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Marketing Research Session 04

Marketing Research Session 04

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Published by Harshael Sawant

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Published by: Harshael Sawant on May 29, 2011
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Marketing Research

March 2011

Agenda today«

Semester ending Sampling Segmentation

Types of research

when. what. where) .The Yin-Yang of Qualitative and Quantitative Research ‡ Exploratory ‡ Understanding ‡ Flowing structure ‡ Hypothesisgeneration ‡ Bridging and putting things together in terms of how and why Qualitative Quantitative ‡ Validation ‡ Measuring ‡ Rigorous structure ‡ hypothesistesting ‡ providing descriptive parameters (who.

Qualitative techniques Group Discussions Depth interview Expert opinion ± DI Paired Interview Triad Day in life Deprivations Obituary Ethnography .

What is a projective technique ? Their main purpose or aim is to facilitate a deeper exploration of a person¶s feelings about a situation. product. These techniques help to enter the private and often unconscious world of the individual. brand or type of activity. One uses these for Give the man a mask and he will tell you all about himself . descriptive and diagnostic reasons.

Sampling .

Sample should represent the Universe .

Important concepts Dependent and independent variables Extraneous variables Research Hypothesis Experimental testing approach Experiment and control groups .

Sampling ± key considerations How to select the sample? How many to select? .

Types of sample designs .

Types Non probability     Deliberate. purposive. judgmental sampling Personal selection Bias Quota sampling Inferences not statistical Probability   Random/chance sampling Everyone has a chance to get selected .

Not simple always Complex random sampling designs .

Types of complex random sampling methods Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster sampling Area sampling Multistage sampling Sequential sampling .

divide into sub-groups that are homogeneous and then sample .Types of complex random sampling methods Systematic sampling ± random numbers to pick first unit to start and then skip at fixed intervals. less costlier can be used for large populations Stratified sampling ± population is not homogeneous. Convenient.

Types of complex random sampling methods Cluster sampling ± divide a big area into small nonoverlapping areas and randomly select a number of these Area sampling ± if clusters are geographic subdivisions it is called area sampling .

Types of complex random sampling methods Multistage sampling ± applied for considerably large areas ± easier to administer and large number of units can be sampled Probability proportionate to size (PPS) ± cumulative totals for systematic sampling ± probablity of larger to get selected is higher Sequential sampling ± size of sample not fixed ± decided as research progresses ± go on taking samples as long as one desires .

Quiz Who sells largest numbers of cameras in India? Who is the biggest in music business in India? What Apple did to Sony. Sony did to Kodak? Explain In 2008. who was the biggest competition to British Airways in India? Who was the biggest competitor to ³film industry´ in 2008/2009? .

Sampling ± key considerations How to select the sample? How many to select? .

The sample size calculation Not just mathematical Other considerations also«. .

‡ Lower the tolerance higher the sample ‡ To be decided by sponsor/researcher .96  s = standard deviation for the variable which we are trying to measure from the study ‡ unknown ± but estimated on past studies.1 When estimating means (for continuous or interval scaled variables)    n = square (Zs/e) / (Zs/e)^2 n = Sample size required Z = constant for a desired confidence level ‡ For 95% Z = 1.The sample size calculation . Generally range/6 gives good estimation of s because of all s mostly lie between +/..  e ± tolerable error in estimating the variable in question.3 of mean .

96  s = standard deviation for the variable which we are trying to measure from the study ‡ range = 10-1 =9.5)^2 = 34.5 n = (1. s = 9/6 = 1.Example Customer satisfaction survey scale : 1-10 ± 7/8 questions    n = square (Zs/e) / (Zs/e)^2 n = Sample size required Z = constant for a desired confidence level ‡ For 95% Z = 1.5   e ± 0.57 or 35 .96*1.5/0.

645  e ± tolerable error in estimating the variable in question.2 When estimating proportions or percentage    n = pq x square (Z/e) / pq(Z/e)^2 n = Sample size required Z = constant for a desired confidence level ‡ For 90% Z = 1. ‡ Lower the tolerance higher the sample ‡ To be decided by sponsor/researcher  p ± frequency of occurrence of something expressed as proportion ± study tries to determine p q ± non ± occurrence of p or 1-p  .The sample size calculation .

03)^2 = 800  We need a sample of 800 respondents to estimate the true value of ³p´ with a 95% confidence level and with an error of +/-0.25 n = 0.96/0.96    e ± 3% tolerable error : 0.25x 0.Example Estimate proportion of population wearing a jeans   n = pq x square (Z/e) / pq(Z/e)^2 Z = constant for a desired confidence level ‡ For 95% Z = 1.75 x (1.03 from true value .03 as p is proportion p ± from previous studies or knowledge = 25% or 0.

50/100 is considered as a good enough size for each group in the sample .Determining the sample size Generally.

Other issues affecting sample size decisions Number of centres : if data needs to be read by each centre then need minimum sample per location Multiple questions ± different type of questions. proportions ± need to reconcile sample size arrived by each method Cell size in analysis ± variable on which analysis is required Time and budget constraints Role of experience ± given limitations of formulae . scales.

Controllable if sample selection is done random. Reduces to zero for large samples Non-sampling error : errors by interviewer. unbiased way ± probability sampling used.Types of error in MR Sampling error : selection of some and non selection of some units. data entry operator or researcher Total error : sampling + non-sampling error ± usually unknown ± increasing sample increases non sampling error ± ³optimum´ sample .

Errors in MR Sampling error : Kellogg¶s example error Non±sampling ‡ Measurement Error ‡ Data Recording Error ‡ Data Analysis Error ‡ Non±response Error .


Designing Questionnaire Data collection instrument .

g. Do you read a newspaper ± Yes Repeat at different places Ask indirectly Follow up questions to probe truth Ease of recording .Considerations Language ± can be used in any language Difficulty level of words ± data collector + respondent to understand Fatigue ± ideal time 20 mins Co-operation from respondent ± should encourage response Socially acceptable responses ±     E.

. Analysis required ± questions to be designed accordingly  Scale of measurement«. What do you think? Monotony ± always agree or disagree«. some think it is bad. .Considerations Coding ± to be done before data collection Skipping instructions Sequencing of questions ± demographics at end Biased and leading questions   Do you think liberalisation is good? Some people think liberalisation is good.

Measurement Scales .

ranks ± not interchangeable. No statistical computations possible like mean etc. Gives order but not distance ± not how much? Average not used .g. no numerical sanctity. E.Types of scales Nominal : number used only as labels. Simple tabulations and cross-tabulations possible Ordinal : have meaningful order..

Ratio of two values on scale corresponds to same ratio amongst measured values.. income etc. height. age. E. Can calculate mean. Interval distance is fixed Ratio : Has a unique zero or beginning point. Arithmetic operations possible . length. standard deviation etc Also called rating scales.Types of scales Interval : behavioural and attitudinal measurements.g.

Ad testing Appeal Awareness Increase recall Call to action Curiosity Instruct Correct Image .

Advertising Effect For TV communication to be effective. Reach the target audience Communicate the desired message. and«.. Positively impact the consumer-brand relationship . it must« Cut-Through the media clutter. in order to«. Brand the desired message correctly..

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