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Atmosfer adalah lapisan udara yang melingkupi sebuah planet, termasuk Bumi, dari permukaan planet tersebut sampai

jauh di luar angkasa. Udara merupakan kumpulan berbagai macam gas. Komponen Gas Penyusun Atmosfer bumi terdiri dari berbagai komponen gas, komponen gas penyusun atmosfer bumi dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut: Gas Nitrogen Oksigen Argon Karbondioksida Neon Methan Helium Hidrogen Simbol N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne CH4 He H2 Volume 78.08 20.95 0.93 0.035 0.0018 0.00017 0.0005 0.000009

Xenon Xe 0.000004 Atmosfer Bumi terdiri kumpulan berbagai macam gas. Gas penyusun atmosfer Bumi memiliki banyak manfaat untuk kehidupan manusia Nitrogen Merupakan unsur gas yang paling besar prosentasenya di atmosfer. Gas nitrogen sangat dibutuhkan dalam pertumbuhan tanaman. Gas nitrogen sering juga digunakan sebagai bahan dasar industri pupuk Oksigen Oksigen merupakan unsur gas yang sangat diperlukan untuk pernafasan manusia dan mahluk hidup lainnya seperti hewan dan tumbuhan. Komposisi oksigen dalam atmosfer mencapai 21%, oksigen terdapat di perairan terutama perairan laut dangkal dan di daratan sampai batas ketinggian tertentu di atas permukaan air laut, semakin tinggi tempat suatu wilayah dari permukaan air laut, lapisan oksigennya semakin tipis. Karena ada oksigen kita dapat bernafas, menyalakan lilin dan lainnya.

Argon Argon simbolnya Ar, merupakan elemen gas terbesar ke tiga di atmosfer Bumi setelah unsur gas nitrogen dan oksigen. Nama elemen Argon, diambil dari bahasa Yunani Argos yang artinya tidak aktif, karena Argon tidak mudah ber-reaksi dengan elemen lain. Argon digunakan bersama dengan gas Neon dalam industri listrik untuk mengisi lampu neon. Gas Argon berwarna biru. Lampu neon yang diisi dengan Gas Argon lebih hemat listrik dibandingkan lampu listrik biasa.

Gas Neon Karbondioksida (CO2) Karbondioksida merupakan gas tidak berwarna, tidak berbau dan gas asam yang ringan. Karbondioksida disebut juga gas asam karbon, molekulnya terdiri dari 1 atom karbon dan 2 atom oksigen, disimbolkan CO2. Karbondioksida sering disebut udara campuran. Beberapa manfaat Gas Karbondioksida :

Karbondioksida digunakan untuk memproduksi Sodium Carbonat Na2CO3, sodium bikarbonat NaHC03 dan bahan kimia lainnya yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan manusia.

• •

Gas Karbondioksida bersifat tidak mudah terbakar dan dapat melokalisir panas, itu sebabnya digunakan sebagai pengisi tabung pemadam kebakaran. Gas Karbondioksida dibutuhkan dalam pernafasan dan fotosintesis tumbuhan.

Kandungan Karbondioksida dalam jumlah yang banyak di atmosfer dapat menyebabkan polusi udara sehingga menimbulkan gangguan pada pernafasan mahluk hidup, misalnya sesak nafas pada manusia.

Neon Neon adalah gas yang tidak berwarna, tidak berbau dan non reaktif. Neon termasuk gas mulia seperti halnya Gas Helium, Argon, Kripton, Xenon dan Radon. Kegunaan Gas Neon adalah sebagai berikut:
• • • •

Dimanfaatkan untuk lampu neon Kota di malam hari Keperluan iklan Dapat dimanfaatkan untuk indikator tegangan tinggi Dimanfaatkan dalam dunia kedokteran, misalnya untuk membantu melihat hasil rontgen

Methan (CH4) Gas Methan terdiri dari Carbon dan Hidrogen. Methan adalah gas yang tidak berwarna berbau, mudah terbakar dan lebih ringan dari udara. Di beberapa planet seperti Jupiter, Saturnus, Uranus dan Neptunus, methan merupakan komponen besar di dalam atmosfernya. Methan digunakan sebagai bahan bakar karena Gas Alam yang digunakan sebagai bahan bakar mengandung 85% Gas Methan (CH4), 10% Etane (C2H6) dan selebihnya adalah Propane (C3H8), Butane (C4H10), Pantene (C5H2) dan Alkane Helium Helium berasal dari bahasa Yunani Helios, yang artinya Matahari. Helium termasuk gas

mulia, lebih ringan dari udara, sehingga dimanfaatkan untuk pengisi balon gas dan balon udara. Helium juga digunakan untuk bahan bakar yang dapat menggerakan mesin roket.

Hidrogen digunakan pada industri kimia, untuk membuat amonia (NH3), kegunaan amonia antara lain untuk membuat pupuk. Para ahli metalurgi menggunakan hidrogen untuk memisahkan logam murni dengan oksida, contohnya digunakan untuk menghasilkan lembaran tembaga.

Bijih tembaga dan Peleburan tembaga (sumber : www.hardesource.com) Xenon Xenon berasal dari bahasa Yunani, Xenon yang artinya asing. Xenon merupakan gas mulia, tidak berwarna dan tidak berbau, Gas Xenon tidak ber-reaksi dengan elemen lain, sehingga banyak digunakan untuk pekerjaan yang berhubungan dengan lingkungan pada industri kimia dan indusri elektronik.

03. Lapisan Atmosfer

yaitu : • • • • • Troposfer Stratosfer Mesosfer Termosfer Eksosfer 1. Di lapisan ini terjadi berbagai gejala cuaca dan iklim seperti hujan. Badai di pantai . Troposfer Merupakan lapisan atmosfer yang letaknya paling dekat dengan permukaan bumi yaitu 012 Km.Atmosfer bumi terdiri dari beberapa lapisan. badai. arah angin. dan sebagainya.

Lapisan mesosfer melindungi bumi dari meteor dan bendabenda luar angkasa yang menuju ke Bumi. Pada . Batas atas lapisan ini adalah ruang antar planet. merupakan lapisan paling luar dari atmosfer bumi yang menyatu dengan ruang hampa udara di angkasa luar. Mesosfer Merupakan lapisan atmosfer yang berada di atas lapisan stratosfer.50 Km dari permukaan bumi. oleh sebab itu lapisan ini bermuatan listrik. serta berkurangnya daya campur antar gas. Stratosfer Merupakan lapisan atmosfer yang berada pada ketinggian 12 .Arah angin dilihat dari atmosfer 2. energi Matahari yang diserap hanya sedikit sehingga temperatur turun dengan sangat drastis. Pada lapisan ini terdapat proses ionisasi. 5. Ionisasi adalah proses dimana atom yang netral kehilangan sebuah elektron dan dari sebuah elekton akan menjadi elektron negatif. pada ketinggian 50 80 Km dari permukaan bumi. yaitu pada ketinggian 80 km suhunya mencapai . Pada lapisan terjadi penguraian gas menjadi atom-atom sebagai akibat dari radiasi ultra violet dan sinar X.90º C. Pada lapisan ini. Pada lapisan ini terdapat lapisan ozon yang berfungsi sebagai pelindung lapisan troposfer dan lapisan permukaan Bumi dari radiasi sinar ultra violet Matahari 3. Termosfer Merupakan lapisan atmosfer yang berada pada ketinggian 80 – 500 Km dari permukaan bumi. Eksosfer Merupakan lapisan atmosfer yang berada pada ketinggian di atas 500 Km dari permukaan bumi. sehingga lapisan ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk bidang pantul gelombang radio. Di lapisan ini suhu udara mulai naik secara bertahap hingga mencapai 1000º C. 4.

antara lain : * Unsur seperti nitrogen. * Merupakan pelindung bumi dari benda-benda ruang angkasa * Media untuk terjadinya peristiwa cuaca seperti angin. Ada beberapa manfaat lapisan atmosfer bagi kehidupan di permukaan bumi. 04. oksigen dan karbondioksida sangat dibutuhkan oleh mahluk hidup. . Hal ini memungkinkan terlepasnya partikel-partikel netral terhadap pengaruh gravitasi bumi. Mengapa? Karena atmosfer merupakan salah satu pendukung utama kehidupan.lapisan ini molekul udara sudah sangat langka. awan dan hujan * Merupakan pelindung bumi dari radiasi ultraviolet Matahari. Manfaat Lapisan Atmosfer Tanpa atmosfer tidak akan ada kehidupan di permukaan bumi.

Troposfer Lapisan ini berada pada level yang terrendah. suhu udara akan berkurang secara tunak (steady). Atmosfer tidak mempunyai batas mendadak. Diantara stratosfer dan troposfer terdapat lapisan yang disebut lapisan Tropopouse. Dalam lapisan ini. . perubahan suhu yang mendadak. tidak ada batas pasti antara atmosfer dan angkasa luar. Ketinggian yang paling rendah adalah bagian yang paling hangat dari troposfer. dari sekitar 17℃ sampai -52℃. lapisan ini adalah yang paling tipis (kurang lebih 15 kilometer dari permukaan tanah). seperti daerah pegunungan dan dataran tinggi dapat menyebabkan anomali terhadap gradien suhu tersebut. 1.97%). hampir semua jenis cuaca. angin tekanan dan kelembaban yang kita rasakan sehari-hari berlangsung. Atmosfer melindungi kehidupan di bumi dengan menyerap radiasi sinar ultraviolet dari matahari dan mengurangi suhu ekstrem di antara siang dan malam. Biasanya. tetapi sekitar 0. 75% dari atmosfer ada dalam 11 km dari permukaan planet. jika ketinggian bertambah. tetapi agak menipis lambat laun dengan menambah ketinggian. Dibandingkan dengan lapisan atmosfer yang lain. campuran gasnya paling ideal untuk menopang kehidupan di bumi. LAPISAN-LAPISAN BUMI dan PENJELASANNYA Atmosfer Bumi terdiri atas nitrogen (78. dengan sedikit argon (0.0357%). dan gas lainnya.17%) dan oksigen (20. karena permukaan bumi menyerap radiasi panas dari matahari dan menyalurkan panasnya ke udara.II. karbondioksida (variabel. Dalam lapisan ini kehidupan terlindung dari sengatan radiasi yang dipancarkan oleh benda-benda langit lain. Pada permukaan bumi yang tertentu. uap air.9%).

Termosfer Transisi dari mesosfer ke termosfer dimulai pada ketinggian sekitar 81 km. karena bertambahnya lapisan dengan konsentrasi ozon yang bertambah. Pada lapisan ini angin yang sangat kencang terjadi dengan pola aliran yang tertentu. Awan tinggi jenis cirrus kadang-kadang terjadi di lapisan paling bawah. yaitu kurang lebih 81 km diatas permukaan bumi. Pada lapisan ini. 5.Mesosfer Kurang lebih 25 mil atau 40km diatas permukaan bumi terdapat lapisan transisi menuju lapisan mesosfer.2. pola suhunya berubah menjadi semakin bertambah semakin naik. 4. Lapisan ozon ini menyerap radiasi sinar ultra ungu. Dinamai termosfer karena terjadi kenaikan temperatur yang cukup tinggi pada lapisan ini yaitu sekitar 1982oC. Dari bagian tengah stratosfer keatas. yang terbentuk dari kristal es. namun tidak ada pola cuaca yang signifikan yang terjadi pada lapisan ini. Lapisan stratopause memisahkan stratosfer dengan lapisan berikutnya. sampai menjadi sekitar – 143oC di dekat bagian atas dari lapisan ini. Suhu serendah ini memungkinkan terjadi awan noctilucent. lapisan ini berguna untuk membantu memancarkan gelombang radio jarak jauh. 3. Radiasi ini menyebabkan reaksi kimia sehingga membentuk lapisan bermuatan listrik yang dikenal dengan nama ionosfer. suhu kembali turun ketika ketinggian bertambah. Perubahan ini terjadi karena serapan radiasi sinar ultra ungu.Stratosfer Perubahan secara bertahap dari troposfer ke stratosfer dimulai dari ketinggian sekitar 11 km. Suhu di lapisan stratosfer yang paling bawah relatif stabil dan sangat dingin yaitu – 70oF atau sekitar – 57oC. Suhu pada lapisan ini bisa mencapai sekitar 18oC pada ketinggian sekitar 40 km.Eksosfer . yang dapat memantulkan gelombang radio. Sebelum munculnya era satelit. Fenomena aurora yang dikenal juga dengan cahaya utara atau cahaya selatan terjadi disini.

Cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan tersebut juga disebut sebagai cahaya Zodiakal .Adanya refleksi cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan oleh partikel debu meteoritik.

Troposphere From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. search .

. From Earth's surface to the top of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius. The layers are to scale.Earth atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers.

Atmospheric circulation shown with three large cells.3 Temperature . The border between the troposphere and stratosphere. is a temperature inversion. and indistinct in winter. where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow.3 mi) in summer. up to 20 km (12 mi). It contains approximately 75 percent of the atmosphere's mass and 99 percent of its water vapor and aerosols.[1] The word troposphere derives from the Greek: tropos for "turning" or "mixing. is the planetary boundary layer.View of Earth's troposphere from an airplane.1 Composition o 1.[1] Contents [hide] • 1 Pressure and temperature structure o 1. Most of the phenomena we associate with day-to-day weather occur in the troposphere. This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1. called the tropopause. at 7 km (4. The lowest part of the troposphere. The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km (11 mi) in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropical regions." reflecting the fact that turbulent mixing plays an important role in the troposphere's structure and behavior. and shallower near the poles.2 Pressure o 1.2 mi) deep depending on the landform and time of day. The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.

Thus the proportion of water vapor is normally greatest near the surface and decreases with height. This is because the atmosphere is very nearly in hydrostatic equilibrium. as discussed in the next section. with the notable exception of water vapor. one needs a second equation to determine the pressure as a function of height. and saturation vapor pressure decreases strongly as temperature drops. so that the pressure is equal to the weight of air above a given point. Furthermore the temperature of the troposphere decreases with height. [edit] Temperature Main article: Lapse rate . The source of water vapor is at the surface through the processes of evaporation and transpiration. so the amount of water vapor that can exist in the atmosphere decreases strongly with height. [edit] Pressure The pressure of the atmosphere is maximum at sea level and decreases with higher altitude.4 Tropopause 2 References 3 External links [edit] Pressure and temperature structure [edit] Composition The chemical composition of the troposphere is essentially uniform. The change in pressure with height therefore can be equated to the density with this hydrostatic equation:[2] where: • • • • • • • gn stands for the standard gravity ρ stands for density z stands for height p stands for pressure R stands for the gas constant T stands for temperature in kelvins m stands for the molar mass Since temperature in principle also depends on altitude.• • o 1.

it loses energy. but generally it does not gain heat in exchange from its environment. In this case. will be true for a sinking parcel of air. and so its temperature decreases. we can proceed further.The temperature of the troposphere generally decreases as altitude increases. because the pressure is lower at higher altitudes. The adiabatic equation for an ideal gas is [3] where γ is the heat capacity ratio (γ=7/5. is called the lapse rate. More generally. If the air is at the saturated vapor pressure. dT / dz) is not usually equal to the adiabatic lapse rate (or correspondingly. because its thermal conductivity is low (such a process is called adiabatic). The rate at which the temperature decreases. then when the . the upper air is cooler than predicted by the adiabatic lapse rate.) [1] Since the heat exchanged dQ is related to the entropy change dS by dQ=T dS. Since the parcel does work and gains no heat. it expands. Combining with the equation for the pressure. the actual rate at which the temperature drops with altitude is called the environmental lapse rate. for air). then when a parcel of air rises and expands. the equation governing the temperature as a function of height for a thoroughly mixed atmosphere is where S is the entropy. − dT / dz. then the rate at which temperature drops with height is called the saturated adiabatic lapse rate.5 °C for every 1 km (1000 meters) increase in height. so it sinks back to its original height. As the air parcel expands. If the upper air is warmer than predicted by the adiabatic lapse rate (dS / dz > 0). one arrives at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. The rate at which temperature decreases with height under such conditions is called the adiabatic lapse rate. which is approximately an ideal gas. it pushes on the air around it. In the troposphere. doing work. [1] The environmental lapse rate (the actual rate at which temperature drops with height. and the behavior is no longer that of an ideal gas.[4] If the air contains water vapor. If. and the air is stable against being lifted. the air parcel is denser than its surroundings. For dry air. The reason for this decrease is as follows. the average environmental lapse rate is a drop of about 6. ). (The reverse. When a parcel of air rises. of course. then cooling of the air can cause the water to condense. on the contrary. it will arrive at the new height at a lower temperature than its surroundings.

the troposphere is thinner and the temperature only decreases to -45°C. In the troposphere. the tropopause is an inversion layer. At the poles.[1][2] Temperatures decrease at middle latitudes from an average of 15°C at sea level to about -55°C at the beginning of the tropopause. Measuring the temperature change with height through the troposphere and the stratosphere identifies the location of the tropopause. The region of the atmosphere where the lapse rate changes from positive (in the troposphere) to negative (in the stratosphere).org/wiki/Troposphere . and there is little mixing between the two layers of the atmosphere. In the stratosphere. and will continue to accelerate upward.[1] Thus.air parcel rises to its new height it will have a higher temperature and a lower density than its surroundings. however. is defined as the tropopause. while at the equator the temperature at the top of the troposphere can reach -75°C. the temperature remains constant for a while and then increases with altitude.wikipedia. http://en. temperature decreases with altitude.[citation needed] [edit] Tropopause Main article: Tropopause The tropopause is the boundary region between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

The troposphere is denser than the layers of the atmosphere above it (because of the weight compressing it). and gives rise to much of the weather which we experience.html . Temperature inversions limit or prevent the vertical mixing of air. The troposphere is bounded above by the tropopause. It is primarily composed of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) with only small concentrations of other trace gases. Hill walkers know that it will be several degrees cooler on the top of a mountain than in the valley below. a region of stable temperature.uk/eae/atmosphere/older/troposphere. In fact air molecules can travel to the top of the troposphere and back down again in a just a few days. The troposphere is the layer where most of the world's weather takes place. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere. The troposphere is capped by the tropopause. Although variations do occur. Air temperature then begins to rise in the stratosphere. temperature usually declines with increasing altitude in the troposphere. Since temperature decreases with altitude in the troposphere.ac. being less dense than the colder air above it. It ranges in thickness from 8km at the poles to 16km over the equator. Nearly all atmospheric water vapour or moisture is found in the troposphere. including towering cumulonimbus thunderclouds. Such vertical movement or convection of air generates clouds and ultimately rain from the moisture within the air. http://www. Sometimes the temperature does not decrease with height in the troposphere.ace.Troposphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere is called the troposphere. and consequently most weather phenomena. a boundary marked by stable temperatures. are confined to the troposphere. and it contains up to 75% of the mass of the atmosphere. Such a temperature increase prevents much air convection beyond the tropopause. warm air near the surface of the Earth can readily rise. but increases.mmu. Such atmospheric stability can lead to air pollution episodes with air pollutants emitted at ground level becoming trapped underneath the temperature inversion. Such a situation is known as a temperature inversion.

and certain paints may be damaged by exposure to ozone. nausea. In the troposphere. A hot. Ozone is released naturally in the troposphere by plants and soil. it would require so . if it did. bronchitis. and. Some elastic materials can become brittle and crack (take a look at old rubber bands!). more automobiles. summer months (from May through September). In urban areas in the Northern Hemisphere. pollution alerts are issued telling people with breathing problems to take extra precautions or to remain indoors. the vehicle necessary to transport such enormous amounts of ozone into the stratosphere does not exist. while paints and fabric dyes may fade more quickly. headaches and chest congestion. and emphysema.Ozone in the Troposphere Did you know that ozone is found in two different layers of the atmosphere? You may have heard of the ozone hole problem . But ozone is also found in the troposphere. So why can't we take all of this "bad" ozone and blast it up into the stratosphere where ozone is wanted? Unfortunately.that is a lack of ozone in the stratosphere (the 2nd layer of the Earth's atomsphere). the amount of ozone near the Earth's surface has more than doubled. When ozone pollution reaches high levels. impair an athlete's performance. the sunlight's intensity decreases and ground level ozone begins to decrease again. Typically. It can even worsen heart disease. create more frequent attacks for individuals with asthma. animals or the environment. Ozone peaks in urban areas during late afternoons. sunny. In early evening. Rubber. coughing. cause eye irritation. the first layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. Click on image for full size (23K) Courtesy of UCAR Ozone that increases because of certain human activities does become a problem at ground level and this is what we think of as 'bad' ozone. fibers. chest pain. and more industry (power plants and refineries in particular). sunny. after the Sun has had time to react fully with the exhaust fumes from the morning rush hours. high ozone levels usually occur during the warm. ozone levels reach their peak in mid to late afternoon. Since 1900. That's no fun! Smog can damage lung tissues. With increasing populations. ozone is NOT wanted! It can actually do a lot of damage. still day is the perfect environment for ozone pollution production. These are such small amounts that they are not harmful to the health of humans. there's more ozone in the lower atmosphere.

ucar.windows. walking to school or work. We can turn to simpler solutions though. and maybe even buying a new hybrid car!? http://www.html .much fuel that the resulting pollution might undo any positive effect. That means choosing to take public transportation instead of all driving separate cars.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/ozone_tropo. decreasing the production of those chemicals that create ozone in the troposphere.

. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. see Stratosphere (disambiguation).Stratosphere From Wikipedia. search For other uses.

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the stratosphere begins at lower altitudes near the poles due to the lower ground temperature. the tropopause. Within this layer. while at the poles it starts at about 8 km (5 miles) altitude. temperature increases as altitude increases (see temperature inversion). This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface. is marked by where this inversion begins.Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. just slightly below the freezing point of water. (click to enlarge) The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere. just above the troposphere.6°F).The major reason for the temperature increase with altitude is that most of the ozone (O3) is contained in the . The base of the stratosphere occurs where heating by conduction from above and heating by convection from below (through the troposphere) balance out. which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down. with warmer layers above and cooler layers below. The word stratosphere is from the Greek meaning 'stratified layer'and sphaira meaning ball. which in terms of atmospheric thermodynamics is the equilibrium level. The stratosphere is situated between about 10 km (6 miles) and 50 km (31 miles) altitude above the surface at moderate latitudes. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Temperature 2 Aircraft flight 3 Circulation and mixing 4 Life 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit] Temperature The stratosphere is layered in temperature because it is heated from above by absorption of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. It is stratified in temperature. makes the stratosphere dynamically stable: there is no regular convection and associated turbulence in this part of the atmosphere. The heating is caused by an ozone layer that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation. heating the upper layers of the stratosphere. the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 K (−3°C or 29. The border of the troposphere and stratosphere. above which temperature again decreases with height.[1] This top is called the stratopause. and below the mesosphere. The vertical stratification. The layers are to scale: from Earth's surface to the top of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius. with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. hence.

sudden stratospheric warmings can often be observed which are caused by the absorption of Rossby waves in the stratosphere.447m (50. mostly thanks to the low temperatures encountered near the tropopause. (June 2009) The stratosphere is a region of intense interactions among radiative.[2] They do this to optimize jet engine fuel burn. in the lower reaches of the stratosphere. making it a part of the biosphere. [edit] Aircraft flight Commercial airliners typically cruise at altitudes of 9–12 km in temperate latitudes. [edit] Life Bacterial life survives in the stratosphere. dynamical. It also allows them to stay above any hard weather. Most high altitude flights by gliders use lee waves from mountain ranges and were used to set the current record of 15.org/wiki/Stratosphere . Although a few gliders have achieved great altitudes in the powerful thermals in thunderstorms.671 feet). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The QBO induces a secondary circulation that is important for the global stratospheric transport of tracers such as ozone or water vapor.[3] http://en.stratosphere. and avoid atmospheric turbulence from the convection in the troposphere. Turbulence experienced in the cruise phase of flight is often caused by convective overshoot from the troposphere below. An interesting feature of stratospheric circulation is the quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the tropical latitudes. this is dangerous. High energy ultraviolet light interacts with ozone to cause the temperature increase. in which horizontal mixing of gaseous components proceeds much more rapidly than vertical mixing. which is driven by gravity waves that are convectively generated in the troposphere. and chemical processes. [edit] Circulation and mixing This section does not cite any references or sources.wikipedia. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. In northern hemispheric winter.

Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. Dobson. The "Dobson unit". is named in his honor. M. who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground.1 Regulation 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links [edit] Origin of ozone . Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Origin of ozone 2 Ultraviolet light and ozone 3 Distribution of ozone in the stratosphere 4 Ozone depletion o 4. B.[2] The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson.[1] Over 91% of the ozone in Earth's atmosphere is present here. a convenient measure of the total amount of ozone in a column overhead.[1] It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 10 km to 50 km above Earth. This layer absorbs 93-99% of the sun's high frequency to be used for argiculture ultraviolet light. Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations which continues to operate today. though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. which is potentially damaging to life on earth.Ozone layer From Wikipedia. search The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of grass and cows (O3).

The ozone molecule is also unstable (although.000 to 164. a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle. long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an atom of atomic oxygen. where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. based on its .000 feet) above Earth's surface. Although the concentration of the ozone in the ozone layer is very small. it would be only a few millimeters thick. O3. UV radiation is divided into three categories. Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2). the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level. it is vitally important to life because it absorbs biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the Sun. thus creating an ozone layer in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 km. the region from about 10 to 50 km (32. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen). [edit] Ultraviolet light and ozone Levels of ozone at various altitudes and blocking of ultraviolet radiation.Ozone-oxygen cycle in the ozone layer. in the stratosphere. The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930.

UV-B energy levels at several altitudes. and the lowest in the autumn. being in general thicker during the spring and thinner during the autumn in the northern hemisphere. The same argument would lead one to expect the highest ozone levels in the summer and the lowest in the winter. some UV-B reaches the surface. known as the Brewer-Dobson circulation. the ozone layer actually increases in depth. The reasons for this latitude and seasonal dependence are complicated. involving atmospheric circulation patterns as well as solar intensity. Red line shows surface energy level with 10% decrease in ozone [edit] Distribution of ozone in the stratosphere The thickness of the ozone layer—that is. the intensity at the top of the atmosphere is 350 billion times stronger than at the Earth's surface. resulting in problems such as skin cancer. excessive exposure can also cause genetic damage. UV-B radiation can be harmful to the skin and is the main cause of sunburn. these are referred to as UV-A (400-315 nm). being in general smaller near the equator and larger towards the poles. Blue line shows DNA sensitivity. Most UV-A reaches the surface. and UVC (280-100 nm). During winter. UV-C. not summer. It also varies with season. While most of the ozone is indeed created over the tropics. and the highest levels are found in the spring. The ozone layer is very effective at screening out UV-B. for radiation with a wavelength of 290 nm. the stratospheric circulation then transports it poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere of the high latitudes. However in the southern hemisphere. This puzzle is explained by the prevailing stratospheric wind patterns. UV-B (315-280 nm). which would be very harmful to humans. Nevertheless. Since stratospheric ozone is produced by solar UV radiation. The observed behavior is very different: most of the ozone is found in the mid-to-high latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. owing to the ozone hole .wavelength. is entirely screened out by ozone at around 35 km altitude. although it can potentially cause genetic damage. this radiation is significantly less harmful. the total amount of ozone in a column overhead —varies by a large factor worldwide. not winter in the northern hemisphere. one might expect to find the highest ozone levels over the tropics and the lowest over polar regions.

Meanwhile. the highest amounts of column ozone anywhere in the world are found over the Arctic region during the northern spring period of March and April. Ozone amounts over the continental United States (25°N to 49°N) are highest in the northern spring (April and May). Brewer-Dobson circulation in the ozone layer. As this air slowly rises in the tropics.1 m) per day). The high ozone concentrations at high latitudes are due to the accumulation of ozone at lower altitudes. These ozone amounts fall over the course of the summer to their lowest amounts in October. The Brewer-Dobson circulation moves very slowly. In addition. where the lowest amounts of column ozone occur in the southern spring (September-October). the lowest amounts of column ozone found anywhere in the world are over the Antarctic in the southern spring period of September and October. the overall column amounts are greater in the northern hemisphere high latitudes than in the southern hemisphere high latitudes. owing to the ozone hole phenomenon. . The ozone layer is higher in altitude in the tropics. ozone is produced by the overhead sun which photolyzes oxygen molecules. The amounts then decrease over the course of the northern summer. Again. However. Even though ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere is produced at a very slow rate.000 ft) to 20 km is about 4–5 months (about 30 feet (9. the lifting circulation is so slow that ozone can build up to relatively high levels by the time it reaches 26 km. wind transport of ozone is principally responsible for the seasonal evolution of these higher latitude ozone patterns.phenomenon. The time needed to lift an air parcel from the tropical tropopause near 16 km (50. The total column amount of ozone generally increases as we move from the tropics to higher latitudes in both hemispheres. especially in the polar regions. the lowest amounts of column ozone anywhere in the world are found over the Antarctic in the southern spring period of September and October. This altitude variation of ozone results from the slow circulation that lifts the ozone-poor air out of the troposphere into the stratosphere. while the highest amounts of column ozone over the Arctic occur in the northern spring (March-April). and then rise again over the course of the winter. it carries the ozone-rich air from the tropical middle stratosphere to the midand-high latitudes lower stratosphere. the opposite is true over the Antarctic. and lower in altitude in the extratropics. Indeed. As this slow circulation bends towards the midlatitudes.

.[3] These highly stable compounds are capable of surviving the rise to the stratosphere. CFC production was sharply limited beginning in 1987 and phased out completely by 1996. where Cl and Br radicals are liberated by the action of ultraviolet light. While there are natural sources for all of these species.S. Consequently. atomic chlorine (Cl). hydroxyl (OH). over the northern hemisphere. Over approximately 5% of the Earth's surface. Canada and Norway. these are the ozone holes. The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts. enacted bans on CFC-containing aerosol sprays that are thought to damage the ozone layer. around the north and south poles. nitrous oxide (N2O) was the largest ozone-depleting substance emitted through human activities.000 ozone molecules. In the U. chlorofluorocarbons continued to be used in other applications. nitrous oxide (N2O). such as refrigeration and industrial cleaning. the United States.[edit] Ozone depletion Main article: Ozone depletion NASA projections of stratospheric ozone concentrations if chlorofluorocarbons had not been banned. [4] [edit] Regulation In 1978. The breakdown of ozone in the stratosphere results in the ozone molecules being unable to absorb ultraviolet radiation.. the concentrations of chlorine and bromine have increased markedly in recent years due to the release of large quantities of manmade organohalogen compounds. have been dropping by 4% per decade. After negotiation of an international treaty (the Montreal Protocol). [citation needed] Ozone levels. including nitric oxide (NO). much larger (but seasonal) declines have been seen. unabsorbed and dangerous ultraviolet-B radiation is able to reach the Earth’s surface. In 2009. The European Community rejected an analogous proposal to do the same. Each radical is then free to initiate and catalyze a chain reaction capable of breaking down over 100. and atomic bromine (Br). especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and bromofluorocarbons. until after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985.

scientists announced that the depletion of the ozone layer may be slowing down due to the international ban on CFCs. and due to gases which are already in the stratosphere.org/wiki/Ozone_layer . since these compounds are more reactive and less likely to survive long enough in the atmosphere to reach the stratosphere where they could affect the ozone layer. HCFC's also have a significant negative impact on the ozone layer.wikipedia. However. while being less damaging than CFC's. Compounds containing C–H bonds have been designed to replace the function of CFC's (such as HCFC).[5] Three satellites and three ground stations confirmed that the upper atmosphere ozone depletion rate has slowed down significantly during the past decade.On August 2. ranging from 50 to over 100 years.[6] http://en. The study was organized by the American Geophysical Union. CFCs have very long atmospheric lifetimes. Some breakdown can be expected to continue due to CFCs used by nations which have not banned them. 2003. so the final recovery of the ozone layer is expected to require several lifetimes. HCFC's are therefore also being phased out.

mesopause. Ketiga unsur tersebut terkait erat dan saling mempengaruhi proses-proses yang terjadi di bumi secara keseluruhan. Puncak dari lapisan-lapisan tersebut adalah tropopause. Karena tanpa udara. Jadi Anda tentu bisa menyimpulkan sendiri betapa pentingnya udara bagi kehidupan di bumi.Pentingnya Atmosfer Bumi Manusia dapat bertahan sampai satu hari tanpa air di daerah gurun yang paling panas. dan air yang terkandung di dalam atmosfer atau disebut air atmosfer. dan termopause. Nasir. Sedangkan puncaknya sulit ditentukan karena disamping besarnya keragaman ukuran dan massa partikel terdapat pula keragaman suhu permukaan bumi dan kekuatan angin yang mempengaruhi pengangkatan bahan (Nasir. dan termosfer. Atmosfer bumi merupakan lapisan gas yang menyelimuti bumi dan penting bagi kehidupan makhluk hidup. danau. Struktur Lapisan Atmosfer Gambar 1: Struktur Lapisan Atmosfer (Annenberg. Bumi gas atau atmosfer merupakan seluruh gas yang menyelubungi bumi baik di bagian padat maupun cair. hewan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan tidak dapat hidup.99%.5-5. dalam Handoko. tetapi tanpa udara manusia hanya bertahan beberapa menit saja. cair. gas. 2009) Bumi yang kita huni ini terdiri dari tiga unsur: padat. Udara untuk kehidupan sehari-hari terdapat di atmosfer. Bumi cair disebut hidrosfer. juga berupa air di dalam tanah atau disebut air tanah. mesosfer. sungai. mencakup air permukaan seperti laut.atmosfer setinggi 5. meliputi bagian inti bumi hingga lapisan terluar yang tampak sebagai permukaan tanah.6 km telah mencakup 50% dari massa total dan pada ketinggian 40 km mencakup 99. masa atmosfer dan profil temperatur. dalam Handoko (1995) mengemukakan perubahan suhu udara di atmosfer secara vertikal (menurut ketinggian) berbeda-beda dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga hal: . Atmosfer dapat dibedakan berdasarkan parameter-parameter seperti tekanan udara. 1995). Profil temperatur vertikal dapat dibagi menjadi empat lapisan yang berbeda yaitu troposfer. stratosfer. Batas bawah atmosfer relatif lebih mudah ditentukan berdasarkan ketinggian permukaan laut. maka manusia. stratopause. Bumi padat disebut juga litosfer.

Batas atasnya adalah lapisan mesopause dengan perubahan suhu terhadap ketinggian mulai bersifat isotermal. Lapisan ini merupakan tempat berlangsungnya proses ionisasi gas ionasasi gas N2 dan O2 sehingga lapisan ini disebut ionosfer. dT/dz = 0 Suhu tetap walaupun ketinggian berubah. Hal ini disebut inversi suhu 2. dengan bertambahnya ketinggian. energi panas diangkat oleh uap ke lapisan atas yang lebih tinggi berupa panas laten. Lapisan di atasnya dengan suhu tetap atau meningkat disebut stratofer kisaran ketinggiannya antara 12-50 km diatas permukaan laut. Dimana diatas ketinggian 100km pengaruh radiasi uv dan sinar x makin kuat. Lapisan ini ditandai dengan beberapa ciri yaitu memiliki ketinggian 80 km hingga batas yang sulit ditentukan karena sangat jarangnya partikel gas yang mencapai lapisan ini. Lapisan ini terdiri dari 3 wilayah antara lain Stratofer bawah krtinggiannya 12-20 km daerah isotermis. kilat dan guntur. Lapisan dengan suhu menurun dari 50-80 km disebut mesosfer dengan perubahan suhu terhadap ketinggian adalah lapse rate. Pada lapisan ini suhu udara turun dengan bertambahnya ketinggian (dT/dz < 0) atau pada keadaan lapse rate.1. Stratosfer atas ketinggiannya 35-50 km daerah inversi suhu yang kuat. dT/dz > 0 Suhu naik. Rata-rata lapse rate seluruh dunia pada keadaan normal adalah -6. presipitasi. atmosfer melindungi bumi dari pancaran radiasi matahari yang bersuhu 6000 . Kecepatan angin pada lapisan ini bertambah dengan naiknya ketinggian dan di troposfer ini pemindahan energi berlangsung. Radiasi surya menyebabkan pemanasan permukaan bumi yang selanjutnya panas tersebut diserap oleh air untuk berubah menjadi uap. Stratosfer merupakan lapisan atmosfer utama yang mengandung gas ozon. Stratosfer tengah ketinggiannya 20-35 km daerah inversi suhu.2 mb dan 1. dT/dz < 0 Suhu udara turun dengan bertambahnya ketinggian disebut lapse rate Troposfer merupakan lapisan terbawah dari atmosfer terdapat pada ketinggian dari 8 km di daerah kutub dan 16 km di ekuator. Setelah terjadi pendinginan berlangsung proses kondensasi. Pertama. suhu troposfer berubah dari 150C pada permukaan laut menjadi -600C di puncak troposfer.23 km m-3. Hal ini disebut isotermal 3. Karakteristik Atmosfer Atmosfer merupakan udara yang menyelubungi bumi dan sangat berguna bagi keberlangsungan kehidupan di bumi karena beberapa sebab. Pada atmosfer normal. Tidak mengalami turbuleni atau sirkulasi udara. awan. Tekanan dan kerapatan udara di permukaan laut masing-masing adalah 1013. Lapisan ini tidak mengalami turbulensi maupun sirkulasi. badai. Ruang terjadinya sirkulasi dan turbulensi seluruh bahan atmosfer sehingga menjadi salah satu lapisan yang mengalami pembentukan dan perubahan cuaca seperti angin. Akibat proses evaporasi. Lapisan di atasnya dengan suhu yang meningkat disebut termosfer. Merupakan daerah penguraian 02 menjadi atom O. Pada lapisan inisuhu udara sekitar -50C pada lapisan hingga -950C pada puncaknya.5K setiap kenaikan ketinggian 1 km.

Keempat.html . Dan di termosfer.derajat Kelvin. Lapisan terdekat bumi. troposfer. Kedua. profil temperaturnya berkurang terhadap ketinggian. Di stratosfer. stratosfer. mengandung 6/7 bagian dari massa total atmosfer yang relatif tercampur secara sempurna. http://www. profil temperaturnya kembali bertambah terhadap ketinggian. sangat basah. Lapisan tersebut dibedakan antara satu dan lainnya berdasarkan profil temperaturnya. profil temperaturnya bertambah terhadap ketinggian. Ketiga. Atmosfer terdiri dari beberapa lapisan dari yang terdekat dengan bumi: troposfer. atmosfer berperan penting dalam siklus hidrologi pada proses penampungan air dari permukaan bumi (daratan dan lautan).id/moklim/edukasiatmosfer. Di atas termosfer adalah ionosfer merupakan puncak atmosfer yang langsung bersentuhan dengan ruang hampa udara. Pada lapisan troposfer.or. dan merupakan pusat aktivitas dan pembentukan awan maupun hujan. atmosfer merupakan medium tempat bercampurnya beraneka unsur kimia yang berdampak pada kualitas udara. mesosfer. ketinggian 1000 km. ketinggian 10-12 km. atmosfer mengandung oksigen yang dibutuhkan makhluk hidup untuk bernapas. termosfer. ketinggian 50 km.dirgantara-lapan.

beberapa ilmuwan memprediksikan perubahan di wilayah teluk akan menurunkan suhu di Skandinavia.sekalipun angka ini tidak sensasional pada era karbon 350 juta tahun lalu.beberapa dataran rendah dan pelabuhan pasti akan menghadapi masalah.Tidak ada tindakan serius terhadap perubahan cuaca ini.dengan kondisi saat ini yang telah mencapai 379 ppm itu. 24/04/2007 jika semua bahan bakar yang telah diproduksi terbakar untuk beberapa jam. Kami juga telah mengetahui batas terendah yaitu lapisan es. Dalam perhitungan .kemungkinan cairnya es di Antartika barat dan Greenland akan terjadi dalam beberapa abad atau beberapa ribu tahun.tapi wilayah baru akan dibangun dan manusia akan tinggal di tempat yang lebih tinggi.5 C–3 C (dengan batas ekstrem dari 1. Menimbang contoh yang didapatkan dari inti Antartika tersebut.bahkan ketika manusia belum ada sekalipun. Dengan demikian.ketinggian laut seharusnya naik 47 cm.bumi telah empat kali mengalami perubahan suhu yang berfluktuasi pada kisaran 10 hingga 1 derajat.tetapi kelompok ahli cuaca antar pemerintahan (IGEC) dan kelompok panel perubahan cuaca antar pemerintahan (IPCC) belum dapat mengonfirmasi hipotesis ini. Institut kami telah melakukan perhitungan bahwa jika semua bahan bakar yang telah diproduksi terbakar untuk beberapa jam.Akan tetapi.4 C–5.proses pembentukan es terjadi sekali dalam 100 ribu tahun.Bahkan. Namun.dengan dasar putih yang konsentrasi CO2-nya tidak signifikan kurang dari 200 ppm.manusia lebih diserang oleh suhu dingin dibandingkan dengan pemanasan global. Saya tidak melihat hal ini sebagai sebuah hal yang dapat mengakibatkan dampak serius bagi umat manusia.Tentu saja.Secara teori.konsentrasi karbondioksida akan meningkat sekitar 800 parts per million(ppm).Indikator-indikator CO2 berubah dari 200 ppm menjadi 350 ppm. kepanikan yang timbul atas isu pemanasan global sangatlah tidak adil.tampaknya dunia sangat menaruh perhatian pada pemanasan global dan potensi yang mungkin ditimbulkannya.Perkiraan atas prediksi cuaca abad ini menunjukkan peningkatan sekitar 2.Penelitian terhadap inti es yang telah dilakukan oleh ilmuwan Rusia dari kedalaman Antartika membuktikan bahwa pada 450 ribu tahun.dunia akan mengering dalam tiga ribu tahun.Tidak perlu mendramatisasi dampak yang mungkin ditimbulkan secara berlebihan karena cuaca sendiri selalu berubah-ubah di bawah pengaruh alam.8 C).Cuaca: Menimbulkan Kepanikan? 24-Apr-2007 | 11:13 Selasa. Dalam perhitungan terbaru.Kondisi saat ini ditandai oleh cepatnya pertumbuhan vegetasi yang menyisakan sejumlah besar cadangan batu bara. Menurut pendapat saya. Ilmuwan dari British Hadley Center telah berusaha membedakan bahaya global yang ditimbulkan pada es Greenland yang mencair.konsentrasi karbondioksida akan meningkat sekitar 800 parts per million(ppm).bumi telah memiliki beberapa ribu ppm (10 kali lebih banyak).Mereka percaya bahwa jika suhu naik tiga derajat. Ini adalah batas atas yang tak akan mudah terlampaui.Yang cukup menarik.bumi telah mendekati batas terendah.

Kemungkinan terburuk adalah adanya partikelpartikel aerosol keras yang dihasilkan dari pabrik-pabrik.yang menuliskan proposal yang sama tanpa merujuk referensi dari Yury Izrael. Akan tetapi. Dapat saya tambahkan di sini bahwa pada musim gugur 2005 lalu. .Ini adalah salah satu instrumen yang dapat dipakai.ilmuwan Rusia Mikhail Budyko muncul dengan ide yang mungkin dapat memecahkan masalah pemanasan global dalam beberapa tahun.membentang pada lintang 30 hingga 70 derajat.sebagai contoh.Saya menyarankan agar kita tidak terlalu peduli dengan CO2 yang tidak terlalu memberikan dampak serius pada cuaca.dan badai debu. Sementara itu.Idenya adalah untuk mengubah ’’kekuatan pancaran sinar matahari”dengan memenuhi stratosfer (lapisan pada ketinggian 12–16 km) dengan asam sulfur.3%– 0.saya telah memublikasikan artikel dengan proposal yang konkret berdasarkan metode tersebut dan saya telah memberikan serangkaian wawancara.pada 1974. Langkah ini akan menurunkan suhu troposfer dengan cepat dalam dua atau tiga tahun.74 C. Beberapa rekan saya bahkan mendukung ide tersebut.5%.pada akhir 2006.Emisi rumah panas memiliki efek terkuat.ratarata peningkatan suhu berada pada kisaran 0.cuaca.yang dipercaya telah menaikkan rata-rata suhu di permukaan bumi hingga mencapai 0.lebih masuk akal untuk berusaha menurunkan radiasi solar 0. Saat ini. sangatlah penting untuk memenuhi lapisan ini dengan jutaan ton aerosol atau 300 ribu ton sulfur yang dibakar.ahli kimia dan meteorologi asal Belanda.tujuan utama yang ingin dicapai adalah menstabilisasikan cuaca atau pada tingkat masa preantropogenik (sebelum revolusi industri) pada kisaran 280 ppm. Terdapat banyak sekali perubahan parameter yang memengaruhi arus radiasi.dalam hal ini. Emisi ini telah meningkatkan arus radiasi.terbaru ini.apa yang akan terjadi pada aerosol tiruan ini terkait dengan masa hidup stratosfer dalam satu hingga dua tahun? Mereka akan beterbangan di angkasa. tapi tetap saja belum ada bukti ilmiah untuk mendukung pernyataan ini.7 C. Hal ini diperkirakan dapat menurunkan radiasi solar pada permukaan bumi dan mengurangi suhu di troposfer beberapa derajat. Ada juga penyebab lain yang dapat memanaskan udara atau mendinginkannya sekalipun.Bahkan.Angka ini dipercaya cukup dapat menimbulkan efek negatif.Akan tetapi.sementara rekan lainnya masih cukup skeptis.saya membaca artikel yang ditulis oleh pemenang Nobel Paul J Crutzen. Aerosol di lapisan stratosfer memiliki kapasitas terbesar dalam mengurangi radiasi solar. Hal ini biasa terjadi setelah adanya ledakan gunung berapi dan dapat dipastikan tidak akan mematikan kehidupan di bumi.gunung berapi.6 C–0.Akankah ada dampak terhadap biosfer dan kesehatan manusia? Perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan radiasi solar akan kurang dari 1% mendekati permukaan bumi. Kita dapat saja menyebarkan sulfur pada troposfer melalui beberapa metode atau menerbangkan pesawat pada ketinggian tertentu dengan membawa bahan bakar sulfur.untuk dapat menurunkan suhu di troposfer hingga satu derajat. Bentangan ini akan memberikan perlindungan pada bumi dari radiasi solar.Dalam perkiraan sementara.pesawat.

Jumlah aerosol yang jatuh ke tanah akan mencapai 0. Metode dengan memakai efek aerosol pada stratosfer tentunya akan lebih murah.seratus kali lebih cepat dan mudah dihentikan jika berdampak buruk.Tujuan utamanya adalah menstabilisasi emisi rumah kaca di udara pada level yang tidak berbahaya akibat revolusi industri. Yang lebih penting. IGECC memperkirakan bahwa sejumlah besar dana akan dikeluarkan telah mencapai 18 triliun dolar pada abad ini.ilmuwan Rusia masih bekerja sendiri dengan membuat detail bagi perhitungan lebih jauh.2 mg Sulfur per meter persegi per tahun atau sekitar 1. Sekalipun langkah ini tidak ditujukan untuk menyerang negara lain.or.akan memerlukan waktu yang panjang untuk menurunkan CO2 dan emisi rumah kaca dengan tujuan menstabilkan tingkat atmosfer.id/?pilih=arsip&topik=7&nid=2632 .000 kali lebih sedikit dibandingkan yang biasa dihasilkan oleh emisi industri pada hujan dan salju yang turun. Pada 1997.3% dari 2008 hingga 2012.yaitu negara-negara industrialis memutuskan untuk mengurangi efek rumah kaca dengan sukarela hingga mencapai rata-rata 5.Ini adalah sebuah tugas yang kurang disukai negaranegara industrialis.( YURY IZRAEL (RIA NOVOSTI) Akademisi dari Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia dan mengepalai Institut Ekologi dan Cuaca Global) http://library.Untuk sementara. PBB telah mengadopsi sebuah kerangka kerja bagi Konvensi mengenai perubahan cuaca di Rio de Janeiro pada 1992.konvensi ini didukung oleh protokol Kyoto. Tapi.tindakan semacam ini akan berkaitan erat dengan perjanjian internasional. Dokumen ini memfokuskan pada emisi rumah kaca yang mempunyai dampak terbesar pada cuaca.Lebih jauh lagi. Semua ini berjalan tanpa harus dikatakan bahwa metode ini harus disetujui oleh komunitas dunia.pastinya. seperti Konvensi 1978 antara Soviet dan Amerika mengenai pelarangan penggunaan teknik modifikasi lingkungan untuk tujuan militer atau tujuan lain.tetapi didesain untuk menangani masalah perubahan cuaca tantangan global.pelangi.

1. Lapisan Troposfer pada ketinggian lebih dari 5 Km.:: Profil Suhu dan Tekanan terhadap Ketinggian ::. Lapisan yang membatasi antara Troposfer dengan Stratosfer dinamakan Lapisan Tropopause. Thermosfer Pada lapisan thermosfer suhunya mencapai ribuan derajat celcius. Di lapisan troposfer ketinggian pada ekuator + 17 – 20 Km. Tekanan pada tropopause mencapai + 100 mb. Stratosfer Pada lapisan stratosfer. Suhu di lapisan stratopause sekitar 17 derajat celcius. Suhu di lapisan troposfer pada daerah ekuator mencapai – 80 derajat celcius dan pada daerah kutub mencapai – 60 derajat celcius. suhu mencapai 0 derajat celcius pada tekanan + 500 – 600 mb. http://meteorologi43-d.html . Ketinggian mesopause mencapai +80 km. semakin ke atas suhu dan tekanan semakin rendah.blogspot. semakin ke atas suhu semakin rendah hingga mencapai – 90 derajat celcius. Pada lapisan mesosfer tidak terdapat tekanan atau ruang hampa udara. semakin ke atas suhu semakin tinggi dan tekanan semakin rendah. Mesosfer Pada lapisan ini. dan pada kutub + 8 Km. 2.. Tekanan pada lapisan stratopause mencapai + 0 mb dan ketinggiannya mencapai + 50 Km. Dan lapisan yang membatasi thermosfer dengan lapisan di atasnya dinamakan lapisan thermopause. 3. Lapisan yang membatasi antara Stratosfer dengan Mesosfer dinamakan Stratopause. Pada lapisan stratosfer terdapat partikel – partikel ringan. Troposfer Pada lapisan troposfer. Lapisan yang membatasi antara mesosfer dengan thermosfer dinamakan mesopause. 4.com/2009/01/profil-suhu-dan-tekanan-terhadap.

dan Dia Maha mengetahui segala sesuatu. Atmosfer tersusun atas beberapa lapisan. Atmosfer Bumi terdiri atas nitrogen (78. Di bumi. kemudian Dia menuju kepada penciptaan langit dan langit itu masih merupakan asap. dan Kami hiasi langit yang dekat dengan bintang-bintang yang cemerlang dan Kami memeliharanya dengan sebaik-baiknya. keduanya menjawab: “Kami datang dengan suka hati”. sampai dengan sekitar 560 km dari atas permukaan bumi. atmosfer terdapat dari ketinggian 0 km di atas permukaan tanah. Dengan peralatan yang sensitif yang dipasang di wahana luar angkasa. kita dapat memperoleh pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang atmosfer berikut fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi di dalamnya. serta kelap-kelipnya bintang. Kalau menurut tante wiki. tetapi sekitar 0. karbondioksida (variabel. (Al Baqoroh (2):29) 29. lalu Dia berkata kepadanya dan kepada bumi: “Datanglah kamu keduanya menurut perintah-Ku dengan suka hati atau terpaksa”. Studi tentang atmosfer mula-mula dilakukan untuk memecahkan masalah cuaca. fenomena pembiasan sinar matahari saat terbit dan tenggelam. Atmosfer melindungi kehidupan di bumi dengan menyerap radiasi sinar ultraviolet dari matahari dan mengurangi suhu ekstrem di antara siang dan malam. lalu dijadikan-Nya tujuh langit.9%).17%) dan oksigen (20. Dia-lah Allah. dengan sedikit argon (0.0357%). Dia mewahyukan pada tiaptiap langit urusannya. termasuk bumi. 12. yang dinamai menurut fenomena yang terjadi di lapisan tersebut. Transisi antara lapisan yang satu dengan yang lain berlangsung bertahap. uap air.97%). Demikianlah ketentuan yang Maha Perkasa lagi Maha mengetahui. yang menjadikan segala yang ada di bumi untuk kamu dan Dia berkehendak (menciptakan) langit. dari permukaan planet tersebut sampai jauh di luar angkasa.Tentang Atmosfer Friday. Maka Dia menjadikannya tujuh langit dalam dua masa. Bahasa Al Qur’an pada Surah tersebut di bwah ini membicarakan tentang penciptaan langit. 75% dari atmosfer ada dalam 11 km dari permukaan planet. . (Fushshilat (41):11-12) 11. 2008 — danangekonuryanto Berbicara tentang atmosfer. samakah atmosfer dengan langit. November 21. dan gas lainnya. berbicara tentang atmosfer menyebutkan bahwa atmosfer adalah lapisan gas yang melingkupi sebuah planet.

Radiasi ini menyebabkan reaksi kimia sehingga membentuk lapisan bermuatan listrik yang dikenal dengan nama ionosfer. dari sekitar 17℃ sampai -52℃. Ketinggian yang paling rendah adalah bagian yang paling hangat dari troposfer. yaitu kurang lebih 81 km diatas permukaan bumi. hampir semua jenis cuaca. Stratosfer Perubahan secara bertahap dari troposfer ke stratosfer dimulai dari ketinggian sekitar 11 km. yang dapat memantulkan gelombang radio. karena permukaan bumi menyerap radiasi panas dari matahari dan menyalurkan panasnya ke udara. namun tidak ada pola cuaca yang signifikan yang terjadi pada lapisan ini. di mana campuran gas-gasnya adalah yang paling ideal untuk menopang kehidupan di bumi. angin tekanan dan kelembaban yang kita rasakan sehari-hari terjadi. tetapi agak menipis lambat laun dengan menambah ketinggian. Pada lapisan ini angin yang sangat kencang terjadi dengan pola aliran yang tertentu. Di dalam lapisan ini. Dibandingkan dengan lapisan atmosfer yang lain. yang terbentuk dari kristal es. Perubahan ini terjadi karena serapan radiasi sinar ultra ungu.Atmosfer tidak mempunyai batas mendadak. Berikut nama-nama lapisat atmosfer dikenal : Troposfer Lapisan ini berada pada level yang paling rendah. Suhu di lapisan stratosfer yang paling bawah relatif stabil dan sangat dingin yaitu – 70oF atau sekitar – 57oC. Termosfer Transisi dari mesosfer ke termosfer dimulai pada ketinggian sekitar 81 km. seperti pegunungan dan plato (dataran tinggi) dapat menyebabkan anomali terhadap gradien suhu tersebut. maka suhu udara akan berkurang secara tunak (steady). sampai menjadi sekitar – 143oC di dekat bagian atas dari lapisan ini. Di lapisan ini kehidupan juga terlindung dari sengatan radiasi yang dipancarkan oleh benda-benda langit lain. suhu kembali turun ketika ketinggian bertambah. lapisan ini adalah yang paling tipis (kurang lebih 15 kilometer dari permukaan tanah). Suhu serendah ini memungkinkan terjadi awan noctilucent. karena bertambahnya lapisan dengan konsentrasi ozon yang bertambah. Dari bagian tengah stratosfer keatas. Sebelum munculnya . Pada lapisan ini. jika ketinggian bertambah. Lapisan stratopause memisahkan stratosfer dengan lapisan berikutnya. Lapisan ozon ini menyerap radiasi sinar ultra ungu. Namun topografi di permukaan bumi. Suhu pada lapisan ini bisa mencapai sekitar 18oC pada ketinggian sekitar 40 km. Dinamai termosfer karena terjadi kenaikan temperatur yang cukup tinggi pada lapisan ini yaitu sekitar 1982oC. tidak ada batas pasti antara atmosfer dan angkasa luar. Awan tinggi jenis cirrus kadang-kadang terjadi di lapisan paling bawah. pola suhunya berubah menjadi semakin bertambah semakin naik. perubahan suhu yang mendadak. Biasanya. Mesosfer Kurang lebih 25 mil atau 40km diatas permukaan bumi terdapat lapisan transisi menuju lapisan mesosfer. Diantara stratosfer dan troposfer terdapat lapisan yang biasanya dilewati/digunakan pesawat Komersil mengudara yang disebut lapisan Tropopouse.

tetapi kerapatannya tetap saja memberikan pengaruh hambatan pada lintasan orbit satelit yang berada disana. lapisan ini berguna untuk membantu memancarkan gelombang radio jarak jauh. lapisan atmosfer yang lebih di atas lagi mencapai ratusan kilometer. (yang mengarah ke bumi). Pengembangan akan menyebabkan kerapatan meningkat. serta teknologi komunikasi saat ini. matahari melepaskan radiasi energi tinggi-nya. http://dimensi5. karena walaupun tidak terlihat secara langsung. tetapi memberikan pengaruh pada lingkungan bumi. Tetapi ketika. maka terjadi gangguan pada aktivitas manusia di permukaan bumi yang terbiasa memanfaatkan teknologi tersebut. Dan semua transmisi elektronik yang memanfaatkan penjalaran sinyal melalui satelit-satelit tersebut tentulah mengalami gangguan. temperatur termosfer mencapai 700 derajat celsius. Meskipun kita tidak menyadari secara langsung keberadaan gangguan tersebut. maka interferensi dengan semua peralatan elektronik yang berada pada lingkungan itu (satelit) tidak terelakkan. radiasi dengan panjang gelombang ultraviolet ekstrim memanaskan lapisan atas atmosfer ini. yang dayanya bisa mencapai 1500 gigawatts (mencapai empat kali pembangkit tenaga di seluruh amerika). dan meningkat pada periode matahari maksimum. Cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan tersebut juga disebut sebagai cahaya Zodiakal Cahaya matahari merupakan fenomena yang penting. dapat ditentukan kerapatan udara di daerah tersebut. dan berada pada ketinggian lebih dari 100 km). tetapi memberikan pengaruh pada kondisi iklim. dan sistem elektronik yang lainnya. tetapi telah menjadi pekerjaan besar bagi mereka yang mengurusi pengaturan daya dan tenaga elektronik di seluruh dunia. perbankan real-time online. telepon selular. dalam mengatasi gangguan signfikan dari antariksa ini. Panas berlebih ini menyebabkan termosfer mengembang. Selama periode matahari minimum.era satelit.com/2008/11/21/tentang-atmosfer/ . Dengan demikian. seperti komputer yang online. Pada fase solar maksimum. Meskipun atmosfer bumi yang mendukung kehidupan hanyalah setinggi 10 km dari permukaan. (disebut sebagai termosfer. Meskipun termosfer sangatlah tidak rapat dibandingkan lapisan atmosfer bawah. Atmosfer bumi. walaupun secara tidak signifikan terganggu. Eksosfer Adanya refleksi cahaya matahari yang dipantulkan oleh partikel debu meteoritik. dan dengan dengan demikian dapat dilihat dinamika atmosfer pada saat tersebut. Dengan mengamati perubahan lintasan satelit. dan kebergantungan manusai sangat besar pada komunikasi yang semakin canggih. dan teknologi satelit. Banyak satelit yang terletak pada ketinggian ini. Fenomena aurora yang dikenal juga dengan cahaya utara atau cahaya selatan terjadi disini. sehingga lintasan satelit di daerah tersebut mengalami gangguan. maka lapisan atmosfer terluar bumi mengalami hujan partikel bermuatan tinggi. menipis seiring ketinggian. Saat ini teknologi komunikasi memanfaatkan ribuan satelit yang diluncurkan.wordpress.

Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor. giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The Kármán line. at 100 km (62 mi). and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. For other uses. warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect).8 mi. Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi) is where atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.000 ft) of the surface.2 Other layers • 3 Physical properties • 3. 0. on average around 1%. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude. The atmosphere has a mass of about five quadrillion (5x1015) tonnes. Contents [hide] • 1 Composition • 2 Structure of the atmosphere • 2.93% argon. and trace amounts of other gases. also is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6. 36. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation. with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.1 .038% carbon dioxide.Earth's atmosphere From Wikipedia.1 Princi pal layers • 2. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. see Air (disambiguation). 20. search "Air" redirects here.08% nitrogen. 0.95% oxygen.

2 Secon d atmos phere • 6.1 Earlie st atmos phere • 6.Pressu re and thickn ess • 3.4 Refrac tive index • 5 Circulation • 6 Evolution of Earth's atmosphere • 6.4 Air polluti on .2 Absor ption • 4.3 Third atmos phere • 6.1 Scatte ring • 4.2 Densit y and mass • 4 Optical properties • 4.3 Emiss ion • 4.

elemental mercury.14 ppmv (0. such as chlorine (elementary or in compounds). fluorine (in compounds).55 ppmv (0. Values normalized for illustration.24 ppmv (0.946%) Argon (Ar) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Methane (CH4) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H2) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Xenon (Xe) Ozone (O3) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 9. Composition of dry atmosphere.000055%) 0. nitrous oxide.02 ppmv (2x10−6%) .3 ppmv (0.18 ppmv (0.000114%) 0. methane. Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds. pollen and spores. and argon. The remaining gases often are referred to as "trace gases.038% of the atmosphere. oxygen.09 ppmv (9x10−6%) 0. which together constitute the "major gases" of the atmosphere.0383%) 18.840 ppmv (78.000524%) 1. and sulfur (in compounds such as sulfur dioxide [SO2]).00003%) 0.084%) Oxygen (O2) 209.460 ppmv (20.340 ppmv (0. sea spray."[1] among which are the greenhouse gases such as water vapor. Mean atmospheric water vapor Air is mainly composed of nitrogen. volcanic ash. Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample. by volume[2] ppmv: parts per million by volume (note: volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only.001818%) 5.0 to 0.• 7 See also • 8 References • 9 External links [edit] Composition Main article: Atmospheric chemistry Composition of Earth's atmosphere as of Dec.745 ppmv (0.9340%) 383 ppmv (0.07 ppmv (0% to 7x10−6%) 0. see Gas volume#Partial volume) Gas Volume Nitrogen (N2) 780. including dust. The lower pie represents the trace gases which together compose 0.0001745%) 1. and ozone. and meteoroids. carbon dioxide. 1987. Various industrial pollutants also may be present.

000 ft).1 K). typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi. Temperature increases with height. meaning turn or overturn). between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). these layers are: Troposphere The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23. 173. 170. The International Space Station orbits in this layer.000 ft). which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere. 260. The pressure here is 1/1000th sea level.40% over full atmosphere. is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −100 °C (−148. The mesopause. 160. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. with some variation due to weather.0.000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56.000– 280. The top of the thermosphere is . then is constant with height.1 ppmv trace Not included in above dry atmosphere: Water vapor (H2O) ~0.01 ppmv (1x10−6%) 0. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere.500 °C (2.730 °F).000 to 180. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude. The stratopause. though the gas molecules are so far apart that temperature in the usual sense is not well defined. The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere. so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. trope. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1. Mesosphere The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi. typically 1%-4% at surface Iodine (I) Carbon monoxide (CO) Ammonia (NH3) [edit] Structure of the atmosphere [edit] Principal layers Layers of the atmosphere (not to scale) Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface. From lowest to highest. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word "τροπή". The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. Stratosphere The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi. the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere. Thermosphere Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause up to the thermopause.0 °F.000 ft).000 ft) at the equator. which restricts turbulence and mixing.

[3] The homosphere includes the troposphere.000 to 3.300. Since the particles rarely collide. Here the particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of km without colliding with one another.000–110. 330. which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere.100.600. with the heavier ones such as oxygen and nitrogen present only near the bottom of the heterosphere. • The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation.000–2. and mesosphere. called the exobase. though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind. It is responsible for auroras. Above the turbopause at about 100 km (62 mi. the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid. mainly through turbulent diffusion. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9. It has practical importance because it influences. This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight. The depth of the planetary boundary layer ranges from as little as about 100 m on clear. 160. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. This is because the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing. In the homosphere the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence. stretches from 50 to 1. the lightest element. . In this layer ozone concentrations are about 2 to 8 parts per million.000 ft). • The ionosphere. while at night it becomes stably stratified with weak or intermittent mixing. • The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere.000 ft) (essentially corresponding to the mesopause).000 km (31 to 620 mi. During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well-mixed. 1. [edit] Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties.000 ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere.000 ft).3–22 mi. cold nights to 3000 m or more during the afternoon in dry regions. 49. the composition varies with altitude. for example. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen. • The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is nearest the Earth's surface and is directly affected by it. stratosphere. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.the bottom of the exosphere. Exosphere The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. radio propagation on the Earth. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350–800 km (220–500 mi.

900 ft).000 ft).632) every 7. although in the rarefied region above this there are auroras and other atmospheric effects. the following published data are given for reference:[10] • 50% of the atmosphere by mass is below an altitude of 5. the equations of pressure by altitude in the above references can be used directly to estimate atmospheric thickness. so that pressure decreases by approximately half every 5.3 kPa (kilopascals) = 14.100 ft).6 km (18. The highest X-15 plane flight in 1963 reached an altitude of 354. depending on the reference. The common altitude of commercial airliners is about 10 km (33. Even in the exosphere.135×1019 lb).The average temperature of the atmosphere at the surface of Earth is 14 °C (57 °F.6 km (18. and gravity throughout the atmospheric column. the atmosphere is still present.000 ft) and by 63.030 ft) above sea level.000 ft). However. Were atmospheric density to remain constant with height the atmosphere would terminate abruptly at 8.50 km (27.0 km). dropping by 50% at an altitude of about 5.64 km (25. In summary. 230. because of changes in temperature. Thus air pressure varies with location and time.2% (1 − 1 / e = 1 − 0. 287 K)[4] or 15 °C (59 °F.[6] [7][8] [edit] Physical properties [edit] Pressure and thickness Main article: Atmospheric pressure The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1 atmosphere (atm) = 101. This can be seen by the effects of atmospheric drag on satellites.7 psi (pounds per square inch) = 760 torr = 29.000 ft). average molecular weight.1480×1018 kg (1. However.000 ft). [edit] Density and mass Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere model Main article: Density of air .9 inches of mercury (symbol Hg). • 90% of the atmosphere by mass is below an altitude of 16 km (52.99997% of the atmosphere by mass is below 100 km (62 mi. Everest's summit is 8.848 m (29. 330.000 ft) and Mt.6 km (18.368 = 0.300 ft (108. Instead. density decreases with height. the average scale height of Earth's atmosphere below 70 km (43 mi. 288 K)[5]. the dependence of atmospheric pressure on altitude is modeled by separate equations for each of the layers listed above. • 99.[9] Atmospheric pressure is the total weight of the air above the point at which the pressure is measured. As a result the pressure decrease is approximately exponential with height. Total atmospheric mass is 5. because the amount of air above the Earth's surface varies with location and time.000 ft).

leaving the red light in a sunset.000 the mass of Earth. it has all been scattered. According to the National Center for Atmospheric Research." [edit] Optical properties See also: Sunlight Earth's atmosphere from space. it is called direct radiation and is what you see if you were to look directly at the sun. photons interact with it through scattering. The average mass of the atmosphere is about 5 quadrillion (5x1015) tonnes or 1/1. Solar radiation (or sunlight) is the energy the Earth receives from the Sun.5 × 1015 kg depending on whether surface pressure or water vapor data are used. The blue color of the atmosphere is due to Rayleigh scattering. This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric formula. For example. Much of the blue light has been scattered out.0003 × 1018 kg.1480 × 1018 kg with an annual range due to water vapor of 1. somewhat smaller than the previous estimate. shorter (blue) wavelengths of light are scattered more easily than longer (red) wavelengths. Important examples of this are clouds and the greenhouse effect. The Earth also emits radiation back into space.1352 ±0. As another example. [edit] Absorption Main article: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation) . Density is not measured directly but is calculated from measurements of temperature. the sun rays pass through more atmosphere than normal to reach your eye. on an overcast day when you can't see your shadow there is no direct radiation reaching you. "The total mean mass of the atmosphere is 5.2 or 1. due to a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering. Because the sun is close to the horizon. This is also why sunsets are red. pressure and humidity using the equation of state for air (a form of the ideal gas law). shorter (blue) wavelengths scatter more easily than longer (red) wavelengths.2 g/L). the atmosphere can block radiation from coming in or going out.27 × 1016 kg and the dry air mass as 5.The density of air at sea level is about 1. but at longer wavelengths that we cannot see. If the light does not interact with the atmosphere.200. Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases.2 kg/m3 (1. you are seeing scattered blue light. The mean mass of water vapor is estimated as 1. [edit] Scattering Main article: Scattering When light passes through our atmosphere. More sophisticated models are used by meteorologists and space agencies to predict weather and orbital decay of satellites. Indirect radiation is light that has been scattered in the atmosphere. This is why the sky looks blue. Depending on its condition.

000 K (5. When a molecule absorbs a photon. The greenhouse effect is directly related to this absorption and emission (or "blanket") effect. but the gases block the infrared radiation from exiting back to space. it increases the energy of the molecule.000 nm. with longer wavelengths. at roughly 400–700 nm and continues to the infrared to around 1100 nm. Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. sunlight heats the Earth's surface. Some chemicals in the atmosphere absorb and emit infrared radiation. [edit] Emission Main article: Emission (electromagnetic radiation) Emission is the opposite of absorption. The optical window runs from around 300 nm (ultraviolet-C) up into the range humans can see. so its radiation peaks near 10. The atmosphere acts as a "blanket" to limit the amount of radiation the Earth loses into space. it is when an object emits radiation. This is also why it becomes colder at night at higher elevations. For example.Different molecules absorb different wavelengths of radiation. We can think of this as heating the atmosphere. the sun is approximately 6. Objects tend to emit amounts and wavelengths of radiation depending on their "black body" emission curves. The Earth is approximately 290 K (17 °C. and is much too long to be visible to humans. For example.730 °C. O2 and O3 absorb almost all wavelengths shorter than 300 nanometers. allowing the transmission of only certain bands of light. but do not interact with sunlight in the visible spectrum. and is visible to the human eye. 62 °F). Common examples of these chemicals are CO2 and H2O. Water (H2O) absorbs many wavelengths above 700 nm.340 °F). There are also infrared and radio windows that transmit some infrared and radio waves at longer wavelengths. Because of its temperature. therefore hotter objects tend to emit more radiation. including visible light. on clear nights the Earth's surface cools down faster than on cloudy nights. and thus climate change. The combined absorption spectra of the gasses in the atmosphere leave "windows" of low opacity. its radiation peaks near 500 nm. the visible spectrum (commonly called light). the atmosphere emits infrared radiation. For example. but the atmosphere also cools by emitting radiation. For example. This is because clouds (H2O) are strong absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation. as discussed below. Colder objects emit less radiation. with shorter wavelengths. 10. [edit] Refractive index . the radio window runs from about one centimeter to about eleven-meter waves. If there are too much of these greenhouse gasses. This imbalance causes the Earth to warm.

Systematic variations in refractive index can lead to the bending of light rays over long optical paths. enriching the other agents.compared to today 30% lower . since hints of early life forms are to be found as early as 3. Based on today's volcanic evidence. The geological record however shows a continually relatively warm surface during the complete early temperature record of the Earth with the exception of one cold glacial . [edit] Evolution of Earth's atmosphere See also: History of Earth. One example is that under some circumstances ships can see other vessels just over the horizon because light is refracted in the same direction as the curvature of the Earth's surface. first carbon dioxide and later nitrogen and inert gases. A major part of carbon dioxide exhalations were soon dissolved in water and built up carbonatic sediments.The refractive index of air is close to.8 billion years ago [11]. 10% carbon dioxide. See also: Scintillation (astronomy) [edit] Circulation Main article: Atmospheric circulation An idealised view of three large circulation cells. hydrogen. the first atmosphere. but the basic structure remains fairly constant as it is determined by the Earth's rotation rate and the difference in solar radiation between the equator and poles." An influence of life has to be taken into account rather soon in the history of the atmosphere. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year.4 billion years ago. 5 to 7% hydrogen sulfide. and the means (with ocean circulation) by which heat is distributed around the Earth. The fact that this is not perfectly in line with the . Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air.5 billion years ago[12]. [edit] Second atmosphere Water related sediments have been found dating from as early as 3. methane and inert gases. Gaia hypothesis. and smaller amounts of nitrogen. carbon monoxide. About 3. A major rainfall led to the buildup of a vast ocean. nitrogen was the major part of the then stable "second atmosphere. this atmosphere would have contained 80% water vapor.solar radiance of the early sun has been described as the "Faint young Sun paradox". but just greater than 1. and Paleoclimatology [edit] Earliest atmosphere The outgassings of the Earth were stripped away by solar wind early in the history of the planet until a steady state was established.

apparently from photosynthesizing algae which have been found as stromatolite fossils from 2. particulate matter.5 billion years ago[14] added plate tectonics. constantly rearranging the continents and also shaping long-term climate evolution by allowing the transfer of carbon dioxide to large land-based carbonate storages. like the Clean Air Act in the United States. Sometime during the late Archaean era an oxygencontaining atmosphere began to develop.4 billion years ago.[citation needed] Worldwide. into the atmosphere.[citation needed] .[13] suggesting that the fundamental features of the carbon cycle were established as early as 4 billion years ago.[17] Stratospheric ozone depletion is believed to be caused by air pollution (chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons).phase about 2.[citation needed] While major stationary sources are often identified with air pollution. [edit] Third atmosphere Oxygen content of the Atmosphere since one Billion years The accretion of continents about 3. the greatest source of emissions is actually mobile sources. Currently. have reduced the presence of some pollutants. This signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidising atmosphere.7 billion years ago.7 billion years ago and this can be seen with the development of the red beds and the end of the banded iron formations.[16] [edit] Air pollution Main article: Air pollution Air pollution is the human introduction of chemicals. this increase is the main cause of global warming. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms.[citation needed] Enforced air quality standards. anthropogenic greenhouse gases are increasing in the atmosphere. during which oxygen-breathing metazoan life forms began to appear. principally the automobile. The early basic carbon isotopy (isotope ratio proportions) is very much in line with what is found today. The following time span was the Phanerozoic era. O2 showed major ups and downs until reaching a steady state of more than 15%[15]. air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths and respiratory disease. Free oxygen did not exist until about 1.