eq(iii).. = 3wLl8 Displacements are found from A = j" mMdd(E1) Now.358 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES M.U2) for U 2 L z L L M = .17) and Table 8. = .19b).3wLz18+wz2/2 f o r O s z s L Substituting into eq(iv). 8. m = .3wLd4)(z .z'/31: R.5. = k( z l .1xzforOszLL Figure 8. m = 0 for 0 x z s L12 m = 1 x ( z . with a unit downward force applied at the centre.R.
The net bar forces and the strains are then and the virtual stresses are ( a . / A . (0..18) is identical to Castigliano’s theorem (iv) employed in Example 8. Substitutung into eq(8.... compatibility must ensure zero slope 4 at A.5 wL4/96 + 3 wL41641 I. ) ’ ) .17). with E constant throughout the structure.17) gives expressions that eliminate displacements due to bar removal . the net bar forces are P = P.10. = p . (8.. be the statically determinate bar forces and also p i . R.”.. let p be the bar forces when a unit load replaces the redundant bar. 8.. . where m is the moment under a unit couple J applied at A. Equation(iii) becomes @= mM dd(El) = 0. )2 =p2/A ( a . be the bar forces when separately applied unit loads replace the redundant bars. With two or more redundancies we let P.. = + Rp)/(AE) Substituting into eq(8.. eq(8. If the bar forces under the applied loading in the absence of the redundant bar are Po and the force in the redundant bar is R.p 2 . R. / A .2 PinJointed Structures With a single degree of redundancy. ) ’ )= p ..ENERGY METHODS 359 = [ 1 / ( 2 E I ) ] I w z 4 / 4. It follows that a i j V p/A and z i j = P/(AE) = (P..p . . A = wL4/(192EI) Note that if the origin for z was at the left hand end.18) Clearly.6.+ Rp.. denote the redundant bar forces to be found. .5 w L ~ ’ / 1 2 + 3 ~ L ~ ~ * / 1 6 = [ 1 l(2EI )] [ wL4/64 . R .
It follows that a i j V p/A and z i j = P/(AE) = (P. If the bar forces under the applied loading in the absence of the redundant bar are Po and the force in the redundant bar is R.2 PinJointed Structures With a single degree of redundancy.. with E constant throughout the structure.p . the net bar forces are P = P.5 wL4/96 + 3 wL41641 I.p 2 .6.+ Rp. (0. be the statically determinate bar forces and also p i ..”.. / A .18) Clearly. With two or more redundancies we let P..ENERGY METHODS 359 = [ 1 / ( 2 E I ) ] I w z 4 / 4. ) ’ ) . R. Substitutung into eq(8. where m is the moment under a unit couple J applied at A...18) is identical to Castigliano’s theorem (iv) employed in Example 8. eq(8...10. R .17) gives expressions that eliminate displacements due to bar removal . R. .5 w L ~ ’ / 1 2 + 3 ~ L ~ ~ * / 1 6 = [ 1 l(2EI )] [ wL4/64 .. denote the redundant bar forces to be found. = p . / A . (8. Equation(iii) becomes @= mM dd(El) = 0. )2 =p2/A ( a . ... = + Rp)/(AE) Substituting into eq(8. be the bar forces when separately applied unit loads replace the redundant bars.. A = wL4/(192EI) Note that if the origin for z was at the left hand end. 8.17). ) ’ )= p . compatibility must ensure zero slope 4 at A. let p be the bar forces when a unit load replaces the redundant bar. The net bar forces and the strains are then and the virtual stresses are ( a . .
15 . from eq(8.4.pUA 0 10.56 0 2. Find also the inline vertical deflection beneath the 2.20 Frame forces Cut BD and let this redundant bar force be R.0 1.2.16 10 5.96 0 p2UA P=P.4.4.5 62.0.4 kN force? Take E = 70 GPa. The forces under the resulting statically determinate structure are those in the Po column.5 62.2 + 3. Table 8. R = .70. With unit loads acting in tension at B and D in the line of the missing bar BD.2 5.48 . Since these are p = Pl2.6 0 +4.8 P.0  0 . which enables the final column to be completed.8 1 0 3.+Rp(kN) 0 2.5 125 + 3.85 C = 70.2. eq(i) gives A y = [ 1/(2.24 0 0 40 40. The vertical deflection A follows from The bar forces P follow from the above table and p are now the bar forces under a unit force at A.20 when the lengths and areas are those given in the Table 8.5 125 62.84 = .71 1.72/24.0 .85 kN.360 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Example 8.4E ) ] P2UA (ii) .5 62.12 .12 5 500 500 625 375 625 500 625 62.18).72 = 24.2 . SOOmm A 8 500 mm J C' 315 mm E D Figure 8.8 Calculations for redundant frame Bar L(mm) A ( m m 2 ) P o ( k N ) AB BC AE BE CE DE BD p 0 .4.19 Determine the forces in the bars of the aluminium frame in Fig.0.4 1  0.84 Then. 8.8. the remaining bar forces are those in the p column.6.
15 . Table 8. Bars AC.23 135. and p in Table 8..473 C = 309.924 17.19 46. Figure 8.0 BE CE DE BD  P(kN) 3.8165 5.123 40.92.29 .e.92 120.10 Bar geometry and forces Bar AB AC AD AE L(mm) A(mm2) P.248 18.20 Determine the forces in each bar of the steel space frame in Fig.12 16 160 1.4x 70 x lo’) = 3.248 1.when. e.03 P2UA 81. Example 8.5 2828.85 8.22 kN2/mm.79 2.54 1.657 .g. the structure is stiffened with its redundant bar. The bar forces P.62 This gives C P’UA = 569.81 163.443 0 1 0 5.+Rp .323 16.155 .. from eq(ii)..(kN) 1200 200 200 200 4 p pP.22 x 103)/(2.4 2449.UA p2UA P=P.10 may be found by any method.596 P2UA 2000 2449. 8.71 2.ENERGY METHODS 361 where P2UAfor each bar is compiled in Table 8.955 3.4.21 Space frame Let AC be the redundant bar.38 0 I 0 1. AD and AE are each 200 mm2 in area while AB is 1200 mm2.5 .34 mm which is less than if bar BD were absent.86.400 1.48 P2 10. tension coefficients.974 13.81 = .48 46.937 1 = 44.0.866 12.21 and the vertical deflection at A.Take E = 200 GPa.4. A y= (569.1.9 Bar forces Bar AB BC AE .2 5. i.111 12.955 52.5.24 30.12 1.9 Table 8.
W A = (309.22a.4) / (200E) = 0.c and d respectively. With a downward unit force at A.937144.29 x 103)/(4x 200 x 10') = 0. = d2 and A [ pPL/(AE)IAH + [ pPL/(AE)IA.  2414 + 4. .19) becomes where bar forces. 8. = 195. 2 p l +1 9 5 . Substituting into eqs(i) and (ii).386 mm Example 8..4 x 2828. Figure 8.1 I . P.> = (.22b.362 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES From eq(8. R = 86.2 N and R .4142 R2 = 0 from which R I = 569.7080 R2 = 0 500 . ) and the reaction at support B ( R 2 ) ..596)2000 / (1200E) + (J2 x 3. 6 ~ ~ .22 Pinjointed structure The two redundancies present in this structure may be deduced from the application of moment and force equilibrium equations.828 R I . which enables the final column of bar forces to be completed. Taking these to be the force in bar AE ( R . As with the previous example the vertical deflection at A is given by A = [ I / (4E)ICP.18).473 = 1. EI is constant. + 5 6 9 . in Table 8.1.708R I + 2. apply to Figs 8. In order to find the deflection at any joint it is only necessary to take a statically determinate part of the frame and apply A = C p P L/(AE ) .I)(.1. pa. A may be calculated from the above P forces in the simplest statically determinate frame. pI and p . Hence the final column of net bar forces is found f r o m P = P . P A H = .eq(8.21 Determine the bar forces for the pinjointed structure in Fig.955 kN.386 mm Alternatively. say AB and AD.1.6N.5. .
6 EF 1 0 0 250 0 .5 0 0.707 568.8 0.3 .354 0. Table 8.250 250 250 500 0 597.) T / PA.20). opposing unit shear forces at the cut a a complementary unit shear flow will be induced in cell 2 (see Fig.0.2 1. By applying isolated.1000 BF 42 . (a) Figure 8.5 1.0.4142 8.ENERGY METHODS 363 where P are the actual bar forces in the table and p are the bar forces under a unit load applied at the joint in the required direction (see Example 8.708 4.707 0 707 .25 195.707 AB 1 1000 . Note that.6.23a to give the statically determinate Batho shear flow in cell 1 as 9.354 0.0. where necessary.5 195.402.0.2 0 0. It is instructive to confirm this theory from our general approach to redundant structures.0.353.5 .7 0 0 .25 .707 0.353.20) This will cause a relative displacement between the cut faces.5 0 0. Cut cell 2 as shown in Fig.0.3 Torsion of a ThinWalled.276 0 0 0.707 0. 8.25 .1 1.0.5 0 CD 1 .) = (8.707 .707 0 0.707 0 0 BE 1 1 .3  1 = .828 2.707 0 1 0 0 AE 42 500 .11 Bar forces for doubly redundant frame 0 .2 0 0 0.707 . the reactions to the unit load must be included in the calculation of p .5 0 .2414.414 0 569. MultiCell Tube The twocell problem has been solved previously in Chapter 5 (section 5.414 0.5 0 DE 1 500 .707 0 BD J2 707 0 .402.6 AF 1 0 0 0 0 BC 1 0 .25 597.0.5 .5 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 500 0 0.3) from the separate application of equilibrium and compatibility.23 Torsional shear flow in a twocell tube of unit length .
are constant in each cell and i. y = q/(tG) and.as the components of the virtual shear flow in each cell. ds/(Gt) for the common paths over which 9.23a) Table 8.24a and b).24 Actual and virtual shear flow in each cell Compatibility is restored by imposing zero relative displacement at the cut. Equation(8.23b) Define i.22c).5 and eq(5. = Substituting into eq(8.24a and b.23d) Writing. for brevity. . = J. 9'9 f d s / ( G t ) + q " q f 2 ds/(Gt)=O (8.. = J I 2 ds/(Gt) for the path (web) over which the shear flows are k (ql . + I = .22) and expanding (8. 8. dV = t ds.l)i121 R [ q I l 2 i l+ 2 ( q .A2 /A I (8.23d) becomes . .21) If 9. ds/(Gt) and i.73)..64) show that t V q"/t. eq(8. for a unit length.23~) leads to + s .23b) becomes Substituting from eq(8. That is 0 = 2A I II + 2A2 . is the net shear flow in cell 1 and R ( = 92) the shear flow in the redundant cell 2 (see Fig. 9 1 . . . Actual Actual Figure 8. = J . eq(8. [ q l l i I + 2 ( q . then The actual and virtual shear flows for each cell are shown in Fig.1) are constant (Figs 8. That is.R ) and 5 ( q l . 8. and q l .364 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The unit shear flow will be reacted by a shear flow q I 1in cell 1 according to the equilibrium condition T = 0 in eq(5. for zero virtual work. .23a) for each tube.1 ) 2 i 1 2 + ( 1 ) 2 i 2 1 = 0 (8.17) becomes (8.
25 Twocell tube under flexural shear The two degrees of shear flow redundancy are now denoted by R .ENERGY METHODS 365 from which (R = q 2 )can be found and the similarity with eq(8.+ R 4 " ) $ ds/(Gt) = 0 q 1 q'q.25a.75a . From eq(8. Compatibility is ensured when the cut displacements are eliminated through eq(8. $ ds/(Gt) + R C(q' )' $ ds/(Ct) = O (8.a (a L 4 (a) (b) Figure 8. = 1 are the unit virtual shear flows arising from the application of unit forces to each cut in isolation (Figs 8. twocell tube under torsion. The single cell tube which has one degree of shear flow redundancy R is again solved by making a single cut in one web.. 8. Although this approach may be extended to multicell tubes. The summations account for variations in q.18) is evident. then the net shear flow is where R is found from eliminating the relative displacement at the cut with zero virtual work. two cuts a and b are necessary to achieve static determinancy.24a): . 8.24a) which is clearly similar to eq(8. &.6.23e) for a singly redundant. In the case of the twocell tube under flexural shear in Fig. and in the path integral $ ds/(Gt).. qu + R. is the resulting shear flow under F and q"= 1 is the virtual shear flow due to opposing forces. within each cell.. = 1 and q.24b) where q . If q. The simultaneous solution to cell shear flows follows more readily from eqs(5. idealised tubes when a transverse shear force Facts through the shear centre (see Chapter 7). and R. respectively. (8. acting in isolation at the cut.25 b and c).c) than from virtual work. giving the net shear flow in any cell as 4 = 40 + R.4 Flexural Shear Flow in Multicell Tubes The ULM is particularly useful for determining shear flow in multicell. it is more convenient to solve these from the fact that each cell will suffer the same rate of twist.. q. Iu ~ ~ dV= ~ ~ " E C$ q'q ds/(Gt) = 0 1 y (qt.17).
200 x 10. direction is anticlockwise Taking q.366 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (8..25a. and qb to be anticlockwise. q .26a when a shear force of 200 kN acts vertically upwards through the shear centre. = 0 12.25a) (8. and R.12 is constructed for the components in eqs(8.200N/mm x 34. = .200 x 106"(1000 500) + (1000 x 500)]= ..(200 x 103)/(4x 1000 x 5002)= .12 Shear flow components 12 100 1 23 200 I 34 100 I 14 0 0 154 0 1 2000 2 x 105 2 x 1 0 5 2000 2000 2000 1000 2 x 105 2 x 1 0 5 1000 1000 1000 2000 2~ 105 2 x 105 2000 2000 2000 1 1000 1000 0 0 0 0 0 1571 0 0 1571 0 0 I I I C = ( 6 x 10') ( 6 x 10') 6571 6000 5000 . = . Example 8.I 2 4 3 mm' Figure 8. Table 8. 8. / .. q.25a./l..2 0 0 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ ( 1 0 0 0 ~ 5 0 l00N/mm 0)=23.' N/mm4 Working clockwise from the "free surface" at u 14 and 154.200x 10~6[(1000x500)+(1000x500)(lOOOx500)]=.22 Determine the shear flows for the idealised wing box structure in Fig.b). 8.26 Wing box structure The cuts correspond to points u and b in Fig. q. Take G and t as constants throughout..25b) which are solved simultaneously for R .100N/mm The minus signs indicate that the q . q o = . values are found from where F. Table 8.= . . The following q.
8.65. The following examples illustrate these applications.6. That means that for externally applied forces F and a virtual displacement A' eq( I8. 1 FA'  1 V ( u i j c i j Y dV= 0 ) (8.ENERGY METHODS 367 Substituting into eqs(8..45 .25b: 12. Equation(8.65. = 0 (6 x 10') + 5000 R.27a using the PVD given that EI is constant.21 N/mm 34.34 N/mm 154. 8. (6 x 1 0 9 + 6571 R. The PVD is however particularly useful for providing the internal forces and displacements numerically from an assumed displacement mode. Figure 8.41. Example 8.. = 0 from which R.59.0 = . + 6000 R . R.6.34 = 93..41.45 .65.0 .7 The Principle of Virtual Displacements (PVD) Recall that the virtual work principle in eq(8.59 N/mm 8.25a and b).41. The PVD or the unit displacement method could be employed for finding forces analytically in structures including those that are redundant. q = 200 .41.41.26a) Alternatively. q = 100 .24b) supplies the final shear flows.65.59 .79 N/mm 14. illustrated with anticlockwise positive in Fig. = . the principle employs a virtual rotation 8 '. this being the basis for the "displacement" or "stiffness" methods of finite element analysis (see chapter 10). 9 = 0 .q = 0 . q = 100 .34 N/mm.79 N/mm 23.34 = .14) was derived using a virtual displacement system with real loads.14b) is written as.34 = . but the PVF or the unit load method is more often used for this purpose. when external moments MEcomprise the loading.45 ..65.34 = . = .65. + 5000 R .23 Determine the force in the bar CD for the frame in Fig.27 Displacements of a plane frame .41.
Assume a deflected shape of the form v = vc sin (nz/L). The virtual displacement function v' may be any shape that matches the boundary conditions. Me Figure 8.C (P/A)(G"/L)(AL)= 0 . The external work (lefthand side of eq(i)) is found from the product of the applied forces F and their corresponding inline A " .. Compare with the true value from the PVF. The geometry is such that B is displaced by A" to B' as shown in Fig. Take El as constant.28a).26b).368 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Impose a virtual displacement k at C on CD so that the lengths of all other bars remain unchanged. = 2. With a minus sign to denote opposing inline directions. when a concentrated moment M. ' Pci.586 kN .Elf 0L(d2v'/dz2)(d2v/dz2) = 0 dz . Example 8. 8'  LM' M dzl(EI ) = 0 (ii) M.8". (El ) d2v/dz2= M Substituting eq(i) into eq(8. is applied at one end (Fig. 8.24 Find from PVD the central deflection vc of a simply supported beam of length L.26a) becomes C FA' . C F A " = (4 x A " ) + ( 2 sin 45" x A' ) The internal work (righthand side of eq(i)) is P i . Note that since A' cancels. 6 = Pci.J2A' : P . a unit displacement could have replaced it. Equation (8. 8.28 Deflection of a simply supported beam The form assumed for the real displacement v clearly satisfies the boundary conditions that v = 0 for z = 0 and z = L. Here it is taken to have the same form as v Now from flexure theory. 1F A v = C P6" : where 6' are the displacements of the bars necessary to accommodate A". M .27b.Av since no other bar is strained.A' = 4 A ' . It follows that C is displaced to C ' along an arc of radius AC..
is e =. All bar areas A are constant.( z . = . and since B ’ = dv’/dz = v. . Y ( n / L ) ~ n2(ndL)dz si 0 (v) / L M. where the external moment is M. M.. 1 . ~ n / L ) = E l v .. M = M.b c 2 )and (b) Hooke’s law.(L3/24 .L2/(16EI) Since n 3/ 2 = 15. given that the bar material obeys (a) the nonlinear elastic law LT=a ~ ( ..ENERGY METHODS 369 where here..[(L3/3L3/4).(.” ( x / L )cos ( n d L ) the virtual rotation to be applied at the end point z = L.=  V. v .(iv) and (v) into (ii). from the real and virtual “forces” in Figs 8.U 2 ) ~ 1for U 2 s z r L Substituting into eq(vii). L 2 / ( 4 8 E I )+ [M.L3/16)]} = M.z /L m = J 2 for O s z 5 U 2 m = 2 / 2 . 8..28b and c respectively. it is seen that the PVD approach yields an acceptable solution./(EIL)]{ (L3/6L3/48). = M .L2/ [(7r3/2)(El)](upwards) The true value may be found from the ULM: A= 1LmMdz / ( E l 0 ) (vii) where.~ .5 in the denominator of the approximation expression (vi). Example 8..M.vcw~ v Substituting eqs(iii).29a when a vertical load F is applied at point D and the link lengths are in the ratio BD/BC/CD = 3/4/5. 7t EIL/ (2L ) (vi) v.25 Derive an expression for the force in bar BD for the redundant pinjointed plane frame in Fig..
. Here. + ( P6v)cl) (3/5)fA..+ P + (3/5)PcI) (ii) where the bar forces P . eq(iv) becomes P./F. Substituting into eq(ii). FA' = (I'd").. a. 8.... F.370 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES A D L (a) if Figure 8. may be expressed in terms of the actual bar displacements 6 = EL. This is unecessary for a Hookean (linear elastic) material. eqs(iii) and (iv) may be solved to provide a numerical value for the ratio P.26a) for part (a).698 . from the particular a. E law.29 Redundant frame Employing the PVD eq(8. 6 and L.. : ..)' = A' (i) Substituting into eq(i).. FA' = 1 P6' Applying A ' at D (Fig. + (Pd'). Now if A is the actual displacement under F.) " = .29b) produces the virtual bar displacements 6 " 6. Thus for given values of A. when f o r b = 0.A' + PnnAV+ (3/5)Pcl)Av = F = (3/5)PA. ' = A' sin 8= (3/5)& a d.JF = [ 1 + (54/125)] ' = 0.
8. B and E total six in this singly redundant frame. w is composed of inertia and pressure effects.” (dwldz) v v dz = El 1 (d2vV/dz2) (d2vldz2) dz L 0 6) in which the derivation of the righthand side has been given in Example 8.30b. 8.30 Simply supported pipe When a variable external vertical loading w is distributed over a given length L.26 A thin pipe is simply supported at length intervals L when carrying fluid of density p at pressure p and velocity V (Fig. PVF is the better choice for the frame in Fig.20 since the two degrees of freedom at each of joints A. derive an expression that will enable the prediction of lateral instability.30a). the number of simultaneousequations to be solved with this method equates to the total number of degrees of freedom for the frame. For example. In Fig.cos 2x2 lL) between any pair of supports.24. That is = The curvature is given by I I R = d2vldz2 d81dz so that : &/6z = ( p A V 2 + p A ) d2v/dz2 . 8. Figure 8.direction.loL(pAV2 +pA)(d2vldz2) V d z = v (d2vV/dz2)(d2vldz2) dz (ii) in which the directions of v v and w oppose eachother.29 the number is only one since joint B moves in the y .26a) becomes s. . In general. Now. 8. for a length 6z of the deflected pipe shown in Fig. The choice between PVD and PVF for the determination of bar forces depends upon whether the frame has a smaller number of degrees of freedom in PVD than the number of redundancies in PVF.ENERGY METHODS 371 A similar PVD approach may be employed for any redundant structure. Example 8. The weight of the pipe is negligible compared to the fluid. This is the sum of the degrees of freedom for each joint. Assuming that the virtual deflection has the same form as v. Assuming a deflected shape of the form v = a (1 . Substituting into eq(i) gives L . eq(8.
29) shows that a stationary value of the total potential energy (b' + V) exists when the system is in equilibrium. it follows that 6 v = . A stationary complementary energy will provide the coefficients in an assumed stress field provided the equilibrium equations are satisfied.372 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES v = a [ l .8 The RayleighRitz Method Variational principles may be used to find the best approximate solutions to displacements and stress distributions. The principle states: O all the possible compatible displacement systems which satisfy the boundary conditions.6 U = O (8.A ( p V 2 + p ) a a ' ( 4 n 2 / L 2 ) ~ ocos (2nzlL)[1 . for a conservative force system where a complete cycle of loadingunloading results in zero net work. p and p are related to the properties E.27) and (8. (8.1 Stationary Potential Energy (SPE) Since SW.cos (2nzlL)ldz L L = E l ( 4 n 2 / L 2)2 a v ~ cos (2nzlL) a o V 2 p+ p = 4 n 2El I(AL2) and thus.SW. eq(8. 8. fluid properties v.29) Taking U to mean the PE of strain.6U from eq(8. the principle of virtual work becomes 6(U+V)=O (8. the principle of virtual work (eq 8. d ~ v ~ / d ~ ~ = ( 4 n ~ / L ~ ) a ~ c o s (2ntlL) Substituting into eq(ii) and integrating leads to the condition . 8. The RayleighRitz method ensures that either the potential or the complementary energy is minimised while satisfying the boundary conditions..27) Now.~ o s ( 2 n z / L ) ] . A and I for the beam section at the lowest point of instability.8. d2v/dz2= (4n2/L2) cos (2nzlL) a v v = a v [ l. . as potential energy ( V ) is the energy stored in the body for its displaced position under the external forces. f that which also satisfies the equilibrium conditions gives a stationary value to the PE. Combining eqs(8.cos (2nZlL)].= .28) That is.14a) may be rewritten in the following form: SW.28).12). A stationary potential energy will provide the coefficients for an assumed compatible displacement function.
= Pv and from Table 8. at any point in the length z.f Csin(nnc/L)+(EI)C~. Compare with the accepted expression when z = c = LJ2.31).1 and the flexure equation.28) in the following form: 6 [ U .(nn/~)~(u2) : a.P L I . of a simply supported beam of length L which carries a vertical concentrated force P at a distance c from the end (Fig.28 Determine the constants A and B within an expression u = A ( r + B/r) assumed for the radial displacements at radius r in the wall of a thick cylinder under internal pressure p . 00.30) Equation (8. U = J L M 2 d ~ I ( 2 E I ) = ( E I / 2 [oL(d2v/dz2)2dz 0 ) U + V = . controls the magnitude of U + V . Putting z = c = LJ2 gives the deflection beneath a central concentrated load.31 Simply supported beam The boundary conditions v = 0 for z = 0 and z = L are satisfied. where exact solutions may not be available. That is.I = PL3/(48..P La.. C sin (nnc/L)/ [(El )z(r1n/L)~(L/2)]= [2PL3/(Eln4)] n4sin( n n c / L ) 1 (9 :.(nn/L)*sin (nnzIL)]’ dz =.30) is particularly useful for finding good approximations to displacement functions. = P . Example 8. v = [2PL3/(E1n4)]C ..’ ( ~ I T / L ) ~ (U2) As a. V= [2PL3/(E1n4)][1 3 . 2 .. Now. .ENERGY METHODS 373 The SPE equation (8. A .30) becomes 6(U+ V)/&.P v + ( E l /2) Jo (d‘ v/dz2) ‘ dz = .. F ...035EI ) which compares with the exact value of 48 in the denominator.4 + 5 .. 1 a. Figure 8.=O=.4 sin ( n n c / L ) sin ( n n z / L ) n Equation (i) supplies the deflection at any point.27 Find the deflection v. 8.C(F.. with zero outer pressure..)] = 0 (8. sin ( n n z / L )for n = 1.29) is normally combined with eq(8.A. for equilibrium.. eq(8. Example 8. Assume the deflected shape function v = C a.4 + + . sin ( n n c / L )+ (EI /2)L a... sin ( n n c / L )+ (El/2)J0 [Ca.
v 2 ) / [ E I r 2 . c. U = ( E / [2( 1 .) + e r 2 / 2] + where V ' is the volume.v )] } [E .2nrlpul+[E/[2(1 v2)]) ~ 2 ' ~ r 2 [ ~ ~ 2 + 2 v & .&.r 1 2 ) .) follows from eq(8. + V E . ~ / ~ v d(E. and 6 V ' = r x 6 8 x 6 r per unit length. + E . the stationary value will be found from eq(vi) corresponding to d ( U + V)/dA = .B / r 2 + v ( r 2 + Blr') '1 ] rl = p r l ( r l + B / r l ) (l v 2 ) / { E [ ( l + v ) ( r .B 2 / r 4 ) ] r d r ?I = .+ (&.f 3 ( l.a.B / r 2 ) . = A ( I .&.= 2 n r . .v ' ) ] [ ( s .h. eq(8.1/r12)]} .) + E . + B l r l ) + [ 2 n E A ' / ( l v')] f r 2 [(I + B 2 / r 4 ) + v ( l . & ~ ] = [E/(I . ) / ( l. = .V2)][(Eo+ V&.B / r 2 + v ( r 2+ B / r 2 ) lr2 lrz ?I (vi> Now from eq(8. ]dV ' Since 1 F. since B is a constant. U for a principal biaxial stress state (ur. ~ u + ~ ~ ] r d B d r ~ ?I Substituting from eqs (i) and (ii). = u/r which give: & .v ' ) ] I r 2 . B = r z 2 ( I+ v ) / ( I . ) + [ 2 n E A /(I  v ')I I r 2 . SPE will now be used for this purpose.v 2 ) ar=E(&. + 2 v c .6&.v ) Though B could be found from a second condition: a. = A ( l .B / r 2+ v ( r 2+ B / r 2 ) =0 A = p r l ( r l + B/r I )( 1 . + vd(&.v2) Equations (ii) and (iv) must satisfy the boundary condition a.+ V E O ) 6 & .V ~ ) ] [ ( E .2 n r l p A ( r .+v&.)d&.30) gives U + V = . p ( r l + B / r . 6 E r = [W(l . p u .p for r = rl . p A (rl + B/rl)+ [nEA2/(1 . (iii) (iv) + a. = au/& and E. U + V = .2 n r .374 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The radial and hoop strains are E.4b).)/(I.B / r 2 2 ) + A v ( l+ B / r 2 2 ) = 0 : . & . ] = [E/(I .29). (iii) and (iv) as 6U " 1 = U. = 0 for r = r 2 E .v ) ( l / r . 8.2 n r .=A (1 + B / r 2 ) (ii) The constitutive relations are: u u = E ( E o + V E . .
33) is often referred to as the principle of least work.C A .31) The SCE principle is then stated as Of all the equilibriumforce (stress)systems satisfiing boundary conditions. 2 ( 1.r. A further simplification is often made that. (A.31) becomes S ( U . 8.and SW.1/2)]*dd(2EI) S  . when eq(8. becomes equivalent to the principle of virtual complementary work: S ( U *+ V ' ) = 0 (8. Determine from SCE.')] 8.29 The cantilever in Fig.29).32) becomes d U = SU'=O (8. . The stationary value of U '. then the total complementary energy for a strained body is U '+ V *. El is constant. is the complementary work of the external forces. Thus if dU' is the complementary strain energy and 6v' = .32 Propped cantilever Taking case (i) generally. *= A SF. that which also satisfies the compatibility condition gives a stationary value to the complementary energy.ENERGY METHODS 375 Substituting for B from eq(v) finally leads to A = p r . For Hookean materials where U = U . this will only strictly apply to a rigid boundary. eq(8. Example 8. U' = U = I M2dd(2EI ) = $ 6 ' 2 ( f ~ ) z d d ( 2 E I ) + .) Figure 8.32) SCE can be used as an alternative to the ULM for solving redundant structures. when the prop deflects the beam by the amount: (i) A. the summation term in eq(8.+ V ' . upwards and (ii) zero.33) which is particularly useful for obtaining approximate stress distributions where exact solutions are not available.v ) / [ E ( r . ~ [ P Z R A ( z . in the presence of small boundary displacements.32) is negligibly small. the prop reaction R ..32 is propped at midposition when carrying an end load P. Fk) 0 = (8. .2 Stationary Complemerltary Energy (SCE) It is also possible to formulate a stationary energy principle based upon the corresponding complements of SU and 6v in eq(8.SW. 'where SW. The reduced form of SCE in eq(8. However.8.
1 /2)] (2  112) dzl(E1) + A A = 0 ( z 2 .l[ Pz .31). ) + B [ r . For a structure with m redundancies. d (U'+ V ' ) 1 dRA= Ll:P L. 1 3/24+ El A.32) may be applied to each redundancy in turn to yield m simultaneous equations.30 A linear increase in hoop stress a. )I2 q =pr.RA(z.13/16)] . That is. This gives A = pr.(1'124 . t .R.r1 ( A + Br) t d r I where p acts on the projected area 2r.1 ~ ~ 112 4~ ~~ ~ Z ' 1 3 ./ l 3 When in part (ii) A A = 0.1212).r. Determine from SCE the constants A and B when the effect of radial stress is ignored.RA[(13/3l 3 1 2 + I 3 1 4 ) (1'124. from eq(8. ) .R A A A.RA(z .. = 5Pl2 + 24El A.376 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES V' =  E A F~ = ./(r2. Example 8. = 5P12.33 to give p (2r. eq(8. A * .R. Figure 8.R A ( z 2 1 z + l 2 / 4 ) d z + E I A A = O P I Z ' 1 3 .r . 8.1 ' / 8 + 1 ' / 8 ) ] + E I A A = o 5P1'148 .p ~ = J 1 1 2 ( P z ) dzl(2EI) + 2 [Pz .(r. R.1 /2)12dz / ( X I ) . = 0 R.) t = 2 [.1'14) . + r2)/2] .B(r2+ r. = A + B r is assumed from the inner (r.:got dr = 2/.33 Thick cylinder The boundary condition is satisfied by equating forces along a horizontal diameter in Fig.) to outer (r2)radii in a thickwalled annular disc under internal pressure p . (1) (ii) .I Z 2 / 2 + 1 2 ~ 1 4 ~ ~ 1 2 + E I A ~ = 0 1 R P [(13/3.P v The total complementary energy is then U' + V' 112 This has a stationary value in respect of the single redundancy R. /(r2.
1 ) .33 with Lame's exact solution. )/2] ) [ r . A is written as A = p / ( K .rl ) + B [ r  (r.34a. Since the stress system is assumed to be uniaxial.35a and b. + r.ldB)dV=O Substituting from eq(ii) with d V = (27rrdr) t .48b). 8. 8.1 ) .8 p ( K 2 + K + 1) r .A / r 2 (see Eq 2.Brl(K+1)/2 Satisfying equilibrium and compatibility in this way provides the most acceptable linear hoop stress distribution.l ) ( K + 1 ) + 3 ( K Z . : dV u The stationary value applies in respect of B. Draw the bending moment diagram in M. It is compared in Fig. It is made from a solid 10 mm diameter . Jr: { p rl / (r2. a = 1 1 x 10 ~h "C I.B coordinates inserting major values in each case.2 Find the force H necessary to eliminate horizontal deflection at A and B for each of the parabolic steel arches shown in Fig. dU*/dB=(I/E)~vu. What is the increase in H .1)(K+ l)'] and. 8. rod by bending into the quadrant of a circle of mean radius 200 mm.34b. EXERCISES Castigliano's Theorems 8 1 Two views of a cantilever arc are shown in Fig.8 ( K 3 . .4 8. uo= 2C . [ 6 ( K 4 .(du. Figure 8 3 .( r l + r2)/2 ] r d r = 0 Integrating and introducing the radius ratio K = r.ENERGY METHODS 377 Assuming a rigid boundary the total complementary energy is simply U'= U . Find the slope and deflection in the plane of an oblique 10 kN force. Table 8.1 gives U = U' as U' = [1/(2E)]J. when applied at its free end as shown in Fig. from eq(i). 8./ rl leads to B 6p(K + I)' . Take E = 210 GPa and G = 84 GPa.b. if the additional horizontal displacement due to a temperature rise of 50°C is to be prevented? Take I = 300 x 10 mm '.
6 Find the forces in each bar of the redundant structure in Fig. .36 8. 8. 20kN 30 kN Figure 8.5 Calculate the forces for the frame in Fig.35 8. which was initially 3 mm short.36a and b when all bar areas are 1280 mm and E = 207 CPa.4 Show.378 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES lWkN I IM1 k N Figure 8.38 given that bar BD. Figure 8. 8.3 Determine the vertical displacement beneath each load for the frames in Figs 8. Take the area A = 970 mm and Young's modulus E = 204 GPa as constants throughout. when the walls react to both vertical and horizontal forces at points A and B.22FU(EA) when EA is constant throughout the frame.37 Figure 8.38 8. 8. Take A = 500 mm2 and E = 200 GPa. for the frame in Fig. was elastically strained into position. that the vertical deflection at point P is given by 6.39.37. = 6. 8.
8 with an arch of 2 m rise over the same base length and under the same loading. 8.2kN A / / / / / 0.12 Determine the vertical deflection at C for the cantilever frame in Fig. a uniformly distributed load w throughout its length show that the vertical deflection at the free end due to bending and torsional effects is given by (wRJ/2)[ I / ( E l ) + ( I . I = 50 x 103mm4. .5 kN Figure 8.35 N/mm 760 nun f Figure 8.34 and 8. 8.11 Find the vertical deflection at the free end of the cantilevered bracket in Fig. 8.35.10 If the cantilever in Fig. instead of P .40 Figure 8.40.ENERGY METHODS 379 22.a . If the arch is pinned at one end and rests on rollers at the other end. 8. find the horizontal deflection at the rollers. If both ends are pinned. Take E = 207 GPa. 8. 8. 8.7r */4)/(GJ)I 8. inserting the major values.13 Find the vertical deflection at point B for the stepped section beam in Fig. 3.41 8. supports a central vertical load of 10 kN. 8.42. . Take the moment of area as l = 42 x 10 mm4 and the modulus as E = 207 GPa. what are the horizontal reactions? Sketch the polar shear force and bending moment diagrams.7 Apply the PVF or ULM to confirm Castigliano's answers to the loaded arcs given in Figs 8.9 Examine the effect of replacing the semicircular arch in Exercise 8.12 carries.5 m radius.39 The Principle of Virtual Forces (Including ULM) 8.8 A semicircular arch.41.25kN 44. Take El = 4725 kNm2.
43 is loaded at its free end through two cables under equal tensions T. The tip is not to deflect vertically.15 The cantilever quadrant in Fig. for the horizontal section with area properties.17 Derive expressions for the vertical and horizontal components of deflection at the load point in each of the cantilevered arcs in Figs 8. Answer:(a)6. 8.Take E = 200 GPa.I = 1 x 10 " mm '.14 Determine the maximum deflection A due to shear in a simply supported beam length L.380 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES lWkN A 1 B C D Figure 8. If the maximum bending stress in the material is limited to 90 MPa find (i) the crosssection dimensions when the breadth is five times the thickness. 8.6 under the action of a horizontal force H applied as shown. so that the horizontal tension T remains in position.= WR31(2EI)(b)6.18 Calculate the horizontal displacement at the rollers for the portal frame in Fig.when carrying (i) a central concentrated load Wand (ii) a uniformly distributed load w h i t length. breadth b. Take E = 210 GPa. and. (ii) the force Hand (iii) the vertical deflection at the tip. A = 8500 mm '.=rrWR31(4EI). Answer: (i) A = 3FU( IObdG). for the vertical crosssections. I = 3 x 10" mm4.42 8.44 with mean radius I50 mm.6. At what angle Pmust the second tension be applied to ensure this condition? El is constant. 8. Figure 8.2)l(EI) Figue 8.46 if. depth d and shear modulus G.= WR3(w. . 8.45 8.43 8 1 The 3/4 circular arc in Fig. (ii) A = 3wLz/(20bdG) 8.deflects 10 m m horizontally at its tip . A = 9000 mm2.45a and b.
8. Answer: p (8a4.48 Figure 8.5L4)/(20a’+ 4L’) . 8. with I = 3. 8. A = 200 m m and E = 200 GPa.d. as shown.37 x 10‘ mm4 and E = 207 GPa. determine.If all bar areas are 100 mm2.47 8.19 Find the horizontal deflection at A for the pinjointed frame in Fig.21 The arch in Fig. the position and magnitude of the maximum bending stress when A and D are free to move apart.50 consists of a vertical portal frame resting on twoparallel. EI is constant.47 when for all bars. Determine the horizontal reaction at the feet of the frame based upon bending effects only.ENERGY METHODS 381 l2OkN Figure 8. from the polar bending moment diagram. If the section is a tube 40 mm 0. 8.20 The bar lengths for the inclined pinjointed frame in Fig.46 Figure 8.49 is loaded by two vertical forces at B and C and pinned at A and D as shown. Figure 8. with E = 100 GPa. 8. What horizontal force would be required at A and D to prevent this movement? 8. horizontal simply supported beams.49 8. A uniformly distributed load w acts outwards throughout. determine the vertical and horizontal deflections at point E when a vertical force of 2 kN is applied at B.22 The structure in Fig.48 are DC = CE = AB = BE = J 2 m and DE = CB = EA = 2 m.
Answer: outers  P/6. B and C. Bar areas are 180 mm * and E = 70 GPa. 8.52b when A .54 .382 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 40kN Figure 8. If E and A are constant. B and C. B C llYnl N HMON ISMON Figure 8. Find the vertical deflection at A and the force acting in the direction AB that will eliminate this deflection. The structure is used to lift a weight of 40 kN with a wire passing over pulleys at A.23 The Warren girder in Fig.53 is loaded through a cable passing over frictionless pulleys at A.51 8.53 Figure 8. 8. Redundant Structures L A 45" D 8. pinjointed. hexagonal frame in Fig. others + P/6) 8. inner horizontals  5P/6.26 The plane frame in Fig. 8.25 Find the forces in all the members of the plane. determine the force in each bar. E and L for each member are constant.51 is built in to a wall at C and D.50 Figure 8.
57 (b) 8.54. I = 3 x 10' mm4.56 and examine the possibility of unstable Euler strut failure when each bar is made from 20 m m square section with a constant E = 200 GPa. 8.) Figure 8. What then is the vertical deflection at A? 8.55 Figure 8.30 Calculate the horizontal deflection at the load point for the portal frame in Fig.56 8. 0.there are two redundancies. El is constant throughout. Determine the bending moments at the built in connections when a horizontal force F is applied at the central connection normal to the plane of the fin.(b) 1. Answer: 0.31 Find the horizontal base reactions for the portal frame in Fig. A = 9000 mm2. A = 8500 mm2. say the force in BD and a horizontal reaction.28 Find the forces in the bars of the pinjointed frame in Fig.57a when A is built in and D is (a) hinged and (b) built in. I = 10" mm4. 8.364PL inner .836PL'/(EI).55 when the expansion of AD is prevented by builtin hinges and the area of bar AC is twice that of the remaining bars. 8. for the verticals. 8. 8.32PLouter.ENERGY METHODS 383 8. Take EI as constant. E is constant. 8.4 k N 8.32 The aircraft fin in Fig. 8. Determine the minimum area for steel wires to remain taut when connecting points A to C and B to D as shown. for the horizontal bars. Answer: (a) 1.58a is built in along its base with all other connections free to transmit horizontal shear forces only.29 Calculate the force in each member of the redundant structure in Fig.315PL3/(EI) Figure 8.57b when. Answer: 42. and.27 Steel tubes of length 2 m and 100 mm2 in area comprise the outer bars of the frame in Fig. (Hint .
36 Using ULM. Take G = 30 GPa. Take G = 27 GPa as constant. 0. determine the shear flow in each web of the idealised structure in Fig.0.35 Determine the shear flows for the multicell tube in Fig. What is the relative angle of twist in a 10 m length? Take G = 30 GPa. 8. 8.61 .60 8.59 Figure 8.384 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 8. 8. 8.33 Find the shear stress in the walls and the torsional stiffness when the twocell fuselage in Fig.8 mm Figure 8. Figure 8.2 mm 7 p.34 Find the shear stress in the walls and the torsional stiffness for the twocell tube in Fig. when a vertically upward shear force of 20 kN is applied through the shear centre. 8.60 when it carries a pure torque of 10 kNm.59.58 8. 8.61.58b is subjected to a torque of 2 MNm over a 25 m length. when it is subjected to a torque of 100 Nmm.
7EI) 8.z / L ) 3 . Compare with the exact values.(z / L )2]. when the stiffness varies as El = K(2 .Take the virtual deflection to have (i) the same form as v and (ii) that shown in Fig.. when it supports a concentrated endload P .)  d and hence derive the mP (d) Figure 8.3 GPa. assuming a displacement function of the form v = a sin ( ad L ) and a virtual function of the same form. at its free end.63b. = 271' E I l [ ( 3 a. If the linear law u = EEapplies during gradual unloading.83 x 1 O6 mm'. Assuming a deflected shape of the form v = a[(z lL) . ML21(32EI) 8./3 E' ).40 Use PVD to find the deflection at the z = U 2 and z = 3 U 2 positions for a beam of length 2L when a clockwise moment M is applied at its centre.42 A beam is simply supported at both its centre and ends.63a is propped and loaded by a concentrated moment M.38 Decide on suitable displacement functions in each of Figs 8. under M.39 Determine the deflection at 114 and 112 length positions for a simply supported beam of length L with a central concentrated force W . Determine the deflection beneath a ccntral concentrated load of 12. The beam is partially constrained against rotation 8 at its centre by a torque spring with a torsional stiffness K = TIB.37 Find the freeend deflection v. Answer: WL3/(68. Assume that a sine wave describes the deflected shape. 8. Answer: (i) M. for a cantilever of length L. El is constant.(ii) M 0 U ( 9 .[ 1 . Compare with the corresponding exact values. Answer: ML21(32EI ). Determine the rotation at the centre when an external moment M acts against this spring. determine the rotation 8.2 ) L 2 ] 8.62 8.43 A beam material obeys the nonlinear law g = E(E. 4 8 K ) .44 The tapered beam in Fig. Answer: P.ENERGY METHODS 385 Principle of Virtual Displacements 8. where C is a point of contraflexure. /?= 1O 4 and I = I . Compare with the exact value and that value found from assuming a virtual displacement for a cantilever that deflects rigidly about a stiff hinge at its centre. If the section varies from I for 0 i z i U 2 to 21 for U 2 i z i L where z is measured from the free end. Take El to be constant. determine the deflection remaining in the beam for its unloaded state. = 2 J 2 P L 3 / ( a 2 E l ) v 8. (El is constant. Use the PVD and assume a deflected shape of the following form v = A ( 1 . determine the critical buckling load.41 A strut of length L is built in at one end and carries an axial compressive force P at its free end.U(9K). 8. Answer: v = 32PL31(lr4EI). Assume a deflected shape of the following form v = a sin ( 4 L ) .cos [ a d ( 2 L ) ] )where A is the lateral deflection at the free end.5 kN when the beam is simply supported over a length of 5 m.. given that E = 70. Answer: 8 = Ml(3Ell L + K ) 8.. WL31(48. 8.62a maximum displacement in each case. Assume a deflected shape of the form v = v.cos(a d L ) ] and take El to be constant.9EI).
Take E as a constant A for all bars.386 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 8.46 Find the forces in all the bars of the plane frame in Fig.64 8.45 From a consideration of the number of redundancies and the total number of degrees of freedom for each frame in Figs 8.65 using PVD. Outline the solution in each case. determine whether the bar forces would best be found from PVF or PVD. 8.63 8. (b) Figure 8.64a and b.65 . Figure 8.
48 An encastre beam of length L rests on an elastic support of stiffness K (N1m) at its centre.l. Apply the principle of SPE to determine A in terms of E .. Answer: M = 4 5 T / ( 8 7 r R S ) )N = . 8. (IC) Answer: C. derive the expression for the displacement at any point. 8. ) / 2 (from which y is measured) with depth h and unit thickness. Assume a deflection of the form v = C a . find M and N from the principle of SCE.. determine C. What value for N would be acceptable? 8. N . ) ] . 8. ~ 8. tending to decrease its curvature (Fig.. C2= . y + C 2 y 2is assumed for a sharply curved beam of mean radius R = ( R .. 8.9 0 T / ( 2 4 n R 6 ) ..66 . Answer: [4wL4/(7rsEI)](l. to show that the RayleighRitz method supplies the coefficients a.l/S’ . C.v2)/[E(I r z ) I n ( r 2 1 r .= C . It is subjected to a pure bending moment M . Taking the origin for z to be at midlength. Compare with the accepted value at the midlength. + p where n is odd.ENERGY METHODS 387 RayleighRitz Methods 8. from eq(4.49 The expression u = K (l .54 The distribution of hoop stress u..52 Use SCE to determine the shear stress due to shear force F in a beam of rectangular section breadth b. Ignoring the effect of radial stress. .6% error arises in r for r = R .)47r4El /L’ + 2 K 1 a.r 2 ) is assumed to represent the radial displacement at any radius r when a thin annular disc is held rigidly around its outer radius r 2 and subjected to a pressure p around its inner radius r. then the application of the principle of SCE leads to the engineer’s theory of bending.Compare graphically with the exact solution: r= ( 6 F / b d 3 ) ( d Z / 4y 2 ) .(I ... r 2and p .I ] where n = I .(w) over its length L.65.117 ’.) 8.50 Use SCE to find the forces in the frame of Fig. Compare with the exact solution from torsion theory and show that a 6.51 Confirm that if the expression u = R(y + D y ’ ) is used to represent the stress distribution for a beam under a bending moment M. cos(n7r zlL) with n odd is to represent the deflected shape of a simply supported beam carrying a u. + C . 8.53 If the expression r= MrZ+ N r3approximates to the shear stress distribution for a solid cylindrical bar of radius R under a pure torque. r . where it carries a central concentrated load P .. (IC) Answer:A=pr. = 12Mlh 3 .12M/(h R ) ’ Figure 8.[cos (2anz lL) .66).= M/(hR).. and C from the principle of SCE and compare graphically with that found .l/3’.47 In SPE the series v = C b.... depth d. 8. = 3 . 2 . assuming that this is approximated by r = A + By + C y 2 .d. C.15) when R = h and R J R . + R . in the form of the linear simultaneous equation (n4a.
8.55 Determine the u. and note that 0.8)) ( I Figure 8./dx + ar.67 ..= A sin ( n x / u )iB sin ( n y l a ) . are related through the equilibrium condition au.4 ) / [ n ( 3 n . y ) within the plate subjected to sinusoidal external loading shown in Fig..388 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 8.67. 0. Use horizontal equilibrium to find B. and r. distribution is assumed to be u./ay = 0. and the SCE principle to find A when the a. and r . (IC) Answer:A = 4 u ( n . Ignore . stress distributions for a point P (x.
389 CHAPTER 9 INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES In the consideration of the buckling behaviour of long thin members.1 Deflection of a pinnedend strut Taking moments to the left of that point and setting B= h l d z in eq(6. Under purely elastic buckling conditions. both analytical and empirical approaches are presented for a variety of different end fixings.e.2a) gives.1 Perfect Euler Strut Ideally. 9. i. This applies to struts with various combinations of pinned.e. Y L 1 U Figure 9. a perfectly straight strut would compress but not buckle under a purely axial compressive load. El d2v/dz2 .P v (sagging) = which is written as . this load appears as a function of the length. struts under compression. the net section stress exceeds the yield stress. The effect of such imperfections on the buckling load are consistent and predictable for long struts operating under elastic conditions. with shorter members.1 with v positive in the direction shown and hogging moments positive. I Pinned or Hinged Ends The flexure equation is derived for a point ( z . 9. fixed and free ends. 9. Lateral displacementis required to make a strut unstable and this inevitably arises from any slight eccentricity of loading and lack of initial straightness. Semiempirical solutions to the buckling load are available to account for the influence of plasticity when. where theoretical solutions are available. The additional examination of the buckling behaviour of long thin plates under direct compression is restricted here to relatively simple edge fixings.I . elastic constants and some property of the resisting area. v) on the deflected strut in Fig. i. the second moment of area of a strut and an aspect ratio for a plate. The common objective is that of finding the critical buckling load. A differential equation governs the instability behaviour and the solution to this equation results in an Euler critical buckling load.
Buckling of the strut will commence when the least of these values for d is achieved.4) the net section stress for an Euler strut is: a. = 325 MPa and E = 207 GPa: LIk t d ( n 2x 207000/325) 80 The semiempirical forms discussed later (see section 9. or sin d = 0 when d = K .e. . n 2 E / ( L / k ) 2 sa. / A = x 2 E / ( L I k ) (9. The following alternative form of eq(9.1) is v = A sin az + B cos az which must satisfy the following boundary conditions: (i)v =Oa t z = O . :. unrealistically.nlr.3) applies to an axis passing through the centroid parallel to the longer side.5) It follows that the elastic Euler theory remains valid provided a. For example.2). v = 0 for all z in eq(9. = P . in a rectangular section I in eq(9.. for mild steel with a. =+ v ‘ [ ( P / ( E I ) ] L =K from which the critical buckling load is (9. ) (9..6). .3) become more appropriate when L / k is less than the minimum Euler value supplied by eq(9.390 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES d2vldz2+a2v=0 where 2 = P/(EI ). does not exceed the compressive yield stress u. . Thus A = n. the minimum principal axis u.= n 2 E A / ( L l k ) ’ (9. A sin d = 0 In order to satisfy condition (ii).3) where I is the second moment of area about the axis in the crosssection offering the least resistance to buckling. and therefore the slenderness ratio must exceed some minimum value defined as LIk 2 v ( ’ n2E l a . i. That is..2 n ..3) employs the definition that I = A k 2 where k is the radius of gyration of the given section area A : P.: B = O (ii) v = 0 at z = L . The solution to eq(9.g. either A = 0 when. 3n.4) where the slenderness ratio U becomes the determining factor in checking the validity of k elastic buckling analysis.6) which is a material constant. from eq(9. e. Thus.
in respect of eq(9.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 391 9. Thus. P E ‘iFixedfixed Lc 1 U2 4n2EI/L2 Pinnedfixed I I L/J2 2 n ‘ E l / L2 Fixedfree I L1 2L n2EI/ 4L2 Fixedfixed with misalignment L n E l / L2 L. Take E = 207 GPa.1 A strut 3 m long has a tubular crosssection of 50 mm outside diameter and 44 mm inside diameter.1.di4)/64= 1 r [ ( 5 0 )~(44)4]/64= 122.6) again applies to the smallest slenderness ratio for which the Euler theory remains valid in each of these struts.97mm2 I = r(d. Table 9..3).6 ...0. This ensures that the resistance offered by direct compression is small in comparison to the flexural strength.d j 2 ) / 4 = ( x / 4 ) ( 5 O 2 44*)=442. over which the previous pinnedend analysis would apply. Determine the Euler critical load when the ends are fixed. A = n(d. If the tube material has a compressive yield stress of 3 10 MPa.7 x l o 3mm4 From Table 9. the fixedend buckling load is .: .= L Fi xedpinned with misalignment 2L n2EI/4L2 With imperfect fixed ends an effective length of 0.1 Predictions from Euler for other end fixings ENDS STRUT L. eq(9.. find the shortest length of this tube for which the theory applies. Example 9. Table 9.8 is used to account for the degree of rotational restraint. When L is replaced by the appropriate L.1 gives the effective buckling length and load for each of the five struts shown.2 Other End Fixings with Axial Compressive Loads It is possible to deduce the effect that different end fixings have on the buckling load without detailed derivation. L is simply replaced by an effective length L.1.
or I I.2] = I73. = 1 5 .97x 310)] = 2702 mm = 2. Figure 9. calculate the buckling load based upon the minimum permissible length of an Euler strut.998 MN .e.6) the shortest permissible length is L = d(4n2Ek2/u. y = 2 2 .6) (+ 16.)] = d[(2n2x210 x lo3 x 31..4kN 1 1 and from eq(9.(72x 1 2 ~ 6 ) + ( 6 0 1 2 x 4 2 ) = 1584y.4)’/3 + 12 x (49. The centroidal coordinates are: A = [(72 x 12) + (60 x 12)] = 1584 mm2 .I.4)3/3. 1 .60 x (10.2 is to be used as a strut with one end pinned and the other end fixed./(1.. is the lowest value for the section.4 x l o 4mm4 = I ” .8 mm and the corresponding buckling load is P = 2 IT’EI/L2 = (2n x 210 x 10 x 3 1. 4 ~ 0 3 N = 111.4)] + [(60 x 12) (. 7 ~ ~ 103)/(3000)2= 1 1 . Example 9.5 Yz d [4 (42. = 72 x (22.ry [(72 x 12) (+ 13. . . ) I. Take E = 2 10 GPa and u. I x I 04)/(655.. The minimum permissible length (see Table 9.. = Yz (I.6)3/3= 73.4)2])x lo4 h 1. 9 ~ 0 4 m m 4 1 1 * The lesser value I . + I.=31. Axes u and v are perpendicular with tan28=21. 9.1) is L = d2L. = 350 MPa for the strut material.)’ + 4/.392 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES P .2 If the crosssection given in Fig. i.19.1 x IO4)/(1584x 350)] = 655.4)]= 42.5 x l o 4mm4 ( = I .8)* = 2.702 m x It follows that the Euler theory is valid for a 3 m length strut..7 x 103)/(442.6) (.16. = d[2 n2El.) k ! d[(I./ ( A a. 4 m m ( = x ) x I .1 x 1 0 4 m n i 4 . = 4 n 2 E I / L 2 = ( 4 n 2 x 2 0 7103x 1 2 2 .)] = d [ ( 4 n 2 207 x 10’ x 122. I.2 Equalangle section The problem is solved by finding the value of the least second moment of area for the section.I x ) = m so that u is inclined at 45”to x.)= d[4n2El/ (Au. by the method oulined in Appendix I.
for any point in the strut the stress is composed of direct compressive stress and a bending stress which changes sign across the section.e (9. The onset of buckling is normally associated with the attainment of the compressive yield stress at the section subjected to the greatest bending moment. then the bending moment at point (2. = .7) This solution may be employed to find the safe axial load for a given allowable stress a In general. From eq(9. from Fig. U=  PIA rt M.2 Imperfect Euler Struts Practical struts may differ from perfect Euler struts in the ways outlined in the following cases.P ( e + v.3. at the central section M.. The net stress is expressed as This stress is greatest on the compressive side of the section where the bending moment is a maximum..9) where y is the perpendicular distance from the buckling axis to the furthest compressive edge.I PinnedEnd Strut with Eccentric Loading When the line of action of the compressive force P is applied with a measurable amount of eccentricity e to the strut axis. lo) . 9.3. 9.8). 9..3 Deflection of an eccentrically loaded pinnedend stmt The governing flexure equation becomes This now takes the form and with the corresponding solution v = A cos az+ B sin az .. as shown in Fig..) (9.. y l l (9.2. v) will be modified. Now.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 393 9. Figure 9.
+ I P E .15a) a = eyA ( 7 r 2 / 8 .c.!. : v.4 Equalanglesection .5 m long. Take E = 207 GPa.5 mm from G as shown.= e[sec (a.3).13) Putting B = d 2 and introducing from eq(9.e .1 I ) Then. For this Webb's approximation to the secant function may be used: sec6.(Pe) sec ( d 2 ) (sagging). When used as pinnedend strut 1. A = e (ii) dvldz = 0 at z = W2. : B = e tan (aL/2) .1 )~ e2 (9. 9.14) into eq(9. the section supports a compressive load through point 0. (9. = n2EI / L '. from eqs(9./2).13) gives Substituting eq(9. b = eyAP. u = .d) Example 9. = e cos (aW2) e tan (aW2) sin ( d 2 ) .12) supplies the quadratic a P 2 +bP + c = O in which P is the positive root with otaken to be negative within the coefficients: (9.12) Since a = J(P/EI ) this form is not convenient when P is required.394 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The maximum deflection at z = W2 follows from eq(9. This gives .15b.[ ( ~ / 2 + (n2/8 1)623/ [ ( ~ / 2 ) ~ .10) the maximum compressive stress is M . the Euler Buckling load P . : .. find the maximum compressive load. = . If at the midlength crosssection the net compressive stress is not to exceed 123..(Pey/I) sec ( d 2 ) (9.9) and (9.I ) . eq(9. Figure 9.3 The 75 mm x 75 mm equalangle section shown in Fig. .AasinarUZ + Bacos aU2 = 0.IuA..P/A . c = I uAP.I.5 MPa.I ] + (9.axis passing through the centroid G.5 mm about a 45" v .. v.7) where the following boundary conditions apply: (i) v = O a t z = O .4 has an area of 1775 mm2 and a least radius of gyration of 14. 6.
723 x l o i 5N 2 mm4 The quadratic (9.32 x 104)(338. v) on the deflected strut axis the flexure equation becomes El d v/dz2= P (e + vL . 9. B = 0 (ii) v = 0 at z = 0.32 x lo4)(.39 kN.16) . 9.I ) (9. l L 2 = ( r 2 ~ 2 0 7 ~ IO3x37.1) . :.2.876 x l o 3 )+ (37.c.123.27. = A k 2 = 1775x 14.cosaz) : but v = vL at z = L v L= e(secd .= r 2 E I . A = .5 x 27 x 1775 x 338.15a) becomes P 2 ( 1 . .5)(1775)(338.32x104mm4 P. v = (vL + e)( 1 .37.867x l o 3 )= .(vL + e) . 0 4 5 ~ 106)P+(9. One End Fixed.229x 10"')=0 from which the lowest root is P = 97.15b.5 Deflection of a strut eccentrically loaded at its free end For any point (z. the Other End Free.30.32x 104)/(1500)2=338.32 x lo4)(.5 x 27 x 1775(r2/8.5)(1775)= 31.2 Strut.52=37. Figure 9. :.876kN and from eq(9.04 x lo4mm4 6 = (6.123.876x l o 3 ) . (i) dv /dz = 0 at z = 0.(37.32 x lo4= .d) the coefficients are a = 6. v coordinates lying at the fixed end as shown in Fig.38 x 10"' Nmm4 c = (37.v) hogging d2v/dz2 a2v = a 2 ( e+ v L ) + and the solution is v=A cos az + B sin az + (vL + e) Applying the boundary conditions.5. Carrying an Eccentric Compressive Load Let vL be the freeend deflection with the origin of z.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 395 I .
56 x 37. and 65 mm i.+ 4P ( n 2 /8 1)]/ ( P E . The = .d.5254 x 37. is 3 m long.13).38. Determine the instability load that gives zero resultant tensile stress at the fixed end.56 + (6.5 x 6.' m m .19a) (9. .5 mm from the axis. with B= d sec aL (9.91 MPa .19b.41oA. a P 2 + b P+ c = O wherea=4[eyA (n2/8 1 ) . (9.17) .17 & 9.5254 compressive stress under this load is found from u= .16) the maximum deflection is v = 6.5)]}' = 15.11.794 x 103[sec'(2.' x 3000 x 180 l n )= 2. is expressed from eq(9.+IP. where from Webb's approximation (9. c = l u A P . It is loaded eccentrically at its free end with a compressive force at a radial distance of 6.8) .(21..P/A .8789 x 10.16 and 9. where M = M . and (9..[P.69 x l o 4 ) / (1099.5 x 2.' I[/ ( A y e ) l J 2 = (210000 x 67.915 mm.8789 x 10.69 x lo4)]= 3.' sec (d) (3.69 x l o 4 / 3 0 0 0 2 ) ( s e c ~ ' [(67.18) into eq(9.c.39 x 10')[1/ 1099.5 ( 2.396 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The bending moment is a maximum at the fixed end when M .39 x 103)/(210000x 67.39 kN a= d[P/ (El)] = d[(21. What is the strut end deflection and the maximum compressive stress? Take E = 210 GPa.5256)]' = 21.5254 = sec and from eq(9.d) Example 9.17) as u=  P/A + [ Pe sec ( d ) ] y / l = 0 Substituting a2= P/ ( E l ) leads to the compressive load: P = ( E l / L 2 ) ( s e c . b=eyAP. where Zero stress on the tensile side of the fixed end.18) Substituting eqs(9.4P) (9.19).9).d.[Pe sec (aL )]y / I  I ) = 9.69 x lo4)] = . = P(e + v L ) = Pe sec (d) .5)/(67. P is the positive root of the quadratic for a given maximum compressive (negative) stress. The solution requires the application of eqs(9.4 A tubular strut 75 mm 0.
.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 397 9.PIA .21) u = . . v) on the deflected strut in Fig.PV..20) and a maximum sagging moment at z = U2 of M. Lateral Load at MidSpan in Addition to an Axial Compressive Load For a point (z. (i) v = 0 at z = 0.WZ l(2EI) + The corresponding solution is v = A cos az + B sin az .WL I4 = . .22) This equation may be more conveniently solved for P using Webb's tangent approximation: tan6= [ ( 7 ~ / 2 ) ~ ( 7~ ~ 1 1 2 ) B 3 I/ [ ( 7 ~ 1 2.Wz l(2P) Applying the boundary conditions : A =0 .6 Pinended strut with axial and lateral loading The flexure equation becomes EI d vldz = .2.Wz12 (sagging) d2vldZ2 a2v = .3 PinEnded Strut.6.P v.6 2 ] 0 . (ii) dvldz = 0 at z = U2. = 7r2El I L2 this provides when from eq(9. I P 2 I P 2 Figure 9.9)gives the maximum compressive stress in the central section (9. the left hand moment is composed of two sagging components P v and Wz I2 due to the support reaction. = .[Wy/(2la)] tan (aU2) (9.: B = W/ [(2Pa)cos (&2) ] This leads to a maximum displacement at z = U2 of vmax=[ Wl(2P )] [( lla) tan (aU2) .(W12a) tan ( d 2 ) Equation(9. the following quadratic in positive P is found: ..22).l )~ With 6= aL12 and P.U2 1 (9. 9.
would cause the strut to buckle? Find the deflection and the maximum moment at the point of buckling..5 x 103)/2]= 20.= . t t L I Figure 9. From eq(9.48 Nm 9.5 N.42 x .PEA [ o + W1 y/ (41 )] in which a is the maximum compressive (negative) stress.[631. v ) . .401.87 mm2 /4 a = J[P/(EI )] = J[(8 x 103)/(207x l o 3 x 19174.8 x 1.87.[12.8 mm4.298 .1) + a A 2  P.(8 x 103)/490.42 x tan (1.= [ 631.5 m long supports an axial compressive load of 8 kN through pinned ends.= 278 MPa and E = 207 GPa. What concentrated lateral force.398 MECHANlCS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES aP2+ bP += c = 0 where a = 1..21) the maximum central moment is M. Take a.5 A steel strut 25 mm diameter and 1.4 PinEnded Strut Carrying a Uniformly Distributed Lateral Load in Addition to an Axial Compressive Load Figure 9.2. Example 9.065 x 1 8 0 1 ~ ) From which W = 63 1.58 mm and from eq(9. b = [ WLyA/ (41 )]( n2/1 .16.5W/(2 x 19174.22). . and a hogging component wz2/2.5/(2 x 1.0. when applied normally at midspan.065 x 180in) = .(1..42 x mm’ ixL = 2.8)]= 1.42)tan (1.5/(2 x 8000)][(103/1.7 Pinended strut with laterally distributed and axial loading The flexure equation becomes .278 = . A = x d 2 / 4= ~ ( 2 5 ) ~= 490.13 Substituting into eq(9. I = xd4/64 = ~ ( 2 5 ) ~ / = 4 6 19174.065 x 180/n) .4145W tan (1.7 shows that the bending moment to the left of a point (z.278 = . c = . This is composed of two sagging components Pv and wW2.20) the maximum deflection is v.
(i) v = 0 at z = 0..PIA  (Ewy/P)[ sec (aU2) .9) gives the maximum compressive stress at the central section: u = . b = .8a at a point (2.23) Equation(9. correspondingly.wL2/4+ wL2/8 M. in Fig.7 is tensile the flexure equation becomes and the solution gives the maximum central moment: M . c = .2EIlY) Applying the boundary conditions.14) results in the quadratic aP2 + bP + c = 0 wherea= l .. = ( E l w I f 2 )cos (aU2)+ ( E l w I f 2 )tan ( d 2 ) sin(lrL12) .I ] (9..sech (aL/2)] 9. =+ A = El w/P2 ) tan ( d 2 ) + B = (El wlP The maximum displacement at z = L/2 is then v.I] (9.wL2 l(8P ) The maximum.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 399 for which the solution is v = A cos az+ Bsin az + [wl(2P)] ( 2 '  L z . . 9.5 Laterally Loaded Struts with Fixed Ends Figures 9. v) on the deflected strut.(w/2P)(L2/4 + 2EIlP) = (El wlP 2 ) [ sec (aL12) . Thus. M. + E w ~ x ~ / ~ ) Note that if P in Fig. = ..2. = .24) If it is required to solve for P then Webb's approximation to sec(lrL/2) in eq(9.Pv.A u ) .A ( u P .. = .( P ..(EI wlP)[sec ( d 2 ) . . This results in a fixedend moment M . .(El wlP)[l ..wL2/4 wL2/8 + = . 9. (ii) v = 0 at z = L.. central sagging bending moment is.( E l wlP)[sec (aL/2) I ] + wL2/8 . that modifies the net moment expression.11.8a and b shows similar loading the former two cases but when each end is fixed. .
3.48 and from eqs(9. 9.6 Find the maximum bending moment and the maximum compressive and tensile stresses for the strut in Fig. The Isection has an area of 2900 mm '.9). from which the corresponding central and end moments are M.M..7771 = . = 14.777 x 180/n) I / 0.48 [cot (0.55 x lo')] = 5.18 x w4) x 10' Nmm = 14.55 x l o 6 mm4.777 aU2 = 5.8b. = .8). = ..25b) and the maximum stresses are again found from eq(9. .depth 100 mm and a least I value of 3.91 I kNm  The compressive stresses at these two positions are found from eq(9. 9." '2 H: 2 Figure 9.016 kNm  M.[W/(2a)][cosec ( d 2 ) .7771 = ...w = 5 kN/m.' wW(2a) = ( 5 x 3 x 10') / (2 x 5.2/(aL)] sagging M(.b) the central and end moments become M. Example 9.400 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES L P wi2 .777 x 180/n) I / 0.[wW(2a)][cosec (aL/2).8b when P = 200 kN.48 [cosec (0. = .2/(aL)] hogging (9.Take E = 210 GPa.8 Encastrt? struts with lateral loading Integration and the determination of the constants from the boundary conditions leads to central sagging and hogging end moments of similar magnitude: M .= [wL/(2a)] [cot (aL/2) .25a) (9.2.14.18 x x 3 x 103/2= 0.18 x 10 ~ mm . and L = 3 m.cot (aU2)] Similarly in Fig. = . a = J[P/(EI )] = J[(200 x l o 3 )/ (210 x l o 3x 3.25a.
08 = . the maximum bending moment at this position is .36 MPa 9.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 401 4.( d l ~ ) ~ ] (9.97 55.97 k 28.. = P I A + M .y I I = = .9 is described by the sinusoidal function v .26) Correspondingly. the flexure equation becomes EId2(~v.55 x l o 6 ) = . be the deviation for any position 0 < z 5 L. It is assumed that the initial curvature for the strut in Fig.( h n 2 / L 2 ) s i n ( n z l L ) The solution is v = A c o s a z + B s i n a z + [ h s i n ( n ~ L ) I ! [l ( d n ) ’ ] Applying the boundary conditions v = 0 at both z = 0 and z = L leads to A = B = 0 and v = [ hsin(nzlL)]l[l .(200 x 10’) / 2900 f (2.)Idz2=PV El d2vldz2+ Pv = El d2v.016 x lo6 x 50)/(3.PIA k M.6 PinnedEnd Strut with Initial Curvature Let v. y / I = . = h I[1 . ..9 Deflection of an initially curved pinned strut With further deflection v.40.2. P Figure 9. 9..05 MPa * q . 5 5 x l o 6 ) = .( a L / n ) 2 ] which has its maximum at z = L/2 v. from the application of a compressive axial force P .97. = h sin (nz/L) where h is the value of the maximum central deviation.13.68..124.911 x l o 6 x 50) l ( 3 .(200 x 103)/2900* (3..89 MPa and .39 = .68.58 MPa and ./dz2 (El h ) d * [sin (nz = IL)] I dz2 d 2 v / d z 2 +a 2 v = .
P 2 . l I + P . end 2 fixed cosasinp+ ( d p )cosasinp+ p ( l + 112) sinasinp)  a ( 1 + A ) cosacosp= 0 .) l . c = . = 400 mm2. the maximum deflection is v m J X = h l [..4. ( E .4) = 104. A = L.43 x 103)P+ (557.943 kN.(145.( 1 ~ ' u ~ ) ~ ] = h lPIP.Now.7 Composite Strut In Capey [ l ] and Walter's [2] theory.(l = 10 / (1 .uAP. 1.89 mm 9.27) wherea= 1 . When the centroids of the two sections are coaxial and the axes of minimum inertia are coplanar..P h ~ 1 [ 1 P 1P E ) ] (/ This equation may be directly solved for P in the resulting quadratic: aP2 + DP +c =O (9.3942. .86 / 4358..4)1(13. (a) Both ends simply supported Aacosasinp+ p c o s p s i n a = 0 (b) End 1 simply supported. ) .26).~AP. 9. b =[(lo x 10 ~ 4 0 x 4358.I ).9 that would just produce yielding in the midspan 20 mm square section given that the maximum amplitude of initial curvature is 1 0 mm and the compressive yield stress is 320 MPa.88 1 0 ' N 2 1 ~ 2 x N Then.=320~400~4358. What is the additional central deflection under this load? Take E = 207 GPa. from eq(9.33 x l o 3 mm4 PE= x'EI l L 2 = n2x 207000 x 13.2. I = 2O4/I2 = 13.5 m long strut in Fig.(320~400)]= . = PIP. A = 20. .4 N Substituting into eq(9. + L .33 x 10"/25002 = 4358.9).43 x 10' 0 c = . ~ = . > El I .P / A .33 x lo3)+ 4358. The Euler theory shows that buckling occurs at the lowest value of P ( L .27) with u = . I .7 Find P for a 2. in units of N and mm.I (E. two lengths 1 and 2 of a stepped strut have constant flexural rigidity El where E2 I. p2= P L. Example 9. h = 10 mm and y = 10 mm.P / A . from eq(9.( h y A P ./ (ElI ) which satisfies the appropriate condition.88 x 10') = 0 from which P = 3.u A ) .145.4=557.l( c r U ~ ) 2 ] } = .P h y / ( l [. the following parameters are employed: a2= P L. b = . I L .402 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Since (~L/rr)~ the maximum compressive stress is.320 MPa. . with a rigid attatchment at their join.
1 1 shows the region below and beyond the limiting L/k value for the Euler theory in eq(9. . + L . represented graphically in Fig. L . = 1 mwe.5 2 2. The following empirical approaches. . 100 so I I I L 1 1(2 1. account for the increasing effect that compressive yielding has on the buckling behaviour with decreasing Wk in the invalid Euler region (broken line).) for each support [3). end 1 free + l/A) cospsinp= 0 d c o s a c o s ~ .P ( L .10. 5 m .3 SemiEmpirical Approaches As the slendeness ratio decreases so the Euler theory diverges from the observed behaviour.I ) versus L . . .Up+P/(aA)] sinmsin p. .1 1. / ( L + L 2 )for various values of the ratio ( E 2 I *)/(ElI . end 2 free p c o s a c o s ~ aA sinasin p= 0 (f) End 2 clamped.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 403 (c) End 2 simply supported. end 1 fixed s i n a c o s p + [ p / ( d ) s i n a c o s p + 4 + A ) sinasin p ] 1 (d) Both ends clamped p(1+ U A ) c o s a c o s ~ = 0 2 +[a.p ( l 1 (e) End 1 clamped.havefromFig.6).10 applies.2 c o s a c o s ~ a ( +A) s i n a c o s p .= 1 5 0 0 N m m 2 . for example. ElI = 750 Nm2 I andE. 9. Figure 9. to a simply supported stepped strut so that if. ) = 2. Figure 9. L . = 0 . ) 2 / ( E I I I ) = 16 when P = 5333 N.10 Srepped strut with simply supported ends 9.I.(f) employ plots P(L + L 2 )2 / ( E . for (E212)/(E.9.5 I I Figure 9. .sinasinp= 0 B Graphical solutions to eqs(a) .
5) gives P. 325 247 557 35 ./(' E ) in the derivation. and the compressive yield load P .28) to test results.I RankineGordon In the case of a pinnedend strut. Invalid Euler I.=Au. Table 9. = 1/P.2.28) Material Mild steel Wrought iron Cast iron Timber a / MPa . the Euler buckling load P .I 7500 9000 1600 750 ./[l + u ( U ~ ) ~ ] (9. .11 Comparison between Euler theory and various empirical approaches 9.Euler RankincGordon I .= P.+ 1/P' from which the Rankine buckling load is P.I(I + P.3. This constant is n found from matching eq(9. = A q .2 RankineGordon constants in Eq(9. Valid Euler Figure 9. are given along with the compressive yield stress a in Table 9.404 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES P A \ \ I \ . and P . / P E ) Substituting P . for the pinnedend condition.28) where a is an empirical constant which replaces q.. from eq(9. Typical values of a . are combined in reciprocal form: U P .
9. I. = 34.88) / 75001 = 3. = ( 1 5.6). = 1. 6 6 ~ 0 3 m 2 1 :. Note. where I X = ( 2 x 3 4 . = d E A / ( L V / = n2x 207000 x 15.5 = 48.66 x lo6mm4.84 x 103/(48.66 x 10') = 5500 / 112. from eq(9.A = 3660 mm2. 5 x 10h)/(15. Example 9.5 x 10' mm4.it applies over the whole L / k range and lies on the safe side of the Euler curve.66 x lo')/ 324 ] = 17. I..12.28) is replaced with the Lc values given in Table 9. = L/2 = 5.31x 106mm4 I . P .4).84xl o ' ) = 1 2 .66 x 10') + ( 3 6 6 0 ~ ~ 121.INSTABILITY OFCOLUMNS AND PLATES 405 For other end fixings the effective length concept may again be employed.28) in Fig.88 Then from eq(9. 5 x106)+2(355x 1 2 ' / 1 2 + ( 3 5 5 ~ I2)13l2)]=215./A does not exceed a.28). a = 1/7500 and q. Thus L in eq(9.) d[(4rr2x 207000 x 12./ k = 5500 /J(12.54 MN k)' = and from eq(9. What is the safe axial load that may be applied to an 11 m length of this strut when the ends are fixed? Decide between the Euler and Rankine predictions given the area properties for a single channel I. that as the Rankine stress P. = 2~ 1 2 355'/12 +2[(1.89 MN Only the Rankine prediction is valid since.1 1.3')] =200. L. Figure 9.8 Find the axis about which buckling takes place for the section given in Fig.84 x I 0 x 324) / [ 1 + (48. = 18. / A = ( 2 0 0 ..84 x l o 3 mm2 Buckling occurs about the axis with the lesser I value.5 m A = 2[(355 x 12) + 36601 = 15.= 324 MPa.88)2 13. 9. Take E = 207 GPa.5 x 1 0 6 m m 4 k 2 = I .12 Fabricated section L . Euler ceases to apply for lengths below L = v'(4nZEk2/q.87 m = .8 mm. from the graphical representation of eq(9. P.
value n = 1/ [ 2 ( L /k). eqs(9. Fig. n = 0. Figure 9.29) give Alternatively.3. n = 0.[I . for a particular L I k range. uc= 258 MPa uc= 234 MPa uc= 302 MPa n = 0.A.004.2 Straight Line Formulae Commonly used in the U.13a shows a straight line passing through the compressive yield stress a.12.13b shows an intersection at q.] = J [ q .009. 9.S. At the intersection point the Euler curve gives the slenderness ratio PIA = ~ . 9. u.29) where ti and a.= 37 MPa for for for for L I k i 150 L I k 5 100 L I k s 85 L I k i 65 These constants have been established from a given relationship between the straight line and the Euler curve for a pinnedend strut. 1 ( 8 X Z E 1 ) .004. (i) Intersections with the Euler curve Figure 9.1 1 has the form P=Au.5) and (9. are constants with typical values for a pinended strut: Mild steel: Cast iron: Duralumin: Oak: n = 0.. ) and eq(9. the linear prediction shown in Fig.13 Intersections with Euler curve Since the stress is common at the intersection.29) gives the n . 1 2 n2E I ( L I k) = (LI k )c = J ( 2 n 2EIu..005.It (Llk)] (9.406 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 9.. and the Euler curve at a chosen slenderness ratio ( L I k)c.
3. ] from which.b) 9. with typical values b = (23 . in general. Figure 9. . tl= (2/9)d(3~.[I .14).. the intersection with the stress axis will not.).14 Tangents to the Euler curve If we preselect the tangent point to occur at ( L I k ) c .n ( L / k ) . 275 MPa for = L I k < 150 in mild steel.noc Equating these gradients and the stress ordinate for each curve at L I k = ( L / k ) gives 2 n 2 E / ( L /k ) : = no. 9. better method is to find ( L t k ) .3 1) and the Euler curve as appropriate to a chosen design of a pinnedend strut (see Figs 9.2n2El(Lt k)' Euler: Straight line: dald (W k ) = .30) x and q.3 Johnson's Parabolic Formula The following parabolic equation is employed with struts of smaller slenderness ratios within the invalid Euler region: P=Aq. ( L l k ) . equal u c .30a.[l  b(L/k)*] (9.14).3 1) where b and ocare constants. We can again make intersections and tangents between eq(9.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 407 (ii) Tangent to the Euler curve A further interpretation to the constant n arises when the straight line becomes a tangent to the Euler curve (see Fig. The gradients to each curve are d o / d(U k ) = . and n for which the ordinate i s A uc as shown. n 2 E / ( L / k ) : = u.ln~E) (9.13 and 9. to be less than the actual compressive yield stress of the strut material to offset the need for a safety factor. = d(3n2Elu. This form often takes a.
31) and (9. In common with the RankineGordon method.32) The particular form of eq(9.13b shows an intersection at q / 2 .. 9.(l[ l / ( 2 C .14 the tangent point is preselected to occur at ( L / k ). The point of tangency is thus chosen so that a(./(4n2 ) E (9. ( L / k ) : ] ) P / A = a..).=d[ 1/(2b)]= J ( 2 n 2 E / q . ] =Ir2E/(L/k).31) gives the b .. 2 ) ] ( L / k ) 2 ) (9.value 0 = a..33) we see from eq(9. The Euler curve gives the corresponding slenderness ratio ( L /k )' = d(2n2E/a. The gradients to each curve are da/d ( L l k ) = . b ( L / k ) .*( 1 .[I .31) for an intersection at a given slenderness ratio. 9. the following expression represents a transition curve between pinended strut buckling at high L / k and short column yielding for low L / k in the range 80 sLlks350. (typically 120 or less) so that the intersection with the stress axis is less than a< (say q..s a.) and eq(9.n Z E / [ ~ ..33) Comparing eqs(9.2 n 2 E / ( L l k ) Euler: Parabola: da/d ( L / k ) = .4 PerryRobertson The PerryRobertson equation is is recommended in a British Standard [4] for the determination of allowable compressive loads in structural steel columns.2 b = ( L / k ) . Fig. is dependent upon the chosen slenderness ratio. . This shows that the intercept a. . = @.3.2a.[l  Alternatively.32) that C.5) and Johnson's parabola (eq 9. ( L / k ) n 2 E / ( L / k ) .b ( L / k ) Equating these gradients and the stress ordinate for each curve at L / k = ( L / k ) gives 2n2E / ( L / k ) = 2ba..31) employed by the American Institute of Steel Construction is P = A a. 9. (ii) Tangent to the Euler Curve In Fig.408 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (i) Intersections with Euler curve Equating (9. ) .b ( L / k ) : ] from which.
In the range 50 s L / k 5 100 it is known that the effect of end constraint on the plastic buckling load P is much less than the equivalent elastic constraint given in Table 9 .0.)' . = d a / d t is the gradient of the tangent to the uniaxial tensile or compressive stressstrain curve (see Fig. Equation (9.2.INSTABILITY OFCOLUMNS AND PLATES 409 where o.001 .3 / n 2 ) a ./(cLlk)* (9. a.3. (9. An account of initial sinusoidal curvature and eccentricity of loading appear indirectly in a deformation factor adopted by the British Standard p = a ( L / k ) where a = 0. l E ) ( L / k ) * ( agreed with the lowest failure loads observed in his buckling experiments.37) where c accounts for the effect of end fixing.35b) 9..15 Tangent modulus It follows from this definition of El that the buckling stress in eq(9.6 Engesser Engesser's modification to the Euler theory accounts for inelastic buckling by simply replacing the elastic modulus with the tangent modulus.003 based upon Robertson's experiments. and the load (i.} + ] (9.5 Fidler A particular simplified form of eq(9.36) where q is a load factor with an average value of 1.3) becomes: u=P/A= n*E.0. P = (A/q) { ( u+ ~  [ ( a .15). is the minimum yield strength. 9. the Dutheil factor v = (0.2.35a) was developed by Fidler for the design of columns used in bridge construction. f Figure 9. 9.7 . This is.37) must satisfy the following condition: .2 4 aEur. I . safety) factor K is typically taken as 1.3. Alternatively. The tangent modulus E.e.
K = 1. / A ) = J[(153.40) into eq(9. d o / d&=( n B) I = (n B) ( a /B ) ( "  I)'" (9./k)~]'' (9. and the parabola tangent at L / k = 120.7.2x 1ohmm4 I . l k ) 2 = n 2207000/25. which are constants for a given material. = 2 X 9 i . 9. L .74 x l o 6 ) + (6950 x 101 2 ) ] = 153.38). PerryRobertson.40) Substituting eq(9.9 A 7. 1 .252= 3203. the respective buckling load predictions are . / k = 3750 I 148.1 x lo6and I . The straight line and the parabola make tangents with the Euler curve in the manner outlined above. = cL. with L. ~ . = 91. results in an equation that is soluble in u. Fidler and Engesser predictions. Take E = 207 GPa. If for one section the area is 6950 mm *.76MPa ( ~ Straight Line and Parabola .410 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES u=(~/c)~(L/k)~(du/d~) (9. Take the straight line intercept as a.41) Example 9. the simplest being the Hollomon law [ 5 ] : U= BE'' (9. = 5. compare the axial load that the column may carry according to the straight line.2.39).74 x 10' mm4.27 x lo6 mm4 k = J ( I .25 uE=n2E/ L . Figure 9.16.16 Fabricated section A = 2 x 6950 = 13900 mm2. The stressstrain curve for the material is given by u= 650 E " .5 m length steel column with fixed ends is constructed by joining two channels sections together as shown in Fig. I . i x l o ' = i82.30a.27 x 10') / 13900 ] = 148. uc= 3 10 MPa.4 = 1.5 = 25.b).38) which may be established either graphically or from a suitable empirical representation to the u versus E curve.using the constants n and uc.39) where B and n are the respective hardening coefficient and exponent. ~=B[nn~/(L.5 mm. found previously in eq(9. from eq(9. parabola. = 2[(5. Now.
35a).845 MN These calculations show that PerryRobertson becomes the most conservative throughout the introduction of load factor K.89) = 2. 6 8 [ P = 162. of the same order as the length a. These ensure that the crosssection remains rectangular during bending. and a. 9. Now from eq(2.4 x 310 x 3203./k)2]I’5=650 0 . 9.from eq(9.14a. 9.= (13900 x 310) [ I .76) 1.794 MN P.3/n2)(310 207000)(25. Engesser becomes more realistic as the stress levels approach the yield stress of the material.36).= 2 n 2 E/ ( L / k ) = ( 2 n 2x 207000) / 1202= 283.75)[1 ( 3 .35b).3156.direction.4 I).. with no dimensional change in they .. .76))) = 4088.76 .7 the buckling load is P = [ 13900 / (2 x 1.4.76)2. I Plate as a Wide Strut with Long Edges Unsupported When in a thin plate the width dimension 0 is large. Use is made of design data sheets that account for combinations of these fixings when an allowance for plasticity effects is necessary.67 .4. eq(9.from eq(9.J { [ 3 10 + (1.029 / = Then from eq(9. U = B [ rin2/(L. 2 ~ 7 r ~ / ( 2 5 .25)2]=3. with K = 1.2. / ( n 2 E ) ] = ( 2 / 9 )[ ( 3 ~ 3 1 0 ) / ( ~ ~ ~ 2 0 7 0 040.7)]([ 3 10 + (1.. 4 7 2 ~ 10’)(25. )7] 4 ~ J = 25.76) 1 ) = 11583 (3513.75 MPa : b = 1 / [ 2 ( L / k ) .029 x 3203.76)]  (4 x 310 x 3203.d[(310 + 3203.251 = 3.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 411 n = ( 2 / 9 ) J [ 3 u .e. will exist in the body of the plate (see Fig.029 x 3203.4 Buckling Theory of Plates This introduction to plate buckling omits the full theoretical analysis that may be found in more specialist texts (see bibliography).76) .8 x 13900 = 2..74 x q.25)2 0. with 9 = 1.=(13900~283. becomes p=((0.the Dutheil deformation factor.472x ~ P.24 (3606.857MN PerryRobertson .41) = 4. 2 5 ) ~ ] ’ ” = 2 0 4 . i.b). The edge fixings considered are limited to simple and clamped supports and varying degrees of rotational restraint. then biaxial inplane stresses o.17a). 2 ] =1 / ( 2 1202)=3.138 MN Engesser .3005.3/7~~)(0~/E)(L~/k)* = (0.456 MN Fidler’s .(2. P = (13900/ 1.2){ (310 + 3203.
42) into (9../z. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 0 = ( I / E ) ( U ). .V~)O.v u .vu.42) it becomes necessary to modify the beam flexure equation d2w/d?= MIEI by the factor (1 ../E  (9. = .v 2 ) in the case of the wide strut. Here the section does not remain rectangular under bending but distorts due to the opposite sense of the induced y .44) Other edge fixings may be accounted for by replacing the 1/12 factor for pinned ends in eq(9.v 2 ) a 2 ] Substituting P.43) with MI1 = u.= n 2 E l / [ ( I. it follows that d2w/&’ = (1 . ..42) The absence of q. with M = . V U ./E. I). This is P. and E. Here the strains in the length and width direction are E. = u.17b).17 d2w/dw2= l / R = & . Combining this with bending theory M/(EI ) = 1/R we have for the coordinates given in Fig. 9.. with the strains in eq(9./E and &\. the critical buckling load for a plate with pinnedends is deduced from the solution to eq(9.vZ)](t/b)’ (9./(&)= (1  (9. ) = ( I .bt and I = bt’/12 leads to the more common form of expression in terms of aspect ratios t I b and r = a/b: ucr= (1/12)(7r/r)’ [E/(I .direction strains between the tensile and compressive surfaces (the Poisson effect).P w (see Fig.44) with a buckling coefficient K.v’)u. = u. c . Pc X P Figure 9. = C...43) v’)M/(EI) Then. 9.412 E. ) = ( ~ / E ) ( u .17 Buckling of a wide thin plate Comparing E. thin rectangular section struts with a smaller width results in anticlastic in curvature. / z Substituting eq(9.
46) Example 9. ) a2w/ax2+ (uyt ) a2w/ay2 + 2 t (9. as shown in Fig. In Fig.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 413 9. sin (mlrx/a)sin (nzy/.2 Bidirectional Compressive Loading with Edges Supported Consider a thin rectangular plate a x b with thickness t subjected to uniform compressive stresses u.1 (9. the actual number of halfwaves of buckling is that which minimises the potential energy for a given edge fixing. . y ) = C C A .10 Find the critical buckling stress for a square plate of side length a with simply supported edges subjected to equal inplane loading.e.18 Buckling of a thin plate under biaxial stress In Chapter 4 (see eq 4. = [ D n 2 / ( t a 2 ) ]+ 1 2 ) 2 / ( 1 r 2 r r ) (r + . 9.1 in which the respective number of halfwaves m and n for buckling in the x and y plate directions determine the number of terms and associated coefficients A m. This leads to a solution to the critical bucking stress: D n ' [ ( r n / ~ ) ( n+l b ) 2 ] 2 ~ ((Jx)er = t[(rn/u)'+ a (nlb)'] (9. i. .18.tlb) m. The solution to eq(9. Employing the RaleighRitz energy method (see Chapter 8) we differentiate the potential energy with respect to the unknown coefficient A .46) leads = to the buckling stress: ( q > .45b)..45a) is D I O D w(x.60) it was shown that when the edges are simply supported the equation governing the dependence of the lateral deflection w upon x and y is D ( a 2 w / a x 2 a Z W / a y 2 )= (0. Substituting r = a/b = 1 and a= q. With simply supported edges. acting upon area a x t .. a square plate buckles with one halfwave rn = n = 1 in each direction./ux. for example.18. .45b) n. acting upon area b x t and a.v ' ) ] . . 9. \ m=3 w 1 Figure 9.4.45a) where the flexural stiffness D = E t3/[12(1. no rotational restraint. in eq(9. m = 3 and n = 1 is shown./q I i n eq(9. When stresses increase in a constant ratio a = a.
414 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES (a.2 a ) 1 ) / ( b t 2 [ + a / ( l 2 a ) ] ) 1 = (DIr2[(1.2a)”’ (ii) with the corresponding half wavelength a/m = r/m = ( 1 .2a) = 1 This gives m = r ( 1 .4.)c. is d ( a .direction as shown in Fig..18 has simply supported edges with b << a. when (i) a= a.2a)“*. eq(9. 9. ( a . ) . find (a..).3 UniDirectional Compressive Loading (a) Simple Supports With only a uniform compressive stress a. / d m = [ l + a ( r / m ) 2 ] 2 ( m / r + r / m ) ( l / r/m2). . From eq(9. From eq(i)./q< ‘/z and (ii) a ’%. : ( I .a ) ] It is apparent from this solution that as & 4 Yz. the half wavelength in the xdirection approaches infinity (alm+) and the buckling stress becomes (a. Substituting eq(ii) in (i). the critical buckling stress is found by putting a?= 0 ( a =0) in eq(9.v ’ ) ] ( ~ / u ) ~ ’ Example 9. ) .46).( D n 2 /t )[(m/u) + ( n / b) ] (a / m) = (a. and the half wavelength of the buckled shape in the direction of x. . Taking n = 1 for the much smaller b dimension.(m/r+r/m)22a(r/m)(/ m 2 ) = 0 rr [ I .). This gives (a.47) When the plate is simply supported along its unstressed sides it buckles with one halfwave ( n = I ) in the y . = D n 2 / ( f b 2 ) ] [ m /r/rn12 [ r+ (9. acting. = ( D n 2 [ ( 1 .2a)(3..~ ~ ~ ’ ( m / r + r / m ) ~ a2r(mZ+arz) bzr[1+a(rlm)2~ Then m is found from the condition that ( a x ) c ra minimum. .+ 2D7r2/ ( b 2t ) 9.48) .2 a ) + 2 + 1 / ( 1 .= [ D n 2 / ( b2)][mb/u n2a/(mb)12 t + ’ (9.)cr = 2 0 n2/ ( t a ) = (n2/6)[E/(1.47) the buckling stress becomes ( o x ) .2 a ) + I]}/ [ b 2 f ( l .( r / m ) 2 ] [+ a(r/m)’]+ a ( r / m ) 2 [ 1 ( r / r r ~ ) ~0 1 + =] . 9.19.46) becomes (Ox)cr = D I Tz ( m 2 + r 2 ) 2 .1 1 If the plate in Fig.)~.
= 4 D n 2 / ( t b 2 ) ={ x 2 E l [3(1 . ) .49) Furthermore.20 Effect o f r and tn on uniaxial buckling stress .ldm = 2(rn/r + r/tn)(l/r .19 Buckling of a thin plate under uniaxial compression The question then arises as to what values of m minimise eq(9. .48).r 2 / m 3 = 0 m4r4=0 (m . Figure 9. when.r)(m + r>(rn2+r 2 )= 0 Thus m = r implies that the plate will buckle into an integral number of square cells a x a under the same stress. This condition is expressed in d(u.I/m. ( U . from eq(9..48) is applied to particular values of in. for nonintegral values of r. eq(9. the graph in Fig. That is.r/rn2)= 0 r n / r 2 +Ilm. 9.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 415 m=3 I Figure 9.).48) for integral values of r = a/b..~ ’ ) ] ) ( t / b ) ~ (9.20 represents the buckling stress.
Table 9. : + r / m ] = [(m+l)/r+ r/(m + I ) ] r = J[m(m + I)] from which.5+1. the plate dimensions ( r = a/b) and the buckling mode m.49) for a plate with simply supported edges. n 2 D / (r b 2 ) where.0 2. Table 9. The dependence of K.v z ) ] .12 Find the thickness of aluminium plate with dimensions a = 1.20 shows that with r = a/b = 1. These are derived from articles listed in the bibliography.0 0. The simplest of these employs the analytical expression: K . For example.5 the plate will buckle into m = 2 halfwaves of length 0.75 1. r = d{[12(1.0277m=27.9.5/2)2]=0.49) for plate geometry r = d b with a given edge fixing. for all possible edge fixings. the restraint coefficient is K . b = 1 m and simply supported along its edges that will buckle elastically under a compressive stress of 210 MPa if E = 70 MPa and v = 0.direction.49) should not be confused with buckling stress of a thin plate acting as a strut with its longer parallel sides unsupported (see eq.44). Example 9. 9. An alternative graphical approach. From eq(9. employs design curves [6].value for which m is increased by one.57 7.9.69 10. Fig.5 m.48) as a special case when the restraint factors are p = 2 and q = 1 for simple supports. has been established experimentally in certain cases.07 8. . This occurs when. [mlr . The sheet extends this type of presentation to biaxially loaded plates with various edge fixings. = ( m / r )* + p + q (rim)‘ which contains eq(9. from eq(9.3 applies to the case of fixed sides for example. They supply the ratio between critical elastic buckling stress and that of a simply supported plate (eq.3 Restraint coefficients for a plate with fixed sides r = a/b K. 9 x 1 2 x 2 1 0 ) ] / [ n 2 x 7 0 x103(2/1.37 As r increases.~ ’ ) b ~ ( ~ [ln ~ ~ ( ~ / r + r / m ) ’ ] } 2 ) m~ ] / = J [ ( 1 2 ~ 0 . favoured in design practice. 3.49) and the points of intersection determine the r .0 1. . r = J12 for rn = 4 etc.21 shows how this stress ratio varies with r for clamped and various mixed edge fixings.75 rn i n thex .33 7. the effect of edge restraint lessens and K.416 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The trough in each curve corresponds to eq(9.7mm 1 (b) Other Edge Fixings A number of approaches have been proposed.5 2.48) with D = Et3/[12(l. Equation (9.3. approaches a minimum value of 4 found in eq(9.48).88 7. upon three factors: the rotational edge restraint (p and q).5 11. r = J2 for m = 2. r = J6 for rn = 3. Figure 9.
where p < 1.22 shows that some plasticity will have occurred and this reduces the buckling stress to a lower level ( o c r ). 9. The solution will be invalid because with the use of E and v in eq(9.49). (o.. Figure 9. calculated from eq(9.)./To account for this a plasticity reduction factor is defined as follows: . In thicker plates the critical elastic stress. Fig.21 Plate buckling under compression (c) Inelastic Buckling.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 417 3 I I\ CJ (CJX)CJ 2 \I \ 1 I I 1 1 2 alb 3 Figure 9. can exceed the yield stress of the plate material.22 shows further how the tangent modulus is used to account for a stress level in excess of the yield stress .49) linear elasticity will have been assumed in reaching this stress level.
49) a ratio ( q . = nE&..1 / E ) [ ( a / a .51) and (9. E.5 Figure 9.52) Combining eqs(9. as m is a material property. / E be a selected value which connects the plastic stress and strain levels as 4.5 I ) A RambergOsgood description of the stressstrain curve also gives the total strain under a plastic stress as E= o l E + cr(o/E)” (9. = El2. The workhardening exponent = 16 for aluminium alloy sheet and rn= 10 for steel sheet. . ) +(I/n  l)(a/a. Let n = E . l . can interpolate a p value from We Fig. r ) ) e / a . Typical values are rn 0 0.23 Plasticity reduction factor .23 and use eq(9.. the following example shows.. Next define from eq(9.)m] (9. 9.50) to find (acr).22 Tangent modulus This gives a= E..53) Set n = ‘/z so that a.418 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 9.52) leads to & = (c7. (9.becomes the stress level at which E.
4. Thus ( u c r ) = 38 1.86..24). as well as thinwalled closed tubes. are prone to local buckling at their sharp corners.5/200)2=381.342)])(7. v = 0.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 419 Example 9. A supported side will restrain an unsupported side.. Hence. given the material properties E = 73 GPa. u.463. K must again be corrected with a multiplication factor 0. The buckling coefficients K depend upon the d J h ratio and the neighbouring restraints within the four sections. from eq(9.159 = Figure 9. the flanges and weds of these sections may be treated as plates with a simple support along one or both sides from their neighbours. ( u ( ~ ){ ( n 2 x 7 3 10')/[3(1 ~= x  0. = (i) The plate aspect ratio is an integral number r = 2.87MPa Since this exceeds the yield stress Y.0.24.23 gives p = 0.914 1 . 9. 9.96 x 381. Hence we find from eq(9. as shown in Fig. Y = 250 MPa. Strut sections made up with straight sides such as I.34 and m = 20. Z.6 MPa (ii) With the shorter sides clamped.) and a suitable description to the stressstrain curve = as in the previous example. If ubrfrom eq(9.50) ( u c r )=.3. Determine the critical buckling stressses when the shorter sides are (i) simply supported and (ii) clamped. Localised stresses concentrated at corners may exceed the yield stress and become sufficiently high either to cause a local crippling failure or to reduce the stiffness to resistance against buckling by other modes. The solution to the local compressive elastic buckling stress takes the common form: ubr= E ( t / h ) 2 K (9.13 A plate 400 x 200 x 7.54) where the thickness t of the sides < d/5 where d is the flange length (see Fig. p a. / 9. a correction for plasticity is necessary. 9.59/400 = 1.7 MPa.. ( u r rI) /u. 9. U.214 381.86 x 463.50) ( u C r ) / 0.21 gives ( ~ 7=~ ~ )x ~ 1..v 2 ) when Poisson's ratio is different from 0.96.955 /u.59 = 398.. 400 MPa.59 MPa Correcting for plasticity as before.4 Local Buckling of Plate Sections The straight thin walls of an open section may distort without translation or rotation. . when Fig.87 / 400 = 0.23 gives p = 0. When the strut length is at least four times greater than the crosssection web depth h.87 =) = 364.5 mm is simply suppored along its longer sides and carries a compressive stress along it shorter sides.87 = 463.. Hence we find from eq(9.49). Fig.54) is found to exceed the yield stress of the strut material it becomes necessary to reduce this using a plasticity reduction factor (u.
064 is used with Fig.22). Final failure is estimated to occur under a crippling stress q.38 x 73. found from Uc= ( U / . Y ) '/r (9.7 MPa Using eq(9. On the other hand. Take the material constants as follows: E = 73..0 2. a short strut may carry more compression beyond local buckling. Equation (9. However.55) where Y is the 0.7 x 310)" = 277.24 we find K = 2. rn = 10 and q.50 0.75 1 .5. = (248.420 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES K I 5. 9.14 Find the buckling and crippling stresses of a short strut with an Isection given h = 50 mrn. = 2E (see Fig.23 to give a plasticity reduction factor = p = 0.55) is accurate to within 10%.= p u/. = 264 MPa. Y = 310 MPa.. the crippling stress is estimated as a. The influence upon any global buckling mode through flexure and torsion becomes important. 9. 9. = 0.7 MPa .885. Example 9. From Fig.25 0.24 Local buckling coefficient for uniform thin sections In medium length struts local instability results in a loss of stiffness but without complete failure.885 x 28 1 = 248.5 I I I dlh 0 0.. Test data shows that eq(9.38 for d/h = 0./q. The ratio u. 281/264 = 1.54) gives the local elastic buckling stress as ubr 2.o Figure 9.50) gives the local buckling stress as q.55).d = 25 mm and t = 2 mm.2% compressive proof stress of strut material. if the strut is very long the global buckling stresses are attained well before the onset of local buckling.. = 264 MPa corresponds to E.8 x 103(2/50)2 281 MPa = = This exceeds the yield stress because a.8 GPa. Equation (9.
= r.56b) Taking v = 0.95t J(E/Y) but experiment shows that the coefficient is nearer 0.25). P =f u Figure 9.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 421 9. Only a slight increase in axial stress occurs in the central buckled material (see Fig.25 Stress distributon in buckled plate If we assume that the whole load P is carried by two edge strips of effective width 2w over which a i s assumed constant.26 Plate in shear . 9.v’)]) (9.56b) gives w = 0.5 Buckling in Shear When the sides of a thin plate a x b x t are subjected to shear forces.56a) from which w may be found as acrattains the yield stress Y.21 to determine a critical elastic buckling stress ratio for use with eq(9. 9. a2= .4.26).. Other edge fixings are dealt with in a similar manner using Fig. the load may be increased further as the stress increases in the material near the side supports.3 in eq(9.85.56a). then the load is P = 2wta With the edges of our equivalent elastic plate all simply supported. w = ( n t / 2 ) J { E / [ 3Y(1..5 PostBuckling o Flat Plates f When a plate buckles. eq(9. T I Figure 9. the principal stress state within the plate is diagonal tension and compression of equal magnitude a.= { n 2 E / [ 3(1.z (see Fig.v 2 ) ] ) [t l ( 2 w )]~ (9.49) gives a. 9. 9.
E = 73 GPa. The shear buckling coefficient K .58) Example 9. from eq(9.27 gives K. = For b/a = 200 / 260 = 0. This gives and ( . ) = K.0.. rn = 15. 9.27 when v = 0. 340 MPa. The shorter sides are clamped and the longer sides simply supported.3 the K. depends upon the edge fixing in the manner of Fig.422 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES For the biaxial stress state of ratio a = .57) where b is the lesser side length. v = 0.342)= 8.= 8..r) which will need further correction if it appears to exceed the shear yield stress k for the plate material.v’).8 0..50 0’75 bla 1 1.1.28 knowing o.3 1. 9. o. m for the material. 9.34.6 0. (9. the appropriate curve in Fig.2 K 1.o 0.57) will then supply ( q. The plasticity reduction factor p is obtained from Fig.57) .91/ (1. In the buckling of flat plates under shear loading it can be shown [7] that the critical elastic shear stress is ( rc. Equation (9. The plate properties are k = 150 MPa.v= 8.o Figure 9. Correcting for Poisson’sratio gives K.vE ( t / b ) ’ (9.08 x 0.91/( 1 .08. Under this condition the plate cannot sustain a further increase in diagonal compression although an increase in diagonal tension is possible.27 Shear buckling coefficient If v + 0. shear buckling occurs when wrinkles run parallel at intervals across the plate lying perpendicular to the compressive stress. The elastic buckling stress is therefore.769.25 0.313.15 Find the shear stress that will buckle an aluminium plate 200 mm wide x 260 mm long x 5 mm thick.4 1 0 1 I I 0.vordinate value is multiplied by 0.
).545 x 379. Locate the directions of the principal axes in the plane of the section by the usual method (see Appendix I).58). When considering torsional instability recall that the centre of twist will lie at the shear centre E. We saw in Chapter 5 that an axial stress arises in torsion when the ends of a strut are not free to warp.29a support a compressive force P at its centroid g./3 4 0 = 1. eq(9. 1.0 9.28 now has a value: ( t .7 MPa 1.5). for a compressed strut may not be reached when a thinwalled open section is torsionally weak. Therefore. Let the unsymmetrical channel section in Fig.85)). 9. 9. .3 = 206. The analysis requires a consideration of the axial stre.4 I 05 . A .. = 0. Wagner [8] further derived the critical end thrust for torsional buckling of sections with symmetry. .545.313 x 423 73 x 10’(5/200)2 = 379.).o 1. from eq(9.5 Figure 9.28 Plasticity reduction factor in shear 10 20 00 0 2.116 3 The graph for m = 16 gives an ordinate of p = 0. Therefore. Recall that the torque is given by the sum of St Venant and Wagner torques along the bar (see eq(5.6 0. arising from torsion. Here x and y denote principal axes and u and v refer to displacements. a plasticity reduction factor is required. The abcissa in Fig. ( rc..8 0.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES (t. let axes X and Y be parallel to x and y with their origin at E along with that of the strut axis Z . = 3 7 9 .o 0.6 Flexural and Torsional Instability of Thin Open Sections A critical value of the Euler buckling stress. Goodier [9] extended the analysis to any arbitrary thinwalled open section under compression by the analysis which follows.3 MPa Since this exceeds the shear yield stress k = 150 MPa. A crosssection away from the ends can both translate and rotate and therefore buckling may occur by a combination of torsion and flexure. ) r / ~ .= 8.
29a shows an element 6A of the wall area upon which a uniform compressive stress uarises from the force P.59b) where E is the elastic modulus and I.Y I v+x8e Figure 9.P ( v + X . = . Displacements of that point ( u . they become u . Y. associated with the displacements are given by the flexure equations EI.P ( u .Y. B ) E l .z ) and Y .29 Open section strut under compression The strut both twists and bends under a load applied at its centroid g.axis of ..Y while the accompanying rotation Bmust be referred to E. This force may be resolved into components parallel and perpendicular to the Z . The normal force u 6A is inclined to the z .dZuldz2=M.Z (or y .axis. 0 ) (9.Z (or x .30a and b show these displacements in the two planes X . The latter component produces an elemental torque about the Z . .. I . Y).424 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES point in the crosssection is defined by coordinates ( X . 0.axis when the strut is in its deflected position.=.when g displaces to g' as shown in Fig.Y . ). y or X.z ) for which g' lies at distance z from one end..59a) (9. Figures 9.29b.30 Flexure of the strut axis in the two principal planes The bending moments Myand M . Figure 9. z E #  v. }' t U E I X Figure 9. are the principal second moments of area referred to the centroid g of the section. 9. Given its initial coordinates g(X. v) may be referred to either axes x. d vldz2 = M .B and v + X.
The solutions to eqs(9. These are.E r d3B1dz3) O E = which leads to the differential equation: where E and G are elastic moduli and J is St Venant's torsion constant (see eq(5..b) and (9. respectively. The torsionbending constant I has been defined in Chapter 5 (see eq(5.be one of.) and warping constants.(dv/dz) .60a) over the section area leads to T = PY. purely flexural or a combination of these. since r2is . When a compressive force is applied at the centroid of a pinnedend strut of section.(duldz)  PX.b) supply the usual Euler stresses for flexural buckling.85) but since no torque is applied CT = 0 and it follows from eq(9.59a. = 0 and eqs(9. 9. or a combination of.31ac).16). A shear stress also acts across 6 A due to the torque in eq(5. X. Goodier [lo] showed that the buckling mode of a pinnedend strut will depend upon the presence of symmetry within the crosssection.PX. (duldz) . = Y.  Figure 9.59a. sum of the primary (r. Thus. Usually I ? I?.I Sections with Symmetry The shear centre will coincide with the centroid for sections with two axes of symmetry such as an I .Pkp2(dBIdz) (9. the critical compressive stress will. 9. . (dvldz) . It is given as the ? .60b) that PY.1NSTABlLlTY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 425 Integrating eq(9. is the polar radius of gyration of the section about the shear centre.) secondary (r.P k P 2(deldz) + (GJ d81dz .95)).31 Centroid and shear centre for thinwalled open sections Their buckling modes can be purely torsional.61) show that the precise mode of instability will depend upon the proximity of the centroid G to the shear centre E (see Figs 9. very small (see Example 9.60b) where P = a A and k.68).7) and the Wagner axial stress arising from eq(9.6.3 1 a).section (Fig. the Euler buckling stresses from eq(9.61).
64) where I. 9.. ) ’ 1 (9.61) gives Wagner’s critical thrust for torsional buckling as a. The second term is the increase in axial stress arising when the ends are constrained. 9.65) In this case a will be smaller than ox. the critical stress is the least of eqs(9.62a) (9./o).31~). = d(I. ) 2 ax= (9.o. 9.65) reduces to (9. the shear centre.o ~ / o ) (O~ /O ) ( I .’(1./A) and k. so that r. and T.a. but if the latter three stresses vary widely a will be close to the smallest of these which dictates the buckling mode. . the solution to eq(9. i.. The simplest of these are thinwalled right angles and tees in which the shear centre E is coincident with the single point of intersection between their straight limbs (Fig..63). Alternatively.32a given that the shear centre E is 24 mm to the left of centreline of the vertical web. The lower of the two buckling stresses is the true solution. is the polar second moment of area about the centre of twist..61) reveals that the critical stress becomes the largest root to the cubic in n ( I . l ~ ) ( Y .o .2 Asymmetric Sections For the thinwalled strut in Fig. and k. 9. Equation (9..+ n2ETE/(I.axis (see Fig.426 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES n2E / ( L / k. G = 43. For sections with a single axis of symmetry.62a.62a. Thus u p is low and buckling occurs by a purely torsional mode.)’ a y =n 2 E / ( L / k . For a section with point symmetry. = 0. I. If a 2 m length of this section in titanium alloy carries an axial compressive force.62b) where the radii of gyration k. = 0. is the polar second moment of area about the 2 . For the section concerned.g.e.63). one of the two Euler stresses (9. ) ’ = O ~ ) (9. Take E = I17 GPa. Example 9.e. A half length applies to torsional buckling when fixed ends cannot warp or rotate. / o ) ( X . .~ .3 GPa and all thicknesses to be 5mm. With a strut under compression.63) applies to ends that are free to warp. In addition.31a).. instability may arise from flexure about the x . = d(1JA).. = GJ/I.( 1 .b) and (9.29a the solution to eqs(9. the first term on the righthand side of eq(9. an Isection with equal flange lengths (Fig. l k . say the x .axis where eq(9. 9.62b) applies. eq(9. i. A special case of eq(9. flexural instability can occur about they .63) With a strut under torsion.axis combined with torsion about the shear centre.L2) (9.65) arises for sections where the shear centre lies at the intersection between limbs.63) applies to its full length when the pinned ends are free to warp.axis.64) when Y. a. the critical buckling stress a i s the lesser root to the quadratic: (1 / a ) ( .59) and (9. . / ~ .b) will always yield the smaller critical stress value.. 9.. . . refer to the principal axes k. Note that for each section I‘.16 Determine the torsionbending constant for the lipped channel section shown in Fig. = A k .6.31b). / a) = ( X / k . = r2in eq(9. e. . determine the likely mode of buckling.
’ .32b the areas enclosed between E and perimeter points 1 ..32 Lipped Section 290y = (I725 x 2512) + (50 x 1725) + (50 x 3375 / 2) + (I95 x 1500) + (3600 x 150/2) + (45 x 3375 / 2) + (25 x 4875) + (1727 x 25/2) = 3358.17 x 1 0 x m m 5 (69 s . 2t ds where R.79~) as S 1 ‘ E I 0 3 1’ I 100 4 1 200 s m 30 0 Figure 9..290(0.s)’ds+ /0’50(75 . and r2 shows that I may be neglected and therefore r. 6 are doubled and plotted against the perimeter length. = I’. is the perpendicular distance from the shear centre.1 rnm’ Comparing I‘. 9.150) ds+ J7r (24 s + 6780) ds (75 s .s ) 2 d s + /045(24+s)2ds] = 32552..173 .84b) the first integral is evaluated from the line segments in Fig.28 x l o 8mm‘ The secondary warping constant for this section follows from eq(5.3358)*] x 10”= 22. 9. = 5[37.” (69 s) ds i f2:(75  s .94) as F. 9. I ’ . . E to the median line 1234 at s. This gives r2=(5’/12)[ / 2 5 ( s + 5 0 ) 2 d s + JO4’(69.32b from eq(5.13410)2ds Substituting into eq(5. 2 .15000)2ds+ 2 f : = 37.32b as: fosyz ds = s. We then determine the centroid of Fig.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 427 In Fig.. = ( I / 12) R .84b) gives the primary warping constant I?.84 mm In eq(5.
I .= 145 ~ 5 ~ / 1 2 + ( 1 4 5 ~ 5 ) ( 1 7. 3 ~ 1 2O83.74 m m (ii) the principal second moments of area about the centroid l .4 0 53/125~100'/12=4. 2 4 2.2.5)2+2[5 ~ 5 0 ~ / 1 2 + ( 5 0 ~ 5 ).5 17.95 MPa For a torsionflexure failure eqs(9. 2 8 ~ o Rx 1 1 7 103)/(7. = I.63) give the respective stress components u .5) + + 2(50 x x 5) 5) + + 2(22.4)' u 2.24)2]= 0.595 x l o 6 / 1450) = 72.. 5 / ~ ) ( 1 153.5 5) (145 5) 2(50 2(22.15 MPa .24 + 24 .46/0)= (38.6x lo6 x 2000)2 ( 0~~ x l ~ = 68.658) x l o 6 = 7. eq(9.937~106mm4 14 ~ I. e.4 mm (iv) the St Venant torsion constant: J = (1/3)C b t 3 = 290 x 5 3 / 3= 12083.5 x x 5)47. Applying eq(9. = 5 0 ~ 1 5 5 ~ / 1 2 .= 4 3 .428 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Further properties of the area required for the buckling calculations are (i) the position of the centroid (X from the vertical edge): x   (145 x 5 x x 2.17.9 8 1 . distance X .1589.5 ~ 5 ~ / + (22.7 /72.. a correction is required for the plasticity that occurs at the higher stress level. 9 3 x 1 0 6 x 117x 103)/(20002x 1450)=981SMPa a.49798~ o 6 mm4 12 l (iii) polar second moment of area and radius of gyration for a longitudinal axis passing through shear centre Transfer I .497 x lo6 x 117 x l o 3 )/ (20002 x 1450) = 98.937 + 2.6x1O6)+ (d 2 2 . eq(9.84 + 84.5 .64).595 x lo6mm4 k. = 17.g.580+ (210.5 = 38.b) with the tangent modulus. and from perpendicular axes. The usual method of correction is to replace E in eqs(9.3)/(7.62b) gives uy= ( n 2x 0.39). This procedure requires a description suitable to the stressstrain curve.62 = 153. This will also apply where all stress components in shorter struts are found to exceed the yield stress.5 x 5 ) (47. as with the Engesser method. to a parallel axis Y through E.46 MPa Strictly.24 X . + I = (4.axis. apart. the combined buckling stress becomes the lesser root to the quadratic: (1 .3 m m 4 Assuming purely flexural buckling about the x . = ( n 2 x 4 .95 x l o 3 ) = 0 =$ u= 146. = d ( I p / A )= d(7.62a) and (9.62a.2 5 ( 17.24)2] + 2[22.
J Roy. 1974. 268.R. (1962).63) to this axis of twist [9]. Bibliography Budiansky.b) are referred to any pair of perpendicular axes.01.. [9] Goodier. passing through the centroid G.and I . February 197 1. P. [8] Wagner. in eq(9.23. Timoshenko. J.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 429 The lesser of the two stresses within each mode indicates that this strut would buckle by flexure about its x . R. Bulson. S.C. Aero Q . Waters.N..3 Etforced Axis of Rotation If the strut is constrained to rotate about a longitudinal axis displaced from the shear centre we must refer r.C.01.. x and y . (1945). E. This restraint imposes a purely torsional buckling mode in which the critical stress becomes References [I] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Capey. M.66b) Equations (9. Buckling offlat isotropic plates under uniaxial and biaxial loading. and Neff.W. BS 449. 1946. 1936.) relative to E.. ESDU Note 89007. Chatto and Windus. NACA Tech Note 1222. I. ESDU Note 01. Pt 2. . J l A p p l Mech.. The buckling of a composite strut. [lo] Flexural and torsional instability of rhinwalled open section struts. Wiley.. 724726. K. 1559. When these become aligned with the principal axes then Iq = 0. ESDU Note72019. March 1969.. G. [7] Buckling offlat plates in shear.. 1948.axis. and Connor. 15(1) (1948). and Rockey. 9. 15(4) (l963). Let 0 be the axis of enforced rotation with coordinates (X.S. 9 (1942). June 1960). Allowable compressive loads in structural steel columns. Theory ofElastic Stability. Aero Soc.Z. Gerard. August 1972. NACA Tech Memo 807. 1947. J... The secondary warping constant is unaffected. E. Structural Mechanics. Y. Stein.... A103Al07.. ESDU Note 7 1005. Vinson.Appl Mech. 66. Stowell.. NACA Tech Note. 712. 1969. J. March 1989. B. J.T. Trans AIME. 349356.66a) (9. Hollomon. 162.66a.6. H. J. 1970 Cook.. unpublished RAe Note (ESDUO1. McGrawHill. NACA Report 898.23. 1961. H. The stability offlatplates.. The theorem for parallel axes passing through E and 0 leads to (9.
is 3m long. and 25 m m i. is loaded eccentrically at its free end with a compressive force at a radial distance of 75 mm from the centroidal axis. Take E = 207 GPa and a. = 9. If the tube material has a compressive yield stress of 3 10 MPa.6 A 3 m long strut with tubular section 50 mm 0.34 9.3 If the crosssection given in Fig. determine the wall thickness needed to support an axial compressive load of 50 kN. 9.1 A strut 2 m long with inner and outer diameters 44 and 50 mm respectively has pinned ends.8 The vertical column of length L in Fig. find the shortest length of this tube for which the theory applies. 9. 9. Answer: 809. Member B is pinjointed to both the beam and the lower anchor point. Take E = 207 GPa. 279 kN 20 Figure 9. (CEI) 9. Determine the Euler critical load and the shortest length for which this theory is valid. Show that at the instability point tan (1 . and 65 mm i. Member A is pinjointed to the beam and built in at its lower end.d. Determine the maximum value of a moveable vertical point force carried by the beam if collapse of the structure is to be avoided. = 3 10 MPa for the strut material.. Calculate the maximum stress and deflection when the strut carries a compressive force of 50 kN offset by 3mm from its longitudinal centroidal axis. 9. A and B. Find the maximum deflection and the safe axial load when (i) the maximum compressive stress is limited to 35 MPa and (ii) the net stress on the tensile side is to be zero at the fixed end. Take E = 200 GPa.430 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES EXERCISES Euler Theory 9. 3 10 MPa. Take E = 207 GPa and u.n) kL = .2 Determine the Euler critical load for the strut in exercise 9.d.1 mm. It consists of a lower part of length nL which may be regarded as rigid and this is fixed to an upper part which is slender and of stiffness El. 9. Given that the slenderness ratio is 100.35 is pinned at the top and bottom.33 Figure 9.7 The ends of a thinwalled. Take E = 210 GPa.nkL. elliptical. Take E = 70 GPa.33 is to be used as a strut with one end pinned and the other end fixed. light alloy tube are fixed in the plane of its major 60 mm diameter and pinned in the plane of its minor 20 m m diameter.d. calculate the buckling load based upon the minimum permissible length of an Euler strut.d.4 Figure 9.1 when the ends are fixed. (CEI) . The least second moment of area of A is 420 x 10' mm4 and that of B is 200 x 10 mm '. and determine the buckling load for n = 1/2. 9.34 shows a horizontal beam of mass 15 kg/m supported by two vertical members.5 A tubular strut 75 m m 0.
(CEI) 9. Take E = 200 GPa. If during service.14 A tubular section strut with 75 mm outer and 65 mm inner diameters is 3m long.9 Figure 9. and El..) and a. Prove that the critical load P is given by the following expression: P + p J [ P / ( E f ) ] x tan( (U2)J[P/(EI)]) = 0.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 431 I 2p Figure 9. The crosssection is equal angle: 100 mm side length x 10 mm thickness.where a. 9. (CEI) Imperfect Euler Struts 9. the ends were found to rotate. . The designed buckling load of a 1 m long strut.12 A strut of length L has each end fixed in an elastic material which can exert a restraining moment plrad. When the strut supports a vertical compressive load of 20 kN at its free end. with each mounting exerting a restraining moment of 10 kNdrad. in calculating the buckling load. both applied at the free end.L] where a’ = P/(EI).35 Figure 9.11 A straight strut of length L. = ( S / P ) [(lla) tan aL .5% 9. rigidly built in at one end and free at the other. is given by the expression a. show that the buckling load decreases by 20%.36 9. each of length 2L. was 2. assuming the ends to be rigidly fixed. Calculate the maximum stress and deflection when the strut carries a compressive force of 50 kN offset by 3 m from its longitudinal axis. (CEI) 9. joined at their midpoint by a rigid horizontal connection. is subjected to an axial compressive force P. tan a 2 L + a 2tan a. while the opposite ends are pinjointed to the ground.13 A tubular steel strut with 65 mm and 50 mm outer and inner diameters respectively is I m long and fixed at one end. it is assumed that the effective length is 2 U 3 . = P(/E12). when a central compressive force 2P is applied at midspad of the beam.36 shows two vertical struts.15 The axis of a 3 m upright column. L = 2 a . Show that the free end deflection is given by v. The struts are pin. If. about axes normal to the plane of the figure and are constructed from the same material. Show that the condition for simultaneous buckling of both struts in the plane of the figure.10 A straight strut of length L is fixed at one end and pinned at the other.jointed at one end to a rigid horizontal beam which slides in a frictionless guide. what is the % error incurred? Answer: 12.Hence show that buckling failure occurs when the load P + n2E1/(4L2).’= P/(EI. The struts have flexural rigidity of El. perpendicular to P . If the eccentricity is to be eliminated find (i) the length of strut that could support this force and (ii) the force that could be applied to a length of 1 m. Find the maximum permissible eccentricity for a 130 W compressive force when applied at the free end if the allowable stress for the strut material is 325 MPa. and a side force S.5 W. What is the greatest angular deviation of the strut to the vertical axis if the maximum stress may not exceed 80 MPa? Take E = 207 GPa. 9. a maximum eccentricity of 20 mm from the centroid is allowable. a 2 L . built in at one end and free at the other deviates slightly from the vertical.
U 4 where a = J[wU(2EI )]. and 25 mm i.21 A tie bar supports a total load of 8 kN uniformly distributed along its 4 m length together with an axial tensile load of 40 kN. a = 7500 '. SemiEmpirical Methods 9.25 Find P for a 2 m long strut in Fig. The strut is rigidly built in at the base and unrestrained at the top. Take E = 207 GPa. (CEI) 9. w = 5 kN/m and L = 2. Determine the value of the instability load which gives a point of zero resultant stress at the base of the tube. Take E = 207 GPa. 9.2 mm thick is pinned at its ends.23 Find the maximum bending moment and the maximum compressive and tensile stresses for the strut in Fig.19 A long thin uniform bar of length L is lifted by 45" wires attached to its ends and leading to a crane hook. Compare the Euler and RankineGordon buckling loads for a 1.d. 9.17 A tubular strut 50 mm 0. The Isection has flange dimensions 50 x 20 mm and the web measures 60 x 15 mm. is 3 m long. Find the length below which the Euler theory ceases to apply given a yield stress of 324 MPa. (CEI) 9.9 that would just produce yielding in the midspan 25 mm diameter circular section given a 5 mm maximum amplitude of initial curvature and a compressive yield stress of 300 MPa. Determine the maximum bending moment and the stress in the crosssection. It is loaded eccentrically at its free end with a compressive force at a radial distance of 75 mm from the axis. show that the midspan suspended deflection is [4EI/(wLZ)][sec (aU2) .22 A 3 m long strut of section depth of 100 mm with I = 10 x I0 mm and A = 3000 mm2 carries a distributed loading varying linearly from zero at one end to a maximum of 1.83 m length of this strut. 9. Hence determine the vertical force required to cause a horizontal end deflection of magnitude d in terms of the Euler buckling load P.20 A pinnedend stmt 2 m long and 30 mm diameter supports an axial compressive force of 20 kN.18 A long vertical slender strut of uniform solid circular section is of length L and diameter d. Take E = 100 GPa. (CEI) 9. knowing that F = dM/dz at the fixed ends where the shear forces F are known. calculate the additional load that may be applied laterally at midspan and the maximum deflection and moment. Determine the safe load and the maximum deflection when (i) the maximum compressive stress is limited to 35 MPa and (ii) there is to be zero resultant tensile stress at the fixed end.5 kN at the other end. The tube is subjected to a vertical compressive load at the upper end and eccentric by 6. Derive an expression for the freeend deflection of the strut when a vertical compressive force P is applied there at a point on the circumference. If the maximum compressive stress is 200 MPa. Take E = 210 GPa.5 mm respectively is fixed at the lower end and completely unrestrained at the top. What additional central deflection occurs under this load? E = 210 GPa. Take E = 210 GPa. Hence derive the midspan bending moment. What magnitude of additional axial compressive thrust would cause the strut to buckle between pinned ends under a compressive yield stress of 280 MPa? (Take E = 210 GPa) 9.7 when P = 125 kN. 3 m long steel tube whose external and internal diameters are 76.I ] .26 A tubular steel strut 50 mm outer diameter and 3. Take E = 207 GPa. 9.5 m.432 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 9. If the mass of the bar is d u n i t length and the ends are assumed to be pinjointed. The crosssection is symmetrical with I = 10 x lo6mm4 and area A = 10 x lo3mm2 for an overall depth of 200 mm. 9.35 mm from the centroidal axis. for the same strut. 9.16 A vertical.2 mm and 63.d. . Show that the governing equation is d2M/dz2+ [ P / ( E l ) ] M= z / 2 and hence solve to find the fixing moments. 9.24 A uniform horizontal strut with fixed ends carries a load that varies linearly from zero at one end to a maximum at the other.
calculate the maximum allowable temperature rise of the fluid if buckling is to be avoided. c 100 I 2 15 1 + I I I 20 Figure 9. 9.32 The equalangle section in Fig. Take E = 210 GPa and the Rankine constants from Table 8. Find the inelastic ' ~ Engesser buckling load given that the law u / u c= 5 ~ ' describes the compressive stressstrain curve in the region beyond the yield stress u.'. = 300 MPa. Compare with the Euler prediction where E = 208 GPa. straight line. a = 9000 I to replace fixed ended tubular struts 50 mm outer and 40 mm inner diameters with a = 300 MPa. Compare this with the corresponding PerryRobertson and Fidler predictions with E = 207 GPa.andL/k= 120. u. uc= 325 MPa.34 Given that rectangular sections of steel b = 2d are available with u. Show that the Euler value is invalid. failed in compression under an axial load of 1 15 kN. Calculate the safe load from the RankineGordon theory using a safety factor of 4 and the constants in Table 9. a= 10 x lo'/ "C. = 324 MPa.85 m length of this tubing when used as a strut with pinned ends. . 9. find the necessary strut diameter from the Euler theory using a safety factor of 6. If. What then is the Rankine buckling load with u.83 m long. 9. when fluid flows through the pipe under room temperature conditions.2 is used in a mild steel strut 2 m in length with one end fixed and the other end pinned. = 400 MPa.27 A steel column of solid circular section is I . Determine the constants employed with the RankineGordon theory and hence determine the buckling load for a 1. I5 m length of the same tubing was tested as a fixedend strut it buckled under a load of 90 kN.. = 300 MPa and a = 7500 ' (pinned ends).31 Compare the permissible Euler and RankineGordon compressive buckling loads that can be applied to a tubular steel strut 50 mm outer diameter and 3. When a I .38 9. 9.d.d and 32 mrn i. Find the safe axial compressive load using a load factor of 4 based upon the RankineGordon. = 324 MPa and a = 7500. a = 7500 ' and p = 0.29 A pinnedend strut 1.35 A I50 x 200 rnm tubular boxsection with 10 mm wall thickness is to act as a steel strut of length 6 m with fixed ends. ' 9.2. Let the straight line and parabola pass through u. a = . 9. 9. Take E = 201 GPa. For what length of this strut does the Euler theory cease to apply? Take u.2.28 Compare predicted values of the Euler and RankineGordon buckling loads for a 5 m length mild steel strut for the crosssection in Fig.30 A steel pipeline connects with two flanged plates each with a lateral stiffness of 833.2 mm wall thickness when it is pinned at its ends over a length of 3 m. Show that the Euler theory is unrealistic in this case. Where appropriate take E = 207 GPa.3 x lo6 Nlm in the direction of the strut axis.38. 9. the pipe material is unstressed.37. If this supports a compressive load of 50 kN with pinned ends.37 Figure 9.5 m long has the crosssection shown in Fig.INSTABILITY OF COLUMNS AND PLATES 433 9. parabola and PerryRobertson formulae. a = 7500 I and E = 207 GPa. 9. determine the size of an appropriate rectangular section to the nearest mm. 7500 and Uk = 96.33 A short piece of steel tube 38 mm o.003L I k. 9. Material constants are E = 200 GPa.
5 x 0. Take u.43 Determine the stress for which a 500 x 250 x 5 mm steel plate buckles under the action of uniform compression along all four sides. 9.= 340 MPa. Show that the values of r = al6 for which this minimum applies are: r = 1/43. If all edges are simply supported show that the minimum value of critical buckling stress is given by ( u r ) = 8n2D/(f b 2 )for one halfwave in the ydirection.. If the longer edges are unsupported. 9. = 150 MPa is the yield stress.5 mm thick buckles when the short sides are clamped and the long sides are simply supported.45 Correct the stresses in exercise 9.= 405 MPa and r n = 16. when applied to the shorter sides of a thin plate 390 x 200 x 7.5 kN compressive force uniformly distributed along its 0.3. find the elastic compressive buckling stress given that the rotational restraint is 14 x 10' Nm/rad per metre of the longer sides. Take E = 207 GPa and v = 0.5 m with clamped edges supports a compressive load of 650 kN on its shorter sides... Estimate the plastic buckling load for the minor axis where the ends may be assumed pinned. Correct for plasticity given u.37 A steel plate 400 x 250 x 10 mm is subjected to a compressive stress along its 200 x 10 mm simply supported edges. 9.38 What thickness of aluminium plate can withstand a compressive force of 2 kN applied normal to its 100 mm simply supported sides when its longer 300 mm sides remain unsupported? Take E = 71 GPa and v = 0. ~ a. 2/43 etc. Find the necessary thickness that will prevent buckling from occurring. If the plate is simply supported along all four sides what thickness would result in plate buckling? Take E = 74 GPa. does the calculated thickness ensure an elastic stress state? Take E = 70 GPa and v = 0. Take E = 72.33. .40 is simply supported along its shorter sides and free to translate but not to rotate along its longer sides.4 GPa and v = 0.u on its 6 x 1 sides. Take E = 70 GPa. 9.5 m breadth. will cause it to buckle in the presence of a constant stress of 80 MPa acting (i) in compression and (ii) in tension along its longer sides. determine the critical buckling stress.44 for plasticity effects using Fig. Take E = 207 GPa and v = 0.32. = . How would you employ simple bending theory to determine the critical buckling stress for this plate? 9. where Buckling of Plates 9.46 A plate a x b x f is subjected to a normal tensile stress a. The major and minor axes are 75 mm and 25 mm respectively and the wall thickness is 2. = 8 ~ " .41 If the plate in Exercise 9.3.33 with all sides simply supported.5 mm.23.40 Determine the buckling stress for a plate 300 x 200 x 5 mm with all sides fixed when it is loaded in compression normal to its shorter sides.47 Find the shear stress at which a rectangular plate 200 mm wide x 260 mm long x 4. 9. 9.42 An aluminium alloy plate 1. in = 16. 9.36 A brass strut with elliptical thinwalled section is 800 mm long.32. E = 73 GPa and v = 0. v = 0. 9.25 m high carries a total 1.39 A vertical standing plate 1. 9.5 mm.. The stressstrain behaviour of brass is given by ulu.434 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 9. If the allowable compressive stress is 210 MPa.44 Determine the elastic compressive stress which. = u on its a x f sides and a compressive stress u. 9.27. v = 0.27.
since the force method will not be considered further here. as follows: f' = K' 6' (10. in selected examples. from an assumed displacement function the stiffness method provides numerical solutions to the stress and strain distributions within a loaded body. 6. Thus. the force orflexibilify merhod of finite elements enables the displacements to be found from an assumed stress distribution. is less often used. as outlined in Chapter 2. This method may offer certain advantages in its application to statically indeterminate structures but. E. denote matrices and bold lower case Roman and Greek symbols f. finally. on the availability of a stress function before employing finite elements. it is shown how the overall stiffness matrix K is assembled for a given mesh. Triangular and rectangular elements are employed with plates and bars in plane stress and strain. One should always check. the stresses are found from the constitutive relations. These displacements are solved numerically from their relation to the nodal forces. B. We begin with a summary of simple bar elements where it is possible to write down the matrix K' in eq( 10. bodies with axial symmetry and plate flexure. a. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate how to develop the stiffness matrix for different types of plane elements using a routine procedure. The strains follow from the straindisplacement relations and. FE provides for equilibrium and compatibility of its internal stress and strain distributions and matches external boundary conditions of known force and displacement. The reader is referred to a specialist text [I]. When the assembly is elastically strained. It should be emphasised. In the stifiess or displacement method of finite elements the displacements at the nodal points are the unknowns. the behaviour of the entire body may be computed from the known elastic behaviour of its elements. denote column matrices or column vectors. torsion of prismatic bars. f=K6 ( 1 0. K.1a) Then. u. Alternatively. The approach adopted here is firstly to derive an element stiffness matrix K" connecting nodal point force and displacement vectors f' and 6' respectively. The finite element method is used when solutions are not readily available from the classical theory of elasticity.435 C H A P T E R 10 FINITE ELEMENTS 10. however. therefore. The vectors take a physical meaning as with force f and displacement 6. This relation is established by assembling a stiffnesss matrix which connects vectors of nodal point forces and displacements for the element in question.1 The Stiffness Method This introduction to finite elements (FE) will show how the theory of elasticity. .1a) by inspection. is employed for the subdivision of a body into smaller elements interconnected throughout at nodal points. C.1b) Bold uppercase Roman letters A. that FE methods cannot improve on known stress function solutions. In this technique of discretization the initial unstrained shape of the body is described by an assemblage of elements.
A .436 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10. u Figure 10. L. The element nodes 1 and 2 twist by amounts 8.is symmetrical. It . In this case K' is obvious from inspection sincef= (AE1L)u. These produce positive displacements u. The element is particularly useful for the analysis of the forces and displacements in the ties and struts of framed structures. with uniform crosssectional area.2 Bar Elements 10. ' where f' = [A. is 2 x 2 because each of the two nodes has a single degree of freedom. L  x. in Fig. The stresses and strains follow from u = EuIL and E = u l E .2) and 8e= [ u. connecting nodal points 1 and 2.2. as shown in Fig. and 8. K . 10. Consider a bar element of length.. u . ] ~ The element stiffness matrix.1 Uniaxial Stress This simplest loading of a uniform bar element is either an axial tensile or compressiveforce. and t. 10.la) is simply ( 1 0.6. at node 1 andf. 10. relative to the undeformed bar. Figure 10.1.2 Torsion Consider a uniform circular shaft element of length L subjected to nodal torques t .1 Bar element Let the axis of the bar be aligned with the xdirection. at node 2 act in the direction x positive.2.5))supplies directly the components of the torsional stiffness matrix as 6 t 168= JGIL (10. Nodal forcesf.2 Shaft element under torsion Torsion theory (eq(5.This reveals that the form of eq( 10. and u2..3a) .
In the loaded beam this axis deflects with radius of curvature R at position z.3a) as ' j: j $1 = (10. can be shown to be [2] . 8. the shear strain ye= [ y. for ?' c L by +La. K follows directly from eq( 10. 0 . g. of the section (see Fig. act to produce a deflection. fZlTand 6' = [ 8. Two degrees of freedom existing at each node and therefore K' is a 4 x 4 (2'x 2. m. strains and stresses under bending. m. ( 10.2.4a) Figure 10.3b) 1 . q. We may deduce that the element stiffness matrix is 2 x 2 since there are two nodes with a single degree of freedom at each node. 8. Once the nodal twists have been found.]' and 6 = [v. At nodes 1 and 2 a shear force. 10. 10. For a single element.) symmetrical matrix connecting f to 6 as follows: where the elements of the stiffness matrix K. 9 .3a) is used to determine the displacements.1a) we identify f' = [ t .3 Beam Bending A beam element (see Fig. and a rotation. y2ITand stress 7' = [ r. v. the positive directions shown. r21' will follow from y = rlG = r e / L as ye= (r/L)6' T = (GrlL)6' ' 10. Transverse axes x and y pass through the centroid. and a moment.3b). v2 4 1 '.l1] [ : j where in eq( 0. The coordinate direction z is aligned with the longitudinal centroidal (neutral) axis for the beam in its unloaded condition.FINITE ELEMENTS 437 where J = Ird 4/32 is the polar second moment of area and G is the rigidity modulus. m. similar to that derived previously for the bar element under tension.3 Beam element in length and crosssection Column vectors of nodal "forces" and "displacements" are defined respectively as f = [ q . 1'.
10.1 (see chapter 6): = = Element I: mi.458 kN ' ' Element 11: m2.073 kNm 0 1 m.332 kNm m2.4 Fixing and restraining moments Figure 10. Fixing the beam at the nodes enables the left and right fixedend moments and forces to be found from formulae given in table 6. Example 10. When a finite element analysis is made of the nodal moments m. the bending stress and strain at each node follow from bending theory (see eq(4. = 6 x 4 x 2 2/62 2.332kNmn m. SkN 6kN 5kN 6kN 5.667 kNm = m.4a using a single element for each bay.333 kNm q23= 6(3 x 4 x 2 2+ 2')/6'= 1.1 Derive the moment and shear force diagrams for the beam in Fig.4b to produce hogging curvature.556 kN q3. .4b shows our continuous beam arranged in two..542 kN = q 2 .74 kNm q i 2= W (3ab2+ b3)/L3 5(3 x 5 x 9 2+ 9'/143 = 3. m2 and m 3 .5423 kN (') 10. = Wab2/L2 5 x 5 x 92/142 10.438 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES KC= .= W a 2blLZ= 5 x 5.= W (3a26 + a )/L3= 5(3 x 5 x 9 + 5'11 4 = 1. Check from moment distribution. bay elements I and I1 with nodes 1 . 3. = 6 x 4' x 216' = 5.444 kN These moments act in the sense shown in Fig.4b) L 3 12 12 Once the nodal displacements have been found. they must act in . 9 2 3 Figure 10.3)). x 9/142= 5. 2 and 3 coincident with its supports./ai 12 I 6L 12 4 L 2 6L 6L 6L 2L2 6L 1 ( I0. 10.= 6(3 x 4 2 x 2 + 4')/6'= 4.333 kNm (b) I q12=3.
6 167 Assembling eqs(i.8377 kN. = .= 0. and 8.55. K. K. m ' = .That is.2 61.' Thus the stiffness matrices for these two elements are 8. conventionally.2 61.2 8. m. = 4E(21) 114 = 0.35 El 103 8. = 12El16 = 0.5.923 kN.0612EI K2.' = .6 (iii) 286 0 0 105.286EI and. = 2. 3 (iv) .4 61. = 9.8 1238. the three rows in m lead to three equations necessary for the solution to B..75 61.0082/(EI ) and 8.4 55. = .1667EI K2.923 kN.598 kNm. = v2 = v3 = 0 in eq(iii).6.0. K . = 0.333 kNm. Recovering the nodal forces and moments from the individual element stiffness matrices in eqs(i) and (ii) gives 4..75 61.8377 kN.667EI K2: = 2EI 16 = 0. m ' = .2 571.6 167 0 333 667 Since v .6 667 167 333 167 167 333 667 K' = EI  61. 8. clockwise moments are positive.2 0 105.089/(EI ).11= 4EI I6 = 0. The solutions to these equations are 8..75 61. for element I.2 8. 8.75 61. m. .5.5714EI K 2 i = 2E(21 )I14 = 0.2 286 0 0 0 0 167 333 .2 571.ii) within an overall stiffness matrix.75 61.75 61.4~).2 8.6 167 167 167 55.996/(EI ).' = 0.2 I 61. leads to 8..167 571.2 286 (iji) 8." = 1.4b).6 167 55.2 61.4 167 55.' 10.2 64.4 61.' = 12E(21)/143 = 0. They are where.1. = 6E(21)/14.75 61. from eq(l0.8 .00875El Kl.6 167  167 55.4." = 6EI 16.333El .671 kNm. q.FINITE ELEMENTS 439 opposition to release the beam at these nodes (see Fig.332 kNm.lO.0556EI K. 4. for element 11." = .2 286 55.= 21.
These ordinates are shown separately to a common datum within the mner diagram in Fig. 10.' = + 92  3. 10. = q I 2 4.8377 = .4444 + 1. 5 the freemomentdiagrams that apply to each beam element when taken in isolation. 1 0 .2.4578 = 0.6067 kN T = These may be checked from the gradients to the rn.4.5a . The latter shows zero moments at each end and a moment of 8.6b.338 kNm (5.774 kN I 2 q3= qj2+ q3I1 .923 = .598 = 2.440 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The moments in eq(iv) are employed in Fig. 10.923 . the fixedend moments and reactions are w12/12 and wN2 respectively.5a and b show positive hogging moments and negative sagging moments. 10.74 + 2../dz.. Where the nodes do not coincide with the supports it is necessary to lump distributed loading into equal concentrated forces at each node (see Example 10. The net forces are found from eqs(iv) and Fig.332 FEM.6193 kN 1 = 921 + 91 + q23 + 92" = .667 + 5.6b) since the shear force diagram (Fig.1. diagram (Fig.671) at the inner support.8377 = . The ~ ordinates within the shaded areas in Fig. superimpose upon Fig.2.5423 + 0.6a give the net moments. In the case of uniformly distributed is loading wlunit length.c for the construction of the net fixing moment diagram (c).kNm Figure 10. .4b as follows: 9 .=10. 10.5.6~) the derivative q = dm.1. 10.. This will always apply where the elements are the bays of a continuous beam. Next.1S555 .5 Construction of the fixing moment diagram Figures 10. If a concentrated fcrce also acts in the span then superposition may be used to give the net fixing values. Adding the fixedend moment diagram in (a) to the restraining moment diagram in (b) gives the net fixing moment diagram in (c)..4). m.
10.906 .569 . as shown in Table 10.666 0 10.393 Figure 10.1./nz= (2I/14)/ [(2//14)+(1/6)] =0.5.004 0 8. where clockwise fixedend moments are taken to be positive...539 Moment distributions are applied to this beam.333 5. This method employs the fixedend moments previously calculated together with the following distribution factors m = (I / L )/ C(I / L ) for each bay.6 Bending moment and shear force diagrams The moment distribution method provides a rapid check on the FE solution for our continuous beam.kNm (c) h 5.573 .381 5.3.FINITE ELEMENTS 441 16.093 2.461 rn 23 / rn = ( I / 6)/ [(2I /14) + (I / 6)] = 0. .2.740 .333 0 5.5c. half the magnitude of the release moments. and equal.166 .4a Node Distribution Factors Fixedend Moments Release at A and C Carry over Modified Moments Unbalanced Moment .337 .338 m.071 free moment 8..774 2.221 13. pistribute Net Moments 2 3 0. The resulting net moment at node 2 confirms the corresponding value shown in Fig. They are nz.8.619 3.5.2.333 10. The latter are injected at nodes 1 and 3 to ensure zero net moments at these points. Table 10.461 0. 10.332 5.1 Moment distribution for beam in Fig.667 5.539 .337 0 1 .332 .2.10. The moments carried over to node 2 retain the sense of.6067 2.
. SPE can be expressed from eq(8. The basis for this is to employ a suitable energy method. For a deformable element we write P as the sum of the strain energy stored U and the work of external forces V . The nodal force f' and internal stress (J are real and in equilibrium. It will be seen that either method reveals that K' can be expressed in terms of the product of matrices in the nodal point coordinates and the elastic constants for the material. we shall see (section 10.26a) in its most useful forms: f" 6'" 6'"'f' SO'E' dV= 0 E"udV=O (1 0.b) f.la.3 Energy Methods Equations (lO.6a) . Superscript v denotes that displacements and strains are virtual.29) in the alternative forms: d( J uT de d v .5. 10.. eq(l0. ) experience virtual inline displacements. Thus we can write eq(8. 10. Recall from Chapter 8 that we identified this with the principle of virtual displacements. 6. A detailed derivation of the components of K' will now follow for more complex elements. The virtual internal strains E" and nodal displacements 6" are compatible but are independent of the real forcestress system.3. rotations and twists at the nodal points. The superscript e refers to the element's nodal forces and displacements. We can therefore integrate the strain independently of stress.f eT 6 ) =o (1 0. In this equation 6'"' is to be read as the transpose of the virtual nodal displacement vector.5a) (10.6) that f ' it is compiled from an equivalent system of concentrated nodal forces using the virtual work principle. The "force" vector f ' will contain the real nodal forces.b) show that the FE method is resolved into finding the element stiffness matrix K'. 6 . The choice of method will depend upon which is the more convenient to apply. This does not alter the magnitude of the resulting scalar products since f' 6 = 6' f and E' u = uT E. Virtual forces are used with the flexibility FE method.5b) In eqs(l0.5b) is the most convenient form for deriving K'.5a. 2.3. u and E are all column matrices. Here a system of real forces.2 Stationary Potential Energy A stationary value of the total potential energy P exists under equilibrium conditions. moments and torques. 3 . 10. The nodal "displacement" vector 6 '"contains all the deflections.442 MECHANlCS OF SOLlDS AND STRUCTURES Up to now we have merely stated the form of stiffness matrices in eqs(10. V . Where forces are distributed. through which the stress and strain will generally vary. In the FE analyses that follow. Two methods most often employed are the principal of virtual work (PVW) and stationary potential energy (SPE) [2]. The reversal in the order of their multiplication governs the matrix to transpose.2) .(10. The force vector will contain the applied forces acting at nodal points usually around the boundary. The integral is applied over volume. ".1 Principle of Virtual Work The stiffness FE method employs a virtual displacement with real loads applied to the nodes of an element. f i ( k = I .4).
when applied with respect to the element displacement vector W . Figure 10. For the integration over strain eq( 10.6b) Stationary PE can then be applied using a suitable partial derivative. re =dB/&.8a.feTae)= 0 dV (10.7 Prismatic bar In a prismatic bar.6b) gives ap/aae = %J [ aT(a& lase) + & T (aa/aae )I d v feT =0 ( 10.6a) becomes d ( % s o T & . where the section remains constant over length z. 10.7).FINITE ELEMENTS 443 For a Hookean material there is proportionality between stress and strain (both are real). the twist rate. is a constant. 6~ ) where the relationship uTE = cT u has been applied. 10.4 Prismatic Torsion St Venant's theory of prismatic bars deals with a uniform torque applied to a solid section of arbitrary crosssection (see Fig. 10. For example. 11 Y X L X Figure 10.eq(l0.8 Bar crosssection . The inplane displacements of point P to P ' are u and v as shown in Fig.
v=lezx and w = @ ( x .8~) (10.b.444 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10.c) the three displacements are given as [3] u=ezy.9b).c) The warping displacement function @ ( x .b) Eliminating a between eqs( 10.x 3 ) is twice the element area ( b ). Y) = & I + a2x + a3y (10.1Oa) ( 1 0. 10.4.1Ob) where 2 8 = (yz.8b.8b) @=Ma (10.8a) which we write as 6=Aa (10.y 2 )(x2 .11 a) which are written from eq( 10. 10.8a) as follows: .' 6' where ( 10.c) Subdividing the crosssection into triangular elements.x 2 ) .7a. y ) e (10.4. we have for the three nodes of any element (see Fig.y 3 ) ( xI . and 6 = A (A').28a . 7 ~is taken as ) @(x. In eqs(5. y ) in eq( 1 0 .2 Strains ( 10.9a.(yl.I Displacements In addition to u and v there is an axial warping displacement w of P relative to P.
14) 10.c) Substituting eq( 10.13~) gives the stress vector as U= G C [(CAe')6 ' + C p ] a= C C (B8" + C p ) a (10.c) Writing.4 Stiffness Matrix There are no nodal forces in this case but we can apply the stationary energy principle to find a pseudostiffness equation for warping.12a) where B = CA takes the explicit form: B = 1 2A (10.'we substitute a = A e .4.4.3 Stresses The shear stresses follow from ( 10. A'.29) we have a contribution to potential energy P from the work of external forces V = . 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 z y x E E= C(a + p ) a (10.FINITE ELEMENTS 445 0 0 0 0 l o 0 0 1 al a 2 E + a3.15) U = ( l / 2 ) J e T o d V = ( L / 2 ) J e'odh (10.12b) 10. for brevity.' ) 6" + Cp ]e= (B8' I + Cp )a (10. I = ( A e ) .JT(dO/dz)dz=.9b) into eq(l0.l g efromeq(l0.T a L and from the strain energy stored (10.1 lb.l lc) E= [(CA ' .13b.16a) . In eq(8.12a) into eq( 10.13a) which take the corresponding matrix form u=GCE (10.
446
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
where dA = dw x dy in Fig. 10.8b. Substitute eqs(l0.12a) and (10.14) into eq(l0.16a).
U = (GU2)a
'
(CA'
6 ' + C p )' C ( CA' 'rSe + C p) dA 6'
= (GU2)a'
J[ C (A'.'
J~ J
+ p)]'C'(
A'' 6'+
p) dA
(10.16b)
=(GU2)a2J [ 8 T ( A e  ' ) T + P T ]T C 2 ( e  ' 6 ' + p ) d A C A Now as C'C
= C' = C, the expansion of the integrand in (10.16b) becomes
U = ( G L / 2 ) a 2 [6e'(Ae')'CAe' 6'+6''(Ae')'Cp+
PTCAe'8'+pTCP]dA ( 1 0 . 1 6 ~ )
Employing the symmetrical product relation (Ae' 6e)T = [(A'.' Cp and third terms of eq( 10.16~) leads to
ae)' (Cp )] 'in the second
(10.16d)
U=(GW2)a2 [6'T(A'')TCAe' ' + 2 ( A c ~ ' 6 ' ) ' C P + P T C P ] d A 6
Thus, from eqs( 10.15) and (10.16d), the total PE is
f = U + V = (GL/2)a2 J[8e'(A'')TCA'i6'
+ 2(Ae'6')'CP + P'CpIdA
 T a L (10.17)
Equation (10.17) is stationary for (i) a f B 8 = 0 and (ii) aP/ace = 0. Condition (i) enables the warping displacements to be found as follows:
Since A' and 6' are independent of the area A , this becomes [6"(Ae')'
a as'
C ( 1 dA) Ae'6'] + 2 ~ [ 6 ' ~ ( A ~  ' ) ~ ] = 0 (Cp) dA
a
a8
JA
Now as aheT/a6' = I and Cp = p, the differentiation gives
(A'.')TC(fdA)A''6'+2(A'')T/ A (pdA)=O
The integration yields
(A'~')'CAAr~'6'+2(Ae~')'pb,] =O
(10.18a)
where p=[ 0  y x 1' is referred to the coordinates of the centroid: 2 = (xI x2 + x3)/3 and + = (y, + yz + y, )/3. Equation (10.18a) is written as a warping stiffness equation:
K'6'  F e z ( )
where, from eqs( 10.18a,b), the stiffness matrix (units of force/length) is
(10.18b)
0.19a)
0.19b)
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447
GL .8A
Comparing eqs( 10.18a,b), the pseudo "force" matrix (torque units: force x length) is
F" =  GL (A'.
I)
'PA
( 10.20a)
(10.20b)
0 0 0
z
I A p T Cp d A
=
[ z y x ]
0 1 0
0 0 1
y
x
dA =
( 7 2 + ~ 2 ) ~
(10.21b)
Equations (10.21a,b) supply the angular twist rate as
a? =
8 l L = TL/ [2 heTK' 6  2 6' F' ' '
+ GL (y' + X 2 ) A ]
(1 0.22)
This FE solution is particularly useful for determining stress concentrations in drive shafts machined with splines and keyways [3,4]. The key region may require a finer subdivision with a more refined triangular element having three additional nodes at the centre of each side. This particular element requires a warping function with quadratic terms in x and y.
10.5 Plane Triangular Element
To find the stiffness matrix for the plane triangular element (e) in Fig. 10.9a, we firstly number the nodes 1 , 2 and 3 in an anticlockwise direction. Within an assembly of elements e = I, 11, 111, IV etc, the resulting stress, strain and displacement relations are applied in the same sense as the element node numbering.
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MECHANlCS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Figure 10.9 Nodal displacements and forces for a triangular element
10.5.I Displacements
The coordinates of nodes 1, 2 and 3 are ( x , , y , ) , (x, , y,) and (x3, y3) respectively. The displacements of each node may be expressed in an assumed function u ( x , y) and v (x, y ) of their coordinates. For any point (x, y ) , a simple linear displacement function is assumed [5,6]
u = a, + a x x + a , y a'sx + a,y
v=aq
+
(10.23a)
(1 0.23b)
where the six coefficients a , , a2... ah,match the total number of degrees of freedom for the element, i.e. two per node. The linear polynomial will also ensure displacement continuity along the sides of adjacent elements. The two constants, al and a,, in eqs( 10.23a,b) account for any rigid body translation. Equations (10.23a,b) are combined in the matrix form to give the displacement vector 6 = [u uIT for any point ( x , y) in the element as
=[:I[
l x y O O 0 O O O l x y
I
a3
6=Aa
( 1 0.24a,b)
a4
In eq( 10.24b), a = [a, a, a,,a5 4 ' is a column matrix and A is a 6 x 2 matrix in x a, 1 and y . Substituting x and y for each node in eq( 10.24a) gives the nodal point displacement vectors: 6, = [ u I v , IT, 6, = [ u2 v21T and 6, = [ uj v , ] ~ . These may be combined to give the element's nodal point displacement vector:
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449
l x , y l o o
0 0
0
a1
a2
a3
a4
0
l x , y ,
0
1 x 2 y 2 0 0
0 0
0
1x2y*
6'=A'a
( I 0.25a,b)
1 x 3 y 3 0 0
0 0 0
0
a5
OT6
1x3y3
where 6' = [ 6, 6, 6, 1' and A' is a 6 x 6 matrix, derived from A. The coefficients a,, ... a2 a h ,are expressed in terms of the displacements (u. v) from solving the six equations in (10.25a). That is, by inverting matrix A in eq( 10.25b)
a = (A').' 6'
where
( 1 0.26a)
(Aa)'
.1
2A
in which
A=Y2[(x,  X * ) ( Y ,  Y , ) 
(x,x,)(YI
Y,)l
(10.26~) is the area of the element. A check on eq(10.26b) is provided by the square matrix relation A' A'.' = I. Combining eqs( 10.24b) and (10.26a) expresses displacements 6 = [u v JT within the element in terms of the displacements 6' = [6, 6, 8,lTat its nodes. This gives
Equation (10.27a) is similar to eq( 10.10a) and will appear again for plane elements. In fact, the matrix product
defines the element shape function as the following example shows.
Example 10.2 Show that the triangular element displacements u, v may be expressed as u = N , u , and v = N , v, (i = 1,2, 3) where N, = a, + b,x + c,y. Determine the coefficients a,, b, and c, in terms of the nodal point coordinates.
Substituting eqs( 10.24a) and (10.26b) into eq( 10.27a), the matrix multiplication leads to
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
These show that the coefficients are the same so we can write these in an abbreviated form:
u = Ni ui = N, u , + N2 + N u, u2 ,
and v = Ni v, = N, v, + N2 + N3u, v2
(iji) (iii iv)
where
Equations (i) and (ii) must of course give the nodal displacements u = ul, v = v, for x = xI and y = y, etc. This requires the substitution of A from eq(10.26~). The coefficients a,, bi and c,
in eqs(iii)(iv), which appear in terms of nodal coordinates, depend upon the displacement function assumed for the element.
10.5.2 Strains
The displacement derivatives, given in eqs(2.17ac), provide compatible, Cartesian strain components. From eqs( 10.23a,b):
(10.28a) (10.28b) ( I 0.28~)
In matrix form, the strain components (10.28ac) are written as
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
E=Ca
(10.29a,b)
0 0 1 0 1 0
In eq( 10.29b), E = [ E ~ yv f and a = [a,a, a3 a as a;, IT are column matrices and C E? , is a 6 x 3 matrix. Substituting eq(10.26a) into eq( 10.29b) expresses strains E = [ E , E,. yv IT at any point (x, y) within the element in terms of the nodal point displacements 6'. That is
E
= C(Ae)'8 6 =B '
(10.30a)
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451
r
Y2Y3
Y3Y1
X 3  X 2
YIYZ x1x3 0
XZXI
B  2A
0
0
x2x,
(1 0.30b)
x 3  x ~Y 2  Y 3 x 1  x 3 Y 3  Y l
YIYz
Note, that B in eq( 10.30b) appears only in terms of the nodal point coordinates. The three strain components are therefore constant throughout the element. This is a consequence of the linear displacement functions in eqs( 10.23a.b) where matrix C in eq( 10.30a) does not contain x or y.
10.5.3 Constitutive Relations
Firstly, recall the constitutive relations (2.14a,b) for plane stress. The "through thickness" strain eLin eq(2.14~) does not appear in the matrix since it depends upon o and op. For a , plane strain condition, with cZ= 0, the corresponding relations appear in eq(2.15a,b,c). We have seen in eq(2.26) that these relations may be expressed in the symbolic form, E = P u. In each case the square matrix P may be inverted to give the internal stresses in terms of known strain components as u = P' E where u = [ ox oy tXylT. Writing D = P' substituting and from eq( 10.30a),
u=DE=DBV
( 10.3 1a)
The components of the inverse 3 x 3 matrix D are found from expressing the stress components a,, orand try terms of the strain components E,, E? and y,. . For plane stress, in eqs(2.14a,b,d) show that
E
( 1  V Z ) [v
D .
1 O 0 0 %(lv)
j
v /(,l
1
0

(10.31b)
1
D E(lv)
v/(lv)
v)
0
0
( 1  2 v)/[2( 1  v)]
(10.3 Ic)
(I
+
v)( 1 2v)
0
The analysis may proceed with the single matrix D provided it is remembered that its components, D, in eqs(l0.3lb and c), will depend upon the nature of the plane problem. Because D and B do not contain the generalised coordinatesx, y, it follows from eq( 10.31a) that the three stress components a,, q..rxyare also constant throughout a triangular element for given nodal displacement 6'. Normally, these are taken to apply to the centroid or midside length of the element when plotting stress distributions.
452
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
10.5.4 Element Stiffness Matrix
An element stiffness matrix K', of dimensions 6 x 6, relates the nodal point force vectors f , = [LIXl f2 = [fr2 J 2 I' and f3= [& J 3 1' (see Fig. 10.9b) to the nodal point displacements IT, 6, = [ uI v I IT, 6, = [u2 v 2 1' and 6, = [u, v3 1' (see Fig. 10.9a) through the relation
f' = K 6' '
(10.32a)
The element force vector f ' is
f'
= [fl
f2
f?
IT = [Ll XI L A2 f r 3 8 IT 2 3
VI
and the element displacement vector 6' is
6'= 16, 6, 6, IT = [ UI 6 = ( K )  lf' '
u,
v2 uj
v) I'
To obtain 6' from eq( l0.32a), K' will need to be inverted:
( 1 0.32b)
' The problem is again resolved into defining K in eq( 10.32a) from known nodal point coordinates (xi. y i , for i = 1, 2, 3) and the elastic constants E and v for the material. In this case we shall use both the principal of virtual work and stationary potential energy to derive K. '
(a) Virtual Work Substitute eqs(10.30a) and (10.31a) into eq(l0.5b) to give
6'"' f' = J (B Vv)'(D B 6') dV
(10.33a)
Because neither B nor D depends upon x and y and (B 6'v)T= 8'BT,eq( 10.33a) becomes " Gev' f' = gevT BTD B 8') (
I dV
(10.33b)
Cancelling the virtual displacements and putting JdV = V = Ar, where A and t are respectively the area and thickness of the triangle, eq( 10.33b) leads to
f ' = B' D B 6' V
(10.33~)
Comparing eqs( 10.32a) and (10.33~) defines the element stiffness matrix as
K'=BTDBV
(b) Stationary Potential Energy Substituting eqs( 10.30a) and (10.31a) into eq( 1 0 . 6 ~gives )
Yz Y z
(10.34a)
I,, I,,
[( D
E)'
[( D
E
)'
av B + E'
( B 8') + E'
a
7D B 8 ')] ( as
)' D B dV
a
dV  feT 0 =
D B ]dV  f" = 0
feT =
1e' D B dV = fv (B 6' "
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453
in which D = DT.Since we can write this as
feT BeT(BT B) V = D
the transpose of both sides gives
f ' = [6CT(BTDB)ITV= (BTDB)T6 V = (D B)TB6C V = (BTDTBV ) 6' '
and it again follows that K' = BTDB V , as in eq( 10.34a). Thus, the components of Ke may be found explicitly from multiplying the matrices BT, D and B strictly in the order of the right side of eq( l0.34a). This results in the following 6
(10.34b)
In eq( 10.34b) the components o the leading diagonal are f
(10.34~)
and the offdiagonal components are
(10.34d)
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
where Dij= Dji(i,j = 1,2,3) have been previously defined in eqs( 10.31 b and c). These show, for example, (i) D , = E/( 1  v 2 )= D,, in plane stress, (ii) D , = (1  v ) E / [( 1+ v )( 1 2v )] = D,, in plane strain and (iii) D,, D,, = 0 for both conditions. Replacing E with E' in = eqs( I0.30a) refers the constant nodal strain components to each of the three nodes as
,
,
c e = B e 6'
(10.35a)
where B' = B in eq( 10.30b). Similarly, from eq(l0.3la) the constant nodal stresses are
o e = D B e 6'= H e 6'
(10.35b)
The product H e = D B e in eq( 10.35b) is again defined, explicitly, in terms of the nodal point coordinates and the elastic constants as
(10.3%) Equation (10.3%) applies to both plane stress and strain in which eqs(lO.31 b,c) again supply their respective D i j components.
10.5.5 Overall Stiffness Matrix
Finally, the overall stiffness matrix K is assembled from the individual element stifness matrices K' (e = I, 11, I11 etc). The nodal displacement vector can then be found from the following inversion process:
f=K6,
=+
6=K'f
(10.36a,b)
The assembly of an overall stiffness matrix is now illustrated for the 4element plane stress cantilever shown in Fig. 10.10.
Figure 10.10 Cantilever with four triangular elements
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455
First note that K' for each element is 6 x 6. The dimensions of K' follow from the fact that there are two degrees of freedom in the three nodes of an element. Since there are two degrees of freedom at each of 6 nodes for the beam, the total of 12 degrees of freedom implies that the overall stiffness matrix K will have dimensions of 12 x 12. Consider element e = I, eq(10.32a) becomes f ' = K ' 6'. Since the numbering is clockwise then 3 replaces 2 and 2 replaces 3 in the foregoing analyses. This gives
(10.37a)
, and The matrix components K' are again defined by eqs( 10.34~ d) when subscripts 2 and 3 on x and y are interchanged. These single element stiffnesses are reassembled within the overall stiffness matrix K in eq(10.36a) as follows:
(10.37b)
.
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. .
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. .
. .
. .
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. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Applying eq(10.32a) to the second element e = 11, gives f ' = K" 6 ". Since the node numbering 234 here is anticlockwise,this equation becomes
456
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
4 2
fY 2
(10.37~)
fx4 4 4
in which Ki; are defined from eqs( 1 0 . 3 4 ~ d) where subscripts 1 , 2 and 3 on x and y are and replaced by 2, 3 and 4 respectively. These are assembled within eq( 10.36a) as follows:
.
.
. .
. . . .
(10.37d)
.
.
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.
.
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. .
. .
1v6
In ak,llying f ” = K”’ 6”’ to element e = 111, eq( l0.32a) becomes
4 3 4 3 fx 5
( 10.37e)
4 5
fx4
Y!
4
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Finally, for element e = IV,f Iv = K'" 6"' becomes
(10.370
When the components of Km and KIv are further added to the appropriate locations and combined with eqs( 10.37b) and (10.37d), the overall stiffness eq( 10.36a) for the cantilever becomes
(1 0.38a)
The large number of stiffness calculations that arises here with just four elements shows that a computer is an essential requirement in FE practice involving several hundred elements. Note that K, like K', is again symmetrical about the leading diagonal. With careful nodenumbering, a narrow banding may be achieved thus reducing the amount of computer memory required. Cost may further be reduced by increasing the speed when solving for 6 between the many simultaneous equations that eq( 10.38a) contains. For this, submatrices are used in the assembly of K. For example, with the partitioning of eqs(l0.37a,c,e and t) submatrices S,' , are identified within eq( 10.37g) as follows:
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
f1
f2 f3 f4
(10.38b)
fs
. f6
where f = [f, f ,IT and 8 = [ u v IT. Individual stiffnesses in eq( 10.38a) will reappear with the addition of the'submatrices. For example, in eq(10.38b), S,,' + S,," + S,,m,represents
The final step is to ensure that the boundary conditions are met. There are various procedures to maintain zero displacement at support points. In a manual assembly of K we can account for u , = v , = u2 = v2 = 0 by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the fixed displacements. Alternatively, negligible displacements can be achieved numerically by multiplying the appropriate diagonal stiffnesses, K,,, by a large number, say 10"' , This is equivalent to directly setting K i i = 1 and the remaining Kij= 0 in the row and column, as the following example illustrates.
Example 10.3 Given 0 = 120 mm, h = 80 mm and t = 10 mm for the cantilever in Fig. 10.10, derive the overall stiffness matrix and find the nodal displacements when F = 10 kN. Take E = 200 GPa and v = 0.3.
Table 10.2 gives specific data for the stiffness calculations. The origin of x, y is coincident with node 1. The applied force is reacted by vertical concentrated forces at nodes 1 and 2.
Table 10.2 Nodal force and coordinate input data (mm, kN)
Node x
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
f,
0
f,
0 0 0 8 0 120 0 120 80 240 0 240 80
5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0
It is shown later in Example 10.5 that the fixedend reaction follows a symmetrical parabolic distribution which can be replaced by an equal lumping of forces.
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The components Kjjof the individual element stiffness matrix (10.34b) are expressed in eqs( 10.34c,d). The element area A = bh/2 = 120 x 80/2 = 4800 mm2 is constant and, under plane stress, Dii follows from eq( 10.31b) as
1
0.3
1
0
0
D =
200
x
lo3
0.3
0
( 1  0.3')
0
0.35
A constant coefficient is used for stiffness calcuations with elements of similar geometry and a single beam material
[ E / ( I  v 2 ) ] x t / ( 4 A ) = [ 2 0 0 x lo3/ (] 0.32)]x[10/(4x4800)]=114.47N/mm3 Equations (10.34c,d) were derived for counterclockwise numbering of nodes. Thus for element e = I in Fig. 10.10, it is necessary to interchange the subscripts 2 and 3. Equation (1 0.34~) gives, for example, the diagonal stiffnesses:
Kl I ' = 1 14.47[0,I 6'3 Y 2 ) + D,, (x2  x3 )2 1 = 114.47[1(0  80)2+0.35(0  120)2]= 1.3095 x lo6 N/mm
and from eq( 10.34d) we have a sample of the offaxis stiffnesses:
K,2l
= 1 14.47 P I 2 (x2  x3 )(Y3  Y 2 1 + D,, (x2  x3 16'3  Y 2 11 = 114.47[0.3(@ 120)(0  80) + 0.35(0  120)(0  80)] = 0.7143 x l o 6 N/mm 
For element e = I1 (Fig. 10.lo), counterclockwise node numbers 2, 3 and 4 replace subscripts 1, 2 and 3 respectively in eqs( 10.34c,d). These give, for example,
K12"=
114.47[D12(x4 x3)6'3 Y4)+D,3(X4 x.06'3 Y 4 ) 1 = 1 14.47 [ 0.3( 120  120)(0  80) + 0.35( 120  120)(0  80)] 0
The stiffness components Kijm and K / are found from eqs(10.34c,d) in a similar manner. Assembling the 6 x 6 matrices K ' , K", K"' and K'" within eq(10.38a) gives the 12 x 12 symmetrically banded, overall stiffness matrix K for the cantilever beam (units x lohN/mm):
3846 0.2564 2.7143 .7143 1.01 0 .3297 0.1. 0 0 0 0 2.3122 0 0 0 I .9048 (iii) .7143 (ii) 0 0 0 0 .2564 . .0.2968 0.0. .3846 .0. 0. .9048 0.7326 .7143 1.1.3297 0.2968 0.8096 0.0.3846 0.0.9048 0 0 .0. .3297 .3297 0.2564 0.7143 0 0 .3846 .7143 1. .3297 0.2968 0. .7143 .6484 1.8096 0 0 0 0 0 0 .3846 .7143 0. .3297 0.2564 1. 0.7143 1.7143 0.6190 0.3122  0.7143 0. . 0.7143 0. Alternatively.2564 .2968 0.5769 0. .7326 0.6190 0 0 0 0 0. = 0 and u2= v2 = 0 within the matrix (i).3095 .1538 0.7326 0.3846 .7143 0 0. .3297 0.0.7143 1.7143 3.2564 0.1538 0.2968 0.3122 0.0.3297 0.3.7143 0.7326 0.6484 Equation (ii) then contains eight equations in the eight unknown displacements.9048 0 0.0.3297 0.2564 0.0.6190 0.7143 3.3846 .0. . .9048 0.2564 . 0 0 .7143 0.7143 0 0.7143 0 3.0.3297 0. .3297 1.2564 .3846 1.3297 0.7143 1.8096 .0.7143 0. 0.7143 3.5769 0. it is necessary to impose the fixed displacements u .0.460 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 1.1538 0. 1. = v.5769 .3846 0.1538 0.7326 0.01 0 0 .7143 2.7326 0.2564  0.1538 .8096 0.7143 0 . .0. .3846 0.3846 0.7143 0.7143 .7143 3.6484 0.7143 Before the displacements 6 can be found from the solution to f = K6.3297 .9048 .2564 0.7143 .6484 0.7326 0.0.6484 0.3297 .3297 0.3846 0 1.7143 0.7143 2.3095 0 .3846 0.3846 . .7326 0.7143 .5769 .0. 1.7326 0.7143 3.5769 0.9048 .7143  0.1. matrix K and the force vector fare modified numerically to become (in units of N and mm) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.3846 0.1.7143 0 0 1. .7143 0.3846  3.6484 1.7143 1.0.1. In the direct method.3846 0. 0 .3846 0.7326 1.8096 0.3846 .2564 . in the assembly of K we could eliminate the row and column corresponding to the fixed displacements: 0 0 0 2. .7326 0 0.7326 0.2564 0.0.3846 . . 0.7326 0.3297 1.3297 0.0.3095 0.0.7326 0. 0.2564 .3.9048 0.3297 0.7326 0.3095 0.0.8096 .2564 0 0.7143 0. .5769 . .1538 0.0.0.1.2564 1.0.6484 0.3846 0.7143 3.5769 0.6190 0. .3297 0.7143 0.7143 3.0. .3297 0. .3297 .3846 .1.7143 2. 0 0 . .0.3297 0.6484 .3846 .3297 1.7143 .7143 3.7143 0.3846 0.6190 0.2968 0.0.5769 .7326 0. .3297 0 0.7143 0 1.1.3095 0.6190 0.7143 0.
0239 and v6 = ..e. u5 = . b.3 aligned with an x.. In addition. 10. 10. must be replaced with statically equivalent forces acting at the element nodes. 10.1Ic.z.. Negative v's are downward.11 Force and pressure Components When p acts normally to the edge.11 b shows that p .045. When the pressure p is inclined to the side.0. This requires only that each nodal force be resolved into its x and y components.. p .IT. Where nodal points can be chosen to coincide with concentrated forces applied around the boundary. and p v provide the correct x and y component forces when multiplied by the side area 1 x t . 1' f .8) sin p ] In the case of a varying pressure distribution.0. which appears as a pressure plunit edge area. opposing the + x direction. then p .0. These body forces may be resolved into a vector b = [b.127.0.0186. vj = . 10.. f.z 10. Figure 10. p.= p cos8and p v = p sin6 Figure 10. Distributed loading.0. = p [cos ( p .127. f. We shall now consider separately how to replace p and b with an equivalent system of nodal forces f' using the virtual work principle. u4 = 0.5.10.12b.36b) nodal points must coincide with concentrated force points. and p y denote functions of x and y respectively. v4 = . We wish to replace p with equivalent concentrated nodal forces f = [ L3 J.. . (a) Pressure loading Let a uniformly distributed loading p = [ p .0. the assembly of the force vector f = [ f. However.8)cospl. opposing + y in Fig. i. = p [cos ( p .0477.11 shows how a pressure may be resolved into x and y components within the vector p = [ p x p v 1 '. 10. body forces blunit volume can arise in every element from selfweight and centrifugal forces. forces may be distributed over the boundary edge of an element. fX2 J. u6 = 0.. Similarly negative u's are inward. as shown in Fig.0215.. p.0173.11a allows these components to be expressed as p. we equate the work done by the actual loading to the virtual work of the equivalent forces [7]: . v5 = . Employing the principal of virtual displacements. y coordinate system shown in Fig. p(t x /)sin@ p v=psinO 4 n Figure 10. 3 is straightforward.IT applied to the side 23 of the triangular be element as shown in Fig.12a.FINITE ELEMENTS 461 The solution to eq(iii) provides the following nodal displacements (in mm): u3 = .6 Force Vector In order to invert K within eq( 10. the force resolution given in Fig.
10.Equations (10. use has been made of the equation of the side 23 in Fig.12 Equivalent system of nodal forces bevTfe= b V T p ( t d l ) (1 0. AT depends upon both x and y . I ( 10.40b) to the single variable to x. they may be removed from the integration in (10.25a) and (10.') 6 ] p dl J6evT(AA'')Tp dl =t J VvT(Ae')TATpdl (10.40b) In converting eq( l0. with limits of x2 and x3.40a) where p"= t J AT p dl is a 1 x 6 colummn matrix.39b)gives the equivalent boundary force vector: f' = t ( Ae')T AT p dl = (Ae') T p' ( 10.24a).39a) where t x dl is an elemental area along side 23. Hence.39b).27a) gives VvT = t f VvT f'= t j[(AA . from eq(10. Cancelling GevT in eq( 10.26b) show that the elements of both 6" and (A'' )T are determined by the nodal values. However. Thus p = [ px pp1' should be premultiplied by AT and integrated over x and y term by term.39b) where means [(A')']T. Substituting from eq(10. This gives d l = f spx x*.462 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 10.12b: .
10. = 0 and f .f. The equal lumping provides the equivalent system of nodal forces for the beam shown in Fig.13a. ) is the total force acting on side 23. Figure 10... Equations (10. Show.13 Equivalent nodal forces for a beam with unifonnly distributed loading Case (i): Using the previous analysis let the side 23 in Fig.1 with an appropriate change of subscripts for their node numbering.40a).l3b.x 3 >in which pyt ( x z .f) will apply to the elements e + 1 and e .4la . Hence determine the nodal forces for the distributed beam loading in Fig.1 will increase the equivalent nodal forces for element e.. Since fr3 IT in which Equations (10. is the length of side 23. Each equivalent nodal force is ! x 100 x 0.FINITE ELEMENTS 463 and of the relationships: where I. h ..f )... y . We then set p. 10. These show that:f.x. = 0 andf. it follows f' is 1 x 6 giving f' = [f. in eqs(l0. that a normal uniformly distributed loading is equivalent to lumping equal concentrated forces at nodes 2 and 3. . p = 100 kN/m2 . Example 10. fr2 eq(10. .x .4.40b) into is 6 x 6. = 0. .12a is (i) horizontal and (ii) vertical.. We next substitute eqs(10. = x. = f . A summation is required to give the net equivalent nodal forces.26b) and (10. when side 23 in Fig. = % p g t (x2. = f x 2 = f.41af) satisfy force equilibrium Boundary loading of the adjacent elements e + 1 and e ..01 x 1 = 0.12a lie horizontally.41a . 10.5 kN. = y3 = constant and I. 10.
. = 0.( Y h Y 2. . With the origin for y at node 1. 10. y' = y .y 2 )dy = [tF/(2I ) ] ( h 4 / 3 h4/4) = tFh4/(241) = Fh/2  This gives p' = [0 0 0 F Fx Fh/2 I T . p.10 the vertical side 12 of element I reacts the vertical force F applied at node 5.h / 3 ) = tFh /( 121 ) = F h [tF/(2I)]x[ (yhy2)dy=Fx [tF/(2I) I h Q y (yh .Let t be the thickness. We then set py = 0..4la . forces F/2 at nodes 1 and 2.. (load distributionhit edge area) as where d = h/2.Thus.5 In the beam of Fig. This is zero at the edges and a maximum at the centre (see eq 10. in eqs(l0. f (y. The reaction is distributed parabolically in the manner of the shear stress.40a) with an interchange between subscripts I and 3 0 0 1 0 (iii) =  2A F Fx Fhl . we can lump one half the total horizontal force carried by the sides at each node.h/2 and I = r h / I 2 is the second moment of the section area. x2 = x3 = constant and l. = y. vertically upward. Substituting p' into eq(10. =fr3 = 0 andf.f ). again.46b) expresses the pressure.. These show thatf.y . Substituting eq(i) with pI = 0 into eq(10.464 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Case (ii): Next.y 2 ) .. let the side 23 lie vertically. Show that this reaction is equivalent to equal.46b).y2) d y = [tF/(2I ) ] ( h' / 2 . eq( 10. Example 10.40b) gives 0 1 0 0 x o 0 0 F Y O 0 1 o x .(Y h Y 21 . leaving only fr2 =frs = Yip. 21 Fx (YhYZ) 21 F (ii) O Y FY ((YhY2) 21 The nonzero integrands in eq(ii) are h [ rF / ( 2 1 ) ] (yh . h be the length of the vertical side 12 and b be the length of the horizontal side 13.
10. Figure 10.14 Equivalent nodal body forces The equivalent nodal forces f' (see Fig.43b) O Y . y) gives the equivalent nodal forcesf. .43a) where be = t [AT b 64 becomes 1 0 x o Y O 0 1 o x dA (10.*= F h b/[2(2A)] = F/2. This gives gevTfe = / F " b dV V (10.14a. Since each force system is in equilibrium it does no work under a virtual displacement. Thus 6. Multiplying out eq(iii) and substituting the nodal coordinates (x.b show the six equivalent nodal forces f' = [f.f . (b) Body Forces In Fig. =fr2 = f r 3 =fr3 = 0 and f . In the case of an element rotating about the zaxis. in Fig.42b) from which f' = t (Ael)Tf AT b dA = be (10.14b) are found from the PVW. &2 f.14a are the net components of all such body forces in an individual element.? & IT arising from body forces b = [b. byIT per fn unit volume. and b.FINITE ELEMENTS 465 where A = bh/2. .14a body weight acts vertically downwards and hence is identified as a by component. =&. 10. and by components. Figure 10...42a) Substituting dV= r dA and 6 = AA'" 6' into the right side of eq( 10.42a) gives GCVTfc=i / AAC16e)VTbdA = t 6evT(AeI)T AT b dA 1 A A (10. the radial centrifugal force at any instant is resolved into b. 10.
26b) and (10.2+3 and 3./ t dxdy=(tb.44~1 f) two similar expressions derived from the cyclic permutation I+2. The final force vector appearing in the element stiffness equation f = K' 6 ' will be the sum of the net boundary and body forces in eqs( 10. and by are assumed constant.tb.)A X Y 1 b.1.f ) satisfy equilibrium: where A is the triangle area... x = t b. the integration employs standard double integrals for a triangle of area A as follows: J..43b) becomes ( 10.43~) Substituting eqs( 10..)(x. EJ. b.43a) leads to into Equations( 10.43~) eq(10.44).44a . . the nodal forces of element e are influenced by common sides of three adjacent elements. ) A 13 Thus be in eq( 10. Writing dA = dx x dy. . ) amounts to adding to the RH sides of eqs(10. dA . For multiply connected elements.dA=tb.. . + x2+ x .41 ) and ( 10.466 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES In the case of a uniformly thin element. Ix fY x dy dx = ( t b. Summation of net nodal forces for element e (EL..
15 Finite element meshes for a cantilever . 6. It follows that many elements will be needed to discretise an area when plotting stress distributions from one triangle to the next. the midspan FE stress distributions for a cantilever subdivided into 8 x 24 and 16 x 48 rightangled. That is.454. may only be found by trial. lying in the following range 0 5 w s 2.45a) is expressed from the equilibrium of the node forces f .'"1 ( 10. The various simplifying procedures used nowadays to reduce memory store and hence cost from either direct or iterative solutions have been discussed elsewhere [810]. IT is the displacement vector and w is the SOR factor. Example 10. A in eq( l0. one that minimises the number of iterations in eq( 10. Now. The convergence requires that [ J 0. eq( 10. where 6.45b) where the terms within [ ] are outofbalance forces due to an assumed displacement. Y 2d 3 (a) midsection 8 x 2 4 I 1 I midsection 16 48 F Figure 10.45a) would be used with a tolerance limit to specify when iteration should cease. Assemble the overall stiffness matrix K from each K'. = [ u.FINITE ELEMENTS 467 10. The SOR method therefore involves less memory and is faster than a direct solution by Gaussian elimination..45b) employs the lower triangular part of K applicable to node r. for the r th nodal point and the i th iteration.I 5 1 c N S. Determine K' for each element. eq( l0.. Apply boundary conditions and solve for the nodal displacements 6 = K . The particular method employed here is GaussSiedel iteration with successive overrelaxation (SOR). isosceles meshes shown in Figs 10. The latter ensures a convergent solution for a symmetric matrix K. Generally. errors will arise when approximating a curved boundary with the element's straight side unless the element size is reduced. Determine element strain and stress from u = D B 6 and E = B 6 respectively. In practice.7 Mesh Size axd Curved Boundaries The simple. I K. 4.. 3.' f . 2.5. for any given w value.= [ f.15a and b. To examine these effects a plane stresdstrain FE Fortran program was executed in order to: 1 .6 Compare with the engineer's theory of bending. The computer provides a rapid solution to the many simultaneous equations involved within step 3. Normally. f. stress and strain values are referred to the centroid or to a midside position. Also.IT as r. An optimum o value. plane triangular element does not allow stress and strain to vary within its area. v.
t. = 0) are given in Table 10. (MPa) rrY (MPa) y (mm) a.) or the appropriate stress function [2]. 40 20 0 20 x 8 x24mesh 0 1 6 48mesh ~ 40 Figure 10.7 16.15a.468 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The elastic constants and beam dimensions are similar to those given in Example 10.99 15.37 66.06 15 . and shear stress ru from the plane stress programme (setting a.95 .54 16.34 7. These apply to the midsides of triangles lying along the vertical midsections shown in Fig.67.16 55 .14. Table 10.76 11. 40 Y Y M Y.3 Bending and shear stresses across depth at midspan 8 x 24 MESH 16 x 48 MESH y (mm) a. The bending stress cr.3 but with a corresponding increase in the number of elements.05 35 12. (MPa) rv (MPa) 94.06 1 1.75 4.62 93.73. 10.3.27 4. 10.b.0 .5 1 A comparison is made in Fig.05 75 21.b.98 17. The latter is supplied by either the engineer's theory of bending (e.3 and the classical solution.26.84 39.53 5 10 20 25 30 40 45 50 60 65 70 69.73 17.16 Comparison between FE and simple bending stresses The bending theory gives the respective bending and shear stresses as .7  8.16 between the FE stress values from Table 10.40.85 .25 15.
2d= 80 mm. 10.16a. the relatively coarse 28 FE mesh and the fine 112 mesh are equally representative of the theoretical stress values. it is best to avoid having sides of sharp curvature by selecting smaller elements adjacent to the curved boundary.x ) = l o x 1O3(24Ox)= 1200Nmm Figure 10.46a).18 reveals that improved accuracy is achieved with the finer threenoded triangular mesh (Fig.I8 shows that the stresses from the three solutions remain in good agreement as their magnitudes increase towards the centre. Fig. Alternatively.17a and b.The stresses found apply to F = 10 x IO’N.b)).16a shows that the 16 x 48 FE mesh provides closer agreement with the linear bending stress distribution a from eq(10. 10. Establish the stress values 5 at the midpoints of nodes lying along the xaxis. Fig. Because our theory applies to straightsided triangles.40 mm is measured from the neutral axis in Figs 10.The common normalising factor is the greatest theoretical compressive stress at the disc centre .18 shows the four FE q. 10. with three additional nodes at its midside positions. Example 10.b.b)). between the finer mesh and the parabolic distribution in shear stress rq from eq(10. t = 3.46b) where y’ = y .A similar observation is made in Fig.7 A disc of diameter d = 35mm and thickness. These are compared with classical elasticity solution (see eqs(2. Compare these with solutions from the stress function (see eqs (2.65a.17b.46a) y‘ ) ’ (10. Two plane triangular finite element meshes are shown for one quadrant of the disc in Fig.65a)). t = 10 mm and I = 240 mm with I = f ( 2 d ) ’ m = 10 x 803/12= 426.6P/( nd f ) (found from substituting y = 0 in eq(2.8 mm is subjected to a vertical. It has been shown [3] that a second order triangular element. Provided the subdivided element nodes contain those of the coarser mesh.65a.FINITE ELEMENTS 469 a = My’// .67 x lo’ m m 4 M = F ( I . z? = [F/(21)I@’  ( 10.) . At the centre.values from mesh (a) and eight values from mesh (b).46b). 10.16b . would permit greater accuracy to be achieved with a similar number of elements in the region of boundaries. 10. diametral compressive force P = 890 N. Figure 10. then the E% stresses will converge to indicate where it is unnecessary to refine the mesh further.
47a.19a: u = a.47a. ~ ~ = I [ u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v. 10. f Figure 10..' 6' (where Ae'means (A') ). i.19 Displacements and forces for a rectangular element Equations (10.b) to each node leads to a generalised displacement vector 8 = AA'. al .. ax match the eight degrees of freedom..b) ensure that u and v vary linearly in the two directions: (i) with x along side y = b and (ii) with y along side x = a .x + a4xy + ff.470 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 10.6 Plane Rectangular Element The x. This is similar to eq(10.18 Comparison between FE and classical disc compression solution 10. The following displacement functions [5. y v = fx5 + a.JTand v U ~ . y plane may also be subdivided into a rectangular mesh. Applying eq(10. + a x xy y ( I 0. a.47b) The eight coefficients.6] are assumed for the plane rectangular element in Fig.27a)butwhere6=[u V ] ~ .e.47a) (10..+ a z x + a . 4 nodes with two degrees per node.
a.29a).49b) c = o o o o o o 1 x 0 0 1 x 0 1 o y The dependence of C upon x and y shows that both stress and strain will vary throughout a rectangular element. eq( 10. IT. ty yn 1' and a = [ a . This contrasts with the constantstrain triangle where C . To do this.31a) remain unaltered since they depend upon the plane condition and not upon the shape of the element. A' is derived from A as 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 l o b 0 0 0 0 0 0 l o b 0 0 0 0 l a 0 0 (10. appearing in E = C a . the matrix product B'DB must be integrated over the volume V .48a) 0 0 0 0 I x y x y Substituting the x and y coordinates of each node in eq(10. first write 6v = r x & x 6 y for an elemental volume of uniform thickness r. Since B now depends upon x and y.The constitutive relation (10. az a3 a4 a. a. where E = [ E . becomes 0 1 0 y 0 0 0 0 (10.17ac) follow from eqs( 10. a.48a).48b) 0 0 0 0 0 l a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 l a b a b O O O 0 0 0 0 l a b o b The strain components (2. the general stressstrain relation is E = D B 6'. Applying PVW. The general strainnodal displacement relation is E = B 6 e where B = C Ae'. Recall that general stress and strain matrices are required for the derivation of the element stiffness matrix K'.5b) becomes 6'" f ' = t f'= (t s sx ( B6e')T(DB)8 Y dx dy X /y B'DB dx dy ) x 6' . in eq( l0.18). does not contain x or y.b) as (10.47a. they will ensure strain continuity at the interface between adjacent elements when the nodal displacements are matched. It follows that the matrix C . Thus.49a) It is seen that as the linear variation in these strains satisfies the compatibility condition (2.FINITE ELEMENTS 471 l x y x y 0 0 0 A = [ 0 ( 10.
This gives D. ( b . ...x D .50a) Setting r = d b for node 4.36a) solved for the nodal displacements 6'. large rectangular meshes are undesirable since they lead to discontinuities in the stresses at common nodal points. is found from o' = He 6' where 0' is 12 x 1 and 6' is 8 x 1.(bY) D.18a and b.31a) supplies the general element stresses o = [ox u..X D.0 3 3 ~ D.. .51b) following substitution of the x.D 2 3 ( b .Y ) D. y in the element are supplied by 6 = AA'. The overall stiffness matrix K for a rectangular mesh may be assembled as before and eq( 10..I ) a'= H 6' ( 10.Finally. Neither the stress nor the strain is constant within a rectangular element. y nodal coordinates for each of the four nodes.y ) D33x D 3 3 ~ ( I 0.51b) where x and y are the coordinates of a node for which the three stress components are required.SOb). = [uxl q. ' as foIIows: ]. the integration yields the following symmetrical Ke matrix: ( 1 0. . the integration must follow matrix multiplication B'D B.5 1 a) The explicit form of the 3 x 8 matrix H is found from performing the matrix multiplication in eq(l0.. u = DB6 = D ( CA ' .(ax) H = 1 D.. ( ~ .50b) In arriving at eq(IO.~ )D33(ax) D.Y D ....5la).Y . When K' from eq( 10..(ax) D.x D. Thus. . A similar procedure was followed when deriving K' for the beam element.(by) D.Y D.472 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES from which K'= t J x BTDB dxdy (10. 1' etc. v displacements at any point x.u2 oj o4IT. it relates the following nodal point displacements and forces: L 4 f y 4 IT* shown in Fig. It follows that the full nodal stress vector is oe= [a. The connecting z 12 x 8 matrix He is derived from H in eq( 10.(~x) D. eq( 10.' 6". The u.y D.D .. where o. 6' = UI VI u2 v2 u3 v j u 4 v 4 IT and f' = [Ll &I L J .. 2 & 2 IO.x ab .(by) .D 3 3 ( a .x ) . y D..(ax) D. rx).32a).50b) is substituted into eq( 10..
r plane so that 6' describes the displacements u and w for each node in the directions of r and z. 10. 2 and 3 lie in the z.52a) (10. The general displacements are [lo] u = a l + a2r+ a3z w = a. ' Figure 10.2 A2 hj and 6 = [ uI wI u2 w 2 u3 wj1' are referred to the nodes of an element in section. In Fig.FINITE ELEMENTS 473 10.7.1 Displacements The nodes 1 . 10.b) is l r z O O O O O O l r z 1 6=Aa ]. a s r + a6z + (10.20 Toroidal element with axial symmetry about zaxis It is seen that as the element rotates about the z ..52b) The matrix form of eqs(10.52a.7 Triangular Elements with Axial Symmetry A triangular toroidal element is used to describe axially symmetric bodies in coordinates of r. the respective force and displacement vectors f' = [ f r l Ll f.axis it describes a toroid of triangular crosssection. where 6 = [ u w' Substituting the r. Band Z.20. z coordinates for each of the three nodes into .
The corresponding matrix forms for these general strains are r O 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 &=Ca (1 0.56a. The elastic constitutive relations are .53b) and (10.52a.53a) gives 1 r l z 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 l r l z l 1 r 2 z 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8e=Aea ( 1 0.56b) gives the general strain E for any point (r.b) and the following polar straindisplacement relations [ 1 11: These show that nodal points I .2 Stress and Strain The strain components are found from eqs( 10.7. z ) in terms of the nodal displacements 8' &= cA'I~'= B be (10.55).54b) and (10.b) 1 r2z2 0 1 r3z30 0 0 0 0 1 r3z3 Eliminating a between eqs( 10. A'.54b) gives the general displacement vector 6 in terms of 6 : In eq(10.54a. 2 and 3 may displace radially and axially but not tangentially.474 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES eq( 10.26b) when rand z replace x and y.' is identical to eq(10.57) where B = C A''. 10.b) l / r 1 z/r 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Combining eqs(10.
' is found from B .57) and (10. x 6 r x 6z in eq(l0.61a) must be performed term by term following matrix multiplication BTDB.60).50a) for plane triangular and rectangular elements respectively.FINITE ELEMENTS 475 (10.7.57) and (10.Inverting A' in eq( l0. Integration of eq( 10.3Element Stiffriess Matrix The element stiffness matrix K" follows from substituting eqs( 10.58) oz or 00 Trz 1 E ( 1 . f Z B"DBrdrdz ( 10.2 ~ ) v/(lv) ee Yrz U=DE 0 0 0 Combining eqs( 10.~ ~ ~ = D B ~ ~ ( 1 0.60) into (10.57) and (10.v) vl(1v) v/(1v) 1 v/(lv) v/(1v) v/(lv) 1 0 0 0 (12~)/[2(1~)] Ex ( l + v ) ( l . general stresses follow from the nodal displacements: u = D c A ' .54a). it follows that the strain and stress for any node may be found by substituting the coordinates (r.60) Since C contains r and z . Setting 6 V = 2751.59b). 10.1 ZA 0 0 l/r 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 z/r 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 . the matrix B = C A". z ) of that node into the respective eqs(10.5b) leads to Ke=2n/.34a) and (10.5b).6 1a) It is seen that K" is similar to eqs( 10.
)(z. I .v2)(1 . IZ (zlr)drdz Equation (10..(z3r2 . . are identified with eq( 10.=E(I .22 )(z.2 = D.61 b and c). I r IZzdrdz+rn. in eq( 10. in the following form (10.62a) is abbreviated to K.r.. = D2. = D .59a) as D l l = D 2 2 = D 3 3 = E.)+D32(z?r2.2 v ) ] ( D.I2 (z?z . ~ ( r~Z.. ( z 2 ... .2 v ) l Integrating the matrix product BTDB in eq( 10.z2r..(z2m . 1 .476 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES where 2A is twice the area of the triangular element.) . = D..61~) the components D. t2 r.z2r3Xz2.61a) will supply the elements of the stiffness matrix.' = ( n / A 2 ) [ rn. = D23 = D 2 = EV/ [( 1 3 + v )(I . ) ~ + D ~ ~ z ~ ) ~ + D .. This area is given by Writing the elasticity matrix D.J.l. 1 ( 0.z. + m 2 I .59b).62b) m. le of K' is found from =( x/ A2)[ m I I r rdrdz+rn2Jr Iz d r d z + m ..22r3Mz2 . For example.)+D.23 z .v)(1  2 v ) / [ 2 ( 1 . rnh are . substituting from eqs( 10.lv ) / [ ( l + v ) ( l . + m . . ( Z ~ ) ~ + D .z.=D2. ( z 2 . the component K ... 1 3 where the constants rn. + nz..Z.2~ )] D.+ D.
z I ) + r l I 1 dz in which the equation of a straight line z . .=/ r / (zlr)drdz z . in eq( 10. I .21.21 Variables in double integration For example.) + r2 I * .62b) as + ‘z / Ll2’ [ (r3..62b) are applied over the area of the triangular element as shown in Fig.z . . This gives a standard form: I .HNITE ELEMENTS 477 The double integral.rl ) / (r.rz>(z. . 10.62b) can be found in a similar manner: I.z 2 ) ( z .zI ) ( z 3..zI )(r . writing the first integral in eq( 10.zI = (z. I. = (A /3)(r1+ r2+ r 3 ) The integrals remaining in eq( 10.[(r3.rl)(z . zt Figure 10.r l ) has been used to define the variation in r with z over the side 12.
the element stiffness matrix becomes =2 4 i ~ DB)(FA) (1 0. Moreover. apply where r l . i. Where the orientation of the element is such that radii for two of their nodes are equal or are both zero when lying on the axis of symmetry. The simplest method is to evaluate the integrand in eq( 10. and I . and I. imply a similar number of further + in terms found from rotating subscripts in the foregoing terms. Matrix B in eq( 10. are nonzero and different. B. eq( 10.61b) is replaced with a mean matrix. Z) of the element.478 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES I. . it becomes necessary to redefine the integrals [3].20 these are Using PVW we may write eq(l0. and I . I . .61& for the centroid of each element.= 11(1lr)drdz 1 2 The additional summations C2. Note that the expressions for I . 1 to 2 .61a) are found to be unreliable. In Fig. .e. numerical integration can be be employed. I . 2 to 3 and 3 to 1. r2 and r. . I . Alternatively. in eq( 10.whose components are based upon the centroidal coordinates ( F.63) The appproximate method is sufficiently accurate for fine meshes.1 C312 I .63) will provide a superior numerical solution for larger radii when the logarithmic terms I .5b) as 6evr = J vEYTo f dV = Sy(B8")T(DBCf) dV from which fe=(sTDBV dV)x6' / and hence K e = ( B T D B[ d V ] V Putting ~e V dV= 2n FA. 10.
. dl = l.4 Force Vector The components of the force vector f' are the nodal point forces equivalent to pressure. the PVW gives PvTfe= VTpdS = f[(AA")6']'TpdS = gYT(AFl)T ATpdS S s s Cancelling PvT.22 Surface pressure on an element with axial symmetry When & replaces 61 x t in Fig. (a) Pressure Loading Let a pressure p act normally to the side 23 as shown in Fig. 10. a similar analysis allows for the resolution of p into the components p . These loadings can readily arise from. The band of area 6 S is formed from one rotation of an elemental length 61 at radius r about the z . It becomes important to establish their separate contributions to f' .axis. which gives P = [2n 1 23/ (r2. body weight and centrifugal effects. 9 P Z z P 2 r r Figure 10.r3).r311 ( 1 0. from Fig.22a. equivalent force vector is written as the f' = (A'')T p' ( 10. a large spinning toroid supporting distributed loading on its top surface.21b.39a).65 b) .65a) to a single variable r we have.FINITE ELEMENTS 479 10. 10.7. p7IT. Referring to eq( 10. say.64) where p'= ssATp dS. dr/(r2.12a. and p . Setting dS = 2 n r dl gives p'=2n i. 10.65a) Converting eq(10. to give a vector p = [ p .A T p r d l 1AT p r dr (1 0.
In the integration of the remaining three terms.64) leads to the equivalent nodal forces .z2)(r: + r2r.J.: rdr=(r3'r:)pr/2 r:)pr/3 p. . are independent of r. the integrand in (10.has been used.z1 = ( r . Ir.480 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Taking the transpose of A in eq(10.z r d r = [l/3 (z. p7 replaces pr in these equations.r3)(z3 z2)/(r3 r 2 ) .65b) gives p.65~) 0 1 O r 0 2 Assuming that p.26b) and eq( l0. + r2 + '/2 (z2r 3.53a).65a) becomes 1 0 r O ATp 2 0 = (10. z . This gives p . and p.Jr:r2dr=(r.65d) Substituting (Ael)T from eq( 10.p.65d) into eq( 10. as (10.z3 r2)(r3+ r2 in which the equation of the line 23. integration of the first three terms in eq( 10.
67b) The following example compares this with equally weighted nodal forces: Example 10. we set p z = 0 and r2 = r3 = c (constant)..23a.b. Equations (10.. 10.66d. When side 23 is vertical. Using the five elements shown in Fig.e) as This gives an equal weighting to nodes 2 and 3 .b.c.e) show thatf.The manner in which the nodal forces replace the distributed loading will depend upon the orientation of the side 23.23 Ring under pressure . = 0 and z2 = z3 = c (constant).. = f z 2= f Z 3= 0 andf.f) show thatf. An axisymmetric ring 10 m diameter is loaded with a uniform pressure of pL = 1 kN/m2on its top surface. Z Figure 10. =f r 2 = f r 3 = 0 andf. This leaves eqs(10.8. = 0. compare the exact equivalent nodal forces with approximate values found from equal weighting. Equations (10. However in the case of 23 lying horizontally we set p ..66c..d.66a.FINITE ELEMENTS 481 These six forces satisfy the two equilibrium conditions: where 7 = L/2 ( r 2 + r3). = 0. Equations (10.66a.f) leave an unequal weighting: (10. with normal pressure loading p.67a) (1 0.
694 .axis. eq( 10.69b) where.IT.67~). A vertical body force mg arises from the toroid selfweight. (b) Body Forces Consider the toroid in Fig.IT per unit volume. Writing these within a body force vector b = [b.69a) becomes b e = 2 a ! { A ' b r d r dz 1 2 (10. Let the toroid rotate at o radls about the z . Substituting r eq(10. so that eq(10.b. b. where F = ( r l + r2 + r3)/3 locates the centroid.68) (10.65~): b = [b. bz rb. 10. I 1 IL (a) r Figure 10. The net nodal forces given in brackets reveal only a small error for the end nodes by the approximation (10. it follows that b.g.55) into PVW. zb. from Fig.23a)).23(a) we see that 6 V = 2 n r x 6 r x &. r2 = 3 m and r3 = 2 m as shown in Fig. Thus b is AT ' b= = 2% \* (10.482 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Equations (10. rb. 10.c) are applied to each element in turn (e. This gives an exact and approximate system of nodal forces shown in Figs 10.24 Body forces in a rotating toroid (b) The horizontal centrifugal force is mu' T. = p2 and b.24a of mass m with a triangular crosssection (nodes 123).23b and c. = .69a) where be= {"AT b dV Now. 10. t z [ b.42a) leads to an equivalent ncdal force vector: f "= (A"')T be (10.pg. zb. guided by eq(10.67a.
. 10.5). The contributions to nodal forces from adjoining elements is made with a cyclic permutation of the subscripts as for the plane triangle (see Section 10.69~) eq(10. + r. 2nb.68). V X A Figure 10.A[(r.5.23b: where the numbered brackets are The six forces in eqs( 10.25 shows the system of coordinates for a single rectagular plate element. replaces b. y plane . and b: as constants. )(zl + z2+ z . Matrix multiplication leads to the six nodal forces shown in Fig.+ r2+ r 3 I 2+ ( r 1 2 r: + z r d r dz = (n/6) b. into 10.26b)) and eq(10. )/3 and Z = ( z . + r.69~) are 2nb.+ z2 + z. 2n6.A[(r. the first three integrals in eq( 10. Substitute (A'')T (see eq(10.) + r:>1 r.+ r.25 Plate element in x. s[ / r dr dz = (2x13) b.FINITE ELEMENTS 483 Taking 0. The x. y plane lies at the midthickness coincident with the neutral plane.+ and in the remaining three integrals b .8 Rectangular Element for Plate Flexure Figure 10.A(rl + r. ) + ( r l z I + r2z2+r3z3)l 1[ 2 d r d z = (n/6) b.70af) satisfy the three equilibrium equations in which f = ( r l + r. )/3 are the centroidal coordinates.
r. m. 6 . corner 1 will be taken at the origin of x.26 Plate nodal point forces and deflections The forces in Fig.X and YY taken from Fig. = [ m.z planes .z and x . y where z is is positive upwards. Figure 10.484 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES In the analysis that follows.I Displacements The following fourthorder displacement function is assumed [ 121: ( 10. 10. The subscripts x and y refer to the axis about which m acts. 10.25. 6. The force and displacement vectors for the element are f e = [ f l f2 f. Ox. 10.w .b show the sign convention used with respective sectionsX . Figure 10.26a and b.. Figures 10.7 1 a) Small rotations B (rad) are the gradients of the tangents to the deflected plate. q .26b it is seen that a similar convention has been used for the rotations Band deflections w at each node.8.27a.26a comprise moments m and shear forcesf The positive directions of m shown are found from applying the righthand screw rule in the directions of increasing x and y. 10. Shear forces are positive when acting downwards.27 Convention for slopes in the y .6 .. In Fig.IT where f . The forces and deflections at each node are shown in Figs 10. 1' etc and 8 . 1' etc. = [B. f4ITand c S e = [ 6 .
73a) gives .y2 + 3a. .FINITE ELEMENTS 485 For the sagging plate shown.a 2 .73a. we have ( 10.1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b’ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 3b’ 0 0 0 0 0 1 O l O O b O 1 O b O O 0 0 1 0 0 0 a’ 0 0 a’ b ’ 0 0 b3 6‘= A e a (10. y = 0..1 0 ..2 a b 36’ a3 3a’b a3b  0 1 0 Za b 0 3a’ 2ab b’ 0 6’ 1 a b a’ ab b’ a’ a2b ab’ where A‘ is a 12 x 12 matrix arising from the 3 degrees of freedom in each of the 4 nodes. y ~ + q ~ a.dw/dy and 8. For node 1.25a) gives the element nodal displacements 6‘ as 0 0 . .x’+3ct. 10. w o o = 1 o x o I o y 2~ y x z xy zY o o 3x2 y2 .72a) to the coordinates of the nodes (see Fig.= .a12 Setting x and y in eq( 10. eq( 10.(q+ x . from eq( 10.= aw/dx.b) 0 a 0 30’ a3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2aO 0 0 0 0 0 1 a O a 2 O 0 0 0 0 . and 8.. + 3 4 x 2 + 2 4 x y + ru.7 I b) 8.. it is necessary to compare the gradients at any point P with the positive directions assumed for slopes 8.*xy2) (10.= .b) . Thus.x * y + a.7la).y3 y 8.+ 2a4x + a. where x = 0.71~) Equations (10.a5 xz 6=Aa (1 0.72a.7 lac) can be expressed in matrix form as a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 ex e.. x + 2 q y + X 2 + 2 t & ) x y + 3 a a .2 x y 3y2 yz xy2 x3 3xy2 ‘6 2xy x2y o y’ 3 x 5 x3y y3 xy3 1 x x’  a 7 a. = a. From this it follows that 8.. a9 5 0 a1 1 ..a 26 0 .
..O.2 l a b 3la’b . .a5 a.+ 2 4 b + 3 4 .I I R= . Ox2=  (a. at nodes 1 and 2.. w 2 . This results in a discontinuity in 8.74a) Equation (3.75a.c) . The function w(x.. and w. 4 .486 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Ox.= . at nodes 1 and 2 is insufficient for determining the four coefficients a. Knowing 4. = a.along these edges... = a.2 l a ’ b 0 Ila’b 0 0 1lab’ . In addition to the negative radii R. between adjacent elements along edges parallel to y.1 15a) is written i n the symbolic form: = where AeAA‘’ I.a2WlaX2.llb 0 lla’ 2lab 310’ ]lab 3Ib’ 210’ 3la‘b 3lab‘ 21b’ Ila 0 0 Llb 0 llb lla 3Ib’ 0 110 Llab 2/b 0 0 0 0 0 Ila’ llab 0 0 210’ 3la’b 3lab‘ 0 0 0 0 0 . 8. b + 4 b 2 +a. of point P in each plane of the sagging plate (see Fig..1 l a b 3la’b 0 0  0 0 3lab’ 2Ib’ 2la’b 2lab’ 2lab 0 llab 0 0 0 0 3lab’ 0 116’ lib' 0 0 0 Ilab’ Ila’b . R.8.74b) gives the general displacement vector 6 = [ B. = . and aI2appearing in the two Oy. can be .= q + a5b+ q b 2 + a.q . refers to the curvature accompanying the rotation of a fibre out of its original unstrained plane. 10. The reciprocals of the radii are given as second order partial derivatives [ 1 I]: IIR. where x = 0. 4 and a. Though not ideal. . w]’ as 10. = a b t a x a y ~ ( 1 0. Ox. found from knowing w and B. . The inverse of eq( 10. Eliminating a between eqs(10. y = b. and R. 8. and Ox2show that the four Coefficients a.. This will preserve continuity in the deflected shape of adjacent elements along edges parallel to x .a2wtay2and I I R . the numerical error involved can be made small by averaging 8.27a.72b) and (10.2lab  0 0 0 0 0 0 1lab .b. and for node 2.73b) is found from Gaussian elimination: 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 310’ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 110 0 0 0 0 0 1 la . b2)..l l a 3 b 2la’b 0 l l a ’ b 2Ia’b 2lab’ llab’ 21ab’ 1lab’ 0 2Iab) (1 0.b3and w2= a.b). and Oy2expressions. + a.b3 The expressions w .210 . y) is said therefore to be nonconforming.2 Strain and Curvature The strains arising from tlexure depend upon the radii of the plate curvature.
S. i.' in which the dimebnsions if C' are 12 x 12. 6. E. E. it follows that 6~ . = z IR. in which = [ql yFl IT etc.=. This gives <.b.).z (a2wlay2). with znegative in the lower half of the plate thickness and with R. = Z/R.c) Combining eqs( 10. .74b) gives the three strains E = [E.e. 0 6x2 0 0 0 4x 2x 4y 6Y  E=ZCCL ( I 0. E.76) and (10. The nodal strains E' = [E. both negative. terms of the nodal displacements 6' = [S.b. Thus.78b) and (10. and R. IT generally in =z c ( A C 8 ) I = B 6' ( 10.yX?= I R . = r l(2R. For any plane.77).IT: E E? yx.S.) and E . E' = z Be 6' (10.. follow from the substitution of the nodal coordinates into eq(10. the total angular change in two originally perpendicular unstrained line elements. from eq( 10.75a c) that the three strain components are E.z (a2wiax2 ). these strains are a maximum in compression.' depends upon x and y. = 22 lR. the maximum tensile strains in the bottom surface are E.79b) where Be = C'A'.b) 0 Combining eqs(10..77a.=.c) 22 where. E.76a.71 a) (1 0. R. IT. it follows from eq( 10.78a). With positive z for the top surface.FINITE ELEMENTS 487 The direct strains in the plate at a distance z from the unstrained neutral plane is E = Z/R. is used to determine the engineering shear strain y. = 22 (a2wlaxay)(10. = I 1(2R. .79a) where matrix B = CA'.78a.2 y 0 0  6 x y .
25a.c) o = ( z / 1 ) rn (10.28).8.b) .83ac) are written as (10. the ratio between the plate flexural coefficient: D = E t 3 / [12(1 .488 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10. = u.8la).28 1 for a plate in flexure Now I applies to the plate crosssection for a unit length of its side: I = fA z2dA=~zz2(l~dz)=t3/12 (10.D( a2W/aX2 v a2wlay2) + rn.82) The moments m.v 2 . Figure 10. 10.v 2 ) appears as D/I.. in Figs 10.v )D a2wlaxay z Equations (10. I I z = .D( a2wiay2+ v a2Wia2) mv = n.3 Stress and Moments The stress components follow from the constitutive relations as follows: Equations (10. = O. = ( rv I Z) = ( 1 .bfollow from the engineering theories of bending and torsion as m. and rn. and its second moment of area 1 (see Fig.83a.b.I z = . El( 1.84a.80ac) appear in the matrix forms: In eq( 10.
87a) is rearranged as follows: 6 " T f e = 6 e v T ( D l I ) I BTDBdxdy J [ z 2 ( 1 x d z ) ] x 6 ' X Y J (10. rq]' is.86a) gives u = z(Dl1) D B 6' (10.b) as where U.86b) into eq( 10.88b) without performing the full matrix multiplications. the product BTDB will need to be found and then integrated term by term. Cancelling 6'"' and I gives fe=Df X 1B T D B d x d y x 6 ' Y (10. Determine the single stiffness components K. (1 0 . 10.27. Substituting eqs( 10.84b) and (10. 8 6 ~ ) a'= ( D / I )D E' = z ( D l I ) D B'6' = z ( D / I ) H'6' where H e = DB'= D ( C e A e .82).'and K2. o = ( z / I )(D/z)D E = (D/I)D E (10. = [a. 10.5b).86a. Example 10. oY rxy]lT follow from etc.' ) .4 Element Stiffness Matrix Finally. we apply the PVW to find K'.85b) q.87b) Now from eq(10.85a. the second integral defines I in Fig.' from eq( 10.88a) from which the element stiffness matrix follows as K' = D Jr JyBTD B dx dy (10.87a) Equation (10. .86b) 04]' The nodal point stresses o e = [ u.86a) Substituting eq( 10. aeVT"= f 1 V cVT o dV Jy = Jr Iz z (B z ( D I I ) D B 6'(dxdy dz) ( I 0. from eqs(10.88b) Recall that as B = C A'' contains both x any y.b) The general stress vector o = [a.79a) into eq( 10.9. o2 o3 eqs(10.FINITE ELEMENTS 489 where m = (Dlz) D E (10..79a) and (10.8.
. l z ( A 1 2 . = GI.. from eq( 10.6 ~ ) ( 0 )(. 2 and 3.6 ~ y ) ( O+) (0)[1/ ( a b 2 ) = 0 ] ] . D. k and rn = 1. .A ( I )I (vi) Setting rn = I . = C m p ( A1. reverting eq(ii) to matrix form =D JY (B.2y)(O) + + ( O ) [ .I / b2 ) + (. C l . ) dx dy (ii) (iii) Setting..... . ( A . 1 2 ( A 1 2 ~ l e ) ~ ~ B. 3 in turn and summing over p = 1. eq(vi) gives three terms B ... = D2. 2.. 2.. dx dy = D J.' + 2 v B .(AIle)' C22(A21e)' + + .' + C. ' as B .. D .V.. follows from B = C A ' . From eq(v) B... 1 e ) ~ ~ = '+ B. = 0 in eq(iii). C 2 ..= I ... = C... ( A I I e ) ..2. B. Setting i = j = 1 in eq(i) gives K l l eas K. = v..12. Bmj) dy (9 where i and j = 1.490 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Writing eq( 10. B ... 2. j e ) I (v) The BnIj terms required in eq(iv) are forj = 1 and m = 1.74a) and (l0. Brn..12(A12.78a) Bii = (O)(O) + (O)(O) + (ON.12.v ) and all other D.88b) in its component form. + B. gives K l l e= D ~Y(Bl12+2vBllB21+~212+%(Iv)B. = %( 1 .ir)I Substituting the appropriate components of (A' ) respectively gives and C from eqs( l0. = C2.')I+ .85a). D I z = D.') dx dy (iv) Now i n eq(i).(A~I')~ + .. ...' = D J X 1 Y D..1) + (2)(O) + (O)(l/a) + (0)Wb) + (. .. JY (BkiD.. Kit = D 1 X Y ( B J T D h B.')dxdy (iv) Alternatively.C3. C ...3..2 / ( ~ b )+ (O)(..' + '/2 ( I  v)B. ' ) ~ CI2(A2. .
. (viii) which gives Substituting the components of (A' ) . 1 dr dY D. . K.'= D l: .FINITE ELEMENTS 491 Substituting these into eq(iv). Y (vii) Reverting eq(vii) to matrix form.v D.: follows from eq(i) as K. Integrating over x gives K..' = (4D/3)[(a/b) (b/a)(1 . we find K .4y/b + ( 2 / a 2 ) (1 + 3 y 2 / b 2 ) }dr dy .I and C from eqs(10..'=( 4 D / b 2 ) 1' ( + (2D/a)(1  v )I 4ayIb + 4a/3 + 3ay2/b2) dy b ( 1 ..: = D / X 1(4.74a) and (10.v )( 1 .78a) and then integrating eq(viii) leads to K.v )/5] + The offdiagonal component K.] .B.: = .8y/b + 22y2/b2 24y'/b3  + 9y4/ b 4 )d y and then integrating over y . ' { ( 4 / b 2 ) [ 2 2x/u .3y/b + 3xy/ab).
The Finite Element Method. Ottosen N. Longman. M. EllisHorwood. N. Establish the particular nodal displacements 6' = A a ' 4. 1985. .). Macmillan. 1970. Macmillan. Val 1: Basic Formulation and Linear Problems. 1977. Finite Element Method: Basic Technique and Implementation. Fundamental Structural Analysis. Techniques of Finite Elements. Finite Element Analysis. 110) Irons B. References Zienkiewicz 0. P and Goodier J. Advanced Mechanics of Materials. L. Introduction to the Finite Element Method. A.. Boston.T. J.Derive the general displacements from the nodal values 6 = A (A') 6' 5. Establish the particular nodal strains E~ = B e6' 7. McGrawHill. and Sidebottom0.9 Concluding Remarks The reader will now be familiar with the common procedure for formulating the stiffness matrix for any element by the displacement method of finite elements. EllisHorwood. U. Tong P. W. Theory and Practice..492 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10. and Taylor R. Establish the nodal stresses from the nodal strains ue = D E' = D B e 8 9. Theory ofElasticity. Choose a suitable general displacement function 6 = A a 3. Fagan M....K. Rees D. 1988.. 1 . Select a suitable element and coordinate system 2. McGrawHill. 1992. Employ the general stress and strains within PVW 6 'vT f = JV& ' o d V = Jv( B 6 ev ) (D B 6' ) d V ' T to give the element stiffness matrix K' as K e = / BT D Bd V V 10. Basic Solid Mechanics. and Rossettos. 1989. and Peterson H... 1993. Knight C.. Finite Elements in Structural Mechanics. Finite Element Methods f o r Engineers.. U. The 10 steps in this procedure are as follows: 1. P. and Ahmad S . N. C . I11.. [ 1I] Timoshenko S .M. Assemble the overall stiffness matrix K from K' (e = I. 1992.K. Macmillan. then invert K and solve 1 for 6' = K .. . PWSKent Pub Co. John Wiley and Sons. 1997... Fenner R.' f' . J.I. Boresi A. 1993. E.. 1975. [ 121 Kleiber M. 1980. Press. Spencer W. Determine the general stresses from the general strains u = D E = D B 6' 8. The Finite Element Method in Mechanical Design. T. and Breitkopf P. PrenticeHall. Derive the general strains E = C a = C (Ae)'aeB 6' = 6. A similar procedure is employed for the derivation of K for threedimensional elements [ 11. J.
find the overall stiffness matrix..29 12kN 6kN Figure 10...8. Figure 10. 10.. Answer: (in kN)p . 10.. ( u 5 .10. Determine the 01 forces in bars I .1 . pill = .. torsion and bending as follows: (i) u = a._.I .= 8. p.4. = 2. and torques I .2. are (u. (ii) 8 = a. f.5 The stepped shaft in Fig.3 Derive the stiffness matrices in eqs(l0.. Assume respective displacement functions for tension. = 0. plv= 8 and p v = .VII given that the areas and bar lengths are constant (included angles are all 60"). Assemble the overall stiffness matrix for the framed structure given in Fig.. .1 and 10...z2 + a d z 3where a are displacement coefficients to be determined and x. 10.30 given that all bar areas are constant.31 is subjected to a combination of axial nodal forcesf. = .+ a 2 z + a..02) . .3b) and (10. I . t . z are the length coordinates shown in Figs 10.3. Answer: (in kN) pI = . 2 ..6 and pw. (10.).1.4b) using the principal of virtual displacements.. Given that the nodal axial displacements and twists 8 .. p. 10. plv = . 10. = 0. ( u 2 .70.2 Determine the bar forces for the frame shown in Fig.2 pw 1 2 3 4 Figure 10. p v = . p.FINITE ELEMENTS 493 EXERCISES 1 .. Take each of the loadings to differ between the two nodes of the element. 5..O.4 Deduce the stiffness matrix in the case of a uniform circular bar element subjected to combined axial force and torsion. = 11.+ a 2 x .31 . ).30 10.. f2 . .29.10 10. at node junctions I .4..2). fr2 .+ a2z and (iii) v = a.
82 .33.494 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10.28. Answer: m 1= 75.8 Determine the forces and moments at nodes 1.34 is composed of two elements I and 11.50 1.35 under conditions of plane stress with a thickness of 20 mm.64 . Answer: moments (kNm) 44.32 Figure 10. Using the known slope and deflection at node I and the moment and shear force at node 3.34 10.9 The beam shown in Fig. 10.33 10.97. . Take E = 210 GPa and v = 0.03 1.13.46 2.6.21. 2 . Answer: i n 1 = in4 = 0.03 0. f.64 0 0 0. m 2= 48.34 kNm.2.element beam in Fig.32.82 0.03.10 Determine the explicit forms of the matrix 6 that enable interior element displacements vector hi = [ ui i t i I T for a triangular element to be found when its nodal displacements 6' are known. 8.7 Construct the net shear force and moment diagrams for the twoelement beam shown in Fig. 10.82 0 0.85 1.1.38.82 0. m2= inl = 72 kNm. 3 and 4 for the continuous 3 . 8.11 Determine the stiffness equation f' = K' 6' for the singular triangular element in Fig.03.85 0.87.64 0. 4. f l = .45.66 kN ~ 10.N 20 m Figure 10.66 0 1.= 18.46 1.56.44 15 kN I 12 kN 18 IrN 5 Wlrn Figure 10.82 .82  1.85 0 0 0  2.82 2.82 0.204 and (10. Answer: K in units of N and mm with a multiplication factor for each element of 10' ' 3.03 0.71.62 kNm.86. shear forces (kN) 8.1.64 0. determine the net moment and force at points 1 and 2. 10.66 kNm 2 kN/m 10 kN 4k.= .85 0.64 0.74 kNm. 10.66 0. f2=f. 10.22) from the principle of virtual work. f l =f4 = 24 kN.6 Examine whether it is possible to derive equations (10.66 0.6.64 .82 0 0. 10.
y lies at the plate centre.25 8.15 Derive the components of the rectangular element stiffness matrices K' from eq(10.48 33.8.20 0 0 8. N3 = (a + x)(b+ y ) / ( k b ) N4 = (a .10.44 21.20 6.y)/(4ab). Take E = 210 GPa and v = 0.x)(b . Nodes 3.20 6.44 .10. 10.17 Determine from eq( 10.64 31. The dimensions of a single element are a x b x f (see Fig.44 .56 .44 .50a) for a plane rectangular element may also be derived from the principle of stationary potential energy.33.35 20 m m I Figure 10.44 0 0 0 0 .14 Derive the components of matrix B in the general strain expression rectangular element.56 .10.73 33. = ( a + x)(b .44 21.20 21.4.12 Determine the stiffness equation f c = K 6 ' for the singular triangular element in Fig.19a.8.x)(b + y).48 10.28. .56 Ke=l .b). third and and fourth quadrants respectively.18 Show that the shape function for a plane rectangular element may be written as u = N i u i and v = N i v i (i = I . 10. 10.10. show that N.16 Invert the matrix A' in eq( 10..36 under plane strain for a bar length of 200 mm.56 .50a) (i) in the case of plane stress and (ii) in the case of plane strain.64 18. with x parallel to the side of length 2a.56 . E =B 6 for a plane 10..10.25 8.56 0 10.20 0 10..36 10.FINITE ELEMENTS 495 t 3 '5N 5N4 r/ 3 mm 0 Y/0'25MPa 50 m m 2ON 4 I Figure 10.13 Show that the stiffness equation ( 1 0. Answers: to K' in units of N and mm with a multiplication factor for each element of lo6 I 40.y)/(4ab).If the plate dimensions are 2a x 2b and the origin for x . second. = (a .48 10.10. N . 10.51b) the components of the element nodal stress matrix o C= H 6' for a ' plane rectangular element. 4). 10.48b) and hence determine the components of the general matrix equation 6 = (AM ') 6' for a plane rectangular element. 1 and 2 lie in the first.20 6.25 8. 10.12 18.
= K .38.’ D [ 2 b / a 3+ 2 d b ’ = + I/(ab)+ 7(1 v )/(5ab)] .24 Confirm from eq( l0.lO.. uniformly distributed loading may be lumped at the nodes of a plane rectangular element when this loading is applied (i) along one horizontal side aligned with x and (ii) along one vertical side aligned with y..20 The crosssection of a steel ring of density 7600 kg/m’ is represented by three elements as shown in Fig.87b) the following diagonal stiffness components for a plate in flexure: K . = K.. ( D 2 .. 1m Figure 10. = ( 4 D / 3 ) [ b / a a( 1 .496 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 10. 10.. 10. 10. = Kx.C= ( 4 D / 3 ) [ a / b ( I ..20: K2:=[~/(2AZ)] ? KlZC=[r/(2A2)1 r 11 11 I [ D l l ( r 3 r 2 ) + D U ( z 2z~ ) ] d r d z . = KUc = K. . Determine the net nodal forces when the ring’s horizontal top surface is subjected to distributed loading of 1 kN/m2.3. v ) b/(3a )] + K. 10.10 is divided into two rectangular plane stress elements with counterclockwise node numbering I342 and 3564 as shown.7.19 Two interconnected.21 Examine the manner in which normal..23 Confirm the following two element stiffnesses for the toroidal element shown in Fig.: = Ks. Determine the equivalent nodal forces.37 Figure 10.‘ K3< = K.v ) / ( S b ) ] + .22 Assemble the overall stiffness matrix K when the planestress cantilever beam in Fig. .: = K 9 t = K. 10.38 10. .37.z 3 ) + D . ( r 3 r 2 ) ( z 2 .z 3 ) + ( r 3 r 2 ) z / r 1 + D 4 4 ( z zz3 ) ( r 3 r2))drdz Then evaluate each double integrals using m and I as outlined in Section 10. rightangled triangular elements are loaded along one side as shown in Fig. 10. 10. ( r 3 r z ) [ ( z 3 r 2 z 2 r 3 ) / r  z + ( z 2 ..
497
C H A P T E R 11
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
Yielding in annealed polycrystalline materials is isotropic but the yield stress will become directiondependent following a history of severe deformation processing, as with the coldrolling of sheet metals. A priorworked metal can also have different yield stresses in tension and compression similar to the fracture stresses found in brittle solids. Other combinations of stresses required to produce yield or fracture lie on a surface that bounds an elastic interior. This is known as the yield or fracture surface as appropriate to the material. There exist similar descriptions of the initial yield surface in metals and of the failure surface for brittle solids despite differences in their behaviour. For example, a steel yields before becoming plastic while cast iron remains elastic to the point of fracture. We refer respectively to the yield and the fracture stress as a limit to the elasticity in each material. In less brittle materials, such as wood and fibrereinforced composites, a region of pseudoinelasticity may follow yielding. This is due to the nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of the resin matrix. The fracture surface will envelop a more complex elastic, viscoelastic regime but this need not concern our strength estimates. The classical criteria of yield and fracture apply to each type of material without consideration of the preceding deformation. The constants they employ can be expressed in terms of a given material's uniaxial and shear strengths.
11.1 Yielding of Ductile Isotropic Metals A ductile metallic material will begin to deform plastically under a uniaxial stress when the yield stress is reached. It has been seen that this situation can be avoided with a judicious choice of safety factor in deciding on an elastic safe working stress for the material. However, in practice, the stress state in many loaded structures is often biaxial or triaxial. Consider the principal triaxial stress system shown in Fig. 1 1. la where 0, a > o3 > ,
Figure 11.1 Principal and uniaxial stress systems
498
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
The question arises as to what magnitude of principal stresses will cause the onset of yielding. Where a material yields isotropically, the critical value of the chosen parameter at yield is independent of the orientation of the stress system. A number of yield criteria have been proposed over the past two centuries. Those given in Table 11.1 have been based upon critical values of stress, strain or strain energy being reached at yield in the principal system. The critical value is the corresponding quantity that prevails at yield in a simple tension test (Fig. 1 I . 1b). This enables each criterion to be related to the constant uniaxial yield stress Y measured from a tension test for any orientation.
Table 11.1 Summary of yield criteria for metals
I . Maximum Principal Stress: a , = Y or a?=  Y 2. Maximum Principal Strain: [ a , v ( a 2 +a 3 ) = Y or [a3 v ( a , + a 2 )= Y ] ] 3. Total Strain Energy: ( a , * + u22+ a:)  2 v ( 0 , u2+a 2 a 3 + , a 3 ) Y 2 a = 4. Maximum Shear Stress: a ,  u3= Y 5.ShearStrainEnergy: ( a ,  a 2 ) * + ( a 2 ~ ) ~ + ( U u  ) 2 = 2 Q , 3 Y
For yielding under a plane principal stress state we set a3= 0. The stress transformation equations, given in Chapter I , enable these yield criteria to be expressed in any two or three dimensional combination of applied direct and shear stresses. It is now accepted that those attributed to von Mises [ I ] and Tresca [2] are the most representative of initial yield behaviour in metallic materials. It is instructive to consider the derivation and experimental verification of these two criteria and their confirmation using experimental data available in the literature.
11.1.I Muxiinuni Shear Stress Theory
Attributed to Tresca [2] (also, Coloumb and Guest) the maximum shear stress theory assumes that yielding, under the principal stress system in Fig. 1 I . 1a, begins when the maximum shear stress reaches a critical value. The latter is taken as the maximum shear stress k at the yield point in simple tension or compression. That is, k = Y/2, which acts along planes at 45" to the tensile stress axis shown in Fig. 1 1.2a.
Figure 11.2 Maximum shear stress under uniaxial and triaxial states
For the triaxial stress state in Fig. 1 1 . I a, the greatest shear stress r13 acts along the plane inclined at 45" to the 1 and 3 directions (Fig. 11.2b) with magnitude r,3= ( a , a 3 ) / 2 . Equating shear stresses for the uniaxial and triaxial cases t13=gives the Tresca criterion: k
(7,
03=Y
(Il.la)
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
499
Numerical values of a, and q must be substituted in the lefthand side of eq( 1 1.1a) with signs denoting tension or compression, e.g. if a,= 30, u2=  15 and u3=  20 MPa then the lefthand side becomes 30  ( 20) = 50 MPa, showing that the intermediate stress value is irrelevant. Often eq( I 1.1a) is stated in words as follows: Greatest Principal Stress  Least Principal Stress = Tensile Yield Stress (Il.lb)
In the case of plane stress, where (a,, r) are nonzero, the principal stresses are q,,
a , ,a2= Y2 (ax q,) W [ ( a ,  q,)2 4rv2] and a3= 0 + +
*
(11.2)
where a, is the greatest tensile and u2 is the least compressive stress. Substituting eq( 1 1.2) into eq( 1 1.1 b) with q,= 0, the Tresca criterion reduces to aX2+4rq2 Y 2 =
(11.3)
txy.
which defines the equation of a twodimensional elliptical yield locus in axes of a, and
11.1.2 Shear Strain Energy Theory
Attributed to von Mises [I], this yield criterion has also been attributed to others (Maxwell, Huber and Hencky), who employed alternative derivations, They saw that the total strain energy was composed of dilatational (volumetric) and distortional (shear) components. The former depends upon the mean or hydrostatic component of the applied stress system while the latter is due to the remaining reduced (deviatoric) components of stress (as shown in Figs 1.1 1a  c). Clark Maxwell was among the first to realise that hydrostatic stress plays no part in yielding. He proposed that yielding under tension was due to the shear strain energy component of the total energy reaching a critical value (taken as the shear strain energy at the tensile yield point). This was later formalised by Richard von Mises and others in any one of the following three routes leading to the same yield criterion for ductile, initially isotropic, metallic materials. It will be shown later (see paragraph 11.1.4) that there is much experimental evidence to support this yield criterion. (a) Shear strain energy The total energy density for Fig. 2.4a is given by
u=
Ie
I]
a j jd t j j= J ( a, d t , + u2d t 2 + a3dt,)
Substituting the elastic constitutive relations from eq(2.15ac) and integrating leads to
The volumetric strain energy densitity is found from the hydrostatic component of stress (see Fig. 1.1 1b) as
u,.=
J" a d & = (o,dt+ o , d t + am t ) d
I
=%(am&+ a,&+ am&)
Substituting for the strain in any one direction, E = uml(3K), from eqs(2.5b). leads to
500 u, =
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
C5,>?/(2K) 3( I  2v)u",2/(2E) =
and, since a,,,= qL/3,
u,.= ( I

~ v ) ( u , a2+U 7 ) * / ( 6 E ) +
( 1 1.5)
Subtracting eq( 1 1.5) from eq( 1 1.4) leads to the shear strain energy associated with the deviatoric stress in Fig. 1.1 Ic. This gives
us = u

u,.
= [ 1 / ( 2 E ) ] ( ~ , ~ + ~ , ' + ~ v /)E ) ( ~ , u , + u , ~ , + u ,(1, ) v ) ( u , + u , + c ~ , ) ~ / ( ~ E ( q~ ~ ~ = ( I + v ) [ ( u ,  u ? ) ~ + ( u l 2+ ( a l q~ oT)*1/(6E) ( I 1.6a)
The value of rig at the tensile yield point is found from putting a,= Y, a?=u, = 0 in eq( 1 1.6a). This gives
M s = ( l +V)Y?l(3E)
( 1 1.6b)
Equating ( 1 1 .ha) and ( 1 1.6b) provides the principal stress form of the von Mises yield criterion:
( a ,
uz)?
+ ( a 2 u 3 ) ? (a,+
u3), 2 Y 2 =
( 1 1.7a)
If one principal stress, say q , is zero, the biaxial form of eq( 1 1.7a) becomes
a,? a, a,+ a??= ? Y
(1 1.7b)
Substitutions from eqs( 1 1.2) for o, (tensile) and a, (compressive) provides the general biaxial form in terms of a,, 0;.and zxx.When a,. = 0, a common plane form of the Mises criterion is found
a,? + 3 z,,? = Y ?
( 1 1.8)
Subscripts x and y are often omitted from eq( 1 1.8) to account for yielding under combinations of direct stress and shear stress in any coordinate system. (b) Octahedral shear stress Alternatively, it may be proposed that yielding under the triaxial stress system in Fig. 1 1. la commences when q, in eq( I . 16b) reaches its critical value at the tensile yield point (a,= Y, a, = u7= 0). We have
It is seen that eq( 1 1.74 reappears because the normal stress for the octahedral planes, i.e. q, in eq( 1.16a), is numerically equal to the mean stress a,= u,/3 and causes dilitation only. The distortion, and hence yielding, occurs under the combination of principal stress differences that define 7,. Clearly, energy considerations are unnecessary with this formulation of the von Mises criterion.
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
501
I I . I .3 Determination of the Initial Yield Point
Where a material displays a sharp yield point, as shown in Fig. 1 1.3% the division between elastic and elasticplastic regions is clearly defined.
(T (T
1
E
(a)
E
E
Figure 11.3 Definitions of yielding
On the other hand, there may be some doubt as to what the initial yield stress is for the many metallic materials that display a gradual transition between the two regions. TO avoid such uncertainty in the determination of the yield stress, various definitions of yield have been employed. The most commonly used definition is the proof stress, i.e. the stress at P in Fig. P 1 1.3b, corresponding to a plastic strain E offset by a given small amount, e.g. 0.001% 0.01%. Under combined stresses a similar equivalent plastic strain value is chosen to determine the amount that the component strains are to be offset. This method is often employed to determine the combined yield stresses necessary to construct a yield locus. One P difficulty arising with this is that the usual Mises form of equivalent plastic strain expression E = J [ ( ~ / ~ ) ( E , ~ ~ C , , ~ ) ] , a Mises yield surface. If the yield points thus determined presupposes P do not lie on a Mises locus the implication is that some other E definition applies, corresponding to a locus that would contain the yield points. Unfortunately, we have no way of knowing in advance what the true yield function can be. All that can be said is the von Mises offset strain method provides a check on the validity of the Mises function. Many investigations on the shape of the yield surface have attempted to avoid this problem by P employing low E values [ 3 ] . The yield stresses found from offset strains employing P different definitions of E would then lie in a narrow region just beyond the limit of elastic proportionality, i.e. L in Fig. 11.3b. An alternative, backextrapolation yield definition, shown in Fig. 1 1.3b, is much simpler in principle but its application requires large excursions into the plastic range. Point B, thus obtained, lies at the junction between the bilinear approximation to a stressstrain curve, thereby providing only an estimation of large scale yielding. The method is more acceptable for those materials, e.g. alloy steels, that deform in an approximately similar manner. It is less applicable to materials with wellrounded plastic regions, e.g. copper and aluminium. The yield stress found from larger offset strains will approach that found from that backextrapolation. As both methods involve considerable plastic strain, they require a new testpiece for every radial probe in order to avoid the effects of strain history. Of all the yield definitions, the stress at the limit of proportionality, L, is the only one with physical significance. It divides the regions of elastic lattice distortion and inelastic slip. It is because the stress value at the limit of proportionality is sensitive to individual judgement
502
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
that alternative methods have been devised. Mincho and Findley [4] have discussed results where, in Fig. 11.3b, point E and a tangent T, of predetermined slope, have defined yield.
11.1.4 Comparisons Between Tresca and vou Mises Criteria
Appraisals of the Tresca and Mises yield criteria are usually made under twodimensional stress states where it is possible to construct experimental yield loci. Comparisons between theory and experiment are best made for metallic materials that exhibit a welldefined yield point, such as low carbon steels, as shown in Fig. 1 1.3a. It is also instructive to examine the effect that yield point definition has on this comparison when initial yield stresses are determined at the limit of proportionality, by proof strain and back extrapolation methods. In this, the comments made in the preceding paragraph should be heeded.
(a) The u, versus a, plane This principal biaxial stress state is achieved in the wall of a thinwalled tube when it is subjected to combined internal pressure and axial load. The radial stress o3 may be ignored provided the i.d./thickness ratio of the tube > 15. Yield loci have been determined either from proportional or stepwise loading paths applied mainly within the first quadrant. In the remaining quadrants, compressive buckling can precede yielding, particularly with yield definitions involving larger amounts of plastic strain. Table 1 1.2 sumarises the test conditions from recent published data [591 used in the construction of Fig. 1 1.4. The materials used in these investigations have received a processing method or subsequent heat treatment to ensure an initially isotropic condition. There was an obvious yield point (y.p.) in En 24 steel [ 5 ] . Other investigations [6101 determined the yield stress either at the limit of proportionality P (1.p.) or at the given proof strain value ( E ). All stress paths were radial with the exception of Moreton et a1 [7] who showed that it was possible to determine the full locus in alloy steels by applying a sequence of nonradial probes to a single testpiece. Their choice of an 1.p. definition ensured a minimum of accumulated plastic strain from the probing technique. Most radial paths employ a new testpiece with a change to the stress ratio UJU,. have seen that We this is good practice when defining yield for larger proof strains.
Toble 11.2 Experimental yield point investigations in
u, , u,
space
Material
~
Heat Treatment Yield Definition Reference Symbol
annealed En24 carbon steel SAE 1045 Csteel hotrolled 2%% Cr, 1 % Mo steel stressrelieved normalised X60 alloy steel stressre1ieved 304 stainless steel solutiontreated 306 stainless steel M63 brass 14ST4 Al alloy NiCrMo steel annealed hotrolled annealed
Y.P.
P
E
= 0.007
1.p. 1.p. 1.p. 1.p.
1.p.
P
5 6 7 7 7 7
8 9
10
X
I
0
V
A
0
1
El
E P
= 0.002
E
= 0.002
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
503
The theoretical loci in Fig. 1 1.4 are plotted for axes normalised with the tensile yield stress Y . The von Mises prediction is, from eq( 1 1.7b)
which defines an ellipse with 45" orientation. The Tresca locus is found by applying eq( 1 1.1 a) to each quadrant in turn. For example, in quadrant one, where 0 5 q / Y < I , the greatest principal stress must be a,lY = I , (constant) when the least is q / Y = 0. Similarly, where 0 5 u2/ Y < 1, the greatest principal stress is a,/ Y = I , with a least value of q / Y = 0. The respective yield criteria a,/Y = 1 and a,/ Y = 1 thus describe the horizontal and vertical sides of the Tresca hexagon for quadrant 1 . In quadrant two, a,/Y is greatest in tension and a,/Y is least in compression. Hence, the left sloping side of the hexagon is expressed in the form u,/Y  q l Y = 1. The completed Tresca hexagon is inscribed within the Mises ellipse. Taken overall, the superimposed test data in Fig. I 1.4 lie closer to the Mises prediction, being apparently independent of the test conditions. The conclusion to be drawn from this is that an initial yield condition of Misesisotropy applies to ductile polycrystalline materials. The data reveals that most points lie outside the hexagon, confirming that a Tresca prediction of yielding for these materials is designsafe. It is shown later that where the yield points for an individual material lie between or outside the two predictions, they may be represented by an invariant function (see Section 11.2). The uncertainties in yield point determination may however cast doubt on the appropriateness of an initial yield function that fits the test data precisely. This author's view is that the Mises condition is adequate provided the material has been heattreated to a near isotropic condition. An examination of plastic strain paths can often provide a more definitive test of the yield function provided loading is radial.
Figure 11.4 Tresca and von Mises yield loci in normalised u,, u2 space
504
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Example 11.1 A thickwalled, closedend cylinder, 100 mm inner diameter and 200 mm outer diameter, is subjected to both internal and external pressure. If the internal pressure is five tinies the external gauge pressure, find the pressure that would cause the bore to yield according to the Mises and Tresca criteria when the cylinder length (a) expands freely and (b) is prevented from expanding by rigid end closures. Take v = 0.27 and Y = 250 MPa.
Applying the boundary conditions q =  5 p for r = 50 mm and a, =  p for r = 100 mm to the Lam6 eq(3.16a,b) gives
 517 = N  Id (50)’

p =N

o/ (100)2
(1) (ii)
The solution to eqs(i) and (ii) is a =p/3 and 0 = (4~13) lo4.We find from eqs(3.16a,b) that x the radial and hoop stresses at the bore are a, =  5 p (as expected) and a, = 5 . 6 6 5 ~ The . solution also requires axial stress to be found as follows:
(a) free expansion (see eq(2.49)):
n. = YZ(a;+ u”)= YZ( Tresca: a(,0, =
5p
+ 5 . 6 6 5 ~=p/3 )
Y
5 . 6 6 5 ~ ( 5 p ) = 250 
p = 250l10.665 = 234.4 bar
von Mises: (q, q ) ’ +(a,)q)’+ (a; q.)’ = 2Y2
~ ’ [ ( 5 . 6 6  0.333)2+ (5.665 + 5 ) 2 + (  5 5 p = (2 x 250’/170.61)”= 270.67 bar
(b) plane strain (see example 2.1 1)

0.333)’] = 2 x (250)2
o:=v ( o , + ~ , , ) = 0 . 2 7 (5/>+5.665p)=0.18/1 von Mises:
/7’[(5.665

0.18)’+(5.665+5)’+( 5  0 . 1 8 ) ’ ] = 2 ~ ( 2 5 0 ) *
p = (2 x 250’/170.66)” = 270.64 bar
The end condition makes little difference to the Mises pressure. The Tresca pressure is unchanged (b) The a versus t plane The respective Tresca and Mises yield criteria are given in eqs( 1 1.3) and ( 1 1.8). An obvious difference is that the shear yield stress k, i.e. the semiminor axis, differs as k = Y/J3 and Y/2 with Tresca being the smaller value. Note that it is usual to omit the subscripts .x and on a and twhen applying these criteria in the cylindrical coordinates pertaining to the stresses in the wall of a tube. The experiments detailed in Table 1 1.3 were all conducted on thinwalled tubes subjected to torsion combined with (i) circumferential tension (51 and (ii) axial loading in tension and compression [ 1 1 161. The tensiontorsion combination includes the original experiments of Taylor and Quinney [ 161 who first employed the backward extrapolation (b.e.) technique. With the exception of the stepped stress probes employed by Ivey [ 121 and Phillips
1 1
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
505
and Tang [ 131, all other investigations in Table 11.3 employed radial loading. Ellyin and Grass [ 151 applied multiple radial probes each emanating from the stress origin in a single testpiece. The final probe repeated their initial probe. The small difference between yield stresses for the initial and final probes show_e$ that the effect of accumulated plastic strain was negligibly small for their chosen offset E = 20 microstrain.
Table 11.3 Experimental yield point investigations in
u. r
space
Material
Heat Treatment Yield Definition annealed annealed stress relieved annealed asreceived stressrelieved annealed annealed Y.P. Y .P. 1.p. 1.p.
P E =200x P E = 20X
Reference Symbol
5 11 12 13 14 15 16 16
X
En 24 carbon steel En 25 carbon steel Nora1 19s Al alloy 11000 Al Brass TiSOA Tialloy Copper (99.8%) Aluminium (99.7%)
0
V
L
0
lo'
b.e. b.e.
A
0
The comparison between theory and experiment in Fig. 1 1.5 reveals again that most of the experimental data in quadrants two and four lie closer to the Mises ellipse than to Tresca, irrespective of the chosen yield definition.
Figure 11.5 Tresca and Mises loci in u, space r
506
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
Figure 1 I .5 confirms our expectation that a Mises initial yield condition applies to ductile isotropic materials under a, rstress states, an observation first made by Taylor and Quinney from their own results for copper and aluminium. Similar comments made previously, for the definition of yielding under a, , a , states again apply to Fig. 11.5. Again, the Tresca prediction will provides a conservative estimate of yielding for all definitions. There are many practical instances where direct and shear stress states are combined. These include a circular shaft under direct shear or torsion combined with either an axial load or a bending moment. Equations( 1 1.3) and (1 1.8) will also apply when all these loadings are applied simultaneously. A combination of direct stress and shear stress exists at points in the length of a loaded beam away from the neutral axis. Note that the hotrolled [6,9] and asreceived [ 141 materials given in Tables 1 1.2 and 1 1.3 did not receive any further heat treatment prior to test. It is possible that their departure from a Mises yield condition is due to the influence of initial anisotropy. The presence of anisotropy is detectable when initial yield stresses found for orthogonal tensile tests are dissimilar, but this was not reported in these investigations.
11.2 General Yield Function for Isotropic Metals
Because the mean or hydrostatic stress plays no part in yielding, it follows that the yield criterion is a general function of the deviatoric or reduced stress in Fig. 1.1 Ic. The deviatoric stress tensor qi is the remaining part of the absolute tensor qjafter the mean or hydrostatic stress a,, has been subtracted. This reduction applies only to the normal stress components a, , a,, and q,, since shear stresses, a,,, aI3 a,, , will cause no dilitation. Recall from and eq( I .2 1 a,b) that the introduction of the unit matrix I or the Kronecker delta 6, ensures the correct reductions. These are
,
a,]'= a,,  6,,a,, or S D= S 
'3 1
I (tr S)
( 1 1.9a.b)
where, d i , is unity for i = j and zero for i eq( I 1.9b) gives
* j . For example,
with i = I and j = I , 2 and 3,
q , ' = q 1  % = a , , '/3(q1++22+43) oi2' (no change) = a,,
With further reductions it follows that the resulting stress deviator matrix SD in eq( 1 1.9b) is composed of a,,',a,,' and a3?' the original shear stresses a,,, a,?and q 3 . and
''11
'I2
"22 '32
'I3 '23
=
'I1
'21
I
'I2 '22
'13
1 0 0 ('
1 I "22"
33
'21
'3I
'23
3
0 1 0 0 0 1
( 1 I .9c)
''33
is A yield criterion is formed when q' the argument in the function f ( q i ) = constant. The yield function fdefines a closed convex surface that encloses the elastic region. The surface governs the inception of plasticity under all stress states. Moreover, as yield behaviour is a property of the material itself f must be independent of the coordinates used to define q'. Yielding is thus a function of the deviatoric stress invariants J , ' , J,' and J i . These invariants niay be obtained by subtracting a,, from the absolute stress invariants, J , , J , and J , , the
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
507
coefficients in the principal stress cubic eq( I .8b). This gives, in principal stress form,
J , ' = a,' + a,' + 4' = (a, a",)+ (4 a,) + ( 4 a",) = (a1 a, + q )  3a,,, = 0 +
( I 1.1 Oa)
1.10b)
In changing the sign of the J2' expression ( 1 1.10b) it becomes positive within its corresponding deviatoric stress cubic
( a ' ) ? J , ' ( a ' ) J , ' = 0 Note that the tensor component and matrix forms of the invariants in eqs( 1 1 . 1 Oa,b,c) are
(1 I . l l a )
(Il.llb) (II.llc) Yielding begins when a function of the two nonzero deviatoric invariants J,' and J,' attains a critical constant value, C. That is,
f
(J?', J,' ) =
c
(11.12)
where C is normally defined from the reduction of eq( 1 1.12) to yielding in simple tension or torsion. When J,' is omitted in eq( 1 1.12), f is simply equated to J,', to give J 2'  k ? ( 1 1.13a)
where k = Y 2 / 3 is found from putting 0, = Y (the tensile yield stress) with az = u, = 0 in eq( I I . 1 Ob). Then, from eqs( 1 I . 1 Ob) and ( 1 I . 13a) it follows that
(1/6)[(0,
 0,)'
'
+ ( 4  q ) *+ (0,
4 ) ' ]= Y 2 / 3
(11.13b)
which again results in the von Mises yield criterion (eq 1 I.7a). Thus, according to von Mises, it is the second invariant of deviatoric stress which attains a critical value at the point of yield.
Example 11.2 A stirrer rotates within a chemical vessel at 600 rev/min under a compressive force of 4 kN. If the power absorbed by the stirrer is 400 W, determine the outer shaft diameter according to the von Mises and Tresca criteria using a safety factor of 3, given that the tensile yield stress is 180 MPa. How is the safety factor altered when, for each calculated diameter, the pressure within the vessel is increased to 120 bar?
508
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES
4
Figure 11.6 Surface elements of stirrer rod
In the absence of vessel pressure refer to the stress state shown in Fig. 1 1.6a Working in terms of the diameter d, the axial compressive stress 4 is found from the thrust W .
u7=W / A =  ( 4 x 1 0 ' ) / ( n d 2 / 4 ) =  5093/d2(MPa)
6)
The torque Tin the shaft is found from the power P (Watt) and speed N (rev/min) as
T = 60f/(21rN) = (60 x 400)/(2 x n x 600) = 6.366 Nm at The shear stress roT the outer radius r = d/2 follows from torsion theory
r 0 : =Tr/J= 1 6 T / ( n d 3 ) = ( 1 6 x 6 . 3 6 6 x 10')/(nd3)=(32.42x 103)/d3(MPa)
(ii)
where J = nd4/32. The safety factor S provides a safe working stress of YJS for which eqs ( 1 1.3) and ( I 1.8) are rewritten to provide a safe "working stress envelope". Tresca becomes
u: 4r,'= ( Y / S ) ? ( S 0 9 3 / d 2 ) ? + 4 ( 3 2 . 4 2 ~ [ 103)/d3]2=(180/3)2
+
for which the trial solution is d = 1 1.31 mm. The von Mises solution becomes
u: + 3 r l k 2 (US)' = ( 5093/d')' + 3 [(32.42 x
103)/d3]2 (180/3)' =
for which the solution is d = 10.97 mm. Clearly Tresca provides the safer prediction. When the stirrer shaft is under compressive pressure p from the vessel, the stress state at the rod surface is shown i n Fig. 1 1.6b. The stress components become
u:= (  5093/ 8) p u o = p . a, =  /> rl,:= 32.43 x I03/d.'
(iii)
where 11 = I2 MPa. The von Mises criterion must be account for the complete stress state in Fig. 1 1.6b. Where shear stress terms are present within the invariant eq (1 1.lob) this gives
( q , q ) '  ( u o  < ) '  ( a , .  q ) ' + 6 r l , : ' = 2 Y 2
Substituting eqs(iii) into eq(iv) leads to: S76+(5093/d2+24)2+(5093/d2)2+6(32.42~ 103/d3)2=2(180/S)'
(iv)
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA
509
and for d = 10.97 mm, S is reduced to 2.5. The Tresca criterion ( 1 1.1 b) requires the greatest and least principal stresses. Within the plane of Fig. 1 1.6b the principal stresses are
and substituting from eq(iii), with p = 20 MPa and d = 1 1.3Imm , gives the principal stresses aI = 19.08 MPa , a, =  58.9 MPa. Comparing these to the third principal stress, ur = p =  12 MPa in Fig. 1 1.6b, it follows that 0, and a2are the greatest and least numerical values required. From eq( 1 1.1 b)
19.08  ( 58.90) = (180/S)
from which S = 2.3 1 is a more conservative estimate.
11.2.I Hydrostatic Stress
When the yield function is formulated from the stress deviator invariants it implies that initial yielding is unaffected by the magnitude of hydrostatic stress. We have employed this simplifying assumption allows the development of yield functions for both isotropic and anisotropic polycrystalline materials. Most experimental evidence in support of this assumption applies to materials in an apparently initially isotropic condition. High magnitudes of hydrostatic pressure, up to 3 kbar, when superimposed upon torsion [ 17 191, tension [20,21] and compression [22] have not altered significantly the yield stresses for mild steel, copper, aluminium and brass. For these materials we can assume a yield function of the general isotropic formf(J,', .I3'). Under certain conditions, an allowance for the influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure may be required. For example, the upper, initial, shear yield stress k = 200 MPa for mild steel decreased by 5  6% under p = 3 kbar [ 171. For prestrained brass, variations of 6% to 3% in k were found for a superimposed pressure range of 1  4 kbar [21]. To account for variations of this order, Hu [ 181 separated the influence of 0 , by including J , = arm, along with J,' and J,', in the yield criterion:
in which J , was separated within two functions G and H as
Formulations of this kind are also required where the magnitude of a, is critical to the failure in brittle nonmetals and plastic flow in porous compacts.
11.2.2 Influence ofthe Third Invariant
The fact that some initial yield points for isotropic material do not lie on the Mises loci, in Figs 1 1.4 and 1 1.5, suggests that initial yielding may conform to a more general function containing both deviatoric invariants. Firstly, note that Tresca's criterion may be expressed as the following complex function [23] in these invariants
f = '/2 ( J z ')
 3(J3')

9k ( J , ')
'
+ 48k
( J , ') ' = 64 k '
( 1 1.15a)
510
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES
( 1 1. I%),
where the shear yield stress, k = Yl2 according to Tresca. Substituting eqs( 1 1. IOb,c) into and factorising gives
[ ( a I  a,)’ 4 k 2 ] [ ( a z  3 ) * 4 k 2 ] [ ( o , a a?)’ 4 k 2 ] = 0
(11.1Sb)
The familiar Tresca criterion is the last of the following solutions to eq( 1 1.15b): (a, 4) = 2k, ( a z q )= 2k and (a, 4 )= 2k. There are many other isotropic functions containing both ~ invariants. Amongst these are the following homogenous stress functions f i n eq( 1 I . 12)
( 1 1.16a) ( 1 1.16b)
(11.16~) In eqs( 11.16ac) c, 0,and d are material constants and k is the shear yield stress. Unlike eq( 1 1.15a), it is now possible to select a value for the constants in eqs(l1.16ac) to fit the initial yield data for most metallic materials [24]. Of these, the most wellknown is eq( 1 1.16a), proposed by Drucker[25], a homogenous function in stress to the sixth degree. The constant c lies in the range  27/8 s c s 9/4, in order to ensure convexity of the yield surface. Figure 1 I .7 indicates that, with c =  2 in eq( 1 I . 164, the close representation of the initial yield points for stainless steel [7] is better than that which would be found from either Mises or Tresca.
Figure 11.7 Drucker function applied to initial yielding in stainless steel
Also shown in Fig. 11.7 are the bounding loci from eq( 1 1.16a) with the limiting values c =  2718 and 9 / 4 , to ensure a closed surface [26]. Corners appear for the negative limit of c. The following chapter will show that, with the inclusion of J,’ in a homogenous yield function, the associated stressplastic strain relations become more cumbersome. It is for this reason that the Mises yield functionf= J,‘ is preferred. A typical nonsymmetrical function in the two deviatoric invariants J,’ and J,’ is formed from their linear combination in the following form [24]
f = (J,’)“
+ (p /a,)(’’)’) J, ‘
( I 1.17)
5.10b and c). The introduction of a.) (11.19a) Introducing the ratio p = p /a. These include (i) nonlinear plastic strain paths under radial loading [24 1. This gives ( I 1. .'. Explicit stress component forms of eq( 11.17) are found by substituting from eq( 1 1.17) can account for socalled "second order" effects in plasticity [27].'(1/3 +2/>/27)='/3~.3 . (ii) the accumulation of axial strain under pure torsion [28] and (iii) a difference between initial tensile and compressive yield stresses. 2/3 and 112 respectively. to eq( 1 I .8 Nonsymmetrical yield loci . 19a) leads to the relationship between p and p : (2p/9)p3 . under uniaxial yielding in tension and compression.19b) shows that these correspond to p = 2. the tensile yield stress. and with a.p' + (2p/9 + I ) = 0 ( 1 1. Equation ( 1 1. For example.20) Figure 1 1.17) will ensure homogeneity in stress.~/(270.each f = ~. 19a). = 0.8 gives the loci found from eq( I I .20) for p = 1. into the denominator of eq(11.2p0.. taking n = 1 in eq( 1 1. of a. by equating to the first expression in eq( 1 I .27/14 and .18) in a.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 511 where IZ and p are constants..19b) We may normalise the function ( I 1. Functions of the form of eq( I 1. This gives  p.17) under a principal biaxial stress state ( q = 0) gives the initial yield function The effect of (iii) above is revealed by respective substitutions for a . Figure 11.
. In fact. it will be shown that yield function must contain the first invariant of absolute stress J . 11. For the intermediate value p = . by 33%. coldrolled sheet and extruded bar can continue to display orientationdependent flow behaviour well into the plastic range.. This assumption is reasonably consistent with the observed. the function is restricted to materials for which one uniaxial yield stress is not less than 50% of the other. the magnitude of the uniaxial tensile and compressive yield stresses are equal and the positive and negative shear yield stresses are also equal.512 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES It is seen that. I Orthofropic Sheets Hill 1291 generalised the von Mises criterion to account for anisotropic yielding in an orthotropic material.’= I ( 1 1. .4. As a consequence of their processing history.21) is a restricted form of a general quadratic yield function discussed by Edelman and Drucker (301: ..3 < p < 3/2.f ( u .22) .’. 11.27/14 shown. It is also possible that initial anisotropy. is solely responsible for deviations from the Mises or Tresca conditions observed in Figs 11.5. the loci are bounded by three straight sides in contrast with Tresca’s sixsided isotropic locus in Fig. . where materials were not heat treated. anisotropic yield functions. 1 I . u. 17). For this.1 I . Convexity in the locus is ensured for .6. y and 2. An applied stress 4.4 and 11.’+ 2Mt. a.4.3 Anisotropic Yielding With the exception ofeq( 11.. Because stress deviator invariants appear in eq( 1 I . A common orthotropic form of initial anisotropy occurs in a sheet metal exhibiting different initial yield stresses for directions parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction.. and not the influence of J. must therefore be resolved along the orthotropic axes. . exceeds a. eq( I 1. from the symmetry of Figs 1 1. initial yield stress for annealed or stressrelieved metals and alloys. Equation (1 1. Writing the latter as x. L.. = Y2 ) c. This socalled plastic anisotropy is associated with these directional variations in yield stress which do not appear within the foregoing isotropic functions. it could be argued that the influences of J.. ) = F ( q . the yield criteria considered so far all assume that the yield stresses are of equal magnitude under the forward or reversed application of a given stress.17) is not valid for brittle materials in which hydrostatic stress is responsible for the difference between a. M and N are six coefficients characterising the orthotropic symmetry in the yield stresses. Hill’s function describes a yield surface whose stress axes are aligned with the principal axes oforthotropy in the material. Uk. for p = 2 and %. ) I + H ( u ~ .?)’ G(u..3. In view of the uncertainty over the accuracy of initial yield data employing different yield point definitions. and (T . the original function was given as 2 f ( q . H . the yield stress may vary depending upon the sense of the applied stress and its orientation. the function preserves plastic incompressibility whilst accounting for secondorder phenomena in quasiisotropic ductile polycrystals. ( 1 1. That is. ) ’+ 2Lt.q.* + 2Nt. u.’ on the initial yield stress are inconclusive. It is therefore pertinent to consider next alternative. In the absence of heat treatment. G. That is. = 4..4 .21) + where F.17).
22) is reduced to 15.21) by putting (i) G = H with M = N and (ii) F = G = H with L = M = N respectively. giving C. and orthotropy.4.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 513 The fourth rank tensor . Table 11..C contains 81 components. This form was claimed to improve descriptions of initial yielding in .33]. These apply to certain glass. The number of independent components reduces to 2 1 with imposed symmetry conditions: (i) symmetry in the Cauchy stress tensor q = T.. the number of independent coefficients in eq(l 1.. transverse isotropy (three coefficients) and a cubic form of anisotropy characterised by two coefficients [311.4 Yield criteria for an initially anisotropic condition Ref. Anisotropic Yield Function In Table 1 1.. The remaining two symmetry conditions follow from eq( 1 1. if yielding is to be independent of hydrostatic stress. Amongst these are orthotropy (six coefficients). The first of these corresponds with Hill's eq( 1 1. It is shown later that similar quadratic stress expressions reappear as failure criteria for intrinsically anisotropic nonmetals.3.22) has been demonstrated in the absence of symmetry in [32.. = C.and carbonfibre reinforced composites that are insensitive to the sense of the fracture stress. will account for particular material symmetries. With this number of coefficients. = C... C.. In the plane stress quadratic function (i). the function can account for the influence of hydrostatic stress on the yield behaviour of anisotropic materials. It is similar in form to that used for . Otherwise. = C.. defining a strain energy function for anisotropic elasticity. which gives C. They are summarised in Table 1 1. 11. Further applications of and developments to Hill's quadratic function have been made under particular conditions of plane stress and plane strain [34361. Wider application of the general forms of eqs( 1 1. the crossproduct terms in 4 rintroduce two additional constants (Hill has four).21).2 Other Anisotropic Yield Futictioru Other yield criteria [37441 have been proposed to account for the observed variations in yield stress for materials that may not conform to an orthotropic condition.. With further reductions to the number of independent components..4 the first 6 functions are homogenous in stress to various degrees.. and (ii) coincidence between the axes of stress .
and a2 are normalised with respective yield stresses for the 1 and 2 directions.21).3). However. Stassyd'Alia [43] has examined both forms in some detail by placing restrictions on certain constants. This form accounts for deviations from an initial Mises isotropic condition due to the combined influences of J. In particular.1 Ob. The function in (ii) is derived from the reduction to Drucker's eq( 1 I .+ a.c).(U. 11.e. Drucker's isotropic function reappears in combination with a quadratic stress term of the orthotropic kind. within the range I 5 m 2 2. a small offset strain definition of each yield point can reveal differences between them particularly in a material that has not received subsequent heattreatment. including the common case of planar isotropy (i. coincident with the axes of a plane stress state a. Bourne and Hill 1411 showed that the the numerical coefficients within a cubic function (v) in Table 1 1. c.. different. I6a) for a plane principal stress state. two such functions are given in Table 1 1. positive.461. This is reasonably near the truth for large offset strain and backwardextrapolation definitions of yield (see Fig..2 1 ).' is added where an account of compressibility is required. 11. are required to match eight ears. A nonquadratic function in (iv) was proposed by Hill [40] when principal stresses are aligned with the principal directions in an orthotropic material. The quadratic function. The stresses a. was a generalisation of J?'.?and u2. It also follows that his earlier quadratic function.different from 2. u2? a.4 matched the six ears observed in brass cups.. a. Moreover. The quartic function (vi) was proposed by Gotoh [42] to represent up to a maximum of eight ears observed in soft aluminium and its alloy. f = g = 0) in rolled pol ycrystall i ne sheets [45.. this function accounts for any ratio between transverse and thickness strain under uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. With axes of orthotropy 1 and 2.J g and h are all a. The constants 8.514 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES anisotropic sheet material. eq( 1 1. . four ears in certain cases. a = b = 0. together with A = 1.. . 11. is and this .) are found from the yield stresses under (a) uniaxial tension and either (b) throughthickness plane strain compression or (c) inplane.b. The coefficients A .) A..3. For example. eq( 1 1.?. It is seen that this form is a further generalisation of the isotropic invariants in eqs( 1 1.4 ltilzoniagenous Futictions Any yield function homogenous in stress to a degree of two or more assumes that the tensile and compressive yield stresses are equal for each principal material direction. can provide an explanation of two and.3. . at most. which are assumed to be . the use of an exponent m.' and initial anisotropy. An account of different positive and negative yield stresses appears with the inclusion of a linear stress term within the yield function. allows for a wider range of anisotropic behaviour. A plane orthotropic function of linear plus quadratic terms applies when yielding remains independent of the magnitude of a superimposed hydrostatic stress [47].4: eq(vii) for general 2 D stress and eq(viii) for principal triaxial stress. In (iii). A further term A. The expanded plane stress form of eq(vi) is where eight coefficients. equibiaxial tension.3 Euritig The question of whether the development of four or more ears from a cupping operation on an anisotropic sheet can be predicted successfully has been considered within higher order polynomial yield functions.
~uI2 .9ah show several cases of anisotropy as represented by eq( 1 1.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 515 In a reduced space of a.23b). 1 1. space . Figure 11.9 Yield loci in u .I and q2.23a) becomes: eq( Figures 1 1.
10 Yield locus for an orthotropic magnesium extrusion . 1 I . 10. is responsible for inclinations in the yield loci a. is set to zero. b. q .1 = 0 in a.21) since coefficients in linear terms are set to zero to give equal magnitudes in forward and reversed yield stresses. Similarly. uIl2 L .24) ) Equations ( I 1 .24) are applied to initial yield locus for an anisotropic magnesium extrusion in Fig. The locus in (h) is equivalent to eq( 1 1.. An irregular shaped locus in an orthotropic material may be matched better with the introduction of cubic terms: (1 1. so giving the loci in Fig. Particular applications ofeq( I I . e and + f. The most obvious test of an inclination within this stress space is to observe whether axial strain is produced under pure torsional loading.516 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The constants are readily matched to equal yield stresses as shown.direction. This follows from the direction of the outward normals at the two points of intersection between an inclined locus and the t axis. 0. This effect is due to anisotropy and is not a secondorder phenomenon previously associated with J3’. c. The product term Q5u.is the tensile yield stress i n the 1 . Each normal will display a component of axial strain aligned with the uaxis in addition to a shear strain component aligned with the taxis. Axial strain can still appear in the absence of rotation when Q. different shear yield stresses become the roots of Q4 + L.23a) reduces to a dimensionless biaxial form for the principal stresses ul and u2: in which a. they become the roots of Q. e and q2 g..9b.23c) have shown good agreement with initial yield loci for anisotropic sheets of TiAI alloy [27] and zircaloy [47). d and f. 1 1.5tFigure 11. b. Where tensile and compressive yield stresses differ.q2. Comparisons of this kind apply more to the limit of proportionality since the initial anisotropy will diminish with increasing offset strains. c and d. 2 3 ~and ( 1 1.1 = 0 in a. When there is no shear stress acting along the orthotropic material directions 1 and 2. eq( I I .
that additional combined stress yield points are required to establish the degree of distortion. are directly determined from the five experimental yield points shown.4.4 Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials Brittle materials fail at stress levels just at or beyond their elastic limits with very little plasticity. Writing these as q and a. u1 I 0. I ) is easily modified to describe failure in brittle materials when their tensile and compressive strengths differ. the MPS theory disregards the effect of one or other principal stress.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 517 The five constants.10. 11. The determination of the seven constants in eq( 11. ceramic. depending upon the quadrant in which the stress state lies. However.11 Brittle fracture criteria under plane principal stress . This refers to the reduction in reversed yield stress following forward deformation into the plastic range. Note that it is misleading to employ the term Bauschinger effect for a difference in brittle strengths where this is an inherent property and not one that is deformation induced. L and Q in eq( 1 1. since it is the numerically greater stress that is responsible for brittle fracture.1 1 presents the failure locus in a principal biaxial stress plot. The literature reveals stronger evidence for distortion in the subsequent yield locus than in the initial locus. 11.24) can provide a better account of the distorted locus in regions between yield points. cast iron. However. ColoumbMohr Maximum principal stress Modified Mohr Figure 11. It is seen that both predictions represent the variations in yield stress along each axis of orthotropy. rock. respectively. concrete and soil. It is seen from the comparison made in Fig. Fig.23c). Both quadratic and cubic yield functions appear to describe the measured initial yield points equally well. We therefore use the term “fracture” and not “yield” to describe strength. eq( 11. This becomes important to the direction of a plastic strain vector where it is assumed to be aligned with the position of the exterior normal.1 Major Principul Stress Theory (MPS) Rankine’s principal stress criterion (Table I I . 1 1. It is seen that. the assumption of an isotropic fracture strength would not be consistent with observed behaviour for most brittle materials since these are inherently anisotropic. This allows for a compressive strength many times greater than the tensile strength. Prestrained metals can show a similar anisotropy known as the Bauschinger effect. 11.24) requires an additional yield point and strain vector direction as indicated [48]. Amongst the materials displaying different strengths in tension and compression are glass.
. 11. 11. 1 I .2 Internal Friction Theory A further account of the failure locus in brittle materials is provided by the CouloumbMohr internal friction theory [49]. so eq( 1 1.12. are both negative. = I (1 1.1 I . the strength under pure shear corresponds to point B. = . MPS failures occur in quadrants one and three and maximum shear failures in quadrants two and four.  (1 1.u 2 .1 1. This is a combination of the major principal stress and maximum shear stress theories that also account for different tensile and compressive fracture strengths. C and D given in Fig.25b) For other stress states lying within the remaining square envelopes of the failure locus. the major principal stress criterion applies./q)u. Points on the Mohr’s circles correspond with the particular combined stress points A. within the linear envelope in Fig. These are expressed in the equation of the limb passing through D. uI is positive and u2and a.axis.. For example. . for which tension (say) is combined with shear. Figure 11. 1 1. are represented by points A and C on circles tangential to the z .4. The criterion is that failure under a biaxial stress state is coincident with the point of tangency between the Mohr’s circle for a given stress state and the envelope linking the circles for uniaxial tension and compression. the circle makes a tangent at D and the principal stresses at failure become the coordinates of point D in Fig.25a) is written as q / q +u 2 / q . That is uz= (a. To account for failure under all stress states. I 1. 1 1.12 ColoumbMohr criterion The different ultimate strengths between uniaxial tension and compression. In Fig.In the general case. a. 1 1.518 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 11. an alternative presentation of ColoumbMohr’s criterion is given in Fig.1 1 we can identify the corresponding intersection points B for pure shear failure where a. Referring to Fig. B.12.25a) In quadrant four.
ul )' + 4tr12] = ut .1 1 shows that this modification places the failure envelope intermediate to others within quadrants two and four. 400)' + 0. 1 I .~ .0833 . Example 11.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 519 11. we determine the principal stress expressions in terms of the unknown a.[(.+ U.1 182. A Rankine tensile failure gives ( a .0 + (iii) .u2= t.3 A cast iron is subjected to a plane stress state as shown by the element inset in Fig.25 .) + YZ [ ( a .5625]"'+ ( .0833 + U. 3 6 7 3 ~ 0.0.25 + uI / 400) + [(0. lying within quadrants two and four. All theories coincide in quadrants one and three.0867 = 0 .0.1 and u1 .5). 0 7 3 6 ~ ~ . It is generally accepted that the two strengths are approximately equal for brittle materials.26a) The modified theory is derived from eq( I I .0. Firstly.3 Modified Mohr Theory A further modification to the failure locus within its second and third quadrants in Fig. the signs are chosen to allow a positive substitution for u I and negative substitutions for u2and oc.) Y z [ ( u ~L T . I 1. 1 I . A Rankine compressive failure gives U. ( 1 1.4. = that according to Rankine and Mohr would cause brittle failure.26a.06251' = 2 Setting x = uy/I200 in eq(iii) leads to the cubic in x x 3 .4. in Fig.26a) in the form UI/Ut + ( a 1 a 2 ) / u= I + .0.1200 MPa respectively.12. The intersection between this line and the CoulombMohr locus implies that the shear strength t is less than the tensile strength. . *' (0. This was to achieve a closer fit to experimental data (see paragraph 1 I . = . Figure 1 1. 1 I . / 1 2 0 0 ) .0 . 11200). determine the value of a. 1 1 is given by u* = U < ( u c+ u t )U I / u t  ( I I . Given that ox= I 0 0 MPa tensile and tr) 150 MPa. The tensile and compressive strengths of this material are ut = 400 MPa and a.25 .= '/z from which uy= 325 MPa.25 + U . Alternatively.describing a line of slope = = . For a ColoumbMohr failure we substitute the left side of cqs(i) and (iijinto eq(l 1. ) ' + ~ T ~ ~ ' ] ' ' ' = ~ (ii) (.06251'" = 2 from which uy= .=%(U~+U.I . The modified Mohr theory is often applied graphically in this way to determine the combined stress states at fracture within quadrants two and four in Fig.b). /1200)2+ 0./ 400) + l(0.[(.0833 + a.U. 1 I . the line equation joining point F to o. I I was made by Mohr [49].7 MPa.0./400)2+ 0. Now consider a state of pure torsion u2/q . /1200)* + 0. this being achieved with Mohr's modification.26b) In eqs( 1 I .56251' = 2 / U.25b) to give (0.0833  a.
4. Points on circles D and E for plane BC (a.  ~ 7 .8. and J..? ) + a a ...28b) ( a . 11. = 0 . ’ + a ..a . . + (1 1. 2 + 3 a a .  + 4 ) ?+ a ( ~ . in eq( 1 1.+ U .0. has no meaning. Tensile failure BC lies on another tangent circle.O. 335.150) (T 1200 C Figure 11.3 c ..52 MPa and .6 MPa. Compressive failure BC lies on the circle in Fig.14a) combining the invariants J .27a) where.= 325 MPa at failure from the Rankine criterion. being greater than a. = c Since roots a. lob). (1/6)[(0. shifted to the right of the origin.27b). from eqs ( I . uy= 555.’+ 3 a 0 . are required of eq( 1 1.802.8 MPa.’ in the form J.13 with tangent at D. ) = c ] + ( 1 1. The second and third values of q.669.2796 and . . would produce tensile and compressive failure.520 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES for which the roots are x = 0. 0. with tangent at E also passing through AB. The first value. Correspondingly. = of and a.5. 150) lE\ BC (335. we must use a. BC ( . = (1 1. =c o?)’ ( a . = a .463.28a).28a) a. ) ( a + o c ) a.13) we fix point AB(IO0.. However. In the graphical construction (Fig. 1 1. it follows that (1 1.u .9a) and ( I 1.802.13 ColoumbMohr construction 11. ) ~(0.27b) Constant c is found by substituting the uniaxial condition (a. o . ( q o f ) . This gives 0) (1/6)(2a.3 c .150) for the stress state on plane AB. since both principal stresses are tensile for circle E..a.4 Stassid’Alin Theory Consider an unsymmetrical function (1 1.’ + aJ . 150) are then located as shown.
YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 521 Equating coefficients in eq(l1.30a) defines a locus in a reduced space a. a.29a) u3)2+(a1) 2 ] + 2 q ( p . . / ~ r ~ )2 ~+ /(( ~.~/O. ~ = 0) for a material where the ratio between compressive and tensile strengths is p = q. ) 2 + ( u 1 .. Substituting into / 3 eq( 1 1.27b) leads to [(a. Figure 11. i. Stassi's normalised biaxial fracture criterion becomes .0.= 0. J . Find the yield stresses as a fraction of q for (i) p = 2 and R = 1 and (ii) p = 3 and R = 2.l ) ( a l + q + 4 ) = 2 q . / q + a . Example 11.l ) ( a . + a 2 + a 3 ) = 2 p a . ( ~ 1 . to give ( 1 1.29a) leads to the criterion of StassiDAlia [50]: [(a./q in eq( 11.29b) Setting 0 = 0 in eq(ll. appear within J.= P ) ( I T ) Substituting uI2 R a i l into eq(i) leads to the quadratic in a. 2 9 ~ ) The Stassi derivation [50]of eq( 1 1 ./q)(a.843.e.14 illustrates the solutions graphically for which the required stresses lie at the intersections with the loci for p = 2 and 3 and the linear path.593. l / q ) 2 + ( p l)(aIl/q)p=O The solution to eq(ii) is O..../a.30a) Equation (1 1.4 ) 2 + ( 4  (1 1.I /a. Setting p = 3 and R = 2 in eq(iii) gives a. a ./q: = (1 + 3 R 2 ) ( ~ ..= 0.O 3 ) 2 ] + 2 q ( q / q . Putting p = a.29b). q3 and a..) and c = '13 aca.={ (i) (ii) ( p . / q ) 2 (a.4 Derive an expression for the yield stress under a radial path R = q. ( ~ i 1 / ~ ) 2 + 3 ( a ~ .1 ) 2 + 4 p ( l + 3 R 2 ) ] } / [ 2 ( l +3R2)] (iii) Setting p = 2 and R = 1 in eq(iii) gives a.28b) gives a= ' (q.4 1.0 2 ) 2 + ( o .563.30b) with respect to a. remains unchanged but additional terms in a./q. ( a ./a.. q . . . p = 1.0. as We see that the major advantage of the invariant formulation is that it is reducible to a given stress state.l ) ( a . / q ) = p u (1 1 . When the derivation is extended to include shear stress. When q. Z 4 ( 1 1. 2 9 ~did not involve the use of invariants but it is clear ) from the present derivation that hydrostatic stress is responsible for the difference between tensile and compressive strengths. a. .I..'. a .. Normalising eq( 11.. a von Mises locus is recovered since hydrostatic stress = then plays no part in failure.../q)+(* / q ) 2 + ( p .I ) + J [ ( p .
14 Failure loci in u.la.4.25b) are conservative in each quadrant..lu.. P=3 3 Figure 11.u. 1 1.522 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 012 /a.* space 11. The modifiedMohr eq( 11.26b) represents . I 0 0 Coffin 1S I I Grassi and Comet1521 . It is evident. . that the Stassid'Alia eq( 1 1 . 2 9 ~ ) and the ColoumbMohr eq( 11. For the ratio p = u.= 3.u.15.5 Comparisons with Experiment In Fig.15 Brittle fracture criteria applied to cast iron The experiments do not reveal the superiority in any single prediction due to the scatter in the data. Alherti 153) Stassi dAlin I 0 S1 ColoumhMohrI491 max principal stress modified Mohr 1491 Figure 11. test data falls mainly within quadrants 1 and 4 for axes normalised with u. however.. a comparison is made between the various strength criteria and experimental results [51531for fracture in grey cast iron.
. some data lying within quadrant 3 suggests that Stassid'Alia's criterion best predicts the considerably enhanced compressive strengths observed.and u. 11. /sin28. However. (b) u.cos28) [59] qq= ul. ) [ a ~~ sin28+(1. strength. slate and fibrereinforced composites.a ~ . being greater along the grain than across it..I Uniaxial Criteria Early criteria dealt only with offaxis tensile and compressive failure..../(al.16 Offaxis tensile test on unidirectional composite Table 11.u... Many criteria have been proposed to account for strength variations in these materials. .sin"8+ a.+(u. In what follows we classify them according to the applied stress system../cos28 or ao.. ) ( 1 .YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 523 failure adequately within quadrant four.= ul. = u2.5...= u.u.u2.16).. . conform with theoretical predictions.. /(sinOcos8) 1581 a..5 Strength Criteria for Lamina Consider next the failure of nonmetallic laminae exhibiting quasibrittle behaviour. Such materials include wood. Within the first quadrant.sin28+ u../cos28. The most versatile are those that admit failures from any combination of stresses inclined at any orientation to the grain or fibre direction. 11.5 Un iaxial failure criteria for dircctional materials Jacoby Howe Jenkins Stussi Hankinson Osgood Kollmann [54]a. for example.= a. cos"8) (1. ./(al. The fact that fewer data are available under biaxial compression reflects the difficulty in conducting these experiments.. 1 I .e.= ul. /sin2B (smaller value applies) [571 (a) u. 1' 2 Figure 11. .. The respective tensile and compressive strengths for the I . all predict the stress aOt fracture when it is applied with an at inclination 8 to the fibre direction (i.direction are ul.5 5 IZ 5 2 ) . (c) uof= a. Those given in given in Table 11..6'0/900)s'2 ~ [56] a. The shear strength for the 12 plane is denoted as a..2 ./( ... + ( u ~ .5 [54601. c o s 2 ~ u.. Their properties are orientation dependent. and u..1 in Fig...a ) sin48]) a is a material constant [60] a..= u.sin'8 + [ 5 5 ] u O ~ = u~. The general forms are more complex but they do admit reductions to simpler stress states. and those for the transverse 2 direction are u2.... lowstress failures observed under biaxial tension.= a l . direction .
All other twoconstant criteria in Table 1 1. 4mr ' 0 A '~ \ \ Hankinson [ 5 8 ] Howe [55 J 200 I 0 Failure stress Elastic limit 30' 0 60  8 YO" Figure 11. is between 3 and 4 times that for the transverse direction (8=90"). parallel to the grain (8=O O ) . In contrast to its good description of the anisotropic strength for wood. 17 compares four of these criteria with the compressive strength of Iroko wood. where the elastic and inelastic strain are of similar magnitudes = 1% (see inset figure). the strength attains a minimum as failure occurs by shear along a single cleavage plane. For 8 z 30". in addition to o.5 are also unable to fit the slate data.Osgood's criterion [S9] provides acceptable agreement with . Of these. minimum strength observed at 8 = 45". Comparable maximum strengths are found for crushing failure.524 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 1 I . The difference in the stress ordinates between points established from the limit of proportionality and final fracture indicate the contribution to the fracture stress from inelasticity in this material. a failure resulted from shearing parallel to the fibres but the failure stress was not described by the pure shear theory.a.. It is seen that an average compressive strength value q C= SO MPa.17. and multiple splitting and buckling of individual layers for 8= 0".17 Theoretical and experinienral offaxis compressive strength for wood The criterion of Stussi [57] is formed from the minimum of three bounds defined by eqs(a).5. The Jenkins [S6] and Kollmann [60]criteria apply only to tensile failures. With the constant a. 1 I . 11. Within the orientations 30"s 8 s 60". when 8= 90". 18). curve (c) in Fig. the equation which is first satisfied will define failure. The Howe [55] and Hankinson [58] criteria best describe the observed fall in strength with an increasing orientation between the applied stress axis and the grain direction (0" inset). . The greatest extent of inelasticity occurred for 8= O". (b) and (c) in Table 1 1. Hankiinson's criterion cannot account for the purely brittle behaviour of Dinorwig slate (see Fig..
..34a.. and a22 along and perpendicular to fibres act whose respective tensile strengths are a..and a.. a*. are combined. These criteria apply when the stress axes lie along.b): in which additional account is given of shear failure under a.. Failure occurs for whichever equality in eqs( 1 1.. direct tensile stresses a.has been subtracted from a tand a. = The shear energy expression follows from taking an anisotropic ulanestress form of ea(l1.5. the fibre direction. Griffith and Baldwin 1611 employed a similar derivation to the von Mises isotropic criterion.b) where independent. and a.and a.2 2 0 Criteria A number of criteria have been proposed to predict the magnitudes of biaxial stress states at failure.33a) . = a2. is similar to eq( 1 I .YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 525 1500 4 lo00 500 0 3' 0 60.32ac) is first achieved.18 Theoretical and experimental offaxis compressive strength for slate 11.= a. and transverse to.b) and ( 1 I .6aj in which a. 0 9' 0 Figure 11.. the plane stress components a. Failure was assumed to occur when the distortion energy reached a critical value independent of the hydrostatic stress am '/3oU..31a.31a.3la.. The Stussi criterion [57] for compressive failure. ( I 1. Where the applied stresses are inclined they should be transformed into these directions according to eq( 1. The simplest planestress criterion is due to Jenkins [56] a.b). accordine to ( 1 1.. In other biaxialstress failure criteria....
’= all2 + au. failure of their orthogonal walls may be considered from their inplane stress states.526 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES When C j jin eq( 1 1. = a.. Amongst other Misestype quadratic functions.. + b a l l + ca.5.3 General Strerigtlz Criteria (a) Hill Hill’s homogenous quadratic function [29] eq( 1 1. b and c are algebraic expressions in C...I . as with b a l l a.. a?? the 11.33a) are constants the material behaves in a linear elastic manner to the point of fracture. = 0. a plane stress state a.. The conversion of eq( 1 1. lowest magnitude plane failure stresses are given by eq( 1 1.334 to a criterion in stress is achieved from taking uCci. eq( 1 1. It has also been used to predict triaxial stress states that cause brittle fracture when written in the form .35) are elliptical in form.c): ( ~ . to give a biaxial failure criterion for the 12 plane as Two additional equations for the 13 and 23 planes follow with an appropriate change to the subscripts in eq( 1 1.34). and a12 shows that eq( 1 1. a. in eq( 11. . and a. a.34) and (1 1. Thus. In the absence of buckling.6a. Norris and McKinnon (621 proposed an empirical ellipsoidal function to describe the failures observed in plywood: Note that both eqs( 1 1. Putting a.36b. Failure occurs when any one of the criteria (1 1. b and c may be found empirically from the observed strengths in given directions..21) was originally proposed as a yield criterion for orthotropic metals.b) and grouping coefficients leads to the simplified form of fracture criterion: a. For example.36c) These threeplane fracture criteria apply particularly to cellulartype materials.33a) becomes in Equating the righthand sides of eqs( 1 1. Norris [63] later provided an interactive term.36~1): ( 1 1.364 is accompanied by two reduced relationships from eqs( 1 1. / a .36~1).36b) ( 1 I . uniaxial stressing parallel to the fibres.? ( I I .>.b. in the absence of stress components q 3 .c) is first reached. ~1) ’ = 1 and These restate the maximum principal stress criteria..33a. ) ~ = ( 4 / ~ .34) in which the constants a. Where nonlinear deformation precedes fracture. j .
Marin’s function can be made to fit test data more reliably than other functions which rely solely on uniaxial data.and q3 I . qf and q..37).63] and Hill [29] did not stipulate whether direct strengths elf.. Norris [62.a ) ]= u2  ( 1 1.. .’ +Nu.q... Where the two strengths differ. 2 . shear stress in eq( 1 1. (b) Marin In order to account for differenet tensile and compressive strengths Marin [65]proposed and empirical failure criterion. U . with 0 < 8< 90°.37b) that the direction of the failure path was not necessarily perpendicular to the direction of the major principal stress.. * + 2(LuZj2 +H .* 2H = 1/0. .~ are 1 .. This influence of shear stress is absent in fracture criteria composed only of normal stresses.qT3)’ (u.)’ +G(u.374 The constants are expressed in terms of known failure strengths as follows 2 F = I/u..37a) gives (u. a . The reduction to eq( 1 1.Z/u2J*+ u12*/u.and K . to zero and with a. are the respective direct strengths for the 1. ~ ..2.3 and u. are the normal components of applied stress lying in the principal material coordinates.f 2 . u2/and qf are tensile or compressive. ~ + u...38a) means that it is strictly restricted to where principal stresses u.374 for plane stress applied to a material with transverse isotropy was considered by Azzi and Tsai [64].. (see Fig.38b) leads to K 2 = u . 2 and 3 directions. Because the remaining constant q must be evaluated under a complex stress condition.2u.. 6..c ) + (u3 c ) ( u .a)(u. =u .12 2 L = 1/u2..? and 2N = l / ~ .’.34) ..l/U.I/u. .u2J +Mu.. and u.* + I / U . ’ ..2M = I/o. In order to gain wider applicability it could be assumed that shear stress has no effect on the failure condition and u. = u. *+ l/u. ~ ’ Here u .. ) / U I . u J 1 ~ (.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 527 2 f ( 4 = F ( q 2. These homogenous quadratic functions describe ellipses centred ast the origin and thereby provide equal tensile and compressive strengths.. and u. . .. ~ ’ .u. these criteria are inappropriate. .I/U...38b) Substituting the known uniaxial strengths into eq( 1 1. Griffith and Baldwin [61]. + q [ ( u ..3 and ulI . Note that in eqs(l 1.37b) In the offaxis uniaxial test. K .. This includes both linear and quadratic terms in stress in the form ( a . u and q are aligned with the material orthogonal axes. = o Z c I u.(1 1.’ 2G = I / U T . The plane stress reduction to eq( 1 1. a.*) = 1 ( I 1. Setting all stress components except u. . the respective shear strengths within the planes 1 .38a) where a.’ + I / U ~ . = qf in eq( 1 I .. u II = u2(u 2 . ..J2= 1 ( 1 1. ~ .. c and uare empirical constants determined from the observed uniaxial strengths in tension and compression for each orthogonal direction.38a) takes the form ( 1 1. .b ) + (u* b)( u. The absence of .b ) 2 + ( u 3 c ) .16) they showed from eq( 1 I .a)Z+(a. 1 1.
.under equibiaxial tension (a. Hoffman described fracture surfaces for a unidirectional glassfibre composite and a syntatic foam consisting of microspheres embedded in a resin matrix. = q. in eqs( 1 1. Cn= l/u13.U2. respectively as Where shear stress is known to influence fracture. The constant K . 6) now become The remaining constants C.? and The plane stress form of eq( 1 1. . )..528 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES where subscripts f and c denote the tensile and compressive strengths respectively.) relate to the shear strengths uIz1. it has been introduced within the following "modifiedMarin" form of plane stress criterion: Constants A I . in eq( 1 1.39a) in the form ( 1 1.40~1) The material constants C j (i = I .39a) are determined from the known strengths.a.. A. The addition of linear terms in the components of direct stress gives ( 1 1..I = a. This gives eq( 1 I . and A.)U'2/ ( a c + ul. ) + ( ~ 1 . may be found from either the failure stress q.39b). ~ . and a./ ( % " z . ) ~ . A becomes a "floating constant" and A h follows from failure under pure. 1 ) + ( ~ ~ 12. 1 ~ ( ~ .40a) is (1u1 4 ..2 C. or These give K . = q. .b) different from unity is examined in the following section. ~ ( % % ) + (4. C.39a.37a) by Hoffmann [66] provides for a general orthotropic condition. and A. . in the orthogonal planes as follows: C... inplane shear. .) from pure shear ( q = . = l / q 3 . (c) Hoffman A modification made to eq(l1.2/ui'f2 1 a?. = I/u.). ' ./ and u2. In this plane form.39b) The effect of setting K .. 2 . A .. and C.) = ( I I . ~ l f ) ~ l .40b) which is not identical to eq( 1 1.
m .37 . and v I z are elastic constants for the transverse direction.. 2 and 3.40) predate the now most widely used fracture criterion of Tsai and Wu [67].. Where plane principal stresses are aligned with the material directions: ( 1 1. c .41a) where i. 133 0 I q 3 3 1 ( 1 1. (e) Waddoups Up to now fracture criteria have been formulated in terms of the stress components. Waddoups [68] postulated an anisotropic form of St Venant's principal strain criterion. a.41b) in which interactive stress terms. ~1 . The remaining coefficients in eq( 1 1. ) reaches a critical value.42b) where El and v are elastic constants for a direction aligned with the fibres and E. are ignored.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 529 (d) Tsai and Wu Equations ( 1 1. ~ i .. a. This simply states that failure occurs when one component of principal strain (cI.19 Fracture surface showing plane loci . They combined linear and quadratic terms for a six component stress space as Fijaij+ i . = F (1 1.1 1. Nine coefficients relate to the uniaxial strengths from which the relationship to coefficients in earlier theories is apparent.+ F 2 I 2 + Fl122'll 4 2 + F3 4 3 3 + Fl I I I 0 l 2 + Fm2 4 1 2 ? + F3333432 +2 (F2233 9 2 4 3 + u22)+4(FL212u1122+ F1313'132+ F2323'232)= F .42a) ( 1 1. j .. k and 1 take values from I . F. etc. total 12 strength coefficients which appear in the full expansion of eq( 1 1.41a) as F I I ~ .4 1 b) are found from biaxial stress tests. . Figure 11.. and F.
.: = all = a. and a. = 0 and the surface in Fig. Where these strengths are different. 1 1..6 the plane stress forms of the previous criteria are applied to the offaxis test. inclined at 0 to the principal fibre direction I ..= (a/2) sin 2 8 ( 1 1. so it is instructive to compare appropriate 2D criteria with experimental fracture data.b) In Table 1 1. = 0. Table 11.. Where the theoretical tensile and compressive strengths are assumed to be the same... the experimental fracture locus may be derived within a.. gives the three components of plane stress for the material directions (see Fig. 4 is used for normalising the axes. the normal stresses become principal stresses a. a??. a. 1 OffAxis Compression Resolution of an applied stress 0. Where the layup uses different fibre orientations.c) Since these components are not independent.. the one orientation that offers least resisitance to the loading may be assumed to control the strength of the laminate.b. the stress components are normalised with respect to failure strength giving variables x and y as indicated. Locus ACLDB lies in the a. is used as shown. 11..6 Offsetaxis failure criteria x Y Function f Ref .* ( 1 I. + u22 a and a. a.a.530 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES 11. the compressive strength q.2= u s i n 2 8 and a. 1 1.19.6. 11..16): a.. Very often the stress state in a multilayered composite will be plane in nature. u2* space by eliminating 0 and a.?.43a. all When shear stress is absent along principal material directions 1 and 2. The failure locus (AEFGB) is formed from the intersection between the plane a. space and a plane defining offaxis uniaxial stressing. For this. .6 Comparisons with Experiment We have seen how fracture strength criteria for an orthotropic layer of composite material are formulated under various stress states. This gives .= acos'0.44a.19 corresponds to intersection of a failure surface in a. The failure locus AKF in Fig.plane where a.
6 MPa respectively. However. . The comparison between theory and experiment shows that the test data falls between the Griffith and Baldwin [61] and Hoffmann [66]predictions.. Taking again the offaxis compression results for Iroko wood (see Fig. 1 1.= 83 MPa and a. It may also be found from any intermediate point. then K . For example. The corresponding tensile strengths a. Equation ( 1 1. 11.43a. has been assumed.= a. a= .. within the single quadrant in Fig.=50 MPa and a. transverse isotropy a.. Thus.. may be chosen to coincide with the Griffith and Baldwin locus by choosing a common point.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERlA 531 Table 1 1..a.. . If this condition does not hold...44b) is used to find a. 11. = q.20 shows that K . criteria with a “floating constant” allow a more precise fit to the data. as for this material.a. with 6=0.41b) the offaxis strength is predicted as The two roots of this quadratic are the tensile and compressive strengths for a given orientation 6..as expected.20 compares the theoretical failure loci in Table 11. The comparison and between eq( 1 1. 1 1. Fig. The condition a.17). if we substitute eqs(l1.b. = 1 in Table 1 1. Fig..45) and the strengths of a 50% volume unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composite (gfrc) is shown in Fig.6 predictions apply to the first quadrant in x and y.19) looking in the direction of a. we have for the 0” and 90” directions a. a= o.6 with the experimental data..3 MPa were obtained for each direction from threepoint bend tests. = 13. 1 1. Figure 11..2 I .is found from the failure stress either under biaxial tension or pure shear. 1 1.c) into TsaiWu criterion ( 1 1. gives K . In deriving the Hill function.6. For example. admitting a difference between the tensile and compressive strengths. a better description is found with the Griftith and Baldwin locus since the additional constant (clu + d/a) allows it to pass through any intermediate point.. Generally..20. Both loci display different tensile and compressive strengths. It is later shown that Hoffmann represents test data realistically over the four quadrants..20 Predictions to the conipressive failure in wood These loci are simply views of AKF (Fig.= 15.
a.. Such loadings may include combinations of internal pressure..2.l)/v12and JJ = I+v. )xy = 1 x?+)’*+c(a...= 529 MPa and a?.and 9. Plane Principal Stresses An experimental a. The normalised stress variables within each prediction in Table 1 1. Table 11.. and 4..... In this is way eq( 1 1./a..21 Orientation dependent strengths for unidirectional gfrc The predictions are based upon the four uniaxial strengths a.8 MPa. = 136. Test procedures are similar to wellestablished methods employed for the determination of the yield surface for metals..) = 310. = 476.532 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 11..)xy= x2+y2= 1 1 .2 MPa [69]. / a . + 4F..7 Symmetrical failure functions Hill [29] Griffith [61] Norris [62] x2xy+y2=1 Norris [63] Waddoups [68] y = (a./a. alC .and a..= 49..Simplifying this..(E.)(x.6. pure shear and biaxial tension... a2locus may be established from proportional and stepwise loading to the point of fracture..# a*..45) provides the strengths for all intermediate orientations with good accuracy. with a.# 4.)x + )’*  ( q .45) to the tensile strength for the 45” direction. 11.3 mm4/kN* found by matching eq( 1 1../a2..3 MPa. (a) Symmetrical functions = Consider failure criteria that assume equal tensile and compressive strengths. i.)(a.e. The “floating constant” (2F..a?. = . and y = q/a.7 are then x = a./E. . to denote but respective strengths in the 1 and 2 directions.a. we write a./a.
When the compliances C. in eq( 1 1.ic a*. These equations then invert into the two normalised stress forms given in Table 1 I . / E . Waddoups [68] employed both strength and elasticity properties to define a failure envelope formed from the straight lines whose expressions are given in Table 11.142 and v.ic 4. u. this prediction appears safe compared to other predictions over all four quadrants..7. = 0.. = 0..84.. Moreover. reinforcedepoxy matrix composite. 264 = MPa and the elastic constants are E l = 17. where: a. .152 [69]. One further material property is required to determine the constant c in the elliptical function of Griffin and Baldwin [61].. This alters the orientation to give predicted strengths less than others for quadrants 1 and 3. i. may be taken as empirical fracture constants. all having the same orientation. 1 1.. The average strengths are: a.. = 19. consistent with other theories. failure criterion . = a. Y= % f 4 f Figure 11.. The modification (see eq(l1.= 307 MPa and a2..39b)) results in the plane. a. The material is transversely isotropic if 4./v.17 GPa.7.42a. The original theory of Marin [65] was modified for when the required relationship a. v.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 533 In Waddoups criterion the elastic constants in eqs(l1. E .33a) are predetermined from linear anisotropic elasticity the implication is that the material is brittleelastic. = u.. ic a. This may limit its usefulness where there is evidence of inelasticity but in practice C. (b) Unsymmetrical functions The Marin [65] and Hoffman [66] criteria will account for differences between tensile and compressive strengths. does not apply.. Assuming a shear strength of 250 MPa gives c = 0.22..22 Symmetrical failure loci The original theory of Norris [62] gives a circle independent of material properties. .96 GPa. The transversely isotropic function of Hill [29] lies between the Norris A and B loci. All other predictions appear as ellipses making unit intercepts with the normalised axes.b) are related: v.. = E.e. Comparison between predicted failure loci for this material appears in Fig. principal stress. One material with approximately equal tensile and compressive strengths is the woven glassfibre.
I and p = 10. 6 2 ~ ~ 52.534 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Again. and u. the constant A . 1 600 p=1 Figure 11.7 MPa.= 4. value will result in a closed locus. I 1.= 167. Kaminski and Lantz [70] showed that it was possible to fit symmetrical functions to unsymmetrical test data within individual quadrants. = 136..3 MPa and u2. Similar applications of Hill's transversely isotropic function to composites has been further investigated by Azzi and Tsai [64]. Substituting the strengths (MPa) into eq( 1 1. A comparison is made in Fig.5 Tensile and compressive tests conducted on a unidirectional glassfibre. 49. compression test gave q.2 = MPa. biaxial tension or any combined stress state.= 529 MPa. The throughthickness strength shows that it is not unreasonable to assume transverse isotropy q. Example 11. . an invalid failure locus is found for p = 10 since it remains open on the compressive side...u. reader should note that and The (i) a general summation of linear and quadratic stress terms employed by Tsai and Wu [67] will define an ellipse and (ii) all other functions of this kind are particular reductions to (i). 1 in eqs( 11.. appropriate to the given quadrant. Franklin [71] showed that Marin's locus distorts in the axes a. u2.1 does not alter appreciably the safe region enclosed within the resulting closed loci.24~7. and a. to zero in turn.23 Unsymmetrical failure loci It is seen that the change in sign from + 1 to . u2) 3 7 .. a..1 u2= 25.23 of the failure loci corresponding to eq(i) for A 2 = 1 . when they are normalised with different directional strengths a. An obvious advantage of Marin's modification is that it embraces all four quadrants within a single continuous function.22 x lo4 + '+ (1) which is composed of linear and quadratic terms.1 and 10. reinforced composite gave q C= 476. 3275. when making the present comparisons. In contrast. An additional. throughthickness.46) may be determined from a further test conducted under pure shear. 4. p = .46) gives the elliptical equation (ul' . Compare the failure loci from Marin's modified criterion corresponding to p = I .. They too removed the original restriction that tensile and compressive strengths are equal by admitting a. The given uniaxial strengths may be shecked from eq(i) by setting a.A2 a. . a check should be made that the A. a. or a. However.8 MPa.
. S. [ 151 Ellyin. W. I .. Mech. M. [20] Ratner. B. A.. All predictions appear as average stresses within a single layer and serve as a building block for multilaminate designs. Gottingen. Z. e. Mech. D. [9] Marin. N. J. and Green.Mat.924. B. Proc: Foundations of Plasticity. and Tang. J. 79 [271 Freudenthall.K. and Gou. Micromechanical criteria offer a more precise description of the fracture process but are dependent upon more constituent data that are prone to statistical variation. J. 163. 0. Gewerbe. This lies in the simple fact that yielding is a material phenomenon independent of the coordinates chosen for its description. and MacGregor.J. Jl Franklin Inst.J.. Moffat. 45 ( 1 953). (I913). 179 (l964). Trans Japan Soc. Proc.. 127. 17 (1975). J. 935.W. K. [ 181 Hu. 19 (1949). 323. (1975).Mech. Int. Engrs. [6] Johnson. Paris. Ges. 34 (1929). 156. N. 82. SOC. 582. JP. [22] Ros. A. 24(261).287. [ 171 Crossland. [23] Shrivastava. 15. I. J.. [8] Miastkowski. J.) Pergamon. and Hamburg. (ed A. and Shelton. A.. J. Socfor Mech.H.M. F. P. W. [ 131 Phillips. D.W.. A. Mech. J.. Hu. N. Proc. Mroz.. W. M. K. Int. Materialpruef Versucharistalt Ind. The Metals SOC. Eng....7 Concluding Remarks The classical von Mises and Tresca theories of yielding for metals may each be formulated as a function of the stress deviator invariants. R. 230 (l940). 408. 18 (1968). M. [7] Moreton. J. Phil Trans Roy SOC. 11 (l976). Burns.Mech. D.I. L. G. J. A383 (1982). D. and Shelton. D. 8 (1969). 121 Tresca. References Von Mises.. 189. buckling of the fibres and delamination. and Dubey. 25 (l976). 127. W. K. 686. [1] . Zurich.. 53 (l973). A. Eidgenoess. P.Sawczuk) Noordhoff. N. [21] Fung. Acta Mechanica. D. P. 12 (l972). (eds Lee.Solids and Struct. I. (1975). N.. Engrs. F. 34. and Lind.. Acta Mechanica. Sci. 4 (1969). Mech. [5] Shahabi. Roy. S. [LO] Lessels.Sci. H. J. D. Sci. R. 458. ZAMM... Zeitschrijt f u r Technische Physik. 75. Trans Can. 709 (BISI translation 14420. Bauw. Proc: Naval Structures. C. C. Memoirs Par Divers Savants... [24] Rees. Solids and Structures. 16 (l949). 3(1961).g. [ 141 Shiratori. 1960. G.Sept 1976) [4] Michno.. LI. They offer little information about the mechanism of failure.JL. 8 (1972). 59. J and Szczepinski. 625.. U. [ 161 Taylor.S. 16 (1981).Appl. F. Eng.. [25] Drucker. Lond. E. and Findley. S. [261 Betten. and Symonds. 463. R. Memoire sur l'ecoulement des corps solides... and Parkinson. J. and Quinney. 3 (l975). L.YIELD A N D STRENGTH CRITERIA 535 11.E. and Kaneko... M. Expl Mech. 264.. Warsaw.. [3] Ikegami. Wiss. H. Proc. [ I I ] Rogan. D.E.. Oxford. Nachr. 168 (1954). [ 191 Pugh. H. and Sidebottom. 333. and Eichinger. 1973.. E. and Grass. P roc. H. I . C.Sfrain Anal. K. H.Soc. J. P. A. 39 (l973). 1121 Ivey. M. Macromechanical failure criteria for brittle and orientated materials are mostly stressbased. 733 and 20 (1972). 1 (l965). 491 and 24(263). I.Strain Anal. Ikegami. A. NonLinear Mech. J. Int. J. 230A (l93l). 349. K.
J. Fatigue ofEng Mars and Struct. S. Grassi. E... F. Hill. C.. W. Eng. 58. B. 42 (1950). Strain Analysis. Y. Met Trans A . Applied Mech. Proc. and Urbanowski. SOC.. 223. (711 Franklin. L.. [57] Stussi. J . Mech.A193 (1948). Developments in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. and Wu.. 49 (1982). 505. Stassid'Alia. Forrestproducts Lab Rpt. J. L. L. W.. FZM 4763. Meccanica. . 19 (1977). F. Dodd.I. 1816. 17 (1950). 4 10. Rees. E..B.. 47. 129. A. fnt.. Comms.. [62] Norris. S. J. and Hill. E. F. 259. Fava. 15. Cumb. R. 8 (1956).A. In (1921). and Nasu. P. W.. 77. Hu. Mohr.. Fibre Sci and Tech. fnt. 43 (1982). and Jeans. S. F. [68] Waddoups. 444. STP 460 (1969). J. Gotoh. W.. Stassid'Alia. Applied Mech. U. Alberti. and Tsai. Arch of Mech. 25. Jones. M. Structural details or elements of design in heavy framing. [66] Hoffman. W. Fort Worth Div. S... and Cornet.. Meccanica. R. 49 (1969). 281. T. 663. C. C. M. P. D. J . Applied Mech. 1 (l974). 23 (l956). Aero Res Comm. [63] Norris. 740.. (1950). B. 251. J.. 52 (1984). J. Dec. Hazlett. [70] Kaminski. U. [58] Hankinson. Proc. 15A ( 1 984).. Forrest Products Lab Rpt. Hill. 265. W. Sci. 6 (1983). and Dorn.. W. Sobotka. 1 (1968).. J.. 1 (1 962).. ZAMM. P. [61] Griffith. J. [60] Kollmann. J. 22 (1955).. 44 (1900). W. J. W. 1326.. A. Sci. Howe. (1967). Acta Mechanica. Franklin Inst. [65] Marin. V.. P. [64] Azzi. R. J.. ASTM. 15 (1 967). E.. Sci. D. SOC. 137.S. fnt. 233. T. 198. [59] Osgood. Appl Mech. 4 (l969). A. 385.536 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES [281 [29] [301 [311 [321 [331 [341 [35] [361 [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [441 [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] Rees... 1572 and 45 (1901). B. Air Ser Itzf Cir. 99100 (1995). and McKinnon. A. Parmar. VDI Z. O. 671. 41 (1950) 67 I . R. [69] Rees.... N. P. K. Wiley. Acta Mechanica.K. R.. Jenkins. J. D. H. Z. 587. Coffin. Adkin. R.Aero Sci. Phil.. 1 (1967). 178. 349.85 (1979). 12 (1984). F. 58 1. B. 41 1. 20 (1978). W. D. La Ricerca ScientGca. 16 (1949). 179. Hu. 73. M. A. Math. Y . and Mellor. I... B. J. G. 89. 5 (1965).R. A. O. Appl Mech. T. Der Bauingenieur. 2 (1967). Res.. 243. and Betten. P. F. F.. M. Composite Mats. Roy. D. Bourne. Rpt. News (1912). and Lantz. Engng News Record. W.. and Baldwin. 5 (1971). P. F. C. H. L. Olsak. J.. J. 1328. Robinson. Harvey. Jacoby. Phil Mag. A. J. Annals of the C. A. H. R. Mech.. 178. Mech. 1960. Rees. Expl Mech. S. D. and Marin. 128 (1946). Takeda... Transtech. Composite Mats. 160. Trans ASME. 251 ( 1 95 l). 24 (1957). J. Mech. Schw Buuzeitung. 51. F. J.. L. 100 (1928). C. 1524. Materials of construction used in uircraj? and aircraj? engines. J. 15 (1934). (1946). Troost. [67] Tsai. 283.. 200. E. M. 1920. and Li. 26 (l99l).. and Drucker. E. and Gillis. Advances in Engineering Materials. 1909. Edelman. W.
5.’)’’~. Find p by von Mises and Tresca to produce bore yielding.5 and a material yield stress of 200 MPa.92 kNlm. Introduction to Composite Materials. and Hahn.3. by Mises and Tresca. by Mises and Tresca. Pagano. Mech Eng Pub Ltd.. and Wang. . 4. that has been used against yielding. (ed) The Failure of Reinforced Plastics. where Y is the tensile yield stress.E. N.4~19. given that the yield stress of the tube material is 3 10 MPa.9 Construct the family of yield loci in u. R. Take Y = 240 MPa. W. Establish whether the bar remain elastic under these loadings according to von Mises and Tresca..5 i p < .2 A hollow stirrer rod with diameter ratio dJdi=2. L. 11..79. J. r space from the unsymmetrical yield functionf= (p/n for 1. and SO m m o. S. Elsevier. 120 m m diameter.. M. absorbs 5 kW when it rotates at 500 rev/min under a compressive force of 6 kN. M. 900 bar. Mechanics of Composite Materials. 11. 1. 1990. I6a. If a radial pressure of p also acts upon the rod set up an equation in terms of the rod diameter from von Mises yield criterion. 11.47. 3 and =J.= 2. that would cause the material to reach its yield point. an axial force of 5 kN and a bending moment of 4 kNm. Jones.P. F. the tube is mounted as a 3 m long cantilever. 11.4 A solid mild steel bar. (ed) Interlaminar Response of Composite Materials.S. Using a safety factor of 2. McGrawHill. of the rod using a safety factor of 2 and a tensile yield stress of rod material 200 MPa. 11.d has a constant axial force of 20 k N and an internal pressure p . K. 1980.5 kNm and an axial tensile force of 40 kN.3 A solid circular shaft 125 mm diameter rotates in bearings at 30 rad/s.. Swartz. T. 1975. J./u. L. h and rl in cqs( 11. when carrying these loadings. Answer: 5. S.29a) of Stassi with the compressive fracture stress u. calculate the tube thickness according to the Mises and Tresca yield criteria. Answer: I . Tsai. 1989. (ii) 11. London. H..’ J?‘ + . u.YIELD AND STRENGTH CRITERIA 537 Bibliography Friedrich. according to von Mises. 11.535 mm.61. withstands a torque of 3 kNm. EXERCISES 11. 1989. Y=9k/(27 . Shah. Matthews.4b)”’and (iii) Y = k / ( 1 / 3 ” ’ . Lateral loading produce a bending moment of 10 kNm.. Answer: 1038. 1990.3 bar. Given the tensile yield stress of shaft material as 300 MPa.2d27)”’.d. 11. Elsevier. given a tensile yield strength for the bar of 300 MPa. If.b and c) as(i) Y = k(1/27 .8 Normalise the yield criterion (1 1. (eds) MicroMechanics of Failure of QuasiBrittle Materials. Find the diameters. and plot the family of loci in u.. space for p = u.5 A thin walled square tube of mean side length 120 mm and 5 m m thickness withstands a torque of 4.6 A thin pipe with mean radius to thickness of 10 withstands an axial torque of 1 kNm and an internal pressure of 25 bar.1 A thickwalled closed cylinder is 25 m m i. (ed) Application of Fracture Mechanics to Composite Materials. Elsevier.7 Show that the relationship between k and Y defines the constants c. determine the power that the shaft can transmit according to the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria. determine the additional uniformly distributed load. Find the safety factor. Technomic Publishing Co.
24 shows an offaxis shear test on a unidirectional composite.u.2 MPa? = 11..14 Reduce the tensor function prediction (1 1. = 243 MPa? 11. the presence of complementary shear in each case.11 Cast iron has tensile and compressive strengths of u.40b). Find the combinations of principal stresses ( a . 11.12 Which of the criteria in Tables 1 1..for the 0 = 0" orientation. applied at 0 to the fibre .16 How would you predict failure in a brittle unidirectional fibrous material when a direct stress u i s combined with a shear stress r.8 MPa. 't 1' 2 Figure 11.39b) and Hoffman (1 1. where (i) both u and rare aligned with the fibres and (ii) they are inclined at 0 to the fibres? Note. = 350 MPa and 0.15 Compare the predictions from exercise 11..13 Examine which of the criteria in Tables 1 I . and u12 shown in terms of T and examine from eq( 1 1. ~ . 11.3 MPa.= 300 MPa and uC=. u2. The shear stress r is u.14 with the corresponding failure criteria of Marin ( I I .10 Cast iron has tensile and compressive strengths of u. ulf= 529 MPa. . u. 11. u. 11.41b) to a principal biaxial stress state for transversely isotropic and orthotropic materials. = 136.. 11.900 MPa respectively.7 are capable of matching a unidirectional composite in which uIC 476.6 and 11. ul. = . = 49.) = 400 MPa.6 and 1 I .7 are capable of matching the following tensile and compressive strengths for a bidirectional composite: ulc= 339 MPa.17 Figure I 1. Find the combination of combined shear and compressive stress that would cause this material to fail: (i) when they are applied in the respective ratio of 1 to 4 and (i) when a shear stress of 75 MPa remains constant whilst a compressive stress is steadily increased.37a) the dependence of the offaxis shear strength in terms of 0 given q2. Determine the plane stress state components u . u.1000 MPa respectively.= 275 MPa. = uf/3 and (ii) the maximum shear stress Yz (uI.538 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 11. u 2 )that cause failure by Rankine and Mohr when (i) u.I direction.24 .= 284 MPa.
12. It is shown how uniaxial hardening is represented and incorporated into a flow rule for multiaxial stress states.Ily=YIl(Sy) (12.la .c.1 ElasticPlastic Bending of Beams We can ensure a safe beam design when the working stress a.) reach the yield stress while all other fibres in the crosssection remain elastic.e.= Y/S M=a. most highly stressed fibres furthest from the neutral axis (n. . successively reach the yield point.3) and ( 1 2. The stress distributions for the transition from elastic to fully plastic behaviour are shown in Figs 12.2) the When an applied moment reaches a limiting value My. This condition determines the ultimate moment M. 12. the ratio between the corresponding collapse load W. torsion bars. i. and the safe elastic working load W.. the applied loading and the manner of support. the thickwalled cylinder and the rotating disc..1 ): M/I=q. 12. determined solely by the crosssection.. The latter depends upon the section.I. portal frames. As the moment is increased beyond M ythe crosssection becomes partially plastic as the interior fibres approaching the n. (12.a. a. When the plastic zone has penetrated the whole crosssection on the tensile and compressive sides of the n. is derived from a safety factor S as follows: s= Y / q . It includes the mechanics of plasticity and collapse for structures loaded beyond the elastic limit.a. : . Amongst these structures are beams. the following terms apply: Shape Factor: Q = MJM. and that the beam material behaves in an elasticperfectly plastic manner. .. > 1.. This state constitutes an elasticplastic beam under an applied moment M.539 CHAPTER 12 PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE This chapter covers a number of aspects of deformation behaviour in metals that are not elastic. Assuming that a beam of any section collapses under M. a given beam can withstand. This approach has been used to account for instability in pressure vessels. Load Factor: L = W J W .1) The safe moment is then found from eqs(4. in which no increase in stress beyond Y occurs during plastic penetration. l a under a hogging moment. The theory has been simplified by assuming an elasticperfectly plastic material: an approximation for metallic materials that work harden.a./y. independent of the applied loading. I Rectangular Section Consider a beam with a rectangular section 0 x d in Fig.
= E ( d . 12.h is the distance between the net force F = Ybh in the plastic regions where y = (d . M.5b) (1 2 . where the plastic zone has penetrated by the amount h from top and bottom sides.7) as Q = M.540 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES n &I' n r n Y I I I I r Figure 12.3) (12.. 12. = EIR. From eq( 12.. 5 ~ ) The radius of curvature is found from applying bending theory to the edge of the elastic core. lc). + MI.This gives M. M.1 Penetration of plastic zone through a rectangular section (a) Fully Elastic Under M y in Fig.2h) R. the resistive moment exerted by the section is composed of elastic and plastic components such that MVl. 12. = F.h) = Y(bd2/6)[1 (2hld)(l .7) ( 1 2.2h)3/12is the second moment of area of the elastic core. (see Fig.2h)/(2Y) (c) Fully Plastic Under M . where o = Y for y = ( d .lM.3)gives M y= YI I y = Y (bd / 12)l(d12)= bd 2Y16 R .= (bd2Y14)l(bd2Y/6) 312 = (1 2.2h)3I[ 12(d . Id..hld) (12.2h)l + (Ybh)(d .= b(d .hid)] + M.2h)12 defines the elasticplastic boundary and I. sP = (bdY/2)(d12)= bd 'Y14 The shape factor follows from eqs( 12.6) M./y + FS = = (1 2 . = 2YD(d . Yl.3) and (12. y = d12.ll. 5 4 where s = d . the collapse moment of the fully plastic section is simply ( I 2. = 2Y I ( d .. Equation (4.. = E y / u = Edl(2Y) (1 2.8) . in Fig..212)/2...5a).JM..4) (b) ElasticPlastic Under MC1. = 1 + (2hld)(1 . I b the crosssection remains elastic and therefore the bending theory applies to the outer fibres where LJ=Y.
2a is a graphical interpretation of eq( 12.2 Residual stress distribution . varies linearly with y within each zone as shown in Fig.h) ( 1 2.y Y y/2 (b) Figure 12.10): a d/2. it follows that 0 = .1 I ) u.1 I ) .1 2 ) ~ = M .= 0). That is.h/d)] k (d/2  ’ (12.9./Y)Yy/l Substituting from eqs(12.1 1 and 12.13) Equations (12. 7 (1 2. = 2Yy/(d . u (.3) and (12. a state of residual ) stress u. 12. will remain in the crosssection after the elastic stresses uc have recovered./M.9 and 12. 1 2 . As M.10) h) 5 y 5 Within the plastic zone: u= Y for y in the region in this zone follows from eqs(12..h/d)] (12. = (bd /6)[ 1 + (2h/d)(1 . The construction in Fig.2a. Assuming purely elastic springback in unloading from the elasticplastic stress state.)(M.y/l= (M.h/d)][ ( 1 2 Y y/(bd )] = (2Yy/d)[l + (2h/d)(l .. in = M.1. and one half of Y at each edge ( y = k d/2).10 and 12.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 541 12.2b shows that the residual stress approaches the tensile yield stress Y at the centre 0. = Y .. is increased.2h) . The residual stress (12.5a). d/2 5 y 5 d/2 in unloading from M.12) the residual stress is U. = Y ( 1 . 12.13) reveal that u. 1 ~ is fully unloaded from M. 12.(2Yy/d)[ I + (2h/d)(1 .(2Yy/d)[ 1 + (2h/d)(1 .9)  The elastic stress a.2 h ) 3 ] = 2 Y y / ( d 2h)  which can be readily checked from similar triangles.h/d)] I Within the elastic zone for y in the region 0 I y * (d/2. recovers over the whole depth eq( 12.YI2 (4 . Bending theory gives this as U.2 Residual Bending Stresses When the elasticplastic beam (Fig. approaches the stress distribution found by releasing a fully plastic moment. a. u. From eqs( 12. Figure 12.9) where a.3y/d) is found by putting h = d/2 in eq( 12..5c). y / l = ( Y b / 6 ) ( d2 h ) * y x 1 2 / [ b ( d . Y Y . U. is the difference between the horizontal ordinates.
1.14a) leads to R . for the inverted channel section in Fig. 3 ~ accompanied by a shift in is the n.5 MPa. taking Y = 235. 12. maintaining C = Tuntil full plasticity is reached under M . Yielding under M. = a.a.4a. 12.3a) the elastic n.I ..13) to give a = 2Y(h/d)2 x . th_estress distribution in Fig.3d when the n. and compressive In C. 1 2 . is further increased.2h/d)]/[4Yh2(3 . 12. . (3 .3b).lE This gives R. the plastic zone will penetrate inwards from this side to a depth h as shown in Fig.2a can be written as cR= yIR.. and M. position is found by applying A E = C ( A yi) at the flange top: (k)passes through the centroid. order that the horizontal tensile T.14a) Since a is proportional toy. the stress continues to redistribute.4 NonSymmetric Sections In a channel section (see Fig.3b).2h/d).a. does not lie at the central depth. will begin first on the most severely stressed side (see Fig. = 55. divides the section area equally.3~. = [Ed3(1 .a.14b) 12.5). as the bending moment (MJ is increased. This =+ [(250x IS) + 2(135 x 25)J = (250 x 15 x 7. Figure 12. in Fig. = Ey la. To what is the depth h has the plastic zone has penetrated the vertical webs when the flange surface first yields? Find the corresponding moment in this case.13) within the elastic core.As M. we may set y = (d . 12.7 mm . forces remain balanced. 12.2h)/2 in eq( 12. such that C = T under MrP.5) + 2(135 x 25 x 82. The residual strain E~ within any fibre 0 s y < (d12 . to the new position ye. (12.a.h) in Fig. Substituting these into eq(12. 12. the n.2hld)l (12. Beyond this.3 Residual Curvature The curvature remaining upon unloading is found from the residual stress eq( 12. 12.1 Calculate M. Example 12.3 Plastic penetration in a channel section For initial yielding (see Fig.542 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12.
.32 kNm + (45  When the flange yields an elasticplastic condition applies (see Fig.a. T acts at the centroid of the area above the n. = 65. from which h = 150 . = Cs = 25 x 105 x 2 x 235.33 kNm .7) = 59. = 2 x 235.a. 13. Taking moments about the top surface. Ye. 12. 3 ~Let this lie at distance yT from the top surface: .45)/2 : .15. 12.=49.3d.5/2) x [(250 x 15) + 2(49. I = ' [250(55.93) = 83.31  50.15) + 25 ( Ye:.5 x 23.  2 [(250 x 15) + (2 x 34. = 13.617 .(235.84 kNm M.3)'. Let ol act at the flange bottom as shown.5 x 49. [(250 x IS) + (2 x 30 x 25)] Y T = (250 x 15)7.) + 2 5 ~ .(150 .92 mm.15)25/2 = (2 x 25 x Yh) + 2( I50  Yep.45Ye p . 2 . M.54 : .15.4~). 1 2 .88 x 10' mm4 / 3 Yielding commences at the web bottom where the corresponding moment is M y = Y 1 / y = 235.54 x 25)]YT= (250 x 15)7. ) ( 2 S O x I5)/2 + 2al (Ye.200(40..08 = 50.31) = 19. where the equivalent force T acts at the s centroid yT of the tensile area in Fig.PLASTICITY A N D COLLAPSE 543 :.4d.27 + 15) from which YT = 15. + MI.0.. This gives (y + a.  15)25](16.49 kNm and (ii) due to the elastic stress distribution M.774 = 18.= Y ( I . the n.15/Yep) and h = 150 .5 x 25 x 50.57 mm M.55. position The (ye. 12. n.54 x (25/2)(99.is the sum of two components: (i) due to the plastic stress distribution M.92(50 .49.92/2)] = 65.08 .2 yep 1875 (2YeP. = M.)is again found from T = C.93 mm.2Ye. The ultimate moment is found from M.31 mm.225 = 0. = 2[235. Taking moments about the Tforce line.5 x 83.. in Fig. = C = Ts.64 kNm + yp=45 mm For full plasticity in Fig..7)'] = 23.99.57 = 103.. .54/3) . ($) divides the area: 2 x 25(150  Y p )= (250 x 15) + 2 (&..15.51 .88 x lo6/(I50 .54 mm Ye.84 = 84. Similarly C acts at the centroid of the lower web giving the moment arm length s as s = (I50 ..15)25..5 + 2 (30 x 25)30 This gives Y .31 .a.7)' + 2 x 25(94.54 x 25)( 17.307e p + 225) = 50 Y.5 + 2(34.h)25 Y 12 Substituting o .49 + 18.
Beneath the load M = M./ I = 113). Using eq( 12. I5b) shows that for a beam with rectangular crosssection... 12.= 4M.M y ) / l .)/z (12..4 the maximum. From similar triangles within the M .1%): Substituting eqs( l2. = 1 ( I . Thus. shows that the hinge has a parabolic profile as shown.1 Simply Supported Beams (a) Central Concentrated Load In Fig.2 Plastic Collapse of Beams and Frames 12.lW=(Dd2Y/1)/ [2Ybd2/(31S)]=QS . 12. The shape of the hinge follows from the first and third expressions in eq( 12. central bending moment is M = W114.  2hld) '. = ( M p .2) and (1 2.4 Plastic hinge under ultimate monient At collapse.1).15b) Equation ( 1 2 . with Q = 312. which . the central load is safe from collapse by a factor of 312 x 2 = 3.diagram.M. the moment at this position is elasticplastic (Mr.8) into eq( 12.4).2. the central hinge extends over one third of the length (I.>). the safe working load in a rectangular section becomes W = 4 M l l = 4YI I (1Sy) = 2Ybd2 l(31S ) The ultimate load and the load factor are defined from eqs(2. Where plasticity has penetrated to a depth h at a distance z from the centre. is determined from the M .. if a safety factor of S = 2 is employed. I ~ c ) we find z / 1 = (l/6)(1 . Figure 12. the plastic hinge length l.544 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12.: where Q = 312 is the shape factor. and at the extremities of the hinge M = M y ..15a) reveal the hinge length I.lI= 2(M.IIQ) ) ( 12.154 The first and second expressions in eq(12.5b) and (12. 2M.7) as W.ll= Dd2Y/ 1 I = W.M Y I M P= 1 ( 1 .diagram (see Fig. .
./1)2]=Mp(1 .16) within the hinge length 0 < z 5 1J2. l M . where z = 1.(1. ( l4z 2 / I 2 )  Writing M...z ’ ) z ) .(w..w l 2/8.. eq( 12.z ) ( 12. w. This beam will collapse under a uniformly distributed loading.( w ./1)2] l . (2/3)[ 1 + (2h/d)( 1 .(W. 5 ~ ) and ( 12. = 1 /J3. M. and M y .PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 545 (b) Uniformly Distributed Loading Figure 12. = (Me/.= . f ‘ 7 w1/2 I MP Figure 12. .hid)]= 1 .4 z 2 / l 2 from which z may be expressed in terms of h: z/ 1=(I  2h/d)/(2d3) (12./2)(I2/4 .7) w./ M y )(My /MI.. that define the shape and spread of the central plastic hinge. > / f = d ( l.. = 2bd2Y/12./2../2)(l /2 . The moment expression is required in terms of a distance z from the centre M = (W/..17) Equation (12.5 Hinge geometry for beam with unifomily distributed loading The moment diagram shows the three ordinates. = 8 M . M.. which is almost twice the length of the hinge for the simply supported beam in (a).. Applying eq( 12.I / Q ) Taking Q = 3/2 gives l. .l/2)(1/2 .M y / M p ) = J ( l . / I 2 . we may write Me.z)(l/2 = . I 6 ) At the edges of the hinge.. so that if the section is rectangular we have from eq( 12. > I 2 / 8 ) ( l 4 ~ ’ / 1 ~ ) = M .5 shows the moment diagram for which the maximum moment is .12/8)[l (1..8) for a rectangular section.17) shows that the hinge profile is a straight line.16) gives the fully elastic moment M y : My=  (w.) and substituting from eqs( 1 2 .
by similar triangles: .18) the collapse load is W = (2M. is constructed from MOWStheorem (6. The mechanism necessary for plastic collapse depends upon M. M (fixing)] at W (12. The net moment diagram. This results in differing net moments at the ends and centre.18) From eq( 12. When M.19a) . l.)= ( ~ / 2 )1 . 12. My)/l. = Wab/ 1 . is determined separately for the given section. For example. being reached together at each of these positions by stress redistribution. .6a carries a concentrated load W that divides the length 1 into lengths a and b as shown.M. Other hinges necessary for collapse form instantaneously as the stress redistributes to attain M.l/Q ( ) (1 2. 12.. (a) Single Concentrated Force The encastre beam in Fig. (ends) = [ M (free) : M. is first reached in the most severely stressed section one hinge forms. The length of the plastic hinges is found by marking off M Eat the ends and centre in Fig.2b).2 Encastre Beams Three plastic hinges are required for the collapse of an encastre beam.6b gives: M. 6 ~At the left handend. 1 2 . This means that the bending moment diagram is no longer similar in shape to that for elastic working moments.6 Collapse of an encatre beam We wish to determine the collapse load and the geometry of the plastic hinges. Since there is no change in slope between the ends dB= 0 and so the areas of the free. 2M. = ( ~ / 2 )1( .I )/(ab).].My/M./a = :.. (M. in other less highly stressed sections.and fixingmoment diagrams are equal. I Fixing I Figure 12.546 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12. 12. where M. in Fig.6b. a rectangular section has M. = bd2Y 14 giving a collapse load W = bd2Yl l(2ab).2. Equating moments at the end to the net moment at the load point in Fig.
My)/ = 2Mp/b 1. for a rectangular section. . 12. Collapse occurs as M.c) the hinge lengths when the load is central. 12.MYIMP)= (b/2)( 1 .7 Encastre beam with uniformly distibuted loading The net moment is greatest at the ends and there the initial yield moment will be reached first. is achieved simultaneously at the ends and the centre.19a. Wends) = net M at centre M p = ~ 1 ‘ / 8 M. the hinge lengths become 1/12 and 1 6 at the ends and centre respectively.52).7b. M y= bd2YI6 = w12/12 : w = 2bd‘Y / I’ .= wl2/16  . M y1 = (21 /3)(wl 2/8) which gives My=w1’/12. we find the uniformly distributed loading w corresponding to M yfor the encastre rectangular section beam in Fig.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 547 At the righthand end: (M. =+ M. From eq(12.b. From the free and fixing moment diagrams in Fig. Setting a = b = 112 for a central load and Q = 312 for a rectangular section (eq6. 1 9 ~ ) We may now deduce from eqs( 12.l/Q ) = ( 12 .2 l P 2= (b/2)( 1 . ..7b (see eq(6. Equating the areas of the free and fixing moment diagrams in Fig. Figure 12.7a.7).2b)).. + 1.1 9b) lP3 = 1 . 1 (b) Uniformly Distributed Loading Firstly.l/Q ) At the centre: ( 12. 12. = ‘/z (a + b)(1  MYIMP) (1 /2)( 1 .
1’/I 6../ 1 = ! [ 1 ./l=0.coordinate from the centre.044.M.7) M. Setting M = M . for z = 0 and M = M.20) gives the central hinge length l .b)shows that the hinge lengths for a rectangular crosssection are 1 . l.21a. . ) .M. + 8Mp (Z / 1 >’ .2b) provides the prop reaction. for z = ? 1 /2 as expected.M. / [ = % ( I . / 1 = 1/6andl..(I/J2)( I h + I/Q)”] (12.548 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS A N D STRUCTURES The loading to collapse the beam follows from eq( 12.8 Force and moment diagrams for a propped cantilever . + w.l. = 4bd’YJI’ To estimate the hinge lengths at the centre and the ends take a z . If it produces no deflection at the end then Mohr’s theorem (6. The net moment diagram at the point of collapse is expressed as M = .21b) Setting Q = 3/2 in eqs( 12.. 12.. . (c) Propped Cantilever with Distributed Loading The maximum elastic moment will depend upon the height of the prop (see Fig.2 1a) For the end hinge length set M = MYand z = 1 /2 .8a).20) which gives M = . W / L IP Pi 3wU8 5wN8 4 Figure 12. = bd ‘YJ4 = w...l/Q) ( 12..8 (Z J 1 )’I ( 12. and z = l. /2 in eq( 12.... = [ 1 .
. At each hinge the fully plastic moment M .. 8 ~ )That is ..Diag due to P about P = 0 ( P l ) (N2) (2N3) = 0 from which P = 3w1/8.9a.l 1'. 5 ) w12 = and therefore the true collapse loading is w/.66M. 12. This solution is approximate.8d the net moment at this position is Figure 12.. occurs at a slightly modified position 2.. is reached. )2/2 = ../ *. A second hinge forms in the region where the elastic moment is a local maximum. w = 0 from which z.P + Z.P1+ ~ 1 ' / 2 ) k ( J 2 . 12.22a.22b).I = .22a) ( 1 2.73M.. at the fixed end. = ? (.8e sdhows how the diagram is altered to accommodate two plastic hinges for collapse. I M. This gives .I)wl. = & 15wl 2/176. position to M ./ 1 '.3 Effect of Axial Loading Upon Collapse (a) Rectangular Section b x d When an axial load is applied to rectangular section beam the moment carrying capacity is reduced.b) leads to a quadratic P ? + 2Pwl.(wl)? = 0 from which P = ( J 2 . Equating the numerical values of M .31Pl8 + (31~/8)(31/16) .z. from eq( 12.>' w = 0 1 M.= 1 1. . A tensile (or a compressive) force P will modify the fully.l= . = .PI + rv12/2) Combining eqs( 12.8d shows the net elastic moment diagram and Fig. ( I 2. M.PI + w12/2= w12/8 When the beam is at the yield point.(. = 3N8 and in Fig. 12.. The maximum moment occurs at the fixed end M. 1 2 .. This gives collapse under a distributed and loading of wIj= 1 1. = M .2.Diag due to w about P ( ~ 1 ' / 2 )(U3) (31/4)  moment of M . at the z. 12.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 549 From Fig. under a distributed loading w = 8M.' = ( J 2  1 ) 1 and.PI = + ~1'/2) from which P = 73~11176 M .. of zero shear force (see Fig. M .I .' P + w ( 2.22b) z. 1 A local maximum occurs at a position z. 3wN8  z.8e). 12. plastic stress distribution to that shown in Fig.' of zero shear force (see Fig.( . 12..... The true solution ensures that M .8b: Moment of M .
b leads to an interaction equation MIM.23~) Equation (12.)(d/2).) (12.7)) and P . M = Y [ b t . (b) ISection For the I beam in Fig.9 Stress distribution under combined tension and bending It is convenient to split this into the sum of two components and use a multiplication factor a t o locate the n.9b.c). = 1  (PIP. Combining eqs 12. The former case is shown for which the moment capacity arises from the flanges and some of the web (shaded areas in Fig.244 .10 Neutral axis in web Taking this capacity as the sum of the moments from the flange and the web.t.23~) provides a collapse moment M required fo collapse in the presence of any P value (tensile or compressive).23a) (12.(d/2  tf  ad/2)(d12  tf + adl2)] (1 2.10a the neutral axis may lie in the web or the flange depending upon the magnitide of P. (a> Figure 12.23b) where M. (see eq(12.a. (12. (d . Equation 12.10a).a ) ) ' P = Ybad= aP.) + t. ( I . From these moment. 12.33a..and forcecarrying capacities are M = Yb x $5 (d CY d) x Yi (d + a d ) = (Ybd 214)(1 .23b gives the shift in the neutral axis as ad12 = (P/P. refer to collapse under their separate actions.550 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES n Figure 12. (see Figs 12.a2 = M . 12.
/4)(d .25b) the position of the n.25d) may be applied to determine M in the presence of P provided eq( 12.25d) Equations (12.a.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 551 The force capacity applies to the shaded rectangle in Fig.24~) Combining eqs( 12. If it is found that a> 1 then eq(12.25b) (12..] Y is the fully plastic tensile force.c) f ) .24a.24b) from which the neutral axis shift is ad12 = P/(2t.b. gives a < 1.P2/(4Ytw) (12. When P is absent a = 0 and I e fully plastic moment is M .c) gives the interaction equation M = M .) + (t. .2 t .P)/(2bY) (12.b. = Y[bt (d .at.1 la. .a. is at.f.24d) Now let the neutral axis lie in the flange.a ) + ( & 2 t f ) t w ] From eq( 12. the shift being af. leads to the interaction equation M = (P. = [2br. .a.254 where P. 12.P)d/2 .)*] (12.Y).11 Neutral axis in flange We have M = b a t . .25a) ( 1 2. Y ( d .25~) shows that the position of the n.(l. 12.(P.2t.1Ob.) P=Y[2bt. Combining eqs( 12..  P)’/(4bY) (12. Figure 12. n.from the bottom surface as shown in Fig.25a.Y ( 2.+ (d .= ( P .24d) must be used.. P = adt.
from Fig.26d) and eliminating q. ) [ ( d/2)( 1 .d/2 by bending just as the shear yield stress k is reached at the neutral axis (see Fig. = I .d. the section becomes fully plastic as shown in Figs 12.12c.12a plastic penetration has occurred in a rectangular section to depth q. 2 6 ~as ) ( 12.26e) .(F/F. Figure 12.12 Plastic penetration by bending then shear To accommodate the perfectly plastic yielding. d/2)] = d 2 a + a.4 Effect ofshear Force Upon Collapse Up to now we have ignored the presence of shear force that may accompany bending of a beam.)(3 4 . While M is dominant in long beams. shear stresses are removed at the edges.) We find q.4. 12.c) leads to the interaction equation M / M .552 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12. Let the subsequent penetrations be &/2. When these meet.I ~ c .= 1 The plastic moment is. A4 = YD(d /4)( 1 + q .26~) (12. F = kD(d/2)(1 . 12.from eq( 1 2 . Depending upon the position in the length of a beam. ) + = (MP/4)(1 + 4 x 3  (12..12b).2.qJ) (d /4))( 1 + =‘A (YDd2/4)(1 4. 12. shear becomes important in shorter beams. With increased loading penetration occurs by bending and shear at the same rate in opposing directions.26a) + ql)] (l2.26b.q. 12. there are two ways in which parabolic shear stress distribution across the section can interact with the linear bending stress distribution. so that 2[ (a d 2 ) + ( ad/2) + (a.12d.)’ (12. from Fig.between eqs( 12.) = (FJ2)(1 .. (a) Initial Yielding by Bending In Fig.26b) The plastic shear force is.
. 12.)(d /4)( I .)[(d /2)( 1 + a.)( The plastic shear force is..14a and a parabolic shear stress in Fig.a.14a.a. Let the subsequent penetrations be d / 2 so that 2a + a.)d.27a.a.2 4 r / k = [ ( I . the elastic bending stresses are removed within the penetration zone.13 Plastic penetration by shear then bending To accommodate initial yielding.)] + = ( w ~ .a .b and Figs 12.a.)2(2y/d)’]/ [(I.27d) The spread of plasticity.d/2by shear on either side of the neutral axis before the axial yield stress Y is reached through bending at the edges (Fig. from Fig. 12...13a.d.)d/2 there exists a linear bending stress in 12.)d = d and therefore p= 1 ..12a.= I  (1 2..)(l2 a .13d.) a. ad/2 .b is confined to a rectangle breadth 6 and depth ( I .27b) We find a. Figures 12.PLASTICITY A N D COLLAPSE 553 (b) Initial Yielding by Shear In Fig. = 1.a . ( 1 .. ad12 d( 1+aJ/2 f Figure 12... 12.2a. In the region defind by a d / 2 < y I.a.. With increased loading penetration occurs by bending and shear at the same rate in opposing directions. F = kb(d /2)( 1 + a. between eqs( 12. from eq( 12.)’ ( 1 2. = 2F/Fp.27a) (12. by the simultaneous actions of bending and shear in each of Figs 12.d.14b...1 and eliminating a. 12. from Fig. .28b) ..a.a.4 ~ 3 + a. 12.a)/(l . M = Yb (d /4)( I ... When these meet the section becomes fully plastic as shown in Fig.) ( 1 2.b show a partial spread of plasticity to a depth a d 2 by bending and shear within this rectangle.13c.27b) as a...a.13a plastic penetration has occurred to depth ac.) = ( F J m I + a. These are respectively a / Y = (2yld .27~) ( F / F. Note that the beam depth is ( 2 a + p+ a..b) leads to a similar interaction equation MIM. The plastic moment is. 12.a.))] ( 1 2..28a) (1 2. I3c.13b)..
example. (b) an elasticplastic section where a = 0.. the lefthand side may be evaluated as an effective stress for given values of a and a.then 0 s a 5 0.554 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 12.28c) where Y 2 = 3k ’. The simplest linear hardening material has a constant rate of hardening n = d d d e which may be used to define the gradient of the penetration zones for both partial and full penetration of a rectangular beam crosssection b x d (see Figs 12.b).28c). For = when initial yielding in bending and shear occurs simultaneously. Figures 12.b) into eq(12. Substituting eqs(12. Figure 12.2.15 Effective stress in rectangular section 12.28a.8)): ( a / Y ) 2 + ( z / k ) 21 = (12.5 Effect of Hardening upon Collapse The elasticperfectly plastic analyses above may be refined further when an allowance is made for workhardening in the plastic region [ 11.5 during penetration.16a.15ac show the effective stress distribution for (a) initial yielding cy = 0. 0 .3 and (c) the collapse condition when a = 0. .14 Elasticplastic section under bending and shear The extent to which this region remains unyielded may be examined from the von Mises yield criterion (see eq( 1 1. if we take a.5..
a closer estimate of the fully plastic moment would be found when the ultimate strength replaces the yield stress in the foregoing equations.h/3) = nbh (3d .7) the respective moments 2(bh)(nh/2)(d/2 . written as A" and 8' respectively.3.30a.b) where the moments must sum to zero at any two arbitrary points. That is. = O ( 1 2.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 555 Figure 12.16 Account of hardening on plastic stress distribution We see that an additional term arises from the shaded triangle in respect of (a) the elasticplastic and (b) fully plastic moment. 1FjAi" 0 and 1M i Bi" = 0 = Combining eqs( 12.b). Alternatively. nonconcurrent forces.29a. we say that they are virtual. Since the displacements and rotations occurring in a collapsing structure do not alter the equilibrium conditions (12. ' = 0 (12.2h)/6 2(bd/2)(dn/4)(d/3) = nbd3/12 It is appropriate to account for the hardening accompanying partial penetration of annealed metals. = O a n d E M .5b) and (12.I Principal of Virtual Work A simple method to obtain the collapse loading of beams and plane frames is to treat collapse as a rigid mechanism under an equilibrium system of coplanar. The equibrium conditions are 1F . 12.31) .29a. if only the collapse condition is required.b) leads to the useful forms ( 1 2. That is.30a. It follows that the equilibrium system of real forces and moments forces will do zero virtual work. we must add to eqs(12.b) 1F i A i ' = C M i 8 .3 Collapse of Structures 12.
Where there are a number of collapse mechanisms the true solution is that for which the collapse load.66MP/I' as before.@  (l2.31) a collapse geometry must be assumed... (1 + z.l)I = 0. 12. 12. as found from eq(12.34) To find the z..1 =0 for which z.34) we set dw../dz.41411.17a. = 0.3. To apply eq(12. )A1 z. (12. M.... = (d2 .8a..32) is clearly the enclosed area I v dz = 1A I2 The rotation @is found from simple geometry: ( 1 2.556 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES In eq( 12. I . )I (12.. Then.refers to the rotation under a collapse moment Mi at each hinge and A i to the deflections beneath the applied forces.b. .34).... ( I . 161z..)e=z.3I).31) 8.334 A=(/ z.3 I)..17 Collapse rnechanisln in a propped cantilever Applying eq( 12. The collapse load w p and the position z.6+Mp(8+@)= w p l vdz ( 1 2. This gives z. w p = 1 1. of the second hinge is to be determined. M* Figure 12. becomes a minimum.c) into eq( 12.33~) Substituting eqs( 12.33a. we assume the mechanism of collapse shown in Fig. value which minimises eq( 12. from eq(12. The integral in eq( 12. omitting the superscript v for simplicity.33b) which gives * =(I z.? + 2 z. 12.z.2 Beams (a) Propped Cantilever Looking again at the propped cantilever in Fig.32) where v is the detlection at position z and w dz is the elemental force at this position.32) leads to h'p = 2M..
are reached at A.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 557 (b) Continuous Beam Figurel2. If we wish to determine the collapse load W then all possible modes of failure must be considered (see Figs 12. w= ~ M J L ( 1 2.19 carry vertical and horizontal loading when the supports A and E are hinged. Let the frame ABCDE in Fig. I L (12.w(w2)e+ 2 w ( ~ e / 3 )+.18b . B and C In Fig. This means that no moments are carried at these . The rotation at E occurs in the absence of a collapse moment. In Fig.31) to all possible failure modes [2]. The plastic collapse moment for the second bay is twice that of the first.31) to each mode in turn.35b) Fig.18a shows a twobay beam fixed at one end and resting upon two simple supports. 1 2 .35~) The least load from eqs( 12. e + M. B and D respectively. M. w=~ ~ M . 12. and 2M. must be reached for collapse ~ at D. W = 6M. is reached at A.35ac). 12./L.e+ 2 ~ .3 Portal Frames The analysis ofcollapse in a portal frame involves the application ofeq(12. ( 3 e / 2 )= 2 w ( ~ / 3 ) e+. W 2w Figure 12.18 Collapse modes in a continuous beam Apply eq( 12. is reached in a hinge to the left of C and 2M.d). 12. is the collapse condition. ( 2 8 ) + 2 ~ (3812) = .18b M. 1 8 M.18d collapse moments M. .3. Thus M. 12. This gives M.
lL and 9MPl(2L). v =2 w 6 M M.(B+ @) (12.37a. = 1 1 WL136. which shows that the stanchions are again overdesigned. 1 9 ~ ) M. (8+$) = WA (see Fig. 12. In this case the stanchions have a SO% greater moment capacity than the beam and thus all the hinges form on the beam side of the corners under M.' = WU4. be the collapse moment of the encastre stanchions.. Collapse can occur in the beam (Fig.19b).36a.374 (12.38a) gives M.36a) 2Ml. (c) with hinges at B and D and (d) from hinges at C and D.c) are modified to (12. .19b) (12.8+ M. 12. so that collapse at a corner occurs in the limb with the lower collapse moment.38b) gives M.' < M.'8= WA + 2W6 ( 1 2.3813) Equation (12. This shows that failure could occur either from a combined mode or from collapse of the horizontal beam. for the whole structure.' = 9M.384 + 2M. as shown.c) leads to the respective collapse loads 9MPl(2L).p+ M.'8+ M.'p+ M.19d) ) W Figure 12.36b) (1 2 . Collapse (b) occurs with hinges at B.37b) from which the respective collapse loads are SM.19b. 3 6 ~ ) Substituting p = 812.36b.19 Collapse modes in a portal frame We must allow for different sections between the limbs. .19d) A (12.31) to each mode in Figs 12.558 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES supports. Substituting this into eq( 12. M. Applying eq( 12.(8+ p) = W + 2W6 (see Fig. 12./1 I .d.b) are modified to 2 ~ 3 ~+ . 6 = LO12 and A = L813 into eqs(12. showing that a sway collapse would occur. 1 2 . C and D. further hinges form at at A and E under modes (c) and (d).b. 1 9 ~and by a combination of collapse and sway (Fig. in the stanchions is not reached and therefore it would be more economical to select a uniform section of collapse moment M. In the case of encastre fixings. 1 2 . Equations (12. The structure can be designed more economically if the sway and combined modes are satisfied simultaneously. 12. Equations (12.c. 2MJL and 9MPl(4L). by sway in the stanchions (Fig.8= 2W6 (see Fig. Therefore W = 36M. Note that in these calculations the collapse moment 1 SM. Let M./( 1 IL) and M.
20b).P ( 1 2. Assuming that the material is elasticperfectly plastic. Figure 12. it does not workharden (Fig... = n r. Increasing the torque beyond Tkresults in the penetration of a plastic zone inwards from the outer radius..is given by The corresponding torque T... r 2 d r + 2n(k I r. then k is constant for rr/..)/r'p .1 Solid Bar Consider a solid circular bar of outer radius r. torsion theory applies to the ensuing deformation./.W(GJ) ( 1 2. = 2 x 1 " k r'dr =2 n k j r.) = T.39a) ( 1 2.) = n r.. is found from the following equilibrium condition T.4 1 b) and substituting from eq( 12.)] I r 4Irsp 0 ( I 2.PLASTlClTY AND COLLAPSE 559 12.. 12. the corresponding torque T. 12. and twist for the limiting fully elastic section is supplied from eq(5. .4. P + 2n/or4 r.)' k I2 0. r s r.4 Plastic Torsion of Circular Sections 12..20 Bar under elasticplastic torsion The linear variation in elastic shear stress t within the core 0 s r s rc/. = kLl(Gr.39a). .39b) where J = nr. i.i. rep r. . subjected to an increasing torque T.4 I a) r'dr r 3d r = 2n(k 1 3 ) r 3 I '1 + [2nk l(4re. = J k I r.20a in which an elastic core is surrounded by a plastic annulus with a common interface radius r. This results in the elasticplastic section shown in Fig... While the crosssection is elastic..:l2.4k1(2r.l.6) as T. When the outer fibres reach the shear yield stress k..e.
L/(GJ. = k  Tr.r/J= k .b) where J.where r= k for 8.454 where t is the shear stress in each zone under the applied torque T. (12..) = T."/2. The section becomes fully plastic under a torque T.47) ..42) 5 The angle of twist is found by applying eq(5.46b.. Putting re/.46~)using the elastic relationship: (12.. = (2/3)( n r. This is.560 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES T.L r 5 r..43a. = t r.45a). the signs being . is (12.and using eq( 12.) (12. z.b) When an elasticplastic bar is fully unloaded.39a).46~) ( 1 2.. It is seen that r..46d) The distributions of eqs( 12. ( 12.b) that with J = n r. 12.[.)x (T. The residual twist in the elastic core is found from eq(12./J = k/r.44a.41a). not eq(12..?A (r?.=nr..lTk = (4/3)[ 1 .45b) r?= T(.(T?/.d) are represented graphically in Fig. .. the residual stress distribution in the plastic zone re/. This gives re/..= 0 in eq( 12./.. found from r.within each zone../Tk= 413 + T.45a....39) gives the fully plastic torque T. is the difference between the ordinates rand z. is given by r. The residual stress r..' k ) (1 2. / J r It follows from eqs(12.2 1. and that recovers on removal of T. the second integral in eq(12. the greater value depending upon the depth of penetration./J ) r Substituting T."/2 and T.6) to the elastic core 0 L r r = re.is the elastic stress (12.. is the torque carried by the elastic core.46b) The residual stress in the elastic zone 0 L r 5 r<. determined from eq( 12.IT.42)..e.= kL/(Gr. has the largest values at the outer and interface radii. r J 3] / ( 1 2. i.46a) (1 2..42) and substituting from eq( 12. elastic stresses recover to leave a residual stress distribution r. that causes full plastic penetration to the bar centre.
in an open circular tube b = 2nrn. where r.J rectangle (b x t ) triangle (side a ) V Slope k = h/r(.39b) and (12.47): Figure 12. = nkt’r. so that T. can be derived in a similar manner.. be employed to find the fully plastic torque of solid noncircular sections [ I ] .1) with eq(12. Table 12. For example. Tp=2V 2 n r.. The T.1 Fully plastic torques for solid sections Section circle (radius r.2 Sandhill Analogy A useful analogy can.t )/6 ka’/12 n r(. . For tubular sections we may take the difference between T. T. = 2V where k = h/r. for rectangles comprising I. defines the sloping side of the cone. for the inner “solid” and T. k 13 kt’(3b ..t ) k = 2h/t a2h/(4d3) k = 2d3hIa We may take the sum of T.43a) we may confirm eq( 12.. U sections. h/3 (th/6)(3b .4.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 561 Alternatively. for the outer “solid”. If we compare the expression for the volume V of the cone of sand that would rest on the end of a circular bar (Table 12..21 Residual stress in a partially plastic solid bar 12.is the mean wall radius. For the rectangular and triangular sections T. using eqs( 12..44b) then T. from knowing (i) the volume of a pyramid of height h that each section would support and (ii) the sloping side of each pyramid has a gradient k. for a rectangle also applies to thinwalled curved sections where b becomes the perimeter length and f is the constant thickness.
49b)./Tk given by eq( 12.*> (12... 12.' re. Again. and r.49a) <r.: (12.49b).r.48a). = ( n/2)(re.:  r. The residual twist within the elastic core r...:  r..") ( 12. In eq( 12.48b) The following three torques may be identified from eq( l2. ../ rr/> ' )(rt[.(r. for ru..562 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12. in which the plastic zone has penetrated to radius rrp. is given by eq( 12. again follows from eqs( 12. is identified with the second integral in eq( 12.22b.)41 (1 2 .)3]/[1 (rj/r. = (4r." .r : ) and T.48b and 12..' r: Mr.49b) T.42) for r.43a. is ..)](r. The corresponding distribution of shear stress is given in Fig..r.49a)  (ii) a dimensionless elasticplastic torque T.= r j in eq( 12.4. 4 9 ~ ) Equations (1 2.. T. under torque T. < r < r?.= r..Jl(r. = I z k 1P..c) again supply the residual shear stresses within each zone where now the ratio TJT.43b) J .46a.fi)(r./ 0 4 1 i / ry/.22a shows a partially yielded hollow cylinder with inner and outer radii r.49b) which reduces to eq( 12.' Nr..r : (1 2. Equations (12.) + [nk/(2r. Figure 12.47) when Tr.Combining eqs( l2.. = 2 n k f *P r 2 d r + 2n(k/rp.13}/ [ I . (r.)).(rj/r.22 Elasticplastic hollow cylinder Torque equilibrium is expressed in T./Tk=(4/3)[1 .'  1 = { ( 4 1 3 ~ 1 * 4 r ~ r . = 0 in a solid cylinder (iii) the dimensionless fully plastic torque re.IT. T..48a) = (2nk/3)(r..48b): (i) the fully elastic torque T. )~(rl/ r ~ ( r .)  r*r rl r3dr .." .3 Hollow Cylinder Figure 12.b) provide the twist in an elasticplastic cylinder when based upon the inner elastic annulus.... '1 + (r... an elasticallyperfectly plastic material is assumed in which the plastic zone spreads under a constant yield stress value k.
244 from which the fully plastic torque is T.1..464 the residuals in the plastic annulus 75 _< r 5 100 (mm) are z / k = 1 ...= 75 mm. = I .Vi(75/100)3]  (50/75)(50/100)3}/ [ I  (50/100)4]= 1.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 563 Example 12./T.= 1.1833(r/ 100) = 1 . (b) the mean radius and (c) the outer radius in a hollow steel cylinder with 200 mm outer and 100 mm inner diameters (see Fig. 12.07=313. = I . I Figure 12.= { (4/3)[1 .49a) gives the fully elastic torque T k = [ ( l r x 180)/(2x 100)](1004504)=265.61 kNm (c) the torque ratio in eq( 12./.49b) is T..07kNm (b) With re/.244 x 265.1. = 50 mm in eq( 12.07 = 329.46~) residuals in the elastic annulus 50 5 r the 5 75 (mm) are .2 Find the torque required to cause yielding to (a) the inner radius../]/Tk)(r/r.23 Residuals in hollow steel cylinder (a) Setting r.1833 x r Using eq( 12.23a) for a shear yield stress of 180 MPa.1833 from which the elasticplastic torque is T'.(50/100)3]/ [ I  (50/100)4]= 1. Determine the distribution of residual shear stress in the section and the twist remaining in a 3 m length after the torque in (b) has been removed.) .(T.49b) is Tp/Tk=(4/3)[1 . = 100 mm and r.1833 x265. the torque ratio in eq( 12.87 kNm Using eq( 12. Take G = 80 GPa.
25 = 1.3 The 100 mm diameter bar in Fig.58" (iii) Example 12.4 .)= k I (506) . giving (ii) Since T. eq(12. The residual twist is found from eq(12.23b shows that the greatest value. 12. the unit twist ratio is .48b) applies to the elasticplastic hollow section.(Tcp )(rep )I IT.75 mm in from the outer radius.( S O ) rvp+3(25) = 0 This quartic is satisfied by rep= 46.254/ rep r. lr.47): OR = [ kU(Gr. then equating (i) and (ii) with r . Fig.: 50' = (4/3)(50)' . = 50 mm.25 mm.43a) to the elastic annulus gives its rate of twist as (OIL) = k I (GrJ = k 1 (46.39b) supplies the rate of twist ( # / L ) = k I (Gr. therefore.08 . The radial penetration depth for the hollow cylinder is therefore 3. from eqs(iii) and (iv). the outer fibres of the solid section reach their shear yield stress find (i) the depth of penetration in the hollow section and (ii) the ratio between the solid and hollow angular twists per unit length of the solid and hollow sections.39a) gives the fully elastic torque Equation (1 2. k = 0. In the solid cylinder. = 50146./3 . If. applying eq(12.rc.I (61L ) I (81L) ..564 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Clearly the distributions represented by eqs(i) and (ii) are both linear in the radius r. 12. ri = 25 mm gives the following equation for the elasticplastic interface radius re/. t .1833 ~ 7 5 / 1 0 0 ) ] ~ = 0. = T . For the hollow cylinder. under an axially applied torque..1837. = [(180 x 3 x 1 0 3 ) / ( 8 0 lo3 ~ 7 5 ) ] [ 1 (1. 1 [ 1 . Figure 12.0101 rad = 0.256) and.24 is bored to 50 mm diameter over half its length. occurs at the outer radius..24 Torsion bar For the solid section eq( 12.
4. firmly surrounded by a steel annulus 100 mm outer diameter.754)/32=6.4 Composite Shafi The fully elastic torque capacity Tkfor a composite shaft (see Fig. for the inner (1) and outer (2) components respectively. = k . .25) is determined from the material which is the first to reach the shear yield stress at its outer fibres.I2= n(1004. then the core remains elastic. 12. ) ( G .. Determine the maximum elastic torque the section can sustain. =(r/G). 12. / J .711 x 10hmm4 Then. is reached in the core and the annulus remains elastic. is again found from equality of shear strain at the interface.b) that Tkis the lesser of (12. follows from compatibility in that both materials suffer the same shear strain at the interface. the foregoing elasticplastic analyses again apply in which the total torque is the sum of the component torques.. That is.106 x 10' mm4 . ( r .25 is composed of a central brass core 75 mm diameter.25 Composite section of torsion bar The maximum shear stress r. first being attained in the outer fibres of the annulus 2. = 41 GPa.50b) With increasing torque beyond T. / r 2 ) ( G l / G = )( T .50b) with k. J . Figure 12. ) 2 ( 12. ( 12.12a. the plastic zone inwardly penetrates either the shaft or the annulus independently until the remaining component becomes plastic.4 The composite bar in Fig. and k. from eqs( 12. . Which material is understressed and by how much? Find also the torque needed to produce a fully plastic steel annulus. at the outer diameter of the annulus. / G . As plastic penetration then occurs in both components simultaneously. if the lesser TI is found from eq( 12. < k.50a) ( 1 2. < k . = 60 MPa and for steel(2) G. = 120 MPa.b).50a) then k .50b) Assuming that the lesser Tkis determined from eq( 12. :.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 565 12. r . it follows from eqs(5. k. That is.50a. With shear yield stresses k . (r/C). Take for brass( 1) G. r. k .50a) Alternatively. at the outer diameter of the core. The maximum stress r. = n(7S4)/32= 3. Example 12. = 82 GPa.
/ G 2 ) ( r/r2) k. the ends are closed and the material obeys a von Mises yield criterion. = (120/50)[6.711 i(0. T. i k? /C. 4 9 ~is applied to give ) (T.1276 in which eq( 12. 12.. .. from eq( 12.107= 18.49a) supplies Tkfor a hollow cylinder ( T I ) .5/50)'] / [ I . for a solid bar.).132 kNrn . Thus the steel is at the point of yield at its outer diameter while the brass is understressed. = (4/3)[1 ./C.97 x 10"Nmm = 4.5.I ThickWulled Cylinder Here we wish to derive expressions for the internal pressure required to penetrate a plastic zone to a radial depth re. and r... These include a thickwalled pressurized cylinder with different end conditions and a rotating disc.445 x 10'Nmm = 26.= 1 . the problem remains statically determinate.97 = 23. = 1.39a). = (60/37.71 1)]106= 26.in a nonhardening thickwalled cylinder.5 x 60/2 = 4. From eq( 12.5/50)120 = 45 MPa When the steel becomes fully plastic eq( 1 2 .lT. /G.5 1 a)..97 kNm The net torque is then (T.5/50)4]= 1.5 x 3. = n x 37. That is. The nonhardening plastic behaviour of beams in bending and solid shafts under torsion. 12.= ( C .).. The plastic stresses can be found by combining the equilibrium condition with the yield criterion without recourse to the plastic strain behaviour. was solved by the application of equilibrium alone. A yield criterion is required when the stress state is rnultiaxial.566 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES T.162 + 4. To illustrate this. These problems are complicated by the mismatch in shear strain arising at the interface when k .) = 18..)?+ (T.. . The amount of simultaneous i penetration in each material must then be determined from these limiting shear strain values.5 Multiaxial Plasticity In the case of a nonhardening material (elasticperfectly plastic) u= Y = constant. The maximum stress in the brass is. = (41/82)(37.(37.463 x Since this is also the shear strain k /GI at which the brass interface yields.(37.834 kNm The lesser TI determines the maximum elastic torque. (T.3 7 S 4 ) = 16. principal plastic stress distributions will be established for structures with axial symmetry.162kNm The shear strain in the steel interface is then k. it follows that the brass is at its fully elastic condition. . (T. The inner and outer radii are r.834 x lo6Nmm = 19.5)[3.for nonhardening component materials.).445 kNm T. = [ n x 120/(2x50)](504 .106)]10" = 19.106+ (2 x 6.107 kNm . 1 2 7 6 ~ 16.
49)).112 ./. required to produce a fully plastic cylinder is found from putting r(..2/(J3r.. and 8. These give (see example 2. r. = .= pr/..53~) a.2)](1 r.ar= r da.pCpfor the interface radius r.re/...J2) + (1 2./dr (1 2.r and z replacing I .1 1 ) a. ) 4..52ac) the stresses in the elastic zone are a.rr/: ( 1 + r.b) and (2..55b) (12. the radial and hoop stresses are supplied by 5 Lam6 (see eqs (2.2/r2) a.54b) a?= (2Y/d3) In r + K in which K is found from the condition that 4..54a) and again assuming eq( 12.2 10.= [Yr. ( 1 .rr/.’ ) The radial equilibrium eq(3.2 .rr/>2/r.pCpfor r = rc/?./ri) (Y/J3)(1 . (Y/J3)( I =  c/. 1 = (0.53b) (12.=2y/J3 Combining eqs( 12. The boundary conditions are a.re/. 2 and 3 leads to PC/..13) applies to the inner plastic annulus ri s r < rv/) ( 1 2. This gives K=.p ..PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 567 (a) Elasticplastic stress states Since the outer annulus rp/) r < r. in = eq( 12.. Substituting eqs( 12.. .55a) ( 1 2... from eqs( 12..7a) with r = rtl.rv/.55a) . therefore. = .52~) At the interface a state of yield exists.=[Yr. is elastic.52b) ( 12. = 0 for the outer radius r.rcl.:/r2) + q. the stresses in the plastic zone are (1 2.52a) (12.56a) The pressure pr.(2Y/J3) In re/.rr/. = (2Y/d3) In (re/. and a. (12.. ) /r 2 2 4 = P?/.55~) (b) Ultimate and mean wallpressures Now as ar= .(2Y/J3) In rep and.1r. for r = ri eq( 12.r.: /r )/(r. the Mises criterion simply becomes a.21 and..54a.Z/(J3r.53a) (12.= pe/..+ a.. = Y r. therefore.2..r.52ac) into eq( 1 1.55a) gives the required internal pressure p .52~) supplies the axial stress.=  (Y/J3)(1 .48a.:).4r./r.and integrating gives (12.0.2/(J3rc:)](1 ./....b).
Figure 12..52ac) for ri s r s r..(Yld3)(1 .26a shows the distribution of radial.U.: ) .. * ( I + r. leaving a multiaxial residual stress qn(i = 8. recovers.58b) (12.p . eq( 12.lr.. That is...57) where qEtake the Lam6 form with subscript i replacing ep in eqs( 12. 5 r 2 r.57) is written (l2.p i r i 2 ( 1..58a) u r / ( Ul . r. ’ ) (12.. z ) .*)](I r..r i 2 )  (12..r.. uiu= ui OiE (12.r.59a) = (2YlJ3) In ( r / r r p )./..r.21r2)..:   ri ) ’ (12.) + ( Y/J3)(I urn= Q r 0 .s r I r. Subtracting these from the corresponding stresses ui under pressure in each zone leads to the residuals.r .= ( r i + r..’. ~ + r.E = [Yr. For the outer zone re/. hoop and axial stress when rF.’) p i r i 2 ( 1 ..58~) For the inner zone r.26 Elastic and plastic stress distributions (c) Residual Stresses When the pressure pi is released an elastic stress u.. 5 9 ~ ) .2I r 2)I(r.f.*Ir2)l(r.2/r2)I(r. The plots combine the elastic (eqs12.59b) (1 2 . r .53ac) with the plastic (eqs 12.UOE = (2 Y/ J3) In (rIrr.57) becomes uon= 0 0 . eq(12. .2Ir.Z/(J3r.)l2..568 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 12.55ac) stress distributions under pressure p i .
. expressions will also apply to an open ended cylinder or thin disc since a.5.61 b) where a = J2Y and 0 = d(2/3)Y with the following substitutions: a= (a.b) a..+ a.2 Thin Annular Disc Under Internal Pressure The following analysis provides the internal pressure required to (a) initiate yielding in the bore fibres. and u. .=(1/\/2)(a.64b) a. and (12. The following Section illustrates Nadai's parametric approach [ I ] to this problem.= (1/J2)(a+ a ' )= Y [sinB+ (1/J3) cosB] o(2YlJ3) sin ( B + n/6) a.b) and (12.6la) may be writen as a simpler elliptical equation: 021a2 a V 2 / b 21 + = ( 1 2.b) gives a. (b) Full Plasticity The Mises yield criterion (1 1./ri.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 569 These are distributed as shown in Fig. The compressive stresses remaining within the inner core of the cylinder are particularly beneficial to improving fatigue strength when they oppose and reduce subsequently applied cyclic tensile stresses (a.= 0 still remains the intermediate stress and does not enter Tresca's yield criterion. need only be multiplied by J3/2. A nonhardening von Mises material is assumed.7a) provides the initial yield pressure as p = Y(K2. The resulting a.(1/~'3)cosB] (2Y/d3)sin(B. (b) produce full plasticity and (c) partially yield to an elastcplastic interface radius rc. The process of prepressurizing thick cylinders in this way is known as autofrettage.5b) that all the foregoing Mises stresses.u.)due to fluctuating internal pressure. thickwalled cylinder is required.u.b) Figure 12.63a.60) a.b).6 1 a) (12. .26b.+ u.. 12.)/J2 and u ' = (a. (a) Initial Yielding The initial yield pressure in an openended. from eqs(2.n/6) . together with uz= 0.27 shows that eq(12.I)/ J(3K4+ 1) where K = rc.a..62a. Substituting a. and a.61b) is satisfied by introducing a parameter B into the coordinates a= a s i n e = d2Y s i n 4 a' = b cosB= J(2/3)Y cos0 Combining eqs( 12.48a. Had the Tresca yield criterion a. and a.7b) applies to the plastic material within the wall (1 2.a ' ) =Y[sinB. ( 12.63a.62a. into the von Mises yield criterion (1 1.)/J2) (1 2. The Mises criterion is more difficult to combine with the equilibrium condition for an open cylinder. including the residuals a.64a) (12.2= Y 2 Equation (12. 12.ur = Y been preferred to that of von Mises it follows from eq( 12.
53a) again applies. Equations (1 2. stresses in the plastic zone The r.60) for K = ro/rpp. exp (. 2 rs r.Bi)l (12. = (2Y143) sin ( n / 6 .64b) the fully plastic pressure is p . (note q = 0). Then a . as or= .. from eq(12. the constant A in eq( 12.52a.65) gives A = (4312) r.64a.. . (c) Partial plasticity Let the internal pressure pi produce plasticity to a radius r?.4 3 8 ) (12.=n/6and eq(12.27 von Mises ellipse in parametric form The equilibrium equation (12.(2/J3) drlr and integrating gives A21r2= cos8 exp (. .B i ) where. 8. found from the condition that a = 0 for r = r. 81 1 ( 1 2.nl3 < 8< n16.l r 2 = (2143) cos8 exp [J3(n/6 .67b) (1 2..43 n 16) : : r. Hence .64b). a follow from ... eqs( 12.b).b).b) again give the Lam6 hoop and radial stresses in the outer elastic zone re.67a) The radial stress remains compressive under pressure for the valid range .66) (r. rd[sin(Bn16)]/dr=[sin(B+n/6) ..In particular.b). and .570 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES I a Figure 12. is given from eq( 12. Substituting from eqs( 12. correspondingly. However.pi for r = ri in eq( I2.sin(Bn16)]=cosB Putting y = cos8 enables the variables to be separated into dy/J( I .65) where A is an integration constant. 2 rs rF/) supplied by eqs( 12. @ is found from eq( 12.. exp [43(n/6 ..64a. The interface pressure pr.y ) + dyId3 = .l r i ) * = (2143) cos8.66) This equation enables 8 to be found for any radius ri < r s r.65) is now found are .64a.
.. .2758 . when r. from eqs( 12.."/ / (1 . From eq( 12.28. from which the internal pressure p i required to produce an elasticplastic cylinder is again found from eq( 12. and q distributions. r.5 MPa Equations ( 1 2. .:/ rv/. . (12.0393 cos8./ re/.2) J(3r.4 MPa .8" = 0.0.2/r...9" = .67b)..5 in eq(12. From eq(12. = (2 x 500 143) sin ( n / 6 + 0. .4286 Substituting into eq( 12.= 2.)= 231.. when r = ri .752= 1. (a) Equation (12.r.60) and .60) gives the initial yield pressure./ri)x (ri/r.68b). Show the stress distribution for (b) and (c) and determine the maximum residual hoop stress for (c). 12.75 :.5 mm..22. exp (. = 25 mm. rrl.68a) ' r. = 1 . 15.2)/J(r.n/6) Y ( 1 . exp [J3(0. Example 12. satisfy eq(12.65) that A = r?.) (1 2./ r. (c) For the partially plastic disc.539) = 504. it follows from eq(12.3936 rad..539 rad.'/r*=(c0~8/cos8.19 + 1) = 241. Find the internal yield pressures for the disc material at its (a) inner.5 gives p = 500 (6. In particular.55" = .28). + 1) = (2Y/J3) sin (8.25 .46 MPa (2.5)'= (2/J3) cos8..75 = 1..64a. (b) outer and (c) mean wall radii.67a).r.~)exp [J3(8.67a).J 3 8 . = 62. . Hence from eq( 12. with r = ri and 8 = B i .. pi = (2Y lJ3) sin ( d 6 + 0.n/6) to Having found 8 .b) give the fully plastic a. (2. p .0.30.4/rc:+1/3)=2sin(8.1)/J(117.68b) Equation (12.= .: cos 8. exp [J3(n/6 .8..5/25 = 2. s rs rrp. 8= B.0.68b) enables 8 to be found at any radius r. These appear as the broken lines in Fig.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 571 from the condition that or is common to both zones at r = rpp That is. r. Setting K = 62.n/6) A trial solution gives 8t7.415 kbar) (b) The disc becomes fully plastic (Fig.3936) = 458.4907 = 2 sin (B.5)/ (2 x 25) = 1.)l A trial solution gives Bi = .68a)./ri = (25 + 62.. 12.67a).5 An annular disc is made from material with a yield stress Y = 500 MPa and radii r.8)] (12..2758 rad.B i ) ] The trial solution yields 8.= (r.68a).64b).
3 Thin Rotating Disc As the speed of a thin rotating disc is raised. a plastic zone spreads towards the outer radius. 12. For example. 2 1 r i 2 1) = 458.635.03 = . .28 shows the a and a distributions for the elasticplastic disc as found from .S2)1(2S2 1) = 633.28 Yielding in a thin disc Figure 12..64a) for B= Bi a.18 MPa = .b) and (12.3936) = 74. indicating that reversed yielding occurs at the bore since Y is exceeded.572 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Figure 12.u = 74.5.85 .64a.03 Mpa and.558.58a) recovers uoE=pi(l+ r . A lesser prepressure is required if the disc is to benefit from autofrettage.85 MPa Upon release of p i the elastic hoop stress (12. .68b). eqs(12. = (2Y lJ3) sin (n16 . The Tresca yield criterion enables the speed to be found for a given penetration in a nonhardening material.0. the maximum bore hoop stress is found from eq( 12. ~ / r i 2 ) I ( r ~ .4(1 + 2. therefore the residual compressive hoop stress is uORa.
... Substituting eq(3. These are distributed in the manner of Fig.. 0 = a .: ) (12. Tresca criterion ( 1 1.7 I ) Now as u.2 .= Y for r = 0 then A = 0 in eq( 12.7I ) .: /8)[  ( 1 + 3v) re.2/8O=Y : wy2=8Y/[p(3+v)r.( 3 + v ) p w 2 and a.’ .. = Y (12.(po2 ( 3 + v ) r.)/dr = Y . This gives simply u. 12.. ( 1 2.5 r s r..29a..72b) Solving eqs( 12.: + v ) p a 2r.:/ 8 ( 12. both u. yielding will commence at the centre where a.( p w 2 / 8 ) [ ( 3+ v ) r..69) for r = 0 supplies the speed w yto initiate yielding pwY2(3+v)r.p w 2 r 2 / 3 A / r + 5 r s r.. The following boundary conditions enable the constants a and b to be found: ur = 0 for r = r(.b) leads to a= { Y .blr..28ac)..73b) . = 0.in eq(3. and ur are tensile and u..p w 2 r 2 / 3+ A ur= Y .: I } rCI.21) holds for the inner plastic core 0 Combining this with eq( 12.22 I(r(: rv.’/8 (12. ] } r.: b = { Y .PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 573 (a) Initial Yielding The elastic stresses in a solid rotating disc are given by eqs (3.72a) + 3v)p w 2 r.= Y for r = r.b) supply the stresses..28b.: ) + ( 3 ( 1 + 3 v ) r.. For the outer elastic annulus (r.. ( 1 2.p w 2r 2 r u.69) Clearly.24b). ) eqs(3..> u.. 0 Y Figure 12..72a..24a.’1 (rr: + r..70) (b) Partial plasticity In the elasticplastic case the equilibrium eq(3.24a).Z] ..c) into (12.734 + re.29 Stress distributions in a rotating disc For a given radius r > 0.. is a maximum. giving Y = a + b/r..( I ( I2.1 b) The employs the greater stress together with the zero axial stress a.= Y r .69) leads to (ru. in eq(3.
74~) (c) Full Plasticity When the disc becomes fully plastic. the speed required for the elasticplastic radius to reach the mean radius is found.. In the elastic zone eq(3.73a. in eq( 12.. Firstly.. 12.75) gives we: = 384Y / [ p r. as u.. ( 1 2. a.76) Alternatively eq( 12.047. O = Y .71) and uo= Yare the stress distributions shown in Fig.6 Determine the angular velocity ratios w . found from the condition that uris common to both zones at the .74a) Substituting eqs( 12. 12.70).c) provides the speed (1 2.76) and ( 1 2./u = 1. .. Equations (12./2 and rep= r. / o y and o p / w ufor a uniformly thin solid disc of radius r... r 18 .= Y for r = 0.’( 137 + 27v)l (i) Dividing eq(i) by eq(12. Again a.:  (3 + v)p we.b) into eq( 12...29b. . re/.. = r.. Also. .574 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Equations (12. = Y .up/.70) gives the ratio between the speeds for full and initial plasticity as w p l w y 3(3 + v)/8 = (iii) .75). = 0./2 in eq( 12.74a) leads to In the plastic zone eq( 12.71) and (3..24a.p u : rc/: /3 e Equating (12. = a . eq(12. is interface radius r?.74b.24a) gives a.b/r. giving A = 0.=r.b) provide the radial and hoop stress distribution shown in Fig. where w y . / ~ ~ ) ~ = 4+8v)/(137 +27v) (3 (ii) Setting v = l/3 in eq(ii) gives o.p w 2 1. w p are respectively the speeds for which the elasticand plastic interface radii are rr. Assume a Tresca yield criterion and take v = V3.:) = (12.. the speed ratio is ( w . Substituting rc/)= r. Example 12.. = 0 for r = r.29~.. The angular speed 0 .71) gives for r = r?.~/3 The fully plastic speed u pis therefore u p 2 3Y/ (pr. Taking the ratio between eqs(12.76) is found by setting re.71) applies for 0 s r s r. .
= W IA<.30 Hardening in nominal and true stressstrain axes That is. the u. . I 1 a ( I L o. the stress in a material will actually continue to rise.t. 12. not fall. for a material is not a true stress value since no account has been made of the reduction in area to the point of necking.8% respectively. It is possible to correct the nominal tensile stressstrain curve to reflect this behaviour by employing true definitions for aand E : . errors will arise in stress and strain calculations when large changes in testpiece dimensions occur within the plastic range..6.s. The lower curve in Fig..6 Plasticity with Hardening 12..PLASTICITY A N D COLLAPSE 575 Setting v = ‘3 in eq(iii) gives wplo. a ..7% and 1 1.1 18.)ll.) Since these expressions refer to the original testpiece section area and length. it is instructive to examine the hardening behaviour in the stressstrain curve for uniaxial tensioh. I 6 I I alE I 2 Figure 12. = 1. and E. Firstly.and E. The % increases in speed required for each / spread of plasticity are 4... Moreover.1 Tensile ltistabilip When metallic materials harden with the spread of plasticity some account needs to be made of the associated increase in flow stress. if A. For example. as the neck develops before final fracture.30a is typical of tension test results for ferrous and nonferrous materials when the engineering stress and strain. are the original area and length respectively = (1 . are conventionally defined. and I. 12.l.
) E ' ( 12..81b) The corresponding corrections afforded to a nominal curve a.)eqs(12. This condition is expressed in du<...30ac.. given by is d o l d c = (dc..ldE) x (du/d&.) Hence this instability condition. U= 0 (1 2. = ul(1 + c .. ) . 12.81a. The incompressibility or constant volume condition gives A1 = A..) = ( I + &..79a) (12.) . . 17.ld&. the tangent to the true stress curve intersects the engineering strain axis at c. da/ds= u : (12.80)and differentiating the quotient.) .. I..78) where A and 1 are the current area and length...30a the true stress at the point of instability corresponds to the maximum ordinate for q.79b) into eqs( 12.77) leads to the true stress Integrating eq( 12.. ..) = In ( 1 + t. 12. )dalds.. = ll(1 + t.82b) for which a subtangent value of unity appears along the true total strain axis in Fig. Now from eq(12.lb.79b) Substituting eq( 12.81a). : d a l d t . &p= is found by subtracting the elastic strain E ' = o/E.. 12.8 1a) The true plastic component of strain from eq(12. = .81a).. & &C E ' = In ( 1 + c.30a). 1 1 = A... ) (12. Unlike elastic behaviour.ld&<.82a) That is. dEldE. . then instability on axes of true stress versuss true plastic strain would be expressed in .b) are shown in Figs. = q(&.I. with respect to a true flow curve a= a ( & ) .576 U= E= MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES WIA dlll (1 2.0 = Substituting from eq( 12.77) (12. Note that if eq( 12..8 1 a) in this derivation.80) and by (12. the plastic deformation produced by stressing beyond the elastic limit occurs without change in volume.78) provides a measure of the true or logarithmic total strain between the original and current limits of length &= In ( I I l.8 1 b) had been used instead of eq( 12.a1E (12. /( 1 + t.1 (see Fig. : A = A ..= 1 + c ( .) x al(l + &. In Considere's construction [3] in Fig. ( da.
not at the origin.83a. dald c= (nA ) & " I and from eq( 12. Since this equation represents a curve passing through the origin it is normally applied to a corrected true curve in Fig.80) and (12.30b.b) are quite different.7 Determine the true stress and true strain at the point of tensile instability for the Hollomon and Ludwik functions.uIE) (12. This shows that the strain at which necking begins equals the exponent value n for a given material. From eq( 12.Y l a ) " . at the point of instability. 12. = 0. as the following examples show..83b) gives d a l d d = nA (E')"' and combining with eq( 12. .82b).PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 577 dO/d&' = a/(1 . 12. = 340 MPa and E.55 is the strain hardening exponent. Determine the constants A and n in the Hollomon and Ludwik laws. 12.81a). Substituting a.82b and c).83b) The values of the constants A and n in eqs( 12.30~: a= Y + A(&' ) " (12. a unit subtangent is employed for the construction in Fig.82~) where here the curve u = u ( c P )in Fig.83a). number of expressions a = U ( E ) are A available. The Ludwik law (12.' Example 12. The simplest of these is the Hollomon [4] power law: u=AE" ( 12. 12.8 At the point of tensile plastic instability. Take Y = 250 MPa and E = 200 GPa where appropriate.30~ commences at the yield stress Y. Since there is no appreciable difference between eqs( 12.82~) find the instability strain we Combining this with eq( 12.3 in eqs( 12. Example 12. the engineering stress and strain are 340 MPa and 30% respectively.82b) leads to the instability stress u=A 11"(1.30~.1 5 n < 0.83a) where A is the strength coefficient and 0. A Ludwik law [5] represents the curve that commences at Y in Fig.
2624 = E . ) = In (1 + 0.2501442) = 0.578 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES a= a.2 Tensile Necking The use of true stress and strain is adequate to describe the uniform state of plastic deformation in a tensile testpiece up to the start of necking.. the Hollomon law gives n = E = 0.26)". The state of stress in the neck was analysed by Bridgeman [6] who showed that radial o.6 12.598 A = (442 . ) = 340( 1+ 0.442/(200 x 10') = 0.u/E = 0.6.syx = 191.2624)". However.8.264 1 . Figure 12. stresses are induced under the applied axial stress q .r2)/(2aR)] 0.rZ)/(2aR)] l oz= < [ I +In ( a 2+ 2aR . In the Ludwick law. .2h24 : A = 621.3) = 442 MPa In (1 + E .31 Tensile neck Bridgeman proposed the following triaxial stress state for radius 0 5 r s a within the neck: ao= an [(a*+ 2aR .26 From example 12.84b) . 12.9 . n = E " / ( 1 .= (1 2. ( 1 E= E ' + E . during neck formation in ductile materials the stress state is neither uniform nor uniaxial within this region.250)/(0.84a) (1 2.2624 and therefore 442 = A (0.31. .Consider the smallest neck diameter of 2a and a radius of curvature R in Fig.Y/a)= 0. and tangential a.2624 .3) = 0.
= 2 n & ~ a { r + r l n ( a 2 + 2 a R .PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 579 in which &is the true equivalent stress for the neck.613/(2 x 70.613)2] 602. ) = 2 In (d..85b) and dr. For perfect lubrication of an isotropic material the true stressstrain curve for compression will coincide with that for tension..In(2aR)Ij = na((aZ+2aR)In[1 +a/(2R)]} : .86) depending upon whether the current height I or diameter d of the cylinder is measured. when.30ac show the corresponding extension to the flow curves during necking.79a): ( n / 4 ) d 2 1= (n/4) d..61 3 mm under an applied force of 59.... is shown in Fig.= [ ( I  + 25) In ( 1 + 0.45 MPa = .. in the neck is found from W = nu2ame. Then from eq(12.5 mm diameter. nonuniform deformation arises from barreling of the testpiece's central region.9806 where a... Hence.78). in the form of Bridgeman correction curves for particular materials..63 x 103)/[n(5. = (59. 12.. The distribution of a.84b) gives n a 2 u . : a=0. Given that R = 70.. The true strain can also be calculated from the neck diameter d = 2a using the following constant volume condition from eq( l2.04)] ..' = 0. For an applied force W the mean axial stress a. .. was plotted against C/o.' =[(I  + I/X)ln(l + X ) ] ../ d ) (12.86) Applying Bridgeman's correction to Figs.85a).04.45 = 590. and a.16 mm for a testpiece of original 12. .. .l. E= In ( I / l .9806 x 602.9 The minimum radius of a tensile neck is 5. Example 12. a /a.85a) (12. a /a. La 2nrqdr Substituting from eq( 12. . Here the true strain may be calculated from either expression in eq( 12. 12..rZ)/(2aR)]} 0 [ dr = 2 n & ( ( a R + a 2 / 2 ) [l n ( a 2 + 2 a R ) .' ( 1 2.63 kN. the true equivalent stress at those intervals may be calculated.85b) where X = a/(2R) in eq( 12.78 MPa One of the problems with tensile testing is that the range of uniform strain is limited by the formation of neck.16) = 0. from eq( 12. determine the true stress in the neck. Larger strain can be achieved from the compression test on a short cylinder but unless the ends are well lubricated. if the smallest diameter of the neck 2a is measured at intervals during loading W beyond the point of instability. = ( ( 1 + 2R/a) In [ 1 + a/(2R)] } .31.. Here al(2R) = 5. .
= r . = [ l/(2nr. = [ 1/(2nr. Fig.:K2 r. T = ( 2 x 1 ~ ~ ) r(y)y2dy ( I 1 0 in which t= r ( y) applies to radius r. is in equilibrium with the applied torque T when T=2n IOUr t r 2d rK(K= Substituting from eq(5.87a). thereby limiting the range of strain.. z. = [ 1 / ( 2 n r .r. [ 1/(2n)] d(TK')/dK= r. ? ~ * )d(TK')/dK ] r.20. T versus 0. outer radius r. d K .3)..?)](3AC +AB) (1 2. d t . leads to r. 12. Nadai's method [ 11 allows the shear stressstrain curve.32 Nadai's construction A solid bar. ( r ..:)](3T+ KdT/dK) (1 2.. .32).. y = OIL is the t w i s t h i t length).32.580 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12. in Figure 12.3 Torsion When a cylindrical bar of material hardens owing to torsional plasticity the distribution of shear stress through the section differs from that shown in Fig.87b) The Nadai method usefully reveals the actual shear stressstrain behaviour to fracture for a hardening material despite the presence of a stress gradient.. 12.. Torsion tests conducted on thinwalled tubes avoid a stress gradient but these are prone to buckling well before before fracture. 12..6. ~ ) ~ /= Since dy.= r.versus y. . for the outer diameter to be derived from the torquetwist curve. Differentiating with respect to x..Kgives [ 1/(2n)] d ( T ~ ~ )y.87a) The geometrical interpretation of eq( 12. as given by the Nadai construction in Fig.
This gives a=(1/J2) J [ ( q . du. a uniaxial stress a.002) + 10'(0. Substituting into eq( 12. and de. Clearly.de3P)2] (12.89) . Derive the corresponding shear stressstrain relationship for the outer radius r. K = y.'.:)][AK1'(3 + n ) + 4 B K ] Putting K = y.a 2 ) 2 (a2 + . = [l/(2nr.'.a3)2+ (a'  03)2] (12.66 MPa 12.. .3)] ( B K + A K I ' ) + K ( B + ~ A K " .'. With n < 1 the parabolic term dominates in the plastic range.88) which implies that the initial yield surface expands uniformly to contain the current stress point within the plastic range (isotropic hardening).002 and the torque is T = (25 x l o 6 x 0. The slope to the T versus Kcurve is dT/dK= B + nAK''.7a).87a).176 x 10'Nmm = 176 Nm N o w J = ~ ( 1 0 ) ~ / 1. the concept of a stress equivalent to a true uniaxial stress was introduced.= 0. . yielding under a .88) are set to zero.d&:)'+ (d&.3 (0. and do.'.02)"' ) = 1591.. uz and q commences in proportion to the root mean square of these stresses. d&.042) = 98.7a). A similar expression holds for the plastic strain under a triaxial stress state.05 + 0... The magnitude of the equivalent uniaxial stress is found by replacing Y by 6 in eq( 11.')'+ (de.02 + 0.6. the equivalent plastic strain increment is defined as a d i p = (d2/3) d[(de..002)''3 = (0. . In the von Mises criterion (1 1./r.571){0. The linear term in the T expression represents the elastic line. For a hardening material this equivalent or effective stress continues to increase beyond the initial yield stress Y within the plastic range. = (25 x IO2/i. If de. = when two of the stresses in eq(12.126)lO' = 0. /r(. A = 10' MPa and B = 25 x 10' (units of N and mm).: 12.de.10 The torqueunit twist diagram for a solid bar can be expressed as T = B K + Ad'.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 581 Example 12. Hence determine the torque and shear stress required to produce yo = 2% in a 20 mm diameter alloy bar for which n = l/3..02/10 = 0.333 x lo6 x 1OZ3)/(4x 25 x 10')](0. q . for the outer radius gives where J = n r.4 Equivalent Stress and Strain In the analysis of the triaxial stress state in the neck of a tensile testpiece.02 + [(3. are the incremental plastic strains following a change d o . in the stress state. becomes the equivalent stress a.571 x 104mm4andeq(i)gives 2= q.I ) ] [3 = [1/(2nr.
+ d o . the constant volume condition is d c l p+ de.90) to be dt. The latter function is conveniently found from simple tension and compression tests for a limited range of plastic strain or from torsion and balanced biaxial tension (the bulge test) for a larger range of plastic strain.1 =0 Neglecting infinitesimal products.dEIE = da. ) ] etc (12.Then substituting into eq(12. Note that the octahedral shear stress and strain (see table 1. if the sides of a unit cube permanently change in length by dc. . the LevyMises flow rule is dajj' = dA ojj' (1 2. l). ' / 2 .6. for similar substitutions under tension these are to= d20. versus de will correlate hardening behaviour under all stress states in the single curve a = 0 ( J d i P ) = f ( E P ) . in which the axial strain is dc. the lateral strains are found from eq( 12.'= 0 ( 1 2.88).P)(1 + de. it is usually found that points from different tests lie within a narrow scatter band on 0 versus axes.88) and (12.Pand dE3"without changing its volume.89) and (12.v (do. ensures that the final hydrostatic strain component is removed from the normal but not the shear strains. 12.92) where dA is a scalar factor of proportionality that changes with the progress of deformation P under a given stress state.5 The Flow Rule Levy [7] and von Mises [8] proposed a flow rule of plasticity in which the incremental plastic strain tensor d e i is linearly dependent upon the deviatoric stress tensor qi in eqs( 1. In practice. because materials are initially anisotropic to some degree. With the surface defined by the von Mises equivalent stress function (eq12. The principal plastic strain increments in eq( 12. This is defined by simple tension E ) where.90) require the removal of elastic strain increments from the total strains as follows: x r e d t l P =dEl . = .d2dep. . the plastic components are found from a similar removal of elastic strain within a contracted tensor notation: dEijP = d c i j.90) In the case of tension. which have also been used for equivalence.') .(I/E)[da.' + dC. With the equivalent definitions in eqs(12.[doij/(2G)+ ~5~~d0./3 = d20/3 and d = d 2 d ~ . .89) gives d i p = dEIP./(9K)] in which Kronecker 4.e. That is. i.89) the plot of 0 I = p .d ~ .91) When six component strains are involved in the deformation. do not readily reduce to a simple stress state because the numerical factors differ. say.'. with a mean stress (a.21ac).89)correctly defines the equivalent strain under uniaxial stress while plasticity remains incompressible.')( 1 + dt.582 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The numerical factor d2/3 ensures that eq( 12.' = de.'. A geometrical interpretation of this is that during loading the plastic strain increment vector lies in the position of the exterior normal to a flow surface that expands isotropically in stress space to contain the current stress point. d&.. then ( 1 +d&.
91) where v = ?h incompressible plasticity and 11E is replaced by the incremental compliance for de IF.dt. The right sides of eqs(12.P / ~ ) [ a . Numerical methods are required to solve eqs( 12.+ u2)] 3 (1 2.92).b) a.' = .94~) in which eq( 12.2] = a.92). 5 dt. the compliance is d' IF= d F / ( F a ' ) where a ' = dF/deP. : In a.89) the equivalent plastic strain is d i p = d(2/3)J[(3dt.94a) (12.90 and 12. Example 12. and u3=q 0.. = p r 421). where the uniaxial function is a= C(Jdep).' (iv) . = a.% ( a . da.= In ($12) + In r . the principal q plastic strain increments:  d c . ' = ( d.dtlt Since dplp = 0 at the point of instability and d a g = dr/r.= a.94ac) can then be . q and r respectively in eqs( 12.h ( a . with eq( 12.*+ a.'= de. + U.24) gives dt.P l a ) [ u 2 .93) except in the case of the simplest uniform biaxial and triaxial stress states. a. +q ) ] e dt2'= ( d.'/2 (a.90) holds.11 A pressure vessel steel has a stressstrain curve represented by the Swift law a= q ./a.' + dt. dt. At what internal pressure would tensile plastic instability occur in (a) a thinwalled sphere and (b) a closed cylinder? Given B = 200 and n = 0. ( l + Be')". (ii) Replacing subscripts 1 .93) which is inversely proportional to the incremental plastic modulus d e P / a . = a. a 3eq(13. expressed in stress and integrated.94b) (12. = dplp + drlr . Often a comparison is made with the elastic increment in eq( 12... u2'= q' = .'/2 .)]= (dR 1 3 ) ~ ~ dt. + U+ + a.')2 (iii) + (3 dt. eq( 12.93). dR = 3 d i p / ( 2 0 )  (12. = a.'=dR[a+. the equivalent stress is a=(1142) J[O + a. + u..PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE P 583 an."= ( d ~ p / o ) [ u . and q .4a.')*] = 2 dt. Hence from eq(12. where the stress components increase proportionately or follow a stepped path during loading.1.881.P= dtlt. For nonlinear hardening. 2 and 3 by 0.' : dt. a.' / 3 ( ~ . then = Now from eq(12.2 dt. = 1. with a.(dt.+ q ) ] e de.)]=(dR/3)aO dt. (IC) (a) The hoop and meridional stresses are (see eq 3.' ) = .92) expands to give.' = dR[ 0.'= d e . determine the equivalent and maximum strain reached at the point of instability in each case. when from eq( 12.In t .'/a( U.' = .f13.' = 2c13.8812. For a principal triaxial stress system a.
a subtangent of 1/43 in this case. d a l d i p = 3du0/ (4d~.7a. Hence.(2nB/3)".b).lid3 .e.' = .Then. ' ) ~= (2/J3)dEoP ) ( + ] Combining eqs(v) and (vii).1) = 0..)]= .lr)(2nBl3)" (b) For a thin closed cylinder the stresses are u.d E ~ I d & .113 .= prlt = 2% and u."). d E o ' = d A [ ~ o .1 / 3 ( ~ o + ++ .'= d/E [a. P (vii) i.06212 = 0. ' ) ~ = 3 ~ ~ 1 2 .dE.1) = (1/200)(200 x O. dE. from eqs( 12. d f l d e = '/z (1. the subtangent value is 213.062 . 12.'and de.'13 (uO + + a. 0q dE.88) is a=(1142) J[(a. Eq(i) again applies to the point of instability. a= u.89).92). from eqs(i) . ' ) ~ ( d ~ . d&lde = duo/(2d~.1 ) . d f l d e = BnaI(1 + B E ) = d 3 0 : ip= .031 The equivalent stress at instability is &= q. from eq(3.)2 + uo* a + :] = (11d2) J[(0. :.dE. daldzP=3a12 Thus. d o 1 d e = ?A (1 .') where from eqs(i) and (vi). ) ] = ( d U 2 ) ~ .30b. (lIB)(BnId3 . cop E : = P P I2 = 0. = 0. in an equivalent plot to Fig.'/ dEi)Uo = 3 ~ ~ 1 2 : d a/ d i p = d3 & . The equivalent plastic instability strain is found from d a l d z P = B n f l ( 1 + BEP) = 3 a 1 2 P : E = (1/B)(2Bn/3 .90) and (1 2. = 0 (vi) The equivalent plastic strain follows from eq( 12.584 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES P From eqs(ii) and (iv).(iii).1) = 0. from the given law.( d U 2 ) ~ .12)2+ uo2+(uo/2)2] J3u0/2 and. which gives the critical pressure as p = (2tq. u. = (11200)(2 x 200 x 0. The equivalent stress (eq 12. d i p = ( d 2 / 3 ) d [ ( d ~ i +~ 2 d ~ .0527 P P .= 0 and.
McGrawHill. [3] Considere A.3)/[37r(r24. Sci.r. 290 mm. Trans A.. [7] Levy M. 16r2(rZ3 r. 9(6).3 A simply supported beam 1. [5] Ludwik P.1.2 Find the bending moment that will just initiate yielding in a circular steel rod 25 mm diameter given that its tensile yield stress is 300 MPa.582. New York. Acad. Derive expressions for the moments M. If the crosssection is 25 mm wide x 75 mm deep. hebd.E. and Nelson.. 3[1. Answer: 2195 kg.. 3rd edition. Seanc. 1323. 1990. 70. 1909. 9.. Ann ponrs et Chaussees.I. 1952. Longman. 12. EXERCISES ElasticPlastic Bending of Beams 12. 1913. and hence determine Q = MJM.0527 = 0.33. H. M. Nader Ges Wiss Gottingen.7. M. P. McCrawHill.( b d 2 ) / ( B D 2 ) ] / { 2 [ 1( b d 3 ) / ( B D 3 ) l } . 12. with a yield stress Y = 278 MPa. [4] Hollomon J.M. t o p (J3/2) = x 0. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. for each of the axisymmetric beam crosssections in Fig./(J3r)](Bn/J3)” f = o.. W. Paris. Verlag Julius Springer. [2] Bhatt P.. 1950.. r . 2896 kg. New York... Answer: Q = 1. 162. Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture. find W when (a) yielding first occurs and (b) yielding penetrates to a depth of 15 mm from top and bottom surfaces at mid span. p. H.25 m long carries a central concentrated load W. C.. 4 ) ] 2. .. (1885) 574. ( 1 9 4 9 .33 12. Structures.0457 The corresponding equivalent stress is p = [2 tq. [6] Bridgeman. 268.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 585 :.  r B 7 Figure 12. (1870).(Bn/J3)” from which the critical pressure is References [ 11 Nadai A. Find the length over which yielding has occurred in (b) and the residual stress distribution for the unloaded beam. Elements der Technologischen Mechanik. [8] Von Mises R.
when Y = 280 MPa. 2.38 2Omm diameter Figure 12. 3al [T. 12. the moment to produce 15 mm of plastic penetration from each edge and the corresponding radius of curvature. throughout the depth of the flanges and throughout the whole section. Answer: 1.22.4 Find M.37 12.3Y. 12.36 Figure 12. 12. for the 1 . 12. Answer: 45. 12.section in Fig. (mm) Figure 12. Also establish the plastic penetration depth for an applied moment of 850 kNm with Y = 278 MPa. for the notched section in Fig.. a single plastic hinge and a safety factor of 2. for Y = 324 MPa.8 Determine. 12.34 Answer: M.6 Find the moment of resistance in the fully elastic and plastic conditions for the Isection of beam in Fig.35. 12. = Yuh(a + h)/2. 247 kNm. 100 mm.586 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12.5 Calculate.the shape factor and load factor. 48. 7 1 Figure 12. the bending moment to cause yielding .7 Express in terms of Y for the Isection beam in Fig. I rh Figure 12. M. Establish the residual stress distribution and radius of curvature upon removal of this moment.6Y (kNm).34 Figure 12.37.section in Fig.36. for the inverted T .39 .38.35 12.1 1.
PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 587 12. 12. M.5 mm. Find the horizontal shearing stress at the interface for sections where the outer surfaces have just reached the yield point. from energy considerations. 12.5 m from the ends. Compare values of w that would cause the beam to collapse corresponding to support over two and three equal length bays when Y = 300 MPa.40 Figure 12. 12. Take the yield stress Y = 300 MPa and for the unreinforced section I. expressions for the collapse load of the fixed base portal frame in Fig. Given that Mp= 7.16 A span of 6 m is covered by a beam built in at both ends.41 12. What is the length of the plastic hinge? Answer: W y= bd2Y1/(6ab).9 The steel beam Isection in Fig. 12. . Repeat for the fully plastic case.75 Figure 12.= W.39 is simply supported over a length of 5 m and cames a uniformly distributed load of 1 14 W/m.40 under an elasticplastic bending moment. Find the extent to which the plasticity spreads in the length when M. 12.10 Yielding occurs over the bottom 50 mm of the web for the Tsection in Fig.116. Steel reinforcing plates 12 mm thick are welded to each flange. Answer: M y =3WJ16. when the load W divides the length 1 into a and b. is first achieved. 155 mm) I25 IW 18. 12.15 Determine the fully elastic and fully plastic moments for a cantilever beam of length 1 carrying a central concentrated load W when a prop prevents deflection at the free end. = 80 x 10 m 4 (CEI) 12. find the loading to cause collapse at the centre and at 1.13 A uniform beam of length 1 with rectangular crosssection (b x d is built in at both ends and j ' carries a vertical load W at quarter span.11 Derive.14 Determine expressions for the fully elastic and fully plastic concentrated load for a rectangular section. 12.5 lcNm for the unreinforced section. = bd2Y1/(4ab).12 A 9 m length beam with 7. 210 MPa.5 m apart with equal 1.41 in the case of (a) a central vertical load W . The beam carries three equal concentrated loads W (kN) 1 . The central 3 m of the beam is reinforced top and bottom to increase the moment of resistance by 80%. 135.5 mm square section is to carry a uniformly distributed load w . Calculate the plate width b such that they are fully plastic at midspan and the extent of yielding in their length.W. simply supported beam of breadth b and depth d .5 m lengths remaining at each end. If the yield stress remains constant at 278 MPa find this applied moment. Confirm the fully plastic moment expression using the principle of virtual work. 12. (Ans 71 kNm. (b) a horizontal load P and (c) combined WandPwhenP= W l 3 . the stress at the flange top and the position of the neutral axis.
Determine the torque which (a) initiates yielding in the bar and (b) which produces full plasticity at the smaller end. cylindrical composite shaft 1 m long consists of a solid copper core of 50 mm diameter surrounded by a wellfitting steel sleeve of 65 mm external diameter. Determine the fully elastic and fully plastic torques given that the shear yield stress is 180 MPa.24 A solid circular shaft 120 mm diameter is drilled to 60 mm diameter for one half its length.27 The diameter of a tapered circular steel bar increases uniformly from 50 mm at one end to 55 mm at the other end over a length of 500 mm. (Ans 1. carrying a central concentrated load W is built in at one end and simply supported on the same level at the other end.8 GPa and k = 75. find the fully plastic torque and show that the shaft is in an elasticplastic condition.25 A solid.29) 12. Find the torque required to produce yielding at the outer surface of the smaller diameter. Note that here 0 is the twist/unit length and 0 is its value for the outer diameter at the start of yielding. 12. 12. 12.17 A 3 m length beam.588 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 12. Determine the angular twist over a 3 m length and find the radial depth of plastic penetration. How are the torques altered when the tube contains a longitudinal split?.63 x l o 3mm’ and Y = 235 MPa. If the shear yield stress is 125 MPa.20 Examine graphically the variation in T./T. circular steel shaft 100 mm diameter is subjected to a torque of 30 kNm. 12.18 Find the torque that will just initiate yielding in a 25 mm diameter solid bar given that the shear yield stress is 175 MPd. What is the maximum residual stress in the shaft corresponding to the fully unloaded condition? Take G = 82 GPa. for a solid circular shaft when the plastic zone has penetrated through the section to one half the radial depth. Neglect interference stresses and assume no slipping at the interface. / t 9 s 0 for elasticplastic torsion of a solid circular bar.8 MPa. Plastic Torsion 12. Find the depth of yielding in the tubular section and the ratio between the angular twists per unit length of each section. If the steel is elasticperfectly plastic determine the torque that will cause yielding to penetrate through to the common diameter.23 A circular tube of mean radius 100 mm has a wall thickness of 10 mm. / S . Also find the value of W for a load factor of 2 against full plastic collapse.25 m long and tapers uniformly between end diameters of 45 mm and 48 mm. . 12. (CEI) 12. take G = 82. If the elastic section modulus I = l / y = 15. Find the corresponding residual angle of twisthit length and the stress distribution that remains upon removal of the torque. with 0 . . If this torque is then increased by 15% determine the length over which yielding has occurred at the outer surface and the radial depth of yielding at the smaller end. Calculate the residual shear stress at the outer steel diameter after removal of the torque.19 Determine the ratio TJT. Take k = 225 MPa and G = 78 GPa.7 GPa and k = 124 MPa. Under an applied torque a plastic zone has penetrated to a depth of 10 mm in the outer fibres of the solid shaft.21 A solid. If k = 150 MPa determine the shear strain and the rate of twist on a 25 mm diameter. For steel. What is the angular twist in each case and the length of surface yielding? . in the range 4 s 6 .26 A solid shaft of nonhardening material is 0. take G = 44. find the maximum elastic value of W using a safety factor of 2 under elastic conditions. and for copper.22 Determine the torque required to produce an elasticplastic interface at the mean radius of a hollow tube with 25 mm inner and 100 mm outer diameters. 12. 12.
Plot the distribution of radial and meridional stress through the wall at this pressure.28 The dimensions of a bondedcomposite tubular section are brass: 50 mm i. The density is p and Poisson's ratio v = 0.29 Give the principal reason for prestraining of torsion bars and state why care has to be taken when this process is applied to the torsion bar suspension systems of motor vehicles.. 1.. nonhardening von Mises cylinder of inner and outer radii ri and r.5 and Y = 375 MPa determine from Tresca the pressure to produce full plasticity and the maximum hoop and radial stresses when the ends are open. a.. (ii) produce plastic flow to the mean radius and (iii) produce full plasticity in a thin annulus of inner and outer diameters of 50 and 300 mm respectively. Cylinders and Discs 12. thickwalled.d. Find the maximum torque that may be applied without causing yielding.30 Find the internal pressure for which the hoop stress at the bore of a closed thickwalled cylinder is zero when it is fully plastic.35 Show.d. Assuming that strainhardening effects may be neglected.85 m long is prestrained by being twisted through an angle of 1 S O radians before being released. (i) sketch.31 Show that the pressure required to penetrate a plastic zone to a radial depth rt./ri=3. What then are the maximum shear stresses? What magnitude of applied torque would cause the steel annulus to become fully plastic? Take.36 A thin solid disc of uniform thickness and outside radius R rotates at an angular velocity w rads. 12. 12.37 Determine the speeds necessary to (i) initiate yielding.963 and show also that the pressure then remains constant at 2YIJ3.5. Establish the stationary residual stress distributions corresponding to each flow speed (IC) Answer: 1 .3. and u. respectively? Answer: (2Y/J3)(1. 1 12.. in a nonhardening thickwalled cylinder of inner and outer radii ri and r.. given that the shear yield stress is 625 N/mm2 and the modulus of rigidity is 80 kN/mm*.34 Derive the expression for the internal pressure required to produce a fully plastic thickwalled spherical shell.PLASTICITY AND COLLAPSE 589 12. Determine the ratio between the speed necessary to initiate plastic flow and that for the flow to extend to 90% and 100% of the volume of the disc. Assume a Tresca yield criterion for which the constant flow stress is Y. Take Y = 310 MPa = constant. for the brass and steel. . Plot the corresponding distribution of u.2). 12. throughout the wall when this pressure is held and when it is removed. 12.d. A cylindrical torsion bar measuring 20 mm in diameter and 0. Assume a von Mises yield criterion and take Y = 350 MPa and E = 207 GPa.32 Determine the internal pressure required to cause a plastic zone to penetrate to the mean radius in a thickwalled closed cylinder with respective inner and outer diameters of 25 and 100 mm. steel: 75 mm i. 12. p = 7750 kg/m' and v = 0.1 14. and rigidity moduli of 41 and 82 GPa respectively. but do not calculate.d.88) of magnitude equal to Y (the yield stress) in a closed. that it is not possible to fully yield a thin annular disc of nonhardening Mises material under internal pressure when the radius ratio exceeds 2.ri2/ r. Sketch the distributions of radial and hoop stresses in each case. Assume a nonhardening Mises material. If r. respectively is independent of the end condition according to the Tresca yield criterion. 75 mm 0.. the residual stress distribution across the crosssection of the bar and (ii) calculate the depth to which yielding takes place and the maximum torque required during prestraining.33 What internal pressure will result in an equivalent residual compressive stress (from eq 12. shear yield stresses of 60 and 120 GPa. 12. I 0 0 mm 0. from the Nadai approach (section 12.:).28. 12. 12.
4 1068 1124. where K..38 Why does fracture in the parallel length of a circular section tensile testpiece initiate from a point on its axis? How does a superimposed hydrostatic pressure influence the nominal axial strain required to cause tensile necking? Explain with reference to the Bridgeman analysis.6 1192. find the u.. =n ~ E. . are constants. What is the corresponding shear strain? 12.224 0..05 1./d)(2nB/3)" ..68 4.p = (4 ru. Answer: An"/e".163 0. 12.42 Show that when the VocC exponential law u = u.and u.41 If the true stressstrain curve for a material is defined by u = A E " determine the tensile strength.49 2. 580 MPa.131 0.39 Determine the true fracture strain of a ductile material in terms of (i) the % elongation at fracture and (ii) the % reduction of area at fracture in a tensile test.13 16.2.. 12.020 0. ..30 64. Establish the shear stressshear strain behaviour for the bar material.197 0.45 22.56 11. What is the pressure that causes this instability? Answer: a = o. If n = % and A = 4 determine the torque required to produce a shear stress of 400 MPa at the 15 mm outer radius of a solid bar.080 58. Given A = 800 MPa and n = 0.40.~ l pdescribes true stress) strain behaviour then the stress and strain coordinates at the point of instability are a....040 0.7 1158.8b).s.5 mm diameter and the gauge length is 50 mm. E. + E ) " .97 70.43 Show that the stress and strain at the point of instability uu= Kn" and derive from the Swift law u = K ( E .46 4.07 4. .(2nB/3)".1 12 0. Load (kN) Ext (mm) Load (kN) Ext (mm) 0 5.90 0.89 T/Nm 1221.79 a 12.070 0.9 1284 1295 1402 B"/mm 3.72 8.q . T/Nm 514 582 729 797 910 983.28 3.u.) + 0. openended pressurized cylinder of mean diameter d and thickness 1.= 0. (1 + A K ) " describes the nonlinear portion of the torque versus unittwist curve for a solid bar. respectively. where p . determine the corresponding r versus y relationship for the bar material. (0.394 0.46 The following torquetwisthnit length data applies to a solid 25 mm diameter bar with 75 mm parallel length.80 33.44 Use the Bridgeman correction factor /a..eP=(l/B)(2nB/3  I).787 1.590 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Plasticity with Hardening 12. 12.203 0.6 1265.142 0. = p In[(l + p)(u..183 0.254 53.050 0.45 Given that T = T.10 81.5 B'lmm 0. if the material hardens according to the Swift law 6 = u./( 1 + p ) and E.525 0.33 91.94 44. 12..030 0.67 0.t.00 88.62.9 1245.4(d/d. = u. E.01 0. and n are constants.38 38.060 0. with the incompressibility condition (12.102 93. .09 76.44 85.(l + B e p )". and the true stress at instability.58 2. u.)exp(.279 12. 12. ~ 12.40 Convert the following nominal loadextension data to true stress and natural strain up to the instability point and thus determine the strainhardening coefficient and exponent in the law u = AE".. to determine the true stressstrain behaviour beyond the point of tensile instability for the results referred to in Exercise 12... The testpiece is 12.40 0.. 475 MPa.47 Determine the equivalent stress and strain at the point of instability for a thinwalled.10 2.25 27.50 0 0.127 0. ) / ( pu )].
The latter is a recovery process activated by the energy within the dislocation structure. Tertiary Creep BC results from necking. the phenomenon is normally associated with the load capacity at higher temperatures. 0 t 0 I Figure 13. . may be elastic E or elastic plus plastic E € + E ' .la is normally observed.1% in 10' hr ( 1 1% years). in which the instantaneous strain E. the balance is achieved in a single point of inflection at which the creep rate is the minimum value for the curve. When AB is absent. 0. Secondary Creep AB in which there is a balance between workhardening and thermal softening.g. where a given creep strain can be tolerated.1 The Creep Curve Creep is the timedependent deformation occurring in a material subjected to steady loading over a prolonged period. When oand Tare constant under uniaxial stress conditions. three ' stages of creep ensue: Primary Creep OA is a period of workhardening in which the creep rate dE. cracking or metallurgical instability.g. copper and mild steel creep at room temperature under sufficiently high loads. The result is that in the region AB the creep rate is constant and the material neither becomes harder nor softer.1b). with time t under a given stress oand absolute temperature T. 13. It is characterised by an increasing creep rate culminating in fracture at point C.. The secondary region normally forms the basis for engineering design. stainless steel in steam and chemical plant operating in excess of 450°C and nickel base alloys in gas turbines at 750°C and above. E. The understanding of the mechanics of creep begins with a macroscopic representation of the accumulation of strain E. As a result the material becomes harder to deform as an internal stress develops with increasing dislocation density. the three stage creep curve in Fig. ldt decreases with time (also known as transient creep).1 Creep curves Differences in creep response of a material may arise when one stage dominates under a particular oand T combination (see Fig. e. e. 13. Following the initial application of the stress. While some metallic materials such as lead.591 CHAPTER 13 CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY 13.01% in lo4 hr (= 1% years) or 0.
in eq(13.2) where p= p(a.> 0. I Time Dependence of Creep Strain A number of empirical functions E.. + E~ is the net strain under a.2.3b) i n1 Within the summation.T ) .1b). For m = Y3. Graham and Walles [3. = at"' +pt ( 13.la. [ 1 . Other constants a.mt )] + est + cL exp[ y ( t  r.592 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 13..(T'.4a) ( 1 3. =Ut" (13. 13.113.3a) is a three component expression of Davis et a1 [6]. m..b) is the maximum amount of primary creep strain.. The constant T ' in eq(13.5. primary creep dominates (see Fig.)] I] zc= E.p. Ci and mi are.. E~ and p in eqs (13. This is now identified with the component of secondary creep (Fig.exp (. < 0. An equivalent description of high temperature creep is also achieved with the addition of a linear term to eq( 13. y.1) where 0 < m < 1.. 13. This employs Garofalo's exponentialprimary term [7] added to linearsecondary and exponentialtertiary terms in one of the following two forms E. 7).nit )I + ESt + cL[exp ( p t )  (1 3. 13. eq( 13.3a) where y = y ( a ..4. = rvln t where rr=rt(a.6' ( T t ql 3 1 T ) 2 0 ~ ~ ~ (13. is the time at the start of tertiary creep. and t.4a.lb) particularly for the higher temperature range TIT. the constant coefficients and stress exponents in a threecomponent Nutting expression [S]. Good agreement was shown between eq(13. primary creep is better described by a Bailey power law [ 11 E. = E. I ) + E.exp (. Note that E. with reference to Fig. . = cP[ 1 . An alternative to eq(13. where T.* " to .4) are determined empirically for the given aand Tconditions.2) form = l/3..1) appears within Andrade's law [2] as follows since exp(pr )+ 1 as t 0 in primary.. = V 3 .5. When the stress is low a limited amount of logarithmic primary creep is observed E. = at'/?pt + + yt3 (13.. The stress and temperature dependencies of the time coefficients a.4b) where. is is the secondary creep rate.4] extended eq(13. which we shall return in paragraph 13. In the lower range of homologous temperatures TIT. q . r).(t ) have been proposed to describe one or all of these stages within a specfied aand Trange.T). E. is the absolute melt temperature. With increasing time Andrade's Pcomponent of flow appears.I .p and y appeared within the general formulation: &( = C c. with the addition of a tertiary cubic time term for a wider range of aand Tin which the material will fail: E.3b) appears within the GrahamWalles rupture parameter @ =t. As aincreases. q2 = 1 and q3 = 3.3a) and the complete creep curves of many high temperature engineering alloys. respectively.
V ferritic steel is written in the form Much work has been done on the determination of eq( 13. and A. 0 t Figure 13. will depend upon stress and temperature.2 Constant Tcreep curves . Much attention has been paid to developing and validating suitable expressions for these dependencies in a range of high temperature alloys. it follows that the strain function E . often for long periods.(i = 1.and temperaturedependent functions. an inflexion occurs between the primary and secondary stages. 13.4ab).=A.2 Absent Secondary Creep Where a creep curve (Fig. > u2> q > o..2 Secondary Creep Rate The secondary or minimum creep rate. 3) when projecting from short to long service lives. is in Fig. 13. a ) is complex. Numerical proceedures for this have been outlined by Conway [ 1 I]. typically in the region of 30 years [4]. the exponents p and q are also constants that can be found by curvefitting [ 101. secondary and tertiary creep. As the curves display different amounts and rates of primary. t p + A 2 t 4 where 0 < p < 1 and q > 1 are constants and A . Alternatively. For a given u and T.la.CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY 593 13. 13. the following twoterm equation was proposed by de Lacombe [9] to fit the primary and tertiary creep strain regions &. At this point the creep rate is a minimum and it is possible to reproduce this with the omission of the linear term in either of eqs( 13. The rate. is the basis for most creep design.4~) parameters 8.2.1b) does not show a region of secondary creep. 13.1. whilst being independent of time. 13. The form employed [8] to predict the longtime creep deformation in a Cr. are stress.. &.2. = cC( t .2 applies to stress levels a.I Stress Dependence For a constant temperature T the family of creep curves in Fig. Mo.
depends solely upon a For lower stresses the linear law applies ~ .2 Temperature Dependence For a constant stress a a further family of creep curves (see Fig. creep increase. 13.. the widely used Norton power law [ 121 applies e.. k. As the temperature increases the relative proportions of lifetimes expended in secondary rAH and tertiary t.t 0.= A d ’ (13.3) applies to the absolute temperatures T . for common metals and alloys. . dispersoids 10 1 Copper 5.5) where 3 5 n 5 8 is a material constant found from a doublelog plot between e. 13. and a. Table 13. n often becomes dependent upon a An exponential law may then be preferable k.2.1 for TIT.= A exp(Ba) where B is a material constant.1 Values of n and Q (TIT.23% Csteel 36 0. in designing for creep the function is normally restricted to the secondary region where the creep rate E . t 0.56 Ferrite 5 0.6) where C and p are experimentally determined constants. are given in Table 13.... For a medium stress range.594 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES However.5) Material n Q (kcal/mole) 3436 35 150400 4755 62 74 103 143 72 75 1926 66 2531 2136 21 98 T.= AU where A = A(T )... > T2 > T3 > T4.56% Csteel 36 CrV steel 12 NiCr steel 5 Stainless (800 H) 68 Lead 3 Nickel 5 Magnesium 4 Tin 4 Zinc 45 Nimonic (80A) 8 As the stress is increased.5./K 930 810 800 1355 1810 1750 1750 1800 1800 1800 600 1720 1590 505 6802 1589 Aluminium 5 Alalloy 4 A + Al 0. Typical values of n. Garofalo [7] proposed a hyperbolic sine law over the complete range of stress kS=A [sinh ( C a ) l P (13.
Taking the logarithm of eq(13.Q/(RT )] ( 13.= D ~ exp [ . Example 13.= 0.3 Constant u creep curves These trends would become cumbersome if expressed in a single function a.7) and the constant D for secondary creep and so identify the material.15158 = [In (1.CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY 595 0 I Figure 13. the Q values are lower..1. (K).7) leads to In ES=  Q/(RT. At lower temperatures where creep is less dependent upon self diffusion.7) where D is a constant.07. Note that identifying constant load with constant stress implies that the change in section area is negligible up to and during secondary creep.In (3 x 106)]/(3.4 x 320 6.48)103= . = a. K Es. 13. 7).. T. the value for aluminium is Q = 25 kcal/mole and for copper Q = 23 kcal/mole. for some metallics are listed in Table 13.8 x Determine the activation energy Q in eq( 13.25.74 x 310 1.2 !h. R = 1.Q/R= ( I n Es2. at TIT. which may be assumed equal to the energy of selfdiffusion of the metal when TIT.. + In D Hence a plot of In ESversus IIT in Fig.. 290 300 2.Typical values of Q (kcal/mole) and T. The Qvalue may be found experimentally under the given conditions from an ESversus I/Tplot as illustrated in the following example. uniquely is defined by the thermal activation energy necessary for the dislocation recovery processes of climb and cross slip. e. (r.Q/R.7 x 103 hrl 4. A true constant stress test reduces the load to account for loss in section. However.98 caVmole is the characteristic gas constant and Q is the creep activation energy.. the dependence of the secondary creep rate upon temperature kS= ES(T.3.In Es1)/(l/T2I/Tl) .44 x 330 2. .1 The secondary creep rates given were obtained from a series of tensile creep tests at different temperatures all under the same load.g. This gives Arrhenius's diffusion expression for creep [ 131: E .5 x . That is.4 results in a straight line of slope .
eq( 13. when the function A = A ( T ) in eq(13.QI(RT)]) (1 3.2. t ).502 + 46.1) and (13.7) over the whole u range is= D [sinh(Ca)]" exp [.596 .. v + Q I ( R T ) = l n ( 1 .5) is identified 7 with eq( 13. = D o " t mexp [.Q I ( R T ) ] = ( D t " + D ' t ) ( a " e x p [ .98x325. (T. this gives isfor the medium a range is = D a " exp [ Q I(RT)] (1 3.Q I(RT)] + D 'a"t exp [. This gives E. For example.QI(RT)] ( 1 3. A commonly used function for primary creep ~ strain combines eqs( 13.Q I ( R T ) ] (13. lob) .8) Alternatively.73) = . I 1/T Figure 13.9) (b) Primary and Secondary Creep Strain Depending upon the time dependence.03 .1Oa) If both primary and secondary creep are required. This gives E.98 x 15158 = 30012 calImole. D = 243 x 1015 13. = D a" t mexp [. When primary creep strain is negligible the secondary creep strain q is E .6) is identified with eq(13.6. so identifying aluminium or one of its alloys.t. when A = A ( T ) in eq(13.10a). = ~ .2) indicates that a linear time term may be added to eq( 13. = e.534 = 40. with cs given in eq(13.8) or (13.7)..3 Stress and Temperature Dependence (a) Secondary Creep Rate The separate equations describing the stress and temperature dependence of is may be combined in a single function is= (4 ) .9). 5 x10~3)+30012/(1. there are various forms for the general creep strain function E.4 Arrhenius plot Constant D is found from: I n D = I n s .8). : MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES Q = 1.
2t) while for strainhardening E. The differences between eqs( 13. to a2at a constant temperature. 13. the stress is increased from a.1 la) (13. (see eqs 13. Equation (13. With timehardening the new strain rate E< depends upon a2at tl (path 1 . = EJU. a and 0 are time and temperature dependent. eq(l3. result from this. E. (a. Usually the state equations appear with separate function of 0.10b) shows that the stress and temperature dependence remains unaltered for each stage.CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY 597 where D and D‘ are material constants.. The implication is that the history of strain does not inflence Two state equations. For T = constant. = . According to eqs( 13.. = A a” t’” ( 1 3. depends upon a2at (path 1 . c I:: Figure 13. the respective stress dependencies of primary and secondary strains can differ respectively.11b) which are related through the creep strain function E .2s). the activation energy varies with primary creep strain to attain a constant value during secondary deformation [7]. Moreover. = E . = aa+ h a Y and E. the creep strain rate kcis a function of the current stress and temperature [ 141.lOa) describes the primary creep strain as & .depends upon either the elapsed time or the accumulated strain. .. as follows: E.8 . In their general forms these are respectively e..(a. T . strain and time hardening. f ).3 The Equation of State The state equation assumes that for a given creep time or strain. 13. T.11a and b) are illustrated in Fig. T.T.1 2a) . In fact..13.5 Time and strain hardening This shows that after time t . f and E .10).b). =Aa” where A .1 la.5 for a uniaxial stepped stress. E c ) (13. t ) E..
12a) as (13.b) and (13. Relaxation refers to the stress decay following a stepped strain input. and u. are the stress and strain after time t then the net strain is u l E + c.12c) Experiment shows that strain hardening is the more realistic although timehardening may be used reliably for gradual stress changes.12a) is to predict stress relaxation behaviour.1 Relaxation One useful application of the timehardening eq( 13.13b) Experiment has shown that the time fraction eq( 13. are (tJl.14b) Substituting eq(13. for example. If the respective times and strains to fracture under a..13a) ( 13. 13.n ) ] la. This is the opposite effect to creep.''') 0 d" ( 13. cJ2).. the strain input to a bolt on initial tightening. according to the time and strain fraction rules [ 151 ( 13."'] . where strain accumulates following a stepped stress input. the constant is equivalent to the secondary component of the fracture strain.13~) Normally as k = I .3.' = 0 (I/rn)Itml' = .14b) leads to ( I I E ) duldt + m A a " t"'. This is often referred to as the true creep strain which is found to remain constant over a wide range of stress and temperature. eqs(13. Consider.'  I/q.will relax with time it becomes necessary to know when the bolts should be retightened to prevent the stress in them from falling below a critical level. As the initial stress a.{ l / [ ( A E r n ) ( l .14a) 0 (13.13a) is more reliable than a fracture strain criterion.and strainhardening rates follow from eqs (13. shown. tfl) (tf2.1 l a and b) supply the remaining strain and as 4 and lifetime t..598 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES The respective time.15a) t m= ( I / [ A E ( n I)]}[ I / u " . However.1 la.= ( I 3. If oand c.12b) ( 13. creep strain prior to fracture appears implicitly in the MonkmanGrant [ 161 criterion for rupture kstJk =constant (13.= constant Differentiating with respect to time ( 1 / E ) duldt + E.12b) into eq(13.
some creep strain cr may continue to recover so that a negative creep rate applies to time t . However.l/q. the initial tightening stress q. depending upon the aand T.13 x 4 x 106)/(20x 1sx 252)= 13.13 m2. + 1 = 0 U = ..EE. = (0..24 MPa ~ The allowable relaxed stress is a= 2 x a."']/[AE( n ..1 1 b) been used then from eq( 13. What should be the initial tightening stress in the bolts in order that a safety factor of 2 is maintained after loo00 hr of creep relaxation at 455"C? After what time should the bolts be retightened to prevent leakage around the plate? Ignore primary creep but account for elasticity with E = 172 GPa and a secondary creep rate law of the form EC= 44.3 x 10'6a4 ic in h r .44. (1/E) da/ds. (CEI) for The force on the plate is 1 x 0. 3 ~ 1~ ~ = 174920 hr Compare these timehardening solutions with the less reliable strain hardening predictions from eq(13. 2 4 ~ / 3 1 .= l / [ l / d ' .' .24 MPa. .l)]"("') = 1/[1/26.83 MPa Leakage begins when the stress relaxes to its minimum working value a= 13. 8 3 3 ] / ( 31 7 2 I O ' x 4 4 .6a. during the recovery period. 25 mm diameter steel bolts. equispaced around its rigid rim.CREEP AND VISCOELASTICITY 599 Had eq( 13.13 MN. From eq(13. and eq(13.48 MPa.13 = 0.15a).' and o i n MPa. The plastic strain component'E of the initial loading strain is permanent and does not recover. = 3 1.The plate is held in position by twenty. with rn = 1 for secondary creep.23 MPa and t = 725620 h.15b) Example 13.3.286)105]'/3 q.+ C Now as a= a. = 26. is q.2 Recovered and Anelastic Strains Full unloading from within the primary region instantaneously recovers the initial elastic loading strain eE in Fig. Again from eq( 13.for E.' . Hence the minimum working stress in the bolts is given by u .15a) the corresponding time is t = [ l / d ' . 13. = 30. 13.14a).2 In a cylindrical vessel a pressure of 1 MPa acts on a circular cover plate of area 0.2.l)] ~ [ 1 / 1 3 .483 . then C = a .12a) gives the relaxation time t = [(a.A E t ( n .386 .15b) of q.a)/(AEd')I 'Im (1 3.3 x x 172 x lo' x 10000 x 31 ' I 3 = 1/[(5. = 0.
13. 13. t. f r 2 * .2*...16b) where C and T. The total permanent strain remaining after a full recovery period is E"+ e. . t13* etc.6 Recovery of primary creep strain Figure 13. A common interpretation of this behaviour is that the forward creep strain E ..10a).* is the same order as the . within a loadunload sequence (see Fig. rn3* etc.16b) depend upon the material. Taken with (i) the general form for E .16a) At any time r on the forward creep curve the anelastic strain component can be be established from the differ