Characteristic of OB?

There are seven characteristics of OD (Newstrom, Davis, 1993): Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y). Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together. Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.

2) define OB Organizational behavior is an academic discipline concerned with describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling human behavior in an organizational environment. Organizational behavior has evolved from early classical management theories into a complex school of thought²and it continues to change in response to the dynamic environment and proliferating corporate cultures in which today's businesses operate. "The task of getting organizations to function effectively is a difficult one," wrote David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman in Hackman, Lawler, and Porter's Perspectives on Behaviors in Organizations. "Understanding one individual's behavior is a challenging problem in and of itself. A group, made up of different individuals and multiple relationships among those individuals, is even more complex«. In the fact of this overwhelming complexity, organizational behavior must be managed. Ultimately the work of organizations gets done through the behavior of people, individually or collectively, on their own or in collaboration with technology. Thus, central to the management task is the management of organizational behavior. To do this, there must be the capacity to understand the patterns of behavior at individual, group, and organization levels, to predict what behavior responses will be elicited by different managerial actions, and finally to use understanding and prediction to achieve control

refer to the normative forces holding a group together. Means Control--benefits that a member can derive by being associated with the group. scholarships. Task Cohesion the degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals. CARRON'S MODEL of Factors Affecting Cohesion 1.Group Cohesion the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group. (contracts. PERSONAL FACTORS . or eligibility requirements can also play an important role. Social Cohesion reflects the degree to which members of a team like each other and enjoy each other's company. Carron·s Model 2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS the most general and remote. family expectations) These influences can hold a group together. (Sense of satisfaction). Two Main Forces that act on members to stay in Group Attractiveness of the group--individual's desire for interpersonal interactions with other group members and a desire to be involved in the group's activities. although other factors such as age. proximity.

etc« Carron·s Model 4. Mixed--football. unambiguous communication from coaches and captains regarding team goals. Specifically clear. Co-acting Teams--archery. consistent. Interacting--basketball. riflry. hockey. wrestling. baseball. The Relationship between Cohesion and Performance Cohesion increases performance for interacting sports but decreases or shows no effect on performance for co-acting. bowling. Three Motives task motivation (associated with task cohesion) affiliation motivation (associated with social cohesion) self-motivation (attempt to obtain personal satisfaction) Carron¶s Model 3. desire for group success. group productivity norms. LEADERSHIP FACTORS include leadership style and behaviors that professionals exhibit and the relationships they establish with their groups.refer to the individual characteristics of group members. soccer. volleyball. and team stability. skiing. The role of leaders is vital to team cohesion. TEAM FACTORS refer to group characteristics (individual versus team sports). DIRECTION OF CAUSALITY . golf. track. such as participation motives.

Circular relationship. more likely experience positive affect related to exercise. OTHER FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH COHESION Team Satisfaction--an individual factor. Teams that stay together longer tend to be more cohesive. Adherence--exercise groups. which leads to improvements in performance. The more cohesive a group is. have stronger efficacy beliefs related to exercise. Stability--refers both to the turnover rate for group membership and to how long group members have been together. Those that feel good cohesion are more likely to attend more classes. the more influence the group has on its individual members. less likely to drop out.whether cohesion leads to performance success or performance success leads to cohesion. PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE TEAM-BUILDING PROGRAM TEAM STRUCTURE . Other Factors« Social Support--there is a positive relationship between the social support an individual receives and her or his evaluations of group cohesion. more resistant to disruptions in group. arrive on time. Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption than teams lower in cohesion. the greater an influence it will have on individual members to conform to the group's norms. (Circular) Conformity--the more cohesive the group.

Principles« TEAM PROCESSES Sacrifices--when high status members make sacrifices for the group. TEAM ENVIRONMENT Togetherness--When group members are repetitively put in close physical proximity. When group members are satisfied and accept their roles in the group. Leadership type of leadership should coincide with type of individuals or vise versa. Member participation in goal setting helps cohesion. Cooperation--cooperative behavior is superior to individualistic behavior.Role Clarity and Acceptance--when group members clearly understand their roles in the group. cohesion is enhanced. Common Barriers to Group Cohesion Clash of personalities in the group Conflict of task or social roles among members of the group Breakdown in communication among group members or between the group leader and members . Principles of Team Building Conformity to Standards conformity to group social and task norms contribute to enhanced cohesion. Goals and Objectives--group goals are more strongly associated with team success than individual goals. Distinctiveness--the presence of group distinctiveness contributes to group cohesion. feeling of cohesion increase.

Explain Individual Roles in Team Success Develop Pride within Subunits Set Challenging Group Goals Encourage Group Identity Avoid Formation of Social Cliques Avoid Excessive Turnover Conduct Periodic Team Meetings Know the Team Climate Know something personal about each group member What Group Members can do Get to know members of the group Help group members whenever possible Give group members positive reinforcement Be responsible Communicate honestly and openly with the coach or leader Resolve conflicts immediately .One or more members struggling for power Frequent turnover of group members Disagreement on group goals and objectives What Coaches or Leaders can do Communicate effectively everyone is comfortable expressing thoughts and feelings.

.Give 100% effort at all times CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION You are a new coach who has inherited a high school team that had a great deal of dissension and infighting last season. Discuss what you would do before and during the season to build both task and social cohesion in your team.

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