-General Engineering Knowledge

THIRD EDfT10N

H. D. McGeorge,

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Contents
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Fin& pabtished by Staaford w.ridme limited 1978 ReprmIed 1981 Secood editioa 1984 Reprinted 1987, 1989 Third editioll Inc pubtiIbecJ by 8uttefworth.HeiaellWlD Ltd 1991

1 Centrifugal Pumps and Priming-Coolers

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131 Pollution Prevention-MonitoringOily Water Separator-Sewage Treatment

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Preface
ficates of Competency Classes I, 2 and 3 aU have the same general content. There are. of course. differences of emphasis and in the way that the questions are asked. Information in this book is intended to be of assistance to candidates for all of the papers. This third edition of GeoeraI Eogineertna Knowledge has been expanded and updated to cover changes in the examination questions and legislation introduced since the previous edition. The chapter on pollution prevention now includes sections on disposal of chemicals and garbage. in addition to notes on prevention of pollution by oil, the Clean Air Act and disposal of sewage. A new chapter on production of water by low-pressure evaporators and reverse osmosis contains notes on treatment to make the water potable and on problems with bacteria. Noise. another form of pollution, is also associated with vibration and there is now a chapter dealing with both topics. The section on vibration covers its use as a means of monitoring tbe condition of machinery. Additions have been made to various chapters and references where appropriate for further reading. 'Knowledge is of two kinds - we know a subject ourselves. or we know where we can find information upon it.' (Sam Johnson) H. D. MeG.
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CHAPTER!

- Centrifugal Pumps and Priming-. Coolers and Cooling SystemsPipelines and Corrosion .
The simple c:cntrifupl pump is used lor sea WIder circulation and other duties where self priming is GOt a ·requirement. WIIea iosIalled for bilge pumping or ballast dUty, these pumps require a primer Le : tome meall5 of removing air from the suction pipe 50tMt the liquid to be pumped ~ caused to ftow into the pipe an.d so to the eye of tbe impeller.

CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

SINGLE STAGE CENTlUFUGAL
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PUMP

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takes up an elliptical shape. This causes liquid from the suction pipe to Bow into the pump. passes to atmosphere. The backward curving vanes and the rotation give the liquid a combined radial and circullU' motion. The cover has a hub containing the Q)IIVCrtingldnetic: head into pressure bead. must be fitted with an air pump. IMPELLERS The fully shrouded. A spigoued coupling spacer connects the motor half coupling to the pump shah. The Boat operates a valve on the pipe leading from tbe float chamber to the air pump suction. the pump cover. has an entry at the centre. 3) shows a primer coupled to the top of an electric motor and centrifugal pump set. forcing air out. 4) Sbraud 2 3 . sin!!'". A pump which is required to initiate suction from a liquid level below itself. as the simple plan view shows (Fig. The water in a pump acts like a piston for water in the suction pipe and an empty pump will not operate. because of the water passing through. With no liquid in the suction.-y t ShnIud AIR PUMP PRINCIPLE consists of an elliptical casing which contains a vaned rotor and bas a covering plate with ports cut in it. It is drawn from the suction ftoat chamber of the main pump and through the pipe and ~s to the suction ports of the rr. The volute also acts as a diffuser. The discharge The air pump or water ring primer. The renewable wear rings are of aluminium bronze and the casing is normall~' of bronze or cast iron. The internal passages of a typical air pump are shown in the sectional sketch (Fig. is of phenolic resin asbestos. lubricated by the liquid IX'ing pumped except [or pumps operating on high stalk lift. In tum. there is a movement of the liquid to be pumped. Valles / M:~ 1 E. SUcnON When a centrifugal pump is operating. opening-the valve and allowing the air pump to evacuate the air from the suction pipe. 1) is the type most widely used. These have grease lubricated bronze bearings 10 ensure adequate lubrication during the priming period. AIR PUMP ARRANGEMENT The diagram (Fig. 2) inaeases. Under the discharge ports. A pipe from the pump outlet. have a diffuser ring so that a greater quantity of kinetic energy in the liquid can be converted to pressure. Cooling water is necessary to prevent overheating of the sealing water from the action of the vanes in the liquid. The rising liquid will lift the ftoat and close the valve on the air pump suction. The right side shows the operating passages and the path of the air being pumped. When this is removed. The tips of the vanes are sealed by the water and the volume between them varies during the rotation. provides cooling water for the primer. entry type. the liquid leaving the impeller prodeees a drop in pressure at the entry or eye of the impeller. The swirling action causes the liquid to move towards the outside and away from the centre (in the same way that stirred coffee moves to the side of the cup. CASING The section of the· volute casing shown ia the sketdJ (Fig. together with the impeller and shaft assembly can be lifted out of the pump casing for inspection or maintenance. The main pump suction pipe has a float chamber fitted. Pumps designed to produce bigh pressure. It consists of a number of vanes curving backwards from the direction of rotation. above. either a packed gland or a mechanical seal. This returns through another pipe to the pump suction. Air pumped out. liquid in the casing is swirled by the rota ling impeller. Interruption of the coolant supply results in vapour from the sealing water destroying the vacuum effect. the Boat drops. The shaft bearing. The casing is partly filled with water. The vanes are supported on ODe side by shrouding connected to the hub. A centrifugal pump will maintain a suction lift of four metres or more once it has been primed. the volume decreases. the volume increases so that air is drawn from the float chamber. single entry impeller in the pump shown (Fig. This partial vacuum causes the atmospheric pressure to force liquid into the suction pipe. so that air is no longer pumped. The latter is normally subject to atmospheric pressure. Some pumps have a double volute QlSing ~ gives radial balance and reduced wear on the beariop. S). tending to spill over the rim and leaves a dip at the centre).PlJMPS AND COOLERS 1>hah bearing al the bottom and.mer. thus allowing unrestricted fIMIr from the impeller. . Tbe rotor is coupled to the electric motor so that when the pump is running the water spins with the rotor and being thrown outwards. When the pump is operating. The shrouding supporting the vanes 9D the other side. Beneath the suction ports.

OPERATION Centrifugal pumps for bilge. but it is an exception.. 3 Ceotrifupl PQIDP with primer ports are not shown but the air from them is discharged into the top of tbe outer casing. Suction valves between the liquid and the pump are opened and B check is made that other valves on the suction side of the system are closed..) If priming takes a 10"1 time. chamber to the position shown. From the outer casing the air is discharJed to atmosphere. EllipricaJ casinC . when the puJIlp has bee primed. the primer will become bot unleu cooling water is passed through it.... The delivery valve is kept shut and the pump is started. The PU"*PI IIR! connected to the vacuum tank through the same sort of ftoat chamber atrtaae- . n TIle primer runs continuously but can be unloaded. Obviously positive displacement pumps would not be started with closed discharges. to ensure that tbe sealing water is at the eorrect lever.. ballast and general service arc usually fiued with primers. by the arrangement on tbe left. Air frum di5(harp: porn Air SUCllon Elecuic I1lOIOr pipe ) t 1 Air discharge to almosphere Sight Ilass . 5 F. Before staniog such pumps.. so that the partial vacuum is broken and the water is free to circulate. The centrifugal pump can be staned with the discharge valve closed.ked. Fresh water is used for lOpping up.PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS • :..~ir diliCharp: 10 aunosphere Pi...tiDJ . The Ihut-off handle rotates a port ed Air pump showia& open.. EXHAUSTER FOR CENTRAL PRIMING SYSTEM Several centrifugal pumps can be primed rrom a central vacuum IBllk as an alternative to being fitted with individual water ring primers...=... This is shown by comparison of cbaracteristic curves. the primers must be chec. . (A propeller pump should not be started with the discharge shut or overload results. The sea water suction can be opened to allow cooling.

This was made appareat Wbell steel n=placed by . .7) but straipt low is CUaIIaGIl iD . wllile it&df corrodio. 6 The oil or water beiDa coole:d is in c. . ". . IS ~a~ mto the suction and diIcharJcd to the sealing water tank.mmiaium brass has apparently depended on the pceseDCC of aprotectiw 11m formed aloes the tube length bf wrrosiOD of irua in the system.. .p.mc~ b:tweo:n plalC= . tbe vacuum tank.. nd mlor about 11... hand bole Fil-.e tank. 1be baftIes also IUpport dae tubes.. The two suctaon ports are con~ by passages in the cover to the suction pipe from tbe_ vacuum tank. would reduce the number of au pumps and the runnmg tUne for. . ~ Clcar. The remedy in tbcse systems bas been to fit sacrificiaJ soft iron or mild steel anodes in water boxes or to introduce iron in the form or ferrous sulphate fed uno the sea water.. . from the float chambers of various eenmfugal pumps clcanin..casing when the rotor turns. ~) which evacuate th.m.1~ rum ~ahng water level f V:u:uum !l!~ul!t Vacuum tank with Air suction plpc Connections :. Two pall ftDw is showa ill tile &a __ CAl.R aormaUy . .. air pumps (Fig..The . . Starting is by meaDS of pressure SWl~ through SUitable s~arters.. other cheap materials hPe been used witJa uDSatisfadQr)' results. The water remams m the tank. 6 Exbauster for centra! primiDl system menl as is used with the individual water ring primer. bas·proIoapd tube life. materials are available.upeIIIiv\. . ciradatcd with tea water.. The sa:xeuIuI UIe of .er tank.primer shown.other conosioIl resistant materials or protected more completely. together with make-up water. tbe use of a central primer. Early tube failures may be due to poDution in coutaI waten m to turbulence ill aome cateI. the sea water to a ~JIIlh of 1 ppm for aD hour per day over a few weeks and lilblcqucmtly to dose before enteriDa adIiI dcr leav. through the cooler.. rotor and ponedplate. . The sea water is ioCDntactwith the inside oflbe tubes and rile water boKCI at the cooler eodI.7&30~aic:tel. Thus. on a vessel where priming is needed for a ~umber of pumps. produces a pumping action . them . the outside of the 1UbeI aad the sheD of the c:ooIer.. 22 per eeat ziDc. wbikthe air pa:sses to atJIIOIpbere through ~ outletloverftov:' pipe. The primer has two electrically driven.w~ boxes and other parts. . ~Y coolers are fitted. Air from.oatatt wittJ..ins port for I sbort period. cobIeft. Ba1Ies direct dae-liquid IICIOS5 tile tuba • it . .. as described for the mdividual wate~ nng pnmer... because it takes up the elliptical shape ~f the. . More . The IlUer· treatment consists of dosin. There is also a shut off cock for isolating the pump and a DOD-return valve. . Tubes of aluminium brass (76 pel" cent copper. and ~ pumps are automatically stopped by the SWitches when the required vacuum IS reached. Tubes are espaoded into'tube plates aad may be __ bonded by soIdcriDi. Water In ~he casing forms a seal and.PUMPS AND COOLERS I7SOr.. Tbe pumps run iotennittcntly as demand makes necessary and not continuously.oval shape with a..-.. 2 per 00Id aJuininium) are tx:namonly uteeL Ordinary brasses ... consists of a ~n~~a1 casing of . The tWo discharge ports are connected via an aperture to the ~IiDg wat. with tubes of . Elccux: maiO!' wilh aulOODUC $Ianing by vacuum switch 1lJBE COOLERS Tube CooIen for enJine jacket water ud lubricatina 011 coolilll 8. w. The sealing water reservoir also keeps the au pump cool and 15 cooled m turn. Thus tHlprOteaed iron in .

for the milk industry where daily damna is lICCCIIary. Flushinl is necessary after the cIcaniq . give no protection... me dIected· parts illllllCdiately with water. There arc now such • variety of chemicals in use that reference boob arc needed.. . If horizontal iostdation is necessary the sea water sbouId enter at the bottom and leave at the top. They aIIo increase the beat exchan. Strainers on the sea water pump suctions should be deaned and chcc:ted replarly. like the coated ferrous metals. SHELL The sheD or cylinder is fabricated or QSt. If orher treatment is IICCCIIII}' dais call be baod from the. Howevu.. the inlet bcillJ left full opeD.e area and produc:c a hIItIuIcat . Tube stacks are made up to have a fixed tube plate at one ead and a tube plate at the other end which is free to move with the expansioa of the tubes (VII. NJUIate temperature cathodic protection. Tuba fi~ by expaasioa ManUf8l!rurers INSTAllATION rec:ommend that coolers are arranged vertic::aJly. It also breaks up the boundary layer of liquid wbicb adheres to the metal and acts as a heal barrier in smoodIlow. causes more of the liqUid passin. If cleaning is needed to reroo¥e deposits. TUBE PLATES Naval brass tubeplates are used witb aluminium b. in the DiDctcea-ftfIics. It is in contKt with the liquid beiq cooled.eta! pre.F corrosion and air locks will reduce the cooling area and cause ovcrbeatina. 8). . This may be oil. Before cfeaninJ. Precautioaa are euen. Uncoated ferroas (iron) . .:ton contribute to the efficiency of heaf transfer..ture is maintaiDcd by adjustment of the oil or jadet water low. The coven and water bous are commoaly of cut iron 06 fabricated from mild steel. Other materials found in service are pnmetal. 1'he plates . die turbuJcnce can caDle ptalC damaF due to crosioa PLATE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER Plate t)Ipc heat cxcbaoJers.. Water boxes of gunmetal and other materials are used but these. the tubes. 1be manufacturen uadbook will list acceptable cleaninl c:hemicaJs. cooIen are isolated from the SysteDi by valves and blanks or by removina pipes IPMi bIankina the cooler flanges. the prodw:ts of corrosion coatin... 1be iron . as coolers. use sIIould be 1II8de of the special soft brushes. aluminium broDze ud tometimes special alloys.al CIOIDC inco contact with the skin or the eye. Where they have beeR eoa&ed with rubber or a bituniastic type coating. (F'1I. the iron or steel has been protected but has provided no protcctioo for the tubes and tubeplate. which ~ normally inhibited against corrosion. corrupted with horizontal or chevron pdeI'Il COI'f'IIIIIdons. bctwcea die plates to COIDC into contact with them.EJtS . The sea water side sbould be disturbed only when necessary to avoid damage to the protective film on the inside of the tubes. C<wIac:l is a~ by weario& JIoves and protective sogles or a face sbidd. the best ftnt aid is UIWIIIy to . TUBE STACK The tube stack showa is fitted with ahemate disc and rin& bU'ftes... were originaBy developed • 9 .PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOl.. aWes lOme measure of WATER BOXES AND COVERS Only the miDimum of salt water sbouId be cin:uJated in coolers. 9). with fUIlllow 011 tbc sea water side. The material is DOt critic:al (provided it is not reactive with any inbibitinc <:hcmicals) because it is DOt in COOlaC:t with sea water. which there is DO COITOIion problem. Should Ik cbeatil. Chemical clc a. If tbe joints leak at the other end the spec:iaI 'teD talc· ring will allow the liquids to escape without mixing.. or water.. an acid such as bydrochloric acid may be the agent.. Thus it is best to by means of the salt water oudet valve.ninJ may ~ reconuocacJed pu1icuIarIy where bard deposits have accumulated.. For the sea water side of c:ooIen. AI thac t. Tarbaleace •• 0AJ0IICd to smooCh low. Thus vellt cocts should be fitted for purJirlg air. wid. teriaIs to water boua provide a protective film on the tubes as the IIIIIpfOteded iron itIdf corrodes. Soft iron or mild steel anodes can be fitted in the water boxes and provided they cause DO turbulence. Before handline any chen:liaI the iIIItnx:Iions should be read and the type of fint aid tbat miP1 be nccessuy ascertained. wiD help to sive cathodic protection and a protective film. Clearance is required at the cooler bed end for removal of the tube DCSt. 1be bed end tube plate is sandwiched between the casinJ and the water box. 8 Detail of ~ opansioa IIJJ'UIFlDCISt SIDE .. Easily removable covers on water boKS permit repairs _ cleanins to be carried out.. as bIoctqe wiD starve the SJ*nt of water.. Air in the system will encout2.eat bas beea drained &om the cooler. SEA WAlER FI. The joinlrinp are of synthetic rubber.1DCdical book. 'I'Itac iaakc die plates stiffer and therefore permit t he usc 01 tbiMcr 1IIIItcriIII. Damage to the strainer plate wiD allow IOIids through which wiD block the end of the cooler. If tempeI. tubes. Mixing instructions mU5t be followed. The cooler wiD bcc:omc incffcctivc in eitbct case and partial blocking of the cooler tends to lead to erosion damqe. They were first used at sea.tial wbea deaIin& witb axrosive chemicals used for dcaaio&... tbcre is a greater corrosion risk.

be ADV ANT AGES AND DISADV ANT AGES Plate coolers are smaller and lighter than a tube cooler giving the same performance. such as compressed asbestos fibre. Deteriorating joints are also a problem.EItS PUMPS AND COOLERS fit. The joint material is normally nitrile rubber wlrich is bonded to the plnte with suitable adhesive such as Plibond. The nitrile rubber is suitable for temperatures up to about lOOC'C (23O"F). Plates are cleaned before joint removal so tbat they are ready for crack detection afterwards.ions checked. The flow ports at the corners of the plates are arranged so that the cooling liquid and the liquid being cooled pass between alternate pairs or plates. . Turbulent How helps to reduce deposits wbich would interfere with heat flow.. Their higher efficiency is shown by the smaller size. ~ v'_ _s~tems may be responsible for early failures.• . adhesive which is cured·in an oven. to increase capacity and similarly damaged plates are easily removed. they are sprayed with dye penetrant and viewed under an ultra-violet Ji&bl to show up any defects. Joint leakage is visible externally except for tbe double joint at the ports on one side of the plate.PUMPS AND COOl. The sketch (Fig. during the process. The movable end sits in the horizontal carrying bars and the plates are also located and supported by these._ IUlta ~ mable~rialsplanormaDY UICd in tube c:ooIen for sea water COIltad m Ie coolers. 11 Sea_in -. 10 Plate cooler ~Iy 10 I "" . Thcintense cold makes the gasket brittle and as the ltIetal of the plate contracts the resultant stresses set up between gasket and plate cause the glued joint to fail. Plates can be added. if necessary without replacement. they may be difficult to remove and there are sometimes problems with bonding new joints. Joints must be adequately clamped to prevent leakage. The plates are passed through a chamber containing the spray. New joints are fitted using a tbermo settin. in pairs.. 9). It is sufficient to bang the plates once or twice after cooling to remove the joint debris. 10) illustrates the way in wbich the liquids flow. The rubber joints are compressed when the cooler is assembled and the clamping bolts tightened.'"Fi. Oeaning is simple as is maintenance. Tube coolers may be preferred for lubricating oil cooling because of the pressure differentiaL Cost is another drawback. Stainless steel has been used in plate coo'lers for duty with sea water. on a conveyor belt. and dimenc. Other joint materials for higher temperatures are available. ~. but proved unsuccessful although it is suitable for other applications. .e. there are a large number of expensive joints on plate coolers and the plates are expensive. At high temperatures the rubber hardens and loses its elasticity. In comparison with tube coolers. A drain hole acts as a tell-tale for tbis section (see Fig. For this. Best efficiency i~ octained by liquids moving in opposite directions i. METHODS OF SERVICING 1be difficulty of removing old gaskets is overcome in factory servicing by the use of a liquid nitrogen spray. in which tube leaks are easily located and plugged.. OVertightening can cause damage to the chevron corrugated plates so the cooler stack must be lightened. contra-flow. leaks in plates are sometimes difficult to find because the plates cannot be pressurized and inspected with the same ease as tube coolers.. No extra space is needed for dismantiing(a tube cooler requires enough clearance at one end to remove the tube nest). All liquid inlets and outlets are at the fixed end plate.

the lack of iron ions from corroding iron or steel and possibly from high water speeds. The fault leads to leakage around tubes in tube plates so affected and other problems. the least noble metal wastes leaving the more noble intact... by additioll5 of minute quantities of elements such as arsenic (0. 13 1 I JOints. 3 metreslsecond for aluminium brass. valve lids and spindles waste due to galvanic corrosion. Tbe system can be divided into three main pans. . fitting of steel pipe sections or recourse to driven steel anodes to provide protective iron ions and galvanic protection. valveS and filters and a shorter length of piping. with bends ~h~lIow father than sharp. 4 metres/second for 70130 cupro-nickel. 4i. Particular types of corrosion such as de~zincification do in fact cause problems in pipework and coolers.04%) or other alloy materials. The modulus of elasticity of titanium is about balf that of steel. Its light weight (density 4. PiP:lo are Iabrlcated and bent to shape before removal of weld spatter and KOuring.udc to galvanizing. PIPELINES AND CqRROSION Sea water pipes for circulation of c:ooIin& water.arti. This gives the impression that more noble materials such as the copper and copper alloys are resistant to corrosion in sea water. will cause conc~ntrated corrosion). External corrosion of steel pipes is also a problem in the tank top area. meehanile or anot~er high-q~ality cast.rebronze. Permissible cast irons must be to specification· and obtained from an approved manu facturer. but prone to corrosion. no chani" of section and no inward projection of . where there are 12 . Water speeds for galvanized steel pipes lihould be limited to 3 metres per second to avoid erosion. it also tends to set up galvank: ceDs with other metals. While titanium has great corrosion resistance itself because it is more noble than most materials used in marine systems. Injections of ferrous sulphate are also resorted to as a means of supplying beneficial iron ions for non-ferrous systems. 3.5 kJl'm3) and good strength mate it a useful material. De-zincificatlon IS inhibited In brasses for marine use. It has a tolerance to high flow velocity which is better than that of cupro-nk:kel. .lar. The cathodic titanium makes the other materials anodic and" likely to suffer wastage. Galvanic corrosion occurs in the presence of sea water. 111epossihility of corrosion is reduced by careful choice of compatible metals. marine life (mussels. use of thick unprotected steel cooler covers. but the main benefit is its corrosion resistana: in static or fast dow conditions.from corroSion and erosion.fferent metals in the make up of a pipe system or differences in one material. The metal acts as I sacrificial anode and additionally delivers iron ions which arc carried through and give proteaion to other parts of the system where they deposit. SEA WATER PIPELINES Ship side valves for sea water inlet must be of steel or other ductile material. Ordinary sreY cast iron bas proved tobe unreliable and likely to fall should there be shoclt from impact or other cause. coating of the titanium. In sea water cooling circuits. The sketch (Fig.. Bronze has good resistance to amosioo but is expensive and therefore tends to be used for smaller ship side valves. it is also resistant to sulphide pollution in sea water.-hlch projects through the Zinc of the galvanized protective layer. ~In gatvafttt cells. Steel is cheaper. ete. De-zincification is the loss of zinc from a brass with the result that a soft spongy copper is left. 'The salt water system is thereby limited to one set of pumps.. are prone to internal wascage. ' Recommendations have been made for the installation of steel sacrificial anodes in cooler water boxes. Injections of biocide should not be used where the sea water is intended for delivery to an evaporator (ref M633). ftow can be hampered and effi~ency affected . both internally and on the outside (weld spatter .by build up of weed. must be limited.5 metres/second for 90110 copra-nickel.) and general dePOSits:External . Wastage of steel will result where there is weld spatter and where there are dlrr~lenCeS hctw~en weld material and the steel of the pipe. Thus. pipes should he of generous size. Flow rates should be limited to: 1metreJsecond for copper. II may he cast or fabricated. CENTRAL COOLING SYSTEMS Where salt water corrosion is a problem it may be ·considered advantageous to use a closed fresh water circuit cooled by sea waler in one or more large central heat exchangers. Concentrated galvanic corrosion occurs where there is a mix of non-ferrous materials. 3 metreslsecond for galvanized steel. together with those for bilge and ballast systems.. The alternative materials . the c:ort8Iion resistance of titanium and its alloys has led to its development for use in sea water systems. (1) sea water circuit (2) hi&b temperature circuit (3) low temperature c:in:uit. Plastic inserts are inserted at the inlet ends of some cooler tubes to reduce otherwise rapid erosion (and corrosion) in a vulnerable zone.PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS TITANIUM Over the last thirty-five yean. a~ a I'rcl. spheroidal graphite cast iron. Protection is provided by impresse~ ~urrent through platinized . Water speeds in non-ferrous as in galvanized steel pipes. iron.-"cis on buD sea water inlets also filters 00 the sea water system give protecnon.titanium anodes in some cooling systems. Unprotected steel valve casings and pipes will in the presence of sea water and bronze seats. 11) shows a complete central cooling system in which all components are cooled by fresh water.cu. insulation or use of cathodic preteetion. Areas which have suffered fro~ !his ". Non-ferrous pipe and cooler systems have suffered from unusual problems as the result of the mix of different copper alloys. The presence of corroding iron or steel confers benefits on sea water systems.f~rm ?f corrosion are soft and of a red copper colour.

From the outlet of the fresh water distiller the water is led back to the suction of the high temperature pump through a control valve (C) which is governed by engine inlet temperature. and Grim._. Shone. Components of the system are arranged in parallel or series groups as required.•. . with a diameter two thirds that of the main sea water inlet. In motor ships a direct suction on another pump of the same capacity is acceptable. vol.. . E.. J. and Scholes. the water is taken to the fresh water di~tiller and the heat used for evaporation of sea water.. Outlet is about 70"C. The number of sea water inlet valves is reduced together with the filters that require cleaning. F. ADVANTAGES Provided that chemical treatment is maintained correctly corrosion will be eliminated in the fresh water system. paper 24. The pressure control valve works on a by-pass.'-Hi". /. vol. Temperature of the water after the cooler may be 35"C and at exit from the main engine oil coolers • it is about 45'"<:. . The control valve mixes the low and high temperature streams to produce the required inlet figure-about 62"C.. sysIC.. paper 11.. (1m). Main circulating pumps must have direct bilge suctions. E.J . J. References . MIlT.... Materials (or the reduced salt water system required by a central cooling arrangement will be of high quality and expensive. can be of cheaper materials. system Fi. Fresh water in both the bigh and low temperature systems is treated chemically to prevent corrosion in the pipes and coolers. Trans.. I. C. Titanium in Marine Engineering. Tnuu. '. {1985}.. M633 Use of Marine Growth InJUbiton in Su Inlet Piping. Pipes.·PUMPS \NO COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS Air cooIm. E. J I Central cooling system (AlpM lAval) Conde. vol.m ----Low temp. G. 98. ····ContrOl -.•. (1985).---Seawacer ••. 14 IS . .. E. B.. At the outlet. R. temp. valves and coolers in contact with only fresh water. {or emergency. Low temps . SEA WATER CIRCUIT The sea water pump takes water from the suctions on either side of the engine room and after passing through the cooler it is discharged straight overboard. /lIlT. Trans. New Materials for the Marine and Offshore Industry. MIlT. The main and stand-by pumps would be of the double entry centrifugal type.. I. o'board LOW TEMPERATURE CIRCUIT A I Temperature of the water leaving the central coolers is governed by the control valve (F). C. paper 16. r--"-I S.HIGH--TEMPERATURE DilCilb CIRCUIT Cooling water for the main engine and auxiliary engines is circulated by the pumps on the left. '17. I. Cotton. The constant temperature level of the oooling water means that control of engine coolers is easier. 2S Years Experience with Sea Water Cooled Heat Tnnsfer Equipment in the SbeU Fleets. Savings are made by the use of cheaper metals in the protected fresh water circuit. . G.W. 84..

]2 . Water containing pollutants such u bydrogen sulphide. This is scaled to give percentage oxygen direct. refrigerant. Thus glass spheres filled with nitrogen aDd mOunted at the ends of a bar to . are picked up when ballasting in muarial waters. Thus a tank. 13) so that the torque due to oxygen m the sample IS balanced by a restoring torque generated by the feedback current. Most gases are slightly diamagnetic. A lower than nonnal oxygen level can cause loss of efficiency. The atmosphere in mch a tank may become deficient in oxygen due to corrosion resulting from the remains of sea water ballast. magnetic field ID ~hich they are horizontally suspended.CHAYTER2 ENCLOSED SPACES . it es up a posmcn away ~m the mostinte~ part of the field. cargo space. One physical property which distinguishes oxygen from most other common gases is its paramagnetism.. used in the Taylor Servomex analyser. it may cause loss of consciousness resulting in a fall with serious or even fatal injury. being slightly diamagnetic. is dangerous to enter due to lack of oxygen and sometimes the presence instead of carbon dioxide and possibly other gases. pumproom or closed compartment and must be maintained while work is being carried out. a magnetic field is intensifi~d by . The field will also induce magnetism in tbe oxygen i. there must be some way of isolating it from the rest of the sample. It is :_:pended by ~ platmum nbbon m the field and. carbon dioxide may be given off by sea water due to other cbemical changes.. Oxygen percentage is read from the meter which measures th~ rest~rin_gcurr~nt. Faraday discovered that oxygen was paramagnetic and therefore attracted by a magnetic field. When the surrounding gas contains oxygen. Hydrogen suJphide (which is toxic) is a compound which.. Ventilation is required before entry to any ballast tank. In other closed compartments oxygen may be deficient due to being absorbed . Where a test shows that there is a lower value in an enclosed space.as. inerting gas. or because it has been excluded by other gases or vapours (e. Dltrogen dioxide and chlorine dioxide. The output of the photocell is amplified and fed bac~ to a coil wo~d on the dumb-bell (Fig. reducing sulphates and nitroeen compounds. g.. vapour from cargo. Fatal accidents have resulted from entry to fore peak tanks which have not been properly ventilated. Arrangement of dumb-bell in maperic: field non-umfonn. the dumb-bell spheres are pushed further out ~f tbe field due to the change produced by the paramagnetic o~n. Normal oxygen content of air bi about 21 per cent..e.- 'Hazards in Enclosed SpacesTankers-Cargo Pumping CLOSED SPACES • TIle fore peak is an example of a tank. is produced by bacteria in . that can remain closed and unventilated . F'IJ. ventilation sbould be continued until the correct level is reached. The air changes necessary to improve the oxygen level will have the beneficial effect of lessening the possible presence of gas or vapour which may be harmful. The magnets and dumb-beD are housed ID a chamber which has an inlet and outlet for the sample.. apparently safe because it has been isolated by being closed. The small Dlftnhole for entry at the top of the tank will not give much assistance in ventilating the compartment. smoke or fumigant). 13 OxyJen analyser (T~) 17 . Oxygen may also be depleted by the presence in sea water of hydrogen sulphide which tends to oxidize to sulphate.med by using pure nitrogen for zero and normal air for setting the span at 21 per ceot oxygen.as 16 FiI. by chemicals or drying paint. like ammonia.the presence of oxygen and its intensity will vary with the quantity of oxygen.the water. Torque act 109 on the d. that is they are repelled by a maanetic field. form a ~umb-bell (Fig: 12) wi~ tend to be pushed out from a strong symmetrical . False rea~ings are obtained if the gas being sampled contains another ~~~hC TIle only common gases having comparable susceptibility are mtnc OXide. While oxygen is depleted. OXYGEN ANALYSER In order to measure the amount of oxygen in a sample from the atmosphere of a closed space or from ftue etc. ' 1be dumb-beD 8J!aDgell_1entIS. 1be zero p05lhOD ~f the dumb-bell is sensed by twin photocells receiving light reflec:ted from a nurror on the suspension. fot Jong periods. Accura~ calibration IS obta.umb-beU is proportional to the oxygen concentratiOn and tbe~fo~ the restonng force necessary to bring the dumb-bell back to the zero pos~~on IS also proportional to the oxygen concentration.

& .. DO curRllllows Ibrough the meter. ~ ~ point. Over-rich . Another condition for combustion is that the oxygen content would have to be more than 11 per cent by volume (Fig...~ LB_ ~ ~ L.. The ullage space EXPLOSIMETER 01 a .. - 6 5 4 3 2 1\ . is scaled ia I I. peKeDt........ ~ e...murc will bunt ia tbc ~ chamber.. 0 Percentage oxyp:1I II'Hllmi1!>1...aeat... . to be used by personnel intendins to enter a closed compartment.) Tbc canbusbble ps iodicatcw sIIowa ciapammatically (F. I ~. tile sale . 'C ~ ane off little vapour OIL TANKERS Petroleum vapours when milled with air can be ignited provided that the mixture limits are about 1 per cent to 10 per cent of hydrocarbon vapour.. will bum in the presence of die red bot fihmepI causin& die fcIIIpcnIun: 01 the ~ to rise......L) or p. The iaItnmIaIt is de •.... 01' ~ en be kSIed with a oombU5tibie cas wIIidI is aIibnted for IIycIrocarbcxa.. 14)... ..... limit aad marked _ a percentage of lilt lower IiIIIit. This type of petroleum is dangerous because the over rich mixture is readily made flammable by dilution during loading.m. 8 prodaccs lllay be filled willi a ftammaIJIe uoIcss heated to above the IWIl a. Lg.: mixtures 'f I~ .. 'These are Class 'A' petroleums. rqis&as GO tbe meter wIIitb... limit aad willi . ~ ~ ~ " ~ .be awted in parts per million (p. Below 1 per cent the mixture is too weak and above 10 per cent. These figures are termed the lower and upper flammable limits... because of the fiIameat.II11n13ble range A Ieaa . Cunad . Petroleums with moderate volatility give off less vapour but the amount may be within the ftammable range. The . Thus some petroleums will give off a lot of vapour at ordinary ambient temperature and tend to produce an over rich mixture... When the bricIF resistmcrs are halana:d. . with the balance.en below combustion level r....caIe is in tenm ollbc lower expIosi¥C or . too rich.~ 12 II Olty. Frequendy lbe s.ENCLOSED SPACES MARINE SAFETY CARD ~_ The General Council of British Shipping bas issued a safety card with precautions and a check list. for cIetcc:tinI vapour an a rallf.. IS) consists of a WbeaJstone brid&c with cum:ot IUJlPIic-t from a battc:ry.p.. ~ 1\ ... discharge or tank cleaning.... I~ :6 • ..".. AIteraaIiveIy.. Faile radiap are likely wbea O&JP COIdCat of tbe sample is ~ or .. Aa aspirahx bulb and llexible tube ~ 1IICd to draw a pi -Pc iato die dwn-_....C up to tbe Iowa .. cstbe esislanceoflbe fiI:unent aad this change of I'CSI5laIICe Tbe ~ .... -01 a.oo ~ _ Too lean 20 2 '1-.... i\ A. w-ainj"l a.. One n:sistancc is a boI &Iamcat ia a QIIIIbustioa c::hamhu. tile bridF. These are Oass 'B' petroleums.p ..-ben inen pi is.. ~ of tempentarc me. " 7 ".. A leak of vapour into the atmosphere is also dangerous.. aIIo be oIMaiDed (LF. air.peI~ nftIS UFL 10 9 8 ~ . . respectively. Crude oil and the products of crude will give off vapours which are potentially dangerous if they have high or moderate volatility...a&U of ps (rich 1Dixture) a faIIc Il:1'O RaCIiaI ..

Crude oils contain aU of the hydrocarbon products e~ 10 the refine~ and many of the products are highly toxic.L. Threshold Limit Values are updated annually and gIven m referena:s available from health and safety authorities.V.p. Volatiles will form vapour . . Benzene (~) IS an ~ample and tts low Threshold Limit Value (T. reqwre special means of detection (chem&eal stam tubes descri~ ~ow). provided that it is below the ~r ~~ range. Generally any needle deflection above zero is taken as indicabng a toDc condition.V. others are toxic substances which are absorbed tbrough the skin or by ingestion (swallowing). The liquid accumulates in bilges (whkh should be kept dear). . If there is reason to suspecllJlCk of oxygen or the presence of toxic vapours then ventilation or gas freeiJII is started tome time before entry and the atmosphere is cbecked before JOinI ill.p.r c:. The glass stain tubes are sealed to protect the detecting chemicals. Reference books are necessary and available. Uquid residues in tanks and pumprooms must be considered as potentially danaerous.ombustible gases on an instrument which is scaled for hydroc:arbooll. A l!. CARGO TANKS Cargo tanks.and methods of combating them.l\·fn:e lank can become dangerous again :8' if there is sludge or scale • remili·ninl!. A pumproom which has remained closed for a long period will. also of 10 p.L. t~ inert g. 1bcre is a different chemical lube for each toxic substaoce.) of 10 p. Sour crudes carry highly toxic hydrogen sulphide (H~) with a T.. Oxygen deficiency occurs due to corrosion from ballast water but as mentioned in the general section on closed compartments there are further reaso~s.. is tbat personnel exposed to va. the remammg concentration can be measured by tbe explosimeter. CHEMICAL STAIN TUBES Testing for contaminants in spaces where the variety precludes the provision of special detecting instruments.for ~xygen de~ciency. Tanks whach are cathodically protected and ballasted may have accumulations of hydrogen. Trace.m. obtained using Dliger instruments. . Figures sometimes have to be revised because new factors come to light.p. w6icb froItt-sour erude or benzene are toxic.LV.m. and sulphur dioxide with 2 p. GENERAI~ PRECAUTIONS Any dolled space -requires ventilation before entry and the '\ientilation must be maiDtaiaed during the time that work is being carried out. .m. win not be banned but that the nsk ~ases at concentrations above the T.m.V. There are additional hazards involved WIth tank entry. THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE Vapour concentrations are measured in tenns of parts per million (p. may be deficient in oxygen or may contain flammable andlor toxic: vapour.p. In a tanker. of 300 p. A guideline.L.tS used to produce a safe condition lD tanks will reduce oxygen as WID steaming out. Detection of other vapours must be by devices intended for ~ purpose. on chemical as on other tanlten.p.e has been ventilated to remove vapours. as the result of contai. the ends. amounts o~ the hydrocarbon ~ which are vet)' dangerous. can be read directly from the tube after the prescribed number of pumping strokes. They may not be easily identifiable (many corrosive liquids have notbin& to distinJuisb them from water) and the content can only be guessed at from tDOwledge of previous cargo.p. is made possible with the use of tubes packed with chemical granules that change colour on contact with a particular gas or vapour.~ concentrations below the T. .V. It I:' possible to obtain a reading for any hydrocarboa but not for the otbe.). Entry to the cargo tanks and pumprooms of a crude oil ca!1'er exposes personn_el to these risks.m. Contamination by gases and vapours can be checked provided that presence of a partiadar substance is suspected. Such liquid may be corrosive. ~y contain toxic vapours andlor flammable mixtures. • PUMPROOMS Pllmpro()m~ arc subject to leakage from pump glands and . Petrol (gasoline) has a T.' The explosimeter is primarily a combustible gas detector but wtll also gIve guidance With.pipeli~. bein& broken off before use. may be present. AdditiooaUy. lD(hcates thIS.or if a pipeline containing liquid or gas is opened. many liquid QJ)ocs are corrosive and toxic.p.L. like a ballast tank lose its oxygen from corrosion. Chemical tanker problems are multiplied by the number and variety of chemicals carried and by the range of risks. pumproomS and other closed spaeee. They may also be short of oxygen as the result of COITOIioo etc. although the hydrogen will disperse with proper ventilation. Oxygen can be lacking because it has been di5placed by other vapoun or inert gas used in an emergency. based on experience.ning Class 'A' or cargoes. these containing data OD the different hazards . The inert gas adds the risk: of: ca~ mOllOKide(~<?) ~ has a :r. 16) for taking the test has a long sample tube on its IUCtioo side and the staio tube is fitted in the discharge after first purging to dear air and fill the tube with a sample from the space.p.m.regard to the safety of a space for entry by personnel: H a spac. and ot~er to~ gases which. Chemicals have a two-ye~ shelf life.ESCLOSFD PACES ENCLOSED SPACES The instrument and batteries must be tested before use and the samples ~ taken from as many places as possible 'JW1icularly from the tank bottom. the vapour may be toxic or flammable. where mert gas bas been used.m. or a poison which QUI be absotbed throusb tbe skin. 0l1nC oxide (NO) With 2S p.L. CHEMICAL TANKERS Cargo tanks. :. V. nitrogen dioxide (N02) With 3 p.m. The result.. of ~ p. . 1bc pump or aspirator (Fig. If volatile. ' COFFERDAMS Cofterdams and other spaces adjacent to those with cargo can become CODtaminated due to leakage.

buminB etc.. At start up the gas is recirculated through the scrubber or a start up vent is used. F"II. With good combustion. Hydraulic or steJm lines to pump motors must be closed securely and the power system lIMIt dowa. well as being gas free. The duty of the watcher at the entrance or anybody else involved.. is to go for assistance in the evcllt of trouble. and pipelines s':K'uld not be opened as contamination can eeeur from IKiuid or vapour in the pipe. The liquid may itself be dangerous. TIle certificate I~ obtalRed from an authorized chemist after tests to prove tbat any gas present lli ~Iow the lower flammable limit and below the T. During unloading.EN\.. ' h:e ~80 GAS FREE CERTIFICATE When work . Work 011 pumps should only be carried out when tanks are In a safe COndUIOO.l vtpOUr may be p~uced if it is volatile.1bese should rc.ri. flue gas will contain about 3 per cent to S per cent oxygen which is below the figure required for combustion (see Fig..m:t 1) SPACES ENCLOSED SPACES Mast vem From boiler Pump as aspirator " uptake 1::!S~. the incoming liquid displaces the gas through the mast vent. The system is used as required when loading or tank cleaning to bring the tanks to a safe condition. protective dothinl and brcathang apparatu~ may be ~ry. Fig. 18 Howden type deck walei' scaI 22 21 .R. Washced flue gas from either the main boiler or from a special Bas generator is used for the purpose. As. be aeneral1y known. emptying A. otber pel'SOftllel shoukl be made aware that entry is intended. Scales and sludges. the gas is pumped through the deck water seal. INERT GAS SYSTEM The presence of ftammable vapours in the cargo tanks of oil tankers has led to the development of inert gas systems. if it is a routine.has to be carried.t.lve ofhapoun. 16 Drlger type multi-ps detector Uquids in bilges or in t~ bottoms of tanks should be ~ _ far _ possible. or danacro. When loading or ballasting. When the situation requires the wearing of breathiog apparatus and lifeline the set must be thoroughly checked and signals arraoBed witb those ill auenci anee. Before working on oil or ~I ~mps or pipelines. The system fan can be used to ventilate the tanks for entry by personnel. the gas is pumped in as cargo (or ballast) is pumped out. A second safety device is the pressurelvacuum breaker. the compartment must also be free from on or other residues and from scale or sludge.L. The gas is drawn from the boiler uptake and passed through a scrubber. As an extra precaution.a spa~ IS gas. tend to (l. there __ be • second penon in attendance at the entrance or. 14). it may be necessary to use a soIven~ to wash the pump.moved before entry. Valve.o. 111e IoI..ation of rescue equipment and die method of usUal it . When 1I closed space bas to be entered. 18). To prevent hydrocarbon gases from the tanks from passing bac~ through the system. Any portable lights used must be gas tight add safe. Combustion in the boiler is controlled to give tbe minimum oxygen and the tank atmospheres are checked by oxygen analyser when inerting or venting.ut in port a certitkate may be required staling that. where it is cooled by a sea water spray which also washes out corrosive sulphur oxides and solids. in quantity.. After pumptng certain chemicals. The gas is then pumped into the tanks by the fan. tbey should be washed through. particularly when bealed.free or that It IS safe for hot work (welding.V.~ or .). 17 Inert PI system. which acts as a non-return valve (Fig.

The cover is closed (as shown) .ioading through larJe. pressure drop within a tank can cause damage due to greater atmospheric pressure on the outside. and therefore reqwre las nwntenancc. 17) or through special hiP..:_heothe vessel!s on passage.o: contents (vapour and mert ps). ..Uum valve is DOt desipea as a filling vent and neither should the tank hatch be left open . 21). . Similarly... -- lnen tanks ba.. 20) lias a moving orifice.. It is directed upwards witb an estimated velocity of 30 metres per second. Rapid pressure rise due to an explosion would not be relieved. They are set usually so that tank pressure of about 0.. Drop in tank pressure compared with that oJ the outside atmosphere will make the small valve open downwards to equalise internal pressure with that outside. The vapour passes to atmosphere through a gauze flame trap... (IOTTA) . The etc OIL TANKER CARGO PUMPING Pre55ure val.24 bar (3th Iblin~ acting 00 large surfaces in liquid cargo tanks are sufficient to cause damage and rupture.. The s. Pressure/vacuum valves (fig. require periodi(: elean~ng to relllOYC gummy deposit. pistons... HIGH VELOCITY VENTS " Tank vapours can be released and sent clear of the decks durin. 1be latter method of venting can cause an accumulation of flammable vapours at deck level. Gauufbme Ir. The type shown (Ma. Pressure vacuum valves can relieve moderate changes in tank pressure due to variations of temperature andvapour quantity. which may then buckle or the metal plate may be torn. Air drawn in by ·the ejector effect dilutes the plume. . high velocity veots.. ventilation system will prevent either over or under pressure. The pressure on each unit of area multiplied by the total area gives a farge loading on the underside of the top of a tank or other surface. lbe fast rate at whidl a tank is filled while. . has two weighted ftaps whICh are pushed open by pressure build up to ac:bicve • sinrilat nozzle effeet. _ . 19 PrcssuRlvacuum valve F1&- 20 Hip. Pressure build up in the tank as filling proceeds causes ~ ~ng ori~ to lift.mall pp between orific::elip and the fixed tone pves hip velocity to the emitted vapour. rinp•. veb:ity vents . A drop towards vacuum conditions as the result of the condensation of steam will also be handled by the valve.. A simpler desip of vent (Fig. through masthead vent$ (see Fig.Ded cone.ENCLOSED SPACES EIfCUJI.Ip Centrifugal carao pumps with I double entry impeDer have largely re~1aced reciprocatiftl pumps in oil tankers. 19) in the.. ha~e no suction or delivery valves. These pumps are ~per.ve lo~ oxygen coatent and before entrY by personnel. m~t be ventilated and tested. 1be conical flame screen fixed to the moving orifice to give protection apinst flame travel wiD.14 bar (2Ib1in2) will lift the main valve (the smaller valve will lift with it) and release excess pressure. PRESSUREN ACUUM YAL YES Moderate pressures of 0. like the moving parts.-e Vacuum valve Fig. held down by a eounterwei&ht to seal around the bottom of a . The pressure v8f. Tanks should be vented while filling... loading produces a very rapid expulSiOftlJtthe prel'iou.

General accumulation of vapour iD the suction tank will cause the same result. Suction from the cargo tank is taken through a separatOl" tank to the pump inlet and discharge from the pump is through a butterfly valve to the deck main... •I ~: tt I. pump Suaioo (WortbiaJlOll-SimptOll) Fi. I. Rate of pumping is hi&h (2fiOOm1Ibr) UDtiI a low level is reacbed. Pump rooms in.ENCLOSED SPACES ENCLOSED SPACES ( Pump I'0OI11 • •I ~ -. Throttling is not harmful to the centrifugal pump in the short term. The vacuum pump wiD prime the system by removing air or vapour... The butterfly valve can also be hand operated. system discharge valve. •: • •• f.•i •t I. Valve closure is controlled by the level monitoring device. Level monitor ~DtaUy or~y in the ~p room with a turbine.-.. liquid level in the separator tank will also reduce and this will be registered by the level monitoring device. pump butterfly compact centrifugal pump can be ~ted Cent. I. . cbemicaJ tankers are dangerous because of the risk of leataae from pump glands of toxiclftammable vapour and corrosive or otherwise hanbfuI liquids. DoepwIO pumps are dac:ribed ill the sec:tion OR IiqlIcfied ps pumping" To . •• ·. The drive shaft passes tbrou&b the cqine room bulkhead via a gas-tigbt seal. Rise of liquid in the scparaaor tank win cause the vacuum pump and vapour valve to be closed down.. . 22. The primerlvacuull) pump driven by an electric motor in theengjne room is of the water riDStype as described in tbeprevious chapter. 22 'vlMtrip' type pumpin. The practice of positioning submersible or deepweU pumps within cargo tanks eliminates pump room dangers. r t " Tllltline .. when loss of head and impeded flow through frames and timber holes makes slowdown in the rate of pumping necessary if use of a small stripping pump is to be avoided.. •• .cssitates a slowdown in the pumpin& rate and this is achieved by throtdina of the . The basic parts of such a system are shown ill Fig.. drive from the engme room. . or in some sbipI electric motor.. Its shaft bas a SIS seal. The latter will automatically start the vacuum P_UIIIP and cause the opening of a diaphragm valve.. Continuing drop in liquid level due to slow draining nec. ... . Systems sueh as the Worthington-Simpson 'Vac:-Strip' enable a faster general rate of discharge to be maintained while reducing the rate of discharge at lower tank levels to allow for draining. . When cargo tank level drops and 80w is less than the rate of pumping. to allow passage of vapour to the vacuum pump rrom the separator tank. . CHEMICAL TANKER PUMPING AND TANK DRAJNAGE . aIsotbeexpense of extra SUdiod pipework and the riIt of mixing cargoes with resuIti~ c:oatamiDatioa.

. The weight of the pump shaft and impellers is considerable and one or more carrier bearings are fitted. Only when the tank has to be emptied for repair.in waY. the return pipe (2)~ and a protective outer cofferdam (3). The number of stages in the multi-stage pump shown is dictated by the discharge head required. Obviously. which ensures that the ullage space above the liquid is filled with cargo vapour. . Thus purging connections are fitted to clear the discharge pipe (~nd the cofferd~m if there is leakage). not to pump pressure. The small amount of cargo left also allows tank temperatu~ ~o be kept at the carrying level so the expense of cooling down and the probabihty of damage to the tank structure caused by expansion and contraction is avoided. Liquefied gas is carried at its boiling temperature.of the ~rings by stainless steel sleeves. a single stage Iow·pressure pump can be 29 w. the use of submerged hydraulically driven pumps.: '. An example of a submerged pump is shown in Fig. Suction Fie. The coffe!"'am is also pressurised before the pump is stopped. The impeller suction is positioned close to the bottom of the suction well for ~ tank drainag~ b~t when ~umping is completed the vertical discharge pipe ~II be left full of hquI~. • Riser vlllve Riser Ir '~t t LIQUEFIED GAS CARGO PUMPING The temperature of liquefied gas prohibits.-. Workmg pressure for the hydraUlic circuit is up to about 170 bar and return pressure about 3 bar. The long shaft of the deepweU pump runs in carbon bearings. the shaft being prot~. There is a risk of overheated bearings if the pump is run without How of cargo and therefore a pressure cut-out or thermal switch may be arranged. cargo fallback opening the purge connection shown. The bottom seal is subject only to pressure from the head of cargo in the tank. where a chemical tanker is to be --enga~ on a particular trade it may be possible to use cheaper materials. Lift of the shaft due to ship movement or pump action also requires a downward-acting thrust bearing. 23 Submerged cafJO pump (Frank Mohn) suitable for chemical pumping there will be a different gland arrangement and shaft bearings of Tefton. ENCLOSED SPACES l ~ c· ENCLOSED SPACES for the pipework. ThIS safety cofferdam around tbe hydraulic pipes is connected to the drainage chamber at the bottom of the pump. Discharge pipe purging is e~ected by c10smg the d~k discharge valve as the tank clears of liquid. then With t~ pump left runmng to pr~vent. Seals above and below the chamber exclude ingress of low pressure hydraulic oil and liquid cargo from the tank. although expensive. The vapour although flammable is safe within the tank because of the Jack of any oxygen (air) to bum with. etc is it drained and purged with inert gas and then air. POSitioning of the shaft wsthin the discharge pspe allows the liquid cargo to lubricate and cool the bearings. 23. respectively. 24) are fitted or submerged electrically driven pumps. The compressed air or inert gas at 7 bar will dear the vertical discharge pipe by pressurising it from the top and forcing liquid cargo up througb the small riser to the deck main. This remainder keeps the tank filled with vapour for safety and saves the problems of total drainage and inerting. Thus deepweU pumps (Fig.. External leakage is dangerous. will withstand &be corrosive effects of most cbermcals It may be used . Three concentric tubes make up: the high pressure oil supply pipe (1) to the hydraulic motor. pump and casing. Stopplng the pump would allow the liquid to fall back into the tank and cleanng of the tank of cargo or of water used in tank cleaning would be a constant problem. . to check for leakage. air being excluded. As 5tain~ss ~eel. As an alternative to the multi-stage unit and its higb~ power drive through a long line shaft.. At the end of cargo discharge a residue of about 2% liquid is left to maintain a • totally vapour atmosphere in the tank.

Effective washing can be carried out at the recommended heating temperature for discharge and even at temperatures as low as 50C above the pour point. " 31 30 . to - Vapour seal CRUDE OIL WASHING OF TANKS (COW) Crude oil wasbing of carlO tanks is.. Water ballasted into a dirty cargo tank in emergency would be discharged in compliance" with the anti-pollution regulations and a suitable entry would be made in the Oil Record Book (see Chapter 9). Suspended nozzles can be controlled to aive a spray pattern on the top area of the tank sides and then progressively further down as sudaces are uncovered during the discharge. disdwae . As a temporary measure.. for example because of bad weather) then suitable tanks are crude oil washed and watet rinsed. An inert gas. It is useful for inducing flow into the pump. If it is likely that ballast may have to be carried in cargo tanks (additional ballast to that in segregated ballast tanks. For the process. however.ENQ. T . with high-pressure jets of crude oil. Crude oil washing must be completed before the vessel leaves port: a compleJely different routine from that of water washing which. where used.Prevention of Pollution by Oil (Marpol) which came into force in October 1983 is to reduce the practice of using cargo taoks for sea water ballast alternatively with cargo. DeepweU pumps are driven by hydraulic motors Or by ftameproof electric IIlOlOI'I situated at deck level.OSEO SPACES fitted ill the tank to lift the liquid to deck level where there is a booster pump transfer the CUJO ashore. Crude oil washing is necessary on a routine basis for preventing excessive acx:umulation of sludge. The new procedures have greatly reduced the potential for poUuoon from of dirty ballast (formerly taken in carlO tanks) and tank cleanin .. a portion of the carlO is diverted through fixed piping to permanently positioned tank cleaning nozzles. Unless sludge is Rgularly removed drainage will be slow. 1be waxy and asphaltic residues are readily dissolved in the crude oil of which they were previously a part and better results are obtained than with water washing.<"Stainless s«::d :deeve ports. The oil residues are pumped ashore with the cargo. .. Ballast is handled by means other than the carlO discharge pipe system.t Tub (CaT) One of the aims of the Regulations" for the ... older tankers have been permitted to dedicate certain cargo tanks to be used for ballast ooly... " ~ . is carried out between .-Duplkation of pumps in tanks is the safeguard against breakdown of dcepwell pumps in liquid ps carriers. Suction FiJ. "Tanks are washed at least every four months. system must be in use during &uk cleaning. 24 Deepwell pump CIeaa B. " Tbe iftduc:er frequently fitted to ccntrifuplliquefied gas pumps is an archime· dian screw attllCbed to the drive shaft just below the impeller at the pump suction. particularly from volatile tiquKk. so tbat under normal circumstances water will not have to be carried in cargo tanks.u. carried out wbile the vessel is discltaflinl. Cargo piping may be used for the introduction and discharge of the ballast. (SBT) New large tankers are required to be built with an adequate number of ballast (only) tanks. Bottom washing is timed to coincide with the tank emptying so that oil below heating coil level will oot solidify in cold weather..

.._.. of ~ "-:. De-lclopment and "Operation of an Iaat a. (1m). .. ICS(I971). 25 ....... It P. IalerDatioaal Ownber of Sbippia&.r. Telfer.. ... 1atcraIt· . . B.• Platt.. ICS (l978r IN eda.t«J G". 'fI_ SlIp -. C...... MA:Gube.. UtwfW ft .. I .. . F..~-..... lor Oil T ' I.: T(llt/cer s.J . I. SIGno. E...... n.. . G. TeIft:Ml. Ilqerenca ICS (1918).• vol.... . .. ... ">: _ _....• and Wbitc. a.. IfftenuItitmM StIfoty GIIiM ~ Oil TMan _ T. 84. lltu. W.. (~JlWZ<rJ ' ..... 1&I ... ._ a.... ...._. n.....~ ...-~: Day. (1986)..... ~. TlI1IUr S4fny GuUIe (CIwmiaIb)...I I• 'IL. E....d In T~mrinIIb.... (~ a. • f i . H. ell hr af -:. .. ~~.

AD elilereency pump has an independent diesel drive or some alternative such as an electric motor powered from the emergency generator.&gD figu~.UD~ are ca~b~ of nil. I . . These are available in various sizes for operation at a range of pressures emf outputs. 29) similar to those used in deck installations for tankers are fitted for use with tile bydrantsin some machiDery spaces. While fire pumps may be used for other duties such as. Tbe -.ts are fitted if a pump can be used for oily biJ&cs etc. the forw. 28) is • staDdard sized IaDJC with nuts. .. The dimensions are .~ ~-""'--main Fire Hydraqlic . engll~ room could put all of the other pumps out of action. to prevent loss of water back !brough open valves when oo~ ~nniag. pump -. 27). Where steel pipes are used. :- large vessels a special two stage pump arrangement may be used (Fig. cargo vessels are provided with emergency fire pumps because a fire ~ . or an air operated pump with its mmair supply.metres from the water level at light draught. return valves if they are of the centrifugal type. !'.PS Two II1dependcntly powered pumps m~ be provided in all cargo ships of 1000 tor. ballast bilge or general service they should not normaDy be used for pumpmj oil. Mixial of the three _lst . gross and over and in passenger ships of less than 4000 tons gross. These are an alternative to having one nozzle for a jet and anotberfor a spray or fOi to be used for oil fires. ~. I HOSES AND NOZZLES Fire hoses must be of approved material.FIIlE PROTECOON FIRE PRO'J'ECI'ION PUl. Dual purpose·nozzles (Fig.. Four bolta are required of 16 mm diameter and 50 mm lenatb..hawn.he ship. Engine room bydrants must bave hoses and nozzles for jet and fog or dual purpose nozzles (F.uc.llfd part of !. Foamite branchpipes (Fig. they are galvanized after. EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP ~ormaJly. t . tube. a ~. from a coatainer..SlOgthe pipeline pressure so that it is greater than the des. The action also draws in air. Such a pump 15 ~catt:d m Fig.Senger v~ls mustJaavc three . s~~nng lear. W_JIUIIIP INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECfION • I I I I The shore connection (Fig. I I I • . Diameter is between SOnun and 178 mm depending on the size and type of ship..:h pumps.: .. of 6 . 27) can be adjusted by rotation of the sleeve to produce a jet or spray. The 6ttins and joint Dlust be suitable for a working ~ of 10.first ~low the waterline is driveR by a hydraulic motor. They are positioned adjacent to bydrants together with suitable nozzles. .5 bar... The suction lift of any pump is . bending and welding.. and is located away from the entPDC rooD) in the tunnel. TW pumps ¥e fitted with non. or in. or installed below water level. 00 . bolts and washers and a coupling for the ship's fittings.. car dccks etc.. Larger pe:.limited and for tbis reason emergency pumps are usually at maximum. 26). The second s\ale and the hydraulic power unit are driven from the prime mover which can be positioned at more than the normal distance from the waterUne. The brandlpipe is connected tbrouah a hose to the hydrant and tile water ftow produces a venturi effed wbich draws up Foamite liquid through the pick. alIo eight washen . PIPELINES ETC. MiDlDlum line pressures and capacities are goVerned by the regulatiOns. . pump H~/ 1IlOIOI' ..the.~lief valve is necessary in the system if the P.'. Changeover anangemen. 7.

I I __ c ____ •• SMOTI-IERING GAS INSTALLATION The carron dio!tide system shown (Fi. only water issue!!from the branchpipe and the nozzle is directed away from tbe fire until foam appears.1 Alum ad ... 30) consists of bottles of COt with • pn.. M with the emergency stops and shut-offs. is UIed if a fire is l5C\leU enoup to force evacuation of the room ... FIII~1IiI ..5mm H Coupfllli 10 fit ships equipmcm 19 ..:aler pn"Ssure ) ~ =3. -l I at the nozzle. L___" __ • "' YII· 3.ape I'OCIIIl C'Oz ...FIRE PROTEcnON FIRE PR0IECI1ON '..) Se:a . water wiD again appear cabiRet door ~ ·.. Foam continuity is achieved by dropping the pick-up tube in a bucket and keeping the bucket topped up with foam liquid...."wstIwr) components in the tube causes formation of a jet of foam. I I ... • I . • .·r- .I .. rele de anangemeot and a pipe to the ensine room distribution nozzles via a mask r valve. Be~ore releasing the CO2 persoaoel must be counted and the ensme room must be m a shut down condition with all openings and vent ~ COz system eDpIC 1... W F. . /~:=::~___....5 mm rubber pickup tube ~ with hollow rod allhc: end Abnneircuit Sniner Fi •• 29 FOIIID braadl pipe (M._. IWiadI openCed by ~ cabiDet door -... .... When the foam compound is exhausted... An alarm i. button as the CO2 cabinet is ~ and m some ships there is also a stop for the enpne room fans mcorpo~ted (FII· 31). Initially. ~ 01--':" - " -• ." . the equipment must be operable from a position outside of the space. Duhon release MACHINERY SPACE FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING INSTALLA nONS Engine room spaces are protected by fixed fire extinguishinl iastallatioqs.. . 28 International sbore CODnectioD Ho5c: FiI· 30 F.& sounded by an alarm.

. Relief valves set to the higher figure of 27 bar are also .by a remote reading electrical puae. each capa~ of maintaining the required temperature. of au receavers may have to be taken into consideration. PilX:wort. chlorine and bromine are baJogens. Tbe closin& of aU cnJine room openings and vent Haps will prevent entry of air to the space. In the system shown. R~gmg ~~ if there is. for fiilinl valve: spindle Filling Combined scal/buminll disc 1 38 HALON SYSTEM Halon is an alternative gas for use as a fire fighting medium in the engine room fixed ~~ It is ·a balogenated compound made by replacement of b~en m methane or ethane by one of the haJogens. The discharge from these valves.a 10 per cent weight loss. Isc:'Jating valves. .ded against abnormal pressure increase by relief valves set to 24.is ~vide~ . Rapid injection of CO2 is necessary to combat an engine room fire which has attained such magnitude that the space bas to be vacated. the actuating handle opens an operating bottle of CO2 and the gas from this pushes down the piston to release the other bottles. Vessels are safeSUU. Liquid level is shown by frosting or by a radioacuve deVICe as used for CO2 bottles . fire causmc: the pressure nse. A ~-by ~tor IS ~ed m addltioO and provided by a vertical. can be shut down remotely as can valves on fuel pipes from fuel servjce and storage tanks. or (b) must give a free gas v~::"ume equal ~ 3S p«:r cent of the entire space.is piped away from the CO2 storage space to a safe area.n two minutes. saorap in individual bottles for large instaDatlOns IS the storaae of the liquid in bulk. The compound is. . whichever is greater.cbcc:ked by . CBrF. Nickel used for low 1lempetature steels reduces the coefficient of expMIioa and resultant thermal stress.a£e. This is the reason for the rule that 85 per cent of the gas must be released witbi. The quantity of gas carried (a) must be sufficient to pve a free .as volume equal to 40 Cover - - pe1" ceut eWhc volume of the space except where tbe horizontal casing area is less than 40 per cent of the general area of the space. .FUt£ Pk<' fECTlON FIRE t'ROTECTlON flaps close d.by ~mng one valve. The free au.. IS of solid d:ra~ rruld steel. . would cause the remaining CO2 in the bottle to freeze. takina . It is a requirement that 8S per cent of the required quantity of gas is released into the space within two minU1'e$of operating the actuatinC handle..Triftuoro-Metbane (BTM). 11Ie pressure vessels are constructed to I.1 per cent J!ideI . The COIlteots . Two refriae~tion w_Uts.1ev~1. cxtcma1... Bottles should not be stored where the temperaure is likely to exceed 55"C.. Coatinuous COII~n~ ~oring . hydraulically tested to 228 bar. The seal/bursting discs are designed to rupture spootaneously at pressures of 1n bar produced by a temperature of about 63"C. Failure of one umt causes automatic starting of the other. Bromo. CO2 bottles are of solid drawn steel. volume.-eat beat. which can be filled with liquid C~ to the vessel . 32) where the combined seallbursting disc is pierced by' a cuner. The discharge line has a relief valve set to 35 bar. Tbc syphon tube In the bottle ensures that liquid is discharged from the ~.5 bar. All fans and pumps for fuel. ~fri. The main C~ discbarge line IIIeDSed for pressure so that release of gas' is indicated by an alann.. .eration units arc required for this form of ClDIltainr8eRt.fitted and arr~ for ~arle into the sp&:e to extinguish a local. Failure is indicated by an alarm.Io7dI Class 1 Itandard.. To avoid sticking. .weighing or by means of a radioactive level indicator. aD the handles must be in good alignment. BULK CO2 ~ ~ati~e to the conventional co. galvanized· for protection against COITOI5IOft. The master valve prevents CO2 released in this way from reaching the engine room and it is dispersed safely by the relief on the manifold.. Without the syphon tube the COz would evaporate from the surface and. are prorided. The latter is hollow for passage of liquid CO2 to the discharge pipe. The bottle valves may be of the quick-release type (Fig. ~ated pipe. StoDJe pressure for bulk CO2 is 21 bar and the temperature maintained in the bottles is -1'rC. are of the bellows sealed globe type. Bottle pressure is normally about 52 bar (750 Iblin1 but this varies with temperature. A suitable steel for this telliperahu"e would probably oontain 311. fluorine.

filling valve and IeveI-iDdicator. \btl . 40 SYSTEM OPERATION . nus amount is not Iwmfui to persoooel for up to five provided that breakdowu of the pi has not occurred to any put cxteat.. Halon (CF38r) 2 skJrCd .FIRE PROTEcnON FIRE PIlO l1!CiiOft As a fire fipring 8JCISt.es. fans stop and cbmpen wiD dole... The halon is stored in a QXIlJ)UtdIeDt ... To reduce this effect. odourless. The gas starts to breakdown at temperatures over sure. the initial fillin.. It is not suitable for certain firc& iIwolviDl metals or metalbydridea nor is it normally installed in chemH:aI tankers for carao· t8Dk ~. the alarm operates.. the ps operates not by IIIIOtberibs _ does COz but chemically by acting as a negative catalysilo inhibit combultioe by brcakinl tbe combustion reaction. and the sysaem is brou&bt 10 workiat . - __~~~T-~~~~ Fig. COt by beioa introduced in Wee qauticies produces a relative drop in oxygen content whicb requires evacuation of dIe'Sf*le before use. . COl from these ruptures the buntina diK at the top of the storage container and then assists in expelling the halon. Wbea tile c::abioet is opeaed. Eqine . The produas are toDc (e.. 1be discharge must be completed in 20 seconds but the alarm IOUnds • the release cabinet door is opened. The gas is colourless. H8Ddle (2) can only be moved when released by the blockinl mechanism. ill abe contaiaet wbida bit a pressure relief..Thc halon is stored at a pressure of 14 .. The contents of the COz bottles opened by IumdIe (1) pressurize the pipe line between the halon container and the master valve causial the bunting disc to rupture and allowing the halon to flow • far as the master valve.. Fresh water is used . Wstb all eatraDces closed. 33) COftIiIb of 1M storaae cootainer. thus it can be stored as a liquid like ~. two sets of ~ opentiDJ cyliDden ad a 1II8IIUaI . shuI"_ .. :. Release procedure is much the same _ for COz. The harmful products are increased by the inteasity of the fire. of their presence. becauae of its biah rate of dispcnal. An arrangement is made for automatic ltoppinl of veot fans ud dosure of dampers in conjunction with the soundins of the space aIamt at openina of the door of the release cabinet. Speed of discharge: of the gas is also important. 3ot) are opened by band to supply water to the heads in one section or to a hose.es IIeaIina of the space essentiaJ. The hip dispcna1 rate of the ps maIr. The PI ia effective for the taIIIC types of fire as CQ. CIbIDet:. Storate pressure is )ow and to ensure rapid discharge the liquid is further pressurized with DitfOJeD or ~. of hip deotity and has a low boilia& pOint.. The quantity is calculated _ about S per cent of tile volume of tbe sp8CC to be protected.33 Halon release sygm FIXED PRESSURE WATER SPRA YING SYSTEM This system is similar to the sprinkler used in accommodation areas but the spray heads are not operated automatically _The section control valves (FiB. Tbe pressure build up in this line acts on the blocking device to permit opention of handle (2)... The latter opens the master valve to the eop room distribution pipe and also opens the CO2 bottles (2).away from the protcc:ted space." hydrogen ftuoride and hydrogeo bromide) but being irritants they &We .u.as liquid at 14 bIr SKnP: Iaftk .-ned.. mmpared witb up to two minutes for COz..... 1IXIIh I Ibnn -/ discharge (~~ '-~-r __~~ valve) Main The halon release IfDIlpmeDt sbowD (Pia. A maximum discharge time of 20 seconds ia caDed for.u. The 5 per cent c:onc:entration pves risk and is treated with the same caution as C~. Smaller quantities of baIoa 1301 are required becnIse it has • different action. detection of·the fire and ditdwJe of the gas must be rapid...~ • I WR :. The operating cabinet is also remote. Penonoel must evacuate the space wben w. the handles (1) and (2) are opented in S\ICCCIIIiOn..

D'Cwhen supplying all the sections simultaneously in one compartment.. It has been used for hold protection 00 some amtainer vessels and bas been tested for engine room fire . compartment Corrosion of the system is reduced by keeping it normally lined with fresh water. (c) the spray will protect personnel in (d) water is easily available. Jines. which acts as a booster fOl the second stage. The foam is drawn from one of two IarJe tanks fitted with vent arrangements by the foam pump. via the diaphragm valve. The foam plant must be capable of providing foam for fire fighting in tbe machinery space wben water is supplied by the emergency fire pump (pressure may be less from tbe emerp:ncy pump-than \from the main fire pump). The pump itself has a relief valve but foam compound excess 10 requirements is discharged back to the tank. the diapbrllJlD valve will deliver the correct amount of foam compound into the water main for any set of coaditioAl.R..5 per 6JhtinI.34 EnJine room fixed prc$$U. when working at the correct pressure. Heavier foams can be produced.FIRE PROTEC'TION la) if prcjfltuces a large quantity of steam wbich has a smothering action Connectioll from -~~CXJmpInSCId air supply Air bouk maintains p~''lIshiCWI which COOIP<"f1gJc COfIlnClion Wat« spur is a potentiaJ]y good fire fighting medium because this gives a cooling effect (b) in producing tbe steam. The system shown (Fig.. 1be pump is automatically operated by pressure drop in the system when the control valve to one section is opened. Damage to electrical equipment etc. However. main. which is controlled by two sensin. fitted at deck level. 35) is designed to deliver a correctly proportioned amount of foam compound into the water supply to the deck main. After operation. the pipework is drained of salt water and refilled with fresh after washing through. also supplied through the deck. in the 1000:1 foam. the original 1 volume of liquid evaporates and produces enough steam to reduce the percentage oxvgl:n in the ste. Shut ClocliAI p!'Cvcnled . elqIUIioB . Foam monitors are fitted OR deck and supplied through the deck. On a large vessel this pump may be of the type described in the firemain section i. main. Foam drencher nozzles ill the machinery space are situated above areas of high risk.. FOAM SYSTEM A number of large tankers have been fitted with low expansion or heavy foam installations for protection both 00 deck and in the machinery spaces. 42 . a two stage pump with the first stage below the waterline.<l111i air mixture to about 7. Spray nozzles are designed to give the correct droplet size for fires in flammable liquids such as fuels and lubricating oils.f etc. valve orr . This anwunt is below the level normally required for combustion. The pump must have either an independent drive or an electrical supply fr._ is JCnerated by blowing air thro.e.. The air bottle provides a cushion and prevents cut-in of the pump due to sJiaht leakage of tbe water.Te . a mesh which has been wetted by a solution of foam concentrate in water. As demand varies due to the number of outlets.om the emergency generator.5 per cent.. The coatrol valves are located in the foam compartment which is outside of the machinery space. ater . There He additional portable nozzles. for ckpilllsion.. A second water supply is available [rom the emergency fire pump normally situated in the fore part of a tanker. It must be able to maintain working press'.:ion. The foam conc:eotrate is metered or mixed with the water to Jive a 1. The mesh is corrupted and its hole size governs the expansion ratio ot the foam which is limited to 1000:I by IMO rules. y (multi-spray) pressure by means of the compressed air connect.• _HlllIlI filline Uo' prevcm corrosion) and le5I:ing N. by salt water is reduced by washing with hot fresh water before drying out. 1bey are located so as to pve adequate water disuibution over the tank top and aU fire risk areas. m5hwaler ~ionl . It IS placed outside the compartment.by 5uainer or large aperture Spray noule Sea IlICIion Fij!:. a large amount of heat is required (latent heat) and the. It must be possible to operate the system from outside the protected space. The limit is required because the loam is composed largely of air and easily breaks down when in contact with a Ire.

... _ .._---Sprayers 7r~r-~~~~~~~~1 -_ - I I __j 44 .. toIuticxa of QODCCDtrate ia water. and sprayed onto the screeD.:.--... I + F~_~ Gearbox . GeDeratioo of foam must be rapid and sufficient to fiB the Iarp:st spKC to be protected at the rate of 1 metre/minute (depth).-- Mal"hillel')' Ipacc I Main boiler + I Oil tank..~ lmom . Air is bIowD ~. .....bJ"'In ekctricaIly driven fan (odler drives have beeD UICd).-1.liaa truntinp may be aa:eptabIe.... SPRINKLER SYSTEM ACCOMMODA nON Aa:ommodatioo aad service spaces of paseenger vessels ue protected against fire by an automatic sprinkler fire alarmIdetection system of the type sbowa (Fig..aR necessary to carry the foam to the fire uea but DOnDal ventila.._i"iI'". Delivery ducts. 37).flRE PROTECTION c:aG.~..OtIJCl pu!I1pS IPump ---_. .

cx:aI tcmperauue rise will operate an individual sprinkler bead -. . have dry pipe sectioas i~.e DRY PIPE SECI10N ALARM The ~ pipe (Fi... Anti-freeze c:an be added to fresh water· for tIIis ~ veuds wbic. 1be drip orifice prevents build up of water pressure in the alarm pipe due to leakage. A special non-return valve (Fig. Thus when a sprinkler head is set off. be caused to start the pump (the pump test cock is opened to sive a water flow). drain and relief valve. Initially the ftow. It must be connected to main and emergency power supplies and there must be a connection through a screw down non-return valve (locked) from the fire main such tbat ba<:k8ow from the sprinkler to the fire main is prevented. The alarm is a pressure switch and water from the system reaches it wben the non-return valve is lifted by water flowing to any sprinkler head.. It must be arranpd that during expulsion of the standing charge of frab water from the taak. TANK Contents level is indicated by a puge JIass and this is specified as equivalent to one minute's discharge of the pump. I. Section pressure is shown by the gauge at each stop valve and a drilled bole t. Supply pressure must be biJher than that in the tank so that air can be replenished under presaure. 'The tank is also provided with a fresh water supply. through the pressure switch.pe prcssu- - . 38) is the means for operating the alarm and visual indicator which is positioned 00 tbe bridgeffire control centre. Thus • c:ompressor COIIIICded aDd having automatic starting is provided. 39) elltends upwards from the section val\'e wbich abo acts as the link between tbe spriDJdcr system water pressun: and the dry fti rized with air. Sprinkler heads are fitted throughout ti)e acc0mmodation but the number of heads in any section is limited to about ISO (IMO regulations allow up to 2(0). SECI10N ALARM VALVE ~ ~ acx:olJUDOdatcs e~ dUe to lcmperatur'c c. The pipe from the tank to the system has a non-return valve to prevent entry of sea water to the tank. Normally the non-return valve covers tbe annular channel in the seat..of water through a sprinkler system relies on the pressure exerted by the compressed air.. . Water supply is then maintai~d by the pump.hrouJh the 46 Ally parts o~ die . start the pump..nd the resulq pressure drop in the S)'51em will. ·A test circuit is fitted 10 that thepressure switch C8ft be isolated and.. by draining.K:!s " u--e-II Tesl \l'alve PUMP The pump sea suction is kept permanently open and. the pump is for use 0Dly with the sprinkler system. Tank volume is at least twice that of the water specified. The test valve Jives water eqUIVa)ent to that of one sprinkler aDd is used to test the The sprinklers are grouped in sections witb a limited DUmberof heads. The indicator is a panel showing a section of the fire zones with an alarm light for each.h trade ia low temperature weas.. s. SupplyinlllP J SO sprinkler 10 ile. There is a stop valve for each section either locked open or fitted with a teD-tale alarm to prevent unauthorized closure. Normally a section is confined to one fire zone or area. the air pressure remains sufficient to overcome the bead to the hiJbeat sprinkler aDd to provide enough working pressure for the sprinkler. If part of the circuit becomes filled with salt water as the result of operation. Pipes are of steel galvanized for corrosion protection and the system is filled initially witb fresh water.)'SteIn wbieh lIIitht be subj~ 10 freezing muse be ~'.The installation is kept ready for usc by beina ~ frOQI die ~ pressed air loading on the water in the pres5llR tank.. it must be subsequently drained and again fiI1ed with fresh water.. the approximate location is displayed.

~._.....~.... «_ .. _ _

tn,

.....

__

' ........ ..-._

~___,,~

/

JSkin

Water pr4IUR it COIUaiDeclby die ... bIId·oa its leal by tbc CCIIIJe wive. The IpIICIC abo¥e tile CIIIIIe valve.illIIecl to tbe Iewl with water . ... the pipe above tbat " tiled widI IIDder ,.Iaure. 'he CIIltR.vahe " .. wateJ1i&bt by a joiat" die ......... .., ....• *'1. WIleD opmdioIl of• ..,n.tIer MId "rck FI I J die .. II .... illtbe dry pipe. me centre valVe is puIbed up by die fcin:c 01.... uder·* dIppIr. 1be dIrppcr lifts and rotates 011 the yoke lOoae side by 1M dIIct of.".. tow oa the skirt. The water Ioock up tIuouP .,.pipe ....... ceo1Ie valve 10 ioc:k opeD ... in fiIIina the i:nIenBefIiM tef. pI'CIWt'iIa IDd operaICI tbe

*

dipper."".

...... .. ,.Ior ~
... ,._

ne

air aad :vequiNd. The IeCIioa v.Ive ... drop& 10 ~ of die ccwer ... eo be rauoved to relet die vahc.

_c.

__

SPRINKLER HEAD
SpriakIen, .... phIICCfedarea. De IIad

aM ....
~

:._

eo¥Cr

doled by • ~ wIIidl is MId ill pI.ae .". • qudIrIid die to by NIl 'r.. of tbe IiIIIIIid it HeIdIilre~1D _ Ie aa4 _tNh.rc .......... (red: • ,.ao..r: ~. Spiiatle:n ia tbe ..a.MIatioa are .. ..,6ac lJpCI. fIit:IIIr ...... -.e spriMIer .... aR Inecl if ... ".,.. beanied .., die t I, J .... c:eIIe.-ad __ 4Bl1 *'t •

....

-==

~w

(F.,. 40) "
....

.

of 5

Ji1raIaa2

per aBate over the

s.-- --

..

CHAPl'ER4

-. iDItiai

bon make-up

Fuel-Handling and Treatment. Self Cleaning PurifierAutomatic Combustion System for Auxiliary Boiler
CRUDE OIL REFINING
Crude oil is broken down to pve various types of fuel and other substances. primarily bv heating it so tbatvapours are boiled off and then condensc:d at different teinperatures. and separate!y coll~ng the constituents or 'fractions' from the distillation process. Crude od contains gaseous fuels, petrois, paraffin"" gas oils. distillate diesel fuels and lubricating oils wbich can be coll~ed from the fractionating tower, wbere they are condensed out .at the ~erent levels maintained at appropriate temperatures. The crude IS heated an a furnace, shown with the tower on the left of Fig. 41. The boiling process leaves behind a residue which is very dense as the result of having lost the lighter pans. This bigh-density remainder has the same bydrocar·

.. the IiJbter fractions and is poteDtiaDy a fuel. UDfortImately, 1hc: rdning process not only c:onccntrates the liquid but also the impurities. Vacuum oastiDation removes more of the Jighter u..1ions, to leave .. nat heavier residue. As cau be seeD from the low chart (Fil- 41) the refinery may bave additional conversion equipment. Vis-breaking or tbermal crackiaS is one process using heat and pl'eSSun: to split heavy molecules into li&bter components leaving heavy residue. Catalytic crackin& is another, that uses a powdered silicaalumina based catalyst with more moderate temperatures and pressures to obtain ti&hter fractions, with howcycr an. inc:reasingly heavy residue. In tile latter process catalyst powder is continuously ciralJated through the reactor, then to a regenerator where carbon picked up during tbe conversion reaction is burnt off. Unfortunately, some of the catalyst powder remains in the residue wbicb may be used for blendiDa bunker fuel oils. The very abrasive silicaalumina catalytic fines have caused severe engiue wear wbea not detected and removed by slow purification in the ship's fuel treatment system.

QUALITY ASSESSMENT (FUEL TESTING)
Buaken

(almosph.:ric diSlillali('lll) •••

FnlClKJoalin, lo../cr

type(s) of fuel. amount(I). viBcoIity, specific gravity, ftash poiat aad water content. Trouble frequently resuhsfrom inferior fuels and tbere it iasufticicnt information to Jive .8I'IIiac. FucJ andioI· schemes and detailed delivery notes have been propoeed. TIlus the Classification Societies and otben provide fuel testinS servic::es (about ten days for a result), and on·board testing equipment is available. A representative sample is needed to give an accurate test result and this is difficult to obtain unless a properly situated test cock is fitted in tbe bunter manifold where flow is turbulent. The sample is taken after fIasbint of the test cock, Because of the variation in heavy fuel, small qtlaDtitics aN tapped into the test container OYer the period of bunkering. to Jive a repraentative
sample. A full analysis can be Jiven by tbe shore laboratory. On-board tests are limited to those whidt give reliable results and kits for speciIk: gravity. viscosity. pour point, water content and compab"bility are on the market. F1asb point is found with • Pensky-Martin closed cup apparatus as carried by passenlCT

Fuel Oil

are dassified as Gas Oil, Lipt and Marine Diesel Oil, Intermediate and Marine or Bunker (C) Fuel Oil. The delivery DOte specifies tbe

Quail Gas oil
YKuum distillation

vessels,

Furnace

FUEL DATA

IlaIItJ or s,.dIe GrmIJ (S.G.)

Residu.;al DilL

FiC. 41 Oil re6ni., pro mm

is liven on the bunker delivery DOte and am be found for fuel at a particular temperature with a test kit hydrometer. Required for bunker c:alculations. it is also needed for selection 01 the purifier gravity disc. Separation of water from fuels with a density bigber tban water is not possible in conventional centrifuges. although solids will separate. ~ is spedfied when ordering fuel. Redwood VISCOsity in SCCODds beina replaced by Kinematic Viscosity in centistokcs. Tbe oo-board test uses tbe princ:iple of a metal ball beina allowed to fall tbroup a lUbe of fuel sample at 8O"C and beina timed oYer a set distance after it reacbes irs tenniaaI YCIocity. A cakulation gives the kinematic viscosity. Fuel viscoUty iI reduced by llteatiaa. (I)

-

51

FUEL-P\JRIFlER-AUX.

BOILER ~t in the settling tank, large quantities from serious water contamination wjJI be "'~n the tank is sludged and the indication win be Jiven that a serious problem exists. Thus settling tanks are not made redundant by centrifuges. Centrifuges remove water with the impurities dissolved in it, and the heavier solids in suspension. at a rapid rate. Impurities dissolved in the fuel are not removed. There are fuels with high density over 991 kg/eml at 15°C from which water separation in the normal way is impossible. Sodium is a contaminant wbich may be present due to sea water in the fuel. Being soluble in water, it will be removed with it in the purifier, (Sodium in the cylinder burns to form with vanadium an ash very harmful to engine exhaust valves, etc.) Vaudium'and .... phur are dissolved in the fuel and not removed by the purifier. The effect of sulphur (which bums to sulphur oxides and forms corrosive sulphuric acid) can be neutralised by alkali additives in diesel engine cylinder lubricant. Condensation of strong acid is diminished by li;eepiDg liner temperatures high. Sticking of sedium and'vanadium salts on exhaust valves is much reduced by keeping valve working temperature below about S30"C. SiUc:eII and ............. catalytic fines are removed in the purifier or clarifier, but slow throughPUt is essential for optimum results. The self-driven purifier delivery pump has been replaced in some instaUatioos by ~ with independent drive to give a slower supply of fuel to tbe purifier. .

to make il !lYbie in the engine. (2) to improve 5CparatioD and (3) to ~ure ease of pumping. -Puur Point is checked on the ship by cooling a pre-heated oil in I testtube while tillinl! the tube at every Joe drop in temperature to sec *ther it is still free·fil,,,,,,inl!'The pour point is 30C above the no-ftow temperature, and fuel in tanks must be 5°C above this to prevent solidification, Low heat transfer roc:ffi,..,ent'makcs a solidified fuel impossible to re-liquefy in the tank. Wirer CODtent is found with a test kit which is the same as that used for measuring water content of lubricating oils. The oil sample is mixed with a reaeern In a closed container and any water in the oil reacts with the chemical reii~enl to produce a vapour. Pressure rise due to the vapour generation is registered on a pressure gauge. calibrated to show water percentage. Alternativelv, the vapour displaces liquid and the quantity of this is used to show water content. The water may be fresh or sea water. The latter is I source of sodium, which with vanadium produces harmful ash after combustion of the fuel. Water together with solids dissolved in it is nonnally removed in the centrifuge. Compatibility of a residual fuel allows it to be blended with other fuels to give a stable mix. Where there is incompatibiJity, the mixing of fuels results in the precipitation of beavy sludge which blocks the fuel system. On-board blending and even mixing of different fuels in bunker tanks can cause the problem of sludge. if there is incompatibility. TIle property is assessed by making a sample mix with the residual fuel and another fuel, in equal amounts, and depositing a drop on photocbromatic paper. After an hour the pattern left by the dried drop is compared with spots on a reference sheet. An unsatisfactory blend is typified by a dark central deposit with' an outer less dark ring. Economies are possible if poor-quality fuel can be sufficiently improved by blending with distillate to allow its use in generator engines. etc but there is the risk of sludge fonnalion. Fuels blended ashore and supplied as bunkers are sometimes found to be unstable and subsequent sludge formation or layering may make them unusable. The compatibility test is not reliable.

SELF CLEANING PURIFIER
Fuel oil purifien are fitted with a ~1idin8 bowl bottdm wbiclt is raised or lowered by a water operating system for self cleaning. Lubricating oil purifiers are sometimes self cleaning. Manual cleaning may be preferred so that the solids can be examined and also because use may be intermittent and the extra expense not justified. Fig. 42 shows One operating system for a self cleaning purifier. Whil~ ?il is passing through the purifier. the sliding bowl bottom is held up in the position shown by the operating water beneath it. The sliding bottom seals the bowl by being pressed against the sealing ring in the rim of the cover. Solids from tbe oil are thrown outwards by centrifugal force and collect against the bowl periphery. At intervals dictated by either a timer or choice, the oil feed is turned off and the bowl opened to discharge the solids. There are a number of discharge ports around the bowl. At the end of the discharge. the bowl is closed and after the liquid seal has been re-established. the oil feed is continued. DUring normal running, the pressure exerted by the water under the sliding' bottom, is sufficient to keep it closed against the pressure from the liquid in the ~wl. ~ opera~ing water m~tai~ a constant head of .... ter to the paring disc which acts hke a pump opposmg this head, provided that the radius of the liquid annulus remains constant. If evaporation or leakage causes a slight water loss, the reverse ?wnping effect of the paring disc is reduced and water from the operating tank b.ings the quantity of water in the parinl chamber back to the correct radius. TI\~ operating slide prevents loss of water from beneath the sliding bowl, by cl(;\ing the drain holes. To discharge the Sl.~ids.first the oil feed is closed and then the solenoid valve is opened. This aHows "'ater from the high pressure line to Row into the patina chamber The water enl~rs from a point nearer the centre than the noon"

FUEL HANDLING AND TREAlMENT
Heating coils in bunker tanks and particularly in double bottom tanks have always been necessary for heating to make the fuel pumpable. Some modern poor-quality fuels have a pour point su1ficieotly high that they start to solidify at normal temperatures. and because of low conductivity they cannot be reliquefied by heating. With these fuels the temperature in storage must be SOC above pour point. High delivery temperature is a sign of high pour point fuel. The risk of incompatibility between fuels, and the possible precipitation of sludge if bunkers are taken in tanks tbat contain remains of another fuel, has increased. Bunkers should therefore betaken in empty tanks and kept segregated. Formation of sludge can also result from sea water contamination or temperature changes. Bacterial infestation is well known as a probl~ with lubricating oil. It has also caused sludge and other problems with aU types of fuel. Filter blockage may give notice of sludge in the service tank if it carries over from the purifier. Sludge will choke the fuel sys.em and stop the engine. . Settling tanks andtentrifuges are intended to remove water and solid contaminants; and although small amounts of water take a long time to settle

tan,

52

. B~
~
, ,
,

.. AA.~ P@ildlhe _&Did iI~ to pNvaltOu.Iuw .... a ..... 1be mllJ'oI_ .... __ II tka mpjetli_ by tile
puina _
arnz,UIICDt. "

opea'"
'.

tat ....
, ,

¥ ',.

I

1ij__ J

,

CENTRIFUGE ARRANGEMENTS
All arran ..... of purifier imd clarifier .. Itted 011 .... , sbip& iD cbe artier days of buminl residual fuel in sIow-....... cMe.eJs.' Fuel quality .. better then ud where the cWifier was found to coataiII ~ little residue or noae ill use was discootinued. A sinJle purifier pve adecpaate results until the .tvcnt of silic:on and aluminium fiDes in fuels from rdincries with the catalytic ~ process. Abrasion from the fine powder impurity JUdcap froat the siIic:oa mel aluminium fines bas variously ruined fuel pumps add injection equipment, alto piston rinp and liDen. Research at this time showed that a combination of two purifien in parallel (to pvc ~ slow tIIrouahPut), or tile old arranaemeat of purifier and clarifier in series. wOuld lCIIICWC die majority of fiDes aad make .the fuel usable without the risk of serious eoaioe damage. Latterly tile _., .. tioa of two purifiers in parIIIeJ with • third c:eocrifaac as darificr ia series has been
1'CQlIIIlIIICDd.

Opeminc wacrllmk

Bowl

Paring
Opeminc

walerl'j:'>J

C'hamber

spcc:ific paYity/cte.ity. Water ad .... la::UIIlulm: in the ou&er part of the bowl as the result of CCDtrlfupl cffec:l aad as the interface, mova imrardI. but before reac:Idraa !be disc ltd the water flow tbrouJh 10 reacIl a water ICeIiII& traDIduc:a: that causa, via aiao-proc:eaot cin:yitry, the bowl to self ..... The Iystcm is Aid to be capable of baocUina fuek of pater tho 991 q.iial dcosi.ty. A fipre for sua:aIiulwater scparatioo from fuels witb denIitics ...... .. 1010 tgtm3 al l~ is Jiven.

bas • Bow, coatroI dill: tbat .... 'it 1'inudy • clarifier. ncrc Me DO kJater paYity discs to be chaopI to JUke tile mlCbiae IUitabie for fuels 0( diffemlt

The latest Alfa-Laval daip of

ceatrifaF

if • 1CIf~

.........

wIIicb

11Idius at web &be operating water"is maintained. 'Ibis ~ water (indicated by the arrow) fills the paring chamber until it runs OYer the lip and via tbe drilling in the bowl body. into the 'opcnin& chamber' immediately above the operating slide. Water in the operating chamber. builds up a pressure due to centrifugal force (despite small loss through the drain aozzJe) which pushes the operating slide down against the spriogs beneath it., As SOOD as the operating stide begins to move downwards. the drain holes open and the high pressure operating water .under the sliding bowl escapes rapidly. Pressure exerted by liquid in the bowl .fon:es the bottom down and solids are discharged throQsb the ports. Wheo aD of the opentiDg water bas drained from the uodcnide of the Sliding bottom and discharge of solids is complete, then witb the solenoid valve closed the operating sIide is moved back up by the springs to dote the drain holes. To raise the sliding bottom. the chamber under it must be filled with operating water. The filling is ~ quickly by a short opening of the solenoid nIve. Wbco the chamber is filled and ~ the patina chamber wiD start to fiD.

Coaventiooally. the main engine uses cheaper heavy fuel oil aad JCueraton 6pter, more eJ:pensiYe. distillate fuel. The addition of a small amount of diesel oil to heavy fuel considerably reduces its visoosity. and if heatifta is used to further bring the viscosity down thea the blend can be used in generators with rcsultallt savings. The in-tine bleode.r sbowD (Fig. 43) takes fuels from heavy oil aad litht diclel tanks, then miJ:es and supplies the mill: direct to the auxiliary diesels. Returning fuel is accepted bact in the blender cimdating line. It is DOt directed bact to a tank where there would be tbe danger of the two fuels settling out. Fuel is circulated around the closed loop of the system by the circulating pump against the back-pressure of the p.s. (pressure sustaininl) valve. Thus there is supply pressure for the engine before the valve. and a low enough pressure after it. to allow returning oil back into the loop. Sufficient light diesel is injected inlo the loop by the metering pump for light load running. As increased load demands more fuel this is drawn in from the heavy oil tank. by a drop in loop pressure on the suction side of the circuJating pump. Heavy fuel thus makes up the eJ:tra, made ocaaury by load increase. At fullloH the ratio may be 30% diesel with 70% bavy fuel.

FUEL BLENDER

atomiser can be MIpptied 1ritil fuel at di&rad nr. A lKJmo&eni5c:r ould not be c used in place of a purifier for diesel fuel as it does not remove abrasives like aluminium and silicon.' 'The burner 11M a'~ to. When either one IS In arcuat. The three disc stacks in the rotating carrier of the Vickers type bomogeniser (FIg. . MI. Pressure and the rotating contact breaks down sludges and water trapped between discs tnd lyre.r ariuaiement the 1)'IkIIl. H the fuel preIIIU'e !' mcreased ~ pilton vaJw: will be opened so that fuel palla tbroup the atOIIUICI'. However. Tbe preuqre in the cin:uit will be forced tberefca 10 build up to the ICttina of the spill valve.FUEL-PURIFIER-AUX. in . of up to 10"10 water in fud. The hot filter removes particles. PACKAGE BOILER COMBUsnON _. experiments in fuel eeoeomy have led to tile installation of bomogenisers on some ships to deal with a deliberate mixture... .... in !bat the fuel entcria& c:aa be delivered ~~ O! two ~. SYS1EM . 43 Sea StU in-liae blender A viscothcnn monitors viscosity and controls it through the heater. 44) are turned at about 1200 rev/min.fitted in the pipeline between service tank and engine 50 that the fuel is used in1inediatc1y . wbicb in the free ~ am cause gassins of fuel pwDpI and other problelm. Their freedom to ~ radially outwards means that the centrifugal effect throws tbern hard against the lining ryre oftbe bolDOJcniser casing. and with the genenil spinning adioII aids mixing.It is sugested that a hiah-density fuel could be emu1sifie'd and burnt in the eDgioe.-. Ibon (Fit· 45-nc -- II dran ovenize to . Constant circuJatioA aad relDiDnl of the blend and the returning fuel prevents separation...iI UIec:J' r-- ~~ arranaemcat .. pump with a relief to preYeDt ~ preIIUI'C. .. The homoseniser i\. down to S uticron size and tbere ~ other filters on the lank SUCtioas.. 11Ie spill vaIYes are spriDa Dded. to the a~ ~ wbea fuel is supplied to the burner at low preuurc. Many small boiIen both ashore and those UICd at .... This is in contradiction to the normal aim of removing waler. ::. Fit·"" Vk:Un -. arc fitted The aoIenoid valves lie two-way.. or ash-fonning sodium which damages exhaust valves..ded piItoa valve which doIeaolftbe .. BOILER :oJi. It provides the only retum path for the fuel to the IUCtioIl side of the fuel preItUrC pump. It am be used to ClIIlulsify a smaD percentage for inj~ion into the engine with the fuel.0._ by nc .. HOMOGENISER 'The homogeniser provides another solution to the problem of water in high· demity fuels. A simple automatic c:ombustioD ~iI required for auiiluy 00i1en of the packqe type. " A .

name Cin:ulalin. With the ipition arc 'on'. With low steam pressure.FUEl. over the ceO becomes smoke blackened.to supply fuel to the burner. maimaia dte sanm prasure. A similar ftoat switdt is fitted to Ktivate an alarm and sbut-down in the event of low water level (and biJb water level on some inshlllations)..-PURIflEIl-AUX. solenoid is operated.. may range up 10 40 bar. U the flame JOCS out abnonaally or the photo-ceU shuts down the combustion system and causes the alarm to sound.. The are thennostaticaHy controlled and when oil in the reacba the required atolllilina temperature. When tbe boiler il scarted current is supptied first . Electrical circuits art arraaaed 10 that when the boUer is switdlecl on (assumins water !eYe1 is correct etc. the oil control valve is actuated to deliver the fuel to the hip spill. wltidl must be sufftcieot to clear. Tbcoil circulates from the pump and heater throwp.) the system wiD (I) beat up and dreulate the fuel (2) purp the combuIrion sJ*e of· unbumt lIS (3) ianite . From 1fCn'k:e link LOW WATER LEVEL Water level is maintained by a feed pump oontrolled by a ftoat-operated onJoff switch. There is a drain at the bottom of the ftoat chamber. control of the oil change valve and filii damper depends on steam preuuft. the fuel no IonJer returns to the suction side of the pump but is delivered to the low ftame spill through the oil change valve. Kllenoid Yill~ Duplex fuel filrer Fuel heater name C'm:uwinlline Fan ftap SAFETY DEVICES Package boilen have the normal safety devices fitted to boiIen and also spec:iaI arraaaements for unatteDded operation. BOILER Swirl Burner (ovcn. The: ftoat chamber is external to tbe boiler and connec:ted by pipes to the steam and water spaces. 'Tbe atoDrised fuel il ipited and once tbe ftame is established. Air from the fan puqeS the combustion space!i for a set ti_. The solenoids or pullial IIIOtor for the operation of 1he hiJhIIow lame devices are controlled by a preIIUft' switch acted on by boiIer·steIIft pteIIU1'e. and a damper ananpment is used to chance the letting.. Sometimes trouble with combustion will have the same effec:t if the protective . the pses completely. When the oil circulatin. Automatit c:ombuslioo $)'5Icm 58 •••• .. monitored by pboto-ceUs. When steam pressure rises. oil pressure builds up sufficiently to open the piston valve in the burner. by to the fuel beater. otherNise an air/pi explosive millture may be formed.. the fuel is switdlcd back to the low flame spill. FLAME FAILURE 1he flame is ipition fails. electric heater heatilll elements OPERATION controlling it. Bcc:aUIC·1Ioet A.ille) chamber . another thcrDlOlltat switches in the fa and oil dmatalint PUMp. the system via the oil circulating valve... The fan damper is operated at the same time to adjust tM air deliwry to the high or low ftame requirement. and. Combustion air is supplied by a constant speed fan. Fuel pressure is varied by die operation of the -'sYStem . BOIL£Il FUEL-PURlFlER-AUX. 4S . This ensures that the oil in the burner is bot and thin enough to atomise..

. excess Iteam pressure... originally from the evaporator. If.. At abut down the air purJe Ihould operate. they QD becoGIc bJ solids which tend to form a surface scum on the witter. in raising the pressure of the vapourized refrigerant. is in feed 1IIC the CONDENSER In the condenser the refrigerant is liquefied and subcooled to below the saturation temperature by the circulating sea water or air. BOILER ~hambcrs and gau(lC are at the water level. and pump MICtion w__... condenser. 46 Simple fridp: system COMPRESSOR The temperature at which a fluid boils or oondenses is known as the saturation temperature. the condenser .. caution is needed to avoid .. deviation from the correct temperature win C8UIt the burner to be shut off. j 60 \ 'EXPANSION VALVE The expansion valve is the regulator through which the refrigcrantftows from the high pressure side of the system 10 the low pressure side. Ma.. Frequent scumming will remove the solid$. then pressure will cause the burner to cut out. When float chambers are tested. and varies with pressure.. TESTING CONTROLS The automatic combustion system is checked whea the boiler is started. checked. f~ult develops or steam demand drops. FUEL TEMPERATURE Many package boilel"l bern a light fuel and heating is not feqUitcd. The compressor in a refrigeration system.ed by the compreuor. glasses STEAM PRESSURE The boiler pressure will stay. . Where a heater is in use.t. Latent beat. Air delivery should be monitored. y be used to ensure flame failure shut down. The refriaerant with which the circuit is dwged is nonnaIly R 12 or R 22 ~ AIR SUPPLY Incorrect air quantity due to a fault with the dalper combustion.. to die bt. is RefrigerationAir Conditioning-Heating VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE The basic components of any refripration system workinS· on the.ted tilDe. Cut outs for plotectioa apiDlt low water level..FUEL-PURIFIER-AUX.: are the compreasor. WOUJd cause poor (i. Tests necessary vary with different boilen. The compressor also promotesdrculation of the refrigerant by pumping it around the system: FEED PUMP Before starting the boiler.... the fan being set to continue runnifta for a Iiml. 01. sliD at the pressure produc. Freon 12 or Freoa 22).. is thus transferred to the COOling medium. '. II may be necessary to test tbe feed pump. passes to the expansion valve. expansion valve and evaporator. causes its saturation temperature to rise so that it is higher than that of the sea water or air coolin. Gau must be regularly checked by blowing the steam and water cocks tbrougb the . within the workiftl ranp if the ~ set to match output. . .. vapour compression cycI. The pressure ~ . The flame failure photo-cell may be muted or some means sud! as starting the boiler with the circulating soicnoidcut a. loss of air and chanF of fuel &caIperature are also dtecked.. When the boilerftlten are checked.. •• .. -- CHAPTERS hiah . The liquid refriprant.. 6i .e. feed taDk .

The compressor is started and stopped by tbe L. The liquid is stored in steel bottles at hip preaure. beiIIJ about 70 bar at the comprcaor dischaJJe and 20 bar It the w. Its performance is better. Later this beat is given up in the condenser wben the refriserwat • 'Pin liquefied.. In a small refrigerator the evaporator cools wi..ve or ftannnable but a leak is potentially dangerous beca_ it can displace air and asphyxiate. non-irritant and not eeft5idered flammable or an explosive. the pressure 6. Refrigerant 12 is considered 10 be nOIHOxic except in high 'concentrations producing oxygen deficiency.) with the hydro.. it decomposes in contact with ftame to give products which are pungent and poiSonous (Chlorine Cl2 and phosgene COC) The gas eiCaping under preICUfC will cause skin damage on cOntact.. . In fact as the liquid passes through the expansion valve the pressure drop buses its saturation temperature to fall below its actual temperature... It also bas a low coefficient of performThe . approaching that of ammonia. It is odourless. ~. . There is also an H. It i5 more suitable for a lower temperature range than R 12 because the pressure on the evaporator side of the system is higher than atmosphertc at low temperatures (thus reducing the risk of -drawing air into the system). ThermodynamicaJly.. REFRIGERANT-SOl EVAPORATOR 1be refrigerant entering the evaporator at a ~ lower than the SCQJndary coolant (air or brine] te(:Cives latent heat Md evaporates. It is thermostatically controlled. . (high pressure) cut-out with a hand re-set which operates to shut down tbe compressor in the event of high discbaJ1c pressure. normally • .. ntnts in a system employins ammonia. bas This refrigerant is composed of 48. The trade name of Freons was Siveato a number of similar compounds. Thus as eacb room temperature is brought down.>z) is used as a refriacnnt the watkins pressures are bip.2 per <:entof R 115 «4ClF.elLtted hydrocarbon derived from methane (CR.1 .. as secondary refrigerants. AMMONIA (R 717) REFRIGERANT 22 The popularity of R 22 lKll refrigerant for cargo installations has increased in recent years at the expense of It 12.REFRIGERATION causes the saturatioo temperature of the refrigeJ8Jlt to fall so tbat it will boil at the low temperature of the evaporator. . poisonous and an irritant. CARBON DIOXIDE Wbi. beina DeJreIt to tbe ideal. ammonia i& a sood refrigerant but it IS explosive. 2'... Working pressures and tempentliteS are moderate and the high critical temperature (l12°q is well above the working ranle. The compressor will supply a num~r of cold compartments through thermostaric:aUy contronedsolenoids. Temperature rise will cause pressure rise in the bottles which is reJicw:d by the rupturinS of a safety disc and release of the ance. When aU compartment solenoids are shut. The result IS that some of the liq~d boils off at the expansion valve taking latent heat from the remainder and causing its temperature to drop.' 62 AUTOMATIC FREON SYSTEM The ciralil shoWn in Fig.. Ammonia is a reactive compound. 47 contains the basic compressor... Refrigerants in gem:ral use are selected . its solenoid will dose off the liquid refriJCrant to that space.. .""REFltfGERANT 11 . For air conditioning installations R 11 (mOnofluorocrichlorolllCthanc (ca~ been found suitable. II is highly soluble in water with which it foons ammonium hydroxide a weak base.... The explosive mixture is 16 10 2S per cenl in air. is not expklIi. About 1300 volumes of amlllODiacan be dissolved in 1 volume of water at low temperature however it ~ easily expelled by boiIina. 1be compound is Chlorodifluoromethane (CHCIF2). It is puticularly suited for use with hermetic compresson. condenser. It i8 corrosive to copper and its alloys so that ferrous materials are used for compr. This action makes the vapour absorplion refriscrator possible.en bavin. REFRIGERANT 12 . Arbon dioa:ide (o.). (low pressure) controller io response to tbe pressure in tbe compressor suction.'.8 pcr cent of R nand 51. For cargo installatiom R 12 ~ carbon dioxide and is in tum being replaced by R n. These are circulated in turn. In larger installations the evaponcor cools air or brine. expansion valve evaporator and also the controls for automatic operatiOn.. The resulting compound is dicblorocti~omethue (CC12F2) also known as Freon 12. 1"bc critic:al temperature illow (31-q and Ibis causes problems in waa MtllllliJhsea water temperature. The chemical and other properties are similar to R 12 except that it is not miscible with oil over the full temperature ranee.. The rnadUncry and SystellllllUII therefore be of substantial .Bec:lusc of the hlZllJdl~ ammonia is used mainly ashore and on fishilll vessels.. wet doth held to the facc will pvc some protection apinst In ammonia leak in an emcracllCy although a breathina apparatus would be worn in such • case..osion valve throttles the liquid refrigerant lad maintains the pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator while supplying refrigerant to the evaporator at the correct rate.. REFRIGERANT There is no perfect refriaerant for all opcratial COOditions. It is • haJo. ideally in a Q)Ol spaCe.P. The biJh soIubilityio water also means that. been ditplac:ed by chlorine and liuoride. P..pr_IIICtioa. bced ciralIation of a secondary coolant. The expa.

.rebf 6S . M it passes through the expansiou valve the evaporating temperature dea'eascI to . 0.'hich is higber and shown by the thermometer." 1HERMOST ATIC EXPANSION VALVE H.24"C and lOme of the liquid boils off taking its latent beat from the remainder of the liquid and reducing its temperature to below that of the evaporator. evaporating temperature of the refri&erant to fall below that of the evaporator.. . expansion valve Valve 10 other RIOIII5 Fig..P.ompressot discharge shows the ~ pressure aDd also hOismarked on It the relative condensing temperature. 49) and tends. .• say 1S"C. Pressure rise in the compressor suction acts through the L. In the event of overpressure on the condenser side of tbe compressor... Excess. Durin& normal system operation. 48) is connected by a small bore pipe between the compressor discharge and the condenser.P. The pressure gauge should show a pressure with an equivalent temperature about T" or ~0c-above the sea water inlet. to opeQ the valve against the spring. controller. Air blown througb the evaporator. the c:ompreIIOr to c:ut-out. Tbc bellows in the cut-out (Fig. 1be preuurc drop causes the . The upper end slips to the riPt of the step and releases the IWitdl arm &0 breakilll the electrical contact and c:aUlia. This is effective through the push pins (Fig. 'IbiI iI the replator tbrouP wbicb the refriprant puleS from the hiah pressure side of the I)'Item. The time 5wilCh de-energizes the solenoids to shut down the system and supplies the: power to the heaters instead. roils ~cts as the secondary refrigerant.. as the regulator through which the correct amount of refrigerant is passed. The machine cannot be. :H.P.. If the compressor stops due to a rault.at> -. Each room has a solenoid. Tbc liquid refriprant leaves the coodenser with a temperature just above that of the lea water inlet . I j : Swner box _. . This is DOt the actual temperature ur the .REFRlG C I A nON REFRIGEIo!AnoN . cut-out will cause the compressor to shut down. included in the section on faults. P.fRESSURE CUT-OUT conlJ'Ol . the switch arm is held lip by the switch arm catch and holds the electrical contld in pIKe.. --Dildlqe .P. regulalor and evaporator.ive prawre expands the bellows and moves the switch arm catch around its pivot. . The bellows tend to be expanded by the pressure and this movement is opposed by the sPring.. t EvaporatOr When the compressor is running the liquid refrigerant is pumped around the circuit in the direction of· the arrows.-----: 'CU{-()u1 : L. The device is re-set by hand. Each cold compartment has atherm05latic expanlion valve. I ~HIGIi.tbe rwitdt rc_ by baftd. The sketch is for a three compartment system but only shows the details for one. 47 Automatic Freon system drop in the compressor suction will cause the compressor to be stopped through the L. the H. Spring pressure is set duringmanufac:tu. to the low pressure side. On large systems a master solenoid may befitted. restarted until the trouble bas beea remedied tad.. Thus the rcfri&crantcan be boiled off by an evaporator temperature of -18'"C because the preaure drop brinp the evaporating temperature of the refrigerant to say -24"C. Subsequent rise of compartment temperature will cause the solenoids to be re-opened by the room tl. The adjustment screw is used to set the spring pressure. .. The aperture in the expansion valve is eontrolled by pressure variation on the top of a bellows. the master solenoid will close to prevent ftooding by liquid refrigerant and possible rom pressor damage.P. ad Old SYSTEM COMPONENTS The pressure "a~ge on thee. -praIUR: Fit. There are a number of faults which can cause high discharge pressure. controller to restart the compressor ..lermostats. Regular defrosting by means of electnc healing clements keeps the evaporator free from ice.

ROOM SOLENOIDS The solenoid valve is opened when the sleeve (Fig. A hand regulator is fitted tor emergency use. bellowJ Ev. ~ - the valve and should not be adjusted. . From Valve Fig. moving upwards due to the magnetic coil. 1be actual pressure at the end of an evaporator coil is produced inside the bellows by the equalizing line and this is in effect more than balanced by the pressure in the bulb and capillary acting on the outside of the bellows.. will cause thc·valve lOopeo further and increase the flow of refrigerant. The greater pressure on the outside of the bellows is the result of saturation temperature plus superheat. SO) is fastened to the oUliide of the evaporator outlet so that temperature c::hangesin the gas leaving the evaporator are sensed by expansion or contraction of the ftuid. SI Room solenoids . The thermostatic switc::hcontains a bellows which expands and contracts ~der 'the influence of ftuid in a capillary and sensing bulb attached to it.REFRIGERATION REFRIQERAnON Conaeaian rmm bulb . bits the tee piece and taps tbe valve open. A starved condition in the evaporator will result in a greater superbeat which through expansion of the liquid in the bulb and capillary. 1be pressure 00 tbe beJlQws ill from • closed system of heat sensitive fluid in a bulb and capillary c:oaoected to·tbe top of the bellows casing.aporalOI' coil Bellows Liquid to Equaliliq line - evap. The bulb (Fig.... The additional pressure on the outside of the bellows resulting from superheat. It closes when the coil is de-energized and the sleeve drops and taps it shut. overcomes the spring loading which tends to dose the valve. Ideally the gas should leave with 6· or -rC of superheat. 51). This ensures that tbe refrigerant is being used efficiently and that no liquid ruches the compressor. of the bellows reduces. Saturation temperature is related to pressure but the addition of superheat to a gas or vapour occurs aher the latent heat transaction has ended. A flooded evaporator will result in lower superheat and the valve will decrease the flow of refriserant by Closing in as pressure on the top . The Solenoid coil " . It would be adjusted to give a compressor discharge pressure such that the equivalent condensing temperature shown on the gauge at the compressor outlet was about rc above the sea water 66 inlet temperature and the suction gauge showed an equivalent evaporating temperature about the same amount below the evaporator. Loss of power therefore will cause the valve to shut and a thermostatic switch is used to operate it through simple onIoff switching.

The push pin operates the switch through a copper plate with a coiled spring between the two tongues. The evaporator is then a brine cooler and the brine ispumped through the air cooling grids in the cold rooms. The suction valve passes gas from the suction SP. COIIII'oIIer (DuIfoa) 68 Io-:·.Ii_l .P. . finally tips it to the position where the contacts close. Outward movement of the pin compresses the 51 rine and CONDENSER The shell and tube sea water LOW PRESSURE· CONTROLLER The low pressure control stops the compressor at low suction pressure caused by closure of all cold compartment solenoids. As the temperature is brought down to the required level. 52) is of the Danfoss type operated through a bellows. The delivery valve is held in place by a safety spring which is fitted to allow the complete valve to lift in the event of liquid carry over to the compressor. . Main bearings are white metal lined steel shells. Each crank carries the bottom ends of the four pistons in the cylinders. Freons are searching liquids.P. In older machines. Connecting rods are H section steel forgings with white metal lined steel small end bushes. control restarts the compressor. Such an arrangement is termed a direct expansion system. Thus they tend to clean the circuit but the impurities will cause problems unless removed by strainers.P. The coUar holding the 1'">. Temperature rise operates the switch to energize the solenoid which opens to allow refrigerant through 10 the evaporator again. The valve assembly is shown in Fig.impurities scoured from the system by the refrigerant during the running in period.. Heat transfer is sometimes improved by rolling tbreads on the outsides of the tubes. being similar to carbon tetrachloride.lCC around the cylinder. The air acts as a secondary re ¥gerant by circulating through and cooling the stores. contraction of the fluid deflates the beUows.eontroller shown (Fig. The delivery valve ~ an annular plate with its inside edge seated on the mushroom section and its outside edge on the suction valve housing. There is a risk with direct expansion that a leakage of gas will occur into the cargo space and brine is used to circulate the air cooling coils in some cargo spaces. Many cargo installations operate on the same principle. Piston rings may be of plain cast iron but special rings having phosphor-bronze inserts are sometimes fitted.REFRIGERATION bulb is filled with freon or other f1ujd wbich expands and contracts with the temperature change of the space in wlUch it is situated. The switch is similar to the L. Materials are those suitable for resisting sea water corrosion. Each throw carries four bottom ends as mentioned above but in other machines the number of banks of cylinders may be less. ~. EVAPORATOR Each cold room used for domestic stores will have an evatii[ator which cools air blown through it by a fan. -. This is lined with felt to trap scale and other . 54 in more detail. is much the same as tubular coolers described in the heat exchange section. The . When the pressure in the compressor suction rises due to solenoid opening. YIJ. Gas from the evaporator passes through a strainer housed in the suction connection of the machine. For unloading a mecltanism holds the valve open so that gas is able to 80w free1y in and out through the valve without compression. With the contacts open the spring is cooled condenser. The spring on the left is for the stopping pressure and that on the right for starting. The switch opens and the solenoid is de-energized and closes. the L. Any oil returning with the refrigerant drains to the crankcase through the flaps at the side of the cylinder space. Liners are of high tensile cast iron and the crankcase and cylinders comprise of a one piece iron casting. 52 L. . for a freon ~ystem. . For large cargo installations the banks of cylinders are arranged in V or W configuration as in the example shown. The two throw crankshaft is of spheroidal graphite cast iron. COMPRESSOR Reciprocating compressors for systems cooling domestic store rooms are of the vertical in line type..00i1ed arsbown. pistons are of cast iron while modem compressors have aluminium alloy pistons. these assist when running in. controUer.

. When testing tbe seal for leakage tbe shaft sbould be tWned to different positions if the leak is not apparent at first.n to the by the tensioning spring and being attached to a bellows. The rubbing ring incorporates a neoprene or duprene nng which seals It to tbe shaft. may be caused by seal leakage due to ail loss. A pressure gauge and sight glass are fitted and protection against oil failure is provided by a differen· rial oil pressure switch.: i IlEPIUGERA 110N REFlUGERATION Cylinder cover ..lf adJust!"g. A ruptured disc is indicated by suction and cHscbarge pressures belDl about equal. II also fingers is fitted a~nd the liner and moved up or down by a yoke operated from • The control system includes a high pressure alt-out but a safety burstin! disc fitted between the compressor discharge and the suction... 55) consists of. TIle seal is presse~ o. valve. I~ IS se. A Boat controlled oil trap (FiS. UndeR:baqe !acc: Oil is supplied to the bearings and crankshaft seal by means of a gear pump· driven from the crankshaft. 1bereis a relief valve in the oil system set to about 2. thickness. Oil pressure is about 2 bar above crankcase pressure and the: differential oil pressure switch is necessary to compare oil pressure with that of tbe SIS i8 the crankcase.S bar above c:rankcase pressure. refri~erant f!OR1 the crankcase. Fig. 10 71 . Oil loss from the compressor is. ..05 mm. of 0. This may be of "!. a mechanical seal is fitted aro~nd the crankshaft at the drive end of the crankcase. LUBRICATION SHAFI' SEAL Where motor and compressor casings are separate. The oil is filtered through an Autg. rubbmg nng With an oil hardened face against which the seal operates. The.=kel with. Returning oil 10 crankcase Oil mum from m:tif.K1ean strainer and/or an extemaUy mounted filter with isolating valves.er Oil balance conn: (ifrequi~) . mechanical seal i. . sometimes the result of it being carried into the system by the refrigerant.56) may be fitted to reduce c:any '.54 Compreaor valve aaembly a cam or servo cylinder. Cylinder walls are splash lubricated and some of the oil is carried around with the refriteraat. lubricated from the compressor system and can give trouble if there is insufficient or contaminated oil in the machine. The type shown (Fig. This preventi leakage of OI~ and.

It automatic:ally bleeds th4 oil from the evaponltor so that the gas leaves the rcc:tifier heat exchaoJCr in a superheated WDdition. ' . an oil rectifier (Fig. is also car.. Oil and refrigerant enter the trap by a pipe which runs down towards the bottom. S7 OiJ·ft:CdIIer· over from the larger machines but they are not always considered necessary. Vapour and oil arc passed to. Thus the c::a5ing is insulated. With some refngerants. The heat of the freon' must be retained to prevent it from condensing and returning with the oil to the compressor crankcase. ~ Float Fil.lifting a valve which allows Cia to ~ oondc:nser the ~ to be fed back to the eompressor sump. through the beat exchanger. the compressor where the oil returns to the sump wbile the freon passes to the compresaor suction. Oxidation is not a P!Oblem ~use ~ system is f~eon filled_ Water contamination may cause the 011 to emu~fy.. film stren&th and stability both cbemical and thermal for the operating c:ondirions. It must Ilave the correct viscosity. When used.' the refrigerant is obtained by passing -:ann liquid freon from the condenser. . The regWator is a thermostatically ~trolled valve which o_perates in tbe same way as the expansion valve on the maID system. 57) may be fitted. The oil is automatically bled from the evaporator t~ a beat exchanger in wbich liquid refrigerant mixed with the oil is vapounzed. The gas leaving this pipe changes direction but the heavier oil tends to drop to the bottom. the oil trap is fitted in the discharge pipe close to the compressor. To prevent loss of oil from the sump to the system. The beat for vapourizin. In so!De installations there may be a problem caused by atendeacy for oil to c:oHect m the evaporator under certain conditions such as at low load when the speed of movement and agitation of tbe evaporating refrigerant are insufficient to t~p the.REFRIGERATION . The float rises u the oil colleds. oil moving. Insuwion REFRIGERATOR OIL The lu~t is required only in the compressor where its temperature wiD be in tbe lC8lOD ~ SO"C. S6 Oil trap O!f 72 13 .~ - ~~~----------~~J oil valve F. Opcratioa is improved by fitdnJ a demister or scrubber unit. It 'on•.ned over to the low tempe~ side of the system _berelt""'" not Interfere With beat exchanae by conacatina in the evaporatOr. water contamination produces acidity and COrrosion.

Usually the. <?"ercbarp OVERCHARGE is iDdicated by • high condenser gauge readiq ~th a full liquid coolin. the oil used must be compatible with the refrigerant. The air is expelled by s1ackenina the purse valve. Either may be used oecause they are refined and dewaxed tolfie lowest pour point possible.e. excess refrigerant. . Floc point is a term applied to oils in freon systems.:~ and in ~. These mclude poor havmg au In the system and icing of the regulator. The chargmg eonnecnon IS made to t~ liquid stop valve or suction stop valve if there is DC? v~lve after the regulat~£Ihe bottle must be kept upright to prevent entry of bqwd when the connection IS made to the suction side of the Systeml The cliarging valve is opened to one tum off the back seat and with the c:ompr&sor f11!Wng. In tliis state tbe wax is called a ftocculant. ~ the nut IS tightened on the nipple of the filling valve. Remedy When adding gas.. ~ drawn into it by a sampling tube. Bubbles indicate the leak (a soap test was used on the old ~ machines).. the cooIins water is left on so that the gas from the l:OIIIpfessorwill be liquefied. The chemical [either activated alumina or silica gel) is renewed and the compr~r restarted after the ice has melted. Charging is continued untii the bubbl~ disapPear from the SIght glass.nixture tends to be lower than the evaporator temperature. readings (i. the charge is pumped to the condenser and receiver.stopped by the high pressure a&ta .wer pour ~~ the corresponding grades paraffinic oils. Pour point depressants are also used as additives in the oil. A naphtbenic oil may be used for low temperatures. Refrigerant 22 is miscible with oil in the condenser but in the evaporator cold conditions there are two liquid layers the top mostly oil and the bottom mostly refrigerant. The compressor will tend to work. The lamp has a pale blue or colourless tlarne whieb turns to ~een when freon. It causes the pressure to be higher than normal. hot also. is the ftoc point.ice in the expansion valve will melt due to the ambient temperature.REfJUGERAnON t. -OGt. condenser gauge about 7"C above the sea water inlet and? suction gauge about 1"C below the evaporator on the equivalent saluration( temperatures for the pressures). The open end of the tube IS held dose to jomts and other potential leakage points around the pipework. Because the system must be moisnirti free. aDd icing of the expansion YaM would m~te ~t the cm:micallS no 100FT effectively removing the moistuie. also interfe~ with due to the bJoc:kaae. The pour point of the . Such faults occur spontaneously but overcharge only happens when the system has beeo charged.. A large leak will cause the IIame to bum Violet and It IS sometunes necessary to ventilate the space to dear excess gas before the leak can be pinpointed. ~ AIR IN TIlE SYSTEM This. The result of undercharge is that the performance falls off.. UNDERCHARGE Symptoms of underch~rge arc: a low condenser gauge reading and the appearance of large bubbles m the Sight glass. The hip pressure c:ul-out wiD Ilpt . ::m~:s.. After the air has been removed. The temperature at W!IIkhtms occurs. . is indicated by an abDonna1!y high condenser pressure gauge reading and possibly by the presence of smaD bubbles in the' sight glass.J:!y't. Some oils have a lower pour point than othen due to their nature. Oil pour point therefore is less important in an installation using refrigerant 12 than in those USing a refrigerant which is not miscible such as CO2• Because the oil is in solution it does not settle out on to surfaces. Pour point applies to all o~ls but ftoc point to oils in freon systems. < whic:b ~ . ' If no lamp is ~~ailable. the valves are reopened and tbe macbine restarted. Relnedy The procedure for removins air from the system. Charpng will correct the pressure gauge. __ Syst. Oils are de-waxed and refined for low pour point and ftoc point. For freon systems a leak detector lamp burning methylated spirits or bottled gas can be used. 00 Viscosity is important because df the variation produced by miscibility with the gas.ow pour point is required..necessary. Re8Mldy The charge is pumped to the condenser and the excess refrigerant is released to at~re through a pipe eonnected up for this purpose. The air will not condense but remain in tbe top of the condenser above the liquefied refrigerant. In general. The mechanical seal on the shaft is tested because freon from the crankcase:' may be !O!t throu~ wear or a fault. When undercharge is suspected a leak test is necessary to confirm and locate the fault. Cooling of oil in solution with freon causes a wax to precipitate initially to produce a cloudy appearance and finally as crystals of wax.. loosely. Tests for wax precipitation are carried out with a 10 per cent solution of oil in freon which is cooled until wax appears. The condenser liquid outlet is closed and with the circulating water on. the bottle val. There are otbe! faults ~b~ ~11 result in high condenser pressures. ~ b:<>ttle alve is cracked open to clear v IIlC from the ~ctlDg pipe. It is a straight mineral with addit~ to prevent foaming and to inhibit against chemkal action with refrigerants and system metals. 74 .. the freon storage cyli!Kier is connected to the filling v~ve on the regula~r ou!let. MOISTURE IN THE SYSTEM W~ter circUlating with the freon tends to freeze on the regulator caUSinga build Up of pressare ODtbe condeDser side and drop in pressure on the evaporator side .:: .: c:. Flocculation in a system can cause wax to deposit on regulating valves and interfere with operation. When the r~frigerant boils off in the evaporator the agitation and velocity of the gas carries the oil mist along to the compressor suction. The lI\SI('hinetends to be . Freon or refrigerant 12 is miscible with oil at the working temperatures and pressures in the system. When pumping tile charge to the condenser. escaping refrigerant can be detected by brushing soapy water over the jomts and flanges. hence the term floc point. . 'These are the naphtheRic oils which ~ generally a!g.. is similar to that used for removing. or- ~ ~ are used to ~e moisture.ve is fully opened.. it is important that oil$ are supplied with no water content. Refrigerant is added if.

controller will stop the machine. for location of all fuses etc. the suction pressure will drop and the L. H outside temperature is very low then beat loss from the spaces wiD be big. unJess a means to humidify it is provided. Humidi(1Cf -- To~ts F" •. A blockage in the system may be caused by moisture forming ice on the expansion valve but it can be due to blocked strainers. as the pressure rises. Condenser ooolina becomes less effecnve with accumulation of liquid and 8t the end of the process it will be neC'Cs. but circulation by the ventilation fans was beneficial. Oil n deposit is removed by chemical cleaning as described in the heat exchange section. builds up pressure. in turn. Electrical faults are responsible for a large number of refrigerator problems. Extra moisture added to the air by the humidifier reduces its drying effect.. It restarts it when the suction pressure rises from solenoids reopening. If the supply is restricted and insufficient for compressor demand. controller. Each is controUed by a thermostat set to give a temperature in the space of about 21-C: Individual section thcnnostals are necessary to maintain even temperature in different areas . by the separators fitted on some compressor discharges. Automatic defrosting keeps the coils free of ice but failure of the defrost arrangement allows excessive icing.. but dOC excessively so.. resulting from chafed insulation. when required.lf a solenoid is opened in the normal way by high cold room temperature: tbe \. Aceommodation space near the engine room needs less heating than that in the upper pan of the ship. Radiators were an additional or alternative heat source. for example. Heal exchange would be reduced by oil deposits in condensers (and evaporators) but this is not usually a problem when suitable oils are used. Loose connections and broken wires and earths. The thermostatic valve may be the restricting device. is the reason for many of the electrical faults. The condenser ends and pipes will feel hot. are examples. Oil carry over IS cut do .. steam heating coils were fitted in the ventilation systelll to give SODIC measure of beat. greatly increases the capacity of tbat air to take up moisture from any anilable source. the condenser. The control is arranged to operate when all solenoids have closed and suction pressure drops. This saves heating cost but still provides a freshening supply and makes up for losses. The SINGLE oucr AIR CONDmONIHG unit shown (Fig. due to low superheat of the gas leaving the evaporator (from the insulatina effect of ice on the coils) it will be closed in to reduce the refrigerant flow. Frost on the evaporator coils reduces the efficiency oftbe plant by acting as an insulator between the evaporator and the air in a direct expansion system. 58) can provide both heating and cooling with coatrol of humidity. there was no attempt to cool air.piration as a vapour which removes latent heat from the skin as it evaporates. one for each space. The wiring diagram for the installation should be available. the baJance is recirculated. to stop the machine. s _NR CONDmONING ' OTHER OPERATIONAL FAULTS liquefied and the condenser pressure gauge will show a high reading due to the excess of gas.. closed valves or solenoids which have failed to open. :.. When neither heatina or cooling are required the plant is operated as a ventilating system ollly.~ . fi'h. With some exceptions.5fc.JlEFR10ERA nON star the compressor. Thus any condition which varies suction pressure over this range will cause the compressor to cut in and out.. For comfortable oooditioas there should DOt be less than . a ry to restart the compressor by hand in order to fill. 'The bot air tends to dry the nasal passages. 76 The cooling water can he restricted due to choked sea water pump strainers or due to chokage of the system: the supply may be reduced due to a pump fault.! and both the recirculating and fresh air will tend to have a drying -=ffect due to the considerable heating.. The air flow is also restricted by the blockage.ir DniII· T1 .. The result is that cold room temperature gradually rises and the compressor runs continuously at first.frigerant in passing through will build up suction pressure and the compressor will be started.P.. Suction pressure is low because the thermostatic valve. to the air.eo... Dry and moving air will take up pen. Later the compressor will cut out as the result of low suction pressure and then restart as the refrigerant passing through the still open solenoid.. Ventilation aJso cleared away stale air and prevented inside temperature conditions from getting wone than those outside: 'Straight heatina of air from the outside wben the ambient temperature is very low.bieh are affected by other factors. The effect of the poor cooling will be that the refrigerant will not be efficiently Before the installation of air conditioaing as anormal pm:tic:e.. Snort cycling is the term used to describe a compressor unit repeatedly running for a few seconds and then cutting out. Heatlac for the air is provided by three steam beating coils. About 25 to 30% of the air is drawn from the ousside. P. This is the result of operation of the L. mouth and throat and cause discomfort. to attain an inside comfortable level of about 21DC.. the steam beater alone is used to maintain accommodation conditions. lee on the evaporator can be removed by washing it off with a hot water hose (with the plant shut down) after dearing the drip tray drain if necessary. When the outside temperature is cold. sapdllct. Ship vibration.. controlled by the evaporator gas outlet temperature (due to icing this will be low) will reduce refrigerant flow.

A humidistat can be installed for automatic humidity measurement and control. it to a greater extent (i. from a psychrometric: chart or table. The temperatures registered are used to find. With. ~re is a risk that the bacteria could flourish in the air conditioning S)"Stems ofs~lps and eonsequendy a Depanment of Transport M Notice basbeeniuued to give wammg and to recommend preventative measures. Such air would be unable to absorb further moisture. Another variation.t_tion is at 21"'C. Limiting humidity to DO more tban the minimum 40% in very cold conditions will reduce condensation on inside surfaces of the external bulkheads. the relative bumidity. 78 Fil. TWIN DUer SYSTEM This gives the greater flexibility of temperature and ventilation required in a large passenger vessel (Fig.the. Humidity is set lower in very cold conditions. so dehumidifyinr. Cooling in the simplc unit shown is by • freon direct expansion plant.erill is a type of ~umon_ia which may be fatal to older people. If the air carries a lot of moisture (has high relative humidity) cooling win bring it to the dew point so that moisture is precipitated. The ou~break whwh led to mvesuganon occurred at a eonvenucn for Amencan ex-semccmeo (the American Legion) and the identilled cause or tbe problem was therefore labelled legionellll boaen«. Final temperature is 21"<::(higher if outside air is very hot) and relative humidity about 50%. whether the air conditioning system is used for beating or cooling a temperature of about 21"C and relative humidity of 50% is comfortable. The mixture of fresh and recirculated air is delivered via the evaporator. In general. The cold/warm air ratio is controlled within a particular cabin or compartment by a local mixing unit. instead of evaporating to cool the skin would remain as unpleasant wetness. L~~ REHEAT S~S~M. Other systems Heating of tbe air may be by steam (as above). IndiVIdual temperature requsremeats are met by an electric element or hot water beat exchanger cOntrolled by a locally set thermostat. while the beat would make people perspire more. . Water in wet muslin around the other thermometer bulb evaporates to a degree wbicb is governed by the moisture content ofthesurrounding air. The M Notice explains that the organisms breed in staplln water or inwct . actual temperature being obtained from the dry-bulb instrument. Cooling by chilled water or brine may be used Instead of direct expansion.59 Twin duct air COIIdiIionina system Two temperatures ar~ produced in the air conditioning plant by u. and it will continue to condense out II the temperature is funber dropped. The valve controlling steam for the humidifier may be band-opcrated. the other set carries a cooler supply from a central air conditioning unit to the accommodation spaces. Condition of air in the spaces is checked with wet and dry bulb tbermometers. It must be closed when the air is not heiot! heated or when the fan is stopped. temperature higher in very hot weather. Perspiration. where it is cooled.e. its relative humidity would be 100%. Local temperature is adjusted by volume control at the delivcry point. Extraction fans discharge air from spaces such as the galley and toilets 10 the outside.relative humidity when the aa:omrnocl. One set of ducting carries warm air. Nylon filters are provided to keep the air clean (removed for washing every six weeks) and the drain clears excess water from humidification or dehumidification.~ng tbe rebeater on a proportion of the air supplied. causing it to be colder. a~ t~Spresence has been ~ated. uses an air Conditioning unit With slOgie ~ type dlstnbutlon a~ local reheatmg at the outlet in the space served. hot water circulation or electric heating elements. to the spaces served by the fan. air conditi"ning plant of larle buddl~gs. 59). At the end of the airs passage through the cooler it will have lost moisture (been de-humidified) but be left with the maximum moisture it could carry at the new low temperature.' for comfort.. The problem can be overcome by ovcr-cooling the air in the cooler. The evaporator removes some of the heat that sustains moisture in suspension as vapour in the air. LEGIONELLA BAcrERIA Ug~lllllHrc. The evaporation takes latent heal from the bulb. This reduces air pressure in these areas so that tainted air will not flow from them to other spaces but any flow will be in the other direction. Reheaung increases the capacity of the air for carrying moisture and therefore drops its relative humidity. remO\ling more water) Il!ldt~en rebeating slir.htIy to bring temperature to the comfort level.

) NoiMIcsttuctive tests are carried out on components. The penetrant stains the developer aJong the line of the a'Kk. not test pic<:es. Visual inspection for surface defects is assisted by penetrant or mapetic craet detection to find the presence and full extent of hairline cracks. and for the solution to be used on the cooler drain area at not more than three month intervals.Jhecooler (stagnant water). of Ships' Au Q One LIQUID PENETRANT METHODS type of test uses a low viscosity liquid. Provision of adequate draina~ is recommended to remove stagnant waler. to allow for penetration by capiUary action. at the air inlet are. These methods arc based on the old chalk and paraffin tests but the penetrants can bave a hydrocarbon or alcohol base. After allowing time for penetration.p. CHAFI'ER6 Metallurgical Tests NON-DESTRUCI1VE TESTING (N. This is sprayed on the suspect area with an aerosol. any faults will be sbown up by the glow of the penetrant in them. usc is made of X·rays or ultrasonic testing. They arc used to deled flaws or imperfections during manufacture or thost that develop during service. Wbete internal flaws are suspected. P. ~ CondiIioning Systems by LegioneIM lItM:witl. and belOW. 6J Another test uses a penetrant containing a powerful dye.T. 80 Surface wiped dry t 81 . When viewed under the ultra violet Jight. 'lbere are special devices for examination of machine finish. Reference Merchant Shippinl Notice no. Some are emulsifiable for removal by water spray. Regular sterilization is caned for with water spray type humidifiers (steam bumidifiers being preferred). in humidilie~ of the waler spray type and in exposed insulation.D. the area is wiped clean and covered with a liquid which dries to leave a chalky sediment (developer). is wiped dry.': ~. Possible Ior:ations for bKteria c:olonies are mentioned as beln. 'The tests give no indication of mecb8nic:a1 properties. Guidance is Biven for weekly inspection and deaning as necessary of rulers witb a 50 p.raffin or dye~ ( . others can be cleaned off with solvents to reduce possible fire risk. The area to be tested is sprayed or soaked and after a time lapse. MI21S (1916). containing a lIuorescent dye. supcr-chlorinated 5Olution.m. in the filter." deposits of slimelsJudec.

~~larly those in pressure vessels. cracks and undercuttings are shown on the film.. whic:b is absorbed by the copper and removed by the coolant. w~n developed. 64). 62 of defect. . radio or heat and in the order of 10-8 to lO-lOcm. The current flow is measured in mA and gives an indication of ray intensity. Rate of decay is pven as the time to halve the radioactivity and is known as the half life. After the: test the component is normally de-mapetized. Neither an electrical supply nor cooling are required. The sealed capsule lex the gamma ray source (Fig.. is mostly converted to beat. 63). A ma8Detic field is produced in the component by means of an electric current or permanent magnet (Fig. Coloured maJnctic inks in aerOIOis are also avadable and the dry method makes use of powder only and this is dusted on the sudac:e.'ltlSS t MqneI at crack malnc:tic flCld RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECI10N X-ravs ami gamma rays are used for inspection of welds. 'hey arc an alternative to X. 62). . They have a shorter wavelensth and are spontaneously emitted by decay of the source. Loss of intensity must be considered when calcuJating exposure time. The requirements may be PYCll in booklctl containinl diap'ams. Gamma rays are produced by a radioactive source such as cobalt 60. tJc:ins CooIam Component Magnet 3t---~=E Panicles IK. the surplus coDccted in a tray beneath. Defects such as porosity. The energy of the electrons striking the tungsten target as they are aa::e1erated across by the high voltage. . slag inclusions. pa~. In general. The alternating current supplied by the transformer is rectified because the electrons will only move to the tungsten target when it is anodic to the filament.. 1be sketch shows the methods for exanurung longitudinal and circumferential welds (Hg. through the material. This unit is defined as the quantity of ray energy which in passing through 1cc of dry air at OOCand pressure of 1 atmosphere. voltage ranges from 200 kV up to 400 kY.. lack of fusion... .. . Cracks are revealed by. They may be referred to in angstrom units (IA = to-Scm). The gamma ray source is easily portable for WiC on site.ipIe to the thermionic valve. FIlms from l1Idiopapbic aaminatioa pnMde • permanent record of qudty Radiop'aphic: eumiaatioo of welds 82 &l . _. . which varies also with the different lhictnesses and densities of materials... A transformer is used to obtain the high voltage.. Limits are placed on the extent F'IC._ . poor penetration.LURGlCAL 1ESTS MAGNETIC CRACK DE"FECIlON This type of test is suitable only for materials which can be magnetized (can not be used for austenitic steeb or non-ferrous metals). protects personnel from hannfuJ radiation and the radioactive source 'rom damage in transit.a line of mq. Tbe powder used.lICtic. charts and typical ftIms.· Increase of voltage produces rays of shorter wavelength which have greater penetration. About 1 per cent Of the electrons are deftected as X-rays through the side of the tube.METAt. forlings etc. There is a requirement for radiosrapbic exammation of mauy welds. may be black iron oxide beld m suspellSlon in thin 011. The elec:trom produced by the electrically beated filament in a vacuum tube are attracted by the positive anode (Fig.rays. by the different inspecting bodies. Faults in the meta) affect the intensity of rays passin. An X-ray lDIIChine works on a similar princ.. Film exposed by the rays gives a sha~ pho~ograpb. Wavelengths are below those of light. caslinp. Each source has an assoaated wavelensth and • different rate of decay which gives a loss of intensity with age. Intensity of rays is measured in roentgen (r). It IS poured on to the sudKe. iridium 192 or caesium 137. placed end to end with opposite poles tOJCtber. Powder tends to coiled at a cnck in the I8IIIC way as iron filings wiD stick to the junction of two bar magnets. 61) and ~a8netic particles are spread on the: surface. releases by ionization a quantity of electricity equal to one electrostatic unit.

the bigher the sensitivity. natural frequency of the quartz).. The crrs~aJ 1 OsciUoscop.METALLURGICAl.. Exposure times for gamma rays vary with the type of material.. There are various types and the wire type (Fig.. A single probe can be used.: • .horizontal de~ when Ode is made positive to the other. Xz and Y Iy 2) built into the tube. to maximum weld thickness. apinst overdose is necessary with film badges. Monitorin. Opposite faces of the crystal are coated with a thin metallic film for connection to the c1edric:al supply..e.-. the probe. 'The pos.. ~ dIStance put of these peaks measures the thickness of the maten •• taklQlutto . -.. which combines both transmitting and receiving functions. Rays are harmful either in a IarJe dose or a series of smaD ones where the effect is cumulative. The quartz will apand I -72-·n.. a smear of oil or grease acts as the contact between the ma. The Y pIa~ WID proWc...account the difference in scale. Then the PU~ Of.as II d. The probe emits higb frequency sound waves which are reflected back by any flaws in tbe object... are available.. Sensitivity is given by the percentqc ratio of diameter of the thinnest wire visible.. II til ~. . the inside of which IS coated WIth Z!DC sulplude that ftuoresces wherever it is touched ~ them. faults and film are important for image definitiou. str~am of e~ so tba~ they strike the oscilloscope screen.the electrons are deflected sJowIy across tbe screen. The probe contains a slice of quartz which is cut in a particular plane &om a quartz crystal.~.. p. bIe 10 th~t mecharucalpulses received by the quartz will produce a small current. Training is necessary. The quartz bas a special property wbich is that it will pulse if an alternating current is applied to it.. Distances between ray source. lbe electrons are deftected by GleIllS of the. -I .\ ~L =. The osci. quartz crystal (pulse generator) is triggered to give a short pulse of vtbrations sun~taneously with the start of the electron movement from XI to ~2' The puJse IS fed to the Y plates causing a peak at the start of the horizontal line. When. X -ray machine voltage and exposure time are also varied to suit the material and its thickness. Reflections are also received back from the opposite surface... Image quality indicators are placed on or adjacent to welds.•.~. e CatbocIe ray~ .!ad contract at the rate of the applied frequency. for the interpretation of film both with regard to the faults in the part beins examined and misleading marks that sometimes appear on film. _. Direct exposure is avoided by the usc of protective barriers but there is • danger that objects in the ray path wiD scatter radiation._ -_ . ~lerate a. IIletai plates qC. - . TESTS A. amptitude is patac at Te~fiequencr (i.Tp. 62) consists of a number of wires across the weld. 1be lower the fipare. vib~tions is reflected back by the opposite surface'it &eDerates an ~ UpaI m the quartz which is amplified and rectified when fed. its thickness and the intensity of . Two per cent is required by the D.. Obviously faults of the size of the thinnest wire that can be seen on the film will also be visible.. 80aum IIIIfKe fiB.. the effect is to produce a line because the Iuorcscence lingers. The slice of IS protected by a thin steel plate whicb carries the puJses.~ :: 01.. Alternatively separate devices for transmitting and ra:eiYing tbe sound signals. . The cathode ray tube contains a bot cathode and tubular anodes which . 64 Gamma ray soun:e of welds etc.. SllI'aI ~ the Y plates.. . A skiUed radiographer is required for obtaining photographs. If.. Radiographs are viewed by a radiologist on a unifonnily illuminated diffusing screen..e a vertICal deftection also due to positive charging... marks. This produces a peak at the end of the ~taJ Ii~... ' ULTRASONIC TESTING Internal ftaw detection by ultrasonic means is in principle similar to radar. ..tenal u~r Inspection and the probe. the rays.I~ contains a device whicb regulateS the positive potential on die X ~tes an IUt:h a way that the electrons sweep slowly from Xl to Xl and then rapidly baf..-. The X pfates wiD produce . The ac:rion is reYeJsi. and must be identified by serial numbers or other locali.ItlVe plate attncU the negative electrons. medical examination and blood counts.. The vibrations would not be carried Atisfactorify acrou an air gap. : . 1be. 1be probe is connected to a cathode ray oscilloscope wbich shows tbe results in a simple way..k to XI' The slow sweep is the .

grains =&=~==·~ not alona the arain bouaduies _ ptoportioo BEHAVIOUR OF mE MATERIAL increase..orrn!J alan tnc:rease out to die load the byCllne from y to U.. Initially the extension is in proportion to the im:re..S:...METALLURGICAL 11!STS Any flaw in the materia] beiDa inspected will also produce • peak.. between axial strain and lateral strain. tilt symbol E.. O... A perIiaIofrecovery . g tensile load.. STRESS Thus or STRESS ex STRAIN "" STRAIN + CONSTANT r--. 66). stress is proportional to strain.:.. When a material IS tested under a tensile load.. bou t staac. the cross sectional area reduces...Rado and given the symbol v. If the loading is continued.. it chaapa shape by elongating. During the initial stretching of the tcst piece: and wrtiI the elastic limit is reached." EWHy and pnn STIFFNESS This is the property of resisting deformation within· the elastic range and for • ductile material is measured by the Modulus of Elasticity (E). there is a failure of the crystalliDe ItrudlIre petmllDent set. A high E value means that there is a smaU deformation for IqlYgiven stress.. if the load is removed the matcrial will rctum to its original length . This is termed ""' • .. The graph can be plotted as load and extension or as stress and strain.e. Nnr-. F • STRESS .ISmade at the A-t paiDt 86 y the material yields i. tIN1t a straight line is obtained at first (0 to A in F"IJ.. Strain is extension divided by original length. thea extensionn::s-to"·lp. DESTRUCI1VE Special test TESTING durins the process... It can be showa by experiment that a bar with the same elastic properties in all ·directions wiD have a constant re~p . CONSTANJ'E STRAIN The eonstant is termed V...:N..p the of the metal..:.:XTE:..:.I. this starts I. ·I MI dI"• . If a graph is plotted showing extension for various loads. ..... pieces are used which are damaged TENSILE TESTING The test pieces are machined to standard sizes depeodin& on the thjckncu of tk metal in question.l by fIiIure:. Jocaj wawing or extcnsioft rapidly be tdik.....:. at I t the centre of the spccimea &lid wiD If the load is removed It any Ita will be found to be petmanently :. Within the limit of the straight line. H the defect is larse enough.. Stress is load per unit area. Tbia is It .E.... LOAD _. as has ~ bappenjn. Maximum Ioadina occurs at U and at his will start.N __ STRESS = STRAIN ORIGINAL LENGlH AREA = Hooke's law states that witllin the elastic limit. it will show • a large--peak at the expense of the peat at the ri&ht... LA= ~IN thellllClves. This IS&enncd 87 . ~~ material an amount OP.... the graph deviates as shown. Thus POISSON'S RAnO ...O. but tbroup lower yield point.

~ is an eumpe of bot failure because fnIcturc: wiD ultimately follow ~ .· Creep is the slow plastic deformaf..WETALLUIlGICAL TESTS METAlLURGICAL TESTS ROUTINE TESTS A full test is earned 00""0£ materials investigation. Proof stress is determined from a load/extension or stress/strain graph. as shown. the factot pi safety may be 15.' pous metals when cbanps in the crystal structure occur. Even in diesel engine cylinder beads. by an amount representing a particular 'nonproponional elongation e. Aa:eptance tests for steel to be used in a pressure vessel or for weld test pieces etc. It oc:cun in materialS such 8$ lead and tin. This is Proof Stress.1 per cent proof stress is found from a line through 0. Molybdenum is the essential alloying clement and mates up about per cent of the aUoy steel but additions of small quantities of cbrome and IOIDCtiJDes vanadium will improve creep stren.1 per cent non-proportional elongation. If load is plotted then the loads at these points have to be divided by the cross-sectionaJ area of the test piece to find the Slress. ' defurmect.' VALUES OBTAINED If stress is plotted. may have to be designed for lower stress than normal. as in the drive cbain for a c:amabaft. In many instances the deformation takes the form of extension under tensile stress. (Fig. Proof Stress and Breaking Stress can be read directly.SECI1ONAL AREA PROOF STRESS For materials that do not have a marked yield point such as aluminium. there is a substitute stress specified. 0. It is obtained by drawing a line paraDel to the straight portion and distant from it on the horizontal scale. FACI'OR OF SAFETY For steady loads. 67).tb. 88 SHORT DEFINmON extensiOa. SAFE WORKING STRESS _ ULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS. creep is thoUght to cause a gradual bulging up~ds of the bottom of the cylinder head (the combined effects of heat and gas presswe being responsible). . are based on ultimate tensile stress ar.I of produced by PJoaf suess I'" s. 0. AlJoys of steel have been developed which have creep resistance.. turbines and steam pipes etc.. Plain carbon steeIs when used at temperatures of «JOOC imdabove tend to' deform under stress. This pual cbange of shape due to steady stress is termed creep. WIleR there are shock loads. then figures for Ultimate Tensile Stress.. Yidd Stress. • factor of safety is ~ wbca c:ak:uIatiII& the workinC streII to which a material may be subjected. . a safety factor of 4 may be used.ioD of metals UDder constant ItIaS and eveotual faiIUR at streII weD below the normal failure strea. Pc'rcentqe EXTENSION ORIGINAL x 100 LENG1H reduction ill area is fOUDd from: flEDucnON IN AJmA' X 100 ORIGINAL CR()S$.d percentaJe elongation. at room temperatures.g. The rate of deformation is very slow and often is the result of loadings well below stress limits. FACFOR OF SAFETY If a material is ItreIIed beyond tbe elastic limit it will be permaneotly To prevent tbis. CREEP (HOT FAILURE) Non-pt'OpOnioaal euen'sio. Steels used at high working temperatures in boilers. . Creep temperatures coincide with recrystallization tcmpcra~ures of the va. reduction in area is required. Sometimes.

70). ·the areatel" the amount of eDerJY absorbed in fracturiDa: it. CREEP TESTING Creep tests are carried out at controlled temperature over an extended period of time in the order of 10. wbi-. At the start of tile test tbe initial load must be apptied without sboct. and for aluminium SOOIta... A beam type test pica: is used in the CWpy test (Fil. A aitrided surface may have • ban:lness of 7SO. The edge of the impreasion wiUtend to sint with the ball if the surface beina tested has work hardened. is Boating. the load is reduced. the surface area of the indentation can be ca1culated and the Brinell hardness number is found from the loading (3. Sudace diameter of the indentation is measured with the aid of a mkroscopc which is prased into the metal beneath it. similar bardness is 3. H the above hardness test is used on very hard materials. Tbe test piece is laid across the suppodI with the notch on the CIppOIite side from the impact point of the striker. 'The equipment used for the test (Fig. When the test is used on softer materials. and the .gbt of as..l. The striker is released and the swing of the pendulum after stritiDa the tat piece is used • UI iodication of impact strenath. Knowing the ball diameter to be 10 mm. Cross wires in the mima:ope enable it to be accurately lined up above the edge of tbe indent.. wbicb supports a weight. east iron. Non-ferroua metals vary.uer wiD be .(xx) kg.:e (Fig. will extend the ~ piece slowly. Depth of penetration must be less than half of the diameter of the ball..URGJCAL:nS'll '. 1be test pieI. The load is kept IIeady tJuoush the test and the temperature II maintained ac::curatcly.. In fact creep can cause compression or other forms of deformation. 1be Ioadin& for steel and metals of TYPICAL FIGURES Mild steel bas • BriDeD number of about 130.. ForOCber metals the recrystallization temperature is ctifferent being about 20lrC lor awer _ room temperature for tin and lead. 68) is similar to the type used for tensile tests and creep is usually tbou. 1bespeciJDens for cIass 1·pressure veueJ tests arc of dimensions laid down aad tHen across the weld from the middle of the test plate. Thickuess of the speQmen must be not less than 10 lI: depth ofimpression. The bottom piston boIds the hardened steel btU 90 Toughness of materials is compared by impact testing. Metals can have the same teDlile streIIJIbs but different impact 1treDgtbs. Hardness can usually be read from a chart OO4. Temperature of the test is around that of recrystallization which for steels starts at about 400"C.-. ~ - which is traversed over the test piece on a graduated slide with a vernier. IMPACT TESTING HARDNESS TESTING 1be basis of the Brinell hardness test is the resistance of the materia] under test to deformation by a steel ball. cast iron about 200 and cast iron abput 400.000 ta) divided by the surface area of indentation. The touper the mate . The load is allowed to act for IS seconds to ell$ure that plastic: now occurs. normally well below the ~ limit of the material. the steel ball wiD 8attcn.g. . This method is DOt reliable for readinp OYer 600. Initial and ftna1 exte8lion pcriotk are teperatcd by • proAonged sec0ndary stage of extension which foIowJ I"""'t JiBe law. For copper it is 1. The 011 pressure is raised until the top piston. .being responsible for extensions of metals only.91 .000 bOlIn. DOt by tensile or other tesII.000 kg. the indent diameter is klloWD.METAl..URGICAL TESTS METAU. It is used in preference to other methods where the material has lup aystaIs. c. ~osioa is ploUcd and tbe ezteDlioa due to c:rccp is seeD to proceed ill three staps. 69) consists of a cylinder into which oil is forced by a pump.. This load.C. otherwise the local deformation will tend to cause piling up of the metal around the indent.

O~r defects may also become evident. 1be action ocean under the outboard end of the liner and under the forward end of the propeller bub. A t~st plate i~ cut into different specimens with a piece in reserve for retests. is sometimes aD indic:anon that fRUinI ClOfI'OSIOII • IA JJRlII1*. Temperature is carefully c:ontroUed during impaI.) Tesl plate the extent of the awins after it his been fractured. It is sometirna found on the backs of sheD bearinp and is due to sUpt movement of the bearing she~. Radiographic examination of welds is require~ with ~ea~ type used. WrkI tests Test pieces are cut from the same material used for the sheD platina. - FREITING A small relative movement between two metallic parts in close contact. the tests would be carried out at the temperature in question.ected by an oxide t!I~ from sion. A frettina actioa exposes bare metal wbicb then tends to oXIdize. MICRO~SCOPIC EXAMINA nON It is possible to examine the crystals of • metal through a microscope if tbe sudan: has been finely polished and etdled. The resuJts of beat treatment and of metal failures are shown up in this way. metal. for identification and image quality indicators. Bend test specimens (B) are required for the inner and outer surfa~ of the weld. These are attached to the shell plate (Fig. R. and the extent of the swins is shown by the small pointer. 71) so that the JongitudinaJ wei.' IS of all weld metal. ~ appearance. 71 (]us 1 pressure vessel rests MACRO~SCOPIC EXAMINAnON The macro-specimen is taken from across the weld or any section that needs examination. termed fretting.. A hydraulic test is required on pressure vessels. Propeller shafts with a shnmk on liner and taper fitted propeller are sometimes prone to trettin.the same hea. run through the test plates. UsuaUy test plates are not required for the arcumferential seams.·1be materials themselves must be from approved manufacturers and tested. in turD. Diameter is limited by the thickness of the Frettiaa CIlIITtIIIoa .. However they may be straiptened before being subjected to . A macro specimen is taken at (D) and notch Impact specimens from (E)... 70 Impacltaa (CIItup.. These fad~ are frequently lD pressure vessels of thick walled constructioD and eeeur m low temperature conditions. tend to further oxidize. The weld joint is tested by specimcn(q which is a tensi~e test PIece . Ultrasomc exammanon IS sometimes accepted as an alternative.taken across the weld.t treatment as the pressure vessel. Gauge length. • The wearing action produces.. diameter and radius bemg in fixed proportions to each other.METALLURGICAL TESTS METALLURGICAL TESTS r. MetaJs are normally prot. It is polished and acid etched so that penetration and fusion are highlighted.t tests and for materials which are to operate at low metal temperatures. The test pieces are treated in the same way as the pr~sure vessel material. in its housing. ~ c0rro- . of the ~de .m. ~ partides themselves. A magnifying sJasa is used for closer scrutiny. FrettiDgC8D occur in any area where there is • chafil1l ac&iorJ'.a stee. ·93 TESTS FOR CLASS 1 PRESSURE VESSELS Boilers and air receivers are termed 'pressure vessels' and are manufactured by approved firms to the requirements of the various regulating bodies. . These ~ IS abrasives. The scale is kl. In some cases the wear particles are found to be bard matcnals such as the chrome compounck from stainless steels. can cause a form of mec:hanicaI wear. wear partida.Ii~e the red PeA rro. Test piece (A. troubles. Results for tensile strength and elongation are required. A n~ber of failures ~r during pressure tests due to brittle fractur_e.

A circle of bolts is needed for a good all round grip. The elongation of a bolt when tightened similarly causes a loss in area and diameter. The faces of flanged couplings are also smooth turned. Shaft coupling bolts are tightened to force the races of the flanges together so the friction between the faces will provide some proportion of the drive. Excessive vibration and resulting damage in many dry cargo and container vessels caused engines to be moved back towards midships (i. MATERIALS AND COUPLINGS The intermediate shafting and the propeller shaft for a fixed propeller (Fig. described in the previous chapter. fitted bolt shanks are also designed to take some load. Brinelling is a fonn of fretting in ball races caused by vibration of an otherwise stationary race. 72) are of solid forged ingot steel and usually with solid forged couplings.BrineU hardness test. A clearance bolt could provide the first requirement. ·The name is taken from the. A fitted bolt when tightened and subject to reductiol1 in cross-section would also fail on the second count and probably be damaged by fretting. with the exception of tankers. sometimes caused higher temperature of some bearings due to uneven load distribution. was based on low engine power and strong hull construction. In a clearance bolt this is not a problem. but not the second. gave rise to large diameter. The trend towards higher engine powers and the positioning of engines aft.frettinl and extend due to fatipe. short length shafts of increased stiffness. but being of moderate diameter were able to Hexwith the hull as loading or other conditions changed (and in heavy weather). The 'conventional midships position for the engines of older vessels. In the initial stages they can be removed by grinding.• leaving one cargo compartment aft of the machinery space). A loading or ballast condition which changed hull shape and shaft alignment to an unusual degree.METALLURGICAL TESTS Cracks occur in areas where there is. The behaviour of the metal is summarised by Poisson's Ratio. Shafts were long.e . A gradual indentation results in the race. Each tightened bolt holds the flanges hard together in the area local to it. with bolt holes carefully bored and reamered to give an accurate finish. Areas of trouble are improved by relieving in the case of the fretting around shaft liners. However. Shaft stress was the hidden factor. A 9S . but with a fitted bolt positive contact between the accurately machined bolt and reamered hole would be affected. Torque is transmitted by the friction between flanges and also through the shanks of the bolts. COUPLING BOLTS (PROPELLER AND SHAFf FLANGES) Elongation of a tensile test piece produces a related reduction in cross-sectional area. The design of flange couplings can be checked by formula given in Lloyds or other classification society regulations. Shafts are machined all over but of larger diameter and smooth turned in way of the bearings.

II Fig. r--o \.t~}a~r 96 '\~g~ fJ7 . . SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS PlnlJeJ shank i . used in flange couplings and ftance mounted propellers. '---.er and irs outer surface is tapered to mat!. . These bolts.h. The Pilgrim hydraulic bolt uses the principle embodied in Poisson's Ratio to provide a calculated and definite fitting force between bolt and hole _ The bolt (Fig. 74 Tapered bolt f J I tapered bolt (Fig... 1be thin tnner·s!Cl!ve hasa hor~·~liSh. Fig. 74) may be used instead of a conventional coupling bolt (Fig. Stretching makes the bolt di~mete~ small enougb for insertion into the hole after which the nut is nipped up. . The SKF'.l~uplin1!1Fitt· 761 consisrs basicaJl' of two sleel sleeves. Release of hydraulic pressure allows the bolt [0 shorten so that (1) predetermined bolt load is produced and (2) diametncal reexpansion gives a good fit of thesltank in tbc hole. inspection and maintenance: also the problem 01 dnving in is avoided. have the advantage [hal they arc easily removed for.STERN ruBES. 75) is bollow and before being fined is stretched with hydraulic pressure applied to an inserted rod from a pressure cylinder screwed to the beadof the bolt. 73) to obtain MUFF COUPLING An alternative to the conventional Dange couplings for the tailshaf t.IY larger than the shaft diame. SEALS AND SHAFIlNO SYSTEMS STERN ruses. the muff coupling allows the shaft to be withdrawn outboard. J. a good fit and the required tightening. 73 Fitted bolt .

c. oil is injected between the contact surfaces to separate them and tbus overcome the friction between them. . a-r:~ +4-1 I 1::<.""'1.lso £.. Tbe wedge of oil gives a greater separation between shaft and bearing than does the oil film in a plain journal.. .... speed and oil viscosity. plugs are li~ted and rust preventive applied to protect exposed seatings.t~. Each pad tilts as oil is delivered to it. Roller bearings are installed in many yessels. Thus oil delivered as the shaft turns at normal speed.~ t4 bL- STERN TUBES. i . 1be nut and sealing Xng close the annular space tbe outer sleeve is hydraulically driven on to the japered inner sleeve. will as itrotates.. The enhanced load capacity of a tilting pad de. . Tilting pads based on those developed by Michell for thrust blocks (Fig. Then with the~hafts supported. Oil for the operation is supplied. SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS ~(Z.1. Oil pressure is maintained in the hydraulic space until the oil between the sleeves drains and normal friction is restored.of the bydraulic oil pressure.~e.ign permits the use of shorter length or less bearings. two for the forced lubrication and another band or power pump for the driving oil pressure. The three pressure wedges give a larger total sUpport area tban that obtained with a plain Hydraulic drivin.~ S'~~ . 77) because of oil loss at the bearing ends and peripherally. oil \ \ bearing. When the outer sleeve has been driven on to a predetermined position. will separate shaft and bearing. At the same time. "''T~.. oil pressure is brought to a set pressure in the hydraulic space.. the tbe the sleeves. OILthe bore of the outer sleeve. The intermedi. bas an aftermoat bCarlng--wbicb'is lined top and bottom. ~ ) PLAIN AND TILTING PAD BEARINGS The shaft supported in a plain journal bearing. The diameter increase should agree with the figure stamped Oft the sleeve. To disconnect the coupling. carry oil to its . that a wedge of oil is formed.d""_ ~~ ~~ .underside and develop a film of pressure.s.'J. by band pumps. __. After disconnecting hoses. The outer sleeve slides off the inner with a rate controlled by release... Load is supported and transmitted to the journal... ... is effective over about one third of the bearing area (Fig.. A sealing strip is pressed into the groove between the end of the sleeve and the nut.Ib- -0 ..A. oil is forced between the sleeves. 99 98 . will considerably intreasc its capacity. 75 Pilpim type bydraulic coupliD& bolt (' MC>'Y (\ . by the area wberethe film is generated.. . SHAFT-BEARINGS 1 ~.. The pressure build up is related to speed of rotation. Tbe remaining tWo-thirds area does not carry load.d-~ h>w~ SI. Fi.. ~ tt... 78) are used for the purpose.:1.~ ~ ~~. ' The grip of the coupling is checked by measuring the diameter of the outer sleeve before and after tightening...w~dF'lI-72) if supported in plain or tilting pad bearings....:>"'~~ at ~n endl'ufcoupling is in posltion.-- .. so preventing metal to metal contact......:. Pressure generated in tbe oil film. the forced lubrication pressure is released and drained. 1be tilt of the pads automttically adjusts to suit load. Replacement of the ineffective side portions of the journal by pads capable of carryinJ load.

Flange couplings dictate that roller bearing races must be in two parts for fitting. Adequate speed for build up of fluid film pressure is vital for journal bearings. 77 Compuisoa ill plaiD IUd jourMI heMiap F". SEALS AND SHAfTING· SYSTEMS ROLLHR BEARINGS RoHer bearings (Fig. SEAU AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS STERN 1UBES. The two halves of the inner and outer races are fitted and held with clamping rings.. The length of shaft where the split roller bearing is to be fitted must be machined very accurately and with good finish.STERN ruBES.. 79) arc supplied in sizes to suit shafb up to tbe largest diameter. IiItiaJ pIId 100 10J .

($ated wlth the stern tube end of the shaftmg system include whirl of the tailshaft. A larFr tban occeuary deatance will DOt cause harm. pivot posit~n of thrust pads may be central or offset. unless suitable stiffening is employed (particularlywith an end of parboz installation).. perhaps. Two sets are required.lEMS At low speeds tbc~ RIlly be rnctal-to-mctal coatKt witIl wear ud . Variations can be caused by change_s JD water temperature or heatin~ of fuel tanks. speed. where direction of load and rotanon changes. the beering is accessible from the machinery space..)~i. pont loss and faiJun: am result if uial clearance is too small.!hrust block. The stern tube bearing being at the end of the shaft is affected by the overhanging weight of the propeller. Some uiaJ.loading of the stem tube bearing. to the thrust bcarioa pads. The actual clearance required depends OD dimensions of pads.STERN TUBES. Friclion is low at aD speeds. Ifiah bearilll tennterature. .. Weardown tends to make the alignment worse and whirl may give an additional problem. modem t~.of. Some. caused thrust block rock. THRUST BLOCKS limits axial movement of the shaft..vibratio~ of the shaft system. This resUlts in lift of the aft journal of the block (unless not fitted) and misaliJDDlent of the shaft.. :me THRUST PADS STERN TUBES The stem tube bearing is also part of the shaft support system. 20 mm W4 in)._e subltaD~ seating provided for the main propulsion machinery provides an ~ fouJUJallOQ.. tions and in ships where dow:lteaminl may be necessary. . Offset pads for non-reversing engine and controllable pitch pr~peller. The ~priJht thrust block and a~y supporting stool must have adequate str~bgth to WIthstand the effect of loading which tends to cause a forward tilt. Pads with a raised central pivot position are interchangeable. but axial movemeDt of the shaft must be limited for the protectioa of maiD machinery. ~relative moveme the I and misali nm t due t droo from II lie wei.lST BLOCK POSITION The siting of the main thrust block close to the propulsion machincrv. thrust load and the type of oil employed.differential expansion of the . caused a contrite..r:ust~ocks are fitted with circular pads (Fig.. reduces ~any problems due tO. A comparison of the pressure contours on conventional kidney shaped pads and the circular type shows why the latter are effective. In some of the later designs. 'Ibis mak_ ~ suitable for steam turbine inst.bah anI) the hllil. SEALS AND SHAITING SY'. caused by slackening of propeller blade load as It turns to the stem frame or by splay of diesel engine crankwebs. ~is ~ is also needed to allow for expansion as pu1I warm up to operatina te~. TotallllO'fClllCllt of the thrust abaft (about 1 DUD being typical) is registered on • dial pu •. Serious vibration problems have sometime. The low ~uU tem~rature of midship engined refrigerated cargo ships. t. Axial . 81).. Other problems assl.forthe thrust block and a further reason for siting it close to the englDC. Use of feelers m the tbrust padlcolIar gap IS likely to QlUIe damaJC and DIlly pvc • false rcadina· THRUST BLOCK SUPPORT f:!:!. 102 103 . The load puns the outer end of the shaft down so that there is a tendency for edge . ~ can be used u an "ternati~ ~tween dmat ring and casins. _ -THRl. instead of those Wltb the famitiar kidney shape. panting of the tank top and structural damage. Offset pads are lDterchangeabl~ In thrust blocks for direct reversing engines. Deformation produced by the thrust load can cause mis. clearuce is essentiACto allow formation o!~1 film in the wedF shape between the collar and the thrust The main thrust bIodt tranafen forward or astern propeler thrust to ~ IDd pads (Fig. non ·rela~lVeto the shaft . Friction al low rotational speeds is high. The forward part of the tail or propeUer shaft is tilted upwards. Some thrusts are hou~d in the after end of large slow speed diesels or apmst Ie&' boBs. Roller barinp He DOl: depeadeat 011 speed for effet1We lubration. The accepted method of c:bectinI thrust deuaace involves jactin& the shaft uiaDy to the end of its travel in one direction and then bM:k to the limit of travel in the other. is ~rmaUy damped by the .in!ltallations are not interchangeable. alipment problems.

is an electrolyte which will support galvanic corrosion. U grooves between thelll at tllc sarface. sea water is ... A keyway miUod ia die shaft taper acts as a weakeninc factor whleb allows some deformation of tbe surface..~b the pipe system.~ Of the propeller and inward withdrawal of the propeller shaft (taiIsIaaft). SEALS AND SHAFI1NG SYSTEMS . The grooves also acx:ommodate any debris. Poker Cast iron tube The traditiooallipum vitae ltava U'e fitted with end grain vertical beneath the shaft for better wear tetistaacc. attached to the IKIab by countersunk.... Excessive weardo"" . Oil in ~ \ \ \ \ \ t \ I I -- 0Il1caviac F. Sea water ingress to tbe macbi. slid . 82 Sea' .ater lubricated slem tube J04 • . 82) are supported at the after end by the stern frame boss and at the forward end in the aft peak bulkhead... The alt«Dativc bearinS materiak are balled on phenolic resins. of bearing materials due to vibration or whirl.life for vessels with enpnes aft and particularly tankers and ore carriers which spend long periods in ballast bas beeD abort with rewooding being needed in perhaps eighteen 1IIOfttIM. Bearing length is equal to four times shaft diametcf. A brass ring secured with set screws and sealed with white lead protects the outer screw thread from sea water. vitae INSPECflON ~doct ~..e stem frame boss. U Shaft Sea .. after J'UK). er. E.. inferior materials. (". 1tcn. These are fitted at the inboard end of the tube with the outboard end open.b" DuriD~ Fig.) Ruid film pressure "- I I Fig.. could necessitate early rewooding.... A ~teel nut at the outboard end retains the tube in position... poor quality of work when rewooding.... Tbe Noves are shaped with V or. in the bronze bush by bronze keys. 'Welded studs hold the forward flange against the aft peak bulkhead... 1be amount of any sand in the water would tend to be less after passing throl. Radial face !lCais IIinriIlr to those used for oil lubricated stem tubes can be used for sea water llIbtKated stem tubes (Fig. . may reveal various defcds (F•. However. well. urip of the propdIer lions the side of the keyway does this . Sea water which enters at tbe after end or from the circulation system to cool and lubricate.. presence of sand/sediment in the water or propeller damage. with its collar hard against the stem frame and the bearing section finn within the stern frame boss.. beariog weardown is measured by poker gauge.. from u. 81 Round thrust pad SEA WATER LUBRICATED STERN TUBES Sea water lubricated stem tubes (Fig.xaminabOll. Staves in the upper part are cut with grain in the axial ditedioa for economy. supplied trom the sea water circulating system and runs out through the after . 83). Wastage of the vulnerable steel shaft is prevented by a shrunk on bronze liner and rubber seal sandwiched between the propeller hub and the liner end.. end of the tnbe. to allow accea for water. Transmission of torque from the shaft Yia the key. lbeir cast iron construction requires strong support in way of the bearing itself. 84)..STERN TUBES. screws. '11Iey are held in place. Bearing . to the propeller InIb c:ases • deformation wllil:b leads to opca tbe keyway..llery or tunnel space is minimized by the stuffing box gland.

Oil retention and exclusion of sea water. 85) by lip seals. necessitated the fitting of an external face type seal.MS We. Heat produced by the friction will result in hardening and loss of elasticity of the rubber. The later designs (Fig: 85) with an extended length boss built into the stem frame. east iron bush. The imposed alternating effect is"of low frequency and high stress. The shrunk on bronze liner. ia Cncb UIIer Atlpelt bulkhead ~:~~damag~ Th~ad \ Mellin. . A minimum bearing length of two times the shaft diameter will ensure that bearing load does not exceed 0. giving conditions when the shaft is rotating. scorinl occurs in way of the stern gland packing and liner cracking has sometimes penetrated through to cause corrosion cracking in the shaft.ft. Shaft droop from overhanging weight of the propeller stretches the upper surface and compresses the lower. Fig. SEALS AND SHAfTING SYSn. The elastic lip of each nitrile rubber seal. provide better suppon for the white metal lined bearing. radiused corners and spooning. Oil is contained within the Simplex type stem tube (Fig. fitted to protect the steel shaft against 'black corrosion' may itself be damaged by working conditions. The rubber seal sandwiched by the propeller bub and protective bronze liner. The tube is fabricated and welded direct to the extension of the stem frame boss at the after end and to the aft peak bulkbead at the forward end. are reduced by the employmemof sled type keys. at the inboard end. Wastage from corrosion or fretting of the steel shaft beneath the forward end of the hub or locally under the liner could weaken the shaft surface at the hub-liner notch to cause shaft failure through fatigue or corrosion fatigue.8 N/mm2 (116 Ibflin2). Cooling at 106 . Fia. SEALS AND SHAFnNG SYsn:MS stERN ruBES. The outboard liner additionally protects the steel shaft from sea water contact and corrosion. should temperature of the seaJ material exceed 11O'"C. which are. as Oil lubricated Ifenl tube OIL LUBRICATED STERN TUBES Progress from sea water to early oil lubricated stem tubes"'involved exchange of the wood lined bronze carrier for a white metal lined. grips a rubbing surface provided by shon chrome steel liners at outboard and inboard ends of the steel propeller' shaft. Shaft whirl can lead to patches marked by cavitation erosion. prevents ingress of sea water which would act as an electrolyte to promote galvanic corrosion of the exposed pan of the sba. likely to cause fatigue. The stuffing box was retained in many early oil lubricated stern tubes.STERN nlBES. 84 Sea water lubricated propeUer shaft defects having been a problem.

with its rotating liner and carrier ring assembled. The shaft is installed from the outboard end.. permits work to be carried out on tbe stem bearing and seals. Allowance must be made for relative movement of shaft and stem tube due to differential expansion. is to apply a bandage around the small gap between the carrier ring and the spherical seating ring. • The spherical carrier ring is bolted to the flange on the after end of the bearing tube. if necessary for maintenance or inspection. These can be inflated to provide a seal against tbe inside of the carrier ring. Lip seals will accept misalignment but a floating ring design (Fig. The stern frame is f. 88). '0' rings in the peripheries of the spherical carrier ring and of the diaphragm at the inboard end. F"II·87 Glacier-Herbert IIeI'D beariJq F"II· 88 Lip type of seal (SInrpkx Compact) 108 109 . This forms a shroud around the spigot projecting aft from the spherical seating ring.'. described and illustrated above in FIg. The shaft inboard end is titted with an oil Injecnon coupling. The chrome st. The diaphragm is bolted to the flange on tbe inboard end of the bearing tube and is itself bolted to the stern frame casting. The liner at the after end is bolted to the propeller shaft flange. and is supported in the spherical seating ring. 86) was introduced by one maker.. On the inboard side of the flange there is a carrier ring bolted. (The seals shown.-()il circulation aided by coDvection._eel liners act as rubbing surfaces for the ·rubber lip seals and grooving from frictional wear has occurred. Connections are fitted top and bottom between the two inboard seals. see FIg. The problem has been overcome by using a ceramic filler for the groove or alternatively a distance piece to axially displace the seal and ring assembly. but controlled welding is used to maintain aligfunent during hull construction. respectively. The axial bolts have constant loading due to the Belleville washer packs. This is the SKF shaft coupling. New seals are fitted by cutting and vulcanizing in position. y machined before being welded into the hull of the vessel. It is split along the horizontal and the two halves are bolted together through flanges along the horizontal join.. . The propeller shaft has two short rotating liners of chrome steel. 76. Two inflatable seals with individual air supplies are fitted in the periphery of the spigot. .STERN TUBES.. sometimes termed 'muff' coupling.· GLACIER-HERBERT STERN BEARING The propeller shaft is flanged at the after end and the bub of the propeller is bolted to the flange. seal the oil space aroundth~ bearing tube. are of the Simplex type. The bearing tube is of spheroidal graphite cast iron and white metal lined. The inboard liner is fixed by a clamping ring. SEALS AND SHAI-TING SYSTEMS the outboard end is provided by the sea. The Glacier-Herbert stern bearing can be dismantled without drydocking. The outboard and inboard seal housings are attached to the spherical seating ring and the diaphragm. Sealing the stern bearing space. Alignment of the bearing tube can be adjusted by the distance pieces and wedge chocks which bold the diaphragm. An alternative to using the inflatable seals. without the necessity of drydocking. is arranged to maintain low temperature of seals at the inboard end. rin. These liners act as rubbing surfaces for the rubber seals. The bore for the spherical scating ring can be further machined for adjustment if necessary. SEALS MO SHAFTING SYSTEMS STERN ruBES.

A welding casting which is welde. 92).:~r: \ Flange. The castingallo. beanng'echan~ locked by nuts. .hod a~alli~ cast iron shell in the bousing.ing and removing the rope guant.. tailshaft.TURNB 89) including the st~el The complete beanng con~sts of the art of the stem frame. section shown (Fig.. out Examination of the fo~ard seal. However. The tail shaft can be hydraulically and moved rord tected back to the propeller ftange. Installasequence is used to mam. ~n. level and now with alarms as nec:essary. This frame. auxiliary seal is drained before removing the bottom balf bearing. The oil is pump circulated or may be caused to How around the system by the pumping action. ~~90). outside the vessel after trimming or drydock. rotated around the shaft and lifted clear. mounted Outboanl seal \ propeller""=H~~f~~~b~~aZZ~~~~~iz~~::~~~ Fun inspec:tioo or replaciement of the outboard seaJ and removal of .ward. Both seals are funy split being of Crane manufacture (see Fig. Water in the aftpeakbas.d 1~ to ~~~fi~ment during the operation. the Item .cooling action OD stem tubes which are oil lubricated but the aa:essibility of the split bearings means that they are situated in a void space.. 91) Later versions of the stem bearing have a number of changes in design. 93). after the inboard sea] b.-tbe outboard working seal and the propeller flange bolts can be inspected or chanaed. IS ~ra!ned afloat. at loaded draught. An oil circulatins systen:i 'with a cooler is necessary for split stern bearings. a.puIIcd forward. .. To carry out work on the outboard fittings. The shaft rests on a w rte me .··tq. tbe maintenance seal (Fig._ bydraulic/mechanical sealing ring. Oil pressure is' kept bigher than the external sea water pressure by a header tank arrangement or by a pneumatically pressurized compensating tank. 1be top half bearing IS lifted and the forward seal released the· overhead rail.lraulicaUy and mechanically locked in position. to be drawn forward. The alignment of the tailshaft surface 15 exposed try ~ hecked by means of feeler gauges.relative to the beanng 15 c . These allow all maintenance and surveY' to be carried out witb the vessel in the water.and tailShaft can be c~ed. the shaft is supported by a jack positioned forward of the bearing (See Fig. The t balf bearing is secured by forms the bottom half of the.c:ethe bottom balf bearing whilst the ship is aftoat. MARK IV :QEARING (Fig. The. The double hydraulically operated jacks w~ch ~re:: clear of ~ shaft thus automatically acting jacks are~lso used to l~~h ~uilrin overhead rail which enables the cap t bringing trolleys mto contact WI a . of the bearina. propeUer mounting bolts WI' inspection and crack detection is carried out tro. The space inboard of this. ULL SPLIT STERN "BEARING . Bearing alipment can also be adjusted. lubricating oil. a shroud ~as been exteDded back from. To examine or repla. 90) and the bottom half bearing moved forward. Fig. pressure.ne~in8 so tbat it will act as a propeller support cradle.tam bea g co! red with that of boring out the ste~ tion time is reduced by this m~..arina (Mark I) 111 110 . The bottom balf bearitlg complete with outboard working seal can then be wi(b. used to close the gap between the shreud on the forward end of the propeller boss and the stem frame. if necessaryw~. 91) is engaged byc. 89 Ross-TurnbuU split stern bc. The position of the seal is such tt1a. be .f!. The top ba1f bearing is removed in much the same way 8$ before (Fig. . The full d visually examine:" an erac e rating the turning gear. Instruments are fitted for readinp of temperature.

SEALS AND SHAFIlNG SYSTEMS ~ :: ~ j a c I . ·· · F'II· 92 EumiDatioD of Ross. With the chocks out. lU . together with the seal face and bellows section of the oil seal. Skates are placed under the beariog at the same time. Further lowering of the jacks brings the bottom half bearing away from the taiIshaft and on to the machine states. To remove the bottom half bearing (after cl~aring the top) the foUawing procedure is used. . Inboard and outboard seals are basically the same on oil lubricated saera tubes 'and each seal is adequate OIl its own while work is carried out on tbe other. It is located by axial restraining keys and rests 00 chocks which are 6tted after alignment.. Removal of the stem bearing allows a tJanged shaft to be entered [rom aft. Portable hydraulic jacks are placed under the bearing and the complete assembly of bearing. propeller and tailshaft is lifted so that the main chocks can be removed.all of the components of the seal can be split for replacement. These seats are also used witb convenliooal stem tubes arranged for oil or sea water tubrication. The top half bearing acts as the top clamp.TunabWl split stem '"t ~ ~ .s' Ii. These can be removed singJy for inspection and crack detection.". without disturbiog the propeller. After removal of the split to the forward face of the tailsbaft Bange the propeller mounting bolts are exposed.) I s -c p drawn into the vessel thus giving access to the shaft.: J. the bottom half of the stem bearing is clamped by jacks on either side. n.. The complete shaft is exposed for examination and crack detection.. When in working position.g I ~ . the assembly is lowered until the propeller is resting in the woud which is part of the stem boss.93) l ! J v. beuina (MtJrlc IV 71".. The split seals can be eumined or repaired by the methods described ill fbe section on the Turnbull bearings..8 . CRANE SEALS (Fi. Removal of the split seal gives access to the bolts and dowels in the propeller flange. The tailshaft c:an therefore be ftaneed at the inboard end for eonneetion to the intermediate shafting and at the after end for c:onnection to the propeller because .! to .' The radial face type seals used in the Turnbull split stem bearings are designed for replacement without tbe necessity of removing the shaft. STERN roBES. seal wbich is bolted i i -= 112 . The jacks are removed and the bottom half bearing is brought forward on the skates.

ill HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION OR HYDROSTATIC The requirement for stcauUa at slow. The supplied oil preIIUfe provides additional lift lO separate shaft and beariaa and • full flow for coolin. The n. 94) for eitbcr tuny Ioaded or ballast conditions. Materials '01 the inboard seal unit are not in contact with sea . ]S of gun metal... This is held In a earner which. of vessel. The bellows assembly cons~sts of monel metal spnngs ID ~ cotton reinforced svntheuc rubber. .. propeller flange or to the propeller boss.]5 able to stand up to the corrosive ef~cts of se~ wate~. Tuten and other ships with large ebanges in draught. The possibility of beariQl damaae. The sketch also shows a circulation and cooling system for the inboard seals· which wilike those at the outboard end. The. necessitates keeping the aft peak water level at least one metre above the stem tube. With the shaft rotating. leaving the inboard seal in place. the seals operate on a hydrodynamic film an~ a~e hvdraulicallv balanced. The seat of the cutboard seal is bolted to the forward face of the. DoIIDIIli_ indic. SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS S'I'ERN lUBES. This circulation may be obtaiaed by natural convection. The face seal and bellows are of the same materials as used outboard but the springs in the bellows assembly may be of steel.dnJ Fi.r STERN ruBES.. Clamp rings and the various ~uts and bolts are of alumlm~m br~mze. 114 Shipside dn_(Gt.UBRlCA nON F~. CCOO\lIIIical speed durin& periods of hip fuel price (or for other reaspos) lives a ~wcr ftuid fIlmot bydrodynamic pressure in stem tubes.. 1.:ue for iaboud seal insert assembly coolin. like the mountmg~ nng.. SHAFf ALIGNMENT ~:baftsystems would ideaUy be installed with straisht atipmcnt and remain iD th.wat~r so cast lr~n is used for the seat which is clamped to the shaft by a steel dnve nng.t. Main clamp SYSTEMS The static lubrication system for vessels with moderate cbanges in draught. The ship can be tipped for work on the outboard seal. . SEALS AND SHAFTING .face seal is a s~nthe~lc te~ed lcrrobestos. The stationary face is attache~ to a bellows which IS clear of the shaft and allows the face to follow any motion the shaft may make either from vibration or from differential expansion. oil syIIC:m '0" cord foace sealing strip Fig. prompted installation ot forced lubrication systems.. cannot ctissipate beat to the sunoundinl water. The seal is protected by a rope guard. two or three metres above the maximum load waterUoe~ The email differential pressure ensures that water is excluded. The TOta~mg~at IS ~ ca~t iron of high nickel content (about 14 per cent nickel) tenned NI-R~SIst which .lt state during ship opentioo.. 93 Outboard stern shaft seal (Milnebrau) the inboard seal can be inspected and water entry is prevented ~Y the o'!tboard seal. may be fitted with two oil header tanb (Fig.. It is jointed with asbesto_sfibre Il_latenal~nd an '0' ring is fitted for a taper mounted propeller. .ounting ring of the outboard seal IS bolted to the stern fr~me ~th suitable jointing. 94 Typic:al1JTUIpmenl abowiDa tw header tub far ~ willi . .. . The cooling of simple stem tubes. beader tanks placed. The face earner and mounting ring are of cast iron with steel clamp nngs for the bellows. In practice there are marty factors which affect aIKI alter alignment durinl buiJdin& and throughout the Jih..

1be procedure involves the use of hydraulic jacks placed on each side of the bearin. The data but of influence numbers enables the effects of changes in alignment from bun tlemrc and local facton to be found.a PI acllCal . baDast. prior to anini of the stem tube with its propeller shaft and propeller. Propeller weight c:aused droop in the tailslWt and after 1aunc:biD8 the heavy and Rsa bQoyant stem •. SEALS AND SfIAF11NQ 5YS'TEWS The propoICd CCfttre line of the shaItins IystcJD for • slipny built ship WU UICd . the increase of its own load and alteration in load on cadi of the other bearings. ~_. Wilkin T ' • • A. to lift the shaft just clear.__Pap "menl' SHAFf CHECKS The intention of goad 8IipJDent is to'CDIUIC that bearinp are c:onec:tly iOaded and that the shalt is not IeYel'ely stressed. in terms of load change for each height variation. fuel. Influence nmnbcrs. 'The initial calculation is to determine the load on each bearing. The shaft line is continually c:hqed through !be lifetime: of a ship. by paralleling of 8anges. are calculated by tbe exercise. sink of individual plumber blocks. would run out of line.STERN ru8ES. . Heavy weather· produces cban&inI conditions. All of tile variables described for a 'pre-fair arrve ship QD be matcbed to find the best CXIIIIpIOIDiIe for' shaft imfaUalioR. with pO a«OODt being taken of tailshaft tine and sli&bt droop due to elasticity and overbanJing weight at each shaft flange. 116 .. Slope borinl reduces the edse loading problem. References W ' nee. --. and Strassbe· A8pecIs of ShUt AfigDmen!"'i . . shaft lift as 8uid film pressure builds up in beariDp. registers the load on the bcariJla. \ends to impose edae loading on the aft end of the stern tube bearing. the refereace for accurate borinc of the sterft frame. but results are uncertain untess the vessel is in the same condition with regard to 10adinJ aDd huD temperatures as when the shaft system was installed. The local fadors affecting sbaft aiiprnent include forward tilt of the thrust block.. The hull of a moderately sized ship can ftcx ISO mm in heavy weather. A dial gauge fixed to the bearina indicateS lift. the engine would linally rest on cbocb set lower tban iIltended. Intermediate shafting aIiped from the taiIsba(t. _lIT. 95) to 8ssess correc:t bearing loads is used as a realistic means of ensuring that statica11yt \be shaft installation is satidactory. The process is then repeated with a simulation of the lowering of each bearing in turn with the computer finding resultant load cbanges on the bearing in question and the others. assuming all bearings to be in a straight line.. The computer program then simulates the raism~ of each bearing through a range and caJculattrs for each small change. section also kxed downward. Propeller weight and shah sag. Uneven bearinJ wear. e~ by the jacks. . by hull flexure from different c:ooditionlof loadina (cargo. E. A plot of lift and load is made . High dedc. Unless there was reference to a taut wire or other alignment aid.(1913).~ Some ConIere . for aU bearings. Hydraulic pressure. fresh water). The method of fair curve alipunent (developed at the Boston Navy Yard in 1954 and refined by otben) accepts the changes of line endured by the shaft J)'Stem and seeks • oomprotDise to suit the vuying conditions. The method of jackiDJ (Fil. A1ipment caD be cbccked with conventionl methods. hull deformation and other facton caD affect results.IMAS 73Tbeoretkal ~. and low sea temperature in the tropics cause differential expansion and bogilll..

The rams are of close grained hard cast iroa or steel wida working surfaces ground to a high finiIh... nc pide be . gear there are also stops set to 11mlt the from the mid position.oa.. g dec:k stiffening.setYC alipmeDt.ce. causinc the.. blbrK:ated . An alternative type o!.. . For IJydrauIK aean with four cytinders. die SIIOb of the pump pistoaa can be vllried and· Sow of oil to add frQm die .5.. beariDI takes the weight of the rudder 00 • p-case lubricated The rudder carner oc:k' located by the journal. wbic:b could arise from danIace. say. J. Each pair of rams is bolted· toFtber. 97) bas the. the tiller has two an:as. Screw down lub~tors are base' with . tbrust 8DJIe to which the rudder caa bt ~ by the JeW. wbich aR' tumed and pound to slide in swivel blocks arrangemeat designed to co8vCIrt linear IDOYellleJlt of the rams to the rotary IPO\'cment of the tiller . The resuJt of tIUs beina. tbeIe iI_ . srease time RAM TYPE HYDRAUUCSTEERING GEAR Trunnion Side ~k The tiUer.CHAPTERS Steering Gear ~UDDER CARRIER BEARING .. ekctrk: motor drive.. 1be ruddea: II. 96). between the upper surfac:e o~t!:t to liIDit its movement to. the joined ends being bored vertically and bushed to form top and bottom bearinp for the trunnion arms on the Qiivel bb:k (see FIJ. C8D be revened. baG. In the steenPI (pee. ~ wed e b8se of the carrier bearmg 15 klcated by . Pumps uy be or the Hele-Shaw radial piston type or of the axial pistoD V . C'naIIad slippers bolted to the sides of the rams. also pease ... 1bete are let to. of oil surr....rute). water resistant type (cak:ium ~bearinI c:oai<:a1 seat (Fig.. 1be ~I$ baYe sulM&antial feet bolted to tile IlooIs on wbicb the gear is IDOUftted. e. Carrier beanng ~poDCntS ~ and the used for habriCabOD IS a ment. rudder to beCome c1isc:oonected. is of (orpd or cast steel. In fout cylinder sets adjacent cyIiodcrs are cnJIf braced by heavy brackets (not sbowD is the _etch of the four ram type) whidI ill conjunction with the auide beams. The angle of advantage that the seat biJlding the ~nical seat is shalloW to preve~ of and aDowance is made in the Bearing weardowD ~ ~:or a small vertic::at drop of the ru~r stock.. Support for the be~ ~ p.. ~ carrier is of meesplib~: ~ and steel choCk· Tbe side cbocks. ~h'" Q~pluCor fon:ed Ivbric:ation l:OIIIIeCtion by a doubler plate T. so thai the atands in the cylinders are relieved of side loIck.. also serve to brace eadI pair of cylinden wbir:h tend to be pushed apart by tbebydnwlit pressure on the arms. I. . S'reach way from the mid position. 119 .. Hydraulic pressure is supplied by variable delivery puIIIpI.: wall wiUlocate the rudder stoCk. When the operatina rod of the pump is ia aid paa. wi . 39" e~cb. and rudder stock.. pn. possibly.. comtruction of the stcenn~ heavy weather is prevented by jwnpmg stops Lifting of tbe rudder and 5 rudder and the stem frame.. rwming at constant speed in tbe same dUectioft. COIltKt with the propeller. Tbe oulside stops preveat IIftIimitcd rudder movement.0. slide on the machined of the pride beam. Limits on the tclcmotor are set at 35" eacb way ~ the ntid poailioa. welded to the pametal thrUst ring and renMlV81?t ~P~busb.way External rudder stop& are t . The latter aR' ncceaary to ~ the JUdder from beiIIt forced against the outside stopa. keyed to tile rudder stock.

are thrown out towards the rim ~ centrifugal force. Moving vanes are keyed to the cast steel rotor which in turn is fined to a taper on the rudder stock and keyed. Top and bottom stator ftanges are welded on after oil manifold grooves have been machined. The bolts have outer cast-iron bushes to take wear from the steering gear ftanges. It consist5 of steel pawls on the motor coupling rim. In each CYIi~r there is an oil IwdeDec1I1Cd piIaoa . Weight of the gear is supported by a rudder carrier bearing beneath it in this design. wbidl • rotated Ilt constaDt apced in one directioa (Fil. 98 Four ram stc:erinJ If*' cli. by alilnple pushI -puB rod atcadled 10 pide riap in tbe pump. Rotation of the gear is prevented by two anchor bolts held in ftl:ed anchor brackets with rubber shock-absorbing sleeves. ~ at a bronze cylinder body with ~'YCII or nine radial ~rs'. Without lIOppiaa. . ne radial cy60der block avtatel on a ftxed steel central piece haftnJ two pons opposite to one another and in line with the bottom at tile rotatinc cylinders. Vanes arc sealed by steel strips backed by synthetic rubber laid in slots. aDd ratdIct sec:ured to the 'HELE-SHAW PlfMp The CODItaIIt speed HeIe-Sbaw pump bu its output coo .. 99) are of spberoidaJ graphite cast iron.enpac tile teeth of a pump bale.STEERING GEAR ·STEEIUNG GEAJt Aft Fornrd F-e.. Vanes in the gear shown (Fig... JUdIcoa pin with bronze slippen on tbe cod.aJrmunatic ~t ROTARY VANE STEERING GEAR The usual arrangement of three fixed and three moving vanes allows a rudder angle of 10" with a vane-type steering gear.tion for quieter response although only one is normally used.. the fixed ones being hek! to the stator by bigb-tensile steel dowel pins and cap screws.. These pawls willa the motor IUId pump runnio&.. A larger turning angle is obtained with two fixed and two moving VaDeS if required. PUMP NON-REVERSE LOCKING GEAR The set can be RID witb both pumps in open. the idle pump wouJd be driven in the reverse direction by oil pressure from the other but non-reverse Iockiag is fitted in the ftexible coupling between the motor and pump. Wdb the pump stopped. 100). ~ pump. 1bae Be die rinp wbicb ate IDD¥'Cd borizoatllly . When two pumping units are fitted and only one is running. The slippers moM with the c:yUadcr bIodI: in JfOOYCI llUlChiDcd ill a pUr of fIoatinJ riop.by the control rod... the pawls retum to their sear 120 • 121 .or startioa tile pump. " normal inward powiliow IIld . the output ca be vuied from zero to fuD in eitbet direction.

5 in mid position and the centres of rotatioa of pistons and block coincide.tves left open. the drive by • simple constant-speed electric motor.S. The rudder can be locked by dosin. The Pistons are tied tbrougb r'too ~ and bearings to a swash plate or tilting box. 1be unit sbown (Flg. sha!' OPERA nON. Mark IV pump (ew.G. OF FOUR RAM GEAR The pipe arranaement (FII. F..S. PUMP The V.Jbdi. there is DO pumping actioo. pump 122 . through lever or servo contiols. 102) accOrdingly bas a casin& of fabricated steel rather than "CaIt iroo: The cylinder block with its pistons is driv. the pIIIons rotate with the cylinder block .G.ular movement of the swSSh plate. ~ remaining pair of rams then operate as • two ram pro The by-p8SSCS" arc 10 parallel with the relief valves. either pair of rams can be isolated from the pressure pumps and allowed to idle with the bypass opea..S. Ste~eu cllanaes of pump delivery from zero to lIUlXUDum ID ather direaioa 15 lIICbieved.rJ The V.. VkUr. the .na. IIequse of the noo-reverse lock arrangement. When the rod .S. When the swash plate or tilting box is set at an angle by the con~r ~ pistons are caused to reciprocate in their cylinders and prockK:e a pump~g ac_tIOD. IOZ V. pump has been developed in recent yeaR to operate with higher pressure with a l'C$ulting dec:rease in size of steering JWS. in an emerpncy. pump has a cylinder block with QiaI cylinden.S.al c)'linckl hl(1I:1i: __ - .. 98) Oft tbesimplesketcb of tile four ram system shows the conoections from two pumps to four rams.G.between pipes connecting the oppoeina rams are desiped to I23 Axial cylinder bIoc:k Pia·IOI SiIIaplified unnpmemofV.en through. the· supply valva..O. With· the latter vertJcal...but have DO axial IDOYCment. 101) shows a simplified arrangement. rings from the mid 'position displac::es the c:in:ular path of rotation of the pistons from that of the cylinder block and produces a pumping action. oae pump can be stopped wit. All four rams work together but in the event of damaae. ·The Iketc:b (Fie.G. _ FIJ· 100 HeJe-stmw variable delivery pump Cl Movement " the flO8tin. V. Piston stroke and oil ftow arc varied by au. The relief valves.

- rudder is displaced by a bcavysca tbrouP Iiftinc of the relief valves.. 'The linkage through tbe floating lever of telemotor. on many vessels. is connected througb 8 safety spring link to the rudder stock or tiller (Fig.tbe TELEMOTOR The telemotor bas become. the operation of the buntiD8 gear. It comprises a transmitter on the bridge and a receiver connected to the variable delivery pump through the hunting gear. net and pinion from the steering wheel. pump and rudder stock forms tbe hunting gear. The sketch shows simply. By-passing of oil from one side of the system to the other through the relief valves permits tbe rams to move and abnormal stress on the rudder stock is thereby avoided. Each Pump bas suction connections through non-return valves from tbe replenishing tank. Movement of the tetemotor' receiver is limited by the stops set at 35". used only wbenthe··automatic steering fails. Losses of oil from the system are automatically made up from this reserve of oil. The two valves are tonnec:ted to the cylinder through a shut off valve (which is oormaUy left open) and the by-pass which eonaeets both sides of the pressure system.pump contrel is moved. Transmitter and recei¥er are connected by solid drawn copper pipes. whee the piston is in mid position.G. 'The hunting gear returns the pump operating rod to bUd position as soon as the helmsman stops turning the wheel. it will remain there until the wheel and telemotor are moved again. The telemotor moves the end of the ftoating rod A to Al and the . The telemotor is the receiver of the bydraulic remote control system from the wheel on the bridge. Wben the rudder bas moved through the angle corresponding to the wheel poIition. Liquid displaced in the transmitter caUSesa corresponding displacement in the receiver and of the pump control. 'The hunting gear will cause the rudder movement to be corrected by putting the pump on strokt. Jt. 103). into the pump gives a cooling action. The working fluid is a mineral oil of low viIcosity and pout point and this Jives lOme protection against rusting. Other oil flowing back.. As an alternative to millen! oil•• mixture of IIyccroI {JIycerine) and water has been used. Excess'pressure in the telemotor system causes oil to be released through the relief valve to tbcmake up tank and loss of oil is made up through the lightly loaded make up valve. Where an overhead tank is fined (V. thus causing the pump control to be pulled back to the 8eutraI position B.S. pump) the oil is caused to Bow from the pump casing by a centrifugal action prod1Ked by rotation of the cylinder block. A cenain amount Of leakage oa:u. Buffer Variable delivery 124 . This will put the pump 011 sttoke and the rudder will be restored to its previous position. from B 10 Bt• Pumping of the hydraulic: oil causes movement of the rams UK! the end of rod C moves to C. 1(4).rs in the pump and this oil is drained to the replenishing tank.. There is also a band operated bJ"'PIIISThe tank must be bpt topped up. The pump is only required to deliver oil when the steering wheel is moved. The other end of this lever.COIIIists Of a cylinder with a pedestal base which contains a piston opented by •. HUNTING GEAR The pump control is moved by the te1emotor through a floating lever. the bunting gear is moved by the rudder stock. The receiver in me steering sear is sbowD as two fixed f'llIDS with moving opposed cyliDdcrs_ Centering spriDp are fitted to bring the cyJinders to mid position. The make up tank' functions automaticaJly throush spring loaded relief and make up . therefore.'j snERlNO GEAR lift if pressure in the system rises to about 10 per cent above normal This will occur due either to the rudder being hlt by a heaVy sea or from direct loading. The transmitter(FlI. the standby steering mechanism.·alves.

auxiliary gear. By . When charging. from taoker. IppIied to.switching the chan. before starting to pump the system through. the gear is thea nIB from bard over to bard over slowly and the air release valves are again checked. STEERINO GEAIt. Thus the air release valves are opened on hydraulic cylinders and pumps. During the charging operation.actly coincides with tbe movement of the pump lever. At this stage. where the blame was attributed at least in part to failure of the steeriDg gear or its c::ootrol system. rudder iodic:ator. the air release valves are closed. joints are checked for leakage and when the system is full. tank aod hand pump which are situated in the steering gear compartment. the shut off between the cylinder and make up tank is opened and the tank is brought up to level. TIle system is made ready for testing and operation bY closing the charging and oon-return valves and opening the shut-off valve. power failure aJ~ for re~ ~troI systems and also for the steerint scar power unit. When all air bas been purged from the system and the level intbe replenishing tank ceases to fall. ~ opetItion with alternative power) shoUld be carried out. drew atteDtion to 126 . iDSpediOn must be carried out. Each section of the pipe is progressively filled with air being released through the bleed screws.~. For an initial charge. position on the poop. 1be various tests and c:he«s should be Ioged. • Otargiag methods for steering pIS aDd. then the non-return valve is closed while pressure is maintained with the pump. Using the hand amtrol. When in such waters. ~ tile possible eq~~t. also stop valves and by-pass valves in the system. 1(4) and turned by a bar. pipes are disconnected so that the sections of pipe can be washed through.be &ear IIl'UIIIlIIII. At intervals emelJCDCY drills (induding local.e-over pin..~ uaita (pumpI and motors) must be lUDIIini if simultaneous operation . At the last section the non-retum valve is opened to allow oil from the end of the pipe to be returned to the priming tank. casualties. control and commumcatton. each stroke of the hand pump should produce a discharge back to the tank which cJ. the cootrol spindle c:ao be operated from the ClDelFncy steerin. The test procedure to be carried out not IIIOR tbaa 12 boun before departure (or w~k1y on ~-vC!yage vessels) requires operation. All officers am req~ to be familiar with the steerlDJ ~ and the changeover armaaements.alel'S. Pumping is continued for some time. ~ t. Deed for c:baaaes ia internatioaaJ repIatioaI . manual stanDI· must be tested before eDlerins busy or restricted . a furtber check is made with the shut off closed and pressure maintained with tbe pump. After closing the bleed screw on the cylinder. of (wbCre appticable) the ~I: ~ It_nol aear.. 1be variable delivery pump can be used to pump the oil around the system (while keeping the replenisbing tank topped up). STEERING GEAR CHECKS Pollution resultin.. The pbone or other IDCUII of communication between bridge and steeriD& compartment must be tested also. if the non-return valve is opened. relDOle control systems. Fmally the by-pass and stop valves are set for normal running and the pump is started.1fIICrinI focus of IIttention was OD tanker steerin& gcan. 1be band by-pass valve must be closed. emeJ1CDCYpower supply. The telenlOlOl' is connected to the hunting JC8f through • control spindle. CHARGING THE SYSTEM The system is provided with a primin. but there are additional requuementJ DOW for other ships as weD. bridge lteenoB poIIb()Q. ~ tJu:ee-~tbIy CHARGING STEERING GEAR The steering gear itself must be completely filled with oil and all air must be excluded. The bleed screw at the top of the cylinder is cracked open to get rid of any remaioill8 air. The priming tank is filled (and then kept topped up as necessary) and the hand pump operated with the charging valve open. The rams may be filled through the filling boles until all air has been displaced. poISIbie. the shut off between the make up tank and transmitter is closed and the wheel is brought to the mid position so that the piston is at the centre of its travel and the top and bottom parts of the cylinder are connected through the bypass. full movement must be cbec:tedand a complete visual. tclemotors vary from one tYPe to another. It can be put just on stroke bytbe bandwbeel (Fig. IlIStructiOaI for cbanaeover must be displayed in the steering compartment and oa the bridp. ~ the ship is at _ with the automatic pilot ia prokJagcd usc..

resolved that it will be necessary to have complete bydraulic system Float IIwilCb redundancy on new tankers of 100. Short-circuit protection only is to be provided for electric motors and power circuits. Main steering gear power units must be arranged to restart automatically when th~ electrical supply is restored after a failure. Design of the system should be such that a single failure in its piping or one power unit (pump and motor or equivalent) will not leave the steering gear inoperable. when considering the smgle failure concept in relation to the hydraulic system. This implies either two complete. There must be two widely separated power circuits from the main switchboard.STEERING GEAR STEEIUNG GEAR to maintain forward mo"IClDent of the sbil!. The possibility of total loss of electrical power is to be guarded against. Statistics show a decrease in hydraulic system reliability with increase in system pressures and age.000 tons gross were made effective for new vessels from 1980 and at a later date for existing Ships. The standard of performance wben the equipment is working on the ahemalivc Pump r I Shut-off valves (rudder brake) -. the bridge control and the rudder indicator. PASSENGER VESSELS At maximum service speed the main steering gear of a passenger ship must be able to move the rudder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other. The emergency supply is to be automatically connected within 4S seconds of main supply failure and must be capable of continuous operation for 30 minutes. 'Power unit' describes the pump and motor or equivalent. the major poUution risk with loss of steering on a large tanker. INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS These now require either that cargo vessels in general must have an auxiliary steering gear as a backup for the main gear (and that if the rudder stock is over 356 mm (14 in. Main and auxiliary gears are required or there may be duplication of power units. 128 129 . (High pressures of 170 bar permit smaH equipment size.) diameter this second gear must be power operated} or that power units and connections are duplicated..). As well as the two bridge steering gear controls with audible and visual alarms. with manual or automatic means of restarting the power unit motors. . TANKERS Stricter international regulations for the steering gears of tankers over 10. one of which may pass through the em~rgency switchboard. Failure alarms are to be litted on the bridge. 1 1 I _I :"""" ConIl'Ol unit "\ '. Rudder position is to be: indicated in the steering gear compartment as wdl as on the bridge and means of communication provided. A rudder indicator must be fitted on the bridge.-nd independent hydraulic steering gears or two interconnected circuits with automatic isolation of one from the other should there be a loss of hydraulic fluid (Fig. a local control in the steering gear compartment is also required. Duplicated and widely separated electrical supply circuits are required from the mam switchboard with short-circuit protection only for these and the motors. ) The failures might be due to surges being more extreme in the contemporarv high-pressure plant. Discussion at intematiooallevel. by provision of ahernative power for operation of the steering gear. through tbe 'fttcr and therefore a slipstream over the rudder. The steering gear must be able to meet the performance requirement of being able to move the rudder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other with 28 seconds being allowd for that pan of the movement from the 35° extreme toJO" at the other. each pump and motor (or equivalent) must be capable of meeting the performance criteria. Any auxiliary steering gear must be power operated if the rudder stock is over 230 mm (9 in.000 dwt and above. and 28 seconds is allowed for that part of the movement from 35° to ](f. Main and auxiliary gears are required or duplicated pump and motor power units. and the statistics of steering gear failure. 105). U the duplicated power unit alternative is used.

tonnage is' ~ to bav~ chronological entries with date. Steering Gear: New Concepts and Requirements. (b) be farther. A number of proposals have been advanced for shutdown and isolating arrangements. Engme room bilge disf'osal is treated separately in the fCgulations from discharges ~latcdto aqoIballast operations.- supply is that at least it will move the rudder from ISo OD one side to ISO OD the ocher in 6(1 seconds.p._ 131 . HMSO. and the problem remains wbether to shut down the running pump and start the 01 her.. with one pump and motor power unit in use. differ in some repeets and may be more stringent. TM Merchiml Shipping (Ctugo Ships Cotutnlaion tmd SlITVey) RquI«iolU 1984. The Oil Record Book for cargo/ ballast operations which is kept by the (b:1e department on aU tankers over ISO gross. if due to ~ small SIZe of the ship or otber reason Suitable equipment i~ not ~tted. Items and codes are listed on the first page of the book. The leak could be In either pipe and ram set. can.p.000 of the cargo. Previous le&1sla~n mten~ to prevent pollution has been superseded by new rules !hat. and this still apPlies to older vessels). In ~neral. 105. ~ae References Cowley. the running pump would be left in ope_tion. AdditionaUy (d) tbe Instantaneous rate of discharge must not be more then 60 litreS pc. Oil loss from a fracture in the pipe system would lower the level in the reservoir of the running pump and through the ftoat switch and control unit shut down the isolating valves. however. (a) not be m a special ~. The bilges must only be pumped 1:Iuwgh. . Tbe four-ram gear consists of two pairs of rams. One proposal is tbat a second lower level tloat switch be fitted to each reservoir. (b) this IS . The alternative power supply aan be taken from the emergency soun:e of electrica: power. There is the risk that the apparent ~ in safety is jeopardised by added complexity and greater number of components exposed to failure. In special areas ~ Wlibm 12 miles of land. operanonal code and Item num~!10 appropnate columns. The two sets of piping and associated pairs of rams would now be isolated. Air motors have been fitted in a number of ships. - - -. A t~d poll~t~ ~ is from lIUlclIiocry' space bilges.discharJe machinery space bilges 1010the sea provided: (a~ ~ oiI!D the bilge discharge does not amouat to more than 100 p. diesel or air motor pump drive.for settling.ac~ed by the operation of an oily water sepualOl' -fiheriaa system With cIi8dtarJe monitorial and control. paper 23. SUitable oily wale!' proce5$in~ equipment or retained for discharge asbore. HMSO. including tankers of more than 100.m:. For normal full ahead running they are operated together to provide 100% torque. The same sort of design can also be used in conjunction with duplicated rotary vane cylinders (one chamber above the other) as indicated in tbe sketch. Ballast earned 1D oil cargo and bunker tanks which is therefore contaminated witb oil constitutes another ~Iution ~rce.tir'-'. .000 of the particlllar cargo (previously tbe amount was 1115. after closure of the isolating valves.STEERING GEAR "(.000 dwt. and (c) be 'on passage. Other suggestions are for an independent power source used solel~ for 'steering and located In the steering compartment. M". it mUSl be less than 15 p.. ~ brief. . with the next cargo. (1982). is shown in Fig. and discharge 'OVerboard of the water while retaining the sludge for pumping ashore to the refinery. but continuing drop in oil level would initiate shutdown of the running pump and start of the other in 4S seconds. I. a~ permin~ to.m. sucb as baneries. TT(IIIS. If. ~ od carao residue IS to be discharged from a tanker it MUST. The oil ~tent of any discharge must be less than 100 p. Cc) the STEERING GEAR FOR LARGE TANKERS AND OTHER VESSELS The principle ofa steering gear suitable for any vessel.• vol. It must be aapable of this with the $hip at its deepest draul!ht and running ahead at ODewbaif the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knOh. CHAYfER9 Pollution PreventionMonitoring-Olly Water Separator-Sewage Treatment OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION ~ major ~ce of oil pollutiOn in the past from the operation of ships was the mto the sea ~ tank washings from tankers. whichever is greater. ships ~ 400 g. IS ~ out sunultancously witb the discharge. . unless pumped out via an oily water separator. This was reduced by the discharge of tank washings to a slop tank. .. _ TIte Merchont Shipping (PtWmgn Ship ConstTUction IINl SUIWy) RquhltWlU 1984. and (e) the total amount must be oot more than 1130. It silould be noted that Government and aassification Society regulations while broadly similar to tbe lMO rules outlined above.p. 94.t.m.'c mto f~rce m October 1983 and which are set out fully in the IMO ~~t1~n ReguJ~tlon~ for the ~evention of Pollution by Oil'. each pair being capable of supplying 50% of the torque required. The system operates in the same way as other four-ram arrangements.r mile. E.. New regulatiol1ll reqwre tankers of certain sizes to have segregated 0( clean ballast tanks. than 50 nautical miles from land. Crude Oil Washing (COW) eliminates the use of water and enab~ c::argo~ues ~o be pumped ashore during cargo discharge because clearun. but duplication of the bydraulie pipework as well as pump and motor power units gives an additional safeguard with complete hydraulic system redundancy.:J\iJ Oil Record Book for cargOlballast qpierations is also requU'~ on any vessel with a bulle oil capacity in excess of 200 mj. no further oil loss occurred. J.

.p.... being collected at the bafftes and funnelled up to the oil collection space.. Makers may therefore use a sampling and milling a representative sample with a general opaqueness more ea~jly simple photo-cell monitor. Row through the sampling chamber keep the glasses clean and they are easily removable for Bilge or ballast water passing through a sample chamber a strong liaht shining directly through onto a . hut problems wilh observation occurred due to poor light and accumulation of oily deposit on the inside of the glasses. (g) oil di$char&es (accidental or <. The filter in the right hand chamber removes solids and some oil. (c) sludge/oil residue disposai.e pump Firs! s&a&C scparaIion Fie: 106· Simpics Turbulo oily __ ICpUaIOr with eoaIeIciu& ICClllllllIlap Inspection glasses fitted in the overboard discharge pipes of engine room oily water separators allowed sighting of the flow. separator was shut down if there was any evidence of oil.Od Record Book for machinery space operations.. (e) automatic bilge discbarge. the oil tending to rise to the upper part. These rise to the oil collecting space.e waler l DitdwJe flOin bil. Further separation occurs in the lower chamber where the liquid has to pass through a series of dished plates before leaving the first stage separator. Items. Red Sea.p. (f) oil dis~==)~nnglcontrol system failure details. reaching the cell decreases witb increasing oil content of the this light on the pht. (b) disch~ge of the dl!"y ballast or cleaning water.000 g. the Bilge .m. Black Sea. The first stage of the Turbulo separator is supplied with oily water from the pump. Fibre optic tubes are light from the source ud from the sga1ttenKl motor-driven ~tina _ with its slot . through the cocks provided. the water and oil will start to separate in the top part of tbe chamber. fm: OILY WATER SEPARATOR Th~ perfonn~ of separators has been improved to meet the requirements of stricter regulations by tbe addition in some designs of a second stage coaleseer.~ioiI content. In S~al. Present-day monitors are based on the same principle. Discharge within the 12 nautical mile bmlt IS allowed under the same conditions as for Speeial Areas except that the alarm and stopping device are not mandatory. to be logged are: (a) oil fuel tank ballasting and cleaning. is the responsibility of the engine room ~partment. A~ of control air to the diaphragm is through a solenoid operated Pil. Because of the different densities. OIL CONTENT MONITORING OverbNrd dischllJ". However..t.. Oil from the top of the chamber is automatically drained to the oil tank. . . (d) dlschar~ ~ disposal. is fitted and in use. The. This source light increaees to a maximum and content of the water. The oil drain valve fromtbe top of the first stage separator is a diaphragm controlled piston valve. Another approach is to register light scattered water by the sampling pumps (Fig. Air is vented by the float controlled release valve. Persian Gulf area) bd~e discharge IS pcnnln~ only when an oily water separator or filtering system capable of red. at intervals.dl!ioCha~ge onuonng and contrOl equipment with alarm and automatic m st~p~ng_ ~ce must also be fitted and in use.t: valve. Water from the first stage passes downwards through a central pipe to the second stage eoaleseer.OILY WA l"ER AND SEWAGE OILY WATER "'''''D SEWAGE " .UCI~g 011 eoment to below 15 p. Oil content of the final discharge is below 15 p. Coalesanl inserts in the left hand chamber take out the remainder of the oil in the form of smaIl droplets which coalesce to form larger drops. of bilges. Oil droplets from the plates tend to travel upwards.m.Areas (~edile~an. Filter elements in the second stage remove any small droplets of oil in the discbara... and cause tbem to be held until they form larger droplets (coalesce) whkb rise to the oil coUectinS space.... lOS)..lto-ceU compared with that of cell to the left of the bulb can be registered on a _ . Regulations applied to vessels of less than 400 tons gross are not as strinFnt Rules ships of over 10. and some otben are more strid. and (e) is nol within a SpeCial Area. The er..9. 1'bc capacitance probe senses oil quantity m the collection space and-causes·the solenoid to be energized through the control switcb. Baltic. (d) it is at least 12 nautical miles from land. which must be kept by all shiPS of 400 tons and above.ship is: ~nl on passage. The discharge was illuminated by a lightbulb fitted on the outside of the glass port opposite the vic. while the eye can register anything from an emulsion to globules of oil a li!_!hliphoto<cll detector cannot. Oil from the second stage coalescer is drained manually.

108 Sofrance type scattered light moaitorinl chamber photo-cell and also by means of switches at ~e peripbery causes the signals to be passed independently to a comparator deVICe. 1'be production of a clean emuent liquid which' is diIi"~U Fig. ..:-ftushina aDd reca.cveDtuaHy overwhelm d. Methods of checkiog for oil by chemical test give truer results but they take too long in a situation where excess amounts require immediate shllJdown of the oUy water separator..: Where ~ IIIIlCM."..".the production of unpleasant odours aad putrefaction..... ' amounts. Alanns.. pnDctpie of operation of the Ieptic: tank.---..-. 10. but they will DOt distinguish between oil and other particles III the water. : " DecompoatiOa occ:un both with czccssive quantities of waste and ... Oxygen in the air promotes the muJtiplicatiolt of sausfactory decomposition of the wastes.Oil ~ntent readinJ of ~.. gives off aD 1UIpIeasant smeD. dissolved the water will _ a biO<bcmical (aerobic) action which breaks ~ge into simple ~ and ~ dioxide. TANKER BALLAST Sampling and monitoring equipment fitted ir.prove accuracy.in restricted waters ~1I. In the natural ~~. In the former the decomposition is termed anaerobic &ad wi~h ...-.dit dowJt" overboard..... .e"" purification ability of the limited quantity of water. "'. In a closed dock the effeca of polludon can be clearly seen from the black sludgy water which wben Ilinw4 by the ship's propeller... ' .. it is not suitable for on a ship. Mixer pump Seres type oil short and .OILY WATER AND SEWAGE oIM·."- .tipt seal in the bulkhead . ---. There arc alternatives to the aerobic Ie" rreatmelll 134 ..minjmile time delay)'witb its drive motor in the mac:hinery space and shaft...~(9).'Dt of ~ relative to water is small.-. . disdIarJe is fed into the c:outrol computer together ~tb discharge rate and ship s speed to give a permanent record of the monitor!Dg. t----Ship Oil CClllerIl speed t o# ( CgmparalClf cin:uiI Fig.. The bacteria build ' the sewase as food and oltJlen for their metabolism. ~ OD.107 Director lilbl mooitoriq c:hamber 00'- f .libration ale also mcorporated. RlCOrding and alarm ~le.. 109 FiB. The sampling pUmp can be fitted in the pump room (to keep the sampling pIPC ""~j-t.. • __ . automatic shutdown..the lisht source ~d pboto-c:dI being III the CUJO control room qetbcr with the ClODUOI..Y WATER AHDSl!WAOE Ship's side: ~disdwp ... SEWAGE Raw sewage disebarged. bad. m tum help ~ produce plant life wbicb returns oxygen to the Wa&er. pasIIDI ~ a .. the pump room of a lanker can be made Safe by using fibre optics to transmit light ~ al!d from the sampling chamber (Fi!. Sbip sewage treatment can be carried out down process and the supply of oxyseR is maintained by blilltblPl&i the. ' • These two methods briefly described could be used together ~ lID...--.... water.

.treatmeDt tIDk to deal with the next cbaJJe. treatment CD sew.. tbroup tbe dllorinator the water forms a sterili1:inJ 1OiutioD. wiD have to meet c:cnun standarda.1.. In t unit shown.. may bec:oIDe . A connection is provided so that the prinuuy collection tank can be pumped out.-.. per litre 01' OXYGEN DEMAND (B. SUSPENDED SOLIDS In this test. JI0 Aerobic sewage treatmem system (Htunwonlty Ty~) 136 .. and a circulation process with slucJae removed at intervals.. be burnt in an incinerator. a sample (oac litre) and incubatinl it for five days at . . tcriaI in the efftueot. After prolonged aeration.. TIle amount of oxygen lakeD up by tbe sample p.D. The eftcctivcnesa of dbinfec:tion is cbeckcd by • coliform count. the ftDaI tec:tioo eoatroI lite ditdIIrJe pump. 1WitI:beI in... RquIar maovaIof iIudac will prcwDt impainrIent ot operation.de¥ice on the solenoid valve allows the correct amount of IOludoD iIIIo. -- BIOCHEMICAL Becteria dec:ompoIe aDd in the proc. One coIiIonn tat consists 01 ~ a_""" •___ Fi. also create turbulence so that settlement is prevented and good mixing obtained. is checked by c:on~ion and weiabinJ. the baetena die 10 daat • DeW coIODy his to be started. AEROBIC TREATMENT PLANT (Flow-through System) The Trident sewage treatment system sbown (Fig.. T'bey are seasilive to temperature. sew.) in JDilIipaIDI 2O'"C with weD oxyaeoated water. As the taat filii. These are fitted in some vcueII. The oxygen is supplied t.tbe. The diffuser is of~ material so that clean air is needed to prevent blockage. ID . One is simply • c:beck of the quantity of solid material in the cflluent. . die top Ioat switch Itaits it. EmucDt·diIchaqed QVCrboard through the sewage plant wben the wssel is in port or restricted waten. the sludge is returned to the aeration compartment by an air lift. COUFORMCOUNT Tbcre are c:crtaiD tell talc bacteria found in hwnao waste wbicb. lon. .with and returned to the aeration chamber.m.. oripnace from the iDteIdne. Incoming waste passes through a coarse screen into the primary collection tank where if remains until displaced by overflow into the aeration section. Apan from these bacteria found in raw sewaae there are also viNIes of the type rapoDIible for illaeua &ike poUonayelitis and infectious hepatitis. Thus tests ave been establisbed... De bIIcteria in tk aerobic: treatment plant must be kept alive by maintaininl the correct conditioos. AND SEWAGE ("t\tmical treatment systems in which breakdown is achieved with the aid of chenucals. tbc quantity Of·ioIid .. proVRling oxygen. The sludge is pumped overboard Wbea tbc vCIseJ is at sea dear of areas where restriCtions . The effectiveness of sew . Activated slucJse gravitates to the bottom and is continuous) . two otben involve incubation of samples and would probably be carried·out in a laboratory. Oean effluent from the top of the settling tank is collected in the last compartment for disinfection and discharge overboard. dysentry. At the end of the process the is said to be stable and as the activity of the bacteria reduces so the oxyp consumption also drops.. b'Q1IDeDt proc:CIS wiD reduce the c:otiIona level and also the lcveJ of other orpniSIDI wbicb may be present such as &hose responsible for typboid. Test results are ill p&rtI per: million or milligrams of suspended solidi per litre. AD asbestos mat filter element is UIed and the solids are collected on this tbcp dried and 'ftiabcd.p. to mix with incomlDg wastes."".O. There are vanow __ of I&eriIiatioa and tablets of compound used in one method. Raults are JiveD as tM. the mixed liquor is displaced into the settlement tank where the biologjcaJ Doc is fonned. Breakdown of the wastes in the aeration compartment is induc:ed by bacteriological organisms promoted by the presence of oxygen.astro-entcritis etc..-table and danprous durin& storap. 110) has four compartments.OtLY WAIER AND SE\toA. of diluent.. carried otd on a UIIlpic of cftluent. A timiac . ~ of water and repluity of low. are in foree. it ~ opeDI a soIeDOid YaM: in the water supply line to the hypodJIoriaatM. Tbae are c:otifonD GrpnisrN. When the low IeYelIoet switdlstopa the puMp. OILY WAn. H ibe iDsWIation is shut dOwn for a penod. The bubbles.. CUl.y the air from the blowers which enters the aeration section througb a fine bubble diffuser at the bottom.css usc ~gen. is termed the Bioc:hemicaI Oxygen Demand be puJed by takiD.. Small Q1Wltitiet. Disinfedioa of the emucnt at the cad of·the . 0( ~ pet' JOO . ' '-Two .

coUiform count of less than 200 per 100 mI. anaerobic bacteria and other organisms thrive. The sewage is then pumped out to shore reception facilities or overboard when the vessel is again proceeding out at sea (outside a 12 nautical mile limit). as apptied to .. iftter1NltiOoally. with c:orrosion in the tank and production of toxic and ftammable pses. overboard Type III-A device to prevent the diIcbarge untreated sewage. is aUowed in the ports of certain countries. .. Other problems resulting from the rdeIttion of untreated wastes related to its breakdown by anaerobic bacteria. 138 Ship's sKk SEW. or to sbcR if the ship is In port for along period. American legislation defines three type5 of sewage treatment plant: Type I-A device capable of discharging efflueot bal'ioJ DO Visible floating solids and a coliform count of less than 1000 per 100 ~ of effluent. "' f~ ~Ied"'ae 1. .!/ on. large enouah to contain not only the actual sewage but also the ftushing water: Each flush deIi¥ered perbapl S litres of sea water. Many countries dump ~ <nni'sepractically on tbe shoretine. 1'be n~ling. nothiDJ sbouId be ~ within the . Capacity of the tank is 2 lUres per.ISO mJllitte and.Yellels 01 ~!' 200 . Treatment by clJlorine and caustic based compounds makes the liquid efIIueatac:ceptablc for the purpose. of treated .19 . 1bese cause putrefaction. Straight holding tanks fOf JeteDtioD of ICWaF during the period of a ship's stay in port were of a size. The tank is pumped out at sea. barbours and other closed waters of certain countries has been in existence for some time. .n breakdown by aerobic orpnisms occ:un where· tbere is ample MYaen • described previously.01' ELSAN (ZERO DISCHARGE) SYSTEM A retention or holding tank· is required where no discharge of treated" or untreated sew._ 1UinIy to the fIusbins system (CIQ:SS ovcr8ows to the suIIaJe tanks). WIth more than ten personnel.. The Elsan type system (FIJ. tank. 10produce • c:olony of bac:teriaat d - REGULATIONS Legislation to prevent the discharge of raw sewage into docks. Type II-A device capable of discbarJin& efIluent with suspended solids not in excess of ._) controls. t. commlDU~ and disinfected sewase could be disCharged ~ near as" miles ~ land. Tank size is smaU because Uq\aidefthlent ".. Certain countnes had already anticipaled any mtematioaally applied rvIes withtbeir own nationat and region. The liquid is theft passed tbroup treatment tanks to a pneupress arranaement for 1IIC as a ftUlbin& flUid. mile limit. ADOlber test takes 24 ~ inaabation temperature of 3s-c. . sIIoJdd only be dischal)ed outside the 12 mile limit. Passenger vessels or ferries with automatic ~ing for urinals required very latJe bolding tanks. ae. 111) incorporates cbemical treatment of the sewage to be retained. Y 'AI ATEll AND SEWAGE OILY WATER AND SEWAGE period at 3S"C. would gjve a teD-year p'iIce to niIItinI ftSSCls. the alSposat of ~ ~ ships. In the stapumt conditions of a plain retention tank where there is DO oxygen. Deadlines have been set for the installation of sewage treatment plant on vessels trading to American ports. In gene~.4GE REGULATIONS Aana IV of ~ 7Y18 (IMO) has t~ aim o~ reauiatin. • Solids are chemically iDet1ed by • caustic compound and delivered via grinder pump to tbe holding tank..penoo per day. A perforated rubber belt is used to separate liquid from solids in the separatin.

!.aIer generations of cargo pumps (see c. which black smoke emission is not penalised: ill the U....' :.... -..:: ~ C c:bemicU include: aoctic 1M:icI. IOIIIC alcohols. certain value.. .~t_-~..<i~'rL . Record Boot. includes: acclOne cyanohydrin~ aad cobalt UpbtheaatelR soWeftt 8aphSha. operaoo..K.g..1 per ClCDt (wiPt) wIlDe in port..~* pulQp..at. freely diIcbarJed.~ pre-waIhed willi discbuF of .. black smoke emission may be unavoidable . ill c:hemical tanken1MUll..hil1l1 qp. pre-wasb to the . for the sake of efficiency.:. dIoIe" ':.. and completion 1¥MhiDa: routine c:a be pumped cwerboard .. its c:adinuous production must not be for longer than four _utes. black smoke visible duouJb. ad IIydnJdIIaric cbIoride sOIutioa. care.p...'A'lER AND SEWAGE The Clean Air Act in BriuUn is intended to cfiscouraae emission of bI. 11 disdlarpsituated below tllcwatcrlinc and away from tea inlets. IjO! .. ·It is i_oded iii shall cany the cbemic:aJ. A ship's spcc4 tbaa seYeIl kDob. aad D) .OSpcr cent CUboa clilulplUde is .. type A chemicall . wasbinp arc coasidcred as fonninJ • residual mature constitllfiiti.. C SUM" res is obtained froM< die ~" ad AfraoIeIDeDts .. aceed 1 p..y 1986111U1t be capBIe of -.'..... darteacd JIass). iii:.' ':: 1be carao for typeC 1DCeI in chemic:al ~ l... CI'eOICMe (a'JIII_... ~ Rducod 10 leal tbaa 0. wiaChe ~ more than 12 nautic:al nWes ""water deptb of 2S mctresmiDimum. 'Ibele is a ieqIIiremeat iD. Smoke from the funnels of vessels In docks or harbours is cbecked for 'blackness' by comparison with the Ringebnad Chart. dircc:tioos for discbarF and tank . c::arao --. After this. cIiu& ~ the mlllualand lot hiJh residue substanc:cs.... I... If darter tbaa m. Thus. cabic metres for o&dor )~ Guidancc. to not IIIORi than ten minutes in the awegak in any two hour period. sea... The Odly factors Iimitina poIIutioo wen: JODChriII and the fact lbat carso remainina in taDks after discbarJe toOStituted a lois to the shipper.. The washinl throuJh to clear cargo is solely for that purpose alli:l_It. ne rules ¥C extended so iaclude those for sub$equcDt tank ... discharged and delivered to the shore.y iDducIe • spec::i&c. .... my be pumped "" .._bt July 198611U11t be capable UDder tat. . Otber countries h3\'C' their own equivalent regulations.~ i... The overall responsibility of the Chief EnJincer aud otbcn. reduce coateat of '*tqory A c:bcmic:als to .....8 ~ "'..t~ ryp. Ob\'iousl~·..~~... ·.1I inc:lucIe: acrylonitrile..' If C. ~ aceed 0.·I.dc" it is considered to he over the limit and to be bIad: smote. residue. OoIy wasbwater added after CUJO· _ .ftt Ty~ • c:hemic:l...~ outIide ....: of water 8owiD& over and adjaceat to the bud is used... where there are • number of shan emissions: the aggregate tUne must be: limited to three minutes inuy twenty minute period... Where difficulties. d'... aad carboa tetncbluride. The pumps for tbe type B ..· CIJci.. lift ..s SIIlOkc from lh~ chimneys of industrial and other premi5cs ud from shipI.. of dcari ... ..~--Mid. oII:IiIf. )... Regulations therefore U5Ud.. list of T1~ A cbemicals. COIl'...005 (tpeeiaI .. c:aIGr ail...:" . c:IIIoride..tO l . is prohibitcci...OILY ... Qk:iunt • 3$1...) thea port waslrinllDUlt. Rqulations wbida came in fon:e OIl abc 6th April 1987 divide bulk liquid c:bemical caqoes into four eare..1 cubic metlel (0. and which ~rry them.. into the propcDcr where it wiD be broIta . If diIcMrte of the later washinp is... ).3 aabic metres f.... L 1. die DIes for·. tbcre was DO real :restrictioII. Pan of the Clean Air Act is taken up with examples of the line of dcfcnsc that may be taken in court. III other couutries the criterion may be different (e. I Ite 1OIution... apinst disc:barge of cargo remains or tank wasbiap from whatever CIU'JO muined in the tanks of chemicaJ tankers. c.in·. at any time. .. Traces of type A cargo on the __ • bulkbcads wiD remain until removed by • ~uent wll!...lbe . Presence 0( ebcmical alter this would not. AIR POLLUTION ~ PREVENTION OF POLLUTION FROM BULK CHEMICAL CARRIERS Uotil the regulations to control aud prevent pollution of the sea by chcmiaIls came into force on the 6th April 1987. if later washinp'" be..bapter 2) were deRpcd for IIIOIC dIicicat di$dlarge 50 that cargo tank rcmainI were miainud. (not· in spec:iaI_) and 0. time limit durinf!.··I:. as a means to reduce poIIutioa.. Faihue to comply with them rna. UsuIIy the combGltion system would be shut down again or adjusted fairly quicSIy at cmilsioa ad in • shoner time than four minutes.C1 . A tpeeiallow capacity pump whicIlleaves the offending liquid 1IIlI~' ~~.. Improved c:IeuiII& of tab anticipated ideas put forward ill draft repIaIioaJ for..:..):. cate.. The WashiRI proc::ess i5 contiaueduntil the c:ootent Qf the tyPQ below.. A For . Che efhent...~.~.. benzene. ...Ib-.. . .....' ....put of !be ruliallimits . f 1 1 ! LJr....· '..autioa :.cs: .... nmutiM do not eueed 0.... dispened in the wake.minas to reception fac::ilitilll. . . aception for wbidl CQIltent must beieSl .1Iie cIiIcIwJe of. 1bus there is abo • rqaIation appicd to repeated attempts to flash up and reduce SIIlOke..:. as a complete deanilll operation.l~:Ym"1 the cfiScbUJC ioto the lei! of type A substances. D eMmiclll iDdude: ~ . 1DIutiDe..nes (~ B •..!.. Ouidaace for disc:huce 8IboR 01 ealCJOry B caraoes is •• Procedura and Arranpmcota manual...... Another. .. ill his dcpanmcnt is to ensure by maintenance. 1bese n:plations are IiJniIar to t)'pt . SpcciaI dniDiac ud cIIcbaqe methods have also been produced for fittina to e:xistioa wsek._ .iatbe. 10 be c:arried IS • tefereaae:.moI'C camp&ete cIiIcMrae of cargo.. the disctulfle from the tank until the tank iI empty... For some tuken there were substantia] reoiains because ~ the inability of the older type of cargo pumps 10 disc:barJc c:ompIetcIy...t. black smoke is sometimes inevitable wbcII llabinc up or wbeo • problem occurs.. trainin& and watchkccpiDa (or dw:ckiDJ of control equipment and alarms) that no smote isproduccdio do5ed waters or.. "water' from ~ .. when discharal cargo remains must be removed and also discharged ashorcby _... ~mic:aIs in this category ....' lead to a court ease and a heavy fine.3 Cubic mclRl (0. ad • Proccdura aad Anupmads . .at from the tanka .... tbaa O... 1peCiaI_ (BaItic_'BID: Sea ese.. __ . This Bcknowledges that there are oa::asioas wbcn due to problems "1th combustion equipmeot or fuel..

. Outlidc of this area. Oddments made of plastic. controls for special areas wbidl include the tdcditerra. At a later date. LcgisIatioD ill the United Kingdom. An incinerator implies air pollutiOn topther with tile peoalty of iaitial expenditure and operating C8Its (fuel). rap. into the sea is DOt permitted uoIeu: 1 The ship is proceeding at DOt _ than seven knots.lations 1988. The Merchant Shippina (Cootrol of PoUuIioe . .. crockery and. . comminution of the above muse is DOt neCessary. aste. use of synthetics for ropes and fishing nets. NGUoIII Uquid Subltanccs in B~) Rep)atioa 1987. pacbainl. These new regulations seek to reduce the garbage nuisance by imposing limits ~ tIM: dumping of the various kinds of . ~mc. Marine Pollution. area. 551. metals caD be disposed of. (PrftentioaOt Oil Pollution) Regulations 1983. fIlftber regulations is dependent on im~ of Ihore disposal fKilitica. nean. .r" t OlL Y WATER AND SEWAGE OILY WATER AND SEWAGE I The discharge of type D cbemialk. The ·nuislUlQ!value extends to blockage of sea water inlet strainers and components such as ejectors. 2 Content. The Merc:bant SbippiDa(1. Tbere is a limit imposed on tile quantity discbarged.n r . metal and other materials have proved dangerous to wild life.. The United Kingdom Regulations. wiD be· __ . Not aU sipatory countries wiD make this provisioII in the immediate futURo . The dumping of refuse within 3 ftIiIes of any coutIifte is prohibited.. HMSO..ccepIioa HMSO. Wbea this Statutory 1nstnuDeD1I1987 No. of. lenera) refuse in tile special areas. if the vessel is in a special HMSO. TIIIIina ot the. The introduction of plastie cxmtainers and packagiRg. ean be disposed of. of the discharge is made up pi only ODe part of the ten pans of wilter. (Prevention of Pollution by Garbalc) Reln. Dumping of plastics iI not IlIowed in any '. and the proliferation of plastic· bags has made· casual dumpinl a major nuisance. Research has sbown that the majority oflarbage washed up on British beaches. requires provision of garbaae disposal facilities by ports and terminals at a reasonable cbarae." FaciIitic:s for Garbap:) Replations 1988. $}'IUhetic fishing nets and any otber iUbIIances wIUclit COQld be 10 c:aaqorized. . with bappens~re will be • complete ban OD the dumpin. An exceptioa made for food wastes will permit disposal onIv beyond the 12 mile limit../erences The MerchaniSbippin. provided that they have been passed through a comminuter or grinder.1inina and packing lhatcrials wbich may Ooat.· syntbetic ropes. came into force on the 31st December 1988 as The NerdwJtSbippmg (Prevention of Polluti_by G~) Replations 1981. Beyond the 12 miles line. Annex V of the IMO Marpol73f18 convention which seeks to control disposal of garbase is now in force.ar. ' . Rubbish from ships bas tnditionaUy been dumped at sea where most of it Sank or in the case of food wastes. originated from ships. There is a complete ban on tlledumpiDS of pIasticIat sea in any ~ Options for disposal of Ptastics in the farm of .nce . lOJether with other areD severely at riIk from poUution by prbaae. They are also obvious and unsightly. was cateB by seabirds or fish. I R. wbicIl give effect to the IMO c:ooveation. The plastic items do not rot or break down. Baltic and Black seas. •. There is a 2S mile limit beyond wbiclt dUDaago. ilIdude incineratins or on board retention until the ~I rcac:heI a pun with reception facilities.. 1)c: Merchant Shippin. food wastes and other ReJDI such as paper products. GARBAGE DISPOSAL Domestic refuse ashore iI tontpIetely removed and disposed of by buryina or burning. 3 The' wssel is more than twelve miles from land. Substances passing tbroush • pinder IIIlISt be rendered small enough COpass through a 2S nun screeD. gIassI bottles.ore striaJcot.

~. of the bri~e by the brine pump or ejector. The lingle effect. to keep density down. will :Cleter acid cleaning to make it an annual exercise. The higher evaporabon -rate would increase brine density and p~ ~ formatioa but output is restricted to the rated figure. An advantaae of low pressure evaporators is that they enable·ocherwilc wasted beat from diesel engine jacket coolin. Use of continuous treatment. Evaporation of part of the sea water leaves a brine the density of which must be controlled by continual removal through a brine ejector or pump. One of the gases liberated is ~ from calcium bicarbonate in the sea water. drainace of femma from the land and isolated cases of pollution from JfOUDdins or c:oUision of ships and spillage ofcarao· Condensale pump LOW PRESSURE EVAPORATORS Low pressure evaporators for the production of water may be heated by waste steam on steamships or by engine cooling water OD motonhips. ture . outside a 20 mile limit). form of natural rubber.~ Vapour ~volved at a very rapid rate by boiling of the sea water feed tends to carry with-it droplets of salt water which must be removed to avoid contamination of the product. Without continuous cratiWCnt cleaning may be necessary after perhaps two months.l PRODUCTIOr-. submerged tube evaporator sbown (Fig. Reverse osmosis systems were instaUcd to pvc instant wa1er production capaaty without extensive modifications (as with vessels CDIIIID8Ildeercd for hostilities in the Falklands war). disposal of chemical wastes from industry. OF WATER CHAPTBRIO Production of Water Modem low pressure evaporators and reverse osmosis s~ Jive relatively trouble fRC operation particularly in comparisoo with the types that . Despite precautions near tile . because magnesium hy~JftJnn when surfaces are at 8O"C or more.'""N'){1 The steel shell of evaporators is prone to corrosion.Ji ". Storage capacity for water can be donated to commercial camine. .. white scale.j DISTILLATE TREATMENT 1be low operating temperature of the evaporator sterilize the product.. They are used 10 advantaF OIl some passenaer cruise vessels and are fttted in ships which may remain stopped at sea for various ~ (tankers awaitilll OrdeR. Scale is not a major problcn:t where submerged heating coils reach a tempera. The relatively low temperature jacket water entering at about 6S"C and leaving at about 6O"C will produce evaporation because vacuum conditions reduce boiling temperature of the sea water from 10lfC to less than 4S"'C. The small quantity of soft calcium carbonate scale can be removed by periodic c.. 'Iocc' which mostly discharges with the brine.me fitted in older ships.. 112) is supplied with diesel engine cooling water as the heating medium. to cope with excess evaporation due to ~ao tube con. knitted monel metal wire or polypropylene collects the salt filled waler droplets as they are carried through by the air. The demister of.. rolled and bonded to the 1be adhesive is heat cured and integrity of the DR~"IM..leaning with a .'-' \' ' Steam heated evaporators with their higher heating surface::_ . calcium sulphate will not cause problems.tP~:A. Contmuous removal. Another safeguard IS the distillate return loop system. Pollution is present in inshore waters from JeWaae outfalls.benefit more from chemical dosing.. heat is too low for formation of magnesium scales and ~ brine deDllty IS controlled.. 6O"C. Waminl is given in M Notice M620 that evaponlOD mUll IlOl be operated within 20 miles of a coastline and that this distalltC should be peater in some circumstances. 1bese Coalesce forming drops large enough to fall back against the vapour &OW. ru~_iCl_'" Pnl-~1l. Loss of carbon dioxide from calcium bicarbonate leaves plain calcium carbonate which has poor solubility and a tendency to lonn soft. any excess distillate being returned to the brine sump. limits density. but which will not condense. Air and other gases released by heating of the sea water. ' .Yh· CORROSION m. '1:. They are sufficiently teUabie to provide the water needed for the: engine room and domestic consumption during c:ontinuout and UDIIttendeci operltlbn.. water to be put to soOO use.commer~ available agent or the evaporator can be conbDually dosed wnh synthetiC polymer to bind the scale fanning salt in. re.of ~nly. Other potential scale-forming salts are calcium sulphate and magnesium compou_. high vacuum.ditlons or higher than usual heating water temperature. are removed by the air ejector..

A later notice.. While the water resides in the domestic tank. water.08 p.m. war· TREATMENT WI1H SILVER ION ADDITION- Wet ___. The pheOO'. .p.p.. brane result that the salt solution is diluted but the water remamspure.·1be addition is set to briog chlorine content to 0.materials Salt water on one side of the membr-. rsed .'1C1lO!l : important in the absorptioo of water through the roots of plants and 1ft arum and plant systems generaIly.m. If a large volume has to be treated only part is by passed through and a high current setting is used to inject a large amount of silver.. by The mem:rane and the parcbment are semi-permeable and allow the wa~r molecules through but not the larger salt molecules. 114). 11S). This condition makes it corrosive to pipe systCIIII and less than beneficial to the human digestive tract.ne 15 permeable memu. has also been approved.. ULTRA. neutralite unit. ------T--I PRODUC1'ION OF WA~. water may become infested due to build up of a colony of organisms from some initial contamination. tastes nat and tends to be slightly acidic due to ready absorption of carbon dioxide (C02). Pure tel ""'_ urized by. 1be liquid level ill the fUDnc~nses as pure water p~ ~rough the ~t and into the solution.. as a constituent of sodium hypochlorite (a liquid) or as solid granules of calcium chloride dissolved in water. although instantly effective. Sterilization by addition of chlorine. The passage of water from storage tanks to the domestic system is by way of a carbon filter which removes the chlorine taste. .m.. The addition of hardness salts also gives the water a better taste. It is used in conjunction with other methods but not as the sole means of sterilization.PRODUcnON OF WATER may enter with the sea water and pass through to the domcstie water tank and system. Silver content of the system should· be 0. of silver. The sterilizer is placed close to the production equipment with the conditioning unit being installed after the sterilizer and before the storage tank. a scrm-permea bl.1 p. J: 141 . me!Q. Ultra-violet radiation from low pressure mercury lamps is used for pretreatment disinfection in some reverse osmosis plant.2 p. Silver is toxic to the various risk organisms..p. J46 . MI401.. f' Reverse osmosis is a water filtration process whid1 makes use 0 scDl!· "--_. mp and forced against the matcnaJ.!'n .--~-__' The electrokatadyn process (Fig.VIOLET LIGHT Chlorine and silver jon sterilization give lasting protection but sterilization by ultra-violet light. maximum.mcm~. wa r--but not salts (Fig. The bypassed water is then added to the rest in the pipeline.. . ta'ncr of .m. all of the water is delivered through the device and the current setting is such as to give a concentration of 0..tsapply t I Water oudel TREATMENT WITH CHLORINE STERILIZATION Initial treatment involves passing the distillate through.-_. For production of large amoun" of pure ~ REVERSE OSMoslS ::Bh. :. prevent re-infection. Unlike the gas chlorine. containiAg magnesium and calcium carbonate. salt or other solution on the The With tbe ftO UJ_ .-. filter allowing passage of water but not of the salt. . In the long term.. being a gas. Osmo~c pressure can be obtained measurin the bead of the solution when the action ceases. 113) accepted as an alternative to chlorination (see M 1401) involves the use of a driven silver anode to inject silver ions into the distilled water product of the low temperature evaporator. The amount of metal released to water passing through the unit is controlled by the current setting. is injected for sterili2ing purposes. removes acidity. more . Distilled water having left behind the compounds pre¥iously dissolved in it. With low water ftow. . it will evaporate.. . rted thistle funnel partly iWed with solubon and ~me In a con I m:~ water (Fi . c.. The action WI acts tias a despite rise of head of the salt solution relative to that of the pure con BOCA dramabe' labotatory demonstration uses a parchment-covered.+--------.into. Additionally there is a likelihood that while in the domestic tank. chlorine should preserve sterility. the term used to describe the passage of pure water from one ~ of IS other. it will not evaporate but remains suspended in the water. states that the ElectroKatadyn process in use since the 19605. therefore. Cblorine. Some absorption of carbon dioxide from the water and the neutnlizing effect of these compounds. . will not last and will DOt. is recommeaded in Merchant Shipping Notice M 1214.

Design of the cartridges (Fig.PRODucnONOFWATER Clean 'IIIIeJ' Fig.is also injected to assist the action. One problem with any filtration system is that deposit accumulates and gradually blocks the filter. the membrane area must be large and it must be tough enough to withstand the pump pressure: The material used for sea water purification is spirally wound polyamide or polysulphonate sheets. 149 . 115 Reverse osmosis J48 - . A dosing chemical. 114 Demonstration of osmosis water. High pressure pump C1ean waler Sea wiler feed Fig. 116) is therefore such that the sea water feed passes over the membrane sheets so that the washing action keeps the surfaces clear of deposit.

The Merchant Shipping (Crew Accommodation) Regulations 1978. (1987). A.fRODUcnON OF WATER Treatment is also necessary to make the water product of reverse osmosis potable. are available. J. • The transfer hose for fresh water is to be marked and kept exclusively for that purpose. Epoxy and other coatings developed for use in fresh water tanks. Tanks should. This on measure- ISO - ~> .2 p. the surfaces hosed to clean them. . (1987). The hose must be stored clear of the deck where contamination is unlikely. M 1401 Disinfection of Ships' Domestic Fresh Water. The ends must be capped after use. The Department of Transport recommends in Merchant Shipping Notice number M 1214 that because of the risk from kgionelkl bacteria entering the respiratory system by way of fine mist from a shower spray. MER. J. whether for drinking or washing purposes. paper 38. if necessary. At the twelve-montb inspection. Trans. Super-chlorinating when the vessel is drydocked.. solution of chlorine is suggested.. aU water including that for washing only. vol. be pumped out and. (976). should be treated by sterilization. c. Mar..p. is to be sterilized. and Charnley. HMSO. T. consists of leaving a 50 p. 'aUl~ritM=s and the United ship' which sets survey. References M 1214 Recommendations to Prevent Contamination of Ships' Fresh Water Storage and Distribution Systems. Legionella and Ships' Water Systems. All water from ashore.m.p. Trans. Noise and Vibration NOISE DOMESTIC WATER TANKS Harmful organisms in drinking water storage tanks have caused major health problems on passenger vessels and to oil platform personnel. R. CHAPTER}} TREATMENT OF WATER FROM SHORE SOURCES There is a risk that water supplied from ashore may contain harmfuJorganisms which can multiply and infect drinking or washing water storage tanks. chlorine solution in the tank over four hours. at six-month intervals. vol. foUowed by Bushing. cleaning and recoaring may be needed. The method is much the same_ for water produced in low temperature evaporators. before application of a cement wash. E.m.p. 88. Gilchrist. among others. the Modem Alternative. When chlorine is used. E. Tanks surfaces are prepared by wire brushing and priming. Allanson. 95. I. lSt \ . the dose must be such as to give a concentration of 0. Washing with a 50 p. Hill.m. E. Mar. Drinking Water from the Sea: Reverse Osmosis. Sea Water Distillers.x.

Exposure to this degree of sound energy is potentially harmful. . ..2 m for normal voice effort and up to about 9 m when shouting. (b) as I . Breakdown maintenance is not the remedy of the prudent enpnecr. . If. The operating and maintenance experienee of ships' engineers provided the foundation for planned maintenance schemes.. and...: Many of the available ear muffs and plugs are not adequate. of condition monitoring for maintcnanc:c.' . The alternative to planned maintenance. is seen as another surveiUanc:c metbod.m. Readings of 105 have been taken near slow-speed engine cylinder heads and figures of 100 dB( A) between. seals and pans but sometimes in damage inflicted and ultimate breakdown built in. NOISE AND vtBRA nON NOISE AND Vl8~11QN . can be expensive in terms of the extent of resulting damaae. arc damap:d or worn bearings and gear teeth which are mating badly. Varying degrees of vibration. aaotber and more acceptable option. There are also / VIBRATION AND CONDITION MONITORING Routine maintenance of ships machinery has been based on running ~urs as recommended by equipment manufacturers. tenda to remove ftexibil~ty and sensible alteration of running hours. supports and at other relevant points. for example.. A rotatins machine with inadequate founda~ or bearinl support. may suffer severe and obvious vibration. A DOte in the code of practice states: 'Face-to-face conversation should be sa"'tisfactory at a distance of approximately 0. The limit for 87 dB(A) is 16 hours. The performance of approved types should be checked against measured noise levels to ensure that they are capable o( reducing effects to an equivalent of 85 dB(A) (for unlimited exposure time). The recommended maximum noise level in the wheelhouse is 65 dB(A). The cost of stripping down is paid not only in terms of replacement joints. should be limited to 5 minutes. as an alternative to tatin& machinery apart for survey.75 m using a raised voice. Telephone and radio usage should be acceptable'. depending OD the progress of the fault. Hearing is most at risk in machinery spaces where noise levels may be greater than the recommended maximum.. diesel generators at 120 dB(A).(.. aff. medium-speed diesel generators. . will result from these and other defects. Reediop of l'ibrtlioa mapitude and &equeDcy are recorded manually from basic instnuDeDli but some equipment incorporates data c:oDec:ton from wbida informatioa iI fe4 to a computer for analysil. Other defects which would be made apparent by increasing vibration. and found to have no faults and a potential for many more hours of operation. A note relating to this states: 'Face-to-face conversation should be satisfactory at distances of up to 1. and (c) as a substitute for cla&sifieatioD society survey where agreement has b(eD reacbed with the society. .~" "tt·. by .led.~ cost effecttve. horizontal and uiaI directions. be costly in the same way. Tbe: vibratioD pick·up is placed OD each bcarina in tunt 10 record in tbe wrtical. A noise level. Oassific:ation societies are now wiIlin& to ac:ccpt. by mutual agreement. vibration monitorm. reciprocating machinery) where there are upIMIanc:cd forces. is becoming more widely used • the means of detel1Dinin& wben machinery should be overbau. Only when the noise is at 85 dB(A) or less is there no limit on exposure time. 87 dB(A) (for 16 hours) or 90 dB(A) (for 8 hours). Equipment has been frequently taken out of service for planned maintenanc~ r . eJl8I~ Fooln. Unfortunately. Overhaul times have then been adjusted by experience and the requirements of government depanment andIor classification society survey. of repairing after breakdown. Unprotected exposure to a noise level of 110 dB(A). Dismantling machinery and equipment for survey may. Other recommended maximum levels are: Galleys and pantries-70 dB(A) Sleeping cabins and hospital-60 dB(A) Day cabins and offices-65 dB(A) Mess rooms and recreation rooms-65 dB(A) Damage-to the hearing is based on sound level and time of exposure. for readings of 100 dB(A). permit adequate speech communication . VIBRA nON ANALYSIS WARNING Ear protection is necessary and a suitable warning should be posted at the entrance to any space in which noise levels reach or exceed 90 dB(A) . The result 1$ that planned maintenance has proved to be _ . Condition monitorin&. is associated with most mechanical problems that occ:ur in macbiocs. during the procedure of openiog the equipment. as measured in a small machinery space with medium speed and fast diesel units. y also be taken 011 casinp.. Telephone usage is likely to be slightly difficult'. imbalance or misalignment.blevibratioo. tbose unavoidable vibrations associated with c:crtain equipment [i.... Noticeable or at least IDeMW'e8. The ideal limit for manned machinery spaces of 90 dB(A) should be endured for not longer' than 8 hours per day.p.e. The figure of 110 dB(A) is the recommended limit for unmanned machinery spaces in which personnel may be engaged in maintenance work on a dailv basis! Exposure time should be limited to 50 minutes per day. and the acceptable maximum daily dose if the ears are not protected is 30 seconds. 1bere are also fixed installations with a display unit. There are limits set on the safe time of exposure to certain levels of sound... . or are worn or dama&ed. Measurements of vibration CQ be made: (a) if a problem develops and diagnosis is DCCCSAI'Y. Readinp ... Used oil analysis an alternative method of determining engine condition. has been measured in a location between two high speed 1800 r. planned maintenance decrees exact periods between overhauls of rotating macbinery as dose as possible to the sIWt. Instruments with a built-in capability for 011 lite analysis are available. VIBRATION MONITORING INSTRUMENT READINGS Vibration readinp are taken' maiDIy on the bearin& housings 152 153 .

Code of Practice (or Noise Levels in Ships. 1 JIRIIUI'C veaeI tests.118-19 Catalytic finc:s. The ~gs are obtaioed with the machinery in a steady running state.asbjna (COW). 53 • Cathode ray ~. . 146-7 EIIaII ". E.3 ~t (shaft). The rondition and performance is checked on a planned basis. CJl.l40 Air . 55 Chalk and paraftin tat.62 Fretting. 64 Density (fuel). (J990). 93-4 Frettiog aad corrosion.1:38-9 ~&re~. Thus details such as speed.xpIosimeter. 56 . 16 . 74 . Machinery which is operated with condition monitoring has only to be opened for examination when readings indicate a deterioration.. 95-C' 0ea0iD& au. hitbi. 29-31 Defrost arrancements. 36-9 Cupro-niCkcl. 140 Oeao bIbst taDb.. 31 COa Bacteria. 84 . 38 boule valve. Other factors Wbicb will contribute perhaps in a major way to the identification of problems are aIIo taken ioto account·.. 91-2 Chemical stain tubes. 126 Qwpy tClt. BrineWol. 35-6 Fractiona~ tower. /.7 Crine seal. 37. 21. This facility has now been extended. 35 Dye penetrant tatiIIJ. 23 DeepweU pump. 31 ' 000riDa~46 ~i~- Face seal (oil). 131-B Combustible: . B.. Many shipping companies now use a combination of. 18-19 Float ehamber. 1 CentrifuJC Ilt8PJClQCDts (fuel). 19-20 Caoditioo ~ 1!52-4 Coolers. A condition that must be satisfied is that the vessel has a suitable planned maintenance scheme in operation with. EaJine 39-41 Entry to eaclOIOIiI~.I36-8 BafIles (cooler). 113-4 Face seal (sea water).7-12 .34 &cIoIed~16 &poe rocXr.. the condition of ships and their machinery has to be demonstrated at regular intervals to surveyors from the societies. 89 Qude oil refining. A. 132-3 CoIferdaml. A complete survey of a ship's machinery can be carried out at four. the two methods to provide CO. 91-3 Cleao Air Act. system.water tanks. can be reduced by incorporation of condition monitoring. 63-70 Axial strain. condition monitoring.. 38-9 References Approved Planned Maintenance Scbemes an Alternative to C... BrineU bardDess tat. 165 Factor of safety.. 37. ' NOISE 'AND VIBRATION FAULT DIAGNOSIS An investigation of excessive vibration relies mainly on vibration frequency readings to identify normal and abnormal vibntions. 21 Colliform c. en.. 41-5 154 155 . Designated chief engineers are now empowered to Qrry out surveys at sea or in any port on much but not all of the machinery.MER_ cooIen. 125 CharJinJ steeriDa . 19-20 RIOQI Eqine I00III . 94 Benzene. system. based on calendar or running. 89 Ferrous sulpbate.teaa.90-1 . 89 CRep testing. 50-1 Crude oil w. 135 Automatic freoa S)'Itenl. yearly intervals or the alternative of a tontinuous survey over a period of five years can be agreed on. Noise Levels on Board Ships.. (1978). 51 Disc and bafIIes. the classification ~eties have permitted designated chief engineers to carry out surveys themselves in ports and places where DO surveyor from the society was available. 43-5 144-5 .. 55-6' Fuel daIa aod testiD&. 7 FITC main. 9 Coalesc:er (oilY water. pos5Ibly. (:opper roller beaia&. Uoyds . vol.. ~taab.. 113. CbarginJ telemotor. 51-2 Foaminstal"'. ISO Dry pipe tectioD alum valve. 115-17 AlumiDium bruI. co. 7 AmmoDia. iDdicator. Regulations. MtII'.. Foam bnncII ~. 33-6 Facd~36-4S flame failure/59 Flammable nmtures. ~9 sew-. Central c:ooIiDJ system.katadya ~. INO. TrGns. 74 Air poDution. SO Freoos. 4 Floc:culatioo.. 137 Blender (fuel). 47-8 Dual purpoI8 ... 19 co.). . 21 Chemical tanken.. Thomas.69 Evaporator (water ~). Index Aerobic sewalN! ~t. HMSO. 136-7 Air coDdi~r Air in ~ (frldse). The latter continuous survey of machinery has involved the opening up and examination of approximately one-fifth of the IIlKbincry in each year. alarm. 20 SURVEY OF MACHINERY To satisfy the requirements of classification. but items are only opened for examination when vibration and other readings show there has been a deterioration.. 145-6 Domestie. The shortcomings of a planned maintenance scheme..M . 101-2 CoiIPbI bolts. 74 Floc point.ount. B-41 Bulk Decibels (dB).14 Creep. load and operating temperatures are DOted together with any history of component failure. Vibration-identifying the source.20 ~rbearin&. 62. 7 Pistillate treatment. . 61"':2 E. 27-9 0IemiaI tanker ~~1 Chemical as £ledro.hours to dictate when equipment should be opened for inspcc:tion and· overhaul. 140-1 Chemical taoter· . 27-9. 99-102 Biocbemical 0KYJCIl demand (BOD). Aising. 86 n-80 CONDITION MONITORING MAINTENANCE AND PLANNED greater cost effectiveness. 5-7 Ceotrifupl pump. 13--15 Ceotral priminl system. ~ valve... 93-4 Fuel blender. 7-8 Bearinp (shaft). 81 rio. In the past.. 64. BromotriftuorometbaDe. Noise Reduction in Ships.63 ADaerobiI:. EvaporalOl' (lridSC). solving the problem. 151-2 Dec:k water seal.S.

106 Oil rectifier (fridge). 12 1bresbold limit value (TLV).. 73 Oil tuker cargo pwnpiac. 20 Sptit ttern bearinD.39-41 Harduels testiq. 29-31 !-Mjuid peaettaDt test." MIIIIIMII.-l04-5 Stem hydrodynamic: lubrication... 2S-6 HomopDiser. 121-2 HiP expaosioo foam. lIZ Muioe safety c:ard. Packaa:e 60 boiler combustioa system. 84-6 Ultra-violet liaht. pump.as Spray/jet DOZZIe. 147-50 RoIIer~. 82-4 Ram type Iteain& pro 119-25 J:ldriprants. 121. flO beuiaa. US-16 Shaft beirin~. 41-3 Noise... CIOIIboIIer (frld&e).3-5 ~Md~ " 140-1 Proof stress.. 72-3 Refriaerator faults. X. 53 Vapour compressi<la cycle. 2 Inert PI system. 7-9 TurnbuO split stem beuiDJ.. 74-5 Muff c::uupIins. 2 VibIlltion anal '.. 136-7. 20 ~==ic~~.. steerin$ gear.. S3-5 ~buIb. 20-1 Purifier. 1 Shore water treatmCJlt.. 97 Pour point (fuel).G..1S4 (1eWIp). Modulus.e (fridge). 20 Treatment (distilled water). 115 Stem hydrostatic lubric:atioa 115 StiffaeS. 1. 38:-9 PretreatmeDt ud post treatmeDt (R. ~100 PoisIon's IlIl1O. us HjdrOicalic lUbric:atioa. 110-13 YaDe TUlBDium.Turnbulstern beariq. " Impact tesbq. 41-3" Weardciwa (rUdder). 145-6 Tube cooler. 129-30 sboclr. 81 I. 151-2 ~i:':~'3r parifter.. Z3 " Sea . 2S-7 Oil WIker hazards. 132-3 Osdllosc:ope. 8S Oven:har. 86. IM-13 :"9 . 67-8 Sour crueIes. Thermostatic apa . j2 Survey of m~ SuspeDded ~~ Stresi~86 ~~ Cia fuel)"~ . 12 Plumed 1MiateDaDc:e. ).. 22 Glacier-Herbert stem bcMin&.52-6 Gamma fa)'l.82-4 YIeld poiat. 36-9 Sodium (in Iud). 23-4 lo&ematioiW shore CODDeCtioa. riDt primer. 110-13 . U8 . 92 ... 61 Variable delivery pump. . 142-3 Gas free certificate.. 43-S High preaure cutoOUt. 81 jS • Oil CDIItent moaitorin&.52-4 VlICOSity (fueJr. valves.l4-5 Pressurelvac:uum YIIve. ~ LqioneIM bacteria. ~ nI¥e (&remat).. 126 142 156 157 . 97-9 MulsMprily. 138-9 Shaft alipment. 137 149-SO Telemotor..:rificW modes. 86 HydryJeo sulphide.f6 Underdwge {fridae)... 86 Leak detector lamp.. S6- Steerioa cear SteeriDa JCar repJatioas.1. 33 hDetrameter.48 Quartz crystal.I2S-6':: T~~t26"· Tensile test. lubricited Item tube.) ftive. 1~9 !-iIudied PI c:aIJO puBIIIift&.. &l-4 Garbage diIposaI. 7 Lower ~ limit.. YCIUI!t. ..Fuel UadIin& I8d tratmc:at.. 18-19 L P. 1. 'I V. (NDT). 86 86-7 W. 108 HaIoo"IY*m. ~ Noa-destruclive testioC Nozzle (dual purpose). 146 ~"Stem tubl!t. 123-4 Steerin& par Wlum. 6S-7 99-100 as &oIati. 7S-6 OxYFn analyser. iaIpecdoa. 52 PressUre vacuum (p.s.S. 99-102 Shaft seal (fridae) 70. 18 Rudder curier !WtuY iDspectioD. 79-80 Lip type seal. 24-5 Pressure vessel (~. 127-9 Sprinkler bead. US lciogol ~tor. 104-5 Seawater pipeIiDes. 90-1 HeIe.. ISO SmotberiDg instaJIatioD. ftIve. 9-11 PIaiD~.116-17 Lateral straio.56-7 HoobSLa . 88 Pump .. 67-8 Ross. U12-3 ' T"II~ pad ~. 45-9 Sieerina gear charPna.. Tbresbold limit valUe 20· TIuuit bJocb. 14-6 ResidUal fuel. 86 • StniD 86 Ultrasonic ~. 6S Hip vcIocily vent. 18-21 OiIylwaler separator. 154 Plate coolers.. ~9"". J.O. 92 Moisture ill system (frld&e). 53 Solenoids. 118-19 euminatioft.. 71-4 RefriFrator oil m:ovay....room&..-3 Volute c:asins. 12-13 Section M~ eumination.:tiq(sha& . 122-3 Water boa (cooIen~7 Water COIItenl( . 48-9 ~ system. S3-5 treatmeDt ~. 5 Water spray 1JIfeID. 50-1 Reverse OSIIlOIis. 68-9 ~ Mapetic i:nct detcctioD. 91-2 Impeller (pump). 153 Vibration~.. 82 Pipc:1iDes. lS Spray DOZZIes (mulsi-spray).V. 101-2 Room solenoids.15 Vanadium Cia fuel). 16-17 plant. Jbdiosnpbic ~tioD (distilled water).). pump. 7 Saubber flDelt pi). Primer . 133-5 Oil lubricated stem tube. 62-3 RefJilerator 1ubricatioD.oiIdIeiteIllioa test. .

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