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FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

IN COMPOUNDING
DR.BHARDWAJ,
DR.SUKANTA,
DR.SATWIKA
FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS IN
COMPOUNDING
• COMPOUNDING & DISPENSING IS CONCERNED
WITH THE PREPARATION OF MEDICINES FROM
BASIC INGREDIENTS IN SMALL QUANTITIES. THE
ACCURATE & ELEGANT COMPOUNDING OF
MEDICINES REQUIRES EXPERTISE IN SEVERAL
FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS WHICH ARE
FOLLOWING :
• 1. WEIGHING, 5. MIXING,
• 2. MEASUREMENT OF LIQUIDS, 6. SIZE REDUCTION,
• 3. DISSOLUTION, 7. SIZE SEPARATION.
• 4. FILTRATION,
FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS IN
COMPOUNDING
• 1. WEIGHING:
• MOST IMPORTANT STEP UPON WHICH SUCCESS OF ALL
THESE OPERATIONS IN PHARMACY DEPENDS.
• PROPER WEIGHING DEPENDS ON A THOROUGH
KNOWLEDGE OF BALANCE, ITS PRINCIPLE, ITS CARE &
PROPER USE.
• DURING COMPOUNDING & DISPENSING OF MEDICINES,
WEIGHING IS CARRIED OUT ON A DISPENSING BALANCE. ALL
OF YOU HAVE BEEN PROVIDED WITH SUCH A BALANCE.
• WHEN THE LOAD IS PLACED ON THE PANS OF THE BALANCE,
THE HORIZONTAL METAL BEAM MOVES AROUND THE
CENTRAL FULCRUM AND DEFLECTION FROM THE
HORIZONTAL IS INDICATED BY THE MOVEMENT OF A
POINTER FIXED IN THE CENTER OF THE BEAM WHICH COMES
IN THE CENTER WHEN THE WEIGHTS IN THE TWO PANS ARE
EQUALLY BALANCED.
WEIGHING IN PHARMACY
• FOLLOWING TECHNIQUE SHOULD BE FOLLOWED WHILE
WEIGHING THE MEDICINAL INGREDIENTS:
• PLACE THE BALANCE IN A WELL LIT AREA FREE FROM DUST
& PLACE IT OVER THE RUBBER OR THE MAKENTOSH SHEET
TO PROTECT THE BALANCE FROM CORROSION,
• ADJUST THE LEVEL OF THE BALANCE
• CLEAN THE BALANCE PANS WITH A DRY DUSTER BEFORE
USE,
• KEEP EQUAL SIZE PIECE OF CLEAN WHITE PAPER IN EACH
PAN & BALANCE THE PANS,
• PLACE THE REQUIRED WEIGHTS ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE
PAN WITH THE HELP OF FORCEPS SO THAT SWEAT, DUST &
GREASE FROM HANDS MAY NOT MAKE THE WEIGHTS
INACCURATE,
• CLOSE THE DRAWER OF THE BALANCE IN ORDER TO
PREVENT SPILLAGE OF INGREDIENTS ON THE WEIGHTS
LYING IN THE DRAWER,
WEIGHING IN PHARMACY
• ADD OR REMOVE THE MEDICAMENT IN THE RIGHT HAND PAN WITH
THE HELP OF THE SPATULA UNTIL THE POINTER RETURNS TO THE
NULL POINT. REMEMBER IN PHARMACY RIGHT HAND PAN IS USED
FOR WEIGHING THE MEDICAMENTS,
• WHEN THE WEIGHING IS COMPLETED PUT THE BALANCE BEAM
AGAIN IN FIXED POSITION,
• TRANSFER THE WEIGHED INGREDIENT IN A CONTAINER OR A PIECE
OF PAPER, AS PER REQUIREMENT,
• RETURN THE WEIGHTS TO THE DRAWER WITH FORCEPS AND
CAREFULLY CLEAN THE BALANCE PAN & THE SPATULA,
• RETURN THE EXCESS LEFT OVER INGREDIENT TO THE STOCK
BOTTLE AFTER CAREFULLY READING ITS NAME ON THE LABEL.
SIMILARLY WEIGH ALL OTHER INGREDEINTS.
• WITH THE DISPENSING BALANCE PROVIDED TO YOU THE MINIMUM
WEIGHABLE QUANTITY IS 100 MG.
MEASUREMENT OF LIQUIDS
2. MEASUREMENT OF LIQUIDS IS GENRALLY DONE WITH THE
HELP OF VARIOUS CYLINDRICAL OR CONICAL MEASURES
PROVIDED TO YOU. BUT THE CONICAL MEASURES ARE
PREFERRED BECAUSE IT IS EASY
- TO FILL THEM WITHOUT SPILLAGE,
- TO DRAIN OUT WHOLE LIQUID,
- TO RINSE OUT THE RESIDUE AFTER DRAINING OUT LIQUIDS
ESPECIALLY, VISCOUS LIQUIDS AND
- ALSO EASY TO CLEAN THEM AS COMPARED TO
CYLINDRICAL MEASURES.

* THE MINIMUM MEASUREABLE QUANTITY IS 1 ml. USING A


10ml. CONICAL MEASURE. UPTO 0.1 ml. LIQUID CAN BE
MEASURED USING A GRADUATED GLASS PIPETTE.
MEASUREMENT OF LIQUIDS
• Measuring technique for conical measures:
• Always use clean & dry measures
• Always choose the smallest measure that will hold the required
volume to be measured. Do not split the volume into two
measurements as this would double the error,
• Check the label of the stock bottle for the correct name of the
liquid to be measured,
• Hold the bottle in the right hand with label in the upper side so
that it is visible during measurement & also to prevent its
spoilage if some liquid trickles down,
• Remove the stopper of the bottle and hold it between the little
finger and palm of the left hand,
• Straighten the conical measure with the graduated side in
front and put it on a flat surface or a tile,
MEASUREMENT OF LIQUIDS
• Carefully pour the liquid into the centre of the conical measure
and not on the side walls and measure out slightly less than
the required volume, let the liquid from the side walls of the
measure fall into the centre, and then adjust the volume in the
conical measure to exactly the required volume. This
precaution is especially important while measuring a viscous
liquids like glycerine or oil.
• Hold the measure at the eye level and read the accurate volume
to be measured with the appropriate graduation on the conical
measure.
• Close the stock bottle,
• Recheck the name and volume measured out,
• Pour the measured liquid into the vessel in which the
preparation is being made & thoroughly rinse the measure into
same vessel.
DISSOLUTION
• IT INVOLVES DISSOLVING SOLIDS IN TO LIQUID TO PREPARE A
SOLUTION.
• IT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW THE SOLUBILITY OF THE
MEDICAMENTS INTO VARIOUS LIQUIDS OR SOLVENTS.
• THE SOLUBILITY OF A LIQUID IN A GIVEN LIQUID CAN BE
INCREASED BY FOLLOWING WAYS:
• - POWDER THE SOLID INTO FINE PARTICLES, THIS INCREASES THE
SURFACE AREA FROM WHICH MOLECULES CAN DIFUSE INTO
LIQUID,
• - BY AGITATING THE SOLUTION IN A CONICAL FLASK WHICH HELPS
RAPID DIPERSION OF THE SOLUTE THROUGHOUT THE LIQUID, AND
• - BY INCREASING THE TEMPERATURE WHICH DECREASES THE
VISCOSITY & INCREASES THE DIFFUSION CO-EFFICIENT AND ALSO
INCREASES THE SOLUBILITY OF MOST OF THE DRUGS.
DISSOLUTION
• TECHNIQUE OF DISSOLUTION:
• GENERALLY A CONICAL FLASK IS SELECTED AS A VESSEL FOR MAKING A
SOLUTION BECAUSE OF FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:
• - THE CONTENTS CAN BE EASILY AGITATED BY SHAKING WITHOUT ANY
SPILLAGE,
• - THE CONTENTS CAN BE READILY HEATED IF DESIRED,
• - THE CONTENTS CAN ALSO BE READILY COOLED UNDER RUNNING TAP
WATER WITHOUT CONTAMINATION.

• FOLLOWING STEPS ARE TAKEN IN DISSOLUTION TECHNIQUE:


• - POWDER THE DRUG IN MORTAR & WEIGH THE REQUIRED QUANTITY OF
THE POWDERED DRUG,
• - PUT THE DRUG WITH THE LITTLE VOLUME OF THE SOLVENT IN THE
CONICAL FLASK AND STIR WITH A GLASS ROD & AGITATE BY SHAKING OR
BY USING A MECHANICAL STIRRER,
• - HEAT THE SOLUTION IF NEEDED AND OBTAIN A CLEAR SOLUTION,
• - BRING THE SOLUTION TO ROOM TEMPERATURE BY COOLING,
• - TRANSFER THE SOLUTION TO A CONICAL MEASURE AND ADD MORE
SOLVENT TO MAKE THE REQUIRED VOLUME OF THE SOLUTION
FILTRATION
• FILTRATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE SOLID PARTICLES ARE
REMOVED FROM LIQUID OR GAS BY PASSING IT THROUGH A
POROUS MEDIUM WHICH RETAINS THE SOLID PARTICLES BUT
ALLOWS THE LIQUID TO PASS.
• THE RATE OF FILTRATION CAN BE INCREASED BY FOLLOWING
WAYS:
• - INCREASING THE SURFACE AREA OF THE FILTER,
• - REDUCING THE VISCOSITY OF THE LIQUID BY HEATING THE
LIQUID,
• - INCREASING THE PRESSURE ACROSS THE FILTERING DEVICE
EITHER BY APPLYING VACCUM BELOW IT OR BY INCREASING THE
PRESSURE OVER THE LIQUID BEING FILTERED,
• BY USING HIGH POROSITY FILTERING MEDIUMS SUCH AS SINTERED
GLASS FILTER OR MEMBRANE FILTERS. GENERALLY A NO.3 FILTER
IS USED FOR SMALL VOLUMES FOR FILTRATION BY GRAVITY AND
NO.4 FILTER FOR LARGE VOLUMES BY VACCUM OR PRESSURE.
• SINTERED GLASS FILTERS ARE MADE FROM BOROSILICATE, VERY
EXPENSIVE, NOT USED IN PHARMACY LAB. OR FOR ROUTINE USE.
FILTRATION
• A HIGH DEGREE OF CLARITY IS REQUIRED IN CASE OF ORAL
SOLUTIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR APPLICATION TO SKIN OR
MUCOUS MEMBRANES OR ULCERATED AREAS.
• IT IS NECESSARY TO ADJUST SOLUTIONS TO VOLUME
THROUGH THE FILTER AS FOLLOWS;
• - WASH THROUGH THE FILTER USING A LITTLE OF THE
VEHICLE AND DISCARD THE WASHINGS,
• - MAKE THE SOLUTION TO VOLUME AND PASS THROUGH
THE FILTER INTO A MEASURING DEVICE,
• RINSE THROUGH THE FILTER WITH THE SUFFICIENT
QUANTITY OF VEHICLE TO MAKE THE FINAL REQUIRED
VOLUME.
MIXING & MIXTURES
• MANY PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS CONSIST OF
HOMOGENOUS MIXTURES OF TWO OR MORE
COMPONENTS & DEPENDING UPON THE COMPONENTS
THE MIXTURES ARE DIVIDED INTO FOUR CLASSES:
• I. MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS,
• II. MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS,
• III. MIXTURES OF SOLIDS,
• IV. MIXTURES OF SEMISOLIDS.
VI. MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS: THESE ARE OF TWO TYPES:
VII. A. HOMOGENOUS MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS CALLED
SOLUTIONS: Contain readily miscible liquids, a mechanical
stirrer or glass rod may be needed to mix them. Sometimes,
an electric stirrer may be needed to mix liquids of high
viscosity.
MIXING & MIXTURES
• B. HETEROGENOUS MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS OR EMULSIONS:
• THESE INVOLVE MIXING OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS WITH THE
HELP OF SUSPENDING AGENTS OR EMULGENTS AND BY LOCAL
MIXING IN WHICH SHEAR IS APPLIED TO THE GLOBULES OF LIQUIDS
IN A MORTAR & PESTLE ON SMALL SCALE.
• II. MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS & SOLIDS: THESE ARE ALSO OF TWO
TYPES:
• A. HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE OR SOLUTIONS: IT INVOLVES SIMPLE
DISSOLUTION OF A SOLUBLE SOLID INTO A LIQUID WHICH MAY BE
ACHIEVED BY SHAKING OR STIRRING.
• B. HETEROGENOUS MIXTURES OR SUSPENSIONS: IN THIS VARIETY
THE DISPENSED SOLID TENDS TO SEPARATE FROM DISPERSION
MEDIUM SO PROPER MIXING IS REQUIRED TO OBTAIN A STABLE
SUSPENSION. THIS IS GENERALLY DONE USING A MORTAR &
PESTLE ON SMALL SCALE.
MIXING & MIXTURES
• III. MIXTURES OF SOLIDS:
• IT INVOLVES HOMOGENOUS MIXING OF SOLIDS IN POWDER STATE WHICH IS
GENERALLY DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE BECAUSE SOLIDS DO NOT MIX READILY
AND ESPECIALY SO WHEN MINUTE QUANTITIES OF ONE SOLID IS TO BE
MIXED WITH THE LARGER QUANTITIES OF OTHERS. THIS IS GENERALLY
DONE IN MORTAR & PESTEL AND FOLLOWING STEPS ARE OBSERVED IN
THE PROCESS:
• - ADD TO THE MORTAR THAT INGREDIENT FIRST WHICH IS PRESENT IN THE
SMALLEST QUANTITY AND POWDER,
• - ADD A QUANTITY OF THE SECOND SOLID THAT WILL APPROXIMATELY
DOUBLE THE BULK OF MEDICAMENTS ALREADY PRESENT IN THE MORTAR,
MIX LIGHTLY TO OBTAIN A POWDER WITHOUT ALLOWING PRESSURE
WHICH MAY CAUSE CAKING OF INGREDIENTS.
• - EVERY ADDITION OF INGREDIENT SHOULD BE SUCH THAT IT DOUBLES THE
QUANTITY ALREADY PRESENT IN THE MORTAR. THIS ASSISTS
HOMOGENOUS MIXING OF SOLIDS. REPEAT THE PROCESS UNTIL ALL THE
SOLIDS HAVE BEEN CONSUMED,
• - SEPARATE THE POWDER FROM THE BASE & SIDES OF THE MORTAR USING
A SPATULA AND TRANSFER IT ON TO A CLEAN PAPER AND PEPARE THE
REQUIED NUMBER OF DOSES BY ACCURATE WEIGHING.
MIXING & MIXTURES
• MIXTURES CONTAINING SEMISOLIDS: IT INVOLVES MIXING A
SOLID AND / OR A LIQUID INTO A BASE CONSISTING OF ONE OR
MORE SEMISOLIDS. FOR EXAMPLE:
• - OINTMENT,
• - PASTE,
• - SUPPOSITORIES.
• THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE IS ADOPTED:
• 1. PREPARE THE BASE OF OINTMENT OR PASTE WHICH MAY
CONTAIN LIQUIDS, SUCH AS LIQUID PARAFFIN, SEMI-SOLIDS SUCH
AS WOOL FAT & SOFT PARAFFIN AND ALSO SOLIDS SUCH AS
CETOSTEARYL ALCOHOL & HARD-PARAFFIN.
• - THE INGREDIENTS ARE MELTED TOGATHER IN A DISH OVER A
WATER BATH AND STIRRED WELL TAKING CARE TO AVOID
OVERHEATING. THIS IS DONE TO OBTAIN A HOMOGENOUS
MIXTRURE.
MIXING & MIXTURES
• MIXTURES CONTAINING SEMISOLIDS:
• 2. INCORPOATE ANY SOLID INGREDIENTS BY FIRST
RUBBING THEM INTO A SMALL QUANTITY OF THE BASE. THE
REST OF THE BASE IS ADDED GRADUALLY AND MIXING
CONTINUED UNTIL THE MEDICAMENTS ARE THOROUGHLY
MIXED.
• 3. INCORPORATE ANY LIQUIDS WITH THE BASE ,
AFTER COOLING IT TO THE ROOM TEMPERATURE. VOLATILE
LIQUIDS AND HEAT LABILE LIQUIDS SHOULD NOT BE ADDED
UNTIL THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BASE IS BELOW 40-C
• THE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS INGREDIENTS ARE GENERALLY
ADDED WITH THE BASE ON LARGE WARM TILE USING A
FLEXIBLE SPATULA OR IN A WARM MORTAR USING PESTLE.
SIZE-REDUCTION
• SIZE REDUCTION OR COMMUNITION: IS THE PROCESS OF
REDUCING DRUGS INTO SMALLER PIECES WHICH MAY BE
COARSE PARTICLES OR FINE POWDERS. THE ADVANTAGES
OF SIZE REDUCTION ARE FOLLOWING:
• 1. PROMOTES MIXING,
• 2. PROMOTES SUSPENDING,
• 3. FACILITATES DISSOLUTION,
• 4. INCREASES RATE OF ABSORPTION FROM GIT,
• 5. YIELDS PREPARATION SUITABLE FOR USE ON MUCUS
MEMBRANES OR SKIN BECAUSE IT PREVENTS GRITTINESS
AND IRRITATION ON APPLICATION.
• ON SMALL SCALE THIS IS ACHIEVED BY THE PROCESSES OF:
• - DRY GRINDING, AND
• - WET GRINDING OR LEVIGATION
SIZE-REDUCTION

• 1. DRY GRINDING: IT INVOLVES BREAKING THE INGREDIENT


IN A MORTAR & PESTLE. SIZE REDUCTION IS DONE BY
COMPRESSION BETWEEN THE FLAT HEAD OF PESTLE AND
BOTTOM OF THE MORTAR AND ATRITION BY SHEARING
ACTION OF THE PESTLE.

• 2. WET GRINDING OR LEVIGATION: THIS INVOLVES


PREPARING AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS. THE INGREDIENTS
ARE MADE INTO PASTE WITH WATER AND GROUND IN
MORTAR. IN CASE OF PREPARATION OF SEMI-SOLID
PREPARATIONS, THE MEDICAMENT IS RUBBED DOWN WITH
THE WARM BASE ON A WARM TILE OR IN WARM MORTAR.
SIZE SEPARATION

• SIZE SEPARATION IS DONE TO SEPARATE PARTCLES


OF THE SPECIALIZED SIZE FROM A MEDICAMENT BY
SIFTING. GENERALLY WIRE MESH SIEVES ARE USED.
• FOR DUSTING POWDERS FINE POWDERS ARE
PASSED THROUGH THE APERTURE OF 180 MICRO-
MILIMETER (NO. 85 SIEVE).
• FOR ORAL POWDERS OR FOR POWDERS FOR
EXTERNAL USE MESH SIZE OF 250 MICRO MILIMETER
OR SIEVE NO. 120 IS USED.
• FOR ABRASIVE TOOTH POWDERS A NO. 60 SIEVE IS
USED.
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• THE CONTAINER CONTAINING THE DISPENSED MEDICINE IS


LABELLED PROVIDING ADEQUATE INFORMATION SO THAT
THE MEDICINE CAN BE TAKEN OR USED PROPERLY. THE
INFORMATION ON THE LABEL SHOULD BE:

• ACCURATE: IT SHOULD BE CHECKED AFTER WRITING &


RECHECKED BEFORE PASTING IT ON THE CONTAINER.

• LEGIBLE

• INTELLIGIBLE & UNAMBIGUOUS,

• ADEQUATE & RELEVANT


LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• I. CAUTIONAY & ADVISORY LABELS:


• 1. FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY: IT SHOULD ALWAYS BE APPLIED TO
ALL PREPARATIONS MEANT FOR EXTERNAL APPLICATION SUCH AS:
• GELS,
• LOTIONS,
• OINTMENTS,
• CREAMS,
• PASTES,
• DUSTING POWDERS,
• GARGLES,
• ANTISEPTIC LOTIONS,
• SKIN PROTECTIVES & EMOLIENTS
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• PREPARATION OF THE LABELS:


• THE LABEL SHOULD PROVIDE FOLLOWING
INFORMATION:
• 1. NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE PATIENT,
• 2. NAME & ADDRESS OF THE SUPPLIER & THE DATE OF
SUPPLY,
3. PRECISE DETAILS REGARDING CONTENTS OF THE
DISPENSED MEDICINE SUCH AS:
• - NAME OF THE MEDICINE,
• - THE STRENGTH OF THE MEDICINE,
• - THE QUANTITY OF THE DISPENSED MEDICINE IS GIVEN IN
WHOLE NUMBER AND ALWAYS PUTTING A ZERO BEFORE
EACH DECIMAL QUANTITY,
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 4. STORAGE CONDITIONS & SHELF LIFE OF THE


PREPARATION IN RELATION TO TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND
HUMIDITY,
• 5. INSTRUCTIONS TO THE PATIENT:
• - DIRECTIONS AND METHOD OF TAKING AND USING THE
MEDICINE AS GIVEN IN THE PRESCRIPTION BY THE
PRESCRIBER. IT IS BETTER TO USE PHRASES SUCH AS ‘TO
BE TAKEN’, ‘TO BE GIVEN’ OR ‘TO BE APPLIED’ INSTEAD OF
TAKE, GIVE OR APPLY. THE DIRECTION WRITTEN ON THE
LABEL OF A DISPENSED MEDICINE SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND
WITHOUT ANY CONFUSION. FOR EXAMPLES
• - SHAKE THE BOTTLE FOR EMULSIONS, SUSPENSIONS AND
AEROSOLS
• - FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY,
• - TAKE WITH WATER,
• - CAUTIONARY OR ADVISORY LABELS
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• CAUTIONARY INSTRUCTIONS:
• 1. NOT TO BE TAKEN OR SWALLOWED: IT HAS TO
BE APPLIED FOR ALL THOSE PREPARATIONS
WHICH ARE MEANT ‘FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY’
BUT NOT TO BE TAKEN ORALLY. FOR EXAMPLE:
• - ‘FOR RECTAL USE ONLY’ FOR RECTAL
PREPARATIONS,
• -’FOR VAGINAL USE ONLY’ FOR VAGINAL
PREPARATIONS,
• - ‘FOR NASAL USE ONLY’ FOR NASAL
PREPARATIONS
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 2. DROWSINESS WARNING:

• PATIENT SHOULD BE WARNED IF THEIR


MEDICAMENT IS LIKELY TO CAUSE DROWSINESS,
DIZZINESS, BLURRED VISION, OR MAY IMPAIR
THEIR ABILITY TO DRIVE OR OPERATE MACHINES
SAFELY AS FOLLOWS:
• ‘ WARNING: MAY CUASE DROWSINESS. IF
AFECTED DO NOT DRIVE, OPERATE MACHINES, OR
SWIM AND AVOID ALCOHOLIC DRINKS’
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 3. POTENTIAL INTERACTION WITH FOOD OR DRINK:


• i- FOR DRUGS IN WHICH EITHER ABSORPTION IS INCREASED
IF TAKEN BEFORE FOOD OR DECREASED IF TAKEN AFTER
FOOD:
• ‘ TO BE TAKEN AN HOUR BEFORE FOOD OR ON EMPTY
STOMACH’
• ii- FOR DRUGS CAUSING GIT IRRITATION OR BETTER
ABSORBED WITH FOOD:
• ‘ TO BE TAKEN WITH OR AFTER FOOD’
• iii. FOR DRUGS SUCH AS ANTIBIOTICS WHERE ABSORPTION
IS SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASED BY THE PRESENCE OF FOOD
& ACID IN STOMACH:
• ‘WARNING: TO BE TAKEN AN HOUR BEFORE FOOD OR ON
EMPTY STOMACH’
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 4. POTENTIAL INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER


MEDICINES OR SUBSTANCES IN THE STOMACH:
• - FOR DRUGS WHICH CHELATE WITH CALCIUM,
MAGNESIUM AND IRON ARE NOT WELL ABSORBED
IN THEIR PRESENCE OR SUBSTANCES
CONTAINING THEM:
• ‘ DO NOT TAKE MILK OR IRON PREPARATIONS
WITH THIS MEDICINE’
• - DRUGS WHOSE ACTIVITY IS REDUCED BY
ASPIRIN:
• ‘ DO NOT TAKE ASPIRIN WHILE TAKING THIS
MEDICNE’
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 5. SPECIAL METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION:


• ‘ TO BE SUCKED OR CHEWED’ FOR LOZENGES OR DRUGS
FOR LOCAL ACTION IN THROAT OR ORAL CAVITY
• ‘ TO BE DISSOLVED UNDER TONGUE NOT TO BE SUCKED OR
SWALLOWED’ FOR SUBLINGUAL ADMINISTRATION,
• ‘DISSOLVE OR MIX WITH WATER BEFORE TAKING’ FOR
POWDERS OR O.R.S OR SOLUBLE GRANULES TO BE
DISPERSED IN WATER BEFORE TAKING,
• ‘TO BE TAKEN WITH PLENTY OF WATER’ FOR DRUGS WHICH
WILL CAUSE GIT IRRITATION UNLESS DILUTED.
• ‘TO BE SWALLOWED WHOLE, NOT TO BE CHEWED OR
CRUSHED’ FOR ENTERIC COATED PREPARATION OR G.I.T.S.
OR HAVING UNPLEASANT TASTE
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

• 6. CAUTIONS IN USE:

• ‘ AVOID EXPOSURE TO DIRECT SUNLIGHT’ FOR


DRUGS CAUSING PHOTO-SENSITIZATION,

• ‘ THE PREPARATION MAY COLOR THE URINE OR


STOOL’ FOR DRUGS CHANGING THE COLOR OF
URINE OR FAECES,

• ‘KEEP AWAY FROM NAKED FLAME’ FOR


INFLAMMABLE SUBSTANCES
LABELLING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES
• 7. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICULAR TYPE OF DOASAGE
FORM:
• FOR CREAMS:
• -‘FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY. STORE IN COOL PLACE’
• FOR EMULSIONS: ‘ SHAKE WELL BEFORE USE’
• FOR GARGLES & MOUTH WASHES:
• -‘NOT TO BE SWALLOWD IN LARGE AMOUNTS’
• FOR LINIMENTS & LOTIONS:
• ‘ FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY’
• ‘SHAKE THE BOTTLE BEFORE USE’
• ‘DO NOT APPLY ON BROKEN SKIN’
• FOR MIXTURES:
• ‘SHAKE THE BOTTLE BEFORE USE’
• ‘TO BE TAKEN AFTER DILUTING WITH WATER’
• FOR OINTMENTS, PASTES, PAINTS,SOLUTIONS:
• ‘ FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY’
LABELLING

THANK YOU !