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Training & development

Training & development

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Published by Rohit Chaudhary

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Rohit Chaudhary on May 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Training & Development


Give a man a fish, he will eat it Train a man to fish, he will feed his family


Learning Objective
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Explain learning & principles of learning Define training & Development Determining Training and Development Needs Setting Up a Training and Development System Evaluating Training and Development Lacunas in training


Current job Individuals Immediate Fix skill deficit

Current / Future jobs Individuals or groups Long term Future demands


The process of providing employees with specific skills or correcting deficiencies in their performance.


‡ Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his/her ability to perform on the job.


Theories that have dominated the learning research ‡ Cognitive view: An individual¶s purposes or intentions direct his/her actions. ‡ Environmental perspective: The individual is acted upon & his/her behavior is a function of its external characteristic Recent approach Social-learning theory: It blends both cognitive & environmental theories. As per it learning is a continuous interaction between the individual & the particular social environment in which she/he functions.

Social-learning theory
The influence of models is central to the social-learning view point. Four processes have been found to determine the influence a model would have on an individual: ‡ Attentional processes

‡ Retention processes ‡ Motor reproduction processes

‡ Reinforcement processes


Kolb Experiential Learning Cycle
Concrete Experience

Active Experimentation


Reflective Observation

Abstract Conceptualisation

Principles of learning
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Motivation Knowledge of result Reinforcement Practice Transfer of learning Meaningfulness of material Schedules of learning Learning curve


Learning Curve

Plateau ---------Initial spurt Organization of learning Disorganization of learning End spurt


Training Challenges« 

Who needs training? When is training necessary? What makes training programs effective? What are costs and benefits of computer-based training? How are training outcomes measured?


Training & Development
‡ Stakeholders of training 
Individual  Organization

‡ Purposes of training 
Bridging skill gaps for existing role  Developing new skills / capabilities  As a vehicle for managing change

Partnership Perspective
Cooperate Support Train


Identify Accept Participate


HR Professionals

Assist Communicate Train


Training Process


Sources of Training Needs Assessment


Determining Training and Development Needs
Organization Needs

Job Needs

Person Needs Demographic Needs


Organizational Needs Analysis   


Assess short-and longterm strategic objectives Analyze:  Human resource needs  Training climate  Resources and constraints Clearly state T and D objectives

Job Needs Analysis  

Identify specific skills, knowledge and behavior needed in present or future jobs Use job analysis with competency modeling


Person Needs Analysis  


Identify the gap between current capabilities and those that are necessary or desirable using: Output measures Self-assessed training needs Career planning discussions Attitude surveys

Demographic Needs Analysis  

Determine needs of specific populations of workers May be used to determine if all are given equal access to growth experiences and developmental challenges


Developing Program Content
Affective Outcomes Program Content Cognitive Knowledge


Skill-Based Outcomes

Cognitive Knowledge  

Includes:  Information people have (what they know)  The way people organize information  Strategies for using information Most training addresses what people know.


Training for Skills 

Skills demonstrated by behaviors Learning involves practicing desired behaviors For example:  Technical skills  Motor skills  Communication skills  Leadership Skills


Training for Affective Outcomes
Objective Is to Change  Motivation  Attitudes  Values  Example of Objectives  Build team spirit  Enhance self-confidence self Build emotional intelligence (self(selfawareness, self-management, social self5/28/2011 awareness, relationship management) 

Training & Development
Types of training 

Induction / orientation training On-the-job Off-the-job Functional / Technical training Supervisory / Management Development / Behavioral IT related training Executive Management Education


On the Job Training
‡ Job instruction training ‡ Apprenticeship training ‡ Internships and assistantships ‡ Job rotation and developmental job assignments ‡ Supervisory assistance and mentoring ‡ Coaching

Components of a Developmental Job
‡ Unfamiliar responsibilities ‡ Responsibility for creating change ‡ High levels of responsibility ‡ Boundary-spanning requirements ‡ Dealing with diversity

On-Site, but Not On the Job Training
‡ Programmed instruction on intranet or internet ‡ Videos and CDs
± Interactive video training: Combines programmed instruction with video

‡ Teleconferencing ‡ Corporate Universities and executive education

Off the Job Training
‡ Formal courses ‡ Simulation
± Vestibule method: simulates actual job

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Assessment centers Role-playing Business board games Sensitivity training Outdoor training


Choosing the Program Format
Traditional Formats  On-the-job  On-site, but not on-the-job  Off the job  E-Learning  New technology allows integration of multiple learning methods  Includes teleconferencing, multimedia, computer-based learning 5/28/2011 Can speed communication and cut costs  

Lacunas in training 

Information overload Unrealistic goal Alienation Linkage failure


Balancing Costs and Benefits of Training


Evaluation of Training
‡ Evaluation can be conducted at a number of levels (Kirkpatrick)
± Reaction ± Learning ± Behaviour ± Results


T & D Infrastructure at Indian Oil
‡ An academy company
± 21 training centers including three apex institutions

‡ Three apex institutions
± Corporate Level ‡ IndianOil Institute of Petroleum Management (IIPM) at Gurgaon ± Divisional Level ‡ Indian Oil Management Academy (IMA) at Haldia(Refineries& Pipelines) ‡ Indian Oil Management Center for Learning (IMCL) 5/28/2011 at Mumbai ±(Marketing)

T & D Policy of an Oil Company
‡ Objectives: The objective of Oil¶s T & D policy are to:
± Develop employee skills and competencies and improve performance ± Develop people to take on higher responsibilities ± Reduce the learning time for employees on appointment, transfer or promotion so that they can start being effective in as optimal a time as possible.


Key Elements
‡ Introduction of a formal structure to enhance the role of the SBU Heads and line managers in T & D .
± Training Advisory Committee ± Unit Training Coordinators ± Department Training Coordinators

‡ Introduction of curriculum based training ‡ Line mangers to own responsibility for ensuring that subordinates receive the required training. ‡ More rigorous system for assessing effectiveness of training.


Assessing Effectiveness of Training.
No. 1 2 Level Immediate feedback Learning Output Participants fill feedback form Test scores before and after showing change in KSA Feedback from the sup & changes in on the job behaviour Comparison of process & business results, before & after the training . Time & Responsibility Immediate Course Coordinators/ T & D Immediately prior to and just after the conduct of the training 3 months after the training collated by T & D cell member 3 to 6 months after the training by HODs/ member of T & D cell.






Induction Training
‡ The structure of the induction training is as follows:
± Month 1- Introduction to the E & P business & *** & orientation covering its different operations through classroom lecturers & field visits including an exploration site, drilling site etc., ± Month 2- Classroom based executive Development Program covering basics of mgt, managerial skills, personal effectiveness ± Month 3 ± Classroom based theoretical training on key area of ***¶s operation, covering geology, reservoir engineering, production, drilling financial analysis and decision making

Induction Training
± Month 4- 6- Rotational training to G & R, drilling & production. ± Month 7 onwards- Training in each individuals focus area, including theoretical training as well as on the job training.


Key Elements
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction of e-learning Development of internal trainers Training norms Competency Management Assessment Centers


‡ The T & D process will have the following stages
± Development of an annual training plan & a training calendar ± Assessment of Individual Training needs ± Sanction of the specific programs ± Nomination of individuals ± Evaluation of training effectiveness

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