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A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by
JAYENDRAVEL.S KESAVRAMAN.S LARSEN SAMUEL.S MOHAMED MUZAMIL.B.A MOHAMED SATHIR.M
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
BHARATH INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BHARATH UNIVERSITY CHENNAI-600 073 APRIL-2011
BHARATH UNIVERSITY CHENNAI-600 073
Certified that this project report “DESIGNING OF STEEL PIPE RACK” Is the bonafied work of “JAYENDRAVEL.S (U07CE058), KESAVRAMAN.S (U07CE071), LARSEN SAMUEL.S (U07CE078), MOHAMED MUZAMIL.B.A (U07CE094), MOHAMED SATHIR.M (U07CE096)”
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT, CIVIL ENGINEERING, BHARATH UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI - 600 073.
SUPERVISOR, CIVIL ENGINEERING, BHARATH UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI - 600 073.
We thank our beloved Chancellor Er. J.Sundeep Aanand for his commendable support in the achievement of this project with success.
We thank our Vice Chancellor Dr. K.P.Thooyamani for creating an atmosphere where we can develop our academic skills.
We are privileged to thank our Principal Dr. R.Kari Thangaratnam for the facilities extended to us during this course.
We would like to extend our sincere thanks to our guide Mr.T.P.Meikandaan (Sr.Lecturer) Civil Engineering Department who has given valuable support during the course of our project by clarifying our doubts and guiding with his novel ideas.
We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr.S.Sankaran, Professor and Head of department of civil engineering, Mr.P.Dayakar (Asst.Prof), Mr.P.Sachinantham (Asst.Prof), and and all other staff members for their valuable encouragement and guidance during the tenure.
We extent our thanks to all the non-teaching staff of Civil Engg Dept those who helped us in completing this project successfully.
The Following discussion includes a review of the considerations involved in the design. Failures of pipe support system could potentially impact the health. and structural stability of pipe racks. Structural failures of pipe supports are neither documented nor disseminated to the structural community. The structural design of pipe racks varies widely depending of pipe racks varies sidely. Depending upon the plant operations and the associated plant standards. and safety of plant personnel die to pipe breakage or leaks. For the purposes of this discussion. pipe rack failures could cause serviceability problems for plant operations. such as the main building frame.ABSTRACT It is common to overemphasize the structural design of pipe support structures. rather than focus on Detailing for stability or economics and practical aspects of the steel structure and the foundations. detailing. and pipe support structures are interchangeable. welfare. This is sometimes referred to as over-designing and under-detailing. Sometimes the hanger-type pipe Supports or the trapezes supported by another structure. Optimal solutions are still governed by the judgment of design engineer. the terms pipe racks. are referred to as pipe support structure. 4 . However. pipe supports. since these systems are comprised of secondary elements and rarely impact the structural integrity of any industrial facility. Essential elements for limit states of pipe support systems are often ignored.
3 TERMINOLOGY 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATION 1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 SCOPE 1.4 FOUNDATIONS 1.1 Footing 5 TITLE PAGE NO.5 Piperack Spacing 1.1 GENERAL 188.8.131.52 Width of Piperack 184.108.40.206 Main Cross Beam 220.127.116.11 Intermediate cross beam 1.1 Structure 1.1.2 Portal Frame 1.3. i ii vii viii ix 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 .3 Longitudinal Beam 18.104.22.168 Longitudinal stability 1.3.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO.22.214.171.124.3.
1.4.(X .Direction) 90 Degree 4.4 Final Anchor And Guide Load Check 3.1 Data Collection For Pipe Rack Design 3.1 CONVENTIONAL PIPE RACK 3.(Z .1.2 Wind Load applied in (Z .2 Design Loads Consideration 3.2.2 Non Continuous Pipe Rack 1.3 Load Combinations And Allowable Deflection Of Pipe Rack 3.2.1 PIPE LOAD 4.1 Conventional Pipe Rack 1.Direction) 6 19 19 26 27 28 29 30 .6 Framing Of Continuous/Conventional Piperack 6 7 7 7 8 13 15 15 15 4 LOAD CALCULATION 126.96.36.199.5 Allowable Horizontal And Vertical Deflection 3.5 TYPES OF PIPE RACK 1.(Z .2.2 Longitudinal Beam 1.Direction) 4.1.Direction) 4.5.1 Wind load calculation for the second frame in grid 1&2 .2 WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS AS PER IS 875-3 4.2.3 Modular Pipe Rack 3 4 4 4 4 2 3 LITERATURE REVIEW DESIGN PROCEDURE 188.8.131.52 Wind load calculation for the frame in grid A .1.4 Wind load calculation for the second frame in grid B .
2.2 DESIGN OF COMBINED FOUNDATION "F2" 7.6 Check For Shear 7 41 41 43 44 45 47 50 51 52 54 55 56 58 61 62 .1.1 Longitudinal direction ( Z .1 PEDESTAL MARK 6.4 Load calculations for combined Footing “F1” 7.dir ) 7.1 Longitudinal direction ( Z .1.2 CALCULATION OF Nuz and K 6.1.3 Pressure Along Z .1.5 Design of Strap Beam 7.dir ) 7.Direction 184.108.40.206.Direction 7.5 Design of Strap Beam 7.4 DESIGN OF BOLTS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR AND TENSION 35 5.dir ) 7.1 LOADING 5.5 CALCULATIONS 35 6 DESIGN OF PEDESTAL 6.3 Pressure Along Z .1.6 Check For Shear 7.3 SECTION DESIGN .3 DESIGN FOR COMPRESSION 33 33 34 34 5.2.RATIOS FOR CHART ENTRY 37 37 39 40 7 Design of Combined Foundation 7.1 DESIGN OF COMBINED FOUNDATION "F1" 7.2.4 Load calculations for combined Footing “F2” 7.5 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE 5.dir ) 7.2 DESIGN FOR TENSION 5.2 Transverse direction ( X .2 Transverse direction ( X .1.
8 CONCLUSION REFERENCE 63 64 8 .
1 TITLE OF THE TABLE Load Calculation For Pipe Load PAGE NO.LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. 19 9 . 4.
14 4.12 4.1 TITLE OF THE FIGURE Shows The Pipe Bridge Is Analysed Using A Structural Software Program Staad Pro PAGE NO. 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 32 32 33 33 4.10 4.15 The Nodes Numbers Of The Pipe Rack The Beam Numbers Of The Pipe Rack The Top Plan View Of The Pipe Rack The View Of Pipe Rack Shows The Grid 1 And Grid 2 Of The Pipe Rack The Vertical Pipe Load Of The Pipe Rack The Wind Load Applied On The Grid 1 And 2 The Wind Load Applied In (Z-degree) The Wind Load For The Frame A In (Z-direction) The Wind Load For The Frame B In (Z-direction) Shear Force Diagram At (Z-direction) Shear Force Diagram At (Y-Direction) Bending moment at (Z-direction) Bending moment at (Y-direction) 10 .13 4.9 4.7 4.3 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.8 4.11 4. 4.2 4.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.
Permissible tensile stress in concrete. Area of cress-section of one bar. Flange width of T-beam. Area of compressive steel. Area of concrete core. Width. 11 . Area of web reinforcement. Width of rib. Area of steel or iron core. Area of concrete. Compressive stress at the junction of flange and web. Lever arm.LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVATIONS SYMBOLS A Ab Ac Ae Ak Am Asc Ast Al Asv Aw AФ a ac B b br C c c’ cs c1 Total area of section. Stress in concrete surrounding compressive steel. Area of longitudinal reinforcement (comp. Compressive force. DESCRIPTION Equivalent area of helical reinforcement.) Area of steel (tensile). Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement. Total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs or bent up bars within distance sv. Equivalent area of section. Compressive stress in concrete.
Torsional moment.D d dc ds dt e Depth. Equivalent moment of inertia of section. Moment of inertia. Depth of slab. Coefficient of active earth pressure. Moment of resistance. Effective depth. Circumferential bending moment. Characteristic strength of steel. Eccentricity. Cover to compressive steel. Coefficient of passive earth pressure. Bending moment. Characteristic compressive stress. Compressive steel depth factor (=dc/d). Development length. Neutral axis depth factor (n/d). Height. Length. Radial shear force. F Fr f fck fy H I Ie j Ka Kp k L Ld M Mr Mt Mθ Shear force. Stress (in general). Lever arm factor. Cover to tensile steel. 12 .
Resistance factor (=½cjk). L/B ratio. Average bond stress. Torsional moment. Radius . Total load. Co –ordinate. Shear resistence. Percentage steel. Tensile force . Sum of perimeter of bars. Shear stress (due to bending). Passive earth pressure intensity. standard deviation. Active earth pressure intensity. Depth of critical neutral. cost ratio of steel and concrete . Ultimate load. Active earth pressure.m n nc ∑0 Pa Pp Pu P P’ pa pe pa Q q q’ R r s sa sb T t tc ’ W X Modular ratio. Thickness of wall . Passive earth pressure. Shear stress due to torsion. Compressive stress in compressive steel. Point load . Local bond stress. Reinforcement ratio (Au/bd). Net upward soil pressure. 13 . Tensile stress in steel. Depth of neutral axis. Radius . Spacing of bar .
14 . Unit weight of soil. Direct compressive stress in concrete. coefficient. Diameter of bar. Coefficient of friction. Shear stress. Co-ordinate. Permissible compressive stress in concrete due to bending. Nominal shear stress. Shear stress. Max. Permissible stress in concrete (direct comp). Permissible tensile stress in main reinforcement. Permissible stress in steel in tension. Inclination. Permissible tensile stress in shear reinforcement. Submerged unit weight of soil. Surcharge angle.Z α β γ γ’ σcc σcc’ σcbc σst σst σst σsy μ τc Ф τcmax τv Distance. Yield point compressive stress in steel.
1. Criteria presented herein pertain to loads. 1.2 SCOPE This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the design of piperack in process industry facilities at the sites. Sometimes you will also find the air cooled heat exchangers on the pipe rack.3 TERMINOLOGY Piperack is a structure made of steel.1 GENERAL Pipe rack is the main artery of any plant. allowable stresses. A piperack composes of various element with the following terminology :- 15 . It covers general design philosophy and requirements to be used in the analysis and design of piperack. and superstructure and foundation design. load combinations. This carries the pipes and cable trays (raceways) from one equipment to another equipment within a process unit (called ISBL piperack) or carries the pipe and cable trays from one unit to another unit (called OSBL pipe rack). Air cooler in certain case. Concrete foundation. Electrical or instrument cable tray.CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Piperack comprises of two parts :Steel or concrete structure. concrete or mixed supporting :One or more layers of piping.
3. 1. 1.1.3 Longitudinal Beam The longitudinal beam is a horizontal beam connecting two portal frame in longitudinal direction.3.1. 1.1. Generally. 16 . 220.127.116.11 Main Cross Beam The main cross beam is a horizontal beam connected to two posts to form the portal frame and to support the pipes. 1.1.7 Longitudinal stability Longitudinal stability forms by two consecutive portal frame connected by members which restraint the longitudinal forces.4 Width of Piperack The width of piperack is the distance between the axis of the posts. Their requirement is decided by piping department. intermediate cross beams and post of coolers.18.104.22.168.3.6 Intermediate cross beam The intermediate cross beam is a horizontal cross members supported by longitudinal beams. Especially to transmit the horizontal force to the bracing bay.1.1. They are used to reduce the deflection of small pipes.1 Structure 1.3.5 Piperack Spacing Piperack spacing is the distance between the portal frames. the members are used to support the lateral forces. 1.2 Portal Frame The element of piperack forms by two posts and one or more main cross beams. The intermediate cross beam shall be steel.
4.2 Longitudinal Beam Longitudinal beam is a beam connecting the two consecutive footing in longitudinal direction.1. in the case of pile this is called pipe cap. Longitudinal beam incorporated with the footing.4 FOUNDATIONS 1.1 Footing Footing is a member rest on good ground. 17 .4. 1. - Longitudinal beam rested on the footing.
- Longitudinal beam semi-incorporated with the footing.5 TYPES OF PIPE RACK • • • Continuous Piperack (conventional pipe rack) system Non-continuous Piperack system Modular Piperack 1. 1. should result in lower total installed cost (TIC).5. 1. This system.5.2 Non. Piperacks supporting equipment such as air-cooled heat exchangers must utilize the continuous system approach.3 Modular Pipe rack Building Modules: Structural Frames completely fitted with miscellaneous equipment and architectural finishes. where feasible.1 Conventional / Continuous Pipe rack Continuous Piperack (conventional pipe rack) system: This is essentially a system where multiple 2-dimensional (2D) frame assemblies (commonly called bents).5. 18 .Continuous Pipe rack This is a system comprised of independent cantilevered. freestanding 2D frames not dependent on longitudinal beam struts for system stability. comprised of two or more columns with transverse beams. 1. are tied together in the longitudinal direction utilizing beam struts (for support of transverse pipe and raceway elements and for longitudinal stability of the system) and vertical bracing to form a 3D space frame arrangement.
19 .Piperack Modules: Structural Frames completely fitted with pipes. Cable trays and miscellaneous equipment.
without a clear understanding of the underlying theoretical concepts and the cost implications.January 29. 2008 . Sometimes the hanger-type pipe supports or the trapezes supported by another structure.E. Structural steel pipe supports are extensively utilized in industrial and manufacturing facilities. expansion joint requirements. Richart. such as the main building frame. This is sometimes referred to as "overdesigning" and "under-detailing". Bendapudi. S. diagonal tension and tension in the steel. structure stability concepts and detailing for stability requirements. Part 2 concludes with the continuation of design loads. It is common to overemphasize the structural design of pipe support structures.E. In these tests. Principal attention has been given to the resistance of footings to failure by bond. P. The principal features of the new edition is the discussion of behavior of the steel structures and exemplify details of the design process. Taylor and francis. Publication: Journal Proceedings. are referred to as "pipe support structures. This is the first of a two-part series of articles on the behavior and design of steel support structures for pipes. and an introduction to design loads. rather than focus on detailing for stability or economics and practical aspects of the steel structure and the foundations.CHAPTER – 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Kasi V. major emphasis has been placed on the combined column footing. at times. Lack of uniform industry standards for this topic leads to each organization adopting its own engineering standards. Frank E. 20 . This article discusses the effects of ambient temperature changes..
Electrical. The vendor prints should include the equipment layout. the Engineer should use judgement when applying or allowing for loads that are not known. The following should be reviewed for design information: • • Plot plans and equipment location plans 3D model showing piping layout. comprised of two or more columns with transverse beams.1 Data collection for pipe rack design Due to the “fast track” nature associated with most of the projects. if any. raceway. Control Systems. justifying them in the design basis under "Design Philosophy". Therefore. When received. In the initial design. e. • • Piping orthographic drawings. Piperacks supporting equipment such as air-cooled heat exchangers must utilize the continuous system approach. cable tray layout. as a Civil/Structural Engineer. access 21 .CHAPTER – 3 DESIGN PROCEDURE 3. are tied together in the longitudinal direction utilizing beam struts (for support of transverse pipe and raceway elements and for longitudinal stability of the system) and vertical bracing to form a 3D space frame arrangement. Piperack bent spacing and elevation of support levels in the transverse direction . all design information should be documented for future reference and verification. often the final piping. Vendor prints of equipment located on the rack. Elevation of longitudinal beam struts and locations of vertical bracing.g. mounting locations and details. you should coordinate with the Piping group.1 CONVENTIONAL / CONTINUOUS PIPE RACK Continuous Piperacks (conventional pipe rack) system: This is essentially a system where multiple 2-dimensional (2D) frame assemblies (commonly called bents). 3. and location of pipe bridge. air coolers and exchangers. and Mechanical groups to obtain as much preliminary information as possible.1.. and equipment information is not available at initiation of the piperack design.
p = pipe weight considered (kPa). Please note that. etc. and concentrated loads should also be applied for any anticipated large pipes. Unless specifically explained in the project design criteria. • Electrical and control systems drawings showing the routing and location of electrical and instrumentation raceways and/or supports. 3. use 60% of the design gravity loads as an "all pipes empty" load condition. d = pipe diameter W = pipe concentrated load. When the actual loads and locations become known. no allowance or provisions should be made for future additions for pipe or raceway space and related loading. Where consideration of uplift or system stability due to wind or seismic occurrences is required. A concentrated load should then be added for pipes that are 12 in (300 mm) and larger in diameter. and the magnitude and direction of loads being transmitted to the piperack.0 kPa should be used for preliminary design of piperacks. The concentrated load P should be: P =(W . This assumption should be verified based on coordination with the Piping Group.and maintenance requirements. in the area of the piperack. the structural design should be checked against these assumed initial load parameters and revised as required. Pre-cast concrete) shall be as per project design criteria.s x p x d). duct banks.1. This corresponds to an equivalent load of 6 in (150 mm) lines full of water covered with 2 in (50 mm) thick insulation.2 Design loads consideration Following loads are to be considered for the pipe rack design: Piping Gravity load (D): In the absence of defined piping loads and locations. an assumed minimum uniform pipe load of 2. as the project develops. 22 . • Underground drawings that show the locations of buried pipes.concrete structures and foundations. and spaced on 12 in (300 mm) centers. • Pipe rack construction material (Steel. Cast-in-situ concrete. s = Spacing of piperack bent.
Coordinate the testing plan(s) with Construction.Loading due to hydrostatic testing of lines should be considered in the design if applicable. such as live load. and ladders should be determined in accordance with project approved design code. earthquake. Weight of Equipment on pipe rack (D): Equipment weights. large dia pipes vertical drop (if any) and equipment only. including fireproofing. Because of these considerations. empty.0 kPa should be used for single tier raceways. Wind Load (W): Transverse wind load on structural members. platforms. Live Load (L): Live load (L) on access platforms and walkways and on equipment platforms should be considered. as applicable. The equipment weight should include the dead weight of all associated platforms. electrical trays. Electrical Tray and Conduits (D): Electrical and control systems drawings and/or the project 3D model should be reviewed to determine the approximate weight and location of electrical trays. piping. wind. ladders. and test (if the equipment is to be hydro-tested on the piperack) . 23 . The hydro-test loads do not normally need to be considered concurrently with the other non-permanent loads. Under most normal conditions. expansion loops. should be obtained from the vendor drawings. conduits. operating. and/or the Piping Group as necessary. and walkways. and unusual piping or electrical configurations. The effects of longitudinal wind on piping and trays running parallel to the wind direction should be neglected. and thermal. as applicable. including erection. equipment. Unless the weight of the loaded raceways can be defined. cable tray vertical drop (if any). Self weight of Pipe rack (D): The weight of all structural members. Typical practice is to permit an overstress of 15% for the hydro-test condition. should be considered in the design of the piperack. and instrumentation commodities. multiple lines will not be simultaneously tested. Startup. the hydro-test condition will not normally govern except for very large diameter pipes. Longitudinal wind should typically be applied to structural framing. such aslarge valves. Special Loads: Special consideration should be given to unusual loads. an assumed minimum uniform load of 1. in order to fully understand how such loads will be applied to the piperack structure.
is assumed for piperack design. when anchor and guide loads are not known. use a longitudinal anchor force of 5.5% of the total pipe weight or 30% of any one or more lines known to act simultaneously in the same direction. whichever is larger. Anchor and Guide Loads (Ta): Piperacks should be checked for anchor and guide loads as determined by the Pipe Stress Group. or to anchor most pipes on one braced support. For conventional pipe rack systems. in order to provide for a nominal unbalance of friction forces acting on a pipe support.Friction Loading (Tf): Friction forces caused by hot lines sliding across the pipe support during startup and shutdown are assumed to be partially resisted through friction by nearby cold lines. For initial design.0 kN acting at midspan of each bent transverse beam (refer project design criteria). It may be necessary to use horizontal bracing if large anchor forces are encountered. it is normally preferred to either have the anchors staggered along the piperack so that each support has only one or two anchors. Longitudinal anchors may be located only at anchor bays. Guide loads are usually small and may be ignored until they are defined by the Pipe Stress Engineer. piping may be transversely guided or anchored at both cantilever frames and anchor bays. Friction between piping and supporting steel should not be relied upon to resist wind or seismic loads. LOAD COMB 1 DL+WL(+X) LOAD COMB 2 DL+WL(-X) LOAD COMB 3 DL+WL(+Z) LOAD COMB 4 DL+WL(-Z) LOAD COMB 5 DL+LL LOAD COMB 6 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ LOAD COMB 7 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ LOAD COMB 8 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ LOAD COMB 9 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ 24 . For non-continuous pipe rack systems. Therefore. a resultant longitudinal friction force equal to 7.
********FOUNDATION DESIGN******** LOAD COMB 10 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 11 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 12 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 13 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 14 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 15 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 16 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 17 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 18 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 19 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 20 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 21 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 22 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 23 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 24 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 25 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ-WLZ ********FOR MEMBER DESIGN******** LOAD COMB 26 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 27 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 28 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ+WLZ 25 .
However. applied to the top flange of the beam. Please note the following: • Earthquake load is a factored load. 3. (say ~ 5.3 Load Combinations and allowable deflection of pipe rack You need to create the load combinations per your project design criteria.0 kN). all friction forces and anchor forces with less magnitude. alternatives to be considered. When anchor loads have large magnitude and are applied to the top flange of the beam.1. the effect of torsion must be addressed. may be considered as resisted by the total beam section. 26 . If the beam section is inadequate to take care of this torsional force. I have referred here some load combinations.LOAD COMB 29 DL+LL+FLX+FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 30 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 31 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 32 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 33 DL+LL-FLX-FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 34 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 35 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 36 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 37 DL+LL-FLX+FLZ-WLZ LOAD COMB 38 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ+WLX LOAD COMB 39 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ-WLX LOAD COMB 40 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ+WLZ LOAD COMB 41 DL+LL+FLX-FLZ-WLZ Please note that. such as provide horizontal bracings at the load locations.
Friction loads are considered to be self-relieving during wind and earthquake and should only be combined with anchor and guide loads when wind or earth-quake loads are not considered.4 + Ta D + 0. 7. and buoyancy.• For load combinations that include wind or earthquake loads.3W + Ta D + L + 0.3W + Ta D + E/1. For calculation of foundation soil bearing pressures or pile loads. 0.4 + Ta 27 . the following unfactored load combinations (ACI 318) shall be used: 1. and deflection checks.5SL + 1. 8.3W +Ta D + L + S +0. 2. 3.4 + Ta 10.. D D + L + SL + Tf + Ta D + Tf + Ta D + 1.2S + E/1. friction loads are not combined with wind or seismic loads. 9.e. 4. use only the non- friction portion (anchor and guide portion) of the thermal loads.65W + Ta 0. sliding. 6. i. 5.9De + 1. • Hydrostatic test loads need not be combined with wind and earthquake loads unless there is a reasonable probability of the occurrence of either of these loads during hydrostatic testing. stability checks against overturning.9De + E/1.
4D 1.4Ta 0.6W + 1.6W + 1.9De + 1.0E + 0.2Tf + 1.75 (1. 6.8W + 1.2D + 1.4D + 1.2Tf + 1.75 (1.7S + 1.2D + 1.9De + 1.2Ta 1.4D 1.0E + 1.9De + 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.4Ta) 0.2D + 1.4D + 1.2Ta 0. 3.6S + 0.4Ta) + 1. 2.7L +1.2Ta 0.4Tf +1.5L + 1.6W 1.7S + 1.5S + 1.7L + 1.6S + 0.2Ta 0. 2.2Ta 1.9De + 1. 8.6W + 0. 4.2Ta 1.4D + 1.5S + 1. 7.Load Combinations for design of foundations 1.2Ta De is the minimum dead load on the structure.2Ta 1.7L + 1.0E + 1.7S 1.2D + 0.0E + 1. 1.2D + 1.5L + 0.2Ta 0.4Tf + 1.5L + 0.2Ta Steel Design load combinations 1.2S + 1. 6. 4.4D + 1. 8.2S + 1. 28 . 7. 5. 1. 5. 3.
Piperacks supporting piping and raceway only: h/200 or as per project design criteria.cover plating. transmitted through the beam struts. Vertical bracing in the longitudinal direction should be provided to carry the longitudinal forces. For piperacks with more than one tier. Where such overstress cannot be properly justified. 3. etc. Modifications could entail the addition of horizontal bracing to the transverse beams to resist significant loads from the anchor(s). unless a more stringent requirement is given by the manufacturer of the equipment. to the baseplate / foundation level. an overstress in any element (of up to 10%) can be considered. you can consider the following as limit of deflection:Lateral deflection produced by load combinations that include wind or seismic forces:Piperacks supporting equipment: h/100.). replacing and/or adding members. provided proper justification is given. In the longitudinal direction. and/or relocating the anchor and guide load(s). 3. However.e. Based on the Engineer's experience and judgement.. there should be at least one continuous level of beam struts on each side.1. modifications should be made to the piperack structure in order to bring the stress levels within the normal allowables.4 Final anchor and guide load check Where the design of transverse beams has been based on anchor loads as explained in design load consideration final check of beams (and other affected members) should be made when final definition of these loads is available from the Pipe Stress Engineer.1.Lateral deflection produced by sustained static forces such as pipe and anchor loads: h/200 or as per project design criteriaVertical deflection of beams due to gravity pipe loads:as per project design criteria h is the total height of the pipe rack structure. the beam struts should be located at a level that is usually equal to one-half tier spacing above or below the bottom tier. 29 .3. strengthening members (i.6Framing of continuous/conventional pipe rack Frames Main piperacks are usually designed as moment-resisting frames in the transverse direction.5 Allowable horizontal and vertical deflection Allowable deflections of piperack structures shall be as per project design criteria.1.
consideration should be given to • • load) Central Spine For steel piperacks with spans of more than 6 m. the longitudinal beam struts that support piping or raceway should be designed for 50% of the gravity loading assumed for the transverse pipe or raceway support beams. Longitudinal Beam Strut For typical continuous piperack systems. or field modifications that could otherwise be required due to late receipt of unanticipated large pipe anchor forces. moments. The analysis model must reflect the appropriate beam end conditions. a center spine consisting of a system of horizontal braces and struts located at midspan of each level of piping should be considered. unless unusual loading is encountered. fabrication. Normally. Large pipes that are to be hydro-tested. Additionally. modeled and analyzed as part of the frame system. Anchor and friction load with large magnitude (see step-2. anchor and friction 30 . and also serves to reduce the unbraced length of the beam compression flange in flexure and to reduce the unbraced length of the beam about the weak-axis in axial compression. Transverse beams are generally a moment-resisting frame. This additional light horizontal framing greatly increases the capacity of the transverse pipe support beams to resist friction and anchor forces. This concept reduces the required beam sizes and provides a mechanism for eliminating or minimizing design. the longitudinal beam struts should be designed as axially loaded members that are provided for longitudinal loads and stability. In the design of beams.Transverse Beam Transverse beams must be capable of resisting all forces. the gravity loading carried by the beam struts should not be added to the design loads for the columns or footings since pipes or raceway contributing to the load on the beam struts would be relieving an equivalent load on the transverse beams. and shears produced by the load combinations. This 50% gravity loading will account for the usual piping and raceway take-offs.
The frame analysis model should be based on the following: • • Consider column base as hinge. should be designed to resist the axial loads produced by the longitudinal forces.For any continuous piperack system where the anticipated piping and raceway take-offs are minimal or none. the 50% loading criteria does not apply. the 3D model should be checked to verify that beam struts subjected to unusually large loads (such as at expansion loops) have been given special consideration.A moment-resisting frame analysis should normally be used to determine the axial load. and shears produced by the load combinations. Use 4 bolt connections for safety purpose 31 . or for system stability. Conversely. the maximum distance from the braced bay to a free bay should be limited such that the maximum total longitudinal growth or shrinkage of the unrestrained segment does not exceed 40 mm. In such cases. moments. Design calculations and drawings must reflect a break in the beam strut continuity between adjacent braced sections through the use of slotted connections or by eliminating the beam struts in the bays designated as free bays. If the braced bay is not located equidistant from the free bays. moment. Do not provide beam struts if they are not needed for piping or raceway support. When designing the longitudinal beam struts for flexural loads. the beam struts should be designed primarily as axially loaded members. Unless precluded by equipment arrangement or interferences. bracing should be placed equidistant between two expansion joints. and shear at points along the columns. including connections. the full length of the beam should be considered as the unbraced length for the compression flange. Knee-bracing or K-bracing is most often used for this purpose. Vertical Bracing When moment-resisting frame design is not used in the longitudinal direction. vertical bracing should be used to transmit the longitudinal forces from the beam struts to the foundations. All longitudinal beam struts. Column The columns must be capable of resisting all loads. The maximum length of a braced section should be limited to 48m to 50m.
32 . the distance between the base and the first transverse beam or the knee brace intersection should be considered as the compression flange unbraced length.For design of steel columns subjected to flexural loads.
1 PIPE LOAD Load Calculation for 2".8 372. the loads for the pipes are as tabulated below: Table-4.53 35 77.20 146.50 77. 6".00 1241. 12" & 16" diameter pipe (Pipe weight + Pipe filled with oil) As per the load data obtained from the piping input.47 85 73.CHAPTER – 4 LOAD CALCULATION 4.4 KN/m 33 .67 Total = Weight of water x Nos (Kg/m) 2.00 151.00 Kg/m Weight of water + Weight of Pipe (Kg/m) 10.90 244.50 73.00 12.13 7.33 1241.10 216.80 93.00 240.00 60.87 Total weight (kg/m) 10 120 151 960 461.1 Load Calculation For Pipe Load Weight Weight of Pipe of oil x Nos (Kg/m) (Kg/m) 2.47 42.4 538.2 587.6 702.53 17.00 Pipe Dia (inches) 2" 6" 12" 16" No of Pipes 1 2 1 4 Weight of Pipe (Kg/m) 7.
Fig 4. 34 . Analysed for various load combinations as per code.1 shows the pipe bridge is analysed using a structural software program staad pro. Analysis has been carried out on the structural model considering all loads acting over the structure.
2 The nodes numbers of the pipe rack 35 .Fig 4.
3 The beam numbers of the pipe rack 36 .Fig 4.
4 The top plan view of the pipe rack Fig 4.5 The view of pipe rack 37 .Fig 4.
6 Shows the Grid 1 and Grid 2 of the pipe rack 38 .Fig 4.
Fig 4.7 The vertical pipe load of the pipe rack 39 .
06 Wind Pressure.6864 Effective wind speed.96723669605827 Size effect factor. Sb=1. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp Site wind speed.592125 Site wind speed.4 Terrain and building factor. qs = 0.85kN/sqm 40 . Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp Effective height He=6. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=1 Site wind speed. w=4. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp= 1 Site wind speed.00275 Site wind speed.4.5 Site wind speed.75 Site wind speed. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=1.2 Height of building. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=33. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=1+0.94 Net pressure coefficient (Cp) is shown in the below sections=1 Width of the building. Pe = qs x Cp x Ca=1. h=8 Length of building. qs Dynamic pressure. l=30. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=2. Ve = Vs x Sb=56.2 WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS AS PER IS 875-3 Site wind speed. Ca=0.6497596 Dynamic pressure. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=33.613 x Ve^2=1. Vs = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp=1 Site wind speed.001*ΔS Site wind speed.
80 kN/m 0.8 The wind load applied on the grid 1 and 2 41 .81 kN 0.58 kN 1.Direction) F= force acting in a direction specified Cf = Force coefficient Ae = Effective frontal area Pd = Design wind pressure Wind load applied over column as udl Wind load applied over Beam 1 LVL as udl Wind load applied over Beam 2 & 3 LVL as udl Wind load applied over Bracing as nodal load (1B) Wind load applied over Bracing as nodal load (2B) Wind load for bracing applied as nodal load (2B) = = = = = = 0.2.975 kN/m 0.15 kN 1.1 Wind load calculation for the second frame in grid 1&2 .7 Fig 4.31 kN/m 0.4.(X .
9 The wind load applied in (Z-degree) 42 .2.9 = = 240.Direction) 90 Degree Exposed Area for Column = 0.09 x 3.55 x1 Truss = (0.1015 = = = 7.32 x 8 x 3 Beam (2-3) = 0.67 Sqm = 4.09 x 18.48 Sqm 0.42 Sqm Total Area Solidity Ratio Φ Total Area = Exposed area Cf 1.79*0.4.254 x 18.1*2) 24.22 Sqm Fig 4.2 Wind Load applied in (Z .55 x 1 Tie = 0.06 x 8) + (.68 Sqm 4.71 Sqm 1.09*2*7) + (3.
97 kN 0.(Z .35 Fig 4.89 kN/m 0.35 kN/m 0.4.2.090 kN/m 0.Direction) Wind load applied over column Wind load applied over Beam (1-2) as udl Wind load applied over Tie Wind load applied over Bracing as nodal load Wind load for bracing applied as nodal load @ 2 points Wind load for bracing applied as nodal load for stub kN = = = = = = 1.48 kN 0.3 Wind load calculation for the frame in grid A .10 The wind load for the frame A in (Z-direction) 43 .
48 kN 0.89 kN/m 0.97 kN 0.090 kN/m 0.(Z .4.2.35 kN Fig 4.4 Wind load calculation for the second frame in grid B .Direction) Wind load applied over column Wind load applied over Beam (1-2) as udl Wind load applied over Tie Wind load applied over Bracing as nodal load Wind load for bracing applied as nodal load @ 2 points Wind load for bracing applied as nodal load for stub = = = = = = 1.35 kN/m 0.11 The wind load for the frame B in (Z-direction) 44 .
13 Shear force diagram at (Y-direction) 45 .12 Shear force diagram at (Z-direction) Fig 4.Fig 4.
14 Bending moment at (Z-direction) Fig 4.15 Bending moment at (Y-direction) 46 .Fig 4.
920042667 < 8.008x1000/(625x450) 1.37 8.25fck = = 625 450 = = 360.75 2.0.1 Loading Maximum compression Maximum tension Base Plate details Length L Width B Concrete Grade of concrete fck = 35 11.75 SAFE 47 .CHAPTER – 5 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE 5. = Permissible bearing stress Permissible bond stress in tension modular ratio Bolt data Dia of bolt Φ Total no of bolts N Permissible Axial Stress Permissible shear stress = = = = = = = 27 4 240 160 mm nos N/mm2 N/mm2 Check for compressive stress in concrete Σc= = = P/(LxB) 360.116 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 Ref:.01 KN 187.5 8.67 KN Permissible stress in bending comp.
225/4 3.06193215 mm 5.5.96x1000000)/(150x165) 27.92 KN N/mm2 .38x0.96 165 KNm N/mm2 6M/(bxσbc) (6x3.2 Design for tension Maximum tension No of bolts taking tension Tension per bolt Design moment M = = = = = = Allowable bending stress σbc = treq = = = 187.376625 KN WL/4 70.3 Design for compression Maximum compression P Base pressure = = = 48 360.671 KN 4 70.008 P/A 1.
073 kN 68.30 kN 30.91 kN 27 4 240 160 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm 5.43/4 D n stf tvf Nt Ns = = = = = = = = = = = = 187.27)/(1x165) 21. 5.01970504 mm Provide 30mm thick base plate.43 kN 4 4 56.27 Nmm/mm treq = = = 6M/(bxσbc) (6x12150.Design bending moment M = = wL2/8 12150.5 Calculations Actual tensile stress = T/(n*PI()*D^2/4*0.67 kN 46.8) Only 80% of the bolt area taken on conservative side 49 .67/4 =82.352 kN 82.4 Design of bolts subjected to shear and tension Input : Actual tension in bolts Actual shear in bolts T Fx Fz V Number of bolts resisting tension Number of bolts resisting shear Actual tension/bolt Actual shear/bolt Diameter of bolt Number of bolts provided Permissible tensile stress Permissible shear stress =187.
8) = 351 mm = 351 mm 50 .14*27*0.cal/stf+ tvf.91x1000/(3.8) = 122.8) = 67.3*1000/(2.cal/tvf = = 122. Tb = Embedment length req =Tb/(tbd*PI()*D*0.cal =30.3x1000(3.12.30 kN 35 N/mm2 0.8) Embedment length provided = 56.9 N/mm2 Actual shear stress= V/(n*PI()*D^2/4*0.37*3.8) tvf.4 SAFE Allowable stress ratio = Calculation of embedment length : Grade of concrete Permissible bond stress fck tbd = = = Referring clause 3.5 N/mm2 Combined stress ratio= stf.8.stf.4√fcu N/mm2 2.cal =56.14*27^2/4x0.14/4x20^2x0.4 of BS 8110-1 Tension per bolt.37 N/mm2 = 56.9/(240)+67.93 1.5/(160) 0.
928 600 mm 775 mm 51 . D cover Assuming dia of bar Assuming dia of link fcu fy b' d' b' / B = d' / D = = = = = = = = = = = 40 mm 16 mm 8 mm 35 N/Sqmm 460 N/Sqmm 544 mm 719 mm 0.CHAPTER – 6 DESIGN OF PEDESTAL 6.907 0. B Depth.1 Pedestal Mark B x D Design data Column Size Width.
about width Effective length factor about depth Effective length factor about width Effective length of column about depth. Lex 2*1. Fz = = = 360. M2z Smaller initial end moment.03 kNm 0. M1x = = 123. Fx Force. Lez / B = = 4.80 m 2 2 3.03 kN 68.80 m 1.8 = = = = = = 1. about depth Unsupported length.35 kN Moment about depth Initial end moment.60 m 3.60 m Forces on columns Refer staad output of member end forces Axial load on column. Lex / D Slenderness about width.00 kNm Moment about width Initial end moment.86 kNm 0. N Force.Effective length calculation Unsupported length. M1z = = 82.65 6. Lez 2*1. M2x Smaller initial end moment.00 52 .00 kNm Slenderness check Slenderness about depth.01 kN 46.8 Effective length of column about width.
00 mm 0.7 152311.57 kN 1.022 As Mx / d' >Mz/b' Mx' = Mx + Mz x β x d' / b' = 229.75 kN 1860 Sq 8136.8.45 x fcu x Ac) +(0.22 of BS 8110:Part 1:1997) Co-efficient Beta.Nb) = = = 4068.4 x B x D / 100 Nuz.8 = = = = = 0.2 Calculation of Nuz and K Balance load. K x D x (Lex/D )^2/20000.00 kNm 82.25 x fcu x B x D Assuming ptmin = 0.973455631 171117. K = (Nuz . Asc = 0.00 kNm 123. (0.64 kNm 53 .03 kNm 0.95 x Asc x fy) Reduction factor .1 of BS 8110:Part 1:1997) Additional moments About major axis = aux.86 kNm 0.N)/ (Nuz.00 mm Max = N*aux Mx = M2x + Max About minor axis = auz = K x B x (Lez/B )^2/2000 Maz = N*auz Mz = M2z + Maz Ratio = N / (B x D x Fcu) (As per Table 3.4%. Nb = 0.912 1 Hence K is limited to one K = 1 (As per Cl 3.3. β Mx / d' Mz / b' = = = 0.6.
4. (for each face) Since Limit state stress in reinforcing steel is taken as 0.64 = 0.6. 3.Ratios for chart entry Axial load ratio =Nratio = N / (B x D) For design we have considered Maximum Moment about one axis Mz ratio = Mz' / (B x D^2) d'/D Actual Steel Percentage required.the modification in reinforcement area calculation is taken as below Actual Ast reqd.93 = 0. P(req) Area of Reinforcement required Ast(reqd) Area of Reinfocementrequired Ast reqd.87/0.3 Section design .k = 3768 Sqmm = 3768 Sqmm =1703 Sqmm = 3407 Sqmm = 0. = 1860*0.5.77 Ast provided in each faces 6 -16 + 6 -16 dia bars.80 % = 3720 Sqmm = 1860 Sqmm = 0. 54 .95 Total area of Reinforcement Total area of Reinforcement Provided Provide 6 nos of 6 nos of 20 20 dia bars dia bars Hence o.4.95fy inEquation 1 of cl.87fy in charts as against 0.
6 0.70 -68.75 Pedestal Size lZ lX Pped 0.61 27.04 11.00 0.64 360.775 0.053 -60.01 0 0.00 55.25 kN/m2 1 7 X PEDESTAL MARK Col Mark Z X P (kN) Mx (kNm) Hz (kN) Mz (kNm) Hx (kN) SUM 1 4.CHAPTER – 7 Design of Combined Foundation 7.3 1.3 55 .35 0 0.364 27.2 0 cx2 Cz1 0.6 0.00 x Cz2 2 z cx1 z b wrt 1 0 wrt 1 0 -84.78 11.04 Depth of foundation from the level of point of application of forces dforc 1.1 Design of Combined Foundation "F1" LC 30 Net SBC Factor for inc in BC Joint No SBCnet Fbc 5 106.00 -129.
9113 35.350 m Length of footing Width of footing Depth of footing Calculations Col Mark xcor ycor SUM 1 1. Moments & Horizontal Forces (Myc = My + Myh ) (Mxc = Mx + Mxh ) 56 .97 (Mzh = Hx * dforc ) -78.7689 71.Depth of foundation below ground level (FGL) Depth of foundation below Natural Ground Level (NGL) Unit Weight of soil Projections of Footing (from centreline of column) LHS RHS Bottom Top Cz1 Cz2 Cx1 Cx2 1.925 1 1 2 Axial Load including weight of Pedestal ( Pconc = P + Pped ) Pconc 297 -73.725 5.0789 Moments due to Conc.05 Moment at base of foundation due to Horizontal Forces (Mxh = Hz * dforc ) Mxh Mzh -167.59 371.000 m 0.725 1 1 l b d 7.8943 -88.8576 36.650 m 2.725 1.
364 zcgcor SMx / Pv Eccentricity along Z Dir from CG of Raft ez 1.8943 -88.47 kN 133.7689 1190.d)*(A .3 ∑P m2 297.1 Longitudinal direction ( Z .80 kN CG of load system from bottom left corner of footing Moments due to ∑concS(∑conc Xcor) S(Pconc Zcor) External Moments Moment due to Horizontal Forces 297.9113 35.20 ∑Mz 680.534988 ∑Mzm ∑Mzh 0 71.875 kN Fbase A*d*25 Total Vertical Load Pv SP + Psoil + Fbase 608.8576 36.25 kN/m2 126kN/m2 Total Axial Load inclwt of pedestal (∑Pconc ) Area of foundation ( Provided ) Load due to soil Weight of foundation A Psoil l*b 15.3445 (Psoil+Fbase)*b/2 Total Moment ∑Mx 3430.7772 Horizontal Forces 7.4595 ∑Mxm ∑Mxh 0 2071.Mxc Mzc -168 72 -78.89 0 Moment due to Soil & Raft(Psoil+Fbase)*l/2 311.809 > l/6 ex 1.275 5.4595 kN gs*(df .dir ) ∑Hz -129.1.97 167.S(lx*ly)) 177.634 zcgcor-l/2 1.0789 Gross SBC SBCg= Fbc * SBCnet + gs * dfngl= 125.809 57 .053 ∑Hx 55.
8/15.52/(2*7.811 % Redistributed Pressure ez / l = 0.237 m ex / b 0.118 < b/6 1.8/15.059 m Mx = Pv * ez =608.97/(7.118 0.7.118 0.79 kN/m2 LOC 21.65*2^2) Gross SBC 126 Safe fmax 110.65*2^2) -30.237 0.65^2)-6*71.12 = 71.52 kNm fmax Pv/A + 6*Mx/(b*l^2) + 6*Mz/(l*b^2) = 608.dir ) CG from bottom edge Eccentricity along X Dir from CG of Raft xcgcor SMz / Pv ex ex ycgcor-b/2 0.059 ex / b = From Tengs Chart Coeff (K) = 3.1.8*1.333 ez / l 0.37 kN/m2 < fmin fmin 608.2 Transverse direction ( X .3-6*1101.52/(2*7.97/(7.8*0.65^2)+6*71.81 Mz =Pv * ex =608.97 kNm = 1101.3+6*1101.027 58 .
3x(1-6x0.Max P= KQ/BL =3.3x(1-6x0.8/15.8/15.1.00 kN/m2 =608.8/15.237) 220.02694942934839 X 608.059) 100.3x(1+6x0.57566987 fzmin =Pv/A*(1-6*ABS(ez/l)) fzmin 0.68 kN/m2 7.8/15.Direction Top Bottom fxt fxb 53.4456811 OK fzmax =Pv/A*(1+6*ABS(ez/l)) fzmax 100.65 X 2 = Design Pressure Along Z .Direction 120.Direction fxmax =Pv/A*(1+6*ABS(ex/b)) fxmax 53.68 kN/m2 Pressure Along X .Direction LHS RHS fzl fzr 0.678 kN/m2 =608.3x(1+6x0.90 kN/m2 25.000 kN/m2 Along X .90 kN/m2 fxmin =Pv/A*(1-6*ABS(ex/b)) fxmin 25.059) =608.237) -61.7401143 = 608.804 / 7.3 Pressure Along Z .68 kN/m2 59 .
43 608.053Along Z 243.46 Ok Check For Sliding Restoring Force= Sliding Force 55.M 3262.7689 71.364 Along X 129.398555018 Ok 1.804 Mx Mz O.886989067 Ok 60 .45 Ok 8.9732 Mx Mz Along X Along Z 19.Check For Overturning R.5216 KN 4.M 167.
of Fdn.4 Load calculations for combined Footing “F1” Length of the footing Breadth of the footing Depth of the footing = b= D= 7650 2000 350 mm mm mm Pressure from analysis qmax = 110. of soil filling Total 2. Wt.20 kN/m 40.0 x 0.37 kN/m² qmin = -30.500 kN/m 23.35 x 25 = = = 17.7.79 kN/m² Uniformly distributed load Self wt.1.699 kN/m 61 .
Total downward force 40.7 + 0.817 kN 174.00 311.X Direction ( Designed as cantilever) 62 .345 kN Max B.M= Max S.061 SF Design of Footing .699 x 7.F= 160 180 kNm 152.00 + 0.
16 pmin = 0.5 Maximum Bending Moment Total moment Reinforcement: Factored Bending Moment Eff.16 ptr = 0.90 kN/m2 b= D= d' = f= 1000 1000 350 75 12 mm mm mm mm mm M30 fck = 30 415 N/mm² N/mm² Fe415 fy = ld= 1.95 kN-m Mu = 40.43 kN-m d =350 .12/2 = 269mm Mu/bd² = 40.559 % of Reinforcement required Minimum % of steel required \ Area of steel required Required spacing pt = 0.75 . Dia of bar used Load data: Maximum pressure fmax= 53.43x 10^6/(1000 x 269²) = 0.6 mm²/m 12mm dia bars @ 266 mm c/c 63 . face l = Breadth of the footing Depth of the footing Clear cover to reinf. depth of footing M= M= 26.Basic Data: Concrete grade Steel grade Load factor Section Data: Projection of footing from col.13 Ast = 425.95 kN-m 26.
Fu KN Mu/bd2.5 mm²/m Provided Area of steel 7.71 64 .20 75.00 180. number of dia of bar provided Area of steel provided.29 999.5 Design of Strap Beam Dimensions B= D= fck= fy= 600 750 30 415 mm mm N/mm2 N/mm2 Maximum Bending moment KN-M Factored Bending Moment. As = = = = = = = = 1885.67 4.90 0.18 6 0.1.00 314.00 0.As Provide number of bar dia required Hence.% of reinforcement required Cover Dia of bar Area of cross section of bar Area of steel required . Mu KN-M Effective depth of footing.00 665.00 20. R % of reinforcement required (Refer BS8110-3 1985 Chart no 9 : pg 17) = = = = = = = 160.00 240.Provide 12mm dia bars @ 200 mm c/c Astp = 565.25 0. d Shear Force V KN Factored Shear Force.47 Min .00 270.
1.68 B Allowable Shear Stress Provide shear reinforcement Vu - = 7.6 Check For Shear Factored Shear Force.7.00 Provide 10 mm @ 200.00 = 0.00 mm c/c 65 .370365484 = 0.4852 N/mm2 = 76. tv N/mm2 = 270.42 2 LeggedProvide 10mm bar at = 200. Fu KN Nominal shear stress.
00 0.6 0.86 Depth of foundation from the level of point of application of forces dforce 1.795 -27.00 -96.775 16.2 0 9 2 wrt 1 0 wrt 1 0 -30.26 295.00 -55.25 kN/m2 Factor for inc in BC Fbc Joint No PEDESTAL MARK Col Mark Z X P (kN) Mx (kNm) Hz (kN) Mz (kNm) Hx (kN) SUM 1 4.7.41 -48.25 Pedestal Size lZ lX Pped 0.8 1.6 0.00 0.59 0 0.775 0.55 -28.994 48.35 0 0.86 16.2 Design of Combined Foundation "F2" Load Case Net SBC LC 22 SBCnet 1 11 106.8 Depth of foundation below ground level (FGL) Depth of foundation below Natural Ground Level (NGL) Unit Weight of soil 66 .
85 Gross SBC SBCg= Fbc * SBCnet + gs * dfngl= 134.581 -87.Projections of Footing (from centreline of column) LHS RHS Bottom Top Cz1 Cz2 Cx1 Cx2 0.9 1.9 0.41 312.500 m 0.85 Moments due to Conc.25 l b d 6. Moments& Horizontal Forces(Myc = My + Myh ) (Mxc = Mx + Mxh ) Mxc Mzc -175 -100 -87.581 -87.75 kN/m2 135 kN/m2 67 .25 1.9 1.000 m 2.25 Length of footing Width of footing Depth of footing Calculations : Col Mark xcor ycor SUM 1 0.43 -87.21 Moment at base of foundation due to Horizontal Forces Mxh Mzh -174.4548 -50.350 m 2 5.1 1.1344 -49.1344 -49.25 Axial Load including weight of Pedestal Pconc 299 -13.4548 -50.5892 -100.
349375 0 Total Moment Horizontal Forces Horizontal Forces Horizontal Forces Horizontal Forces ∑Mx 3070.795 -55.d)*(A .1909 ∑(Pconc Zcor) 373.25 kN Psoil gs*(df .419 -55.000 68 .2.500625 ∑Mzm 174.43 kN 131.48 kN CG of load system from bottom left corner of footing Moments due to Pconc External Moments ∑ (Pconc Xcor) ∑Mxm ∑Mxh 1580.1 Longitudinal direction ( Z .994 ∑Mz ∑Hx ∑Hx ∑Hx ∑Hx 821.82 ∑Hz ∑Hz ∑Hz ∑Hz -96.795 Moment due to Horizontal Forces Moment due to Soil & Raft ∑ (Psoil+Fbase)*l/2 1316.∑(lx*ly)) Fbase A*d*25 Total Vertical Load Pv ∑P + Psoil + Fbase 737.dir ) zcgcor Eccentricity along Z Dir from CG of Raft ez SMx / Pv ex 1.164 zcgcor-l/2 > l/6 1.8005 kN m2 307.164 4.994 -96.79 -55.Total Axial Load incl wt of pedestal ( ∑Pconc ) Area of foundation ( Provided ) Load due to soil Weight of foundation ∑P A l*b 15 298.994 -96.5892 ∑Mzh 0 -100.43 548.795 -55.994 -96.04(Psoil+Fbase)*b/2 7.
48*0.dir ) CG from bottom edge Eccentricity along X Dir from CG of Raft ex ez / l 0.194 m xcgcor ∑Mz / Pv ex ycgcor-b/2 b/6 1.43/(6*2.054 ex / b = From Tengs Chart Coeff (K= 69 2.48/15-6*858.114 0.48*1.38/(2.38/(2.417 0.48/15+6*858.5767 .136 0.2 Transverse direction ( X .5^2) Gross SBC 135 Safe fmax 122.5*6^2)+6*100.13 kN/m2 LOC 16.054 m Mx = Pv * ez =737.5^2) -24.136 < ex / b 0.2.194 0.46 kN/m2 < fmin fmin 737.460 % Redistributed Pressure ez / l = 0.5*6^2)-6*100.43/(6*2.43 kNm = 858.7.56794252 2.14 = 100.38 kNm fmax Pv/A + 6*Mx/(b*l^2) + 6*Mz/(l*b^2) = 737.16 Mz =Pv * ex =737.
5/15x(1+6x0.000 kN/m2 Along X .23 kN/m2 fxmin =Pv/A*(1-6*ABS(ex/b)) fxmin 33.2.110 kN/m2 =737.Direction fxmax =Pv/A*(1+6*ABS(ex/b)) fxmax 65.194) 244.054) =737.5/15x(1+6x0.194) fzmin =Pv/A*(1-6*ABS(ez/l)) -48.3 Pressure Along Z .56794251983484 X 737.9190667 =737.23 kN/m2 70 .25375 OK Design Pressure Along Z .10 kN/m2 fxb 65.00 kN/m2 107.5/15x(1-6x0.054) 7.Direction Top Bottom fxt 33.25773333 fzmin 0.Max P= KQ/BL = 2.11 kN/m2 Pressure Along X .48 / 6 X = 126.Direction LHS RHS fzl fzr 0.5/15x(1-6x0.Direction fzmax =Pv/A*(1+6*ABS(ez/l)) fzmax 107.10 kN/m2 =737.
5892 100.13 kN/m² 71 .59 Ok 9.287068734 Ok 3.46 kN/m² qmin = -24.M 2896.85 Mx Mz O.Check For Overturning R.994 Along Z Load calculations for combined Footing Length of the footing Breadth of the footing Depth of the footing Pressure from analysis qmax = 294.795 Along X 96.M 174.18 Ok Check For Sliding Restoring Force= Sliding Force 55.041342763 Ok l= b= D= 6000 2500 350 mm mm mm 122.992 KN 5.23 921.431 Mx Mz Along X Along Z 16.
00 + 0.0 + 0.5 x 0.875 kN/m Total downward force 73. of soil filling Total 73.4 Load calculations for combined Footing “F2” Uniformly distributed load Self wt.680 kN BM 72 .7.113 x 6. of Fdn. Wt.113 kN/m 2.24 kN/m 21.35 x 25 = 51.00 438.113 kN/m 73.2.
Max B.M= Max S.F=
kNm 126.595 kN 149.884
Design of Footing - Z Direction Basic Data: Concrete grade Steel grade Load factor Section Data: Projection of footing from col. face Breadth of the footing Depth of the footing Clear cover to reinf. Dia of bar used M30 Fe415
( Designed as cantilever)
fck = fy = ld=
30 415 1.5
l= b= D= d'= f=
1250 1000 350 75 12
mm mm mm mm mm
Load data: Maximum pressure fmax= 65.23 kN/m2
Maximum Bending Moment Total moment Reinforcement: Factored Bending Moment
50.96 kN-m 50.96 kN-m
Mu = 76.45 kN-m
Eff. depth of footing d =350 - 75 - 12/2 =269mm Mu/bd² = 76.45x 10^6/(1000 x 269²) =1.056 % of Reinforcement required Minimum % of steel required \ Area of steel required Required spacing Provide ptr = 0.31
pmin = 0.13 pt = 0.31 Ast = 821.8 mm²/m 12mm dia bars @ 138 mm c/c
12mm dia bars @125 mm c/c Astp = 904.8 mm²/m
Provided Area of steel
Moment M/bd2 Pt Ast Spacing
=30.52084051 =0.632678663 = = = 0.18 821.8482124 137.5436465 0.31
Shear Vu= Tv= B= Tc= 66.60144501 18.1611 0.270113448 11.40125568 0.40274325 OK
7.2.5 Design of Strap Beam Dimensions B= D= 600 750 mm mm N/mm2 N/mm2 = = = = = = 130.00 195.00 665.00 150.00 225.00 0.73
Fck= 30 fy= 415
Maximum Bending moment KN-M Factored Bending Moment, Mu KN-M Effective depth of footing, d Shear Force V KN Factored Shear Force, Fu KN Mu/bd2, R % of reinforcement required= 0.20 Min .%of reinforcement required Cover
00 314. Fu KN Nominal shear stress.Dia of bar Area of cross section of bar Area of steel required . As = = = = = = 20.2.4852 N/mm2 31.00 76 .47 7.29 812.22 3.56 7.00 mm c/c = = = = = = 225.42 200.58 6 1885.6 Check For Shear Factored Shear Force. number of dia of bar provided Area of steel provided.As Provide number of bar dia required Hence.370365484 0.71 0.00 0. tv N/mm2 B Allowable Shear Stress Provide shear reinforcement Vu 2 Legged Provide 10mm bar at Provide 10 mm @ 200.
Available space in the pipe rack must be considered valuable and used to the utmost advantage of present and future needs. Overall pipe rack design must meet the current needs of a client as well as any expansion plans without making major modifications to existing facilities. In majority of refineries. such elements are installed numerously. The accessories increase the cost of the concrete pipe rack. It is obvious that the use of anchoring rail will make it easy to fix apparatus or secondary frame. 77 . and thus from the construction point of view. therefore it shall be reduced to minimum. it is considered a simple job with no difficulty. As supports of refinery pipes.CHAPTER – 8 CONCLUSION Pipe racks or pipe supports are considered as one of the most important parts in a refinery which need to be constructed with precision. to carry pipes with different size and diameters. pipe rack systems are made of steel.
IS: 456-2000. D. 4.REFERENCE DESIGN BOOKS REFERED 1. fourth revision. Ramachandran(2006). 78 .4th edition. “Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes” (First Revision). IS: 800-2007. tenth edition. Laxmi publications(P)ltd.S.Reinforced concrete structures. Khanna publishers. 2. Sadhu Singh (1990). 3. “Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures” . IS: 875-1987. Krishna Raju (1987).S.Part 3”Wind Loads.Strength of Materials. third revision. 2. IS: 1498-1970. delhi.6th edition. N. “Indian standard code of practice for Unit weights of materials”. IS: 875 Part 1. 5. “Indian standard code of practice for general construction in steel”.pp 189-196. Rajinder kumar jain publications. 3.pp 287. pp238-267. India . CODE BOOKS REFERED 1. India .“ Indian standard code of practice for Plain and Reinforced concrete”.
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