You are on page 1of 8

Line relay equipment

CSC-162 series Numerical Line Relay Equipment

Fig.1 CSC-162 series Numerical Line Relay Equipment


CSC-162 is numerical reliable high speed protection equipment which can be applicable for power
transmission line of 132kV & below (Sub-Transmission system) with solidly grounded neutral. The relay
consists of 4 zones of distance protection, Directional/, inverse time non-directional IDMTL overcurrent
& earth fault protection, overvoltage protection & under voltage protection, Automatic reclosure and
Circuit breaker failure protection etc, along with the entire suite of current, voltage protection functions
in economical package.


● Incorporates the latest high-powered fourth generation hardware system with 32 bit DSP-MCU combined
chip technology, which gives computational intensity and system control efficiency in a single chip.
● All setting parameters can be input via either the integrated operator and display panel or a personal computer.
The parameters are written into non-volatile memory so that the setting values remain secure even during interruption
of the supply voltage. There are 4 separate setting groups stored in the CSC-161’s memory.
● All important hardware and software components are continuously monitored, irregularities in hardware and
program sequence are detected and alarmed. This improves the security and availability of the relay system
● The influence of harmonics, higher frequency transients, DC transient components and CT saturation effects

Line relay equipment

are extensively suppressed.

● The equipment is equipped with 1 serial interfaces. The serial interface is suitable for connecting a PC. The PC
based software CSPC can be used for convenient and transparent setting, recording disturbance and evaluation as well
as commissioning.
● 2 RS485 and 2 Ethernet interfaces (or 2 electric or fiber Ethernet interfaces, selectable) are equipped on the
rear board. It is convenient to connect to a substation automation system or to a relay data master unit. These
ports support IEC 61850 & IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocols.
● 6 shortcut key on the front panel, 4 key for printing all kinds of messages, 2 key for switching the setting
storage zone.
● The equipment supplies detailed data for the analysis of disturbances as well as for checking of states during
operation. Disturbance event and operation indications memories are safeguarded against supply voltage failure.
● Outputs, display of indication. Indication (alarm) relays & LEDs meets user requirements. The storable LED
displays are secured against DC power supply failure.


The following relay functions are integrated:

● Distance relay (Including phase to phase distance relay and phase to earth relay)
● Directional/Non-directional IDMTL Overcurrent & Earth fault function
● U/V & O/V with time delay, 2 stages
● Three-pole single-shot automatic reclosing
● Breaker failure relay (selectable)
● communication scheme-PUR & POR
● Weak end infeed
● Broken conductor detection
● Residual & Mutual compensation
● VT fail/Fuse failure supervision


● The enclosure for equipment is 19 inches in width and 4U in height according to IEC 60297-3.

● The equipment is flush mounted with panel cutout.

● The equipment for cabinet mounting has rear connection terminals.

● The front panel of the equipment is opened from the top of the equipment. LCD, LEDs and keys are
mounted on the panel. There is a serial interface on the panel.

● Draw-out modules for serviceability are fixed by lock component.

● The modules can be combined through the bus on the rear board. Both the equipment and the other system
can be combined through the rear interfaces.

Line relay equipment
Distance relay
1) Configuration of distance relay

The Distance relay includes four-zones phase-to phase distance and four-zones phase-to-earth
distance .Switching in and out of each zone of distance relay is all controlled by distance strap.

2) Distance direction component

For symmetrical fault, distance relay applies memory voltage that is pre-fault voltage to compare
phasor with post-fault current to detect direction. For asymmetric fault, distance relay applies negative
sequence direction element to detect the direction. For negative sequence direction component please see
figure 2.

3 I2
p o s itiv e
d ire c tio n
Positive direction zone of negative
sequence direction component is:

18°≤arg 3I2/3U2 ≤180°

ã 3U 2
Opposite zone of negative sequence
direction component is: 18¡

162°≤arg 3I2/3U2 ≤0° o p p o s ite

d ir e c tio n

Figure 2

3) Distance measurement component

Distance measurement component calculates impedance value of corresponding loop by real time
voltage and real time current. Impedance calculation applies combination of differential equation and
Fourier filter to calculation six kinds of impedances, i.e. ZA, ZB, ZC, ZAB, ZBC and ZCA.

Arithmetic for calculation of phase-to phase impedance: Uφφ Lφφ + RIφφ, φφ=AB; BC; CA

d ( Iφ + K X 3I 0 )
Arithmetic for calculation of phase-to-earth impedance: Uφ Lφ +Rφ
(Iφ+Kr3I0), φ= A; B; C

In formulas: Kx=(X0-X1)/ (3X1), Kr= (R0-R1)/ (3R1). Fault impedance =2πfL .

4) Action characteristics of distance relay

Action characteristics of distance relay are all polygon characteristics (see figure 3), where
independent setting R can meet different requirements of long and short lines to flexibly adjust ability of
short line to permit transition of resistance and ability of long line to avoid load impedance. Appropriate
selection for upper border and declining angle of polygon can increase ability of the equipment to avoid

Line relay equipment

fault external to the set zone.

Figure 3

Setting of small rectangle action zone is used to ensure reliability of distance relay action for faults
after reclose or manual close, based on the characteristic shown in fig. 3, Z3 impedance operating
characteristic is added with a small rectangle to ensure that faults near the bus are cleared fast.

Value of X and R in small rectangle action zone please see table 2:

Table 2

When XDZ≤ Ω, extract XDZ/2
Value of X
5 2 .5
When XDZ> Ω, extract Ω(In=1A 5A)
In In
Value of R 8 times of the smaller between above value of X and RDZ/4
5) Output choice of distance relay

Distance Protection Communication Schemes

Distance protection with communication is the primary protection for the subtransmission line.s It is applicable
to two kinds of channel pattern: permissive under reach mode and permissive over reach mode.

● permissive under reach mode(PUR)

1 Operation of Zone 1 sends signal to remote end

2 Instantaneous trip if

a) Zone 1 Operation

b) Zone 2 + Signal from Remote end

●permissive over reach mode(POR)

Line relay equipment

Relay A Relay B

Zone 1

Zone 2 send signal

Zone 2 send signal

1 Operation of Zone 2 sends signal to remote end

2 Instantaneous trip if

c) Zone 1 Operation

d) Zone 2 + Signal from Remote end

Three phase auto-reclosing

CSC-162 protection system is provided with three phase autoreclose whose performance is only to
close the circuit breaker but not to select faulted phase and trip. Switching in and out of three pole one
shot auto-reclosing function is controlled by reclosing strap.

Breaker failure startup current component (selectable)

Switching in and out of breaker failure startup current component is switched by control field.

When current of any phase larger than setting of CBF startup current, CBF startup current
component acts. Contacts of failure startup current relay and relay action are connected in series to start
breaker failure relay.

Inverse time relay (selectable)

Only setting of K, R and Iset is needed to realize manifold inverse time limit curves, including
standard inverse time limit, ultra inverse time limit, and extreme inverse time limit and so on. Id present
any phase current or zero sequence current.

Id R
( ) −1
K: time factor of inverse time limit, Iset: current setting of inverse time limit R: index setting of
inverse time limit

Line relay equipment

Overvoltage & Undervoltage protection

The protection comprises 2 stages of Overvoltage & Undervoltage. This protection function can
be applied to via binary settings.

VT fail/Fuse fail condition

. . .
1) Summation of three phase voltages is not zero and U A + U B+ U C > 7V. It

considered as failure of one phase or two phase;

2) Voltages of all three phase are smaller than 8V and current of any phase >0.04In or breaker
closes (test TWJ). It is considered as loss of three phase.

When any one of the above are met, distance relay will be blocked & alarm will be intiated.

Line relay equipment
Technical data

Input circuits Rated current IN 1 or 5A

Rated voltage UN 63.5VPn-Neutral or 110V AC Ph-Ph
Rated frequency fN 50Hz
Thermal overload capability
In voltage circuit, continuous 1.2×UN AC
In current circuit, continuous 2×IN
1s 70×IN
≤ 10s 10×IN
Power consumption
In voltage circuit at UN=110V less than 0.5VA
In current circuit at IN = 1A less than 1VA
at IN = 5A less than 0.5VA
DC voltage supply Rated auxiliary voltage Uaux 220V DC; 110V DC
Permissible tolerance at rated auxiliary -30% to +14%
Power consumption
at energized state max. 50W
at quiescent state max. 30W
Pick-up tolerances Current values Less than 3% of set value
Under rated Voltage values Less than 3% of set value
conditions distance values Less than 3% of set value
Time values Less than 20ms
Binary inputs Binary inputs for 24V DC voltage 24, can be expanded 52;
Current consumption for each input 2mA 5mA
Contacts Potential-free trip/command 44 contacts, expandable
Switching capacity make
Break 1250VA(AC), 150W(DC)
Permissible current ,Continuous 5A
0.5s 30A
Switching voltage 250V DC
Indication contacts 16
Switching capacity make/break 1250VA(AC), 150W(DC)
Permissible current 5A
Switching voltage 250V DC
Construction Housing / dimensions 19 inches, 4U
Weight approx. 8kg
Type of terminal Harting module terminal & circuit terminal in
special design
Relay class IP20
Displays LED displays unit front 8
Standards IEC 60255 series & China standards (GB,DL)
Insulation tests High voltage test IEC 60255-5,2kV
Impulse voltage test IEC 60255-5,5kV
Immunity tests High frequency test IEC 60255-22-1, add.100kHz according to
CHINA standard,
Electrostatic discharges class III
electromagnetic field IEC 60255-22-2,class IV
Fast transient disturbances IEC 60255-22-3,10V/m
Power frequency magnetic field IEC 60255-22-4,class A
Disturbance induced by radio frequency field, IEC 61000-4-8,class V
amplitude modulated IEC 60255-22-6,10V/m

Line relay equipment

Emission tests IEC 60255-25

Climatic conditions Permissible ambient temperature
during service -10ºC~+55ºC
during storage -10ºC +40ºC
during transport -25ºC~+70ºC
Humidity class <75%
Mechanical stress Permissible mechanical stress
during service IEC 60255-21-1,class I
during transport IEC 60255-21-2,class I
communication Front port RS-232; CSPC software for
interrogation of the relays, testing etc.
from a PC/Laptop
Rear Port
RS-485 & 2 Ethernet
ports-Communication with the
substation automation system.
Supports IEC 61850 & IEC
Three-phase single-shot
automatic reclosing relay Syncheck angle error <=±2°
Fault recording Instantaneous values IA,IB,Ic ,UA,UB,UC,3U0,Ux
(approx. every 0.833ms at 50Hz)
2 records of max. 5 secs duration
(adjustable pre & post fault duration)