-General Engineering Knowledge

THIRD EDfT10N

H. D. McGeorge,

CEng, FIMarE, MRINA

: .'

UTTERWORTH .E I N E MAN

N

NewDes
All impriaI 01 Butterwortb· .......... m Lld Ibky ColIn. JordaD Hill. O!dord 0"1 lEI

-Preface

Contents
Vll

Fin& pabtished by Staaford w.ridme limited 1978 ReprmIed 1981 Secood editioa 1984 Reprinted 1987, 1989 Third editioll Inc pubtiIbecJ by 8uttefworth.HeiaellWlD Ltd 1991

1 Centrifugal Pumps and Priming-Coolers

-<-

and Cooling Systems-Pipelines Corrosion

and

1

C H.

D.

MtGeorJe
(

l

2

1978, 1984, 1991
JIIIlIIicQoa .. ,
~W

Hazards in Enclosed Spaces-TankersCargo Pumping

16 33
50

AI,....
-

-..ed. JtIopm of

be...,....
......

." .....

• ..,--

br~_
1Ii

...

iIl

3 Fire Protection
4 Fuel-Handling and TreatnientSelf Cleaning Purifier-Automatic Combustion System for Auxiliary Boiler Refrigeration-Air Metallurgical Tests Stem Tubes, Seals and Shafting Systems Conditioning-Heating

WIl(lf......,

w"""'_" -.,_...of· ......

oflllilpulllicltioD) wiIIIoIII .. ... ..."...Idda...,.iIl~· .. _of·.,._

............ ,......
......... -.repnMIuce.,.
..... u..y

........ ",,_, WCU!7DP·AfIr"

...w--..

......,_of

ea".w...n.ipI ...... ..... br.. ~

Aa

LId. »-34A11Nd ._ ~

"-.l.MIka. ......
.... *"'Id1le

of_

5 6
7

61 81
95

c,......,..........,.

MI:Gecqe, H. D. (H. Dmd) <JaenI ~ knowIedp - 3rd ed. 1. Muine eaamccnn, I. Tide

623.87
ISBN , 7S06 0006 3

8 Steering Gear
9
H)

118

131 Pollution Prevention-MonitoringOily Water Separator-Sewage Treatment

............... ill a-. 8riaIiIII by ItiddI. LId, GuikIIonI_ Kiaa·. L'_

Production of Water

144

11 Noise and VibrationIndex

151 155

Preface
ficates of Competency Classes I, 2 and 3 aU have the same general content. There are. of course. differences of emphasis and in the way that the questions are asked. Information in this book is intended to be of assistance to candidates for all of the papers. This third edition of GeoeraI Eogineertna Knowledge has been expanded and updated to cover changes in the examination questions and legislation introduced since the previous edition. The chapter on pollution prevention now includes sections on disposal of chemicals and garbage. in addition to notes on prevention of pollution by oil, the Clean Air Act and disposal of sewage. A new chapter on production of water by low-pressure evaporators and reverse osmosis contains notes on treatment to make the water potable and on problems with bacteria. Noise. another form of pollution, is also associated with vibration and there is now a chapter dealing with both topics. The section on vibration covers its use as a means of monitoring tbe condition of machinery. Additions have been made to various chapters and references where appropriate for further reading. 'Knowledge is of two kinds - we know a subject ourselves. or we know where we can find information upon it.' (Sam Johnson) H. D. MeG.
The written examinations in engineering knowledge for Merchant Navy Certi-

. ;;c.

l

~

..
,

CHAPTER!

- Centrifugal Pumps and Priming-. Coolers and Cooling SystemsPipelines and Corrosion .
The simple c:cntrifupl pump is used lor sea WIder circulation and other duties where self priming is GOt a ·requirement. WIIea iosIalled for bilge pumping or ballast dUty, these pumps require a primer Le : tome meall5 of removing air from the suction pipe 50tMt the liquid to be pumped ~ caused to ftow into the pipe an.d so to the eye of tbe impeller.

CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

SINGLE STAGE CENTlUFUGAL
Pump sWt

PUMP

For general duties the impeller iI of ahMniDium bronze keyed and secured to a stainless. st.eel shaft. The impeDer.;.rlrIIfta (Fig. 1) is fully shrouded and of tbe
Co!apIina 51*« Gland Gland Share

pectin,

bcarin,

Lubricator Drain eonneclion

'0' rin,

..

F' .. 1 SiqIe .

mae

ceatrifupl·,..,_ •• ,..,
rinp .

l.Dwer_

~.£14)

The cover has a hub containing the Q)IIVCrtingldnetic: head into pressure bead. opening-the valve and allowing the air pump to evacuate the air from the suction pipe. forcing air out. The tips of the vanes are sealed by the water and the volume between them varies during the rotation. single entry impeller in the pump shown (Fig. The renewable wear rings are of aluminium bronze and the casing is normall~' of bronze or cast iron. The casing is partly filled with water.mer. In tum. as the simple plan view shows (Fig. The discharge The air pump or water ring primer. The latter is normally subject to atmospheric pressure. This partial vacuum causes the atmospheric pressure to force liquid into the suction pipe. CASING The section of the· volute casing shown ia the sketdJ (Fig. When this is removed. passes to atmosphere. The shrouding supporting the vanes 9D the other side. together with the impeller and shaft assembly can be lifted out of the pump casing for inspection or maintenance. 1) is the type most widely used. has an entry at the centre. Interruption of the coolant supply results in vapour from the sealing water destroying the vacuum effect. either a packed gland or a mechanical seal. The swirling action causes the liquid to move towards the outside and away from the centre (in the same way that stirred coffee moves to the side of the cup. Beneath the suction ports. The volute also acts as a diffuser. Cooling water is necessary to prevent overheating of the sealing water from the action of the vanes in the liquid. The backward curving vanes and the rotation give the liquid a combined radial and circullU' motion. The shaft bearing. With no liquid in the suction. the pump cover. This returns through another pipe to the pump suction. . lubricated by the liquid IX'ing pumped except [or pumps operating on high stalk lift. S). is of phenolic resin asbestos. liquid in the casing is swirled by the rota ling impeller. A pump which is required to initiate suction from a liquid level below itself. IMPELLERS The fully shrouded. A spigoued coupling spacer connects the motor half coupling to the pump shah. The water in a pump acts like a piston for water in the suction pipe and an empty pump will not operate.PlJMPS AND COOLERS 1>hah bearing al the bottom and. the liquid leaving the impeller prodeees a drop in pressure at the entry or eye of the impeller. Pumps designed to produce bigh pressure. Valles / M:~ 1 E. This causes liquid from the suction pipe to Bow into the pump. It is drawn from the suction ftoat chamber of the main pump and through the pipe and ~s to the suction ports of the rr. Under the discharge ports. AIR PUMP ARRANGEMENT The diagram (Fig. A pipe from the pump outlet. sin!!'". The vanes are supported on ODe side by shrouding connected to the hub. Tbe rotor is coupled to the electric motor so that when the pump is running the water spins with the rotor and being thrown outwards. takes up an elliptical shape. SUcnON When a centrifugal pump is operating. so that air is no longer pumped. The right side shows the operating passages and the path of the air being pumped. 2) inaeases. When the pump is operating. above.-y t ShnIud AIR PUMP PRINCIPLE consists of an elliptical casing which contains a vaned rotor and bas a covering plate with ports cut in it. A centrifugal pump will maintain a suction lift of four metres or more once it has been primed. The Boat operates a valve on the pipe leading from tbe float chamber to the air pump suction. It consists of a number of vanes curving backwards from the direction of rotation. entry type. Air pumped out. 4) Sbraud 2 3 . The internal passages of a typical air pump are shown in the sectional sketch (Fig. the volume increases so that air is drawn from the float chamber. tending to spill over the rim and leaves a dip at the centre). have a diffuser ring so that a greater quantity of kinetic energy in the liquid can be converted to pressure. provides cooling water for the primer. These have grease lubricated bronze bearings 10 ensure adequate lubrication during the priming period. The rising liquid will lift the ftoat and close the valve on the air pump suction. Some pumps have a double volute QlSing ~ gives radial balance and reduced wear on the beariop. because of the water passing through. the Boat drops. The main pump suction pipe has a float chamber fitted. there is a movement of the liquid to be pumped. must be fitted with an air pump. thus allowing unrestricted fIMIr from the impeller. the volume decreases. 3) shows a primer coupled to the top of an electric motor and centrifugal pump set.

.. ballast and general service arc usually fiued with primers... EllipricaJ casinC . so that the partial vacuum is broken and the water is free to circulate. the primers must be chec..PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS • :.=. EXHAUSTER FOR CENTRAL PRIMING SYSTEM Several centrifugal pumps can be primed rrom a central vacuum IBllk as an alternative to being fitted with individual water ring primers...) If priming takes a 10"1 time. The delivery valve is kept shut and the pump is started.~ir diliCharp: 10 aunosphere Pi. Suction valves between the liquid and the pump are opened and B check is made that other valves on the suction side of the system are closed. The Ihut-off handle rotates a port ed Air pump showia& open..ked. when the puJIlp has bee primed.. (A propeller pump should not be started with the discharge shut or overload results. n TIle primer runs continuously but can be unloaded. chamber to the position shown. Obviously positive displacement pumps would not be started with closed discharges.. the primer will become bot unleu cooling water is passed through it. by the arrangement on tbe left. . 5 F. The PU"*PI IIR! connected to the vacuum tank through the same sort of ftoat chamber atrtaae- . This is shown by comparison of cbaracteristic curves... Fresh water is used for lOpping up.. Before staniog such pumps. Air frum di5(harp: porn Air SUCllon Elecuic I1lOIOr pipe ) t 1 Air discharge to almosphere Sight Ilass .. to ensure that tbe sealing water is at the eorrect lever. From the outer casing the air is discharJed to atmosphere. 3 Ceotrifupl PQIDP with primer ports are not shown but the air from them is discharged into the top of tbe outer casing. The centrifugal pump can be staned with the discharge valve closed.tiDJ .. OPERATION Centrifugal pumps for bilge. The sea water suction can be opened to allow cooling. but it is an exception.

ciradatcd with tea water. because it takes up the elliptical shape ~f the. . Thus tHlprOteaed iron in .w~ boxes and other parts.er tank. rotor and ponedplate..casing when the rotor turns. would reduce the number of au pumps and the runnmg tUne for. ~ Clcar. w.. together with make-up water. tbe vacuum tank.upeIIIiv\. with tubes of . Water In ~he casing forms a seal and..7&30~aic:tel. ~Y coolers are fitted.. Two pall ftDw is showa ill tile &a __ CAl.other conosioIl resistant materials or protected more completely. 2 per 00Id aJuininium) are tx:namonly uteeL Ordinary brasses . ~) which evacuate th. IS ~a~ mto the suction and diIcharJcd to the sealing water tank. 6 The oil or water beiDa coole:d is in c. from the float chambers of various eenmfugal pumps clcanin.ins port for I sbort period.. Tubes of aluminium brass (76 pel" cent copper. hand bole Fil-. The sa:xeuIuI UIe of .R aormaUy . the outside of the 1UbeI aad the sheD of the c:ooIer. cobIeft.mmiaium brass has apparently depended on the pceseDCC of aprotectiw 11m formed aloes the tube length bf wrrosiOD of irua in the system.mc~ b:tweo:n plalC= . materials are available. The tWo discharge ports are connected via an aperture to the ~IiDg wat. Air from. and ~ pumps are automatically stopped by the SWitches when the required vacuum IS reached.-. 1be baftIes also IUpport dae tubes. Ba1Ies direct dae-liquid IICIOS5 tile tuba • it . bas·proIoapd tube life. Early tube failures may be due to poDution in coutaI waten m to turbulence ill aome cateI. consists of a ~n~~a1 casing of . The water remams m the tank.. them . air pumps (Fig...oval shape with a.The .. The two suctaon ports are con~ by passages in the cover to the suction pipe from tbe_ vacuum tank. on a vessel where priming is needed for a ~umber of pumps.. .p. nd mlor about 11. This was made appareat Wbell steel n=placed by . . . the sea water to a ~JIIlh of 1 ppm for aD hour per day over a few weeks and lilblcqucmtly to dose before enteriDa adIiI dcr leav. More . Starting is by meaDS of pressure SWl~ through SUitable s~arters..1~ rum ~ahng water level f V:u:uum !l!~ul!t Vacuum tank with Air suction plpc Connections :. Tubes are espaoded into'tube plates aad may be __ bonded by soIdcriDi.. There is also a shut off cock for isolating the pump and a DOD-return valve... . tbe use of a central primer. Tbe pumps run iotennittcntly as demand makes necessary and not continuously. The IlUer· treatment consists of dosin. produces a pumping action . ..m..e tank. Thus.PUMPS AND COOLERS I7SOr.7) but straipt low is CUaIIaGIl iD . other cheap materials hPe been used witJa uDSatisfadQr)' results.. through the cooler.. . . The remedy in tbcse systems bas been to fit sacrificiaJ soft iron or mild steel anodes in water boxes or to introduce iron in the form or ferrous sulphate fed uno the sea water. 22 per eeat ziDc. The sealing water reservoir also keeps the au pump cool and 15 cooled m turn.. .. wllile it&df corrodio. . The sea water is ioCDntactwith the inside oflbe tubes and rile water boKCI at the cooler eodI. 6 Exbauster for centra! primiDl system menl as is used with the individual water ring primer.oatatt wittJ.. . ". Elccux: maiO!' wilh aulOODUC $Ianing by vacuum switch 1lJBE COOLERS Tube CooIen for enJine jacket water ud lubricatina 011 coolilll 8.. . The primer has two electrically driven. as described for the mdividual wate~ nng pnmer. wbikthe air pa:sses to atJIIOIpbere through ~ outletloverftov:' pipe. . .primer shown.

This may be oil.ture is maintaiDcd by adjustment of the oil or jadet water low. Soft iron or mild steel anodes can be fitted in the water boxes and provided they cause DO turbulence. or water. 9).F corrosion and air locks will reduce the cooling area and cause ovcrbeatina. Flushinl is necessary after the cIcaniq .. Tarbaleace •• 0AJ0IICd to smooCh low. If tempeI.. which there is DO COITOIion problem. SEA WAlER FI. The sea water side sbould be disturbed only when necessary to avoid damage to the protective film on the inside of the tubes. Should Ik cbeatil. aWes lOme measure of WATER BOXES AND COVERS Only the miDimum of salt water sbouId be cin:uJated in coolers. Mixing instructions mU5t be followed. 8 Detail of ~ opansioa IIJJ'UIFlDCISt SIDE . The joinlrinp are of synthetic rubber. Where they have beeR eoa&ed with rubber or a bituniastic type coating. tbcre is a greater corrosion risk. 1be iron .eat bas beea drained &om the cooler. They aIIo increase the beat exchan. give no protection.. Precautioaa are euen. aluminium broDze ud tometimes special alloys. cooIen are isolated from the SysteDi by valves and blanks or by removina pipes IPMi bIankina the cooler flanges. Tuba fi~ by expaasioa ManUf8l!rurers INSTAllATION rec:ommend that coolers are arranged vertic::aJly.1DCdical book. Strainers on the sea water pump suctions should be deaned and chcc:ted replarly. were originaBy developed • 9 . Air in the system will encout2. the iron or steel has been protected but has provided no protcctioo for the tubes and tubeplate. me dIected· parts illllllCdiately with water. use sIIould be 1II8de of the special soft brushes. SHELL The sheD or cylinder is fabricated or QSt. If cleaning is needed to reroo¥e deposits. (F'1I. 1be manufacturen uadbook will list acceptable cleaninl c:hemicaJs. It also breaks up the boundary layer of liquid wbicb adheres to the metal and acts as a heal barrier in smoodIlow. NJUIate temperature cathodic protection. Howevu. If horizontal iostdation is necessary the sea water sbouId enter at the bottom and leave at the top. die turbuJcnce can caDle ptalC damaF due to crosioa PLATE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER Plate t)Ipc heat cxcbaoJers.. Damage to the strainer plate wiD allow IOIids through which wiD block the end of the cooler. Tube stacks are made up to have a fixed tube plate at one ead and a tube plate at the other end which is free to move with the expansioa of the tubes (VII. The cooler wiD bcc:omc incffcctivc in eitbct case and partial blocking of the cooler tends to lead to erosion damqe. Uncoated ferroas (iron) . Easily removable covers on water boKS permit repairs _ cleanins to be carried out. If orher treatment is IICCCIIII}' dais call be baod from the. with fUIlllow 011 tbc sea water side.. wid. the prodw:ts of corrosion coatin.ninJ may ~ reconuocacJed pu1icuIarIy where bard deposits have accumulated. as bIoctqe wiD starve the SJ*nt of water.. TUBE PLATES Naval brass tubeplates are used witb aluminium b. Thus it is best to by means of the salt water oudet valve. the tubes.. There arc now such • variety of chemicals in use that reference boob arc needed.. corrupted with horizontal or chevron pdeI'Il COI'f'IIIIIdons... like the coated ferrous metals. Thus vellt cocts should be fitted for purJirlg air. tubes. It is in contKt with the liquid beiq cooled.. an acid such as bydrochloric acid may be the agent.EJtS . 1'he plates . Clearance is required at the cooler bed end for removal of the tube DCSt.e area and produc:c a hIItIuIcat . AI thac t. .. in the DiDctcea-ftfIics. The coven and water bous are commoaly of cut iron 06 fabricated from mild steel. Chemical clc a. which ~ normally inhibited against corrosion. Water boxes of gunmetal and other materials are used but these. If tbe joints leak at the other end the spec:iaI 'teD talc· ring will allow the liquids to escape without mixing. The material is DOt critic:al (provided it is not reactive with any inbibitinc <:hcmicals) because it is DOt in COOlaC:t with sea water. 'I'Itac iaakc die plates stiffer and therefore permit t he usc 01 tbiMcr 1IIIItcriIII. 8)... TUBE STACK The tube stack showa is fitted with ahemate disc and rin& bU'ftes. wiD help to sive cathodic protection and a protective film. 1be bed end tube plate is sandwiched between the casinJ and the water box.. C<wIac:l is a~ by weario& JIoves and protective sogles or a face sbidd. for the milk industry where daily damna is lICCCIIary.al CIOIDC inco contact with the skin or the eye. the best ftnt aid is UIWIIIy to . teriaIs to water boua provide a protective film on the tubes as the IIIIIpfOteded iron itIdf corrodes. bctwcea die plates to COIDC into contact with them. Before handline any chen:liaI the iIIItnx:Iions should be read and the type of fint aid tbat miP1 be nccessuy ascertained.eta! pre.. For the sea water side of c:ooIen. the inlet bcillJ left full opeD.PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOl. as coolers.tial wbea deaIin& witb axrosive chemicals used for dcaaio&.:ton contribute to the efficiency of heaf transfer... . Before cfeaninJ. causes more of the liqUid passin.. They were first used at sea. . Other materials found in service are pnmetal..

New joints are fitted using a tbermo settin. Deteriorating joints are also a problem. Best efficiency i~ octained by liquids moving in opposite directions i. 9).e. be ADV ANT AGES AND DISADV ANT AGES Plate coolers are smaller and lighter than a tube cooler giving the same performance.PUMPS AND COOl.. there are a large number of expensive joints on plate coolers and the plates are expensive.EItS PUMPS AND COOLERS fit.• .. leaks in plates are sometimes difficult to find because the plates cannot be pressurized and inspected with the same ease as tube coolers. Turbulent How helps to reduce deposits wbich would interfere with heat flow. to increase capacity and similarly damaged plates are easily removed.. such as compressed asbestos fibre.'"Fi. The nitrile rubber is suitable for temperatures up to about lOOC'C (23O"F). . At high temperatures the rubber hardens and loses its elasticity. The movable end sits in the horizontal carrying bars and the plates are also located and supported by these. 10 Plate cooler ~Iy 10 I "" . Oeaning is simple as is maintenance. they may be difficult to remove and there are sometimes problems with bonding new joints. contra-flow. In comparison with tube coolers.. Joints must be adequately clamped to prevent leakage. 10) illustrates the way in wbich the liquids flow. Thcintense cold makes the gasket brittle and as the ltIetal of the plate contracts the resultant stresses set up between gasket and plate cause the glued joint to fail. For this. adhesive which is cured·in an oven. The flow ports at the corners of the plates are arranged so that the cooling liquid and the liquid being cooled pass between alternate pairs or plates. in which tube leaks are easily located and plugged. Plates are cleaned before joint removal so tbat they are ready for crack detection afterwards. Tube coolers may be preferred for lubricating oil cooling because of the pressure differentiaL Cost is another drawback. during the process. Plates can be added. METHODS OF SERVICING 1be difficulty of removing old gaskets is overcome in factory servicing by the use of a liquid nitrogen spray. A drain hole acts as a tell-tale for tbis section (see Fig. and dimenc. on a conveyor belt. All liquid inlets and outlets are at the fixed end plate. No extra space is needed for dismantiing(a tube cooler requires enough clearance at one end to remove the tube nest). . Joint leakage is visible externally except for tbe double joint at the ports on one side of the plate._ IUlta ~ mable~rialsplanormaDY UICd in tube c:ooIen for sea water COIltad m Ie coolers. The joint material is normally nitrile rubber wlrich is bonded to the plnte with suitable adhesive such as Plibond. It is sufficient to bang the plates once or twice after cooling to remove the joint debris. ~. they are sprayed with dye penetrant and viewed under an ultra-violet Ji&bl to show up any defects. but proved unsuccessful although it is suitable for other applications.ions checked. ~ v'_ _s~tems may be responsible for early failures. The plates are passed through a chamber containing the spray. Stainless steel has been used in plate coo'lers for duty with sea water. The sketch (Fig. OVertightening can cause damage to the chevron corrugated plates so the cooler stack must be lightened. if necessary without replacement. 11 Sea_in -. The rubber joints are compressed when the cooler is assembled and the clamping bolts tightened. Their higher efficiency is shown by the smaller size. in pairs. Other joint materials for higher temperatures are available.

Areas which have suffered fro~ !his ". Concentrated galvanic corrosion occurs where there is a mix of non-ferrous materials. it is also resistant to sulphide pollution in sea water.. Water speeds for galvanized steel pipes lihould be limited to 3 metres per second to avoid erosion.. but prone to corrosion.cu. it also tends to set up galvank: ceDs with other metals. 3. 3 metreslsecond for aluminium brass. 'The salt water system is thereby limited to one set of pumps. meehanile or anot~er high-q~ality cast.) and general dePOSits:External .by build up of weed. Injections of biocide should not be used where the sea water is intended for delivery to an evaporator (ref M633).5 metres/second for 90110 copra-nickel. Water speeds in non-ferrous as in galvanized steel pipes. ftow can be hampered and effi~ency affected . Galvanic corrosion occurs in the presence of sea water. Wastage of steel will result where there is weld spatter and where there are dlrr~lenCeS hctw~en weld material and the steel of the pipe. Flow rates should be limited to: 1metreJsecond for copper. It has a tolerance to high flow velocity which is better than that of cupro-nk:kel. 11) shows a complete central cooling system in which all components are cooled by fresh water. In sea water cooling circuits.. the lack of iron ions from corroding iron or steel and possibly from high water speeds.rebronze.-hlch projects through the Zinc of the galvanized protective layer. by additioll5 of minute quantities of elements such as arsenic (0. insulation or use of cathodic preteetion. PIPELINES AND CqRROSION Sea water pipes for circulation of c:ooIin& water. both internally and on the outside (weld spatter . Bronze has good resistance to amosioo but is expensive and therefore tends to be used for smaller ship side valves. . Plastic inserts are inserted at the inlet ends of some cooler tubes to reduce otherwise rapid erosion (and corrosion) in a vulnerable zone. together with those for bilge and ballast systems. ~In gatvafttt cells. The metal acts as I sacrificial anode and additionally delivers iron ions which arc carried through and give proteaion to other parts of the system where they deposit. De-zincification is the loss of zinc from a brass with the result that a soft spongy copper is left. .PUMPS AND COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS TITANIUM Over the last thirty-five yean..from corroSion and erosion. Its light weight (density 4..5 kJl'm3) and good strength mate it a useful material. 4i. valveS and filters and a shorter length of piping. 13 1 I JOints. must be limited. the least noble metal wastes leaving the more noble intact.f~rm ?f corrosion are soft and of a red copper colour. CENTRAL COOLING SYSTEMS Where salt water corrosion is a problem it may be ·considered advantageous to use a closed fresh water circuit cooled by sea waler in one or more large central heat exchangers.titanium anodes in some cooling systems. but the main benefit is its corrosion resistana: in static or fast dow conditions. coating of the titanium. The cathodic titanium makes the other materials anodic and" likely to suffer wastage. De-zincificatlon IS inhibited In brasses for marine use. 4 metres/second for 70130 cupro-nickel. The modulus of elasticity of titanium is about balf that of steel. iron. marine life (mussels. Permissible cast irons must be to specification· and obtained from an approved manu facturer. 3 metreslsecond for galvanized steel.04%) or other alloy materials. Tbe system can be divided into three main pans.-"cis on buD sea water inlets also filters 00 the sea water system give protecnon. This gives the impression that more noble materials such as the copper and copper alloys are resistant to corrosion in sea water. Particular types of corrosion such as de~zincification do in fact cause problems in pipework and coolers.lar. are prone to internal wascage. (1) sea water circuit (2) hi&b temperature circuit (3) low temperature c:in:uit. The fault leads to leakage around tubes in tube plates so affected and other problems. with bends ~h~lIow father than sharp. Ordinary sreY cast iron bas proved tobe unreliable and likely to fall should there be shoclt from impact or other cause.fferent metals in the make up of a pipe system or differences in one material. use of thick unprotected steel cooler covers. SEA WATER PIPELINES Ship side valves for sea water inlet must be of steel or other ductile material. II may he cast or fabricated. ' Recommendations have been made for the installation of steel sacrificial anodes in cooler water boxes. pipes should he of generous size. Thus. will cause conc~ntrated corrosion). The sketch (Fig.arti. no chani" of section and no inward projection of . Non-ferrous pipe and cooler systems have suffered from unusual problems as the result of the mix of different copper alloys. fitting of steel pipe sections or recourse to driven steel anodes to provide protective iron ions and galvanic protection. a~ a I'rcl. valve lids and spindles waste due to galvanic corrosion. 111epossihility of corrosion is reduced by careful choice of compatible metals. where there are 12 . Unprotected steel valve casings and pipes will in the presence of sea water and bronze seats. Steel is cheaper. ete. The presence of corroding iron or steel confers benefits on sea water systems. The alternative materials . Injections of ferrous sulphate are also resorted to as a means of supplying beneficial iron ions for non-ferrous systems. PiP:lo are Iabrlcated and bent to shape before removal of weld spatter and KOuring. While titanium has great corrosion resistance itself because it is more noble than most materials used in marine systems. spheroidal graphite cast iron. External corrosion of steel pipes is also a problem in the tank top area.udc to galvanizing. the c:ort8Iion resistance of titanium and its alloys has led to its development for use in sea water systems. Protection is provided by impresse~ ~urrent through platinized .

with a diameter two thirds that of the main sea water inlet.. I. /lIlT. Low temps . the water is taken to the fresh water di~tiller and the heat used for evaporation of sea water. From the outlet of the fresh water distiller the water is led back to the suction of the high temperature pump through a control valve (C) which is governed by engine inlet temperature.m ----Low temp.•. J.'-Hi". 98. 84. SEA WATER CIRCUIT The sea water pump takes water from the suctions on either side of the engine room and after passing through the cooler it is discharged straight overboard. The main and stand-by pumps would be of the double entry centrifugal type. ····ContrOl -. B. vol. (1m). New Materials for the Marine and Offshore Industry. r--"-I S. /. Cotton.. E. At the outlet.. G. . Temperature of the water after the cooler may be 35"C and at exit from the main engine oil coolers • it is about 45'"<:. .. {1985}. In motor ships a direct suction on another pump of the same capacity is acceptable. Main circulating pumps must have direct bilge suctions. {or emergency. 2S Years Experience with Sea Water Cooled Heat Tnnsfer Equipment in the SbeU Fleets.J . 14 IS . Tnuu. ADVANTAGES Provided that chemical treatment is maintained correctly corrosion will be eliminated in the fresh water system. References . o'board LOW TEMPERATURE CIRCUIT A I Temperature of the water leaving the central coolers is governed by the control valve (F). (1985). '. and Scholes. ... system Fi. sysIC. Components of the system are arranged in parallel or series groups as required. paper 24. can be of cheaper materials. Savings are made by the use of cheaper metals in the protected fresh water circuit. E. Shone..•. .. The constant temperature level of the oooling water means that control of engine coolers is easier. I. M633 Use of Marine Growth InJUbiton in Su Inlet Piping. J I Central cooling system (AlpM lAval) Conde. E. C. MIlT. J. E. Titanium in Marine Engineering. paper 11. '17.W. The number of sea water inlet valves is reduced together with the filters that require cleaning. vol. temp. Trans.._. MIlT.. Outlet is about 70"C.HIGH--TEMPERATURE DilCilb CIRCUIT Cooling water for the main engine and auxiliary engines is circulated by the pumps on the left. Materials (or the reduced salt water system required by a central cooling arrangement will be of high quality and expensive. I. R. .. F. The pressure control valve works on a by-pass. G.. C. Pipes.---Seawacer ••. Trans. paper 16.... and Grim. Fresh water in both the bigh and low temperature systems is treated chemically to prevent corrosion in the pipes and coolers. vol. valves and coolers in contact with only fresh water. The control valve mixes the low and high temperature streams to produce the required inlet figure-about 62"C.·PUMPS \NO COOLERS PUMPS AND COOLERS Air cooIm.

it es up a posmcn away ~m the mostinte~ part of the field. 13) so that the torque due to oxygen m the sample IS balanced by a restoring torque generated by the feedback current. Fatal accidents have resulted from entry to fore peak tanks which have not been properly ventilated.med by using pure nitrogen for zero and normal air for setting the span at 21 per ceot oxygen. The field will also induce magnetism in tbe oxygen i. F'IJ. being slightly diamagnetic. Oxygen percentage is read from the meter which measures th~ rest~rin_gcurr~nt. Torque act 109 on the d. used in the Taylor Servomex analyser. Dltrogen dioxide and chlorine dioxide. While oxygen is depleted. are picked up when ballasting in muarial waters. that can remain closed and unventilated .. Arrangement of dumb-bell in maperic: field non-umfonn.the water. Accura~ calibration IS obta. vapour from cargo. form a ~umb-bell (Fig: 12) wi~ tend to be pushed out from a strong symmetrical . Ventilation is required before entry to any ballast tank. It is :_:pended by ~ platmum nbbon m the field and. fot Jong periods. there must be some way of isolating it from the rest of the sample.the presence of oxygen and its intensity will vary with the quantity of oxygen..as 16 FiI. inerting gas. or because it has been excluded by other gases or vapours (e. A lower than nonnal oxygen level can cause loss of efficiency. reducing sulphates and nitroeen compounds. The output of the photocell is amplified and fed bac~ to a coil wo~d on the dumb-bell (Fig. by chemicals or drying paint. The atmosphere in mch a tank may become deficient in oxygen due to corrosion resulting from the remains of sea water ballast.as. Thus glass spheres filled with nitrogen aDd mOunted at the ends of a bar to . is produced by bacteria in . The magnets and dumb-beD are housed ID a chamber which has an inlet and outlet for the sample. In other closed compartments oxygen may be deficient due to being absorbed . pumproom or closed compartment and must be maintained while work is being carried out. magnetic field ID ~hich they are horizontally suspended.e. False rea~ings are obtained if the gas being sampled contains another ~~~hC TIle only common gases having comparable susceptibility are mtnc OXide. like ammonia.umb-beU is proportional to the oxygen concentratiOn and tbe~fo~ the restonng force necessary to bring the dumb-bell back to the zero pos~~on IS also proportional to the oxygen concentration. ventilation sbould be continued until the correct level is reached. g. When the surrounding gas contains oxygen.. that is they are repelled by a maanetic field.- 'Hazards in Enclosed SpacesTankers-Cargo Pumping CLOSED SPACES • TIle fore peak is an example of a tank. is dangerous to enter due to lack of oxygen and sometimes the presence instead of carbon dioxide and possibly other gases. refrigerant. a magnetic field is intensifi~d by . apparently safe because it has been isolated by being closed. the dumb-bell spheres are pushed further out ~f tbe field due to the change produced by the paramagnetic o~n. The air changes necessary to improve the oxygen level will have the beneficial effect of lessening the possible presence of gas or vapour which may be harmful. Water containing pollutants such u bydrogen sulphide. 1be zero p05lhOD ~f the dumb-bell is sensed by twin photocells receiving light reflec:ted from a nurror on the suspension. Most gases are slightly diamagnetic. This is scaled to give percentage oxygen direct. ]2 . The small Dlftnhole for entry at the top of the tank will not give much assistance in ventilating the compartment.CHAYTER2 ENCLOSED SPACES . it may cause loss of consciousness resulting in a fall with serious or even fatal injury.. Oxygen may also be depleted by the presence in sea water of hydrogen sulphide which tends to oxidize to sulphate. carbon dioxide may be given off by sea water due to other cbemical changes. Where a test shows that there is a lower value in an enclosed space. Normal oxygen content of air bi about 21 per cent.. Thus a tank. smoke or fumigant). 13 OxyJen analyser (T~) 17 . Faraday discovered that oxygen was paramagnetic and therefore attracted by a magnetic field. Hydrogen suJphide (which is toxic) is a compound which.. One physical property which distinguishes oxygen from most other common gases is its paramagnetism. ' 1be dumb-beD 8J!aDgell_1entIS. cargo space. OXYGEN ANALYSER In order to measure the amount of oxygen in a sample from the atmosphere of a closed space or from ftue etc.

.aeat. One n:sistancc is a boI &Iamcat ia a QIIIIbustioa c::hamhu.. This type of petroleum is dangerous because the over rich mixture is readily made flammable by dilution during loading.) Tbc canbusbble ps iodicatcw sIIowa ciapammatically (F... 'These are Class 'A' petroleums. too rich. Below 1 per cent the mixture is too weak and above 10 per cent.. rqis&as GO tbe meter wIIitb.. ~ ~ point... ~ 1\ .... Thus some petroleums will give off a lot of vapour at ordinary ambient temperature and tend to produce an over rich mixture.. for cIetcc:tinI vapour an a rallf.. limit aad marked _ a percentage of lilt lower IiIIIit.. ~ ~ ~ " ~ . peKeDt. i\ A.. A leak of vapour into the atmosphere is also dangerous.. because of the fiIameat.. 'C ~ ane off little vapour OIL TANKERS Petroleum vapours when milled with air can be ignited provided that the mixture limits are about 1 per cent to 10 per cent of hydrocarbon vapour.. w-ainj"l a.p..~ LB_ ~ ~ L. ... tile bridF. cstbe esislanceoflbe fiI:unent aad this change of I'CSI5laIICe Tbe ~ .. Petroleums with moderate volatility give off less vapour but the amount may be within the ftammable range........ AIteraaIiveIy. 14).. discharge or tank cleaning.. Aa aspirahx bulb and llexible tube ~ 1IICd to draw a pi -Pc iato die dwn-_. These figures are termed the lower and upper flammable limits.II11n13ble range A Ieaa . The ullage space EXPLOSIMETER 01 a .ENCLOSED SPACES MARINE SAFETY CARD ~_ The General Council of British Shipping bas issued a safety card with precautions and a check list. Faile radiap are likely wbea O&JP COIdCat of tbe sample is ~ or .. with the balance. 0 Percentage oxyp:1I II'Hllmi1!>1. IS) consists of a WbeaJstone brid&c with cum:ot IUJlPIic-t from a battc:ry... .. 8 prodaccs lllay be filled willi a ftammaIJIe uoIcss heated to above the IWIl a.. ~ e. tile sale .....L) or p. limit aad willi . These are Oass 'B' petroleums. I~ :6 • . " 7 ".p .oo ~ _ Too lean 20 2 '1-.& .be awted in parts per million (p. to be used by personnel intendins to enter a closed compartment. Over-rich .murc will bunt ia tbc ~ chamber. The iaItnmIaIt is de •. -01 a... The ..C up to tbe Iowa ... - 6 5 4 3 2 1\ .caIe is in tenm ollbc lower expIosi¥C or .. respectively. ~ of tempentarc me.. Crude oil and the products of crude will give off vapours which are potentially dangerous if they have high or moderate volatility. aIIo be oIMaiDed (LF.~ 12 II Olty.. DO curRllllows Ibrough the meter...-ben inen pi is.: mixtures 'f I~ .. . Cunad . will bum in the presence of die red bot fihmepI causin& die fcIIIpcnIun: 01 the ~ to rise.......peI~ nftIS UFL 10 9 8 ~ . I ~....... 01' ~ en be kSIed with a oombU5tibie cas wIIidI is aIibnted for IIycIrocarbcxa... is scaled ia I I.....a&U of ps (rich 1Dixture) a faIIc Il:1'O RaCIiaI .. Another condition for combustion is that the oxygen content would have to be more than 11 per cent by volume (Fig. Frequendy lbe s..". When the bricIF resistmcrs are halana:d. air.en below combustion level r..m. .. Lg..

.LV. 16) for taking the test has a long sample tube on its IUCtioo side and the staio tube is fitted in the discharge after first purging to dear air and fill the tube with a sample from the space..V. like a ballast tank lose its oxygen from corrosion. of 300 p. can be read directly from the tube after the prescribed number of pumping strokes. others are toxic substances which are absorbed tbrough the skin or by ingestion (swallowing). A pumproom which has remained closed for a long period will. is made possible with the use of tubes packed with chemical granules that change colour on contact with a particular gas or vapour. many liquid QJ)ocs are corrosive and toxic.m. pumproomS and other closed spaeee.p.r c:.m. CHEMICAL STAIN TUBES Testing for contaminants in spaces where the variety precludes the provision of special detecting instruments.p. the ends. is tbat personnel exposed to va. the vapour may be toxic or flammable. obtained using Dliger instruments. CARGO TANKS Cargo tanks.m. where mert gas bas been used. . the remammg concentration can be measured by tbe explosimeter. . of ~ p. ' COFFERDAMS Cofterdams and other spaces adjacent to those with cargo can become CODtaminated due to leakage.pipeli~. nitrogen dioxide (N02) With 3 p. .).or if a pipeline containing liquid or gas is opened. and sulphur dioxide with 2 p. • PUMPROOMS Pllmpro()m~ arc subject to leakage from pump glands and . CHEMICAL TANKERS Cargo tanks. or a poison which QUI be absotbed throusb tbe skin. Crude oils contain aU of the hydrocarbon products e~ 10 the refine~ and many of the products are highly toxic. 1bc pump or aspirator (Fig.m. It I:' possible to obtain a reading for any hydrocarboa but not for the otbe.. lD(hcates thIS. They may also be short of oxygen as the result of COITOIioo etc. Oxygen can be lacking because it has been di5placed by other vapoun or inert gas used in an emergency. Detection of other vapours must be by devices intended for ~ purpose. Oxygen deficiency occurs due to corrosion from ballast water but as mentioned in the general section on closed compartments there are further reaso~s.p.V.p.m.m.m. may be present. on chemical as on other tanlten.. Benzene (~) IS an ~ample and tts low Threshold Limit Value (T. The inert gas adds the risk: of: ca~ mOllOKide(~<?) ~ has a :r.L.) of 10 p. bein& broken off before use. win not be banned but that the nsk ~ases at concentrations above the T.for ~xygen de~ciency.ning Class 'A' or cargoes.L. Figures sometimes have to be revised because new factors come to light. Trace. 0l1nC oxide (NO) With 2S p.tS used to produce a safe condition lD tanks will reduce oxygen as WID steaming out. Chemical tanker problems are multiplied by the number and variety of chemicals carried and by the range of risks. Entry to the cargo tanks and pumprooms of a crude oil ca!1'er exposes personn_el to these risks.ombustible gases on an instrument which is scaled for hydroc:arbooll.V. The glass stain tubes are sealed to protect the detecting chemicals.e has been ventilated to remove vapours. Chemicals have a two-ye~ shelf life.L. Reference books are necessary and available. may be deficient in oxygen or may contain flammable andlor toxic: vapour.' The explosimeter is primarily a combustible gas detector but wtll also gIve guidance With. Sour crudes carry highly toxic hydrogen sulphide (H~) with a T. They may not be easily identifiable (many corrosive liquids have notbin& to distinJuisb them from water) and the content can only be guessed at from tDOwledge of previous cargo. Such liquid may be corrosive. although the hydrogen will disperse with proper ventilation.p. . AdditiooaUy.p.V.L.p. If volatile. also of 10 p. Petrol (gasoline) has a T. Threshold Limit Values are updated annually and gIven m referena:s available from health and safety authorities. as the result of contai. ~y contain toxic vapours andlor flammable mixtures. 1bcre is a different chemical lube for each toxic substaoce. There are additional hazards involved WIth tank entry. Generally any needle deflection above zero is taken as indicabng a toDc condition. Uquid residues in tanks and pumprooms must be considered as potentially danaerous. Tanks whach are cathodically protected and ballasted may have accumulations of hydrogen. If there is reason to suspecllJlCk of oxygen or the presence of toxic vapours then ventilation or gas freeiJII is started tome time before entry and the atmosphere is cbecked before JOinI ill. The liquid accumulates in bilges (whkh should be kept dear).and methods of combating them. GENERAI~ PRECAUTIONS Any dolled space -requires ventilation before entry and the '\ientilation must be maiDtaiaed during the time that work is being carried out. The result.L. . A l!. these containing data OD the different hazards . THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE Vapour concentrations are measured in tenns of parts per million (p. and ot~er to~ gases which. In a tanker.p.regard to the safety of a space for entry by personnel: H a spac. reqwre special means of detection (chem&eal stam tubes descri~ ~ow). provided that it is below the ~r ~~ range. amounts o~ the hydrocarbon ~ which are vet)' dangerous.m.l\·fn:e lank can become dangerous again :8' if there is sludge or scale • remili·ninl!.~ concentrations below the T. A guideline.ESCLOSFD PACES ENCLOSED SPACES The instrument and batteries must be tested before use and the samples ~ taken from as many places as possible 'JW1icularly from the tank bottom. V. w6icb froItt-sour erude or benzene are toxic. t~ inert g. :. Volatiles will form vapour . Contamination by gases and vapours can be checked provided that presence of a partiadar substance is suspected. based on experience.

During unloading. As an extra precaution. Hydraulic or steJm lines to pump motors must be closed securely and the power system lIMIt dowa. Work 011 pumps should only be carried out when tanks are In a safe COndUIOO. otber pel'SOftllel shoukl be made aware that entry is intended.)..R. tend to (l. With good combustion. The duty of the watcher at the entrance or anybody else involved. 111e IoI.. the gas is pumped in as cargo (or ballast) is pumped out. emptying A. The liquid may itself be dangerous.moved before entry. Before working on oil or ~I ~mps or pipelines. TIle certificate I~ obtalRed from an authorized chemist after tests to prove tbat any gas present lli ~Iow the lower flammable limit and below the T.m:t 1) SPACES ENCLOSED SPACES Mast vem From boiler Pump as aspirator " uptake 1::!S~. buminB etc. Any portable lights used must be gas tight add safe. protective dothinl and brcathang apparatu~ may be ~ry. The gas is then pumped into the tanks by the fan. particularly when bealed. the gas is pumped through the deck water seal. Fig. well as being gas free.ation of rescue equipment and die method of usUal it ..lve ofhapoun. if it is a routine.. 17 Inert PI system. or danacro. INERT GAS SYSTEM The presence of ftammable vapours in the cargo tanks of oil tankers has led to the development of inert gas systems. When the situation requires the wearing of breathiog apparatus and lifeline the set must be thoroughly checked and signals arraoBed witb those ill auenci anee. The system fan can be used to ventilate the tanks for entry by personnel. is to go for assistance in the evcllt of trouble. When loading or ballasting. there __ be • second penon in attendance at the entrance or. 16 Drlger type multi-ps detector Uquids in bilges or in t~ bottoms of tanks should be ~ _ far _ possible. The gas is drawn from the boiler uptake and passed through a scrubber.EN\. be aeneral1y known. 14). 18 Howden type deck walei' scaI 22 21 .ut in port a certitkate may be required staling that. where it is cooled by a sea water spray which also washes out corrosive sulphur oxides and solids. Combustion in the boiler is controlled to give tbe minimum oxygen and the tank atmospheres are checked by oxygen analyser when inerting or venting.L. Scales and sludges. Valve. and pipelines s':K'uld not be opened as contamination can eeeur from IKiuid or vapour in the pipe.a spa~ IS gas. it may be necessary to use a soIven~ to wash the pump.1bese should rc.has to be carried.l vtpOUr may be p~uced if it is volatile.~ or . 18). the compartment must also be free from on or other residues and from scale or sludge. The system is used as required when loading or tank cleaning to bring the tanks to a safe condition. As. tbey should be washed through. After pumptng certain chemicals. the incoming liquid displaces the gas through the mast vent.ri. which acts as a non-return valve (Fig.t.free or that It IS safe for hot work (welding.o. To prevent hydrocarbon gases from the tanks from passing bac~ through the system. A second safety device is the pressurelvacuum breaker. flue gas will contain about 3 per cent to S per cent oxygen which is below the figure required for combustion (see Fig. F"II.. ' h:e ~80 GAS FREE CERTIFICATE When work . Washced flue gas from either the main boiler or from a special Bas generator is used for the purpose.V. When 1I closed space bas to be entered. in quantity.. At start up the gas is recirculated through the scrubber or a start up vent is used.

1be latter method of venting can cause an accumulation of flammable vapours at deck level. The type shown (Ma. Pressure vacuum valves can relieve moderate changes in tank pressure due to variations of temperature andvapour quantity.Ip Centrifugal carao pumps with I double entry impeDer have largely re~1aced reciprocatiftl pumps in oil tankers. pistons.. Air drawn in by ·the ejector effect dilutes the plume.. The s. 19 PrcssuRlvacuum valve F1&- 20 Hip. 20) lias a moving orifice. Gauufbme Ir. which may then buckle or the metal plate may be torn. require periodi(: elean~ng to relllOYC gummy deposit. like the moving parts.:_heothe vessel!s on passage.-e Vacuum valve Fig.. . (IOTTA) . lbe fast rate at whidl a tank is filled while. . Pressure build up in the tank as filling proceeds causes ~ ~ng ori~ to lift... A simpler desip of vent (Fig.. has two weighted ftaps whICh are pushed open by pressure build up to ac:bicve • sinrilat nozzle effeet.ENCLOSED SPACES EIfCUJI. .. These pumps are ~per. veb:ity vents . -- lnen tanks ba. Similarly. loading produces a very rapid expulSiOftlJtthe prel'iou.. The pressure on each unit of area multiplied by the total area gives a farge loading on the underside of the top of a tank or other surface. through masthead vent$ (see Fig... pressure drop within a tank can cause damage due to greater atmospheric pressure on the outside. _ .. It is directed upwards witb an estimated velocity of 30 metres per second..o: contents (vapour and mert ps). ha~e no suction or delivery valves. The pressure v8f. held down by a eounterwei&ht to seal around the bottom of a . . The cover is closed (as shown) .ve lo~ oxygen coatent and before entrY by personnel. A drop towards vacuum conditions as the result of the condensation of steam will also be handled by the valve. The vapour passes to atmosphere through a gauze flame trap.. m~t be ventilated and tested.. 21). They are set usually so that tank pressure of about 0.14 bar (2Ib1in2) will lift the main valve (the smaller valve will lift with it) and release excess pressure. HIGH VELOCITY VENTS " Tank vapours can be released and sent clear of the decks durin. PRESSUREN ACUUM YAL YES Moderate pressures of 0.ioading through larJe.. 19) in the. Rapid pressure rise due to an explosion would not be relieved.. rinp•. Tanks should be vented while filling.Ded cone. Pressure/vacuum valves (fig. The etc OIL TANKER CARGO PUMPING Pre55ure val.Uum valve is DOt desipea as a filling vent and neither should the tank hatch be left open .24 bar (3th Iblin~ acting 00 large surfaces in liquid cargo tanks are sufficient to cause damage and rupture. 1be conical flame screen fixed to the moving orifice to give protection apinst flame travel wiD. high velocity veots. 17) or through special hiP. and therefore reqwre las nwntenancc.mall pp between orific::elip and the fixed tone pves hip velocity to the emitted vapour.. Drop in tank pressure compared with that oJ the outside atmosphere will make the small valve open downwards to equalise internal pressure with that outside. ventilation system will prevent either over or under pressure.

•• ·. r t " Tllltline . pump butterfly compact centrifugal pump can be ~ted Cent. The latter will automatically start the vacuum P_UIIIP and cause the opening of a diaphragm valve. The basic parts of such a system are shown ill Fig.. cbemicaJ tankers are dangerous because of the risk of leataae from pump glands of toxiclftammable vapour and corrosive or otherwise hanbfuI liquids. I.. When cargo tank level drops and 80w is less than the rate of pumping. Its shaft bas a SIS seal. Valve closure is controlled by the level monitoring device. liquid level in the separator tank will also reduce and this will be registered by the level monitoring device. . •• . The butterfly valve can also be hand operated. Throttling is not harmful to the centrifugal pump in the short term. Rise of liquid in the scparaaor tank win cause the vacuum pump and vapour valve to be closed down. . ... pump Suaioo (WortbiaJlOll-SimptOll) Fi. The primerlvacuull) pump driven by an electric motor in theengjne room is of the water riDStype as described in tbeprevious chapter.. 22 'vlMtrip' type pumpin. The drive shaft passes tbrou&b the cqine room bulkhead via a gas-tigbt seal. Pump rooms in. I. The vacuum pump wiD prime the system by removing air or vapour. Level monitor ~DtaUy or~y in the ~p room with a turbine.. aIsotbeexpense of extra SUdiod pipework and the riIt of mixing cargoes with resuIti~ c:oatamiDatioa.cssitates a slowdown in the pumpin& rate and this is achieved by throtdina of the . 22. . General accumulation of vapour iD the suction tank will cause the same result. Rate of pumping is hi&h (2fiOOm1Ibr) UDtiI a low level is reacbed. The practice of positioning submersible or deepweU pumps within cargo tanks eliminates pump room dangers.•i •t I. Continuing drop in liquid level due to slow draining nec.ENCLOSED SPACES ENCLOSED SPACES ( Pump I'0OI11 • •I ~ -.-. when loss of head and impeded flow through frames and timber holes makes slowdown in the rate of pumping necessary if use of a small stripping pump is to be avoided... or in some sbipI electric motor.. •I ~: tt I.. system discharge valve. Suction from the cargo tank is taken through a separatOl" tank to the pump inlet and discharge from the pump is through a butterfly valve to the deck main. •: • •• f. CHEMICAL TANKER PUMPING AND TANK DRAJNAGE .. DoepwIO pumps are dac:ribed ill the sec:tion OR IiqlIcfied ps pumping" To . Systems sueh as the Worthington-Simpson 'Vac:-Strip' enable a faster general rate of discharge to be maintained while reducing the rate of discharge at lower tank levels to allow for draining.. . drive from the engme room. . .. to allow passage of vapour to the vacuum pump rrom the separator tank.

Discharge pipe purging is e~ected by c10smg the d~k discharge valve as the tank clears of liquid. 23. The impeller suction is positioned close to the bottom of the suction well for ~ tank drainag~ b~t when ~umping is completed the vertical discharge pipe ~II be left full of hquI~. As an alternative to the multi-stage unit and its higb~ power drive through a long line shaft.of the ~rings by stainless steel sleeves. Only when the tank has to be emptied for repair. ENCLOSED SPACES l ~ c· ENCLOSED SPACES for the pipework.: '. The bottom seal is subject only to pressure from the head of cargo in the tank. The coffe!"'am is also pressurised before the pump is stopped. Stopplng the pump would allow the liquid to fall back into the tank and cleanng of the tank of cargo or of water used in tank cleaning would be a constant problem. will withstand &be corrosive effects of most cbermcals It may be used . not to pump pressure. The small amount of cargo left also allows tank temperatu~ ~o be kept at the carrying level so the expense of cooling down and the probabihty of damage to the tank structure caused by expansion and contraction is avoided. pump and casing. The weight of the pump shaft and impellers is considerable and one or more carrier bearings are fitted. Three concentric tubes make up: the high pressure oil supply pipe (1) to the hydraulic motor. Obviously. Thus deepweU pumps (Fig. 24) are fitted or submerged electrically driven pumps.in waY. This remainder keeps the tank filled with vapour for safety and saves the problems of total drainage and inerting. The vapour although flammable is safe within the tank because of the Jack of any oxygen (air) to bum with. Lift of the shaft due to ship movement or pump action also requires a downward-acting thrust bearing. The long shaft of the deepweU pump runs in carbon bearings. Seals above and below the chamber exclude ingress of low pressure hydraulic oil and liquid cargo from the tank. then With t~ pump left runmng to pr~vent. which ensures that the ullage space above the liquid is filled with cargo vapour. the use of submerged hydraulically driven pumps. • Riser vlllve Riser Ir '~t t LIQUEFIED GAS CARGO PUMPING The temperature of liquefied gas prohibits. etc is it drained and purged with inert gas and then air. Suction Fie. The number of stages in the multi-stage pump shown is dictated by the discharge head required. to check for leakage. . Liquefied gas is carried at its boiling temperature. although expensive. An example of a submerged pump is shown in Fig. the return pipe (2)~ and a protective outer cofferdam (3). There is a risk of overheated bearings if the pump is run without How of cargo and therefore a pressure cut-out or thermal switch may be arranged. 23 Submerged cafJO pump (Frank Mohn) suitable for chemical pumping there will be a different gland arrangement and shaft bearings of Tefton. ... POSitioning of the shaft wsthin the discharge pspe allows the liquid cargo to lubricate and cool the bearings.. Thus purging connections are fitted to clear the discharge pipe (~nd the cofferd~m if there is leakage). ThIS safety cofferdam around tbe hydraulic pipes is connected to the drainage chamber at the bottom of the pump. The compressed air or inert gas at 7 bar will dear the vertical discharge pipe by pressurising it from the top and forcing liquid cargo up througb the small riser to the deck main. cargo fallback opening the purge connection shown. a single stage Iow·pressure pump can be 29 w. air being excluded. where a chemical tanker is to be --enga~ on a particular trade it may be possible to use cheaper materials. respectively. External leakage is dangerous. As 5tain~ss ~eel. Workmg pressure for the hydraUlic circuit is up to about 170 bar and return pressure about 3 bar. the shaft being prot~. At the end of cargo discharge a residue of about 2% liquid is left to maintain a • totally vapour atmosphere in the tank.-.

t Tub (CaT) One of the aims of the Regulations" for the .ENQ.OSEO SPACES fitted ill the tank to lift the liquid to deck level where there is a booster pump transfer the CUJO ashore. Cargo piping may be used for the introduction and discharge of the ballast.. so tbat under normal circumstances water will not have to be carried in cargo tanks. Effective washing can be carried out at the recommended heating temperature for discharge and even at temperatures as low as 50C above the pour point.Prevention of Pollution by Oil (Marpol) which came into force in October 1983 is to reduce the practice of using cargo taoks for sea water ballast alternatively with cargo. " 31 30 . for example because of bad weather) then suitable tanks are crude oil washed and watet rinsed. is carried out between . 1be waxy and asphaltic residues are readily dissolved in the crude oil of which they were previously a part and better results are obtained than with water washing. An inert gas. carried out wbile the vessel is discltaflinl. . with high-pressure jets of crude oil. Suction FiJ.. to - Vapour seal CRUDE OIL WASHING OF TANKS (COW) Crude oil wasbing of carlO tanks is. DeepweU pumps are driven by hydraulic motors Or by ftameproof electric IIlOlOI'I situated at deck level..<"Stainless s«::d :deeve ports. Crude oil washing must be completed before the vessel leaves port: a compleJely different routine from that of water washing which. Crude oil washing is necessary on a routine basis for preventing excessive acx:umulation of sludge. Suspended nozzles can be controlled to aive a spray pattern on the top area of the tank sides and then progressively further down as sudaces are uncovered during the discharge. T . system must be in use during &uk cleaning.. 24 Deepwell pump CIeaa B. As a temporary measure. disdwae .. (SBT) New large tankers are required to be built with an adequate number of ballast (only) tanks. particularly from volatile tiquKk. " ~ .-Duplkation of pumps in tanks is the safeguard against breakdown of dcepwell pumps in liquid ps carriers.... "Tanks are washed at least every four months. " Tbe iftduc:er frequently fitted to ccntrifuplliquefied gas pumps is an archime· dian screw attllCbed to the drive shaft just below the impeller at the pump suction. Ballast is handled by means other than the carlO discharge pipe system. Unless sludge is Rgularly removed drainage will be slow. a portion of the carlO is diverted through fixed piping to permanently positioned tank cleaning nozzles. older tankers have been permitted to dedicate certain cargo tanks to be used for ballast ooly. If it is likely that ballast may have to be carried in cargo tanks (additional ballast to that in segregated ballast tanks. The new procedures have greatly reduced the potential for poUuoon from of dirty ballast (formerly taken in carlO tanks) and tank cleanin . however.. where used.u. The oil residues are pumped ashore with the cargo. For the process. Water ballasted into a dirty cargo tank in emergency would be discharged in compliance" with the anti-pollution regulations and a suitable entry would be made in the Oil Record Book (see Chapter 9). Bottom washing is timed to coincide with the tank emptying so that oil below heating coil level will oot solidify in cold weather. It is useful for inducing flow into the pump.

.. of ~ "-:.. n.. ~~... W.. . I ... 84. .: T(llt/cer s. ell hr af -:. (~JlWZ<rJ ' ._.... SIGno.. .... .. MA:Gube.. 1&I .... .• Platt. (1986)...J ...~-. (~ a.. ICS (l978r IN eda.. ~.• and Wbitc. lor Oil T ' I.I I• 'IL.. B... TeIft:Ml... De-lclopment and "Operation of an Iaat a.. IalerDatioaal Ownber of Sbippia&. E... E. G.. .... Telfer.. • f i ._ a.... UtwfW ft . ">: _ _.. a. 1atcraIt· ..r.. .. IfftenuItitmM StIfoty GIIiM ~ Oil TMan _ T.. I.• vol..~ . 25 ..t«J G".d In T~mrinIIb..-~: Day. (1m). C._.. It P. TlI1IUr S4fny GuUIe (CIwmiaIb)..... Ilqerenca ICS (1918).... F... n... . .... lltu.. ....... 'fI_ SlIp -. . H. ICS(I971)...

Larger pe:. Such a pump 15 ~catt:d m Fig. The dimensions are . t .. AD elilereency pump has an independent diesel drive or some alternative such as an electric motor powered from the emergency generator.he ship. the forw. 27). While fire pumps may be used for other duties such as. Four bolta are required of 16 mm diameter and 50 mm lenatb. alIo eight washen . Where steel pipes are used. engll~ room could put all of the other pumps out of action. pump H~/ 1IlOIOI' .. car dccks etc. 27) can be adjusted by rotation of the sleeve to produce a jet or spray.limited and for tbis reason emergency pumps are usually at maximum. ballast bilge or general service they should not normaDy be used for pumpmj oil. Engine room bydrants must bave hoses and nozzles for jet and fog or dual purpose nozzles (F. W_JIUIIIP INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECfION • I I I I The shore connection (Fig. Changeover anangemen..&gD figu~. These are available in various sizes for operation at a range of pressures emf outputs.. I HOSES AND NOZZLES Fire hoses must be of approved material. EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP ~ormaJly... 7.: . !'. return valves if they are of the centrifugal type. Foamite branchpipes (Fig.the.uc.. and is located away from the entPDC rooD) in the tunnel.UD~ are ca~b~ of nil. or an air operated pump with its mmair supply. The 6ttins and joint Dlust be suitable for a working ~ of 10. .llfd part of !. from a coatainer. of 6 . tube.metres from the water level at light draught. or installed below water level.SlOgthe pipeline pressure so that it is greater than the des. they are galvanized after. Tbe -.ts are fitted if a pump can be used for oily biJ&cs etc. bolts and washers and a coupling for the ship's fittings.. PIPELINES ETC. cargo vessels are provided with emergency fire pumps because a fire ~ . Diameter is between SOnun and 178 mm depending on the size and type of ship. I I I • . TW pumps ¥e fitted with non. The second s\ale and the hydraulic power unit are driven from the prime mover which can be positioned at more than the normal distance from the waterUne. ~.5 bar.first ~low the waterline is driveR by a hydraulic motor.. The action also draws in air. ... Mixial of the three _lst . . They are positioned adjacent to bydrants together with suitable nozzles. Dual purpose·nozzles (Fig. bending and welding. 26).:h pumps. to prevent loss of water back !brough open valves when oo~ ~nniag. I . . :- large vessels a special two stage pump arrangement may be used (Fig.~ ~-""'--main Fire Hydraqlic . gross and over and in passenger ships of less than 4000 tons gross.PS Two II1dependcntly powered pumps m~ be provided in all cargo ships of 1000 tor. The suction lift of any pump is .'. MiDlDlum line pressures and capacities are goVerned by the regulatiOns. or in.~lief valve is necessary in the system if the P.. 00 . 29) similar to those used in deck installations for tankers are fitted for use with tile bydrantsin some machiDery spaces.Senger v~ls mustJaavc three . 28) is • staDdard sized IaDJC with nuts. These are an alternative to having one nozzle for a jet and anotberfor a spray or fOi to be used for oil fires. The brandlpipe is connected tbrouah a hose to the hydrant and tile water ftow produces a venturi effed wbich draws up Foamite liquid through the pick. s~~nng lear. a ~.FIIlE PROTECOON FIRE PRO'J'ECI'ION PUl. pump -.hawn.

"wstIwr) components in the tube causes formation of a jet of foam.. Be~ore releasing the CO2 persoaoel must be counted and the ensme room must be m a shut down condition with all openings and vent ~ COz system eDpIC 1. FIII~1IiI ..5mm H Coupfllli 10 fit ships equipmcm 19 . /~:=::~___. only water issue!!from the branchpipe and the nozzle is directed away from tbe fire until foam appears.. 28 International sbore CODnectioD Ho5c: FiI· 30 F. . ~ 01--':" - " -• ..... W F. rele de anangemeot and a pipe to the ensine room distribution nozzles via a mask r valve.. Foam continuity is achieved by dropping the pick-up tube in a bucket and keeping the bucket topped up with foam liquid.. • ._. When the foam compound is exhausted.. Initially. An alarm i....I . I I __ c ____ •• SMOTI-IERING GAS INSTALLATION The carron dio!tide system shown (Fi..& sounded by an alarm. Duhon release MACHINERY SPACE FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING INSTALLA nONS Engine room spaces are protected by fixed fire extinguishinl iastallatioqs. M with the emergency stops and shut-offs.." .. the equipment must be operable from a position outside of the space.. ... water wiD again appear cabiRet door ~ ·... I I .. -l I at the nozzle.·r- . IWiadI openCed by ~ cabiDet door -... • I .. 30) consists of bottles of COt with • pn.5 mm rubber pickup tube ~ with hollow rod allhc: end Abnneircuit Sniner Fi •• 29 FOIIID braadl pipe (M..1 Alum ad .. ..:aler pn"Ssure ) ~ =3.ape I'OCIIIl C'Oz .. L___" __ • "' YII· 3. button as the CO2 cabinet is ~ and m some ships there is also a stop for the enpne room fans mcorpo~ted (FII· 31). is UIed if a fire is l5C\leU enoup to force evacuation of the room .) Se:a .FIRE PROTEcnON FIRE PR0IECI1ON '..

a 10 per cent weight loss..fitted and arr~ for ~arle into the sp&:e to extinguish a local. takina . each capa~ of maintaining the required temperature. .. BULK CO2 ~ ~ati~e to the conventional co. Failure is indicated by an alarm.by a remote reading electrical puae.1ev~1. Relief valves set to the higher figure of 27 bar are also . fluorine. 32) where the combined seallbursting disc is pierced by' a cuner. The discharge from these valves.. whichever is greater. It is a requirement that 8S per cent of the required quantity of gas is released into the space within two minU1'e$of operating the actuatinC handle.n two minutes. are of the bellows sealed globe type.Triftuoro-Metbane (BTM).. . The free au. Isc:'Jating valves. 11Ie pressure vessels are constructed to I. the actuating handle opens an operating bottle of CO2 and the gas from this pushes down the piston to release the other bottles. R~gmg ~~ if there is. volume. The bottle valves may be of the quick-release type (Fig.by ~mng one valve. StoDJe pressure for bulk CO2 is 21 bar and the temperature maintained in the bottles is -1'rC. The COIlteots . hydraulically tested to 228 bar.as volume equal to 40 Cover - - pe1" ceut eWhc volume of the space except where tbe horizontal casing area is less than 40 per cent of the general area of the space. A ~-by ~tor IS ~ed m addltioO and provided by a vertical. CO2 bottles are of solid drawn steel. Liquid level is shown by frosting or by a radioacuve deVICe as used for CO2 bottles .weighing or by means of a radioactive level indicator. Tbe closin& of aU cnJine room openings and vent Haps will prevent entry of air to the space. which can be filled with liquid C~ to the vessel ..Io7dI Class 1 Itandard. Nickel used for low 1lempetature steels reduces the coefficient of expMIioa and resultant thermal stress. Bromo. Failure of one umt causes automatic starting of the other. . A suitable steel for this telliperahu"e would probably oontain 311. fire causmc: the pressure nse.a£e. To avoid sticking. chlorine and bromine are baJogens.FUt£ Pk<' fECTlON FIRE t'ROTECTlON flaps close d. This is the reason for the rule that 85 per cent of the gas must be released witbi. can be shut down remotely as can valves on fuel pipes from fuel servjce and storage tanks. The quantity of gas carried (a) must be sufficient to pve a free . Rapid injection of CO2 is necessary to combat an engine room fire which has attained such magnitude that the space bas to be vacated. for fiilinl valve: spindle Filling Combined scal/buminll disc 1 38 HALON SYSTEM Halon is an alternative gas for use as a fire fighting medium in the engine room fixed ~~ It is ·a balogenated compound made by replacement of b~en m methane or ethane by one of the haJogens. Without the syphon tube the COz would evaporate from the surface and. PilX:wort. The compound is. The discharge line has a relief valve set to 35 bar.cbcc:ked by . .ded against abnormal pressure increase by relief valves set to 24. IS of solid d:ra~ rruld steel.. Bottle pressure is normally about 52 bar (750 Iblin1 but this varies with temperature.is ~vide~ . CBrF. ~fri. ~ated pipe. The master valve prevents CO2 released in this way from reaching the engine room and it is dispersed safely by the relief on the manifold. Tbc syphon tube In the bottle ensures that liquid is discharged from the ~. are prorided.5 bar. . The main C~ discbarge line IIIeDSed for pressure so that release of gas' is indicated by an alann..-eat beat. All fans and pumps for fuel. The latter is hollow for passage of liquid CO2 to the discharge pipe. aD the handles must be in good alignment. In the system shown. would cause the remaining CO2 in the bottle to freeze.eration units arc required for this form of ClDIltainr8eRt. Coatinuous COII~n~ ~oring . or (b) must give a free gas v~::"ume equal ~ 3S p«:r cent of the entire space.. The seal/bursting discs are designed to rupture spootaneously at pressures of 1n bar produced by a temperature of about 63"C.1 per cent J!ideI . . cxtcma1. Bottles should not be stored where the temperaure is likely to exceed 55"C.is piped away from the CO2 storage space to a safe area. saorap in individual bottles for large instaDatlOns IS the storaae of the liquid in bulk.. Vessels are safeSUU. galvanized· for protection against COITOI5IOft. Two refriae~tion w_Uts. of au receavers may have to be taken into consideration.

The halon is stored in a QXIlJ)UtdIeDt . becauae of its biah rate of dispcnal. :. Penonoel must evacuate the space wben w.. detection of·the fire and ditdwJe of the gas must be rapid. mmpared witb up to two minutes for COz.as liquid at 14 bIr SKnP: Iaftk . 1IXIIh I Ibnn -/ discharge (~~ '-~-r __~~ valve) Main The halon release IfDIlpmeDt sbowD (Pia. A maximum discharge time of 20 seconds ia caDed for..33 Halon release sygm FIXED PRESSURE WATER SPRA YING SYSTEM This system is similar to the sprinkler used in accommodation areas but the spray heads are not operated automatically _The section control valves (FiB. CIbIDet:. the handles (1) and (2) are opented in S\ICCCIIIiOn. The latter opens the master valve to the eop room distribution pipe and also opens the CO2 bottles (2).Thc halon is stored at a pressure of 14 .. odourless. 3ot) are opened by band to supply water to the heads in one section or to a hose. The hip dispcna1 rate of the ps maIr. Wbea tile c::abioet is opeaed.u.u. COl from these ruptures the buntina diK at the top of the storage container and then assists in expelling the halon. The produas are toDc (e.. thus it can be stored as a liquid like ~. Eqine ..-ned.. 40 SYSTEM OPERATION . 1be discharge must be completed in 20 seconds but the alarm IOUnds • the release cabinet door is opened. nus amount is not Iwmfui to persoooel for up to five provided that breakdowu of the pi has not occurred to any put cxteat.. The contents of the COz bottles opened by IumdIe (1) pressurize the pipe line between the halon container and the master valve causial the bunting disc to rupture and allowing the halon to flow • far as the master valve. The operating cabinet is also remote. To reduce this effect.." hydrogen ftuoride and hydrogeo bromide) but being irritants they &We .es IIeaIina of the space essentiaJ. It is not suitable for certain firc& iIwolviDl metals or metalbydridea nor is it normally installed in chemH:aI tankers for carao· t8Dk ~. The gas is colourless. the alarm operates. The harmful products are increased by the inteasity of the fire.es. two sets of ~ opentiDJ cyliDden ad a 1II8IIUaI .. An arrangement is made for automatic ltoppinl of veot fans ud dosure of dampers in conjunction with the soundins of the space aIamt at openina of the door of the release cabinet. The 5 per cent c:onc:entration pves risk and is treated with the same caution as C~..FIRE PROTEcnON FIRE PIlO l1!CiiOft As a fire fipring 8JCISt. H8Ddle (2) can only be moved when released by the blockinl mechanism. shuI"_ ... - __~~~T-~~~~ Fig.. Storate pressure is )ow and to ensure rapid discharge the liquid is further pressurized with DitfOJeD or ~.away from the protcc:ted space. Wstb all eatraDces closed. COt by beioa introduced in Wee qauticies produces a relative drop in oxygen content whicb requires evacuation of dIe'Sf*le before use.~ • I WR :. of hip deotity and has a low boilia& pOint. The PI ia effective for the taIIIC types of fire as CQ.. Speed of discharge: of the gas is also important.. Fresh water is used . The gas starts to breakdown at temperatures over sure. Release procedure is much the same _ for COz. Tbe pressure build up in this line acts on the blocking device to permit opention of handle (2).. . Halon (CF38r) 2 skJrCd .. the initial fillin. 33) COftIiIb of 1M storaae cootainer. the ps operates not by IIIIOtberibs _ does COz but chemically by acting as a negative catalysilo inhibit combultioe by brcakinl tbe combustion reaction.. \btl . of their presence. ill abe contaiaet wbida bit a pressure relief. and the sysaem is brou&bt 10 workiat . fans stop and cbmpen wiD dole...... Smaller quantities of baIoa 1301 are required becnIse it has • different action. The quantity is calculated _ about S per cent of tile volume of tbe sp8CC to be protected. filling valve and IeveI-iDdicator.

• _HlllIlI filline Uo' prevcm corrosion) and le5I:ing N. Heavier foams can be produced. It must be able to maintain working press'. FOAM SYSTEM A number of large tankers have been fitted with low expansion or heavy foam installations for protection both 00 deck and in the machinery spaces. a mesh which has been wetted by a solution of foam concentrate in water. y (multi-spray) pressure by means of the compressed air connect.D'Cwhen supplying all the sections simultaneously in one compartment. The mesh is corrupted and its hole size governs the expansion ratio ot the foam which is limited to 1000:I by IMO rules. a two stage pump with the first stage below the waterline. However. which is controlled by two sensin.e.by 5uainer or large aperture Spray noule Sea IlICIion Fij!:. After operation._ is JCnerated by blowing air thro. It has been used for hold protection 00 some amtainer vessels and bas been tested for engine room fire . The air bottle provides a cushion and prevents cut-in of the pump due to sJiaht leakage of tbe water. main.Te . also supplied through the deck. main. via the diaphragm valve. the pipework is drained of salt water and refilled with fresh after washing through. the original 1 volume of liquid evaporates and produces enough steam to reduce the percentage oxvgl:n in the ste.. The pump itself has a relief valve but foam compound excess 10 requirements is discharged back to the tank. There He additional portable nozzles.om the emergency generator.34 EnJine room fixed prc$$U. It must be possible to operate the system from outside the protected space..f etc. As demand varies due to the number of outlets. The system shown (Fig. It IS placed outside the compartment.. A second water supply is available [rom the emergency fire pump normally situated in the fore part of a tanker. when working at the correct pressure. fitted at deck level. a large amount of heat is required (latent heat) and the. Jines.FIRE PROTEC'TION la) if prcjfltuces a large quantity of steam wbich has a smothering action Connectioll from -~~CXJmpInSCId air supply Air bouk maintains p~''lIshiCWI which COOIP<"f1gJc COfIlnClion Wat« spur is a potentiaJ]y good fire fighting medium because this gives a cooling effect (b) in producing tbe steam. in the 1000:1 foam. Shut ClocliAI p!'Cvcnled . the diapbrllJlD valve will deliver the correct amount of foam compound into the water main for any set of coaditioAl. The foam conc:eotrate is metered or mixed with the water to Jive a 1. This anwunt is below the level normally required for combustion. The coatrol valves are located in the foam compartment which is outside of the machinery space. (c) the spray will protect personnel in (d) water is easily available. compartment Corrosion of the system is reduced by keeping it normally lined with fresh water.. elqIUIioB . The foam is drawn from one of two IarJe tanks fitted with vent arrangements by the foam pump.5 per 6JhtinI. Foam drencher nozzles ill the machinery space are situated above areas of high risk. for ckpilllsion. 1bey are located so as to pve adequate water disuibution over the tank top and aU fire risk areas. Foam monitors are fitted OR deck and supplied through the deck. ater . 1be pump is automatically operated by pressure drop in the system when the control valve to one section is opened. On a large vessel this pump may be of the type described in the firemain section i.. by salt water is reduced by washing with hot fresh water before drying out.R.:ion. The foam plant must be capable of providing foam for fire fighting in tbe machinery space wben water is supplied by the emergency fire pump (pressure may be less from tbe emerp:ncy pump-than \from the main fire pump).. which acts as a booster fOl the second stage. 35) is designed to deliver a correctly proportioned amount of foam compound into the water supply to the deck main. 42 .<l111i air mixture to about 7. The pump must have either an independent drive or an electrical supply fr. m5hwaler ~ionl . Spray nozzles are designed to give the correct droplet size for fires in flammable liquids such as fuels and lubricating oils.5 per cent.. Damage to electrical equipment etc. valve orr . The limit is required because the loam is composed largely of air and easily breaks down when in contact with a Ire.

.liaa truntinp may be aa:eptabIe... _ .... GeDeratioo of foam must be rapid and sufficient to fiB the Iarp:st spKC to be protected at the rate of 1 metre/minute (depth)._---Sprayers 7r~r-~~~~~~~~1 -_ - I I __j 44 .. I + F~_~ Gearbox . 37)..aR necessary to carry the foam to the fire uea but DOnDal ventila._i"iI'".~. and sprayed onto the screeD.flRE PROTECTION c:aG..:..-- Mal"hillel')' Ipacc I Main boiler + I Oil tank.~ lmom .. toIuticxa of QODCCDtrate ia water. . Air is bIowD ~.. ..--..OtIJCl pu!I1pS IPump ---_.. Delivery ducts.-1..bJ"'In ekctricaIly driven fan (odler drives have beeD UICd).. SPRINKLER SYSTEM ACCOMMODA nON Aa:ommodatioo aad service spaces of paseenger vessels ue protected against fire by an automatic sprinkler fire alarmIdetection system of the type sbowa (Fig..

.cx:aI tcmperauue rise will operate an individual sprinkler bead -. 38) is the means for operating the alarm and visual indicator which is positioned 00 tbe bridgeffire control centre. Pipes are of steel galvanized for corrosion protection and the system is filled initially witb fresh water. SECI10N ALARM VALVE ~ ~ acx:olJUDOdatcs e~ dUe to lcmperatur'c c. be caused to start the pump (the pump test cock is opened to sive a water flow). . Initially the ftow. A special non-return valve (Fig. Thus when a sprinkler head is set off. Thus • c:ompressor COIIIICded aDd having automatic starting is provided. The pipe from the tank to the system has a non-return valve to prevent entry of sea water to the tank. the pump is for use 0Dly with the sprinkler system. I.e DRY PIPE SECI10N ALARM The ~ pipe (Fi..pe prcssu- - . It must be arranpd that during expulsion of the standing charge of frab water from the taak.. start the pump. the air pressure remains sufficient to overcome the bead to the hiJbeat sprinkler aDd to provide enough working pressure for the sprinkler. it must be subsequently drained and again fiI1ed with fresh water. the approximate location is displayed.. The indicator is a panel showing a section of the fire zones with an alarm light for each. ·A test circuit is fitted 10 that thepressure switch C8ft be isolated and. Supply pressure must be biJher than that in the tank so that air can be replenished under presaure. It must be connected to main and emergency power supplies and there must be a connection through a screw down non-return valve (locked) from the fire main such tbat ba<:k8ow from the sprinkler to the fire main is prevented. If part of the circuit becomes filled with salt water as the result of operation.of water through a sprinkler system relies on the pressure exerted by the compressed air. There is a stop valve for each section either locked open or fitted with a teD-tale alarm to prevent unauthorized closure.. Normally the non-return valve covers tbe annular channel in the seat..h trade ia low temperature weas.. The test valve Jives water eqUIVa)ent to that of one sprinkler aDd is used to test the The sprinklers are grouped in sections witb a limited DUmberof heads. s. 39) elltends upwards from the section val\'e wbich abo acts as the link between tbe spriDJdcr system water pressun: and the dry fti rized with air.)'SteIn wbieh lIIitht be subj~ 10 freezing muse be ~'. Section pressure is shown by the gauge at each stop valve and a drilled bole t. through the pressure switch. Water supply is then maintai~d by the pump..K:!s " u--e-II Tesl \l'alve PUMP The pump sea suction is kept permanently open and. by draining.. 'The tank is also provided with a fresh water supply. Anti-freeze c:an be added to fresh water· for tIIis ~ veuds wbic.hrouJh the 46 Ally parts o~ die .nd the resulq pressure drop in the S)'51em will. drain and relief valve. have dry pipe sectioas i~. . Tank volume is at least twice that of the water specified. Sprinkler heads are fitted throughout ti)e acc0mmodation but the number of heads in any section is limited to about ISO (IMO regulations allow up to 2(0).. Normally a section is confined to one fire zone or area.The installation is kept ready for usc by beina ~ frOQI die ~ pressed air loading on the water in the pres5llR tank. The alarm is a pressure switch and water from the system reaches it wben the non-return valve is lifted by water flowing to any sprinkler head. 1be drip orifice prevents build up of water pressure in the alarm pipe due to leakage. TANK Contents level is indicated by a puge JIass and this is specified as equivalent to one minute's discharge of the pump. SupplyinlllP J SO sprinkler 10 ile.

~._.....~.... «_ .. _ _

tn,

.....

__

' ........ ..-._

~___,,~

/

JSkin

Water pr4IUR it COIUaiDeclby die ... bIId·oa its leal by tbc CCIIIJe wive. The IpIICIC abo¥e tile CIIIIIe valve.illIIecl to tbe Iewl with water . ... the pipe above tbat " tiled widI IIDder ,.Iaure. 'he CIIltR.vahe " .. wateJ1i&bt by a joiat" die ......... .., ....• *'1. WIleD opmdioIl of• ..,n.tIer MId "rck FI I J die .. II .... illtbe dry pipe. me centre valVe is puIbed up by die fcin:c 01.... uder·* dIppIr. 1be dIrppcr lifts and rotates 011 the yoke lOoae side by 1M dIIct of.".. tow oa the skirt. The water Ioock up tIuouP .,.pipe ....... ceo1Ie valve 10 ioc:k opeD ... in fiIIina the i:nIenBefIiM tef. pI'CIWt'iIa IDd operaICI tbe

*

dipper."".

...... .. ,.Ior ~
... ,._

ne

air aad :vequiNd. The IeCIioa v.Ive ... drop& 10 ~ of die ccwer ... eo be rauoved to relet die vahc.

_c.

__

SPRINKLER HEAD
SpriakIen, .... phIICCfedarea. De IIad

aM ....
~

:._

eo¥Cr

doled by • ~ wIIidl is MId ill pI.ae .". • qudIrIid die to by NIl 'r.. of tbe IiIIIIIid it HeIdIilre~1D _ Ie aa4 _tNh.rc .......... (red: • ,.ao..r: ~. Spiiatle:n ia tbe ..a.MIatioa are .. ..,6ac lJpCI. fIit:IIIr ...... -.e spriMIer .... aR Inecl if ... ".,.. beanied .., die t I, J .... c:eIIe.-ad __ 4Bl1 *'t •

....

-==

~w

(F.,. 40) "
....

.

of 5

Ji1raIaa2

per aBate over the

s.-- --

..

CHAPl'ER4

-. iDItiai

bon make-up

Fuel-Handling and Treatment. Self Cleaning PurifierAutomatic Combustion System for Auxiliary Boiler
CRUDE OIL REFINING
Crude oil is broken down to pve various types of fuel and other substances. primarily bv heating it so tbatvapours are boiled off and then condensc:d at different teinperatures. and separate!y coll~ng the constituents or 'fractions' from the distillation process. Crude od contains gaseous fuels, petrois, paraffin"" gas oils. distillate diesel fuels and lubricating oils wbich can be coll~ed from the fractionating tower, wbere they are condensed out .at the ~erent levels maintained at appropriate temperatures. The crude IS heated an a furnace, shown with the tower on the left of Fig. 41. The boiling process leaves behind a residue which is very dense as the result of having lost the lighter pans. This bigh-density remainder has the same bydrocar·

.. the IiJbter fractions and is poteDtiaDy a fuel. UDfortImately, 1hc: rdning process not only c:onccntrates the liquid but also the impurities. Vacuum oastiDation removes more of the Jighter u..1ions, to leave .. nat heavier residue. As cau be seeD from the low chart (Fil- 41) the refinery may bave additional conversion equipment. Vis-breaking or tbermal crackiaS is one process using heat and pl'eSSun: to split heavy molecules into li&bter components leaving heavy residue. Catalytic crackin& is another, that uses a powdered silicaalumina based catalyst with more moderate temperatures and pressures to obtain ti&hter fractions, with howcycr an. inc:reasingly heavy residue. In tile latter process catalyst powder is continuously ciralJated through the reactor, then to a regenerator where carbon picked up during tbe conversion reaction is burnt off. Unfortunately, some of the catalyst powder remains in the residue wbicb may be used for blendiDa bunker fuel oils. The very abrasive silicaalumina catalytic fines have caused severe engiue wear wbea not detected and removed by slow purification in the ship's fuel treatment system.

QUALITY ASSESSMENT (FUEL TESTING)
Buaken

(almosph.:ric diSlillali('lll) •••

FnlClKJoalin, lo../cr

type(s) of fuel. amount(I). viBcoIity, specific gravity, ftash poiat aad water content. Trouble frequently resuhsfrom inferior fuels and tbere it iasufticicnt information to Jive .8I'IIiac. FucJ andioI· schemes and detailed delivery notes have been propoeed. TIlus the Classification Societies and otben provide fuel testinS servic::es (about ten days for a result), and on·board testing equipment is available. A representative sample is needed to give an accurate test result and this is difficult to obtain unless a properly situated test cock is fitted in tbe bunter manifold where flow is turbulent. The sample is taken after fIasbint of the test cock, Because of the variation in heavy fuel, small qtlaDtitics aN tapped into the test container OYer the period of bunkering. to Jive a repraentative
sample. A full analysis can be Jiven by tbe shore laboratory. On-board tests are limited to those whidt give reliable results and kits for speciIk: gravity. viscosity. pour point, water content and compab"bility are on the market. F1asb point is found with • Pensky-Martin closed cup apparatus as carried by passenlCT

Fuel Oil

are dassified as Gas Oil, Lipt and Marine Diesel Oil, Intermediate and Marine or Bunker (C) Fuel Oil. The delivery DOte specifies tbe

Quail Gas oil
YKuum distillation

vessels,

Furnace

FUEL DATA

IlaIItJ or s,.dIe GrmIJ (S.G.)

Residu.;al DilL

FiC. 41 Oil re6ni., pro mm

is liven on the bunker delivery DOte and am be found for fuel at a particular temperature with a test kit hydrometer. Required for bunker c:alculations. it is also needed for selection 01 the purifier gravity disc. Separation of water from fuels with a density bigber tban water is not possible in conventional centrifuges. although solids will separate. ~ is spedfied when ordering fuel. Redwood VISCOsity in SCCODds beina replaced by Kinematic Viscosity in centistokcs. Tbe oo-board test uses tbe princ:iple of a metal ball beina allowed to fall tbroup a lUbe of fuel sample at 8O"C and beina timed oYer a set distance after it reacbes irs tenniaaI YCIocity. A cakulation gives the kinematic viscosity. Fuel viscoUty iI reduced by llteatiaa. (I)

-

51

FUEL-P\JRIFlER-AUX.

BOILER ~t in the settling tank, large quantities from serious water contamination wjJI be "'~n the tank is sludged and the indication win be Jiven that a serious problem exists. Thus settling tanks are not made redundant by centrifuges. Centrifuges remove water with the impurities dissolved in it, and the heavier solids in suspension. at a rapid rate. Impurities dissolved in the fuel are not removed. There are fuels with high density over 991 kg/eml at 15°C from which water separation in the normal way is impossible. Sodium is a contaminant wbich may be present due to sea water in the fuel. Being soluble in water, it will be removed with it in the purifier, (Sodium in the cylinder burns to form with vanadium an ash very harmful to engine exhaust valves, etc.) Vaudium'and .... phur are dissolved in the fuel and not removed by the purifier. The effect of sulphur (which bums to sulphur oxides and forms corrosive sulphuric acid) can be neutralised by alkali additives in diesel engine cylinder lubricant. Condensation of strong acid is diminished by li;eepiDg liner temperatures high. Sticking of sedium and'vanadium salts on exhaust valves is much reduced by keeping valve working temperature below about S30"C. SiUc:eII and ............. catalytic fines are removed in the purifier or clarifier, but slow throughPUt is essential for optimum results. The self-driven purifier delivery pump has been replaced in some instaUatioos by ~ with independent drive to give a slower supply of fuel to tbe purifier. .

to make il !lYbie in the engine. (2) to improve 5CparatioD and (3) to ~ure ease of pumping. -Puur Point is checked on the ship by cooling a pre-heated oil in I testtube while tillinl! the tube at every Joe drop in temperature to sec *ther it is still free·fil,,,,,,inl!'The pour point is 30C above the no-ftow temperature, and fuel in tanks must be 5°C above this to prevent solidification, Low heat transfer roc:ffi,..,ent'makcs a solidified fuel impossible to re-liquefy in the tank. Wirer CODtent is found with a test kit which is the same as that used for measuring water content of lubricating oils. The oil sample is mixed with a reaeern In a closed container and any water in the oil reacts with the chemical reii~enl to produce a vapour. Pressure rise due to the vapour generation is registered on a pressure gauge. calibrated to show water percentage. Alternativelv, the vapour displaces liquid and the quantity of this is used to show water content. The water may be fresh or sea water. The latter is I source of sodium, which with vanadium produces harmful ash after combustion of the fuel. Water together with solids dissolved in it is nonnally removed in the centrifuge. Compatibility of a residual fuel allows it to be blended with other fuels to give a stable mix. Where there is incompatibiJity, the mixing of fuels results in the precipitation of beavy sludge which blocks the fuel system. On-board blending and even mixing of different fuels in bunker tanks can cause the problem of sludge. if there is incompatibility. TIle property is assessed by making a sample mix with the residual fuel and another fuel, in equal amounts, and depositing a drop on photocbromatic paper. After an hour the pattern left by the dried drop is compared with spots on a reference sheet. An unsatisfactory blend is typified by a dark central deposit with' an outer less dark ring. Economies are possible if poor-quality fuel can be sufficiently improved by blending with distillate to allow its use in generator engines. etc but there is the risk of sludge fonnalion. Fuels blended ashore and supplied as bunkers are sometimes found to be unstable and subsequent sludge formation or layering may make them unusable. The compatibility test is not reliable.

SELF CLEANING PURIFIER
Fuel oil purifien are fitted with a ~1idin8 bowl bottdm wbiclt is raised or lowered by a water operating system for self cleaning. Lubricating oil purifiers are sometimes self cleaning. Manual cleaning may be preferred so that the solids can be examined and also because use may be intermittent and the extra expense not justified. Fig. 42 shows One operating system for a self cleaning purifier. Whil~ ?il is passing through the purifier. the sliding bowl bottom is held up in the position shown by the operating water beneath it. The sliding bottom seals the bowl by being pressed against the sealing ring in the rim of the cover. Solids from tbe oil are thrown outwards by centrifugal force and collect against the bowl periphery. At intervals dictated by either a timer or choice, the oil feed is turned off and the bowl opened to discharge the solids. There are a number of discharge ports around the bowl. At the end of the discharge. the bowl is closed and after the liquid seal has been re-established. the oil feed is continued. DUring normal running, the pressure exerted by the water under the sliding' bottom, is sufficient to keep it closed against the pressure from the liquid in the ~wl. ~ opera~ing water m~tai~ a constant head of .... ter to the paring disc which acts hke a pump opposmg this head, provided that the radius of the liquid annulus remains constant. If evaporation or leakage causes a slight water loss, the reverse ?wnping effect of the paring disc is reduced and water from the operating tank b.ings the quantity of water in the parinl chamber back to the correct radius. TI\~ operating slide prevents loss of water from beneath the sliding bowl, by cl(;\ing the drain holes. To discharge the Sl.~ids.first the oil feed is closed and then the solenoid valve is opened. This aHows "'ater from the high pressure line to Row into the patina chamber The water enl~rs from a point nearer the centre than the noon"

FUEL HANDLING AND TREAlMENT
Heating coils in bunker tanks and particularly in double bottom tanks have always been necessary for heating to make the fuel pumpable. Some modern poor-quality fuels have a pour point su1ficieotly high that they start to solidify at normal temperatures. and because of low conductivity they cannot be reliquefied by heating. With these fuels the temperature in storage must be SOC above pour point. High delivery temperature is a sign of high pour point fuel. The risk of incompatibility between fuels, and the possible precipitation of sludge if bunkers are taken in tanks tbat contain remains of another fuel, has increased. Bunkers should therefore betaken in empty tanks and kept segregated. Formation of sludge can also result from sea water contamination or temperature changes. Bacterial infestation is well known as a probl~ with lubricating oil. It has also caused sludge and other problems with aU types of fuel. Filter blockage may give notice of sludge in the service tank if it carries over from the purifier. Sludge will choke the fuel sys.em and stop the engine. . Settling tanks andtentrifuges are intended to remove water and solid contaminants; and although small amounts of water take a long time to settle

tan,

52

. B~
~
, ,
,

.. AA.~ P@ildlhe _&Did iI~ to pNvaltOu.Iuw .... a ..... 1be mllJ'oI_ .... __ II tka mpjetli_ by tile
puina _
arnz,UIICDt. "

opea'"
'.

tat ....
, ,

¥ ',.

I

1ij__ J

,

CENTRIFUGE ARRANGEMENTS
All arran ..... of purifier imd clarifier .. Itted 011 .... , sbip& iD cbe artier days of buminl residual fuel in sIow-....... cMe.eJs.' Fuel quality .. better then ud where the cWifier was found to coataiII ~ little residue or noae ill use was discootinued. A sinJle purifier pve adecpaate results until the .tvcnt of silic:on and aluminium fiDes in fuels from rdincries with the catalytic ~ process. Abrasion from the fine powder impurity JUdcap froat the siIic:oa mel aluminium fines bas variously ruined fuel pumps add injection equipment, alto piston rinp and liDen. Research at this time showed that a combination of two purifien in parallel (to pvc ~ slow tIIrouahPut), or tile old arranaemeat of purifier and clarifier in series. wOuld lCIIICWC die majority of fiDes aad make .the fuel usable without the risk of serious eoaioe damage. Latterly tile _., .. tioa of two purifiers in parIIIeJ with • third c:eocrifaac as darificr ia series has been
1'CQlIIIlIIICDd.

Opeminc wacrllmk

Bowl

Paring
Opeminc

walerl'j:'>J

C'hamber

spcc:ific paYity/cte.ity. Water ad .... la::UIIlulm: in the ou&er part of the bowl as the result of CCDtrlfupl cffec:l aad as the interface, mova imrardI. but before reac:Idraa !be disc ltd the water flow tbrouJh 10 reacIl a water ICeIiII& traDIduc:a: that causa, via aiao-proc:eaot cin:yitry, the bowl to self ..... The Iystcm is Aid to be capable of baocUina fuek of pater tho 991 q.iial dcosi.ty. A fipre for sua:aIiulwater scparatioo from fuels witb denIitics ...... .. 1010 tgtm3 al l~ is Jiven.

bas • Bow, coatroI dill: tbat .... 'it 1'inudy • clarifier. ncrc Me DO kJater paYity discs to be chaopI to JUke tile mlCbiae IUitabie for fuels 0( diffemlt

The latest Alfa-Laval daip of

ceatrifaF

if • 1CIf~

.........

wIIicb

11Idius at web &be operating water"is maintained. 'Ibis ~ water (indicated by the arrow) fills the paring chamber until it runs OYer the lip and via tbe drilling in the bowl body. into the 'opcnin& chamber' immediately above the operating slide. Water in the operating chamber. builds up a pressure due to centrifugal force (despite small loss through the drain aozzJe) which pushes the operating slide down against the spriogs beneath it., As SOOD as the operating stide begins to move downwards. the drain holes open and the high pressure operating water .under the sliding bowl escapes rapidly. Pressure exerted by liquid in the bowl .fon:es the bottom down and solids are discharged throQsb the ports. Wheo aD of the opentiDg water bas drained from the uodcnide of the Sliding bottom and discharge of solids is complete, then witb the solenoid valve closed the operating sIide is moved back up by the springs to dote the drain holes. To raise the sliding bottom. the chamber under it must be filled with operating water. The filling is ~ quickly by a short opening of the solenoid nIve. Wbco the chamber is filled and ~ the patina chamber wiD start to fiD.

Coaventiooally. the main engine uses cheaper heavy fuel oil aad JCueraton 6pter, more eJ:pensiYe. distillate fuel. The addition of a small amount of diesel oil to heavy fuel considerably reduces its visoosity. and if heatifta is used to further bring the viscosity down thea the blend can be used in generators with rcsultallt savings. The in-tine bleode.r sbowD (Fig. 43) takes fuels from heavy oil aad litht diclel tanks, then miJ:es and supplies the mill: direct to the auxiliary diesels. Returning fuel is accepted bact in the blender cimdating line. It is DOt directed bact to a tank where there would be tbe danger of the two fuels settling out. Fuel is circulated around the closed loop of the system by the circulating pump against the back-pressure of the p.s. (pressure sustaininl) valve. Thus there is supply pressure for the engine before the valve. and a low enough pressure after it. to allow returning oil back into the loop. Sufficient light diesel is injected inlo the loop by the metering pump for light load running. As increased load demands more fuel this is drawn in from the heavy oil tank. by a drop in loop pressure on the suction side of the circuJating pump. Heavy fuel thus makes up the eJ:tra, made ocaaury by load increase. At fullloH the ratio may be 30% diesel with 70% bavy fuel.

FUEL BLENDER

experiments in fuel eeoeomy have led to tile installation of bomogenisers on some ships to deal with a deliberate mixture. HOMOGENISER 'The homogeniser provides another solution to the problem of water in high· demity fuels. Their freedom to ~ radially outwards means that the centrifugal effect throws tbern hard against the lining ryre oftbe bolDOJcniser casing..0. However. . or ash-fonning sodium which damages exhaust valves. Many small boiIen both ashore and those UICd at .. The homoseniser i\. of up to 10"10 water in fud. This is in contradiction to the normal aim of removing waler. A lKJmo&eni5c:r ould not be c used in place of a purifier for diesel fuel as it does not remove abrasives like aluminium and silicon. PACKAGE BOILER COMBUsnON _. atomiser can be MIpptied 1ritil fuel at di&rad nr.. . H the fuel preIIIU'e !' mcreased ~ pilton vaJw: will be opened so that fuel palla tbroup the atOIIUICI'.. Tbe preuqre in the cin:uit will be forced tberefca 10 build up to the ICttina of the spill valve. pump with a relief to preYeDt ~ preIIUI'C. MI. The three disc stacks in the rotating carrier of the Vickers type bomogeniser (FIg..It is sugested that a hiah-density fuel could be emu1sifie'd and burnt in the eDgioe. 43 Sea StU in-liae blender A viscothcnn monitors viscosity and controls it through the heater. Fit·"" Vk:Un -.. down to S uticron size and tbere ~ other filters on the lank SUCtioas.FUEL-PURIFIER-AUX.ded piItoa valve which doIeaolftbe . and with the genenil spinning adioII aids mixing.iI UIec:J' r-- ~~ arranaemcat . It am be used to ClIIlulsify a smaD percentage for inj~ion into the engine with the fuel.. wbicb in the free ~ am cause gassins of fuel pwDpI and other problelm.-.' 'The burner 11M a'~ to._ by nc . " A .. in ... Ibon (Fit· 45-nc -- II dran ovenize to . A simple automatic c:ombustioD ~iI required for auiiluy 00i1en of the packqe type. The hot filter removes particles. Pressure and the rotating contact breaks down sludges and water trapped between discs tnd lyre. When either one IS In arcuat.... 44) are turned at about 1200 rev/min. It provides the only retum path for the fuel to the IUCtioIl side of the fuel preItUrC pump. 11Ie spill vaIYes are spriDa Dded.r ariuaiement the 1)'IkIIl.. . Constant circuJatioA aad relDiDnl of the blend and the returning fuel prevents separation. to the a~ ~ wbea fuel is supplied to the burner at low preuurc..fitted in the pipeline between service tank and engine 50 that the fuel is used in1inediatc1y . BOILER :oJi. SYS1EM . in !bat the fuel entcria& c:aa be delivered ~~ O! two ~. ::... arc fitted The aoIenoid valves lie two-way.

the pses completely.-PURIflEIl-AUX. Sometimes trouble with combustion will have the same effec:t if the protective ... The: ftoat chamber is external to tbe boiler and connec:ted by pipes to the steam and water spaces. 'Tbe atoDrised fuel il ipited and once tbe ftame is established. the fuel is switdlcd back to the low flame spill.ille) chamber . Fuel pressure is varied by die operation of the -'sYStem .. The solenoids or pullial IIIOtor for the operation of 1he hiJhIIow lame devices are controlled by a preIIUft' switch acted on by boiIer·steIIft pteIIU1'e. may range up 10 40 bar. U the flame JOCS out abnonaally or the photo-ceU shuts down the combustion system and causes the alarm to sound. Combustion air is supplied by a constant speed fan. 4S . and a damper ananpment is used to chance the letting. by to the fuel beater. the oil control valve is actuated to deliver the fuel to the hip spill.. Automatit c:ombuslioo $)'5Icm 58 •••• . Tbcoil circulates from the pump and heater throwp. over the ceO becomes smoke blackened. oil pressure builds up sufficiently to open the piston valve in the burner. When steam pressure rises.. With low steam pressure. maimaia dte sanm prasure. From 1fCn'k:e link LOW WATER LEVEL Water level is maintained by a feed pump oontrolled by a ftoat-operated onJoff switch. When tbe boiler il scarted current is supptied first . A similar ftoat switdt is fitted to Ktivate an alarm and sbut-down in the event of low water level (and biJb water level on some inshlllations). electric heater heatilll elements OPERATION controlling it. There is a drain at the bottom of the ftoat chamber. The are thennostaticaHy controlled and when oil in the reacba the required atolllilina temperature..) the system wiD (I) beat up and dreulate the fuel (2) purp the combuIrion sJ*e of· unbumt lIS (3) ianite .to supply fuel to the burner. Bcc:aUIC·1Ioet A. With the ipition arc 'on'.. FLAME FAILURE 1he flame is ipition fails. name Cin:ulalin. The fan damper is operated at the same time to adjust tM air deliwry to the high or low ftame requirement. Electrical circuits art arraaaed 10 that when the boUer is switdlecl on (assumins water !eYe1 is correct etc. solenoid is operated.. Kllenoid Yill~ Duplex fuel filrer Fuel heater name C'm:uwinlline Fan ftap SAFETY DEVICES Package boilen have the normal safety devices fitted to boiIen and also spec:iaI arraaaements for unatteDded operation. monitored by pboto-ceUs.. otherNise an air/pi explosive millture may be formed. BOIL£Il FUEL-PURlFlER-AUX. BOILER Swirl Burner (ovcn. the system via the oil circulating valve. When the oil circulatin.FUEl. Air from the fan puqeS the combustion space!i for a set ti_. and. This ensures that the oil in the burner is bot and thin enough to atomise. wltidl must be sufftcieot to clear. another thcrDlOlltat switches in the fa and oil dmatalint PUMp. control of the oil change valve and filii damper depends on steam preuuft. the fuel no IonJer returns to the suction side of the pump but is delivered to the low ftame spill through the oil change valve.

is thus transferred to the COOling medium. glasses STEAM PRESSURE The boiler pressure will stay. Cut outs for plotectioa apiDlt low water level.. passes to the expansion valve.. 46 Simple fridp: system COMPRESSOR The temperature at which a fluid boils or oondenses is known as the saturation temperature... II may be necessary to test tbe feed pump. 01. deviation from the correct temperature win C8UIt the burner to be shut off. feed taDk . . condenser. Frequent scumming will remove the solid$. The flame failure photo-cell may be muted or some means sud! as starting the boiler with the circulating soicnoidcut a.. The compressor in a refrigeration system.. expansion valve and evaporator. . . . caution is needed to avoid .. then pressure will cause the burner to cut out. originally from the evaporator. If. is in feed 1IIC the CONDENSER In the condenser the refrigerant is liquefied and subcooled to below the saturation temperature by the circulating sea water or air. they QD becoGIc bJ solids which tend to form a surface scum on the witter.ted tilDe.FUEL-PURIFIER-AUX. The compressor also promotesdrculation of the refrigerant by pumping it around the system: FEED PUMP Before starting the boiler.. and varies with pressure. Latent beat. f~ult develops or steam demand drops.. TESTING CONTROLS The automatic combustion system is checked whea the boiler is started. the fan being set to continue runnifta for a Iiml.: are the compreasor. is RefrigerationAir Conditioning-Heating VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE The basic components of any refripration system workinS· on the. j 60 \ 'EXPANSION VALVE The expansion valve is the regulator through which the refrigcrantftows from the high pressure side of the system 10 the low pressure side. Freon 12 or Freoa 22). vapour compression cycI. The pressure ~ .. within the workiftl ranp if the ~ set to match output. The refriaerant with which the circuit is dwged is nonnaIly R 12 or R 22 ~ AIR SUPPLY Incorrect air quantity due to a fault with the dalper combustion. excess Iteam pressure.. and pump MICtion w__. FUEL TEMPERATURE Many package boilel"l bern a light fuel and heating is not feqUitcd...t. BOILER ~hambcrs and gau(lC are at the water level. sliD at the pressure produc.. '.. in raising the pressure of the vapourized refrigerant. to die bt.. checked. Air delivery should be monitored. •• . The liquid refriprant. the condenser .. Tests necessary vary with different boilen. Ma.e. 6i .ed by the compreuor... loss of air and chanF of fuel &caIperature are also dtecked. When float chambers are tested.. When the boilerftlten are checked. Where a heater is in use. Gau must be regularly checked by blowing the steam and water cocks tbrougb the . WOUJd cause poor (i. At abut down the air purJe Ihould operate. causes its saturation temperature to rise so that it is higher than that of the sea water or air coolin. y be used to ensure flame failure shut down. -- CHAPTERS hiah .

In larger installations the evaponcor cools air or brine.... REFRIGERANT 12 . REFRIGERANT There is no perfect refriaerant for all opcratial COOditions. ~.. bas This refrigerant is composed of 48.8 pcr cent of R nand 51.' 62 AUTOMATIC FREON SYSTEM The ciralil shoWn in Fig. . P. Its performance is better. The chemical and other properties are similar to R 12 except that it is not miscible with oil over the full temperature ranee. as secondary refrigerants. CARBON DIOXIDE Wbi.Bec:lusc of the hlZllJdl~ ammonia is used mainly ashore and on fishilll vessels.elLtted hydrocarbon derived from methane (CR. The expa. It is thermostatically controlled. For air conditioning installations R 11 (mOnofluorocrichlorolllCthanc (ca~ been found suitable.. ammonia i& a sood refrigerant but it IS explosive. the pressure 6. 1"bc critic:al temperature illow (31-q and Ibis causes problems in waa MtllllliJhsea water temperature. Thus as eacb room temperature is brought down.pr_IIICtioa. It i8 corrosive to copper and its alloys so that ferrous materials are used for compr. Refrigerants in gem:ral use are selected . approaching that of ammonia.. beina DeJreIt to tbe ideal..REFRIGERATION causes the saturatioo temperature of the refrigeJ8Jlt to fall so tbat it will boil at the low temperature of the evaporator.ve or ftannnable but a leak is potentially dangerous beca_ it can displace air and asphyxiate. condenser.1 . It is puticularly suited for use with hermetic compresson. its solenoid will dose off the liquid refriJCrant to that space. ntnts in a system employins ammonia.).. The rnadUncry and SystellllllUII therefore be of substantial . The resulting compound is dicblorocti~omethue (CC12F2) also known as Freon 12. poisonous and an irritant. .. The compressor will supply a num~r of cold compartments through thermostaric:aUy contronedsolenoids. The biJh soIubilityio water also means that.. About 1300 volumes of amlllODiacan be dissolved in 1 volume of water at low temperature however it ~ easily expelled by boiIina. This action makes the vapour absorplion refriscrator possible. is not expklIi. The liquid is stored in steel bottles at hip preaure. When aU compartment solenoids are shut. beiIIJ about 70 bar at the comprcaor dischaJJe and 20 bar It the w.. It is odourless. It i5 more suitable for a lower temperature range than R 12 because the pressure on the evaporator side of the system is higher than atmosphertc at low temperatures (thus reducing the risk of -drawing air into the system). expansion valve evaporator and also the controls for automatic operatiOn.2 per <:entof R 115 «4ClF. II is highly soluble in water with which it foons ammonium hydroxide a weak base...""REFltfGERANT 11 . ideally in a Q)Ol spaCe. wet doth held to the facc will pvc some protection apinst In ammonia leak in an emcracllCy although a breathina apparatus would be worn in such • case. Temperature rise will cause pressure rise in the bottles which is reJicw:d by the rupturinS of a safety disc and release of the ance.. Refrigerant 12 is considered 10 be nOIHOxic except in high 'concentrations producing oxygen deficiency.P. The compressor is started and stopped by tbe L.osion valve throttles the liquid refrigerant lad maintains the pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator while supplying refrigerant to the evaporator at the correct rate. AMMONIA (R 717) REFRIGERANT 22 The popularity of R 22 lKll refrigerant for cargo installations has increased in recent years at the expense of It 12... REFRIGERANT-SOl EVAPORATOR 1be refrigerant entering the evaporator at a ~ lower than the SCQJndary coolant (air or brine] te(:Cives latent heat Md evaporates. The explosive mixture is 16 10 2S per cenl in air. ThermodynamicaJly. These are circulated in turn. . ..) with the hydro. Arbon dioa:ide (o. (high pressure) cut-out with a hand re-set which operates to shut down tbe compressor in the event of high discbaJ1c pressure. been ditplac:ed by chlorine and liuoride. It also bas a low coefficient of performThe .. The trade name of Freons was Siveato a number of similar compounds. In a small refrigerator the evaporator cools wi. Ammonia is a reactive compound.. (low pressure) controller io response to tbe pressure in tbe compressor suction. It is • haJo.en bavin. Later this beat is given up in the condenser wben the refriserwat • 'Pin liquefied.. The result IS that some of the liq~d boils off at the expansion valve taking latent heat from the remainder and causing its temperature to drop. 1be compound is Chlorodifluoromethane (CHCIF2).'.. non-irritant and not eeft5idered flammable or an explosive.. bced ciralIation of a secondary coolant.>z) is used as a refriacnnt the watkins pressures are bip.. For cargo installatiom R 12 ~ carbon dioxide and is in tum being replaced by R n. In fact as the liquid passes through the expansion valve the pressure drop buses its saturation temperature to fall below its actual temperature. normally • .. There is also an H. Working pressures and tempentliteS are moderate and the high critical temperature (l12°q is well above the working ranle. 2'. it decomposes in contact with ftame to give products which are pungent and poiSonous (Chlorine Cl2 and phosgene COC) The gas eiCaping under preICUfC will cause skin damage on cOntact. 47 contains the basic compressor. .

regulalor and evaporator. evaporating temperature of the refri&erant to fall below that of the evaporator. Thus the rcfri&crantcan be boiled off by an evaporator temperature of -18'"C because the preaure drop brinp the evaporating temperature of the refrigerant to say -24"C. 'IbiI iI the replator tbrouP wbicb the refriprant puleS from the hiah pressure side of the I)'Item. The sketch is for a three compartment system but only shows the details for one. Excess.P. t EvaporatOr When the compressor is running the liquid refrigerant is pumped around the circuit in the direction of· the arrows. the master solenoid will close to prevent ftooding by liquid refrigerant and possible rom pressor damage. cut-out will cause the compressor to shut down.fRESSURE CUT-OUT conlJ'Ol . On large systems a master solenoid may befitted.lermostats. In the event of overpressure on the condenser side of tbe compressor. . :H. Air blown througb the evaporator. There are a number of faults which can cause high discharge pressure. This is effective through the push pins (Fig.. --Dildlqe . -praIUR: Fit. 1be preuurc drop causes the ..P.P. 0.rebf 6S . controller. . restarted until the trouble bas beea remedied tad. I j : Swner box _. If the compressor stops due to a rault.. 49) and tends. controller to restart the compressor ." 1HERMOST ATIC EXPANSION VALVE H. ad Old SYSTEM COMPONENTS The pressure "a~ge on thee.. roils ~cts as the secondary refrigerant. The machine cannot be. The pressure gauge should show a pressure with an equivalent temperature about T" or ~0c-above the sea water inlet. . This is DOt the actual temperature ur the . The bellows tend to be expanded by the pressure and this movement is opposed by the sPring. as the regulator through which the correct amount of refrigerant is passed. the switch arm is held lip by the switch arm catch and holds the electrical contld in pIKe. Tbc bellows in the cut-out (Fig. Each cold compartment has atherm05latic expanlion valve. expansion valve Valve 10 other RIOIII5 Fig.at> -. Tbc liquid refriprant leaves the coodenser with a temperature just above that of the lea water inlet . 48) is connected by a small bore pipe between the compressor discharge and the condenser.. Spring pressure is set duringmanufac:tu.P. M it passes through the expansiou valve the evaporating temperature dea'eascI to . The upper end slips to the riPt of the step and releases the IWitdl arm &0 breakilll the electrical contact and c:aUlia. I ~HIGIi. Regular defrosting by means of electnc healing clements keeps the evaporator free from ice. .. Durin& normal system operation.ive prawre expands the bellows and moves the switch arm catch around its pivot. to opeQ the valve against the spring.'hich is higber and shown by the thermometer.. The adjustment screw is used to set the spring pressure. included in the section on faults.P. Pressure rise in the compressor suction acts through the L. ..REFRlG C I A nON REFRIGEIo!AnoN . 47 Automatic Freon system drop in the compressor suction will cause the compressor to be stopped through the L.tbe rwitdt rc_ by baftd. The time 5wilCh de-energizes the solenoids to shut down the system and supplies the: power to the heaters instead. Subsequent rise of compartment temperature will cause the solenoids to be re-opened by the room tl. Each room has a solenoid. . The device is re-set by hand. the c:ompreIIOr to c:ut-out..ompressot discharge shows the ~ pressure aDd also hOismarked on It the relative condensing temperature. P.-----: 'CU{-()u1 : L. to the low pressure side.24"C and lOme of the liquid boils off taking its latent beat from the remainder of the liquid and reducing its temperature to below that of the evaporator...• say 1S"C. The aperture in the expansion valve is eontrolled by pressure variation on the top of a bellows. the H.

It closes when the coil is de-energized and the sleeve drops and taps it shut. It would be adjusted to give a compressor discharge pressure such that the equivalent condensing temperature shown on the gauge at the compressor outlet was about rc above the sea water 66 inlet temperature and the suction gauge showed an equivalent evaporating temperature about the same amount below the evaporator. ~ - the valve and should not be adjusted. .REFRIGERATION REFRIQERAnON Conaeaian rmm bulb . SO) is fastened to the oUliide of the evaporator outlet so that temperature c::hangesin the gas leaving the evaporator are sensed by expansion or contraction of the ftuid. A flooded evaporator will result in lower superheat and the valve will decrease the flow of refriserant by Closing in as pressure on the top . will cause thc·valve lOopeo further and increase the flow of refrigerant. From Valve Fig. The greater pressure on the outside of the bellows is the result of saturation temperature plus superheat.. moving upwards due to the magnetic coil. A hand regulator is fitted tor emergency use. The additional pressure on the outside of the bellows resulting from superheat. The thermostatic switc::hcontains a bellows which expands and contracts ~der 'the influence of ftuid in a capillary and sensing bulb attached to it. 1be pressure 00 tbe beJlQws ill from • closed system of heat sensitive fluid in a bulb and capillary c:oaoected to·tbe top of the bellows casing.aporalOI' coil Bellows Liquid to Equaliliq line - evap. A starved condition in the evaporator will result in a greater superbeat which through expansion of the liquid in the bulb and capillary. This ensures that tbe refrigerant is being used efficiently and that no liquid ruches the compressor. The Solenoid coil " . ROOM SOLENOIDS The solenoid valve is opened when the sleeve (Fig. SI Room solenoids . The bulb (Fig. Loss of power therefore will cause the valve to shut and a thermostatic switch is used to operate it through simple onIoff switching... bits the tee piece and taps tbe valve open. Ideally the gas should leave with 6· or -rC of superheat. Saturation temperature is related to pressure but the addition of superheat to a gas or vapour occurs aher the latent heat transaction has ended. 51). 1be actual pressure at the end of an evaporator coil is produced inside the bellows by the equalizing line and this is in effect more than balanced by the pressure in the bulb and capillary acting on the outside of the bellows. of the bellows reduces. overcomes the spring loading which tends to dose the valve. bellowJ Ev..

REFRIGERATION bulb is filled with freon or other f1ujd wbich expands and contracts with the temperature change of the space in wlUch it is situated. . Piston rings may be of plain cast iron but special rings having phosphor-bronze inserts are sometimes fitted. is much the same as tubular coolers described in the heat exchange section. With the contacts open the spring is cooled condenser.lCC around the cylinder. these assist when running in. The delivery valve ~ an annular plate with its inside edge seated on the mushroom section and its outside edge on the suction valve housing.00i1ed arsbown.. Gas from the evaporator passes through a strainer housed in the suction connection of the machine. COMPRESSOR Reciprocating compressors for systems cooling domestic store rooms are of the vertical in line type. The switch is similar to the L. Each crank carries the bottom ends of the four pistons in the cylinders. The spring on the left is for the stopping pressure and that on the right for starting. Temperature rise operates the switch to energize the solenoid which opens to allow refrigerant through 10 the evaporator again. . Freons are searching liquids. contraction of the fluid deflates the beUows.eontroller shown (Fig. The suction valve passes gas from the suction SP. The valve assembly is shown in Fig.impurities scoured from the system by the refrigerant during the running in period. Many cargo installations operate on the same principle. The push pin operates the switch through a copper plate with a coiled spring between the two tongues. -. the L. Connecting rods are H section steel forgings with white metal lined steel small end bushes. Each throw carries four bottom ends as mentioned above but in other machines the number of banks of cylinders may be less. Liners are of high tensile cast iron and the crankcase and cylinders comprise of a one piece iron casting. The evaporator is then a brine cooler and the brine ispumped through the air cooling grids in the cold rooms.P.Ii_l .P. finally tips it to the position where the contacts close. The two throw crankshaft is of spheroidal graphite cast iron. The delivery valve is held in place by a safety spring which is fitted to allow the complete valve to lift in the event of liquid carry over to the compressor. For unloading a mecltanism holds the valve open so that gas is able to 80w free1y in and out through the valve without compression. being similar to carbon tetrachloride. COIIII'oIIer (DuIfoa) 68 Io-:·. EVAPORATOR Each cold room used for domestic stores will have an evatii[ator which cools air blown through it by a fan. Any oil returning with the refrigerant drains to the crankcase through the flaps at the side of the cylinder space. The air acts as a secondary re ¥gerant by circulating through and cooling the stores. The coUar holding the 1'">. . YIJ. ~.. In older machines. Heat transfer is sometimes improved by rolling tbreads on the outsides of the tubes. pistons are of cast iron while modem compressors have aluminium alloy pistons. The . Such an arrangement is termed a direct expansion system. Materials are those suitable for resisting sea water corrosion. for a freon ~ystem. As the temperature is brought down to the required level. Main bearings are white metal lined steel shells. 52 L. This is lined with felt to trap scale and other . Outward movement of the pin compresses the 51 rine and CONDENSER The shell and tube sea water LOW PRESSURE· CONTROLLER The low pressure control stops the compressor at low suction pressure caused by closure of all cold compartment solenoids. . control restarts the compressor. controUer. When the pressure in the compressor suction rises due to solenoid opening. For large cargo installations the banks of cylinders are arranged in V or W configuration as in the example shown. The switch opens and the solenoid is de-energized and closes.P. Thus they tend to clean the circuit but the impurities will cause problems unless removed by strainers. There is a risk with direct expansion that a leakage of gas will occur into the cargo space and brine is used to circulate the air cooling coils in some cargo spaces. 52) is of the Danfoss type operated through a bellows. 54 in more detail.

n to the by the tensioning spring and being attached to a bellows. Oil pressure is about 2 bar above crankcase pressure and the: differential oil pressure switch is necessary to compare oil pressure with that of tbe SIS i8 the crankcase. may be caused by seal leakage due to ail loss. Returning oil 10 crankcase Oil mum from m:tif. 55) consists of. A pressure gauge and sight glass are fitted and protection against oil failure is provided by a differen· rial oil pressure switch. II also fingers is fitted a~nd the liner and moved up or down by a yoke operated from • The control system includes a high pressure alt-out but a safety burstin! disc fitted between the compressor discharge and the suction.S bar above c:rankcase pressure... I~ IS se. This may be of "!.lf adJust!"g. Oil loss from the compressor is. . 1bereis a relief valve in the oil system set to about 2. The.er Oil balance conn: (ifrequi~) . Cylinder walls are splash lubricated and some of the oil is carried around with the refriteraat. A Boat controlled oil trap (FiS. A ruptured disc is indicated by suction and cHscbarge pressures belDl about equal. .. lubricated from the compressor system and can give trouble if there is insufficient or contaminated oil in the machine. When testing tbe seal for leakage tbe shaft sbould be tWned to different positions if the leak is not apparent at first. This preventi leakage of OI~ and. refri~erant f!OR1 the crankcase. The rubbing ring incorporates a neoprene or duprene nng which seals It to tbe shaft.05 mm. rubbmg nng With an oil hardened face against which the seal operates. TIle seal is presse~ o.: i IlEPIUGERA 110N REFlUGERATION Cylinder cover . mechanical seal i.56) may be fitted to reduce c:any '. a mechanical seal is fitted aro~nd the crankshaft at the drive end of the crankcase. The oil is filtered through an Autg. sometimes the result of it being carried into the system by the refrigerant. The type shown (Fig.K1ean strainer and/or an extemaUy mounted filter with isolating valves. of 0. UndeR:baqe !acc: Oil is supplied to the bearings and crankshaft seal by means of a gear pump· driven from the crankshaft.=kel with. 10 71 . Fig.54 Compreaor valve aaembly a cam or servo cylinder. thickness. LUBRICATION SHAFI' SEAL Where motor and compressor casings are separate... valve.

The gas leaving this pipe changes direction but the heavier oil tends to drop to the bottom. Thus the c::a5ing is insulated. S7 OiJ·ft:CdIIer· over from the larger machines but they are not always considered necessary. an oil rectifier (Fig. oil moving. It must Ilave the correct viscosity.. In so!De installations there may be a problem caused by atendeacy for oil to c:oHect m the evaporator under certain conditions such as at low load when the speed of movement and agitation of tbe evaporating refrigerant are insufficient to t~p the. film stren&th and stability both cbemical and thermal for the operating c:ondirions.' the refrigerant is obtained by passing -:ann liquid freon from the condenser..ned over to the low tempe~ side of the system _berelt""'" not Interfere With beat exchanae by conacatina in the evaporatOr. the oil trap is fitted in the discharge pipe close to the compressor. . is also car. ' . It automatic:ally bleeds th4 oil from the evaponltor so that the gas leaves the rcc:tifier heat exchaoJCr in a superheated WDdition.REFRIGERATION . When used. S6 Oil trap O!f 72 13 . Oxidation is not a P!Oblem ~use ~ system is f~eon filled_ Water contamination may cause the 011 to emu~fy. ~ Float Fil. 57) may be fitted.lifting a valve which allows Cia to ~ oondc:nser the ~ to be fed back to the eompressor sump. The oil is automatically bled from the evaporator t~ a beat exchanger in wbich liquid refrigerant mixed with the oil is vapounzed.~ - ~~~----------~~J oil valve F. The heat of the freon' must be retained to prevent it from condensing and returning with the oil to the compressor crankcase. With some refngerants. water contamination produces acidity and COrrosion. The float rises u the oil colleds. The beat for vapourizin. Vapour and oil arc passed to. It 'on•. the compressor where the oil returns to the sump wbile the freon passes to the compresaor suction. through the beat exchanger. Insuwion REFRIGERATOR OIL The lu~t is required only in the compressor where its temperature wiD be in tbe lC8lOD ~ SO"C. Opcratioa is improved by fitdnJ a demister or scrubber unit. The regWator is a thermostatically ~trolled valve which o_perates in tbe same way as the expansion valve on the maID system. To prevent loss of oil from the sump to the system. Oil and refrigerant enter the trap by a pipe which runs down towards the bottom.

stopped by the high pressure a&ta . For freon systems a leak detector lamp burning methylated spirits or bottled gas can be used..:~ and in ~. aDd icing of the expansion YaM would m~te ~t the cm:micallS no 100FT effectively removing the moistuie. MOISTURE IN THE SYSTEM W~ter circUlating with the freon tends to freeze on the regulator caUSinga build Up of pressare ODtbe condeDser side and drop in pressure on the evaporator side . .. In general. the oil used must be compatible with the refrigerant. Refrigerant 22 is miscible with oil in the condenser but in the evaporator cold conditions there are two liquid layers the top mostly oil and the bottom mostly refrigerant. or- ~ ~ are used to ~e moisture. In tliis state tbe wax is called a ftocculant.. the bottle val. The air will not condense but remain in tbe top of the condenser above the liquefied refrigerant.e. The air is expelled by s1ackenina the purse valve. 'These are the naphtheRic oils which ~ generally a!g. UNDERCHARGE Symptoms of underch~rge arc: a low condenser gauge reading and the appearance of large bubbles m the Sight glass. Pour point depressants are also used as additives in the oil. There are otbe! faults ~b~ ~11 result in high condenser pressures.: c:. A naphtbenic oil may be used for low temperatures. hence the term floc point. .ow pour point is required. Charging is continued untii the bubbl~ disapPear from the SIght glass.ve is fully opened.. The chemical [either activated alumina or silica gel) is renewed and the compr~r restarted after the ice has melted. Pour point applies to all o~ls but ftoc point to oils in freon systems. Cooling of oil in solution with freon causes a wax to precipitate initially to produce a cloudy appearance and finally as crystals of wax.. The hip pressure c:ul-out wiD Ilpt . condenser gauge about 7"C above the sea water inlet and? suction gauge about 1"C below the evaporator on the equivalent saluration( temperatures for the pressures).ice in the expansion valve will melt due to the ambient temperature.. . the cooIins water is left on so that the gas from the l:OIIIpfessorwill be liquefied. The mechanical seal on the shaft is tested because freon from the crankcase:' may be !O!t throu~ wear or a fault. It is a straight mineral with addit~ to prevent foaming and to inhibit against chemkal action with refrigerants and system metals... escaping refrigerant can be detected by brushing soapy water over the jomts and flanges. ~ the nut IS tightened on the nipple of the filling valve. When pumping tile charge to the condenser. __ Syst. the valves are reopened and tbe macbine restarted.REfJUGERAnON t. is similar to that used for removing. Floc point is a term applied to oils in freon systems. Usually the. The chargmg eonnecnon IS made to t~ liquid stop valve or suction stop valve if there is DC? v~lve after the regulat~£Ihe bottle must be kept upright to prevent entry of bqwd when the connection IS made to the suction side of the Systeml The cliarging valve is opened to one tum off the back seat and with the c:ompr&sor f11!Wng. The condenser liquid outlet is closed and with the circulating water on. it is important that oil$ are supplied with no water content. Refrigerant is added if.:: . Some oils have a lower pour point than othen due to their nature.. 74 . Either may be used oecause they are refined and dewaxed tolfie lowest pour point possible. Re8Mldy The charge is pumped to the condenser and the excess refrigerant is released to at~re through a pipe eonnected up for this purpose.nixture tends to be lower than the evaporator temperature. < whic:b ~ . The result of undercharge is that the performance falls off. 00 Viscosity is important because df the variation produced by miscibility with the gas. ~ AIR IN TIlE SYSTEM This. Charpng will correct the pressure gauge. Oils are de-waxed and refined for low pour point and ftoc point. -OGt.wer pour ~~ the corresponding grades paraffinic oils. ' If no lamp is ~~ailable. Relnedy The procedure for removins air from the system.. When the r~frigerant boils off in the evaporator the agitation and velocity of the gas carries the oil mist along to the compressor suction. A large leak will cause the IIame to bum Violet and It IS sometunes necessary to ventilate the space to dear excess gas before the leak can be pinpointed. hot also. Remedy When adding gas. The lI\SI('hinetends to be . Because the system must be moisnirti free. The compressor will tend to work. the freon storage cyli!Kier is connected to the filling v~ve on the regula~r ou!let. also interfe~ with due to the bJoc:kaae. The lamp has a pale blue or colourless tlarne whieb turns to ~een when freon. Flocculation in a system can cause wax to deposit on regulating valves and interfere with operation. excess refrigerant. Such faults occur spontaneously but overcharge only happens when the system has beeo charged. When undercharge is suspected a leak test is necessary to confirm and locate the fault. the charge is pumped to the condenser and receiver. The pour point of the .J:!y't. Tests for wax precipitation are carried out with a 10 per cent solution of oil in freon which is cooled until wax appears. The open end of the tube IS held dose to jomts and other potential leakage points around the pipework. Oil pour point therefore is less important in an installation using refrigerant 12 than in those USing a refrigerant which is not miscible such as CO2• Because the oil is in solution it does not settle out on to surfaces. After the air has been removed. Freon or refrigerant 12 is miscible with oil at the working temperatures and pressures in the system. loosely. readings (i. is indicated by an abDonna1!y high condenser pressure gauge reading and possibly by the presence of smaD bubbles in the' sight glass. ::m~:s. The temperature at W!IIkhtms occurs. ~ b:<>ttle alve is cracked open to clear v IIlC from the ~ctlDg pipe. It causes the pressure to be higher than normal. is the ftoc point.necessary. <?"ercbarp OVERCHARGE is iDdicated by • high condenser gauge readiq ~th a full liquid coolin. ~ drawn into it by a sampling tube. Bubbles indicate the leak (a soap test was used on the old ~ machines). These mclude poor havmg au In the system and icing of the regulator.

mouth and throat and cause discomfort. The SINGLE oucr AIR CONDmONIHG unit shown (Fig. For comfortable oooditioas there should DOt be less than . Loose connections and broken wires and earths. A blockage in the system may be caused by moisture forming ice on the expansion valve but it can be due to blocked strainers. steam heating coils were fitted in the ventilation systelll to give SODIC measure of beat.~ . This is the result of operation of the L. to the air. If the supply is restricted and insufficient for compressor demand. for example. builds up pressure. the condenser. Oil carry over IS cut do .... one for each space. Frost on the evaporator coils reduces the efficiency oftbe plant by acting as an insulator between the evaporator and the air in a direct expansion system. 58) can provide both heating and cooling with coatrol of humidity. About 25 to 30% of the air is drawn from the ousside. Radiators were an additional or alternative heat source. lee on the evaporator can be removed by washing it off with a hot water hose (with the plant shut down) after dearing the drip tray drain if necessary.. Humidi(1Cf -- To~ts F" •. Heatlac for the air is provided by three steam beating coils.lf a solenoid is opened in the normal way by high cold room temperature: tbe \. there was no attempt to cool air. Automatic defrosting keeps the coils free of ice but failure of the defrost arrangement allows excessive icing. are examples. but dOC excessively so.piration as a vapour which removes latent heat from the skin as it evaporates..ir DniII· T1 . Aceommodation space near the engine room needs less heating than that in the upper pan of the ship. Later the compressor will cut out as the result of low suction pressure and then restart as the refrigerant passing through the still open solenoid. sapdllct. The effect of the poor cooling will be that the refrigerant will not be efficiently Before the installation of air conditioaing as anormal pm:tic:e. controller will stop the machine. This saves heating cost but still provides a freshening supply and makes up for losses. when required. The wiring diagram for the installation should be available. Extra moisture added to the air by the humidifier reduces its drying effect. controller. as the pressure rises. :. 'The bot air tends to dry the nasal passages.. to stop the machine. to attain an inside comfortable level of about 21DC. by the separators fitted on some compressor discharges. a ry to restart the compressor by hand in order to fill. 76 The cooling water can he restricted due to choked sea water pump strainers or due to chokage of the system: the supply may be reduced due to a pump fault. resulting from chafed insulation. H outside temperature is very low then beat loss from the spaces wiD be big.. Oil n deposit is removed by chemical cleaning as described in the heat exchange section. The air flow is also restricted by the blockage. fi'h. greatly increases the capacity of tbat air to take up moisture from any anilable source...P. the steam beater alone is used to maintain accommodation conditions. Suction pressure is low because the thermostatic valve.eo. s _NR CONDmONING ' OTHER OPERATIONAL FAULTS liquefied and the condenser pressure gauge will show a high reading due to the excess of gas. Each is controUed by a thermostat set to give a temperature in the space of about 21-C: Individual section thcnnostals are necessary to maintain even temperature in different areas . With some exceptions. The condenser ends and pipes will feel hot. Ship vibration. Electrical faults are responsible for a large number of refrigerator problems... Condenser ooolina becomes less effecnve with accumulation of liquid and 8t the end of the process it will be neC'Cs. The thermostatic valve may be the restricting device. When the outside temperature is cold.JlEFR10ERA nON star the compressor. for location of all fuses etc.. Snort cycling is the term used to describe a compressor unit repeatedly running for a few seconds and then cutting out.5fc. the suction pressure will drop and the L.. The control is arranged to operate when all solenoids have closed and suction pressure drops. unJess a means to humidify it is provided. the baJance is recirculated.frigerant in passing through will build up suction pressure and the compressor will be started. P. due to low superheat of the gas leaving the evaporator (from the insulatina effect of ice on the coils) it will be closed in to reduce the refrigerant flow. Ventilation aJso cleared away stale air and prevented inside temperature conditions from getting wone than those outside: 'Straight heatina of air from the outside wben the ambient temperature is very low. closed valves or solenoids which have failed to open. but circulation by the ventilation fans was beneficial. It restarts it when the suction pressure rises from solenoids reopening. in turn.bieh are affected by other factors...! and both the recirculating and fresh air will tend to have a drying -=ffect due to the considerable heating. Heal exchange would be reduced by oil deposits in condensers (and evaporators) but this is not usually a problem when suitable oils are used. Thus any condition which varies suction pressure over this range will cause the compressor to cut in and out. controlled by the evaporator gas outlet temperature (due to icing this will be low) will reduce refrigerant flow.. The result is that cold room temperature gradually rises and the compressor runs continuously at first. When neither heatina or cooling are required the plant is operated as a ventilating system ollly. is the reason for many of the electrical faults. Dry and moving air will take up pen.

The ou~break whwh led to mvesuganon occurred at a eonvenucn for Amencan ex-semccmeo (the American Legion) and the identilled cause or tbe problem was therefore labelled legionellll boaen«. a~ t~Spresence has been ~ated.e. Reheaung increases the capacity of the air for carrying moisture and therefore drops its relative humidity.t_tion is at 21"'C. Limiting humidity to DO more tban the minimum 40% in very cold conditions will reduce condensation on inside surfaces of the external bulkheads. One set of ducting carries warm air. At the end of the airs passage through the cooler it will have lost moisture (been de-humidified) but be left with the maximum moisture it could carry at the new low temperature.relative humidity when the aa:omrnocl. In general. while the beat would make people perspire more. The evaporation takes latent heal from the bulb. The cold/warm air ratio is controlled within a particular cabin or compartment by a local mixing unit. This reduces air pressure in these areas so that tainted air will not flow from them to other spaces but any flow will be in the other direction. TWIN DUer SYSTEM This gives the greater flexibility of temperature and ventilation required in a large passenger vessel (Fig. The M Notice explains that the organisms breed in staplln water or inwct . uses an air Conditioning unit With slOgie ~ type dlstnbutlon a~ local reheatmg at the outlet in the space served. The valve controlling steam for the humidifier may be band-opcrated. It must be closed when the air is not heiot! heated or when the fan is stopped. The temperatures registered are used to find. Cooling by chilled water or brine may be used Instead of direct expansion.the. . Cooling in the simplc unit shown is by • freon direct expansion plant. remO\ling more water) Il!ldt~en rebeating slir. The evaporator removes some of the heat that sustains moisture in suspension as vapour in the air.~ng tbe rebeater on a proportion of the air supplied. Water in wet muslin around the other thermometer bulb evaporates to a degree wbicb is governed by the moisture content ofthesurrounding air. so dehumidifyinr. Extraction fans discharge air from spaces such as the galley and toilets 10 the outside. IndiVIdual temperature requsremeats are met by an electric element or hot water beat exchanger cOntrolled by a locally set thermostat. 78 Fil. 59).erill is a type of ~umon_ia which may be fatal to older people. and it will continue to condense out II the temperature is funber dropped. L~~ REHEAT S~S~M. The mixture of fresh and recirculated air is delivered via the evaporator. actual temperature being obtained from the dry-bulb instrument. temperature higher in very hot weather. Humidity is set lower in very cold conditions. it to a greater extent (i. Condition of air in the spaces is checked with wet and dry bulb tbermometers. the relative bumidity. If the air carries a lot of moisture (has high relative humidity) cooling win bring it to the dew point so that moisture is precipitated. Local temperature is adjusted by volume control at the delivcry point. hot water circulation or electric heating elements. Perspiration.. ~re is a risk that the bacteria could flourish in the air conditioning S)"Stems ofs~lps and eonsequendy a Depanment of Transport M Notice basbeeniuued to give wammg and to recommend preventative measures. the other set carries a cooler supply from a central air conditioning unit to the accommodation spaces. Final temperature is 21"<::(higher if outside air is very hot) and relative humidity about 50%.59 Twin duct air COIIdiIionina system Two temperatures ar~ produced in the air conditioning plant by u. Other systems Heating of tbe air may be by steam (as above). A humidistat can be installed for automatic humidity measurement and control. Nylon filters are provided to keep the air clean (removed for washing every six weeks) and the drain clears excess water from humidification or dehumidification. its relative humidity would be 100%. causing it to be colder.' for comfort. whether the air conditioning system is used for beating or cooling a temperature of about 21"C and relative humidity of 50% is comfortable.htIy to bring temperature to the comfort level. instead of evaporating to cool the skin would remain as unpleasant wetness. from a psychrometric: chart or table. Another variation. to the spaces served by the fan. air conditi"ning plant of larle buddl~gs. With. LEGIONELLA BAcrERIA Ug~lllllHrc. Such air would be unable to absorb further moisture. where it is cooled. The problem can be overcome by ovcr-cooling the air in the cooler.

This is sprayed on the suspect area with an aerosol. to allow for penetration by capiUary action." deposits of slimelsJudec. 6J Another test uses a penetrant containing a powerful dye. After allowing time for penetration. in the filter. the area is wiped clean and covered with a liquid which dries to leave a chalky sediment (developer). is wiped dry. Reference Merchant Shippinl Notice no. When viewed under the ultra violet Jight. Visual inspection for surface defects is assisted by penetrant or mapetic craet detection to find the presence and full extent of hairline cracks. in humidilie~ of the waler spray type and in exposed insulation. CHAFI'ER6 Metallurgical Tests NON-DESTRUCI1VE TESTING (N. Some are emulsifiable for removal by water spray. These methods arc based on the old chalk and paraffin tests but the penetrants can bave a hydrocarbon or alcohol base. not test pic<:es. 'The tests give no indication of mecb8nic:a1 properties. any faults will be sbown up by the glow of the penetrant in them. MI21S (1916). and belOW. at the air inlet are.p.Jhecooler (stagnant water).) NoiMIcsttuctive tests are carried out on components. 'lbere are special devices for examination of machine finish. ~ CondiIioning Systems by LegioneIM lItM:witl. and for the solution to be used on the cooler drain area at not more than three month intervals. The penetrant stains the developer aJong the line of the a'Kk. usc is made of X·rays or ultrasonic testing. supcr-chlorinated 5Olution.T.': ~. P. of Ships' Au Q One LIQUID PENETRANT METHODS type of test uses a low viscosity liquid. They arc used to deled flaws or imperfections during manufacture or thost that develop during service. others can be cleaned off with solvents to reduce possible fire risk. The area to be tested is sprayed or soaked and after a time lapse. Provision of adequate draina~ is recommended to remove stagnant waler. containing a lIuorescent dye.m. 80 Surface wiped dry t 81 . Possible Ior:ations for bKteria c:olonies are mentioned as beln. Guidance is Biven for weekly inspection and deaning as necessary of rulers witb a 50 p. Wbete internal flaws are suspected.D.raffin or dye~ ( . Regular sterilization is caned for with water spray type humidifiers (steam bumidifiers being preferred).

A transformer is used to obtain the high voltage. Coloured maJnctic inks in aerOIOis are also avadable and the dry method makes use of powder only and this is dusted on the sudac:e. _. . pa~. Tbe powder used. iridium 192 or caesium 137. 64). After the: test the component is normally de-mapetized.rays.. Gamma rays are produced by a radioactive source such as cobalt 60.a line of mq. may be black iron oxide beld m suspellSlon in thin 011. tJc:ins CooIam Component Magnet 3t---~=E Panicles IK.. They have a shorter wavelensth and are spontaneously emitted by decay of the source._ .. Each source has an assoaated wavelensth and • different rate of decay which gives a loss of intensity with age.. radio or heat and in the order of 10-8 to lO-lOcm.. . 63). . About 1 per cent Of the electrons are deftected as X-rays through the side of the tube. caslinp. The gamma ray source is easily portable for WiC on site. w~n developed. The sealed capsule lex the gamma ray source (Fig. 1be sketch shows the methods for exanurung longitudinal and circumferential welds (Hg. placed end to end with opposite poles tOJCtber. Powder tends to coiled at a cnck in the I8IIIC way as iron filings wiD stick to the junction of two bar magnets. by the different inspecting bodies. 'hey arc an alternative to X. The requirements may be PYCll in booklctl containinl diap'ams. Faults in the meta) affect the intensity of rays passin. An X-ray lDIIChine works on a similar princ.. Rate of decay is pven as the time to halve the radioactivity and is known as the half life.lICtic. voltage ranges from 200 kV up to 400 kY. cracks and undercuttings are shown on the film. Cracks are revealed by. . Wavelengths are below those of light.'ltlSS t MqneI at crack malnc:tic flCld RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECI10N X-ravs ami gamma rays are used for inspection of welds. It IS poured on to the sudKe. is mostly converted to beat. The current flow is measured in mA and gives an indication of ray intensity. .· Increase of voltage produces rays of shorter wavelength which have greater penetration. lack of fusion.LURGlCAL 1ESTS MAGNETIC CRACK DE"FECIlON This type of test is suitable only for materials which can be magnetized (can not be used for austenitic steeb or non-ferrous metals).. whic:b is absorbed by the copper and removed by the coolant. Defects such as porosity. The elec:trom produced by the electrically beated filament in a vacuum tube are attracted by the positive anode (Fig. poor penetration. Limits are placed on the extent F'IC. The energy of the electrons striking the tungsten target as they are aa::e1erated across by the high voltage.METAt. 62). 61) and ~a8netic particles are spread on the: surface.. Film exposed by the rays gives a sha~ pho~ograpb. slag inclusions. In general. They may be referred to in angstrom units (IA = to-Scm).. 62 of defect. releases by ionization a quantity of electricity equal to one electrostatic unit. The alternating current supplied by the transformer is rectified because the electrons will only move to the tungsten target when it is anodic to the filament. charts and typical ftIms. Neither an electrical supply nor cooling are required.. protects personnel from hannfuJ radiation and the radioactive source 'rom damage in transit. FIlms from l1Idiopapbic aaminatioa pnMde • permanent record of qudty Radiop'aphic: eumiaatioo of welds 82 &l . ~~larly those in pressure vessels. . through the material. This unit is defined as the quantity of ray energy which in passing through 1cc of dry air at OOCand pressure of 1 atmosphere.ipIe to the thermionic valve.. the surplus coDccted in a tray beneath. which varies also with the different lhictnesses and densities of materials. forlings etc. Intensity of rays is measured in roentgen (r). A ma8Detic field is produced in the component by means of an electric current or permanent magnet (Fig. Loss of intensity must be considered when calcuJating exposure time. There is a requirement for radiosrapbic exammation of mauy welds.

When..Tp.~. 64 Gamma ray soun:e of welds etc.e. apinst overdose is necessary with film badges.account the difference in scale. lbe electrons are deftected by GleIllS of the.. Radiographs are viewed by a radiologist on a unifonnily illuminated diffusing screen.. 1be. faults and film are important for image definitiou. for the interpretation of film both with regard to the faults in the part beins examined and misleading marks that sometimes appear on film. Opposite faces of the crystal are coated with a thin metallic film for connection to the c1edric:al supply.horizontal de~ when Ode is made positive to the other. medical examination and blood counts. 1be probe is connected to a cathode ray oscilloscope wbich shows tbe results in a simple way.I~ contains a device whicb regulateS the positive potential on die X ~tes an IUt:h a way that the electrons sweep slowly from Xl to Xl and then rapidly baf.. amptitude is patac at Te~fiequencr (i. The slice of IS protected by a thin steel plate whicb carries the puJses.. The probe contains a slice of quartz which is cut in a particular plane &om a quartz crystal.ItlVe plate attncU the negative electrons. Direct exposure is avoided by the usc of protective barriers but there is • danger that objects in the ray path wiD scatter radiation. This produces a peak at the end of the ~taJ Ii~.. . 62) consists of a number of wires across the weld.. The ac:rion is reYeJsi..k to XI' The slow sweep is the .. . the bigher the sensitivity. SllI'aI ~ the Y plates...the electrons are deflected sJowIy across tbe screen. the effect is to produce a line because the Iuorcscence lingers. its thickness and the intensity of .METALLURGICAl. . the rays. Xz and Y Iy 2) built into the tube. to maximum weld thickness. Alternatively separate devices for transmitting and ra:eiYing tbe sound signals. The crrs~aJ 1 OsciUoscop. II til ~. 80aum IIIIfKe fiB. Obviously faults of the size of the thinnest wire that can be seen on the film will also be visible. are available.as II d....e a vertICal deftection also due to positive charging. the probe. which combines both transmitting and receiving functions... -...-. The probe emits higb frequency sound waves which are reflected back by any flaws in tbe object. TESTS A.. str~am of e~ so tba~ they strike the oscilloscope screen. X -ray machine voltage and exposure time are also varied to suit the material and its thickness. Training is necessary.... The quartz will apand I -72-·n. a smear of oil or grease acts as the contact between the ma.•. ~lerate a. The quartz bas a special property wbich is that it will pulse if an alternating current is applied to it.. There are various types and the wire type (Fig. the inside of which IS coated WIth Z!DC sulplude that ftuoresces wherever it is touched ~ them.. Monitorin. Sensitivity is given by the percentqc ratio of diameter of the thinnest wire visible. vib~tions is reflected back by the opposite surface'it &eDerates an ~ UpaI m the quartz which is amplified and rectified when fed. Rays are harmful either in a IarJe dose or a series of smaD ones where the effect is cumulative. If. The osci. The vibrations would not be carried Atisfactorify acrou an air gap.. ~ dIStance put of these peaks measures the thickness of the maten •• taklQlutto . The X pfates wiD produce . p. Distances between ray source... Two per cent is required by the D. . natural frequency of the quartz). The Y pIa~ WID proWc.~ :: 01.tenal u~r Inspection and the probe..\ ~L =. IIletai plates qC. marks. A single probe can be used.!ad contract at the rate of the applied frequency. Exposure times for gamma rays vary with the type of material. quartz crystal (pulse generator) is triggered to give a short pulse of vtbrations sun~taneously with the start of the electron movement from XI to ~2' The puJse IS fed to the Y plates causing a peak at the start of the horizontal line. bIe 10 th~t mecharucalpulses received by the quartz will produce a small current. The cathode ray tube contains a bot cathode and tubular anodes which .~. _.. A skiUed radiographer is required for obtaining photographs.. Image quality indicators are placed on or adjacent to welds.. ' ULTRASONIC TESTING Internal ftaw detection by ultrasonic means is in principle similar to radar. - . Reflections are also received back from the opposite surface. 'The pos. : ..-. Then the PU~ Of. e CatbocIe ray~ .: • .. -I . and must be identified by serial numbers or other locali. 1be lower the fipare._ -_ ..

..I.... Stress is load per unit area.:. This is termed ""' • .orrn!J alan tnc:rease out to die load the byCllne from y to U.l by fIiIure:.ISmade at the A-t paiDt 86 y the material yields i.:.. This IS&enncd 87 .N __ STRESS = STRAIN ORIGINAL LENGlH AREA = Hooke's law states that witllin the elastic limit. Tbia is It . Within the limit of the straight line.S:. at I t the centre of the spccimea &lid wiD If the load is removed It any Ita will be found to be petmanently :.:N. Thus POISSON'S RAnO ... but tbroup lower yield point. Nnr-.. F • STRESS .Rado and given the symbol v... the cross sectional area reduces. If a graph is plotted showing extension for various loads.. Initially the extension is in proportion to the im:re. STRESS Thus or STRESS ex STRAIN "" STRAIN + CONSTANT r--.METALLURGICAL 11!STS Any flaw in the materia] beiDa inspected will also produce • peak.e...... g tensile load.. tilt symbol E.. stress is proportional to strain. The graph can be plotted as load and extension or as stress and strain. It can be showa by experiment that a bar with the same elastic properties in all ·directions wiD have a constant re~p .. DESTRUCI1VE Special test TESTING durins the process. this starts I..E. If the loading is continued... there is a failure of the crystalliDe ItrudlIre petmllDent set. . Maximum Ioadina occurs at U and at his will start.p the of the metal." EWHy and pnn STIFFNESS This is the property of resisting deformation within· the elastic range and for • ductile material is measured by the Modulus of Elasticity (E). H the defect is larse enough. as has ~ bappenjn... thea extensionn::s-to"·lp. LA= ~IN thellllClves. CONSTANJ'E STRAIN The eonstant is termed V.. grains =&=~==·~ not alona the arain bouaduies _ ptoportioo BEHAVIOUR OF mE MATERIAL increase.. the graph deviates as shown..:. if the load is removed the matcrial will rctum to its original length ... Strain is extension divided by original length.:XTE:. A high E value means that there is a smaU deformation for IqlYgiven stress. pieces are used which are damaged TENSILE TESTING The test pieces are machined to standard sizes depeodin& on the thjckncu of tk metal in question. it chaapa shape by elongating. it will show • a large--peak at the expense of the peat at the ri&ht.. During the initial stretching of the tcst piece: and wrtiI the elastic limit is reached... tIN1t a straight line is obtained at first (0 to A in F"IJ.:. ·I MI dI"• .. Jocaj wawing or extcnsioft rapidly be tdik.. O. ~~ material an amount OP.O....... 66). LOAD _. bou t staac. A perIiaIofrecovery . When a material IS tested under a tensile load.. between axial strain and lateral strain...

Molybdenum is the essential alloying clement and mates up about per cent of the aUoy steel but additions of small quantities of cbrome and IOIDCtiJDes vanadium will improve creep stren. Aa:eptance tests for steel to be used in a pressure vessel or for weld test pieces etc.g. FACI'OR OF SAFETY For steady loads. SAFE WORKING STRESS _ ULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS.. . turbines and steam pipes etc. reduction in area is required.tb. there is a substitute stress specified.1 per cent proof stress is found from a line through 0. creep is thoUght to cause a gradual bulging up~ds of the bottom of the cylinder head (the combined effects of heat and gas presswe being responsible). Yidd Stress. Pc'rcentqe EXTENSION ORIGINAL x 100 LENG1H reduction ill area is fOUDd from: flEDucnON IN AJmA' X 100 ORIGINAL CR()S$.I of produced by PJoaf suess I'" s. Plain carbon steeIs when used at temperatures of «JOOC imdabove tend to' deform under stress. ' defurmect. AlJoys of steel have been developed which have creep resistance. at room temperatures.' pous metals when cbanps in the crystal structure occur. are based on ultimate tensile stress ar. 0. may have to be designed for lower stress than normal. CREEP (HOT FAILURE) Non-pt'OpOnioaal euen'sio.· Creep is the slow plastic deformaf. 88 SHORT DEFINmON extensiOa. 0.' VALUES OBTAINED If stress is plotted.. • factor of safety is ~ wbca c:ak:uIatiII& the workinC streII to which a material may be subjected. (Fig.ioD of metals UDder constant ItIaS and eveotual faiIUR at streII weD below the normal failure strea. ~ is an eumpe of bot failure because fnIcturc: wiD ultimately follow ~ . The rate of deformation is very slow and often is the result of loadings well below stress limits.1 per cent non-proportional elongation. FACFOR OF SAFETY If a material is ItreIIed beyond tbe elastic limit it will be permaneotly To prevent tbis.SECI1ONAL AREA PROOF STRESS For materials that do not have a marked yield point such as aluminium. the factot pi safety may be 15. It is obtained by drawing a line paraDel to the straight portion and distant from it on the horizontal scale. WIleR there are shock loads. If load is plotted then the loads at these points have to be divided by the cross-sectionaJ area of the test piece to find the Slress. as in the drive cbain for a c:amabaft. by an amount representing a particular 'nonproponional elongation e. Sometimes. Even in diesel engine cylinder beads. Creep temperatures coincide with recrystallization tcmpcra~ures of the va. This pual cbange of shape due to steady stress is termed creep. . a safety factor of 4 may be used. It oc:cun in materialS such 8$ lead and tin. then figures for Ultimate Tensile Stress. Steels used at high working temperatures in boilers.. Proof stress is determined from a load/extension or stress/strain graph. 67). . In many instances the deformation takes the form of extension under tensile stress.WETALLUIlGICAL TESTS METAlLURGICAL TESTS ROUTINE TESTS A full test is earned 00""0£ materials investigation.. Proof Stress and Breaking Stress can be read directly.d percentaJe elongation. as shown. This is Proof Stress.

c.g.000 bOlIn. IMPACT TESTING HARDNESS TESTING 1be basis of the Brinell hardness test is the resistance of the materia] under test to deformation by a steel ball. wbi-. the steel ball wiD 8attcn. cast iron about 200 and cast iron abput 400. 69) consists of a cylinder into which oil is forced by a pump.METAl.. east iron.-. 'The equipment used for the test (Fig. Metals can have the same teDlile streIIJIbs but different impact 1treDgtbs. It is used in preference to other methods where the material has lup aystaIs. The touper the mate .. Thickuess of the speQmen must be not less than 10 lI: depth ofimpression. 70). At the start of tile test tbe initial load must be apptied without sboct.. Knowing the ball diameter to be 10 mm.(xx) kg. the indent diameter is klloWD. Tbe test piece is laid across the suppodI with the notch on the CIppOIite side from the impact point of the striker. the surface area of the indentation can be ca1culated and the Brinell hardness number is found from the loading (3. the load is reduced. Non-ferroua metals vary.gbt of as. A beam type test pica: is used in the CWpy test (Fil.URGJCAL:nS'll '. This method is DOt reliable for readinp OYer 600. 1be test pieI. When the test is used on softer materials. The edge of the impreasion wiUtend to sint with the ball if the surface beina tested has work hardened.000 kg. For copper it is 1. 68) is similar to the type used for tensile tests and creep is usually tbou. A aitrided surface may have • ban:lness of 7SO. ~osioa is ploUcd and tbe ezteDlioa due to c:rccp is seeD to proceed ill three staps. H the above hardness test is used on very hard materials. . ·the areatel" the amount of eDerJY absorbed in fracturiDa: it. The load is kept IIeady tJuoush the test and the temperature II maintained ac::curatcly.l. normally well below the ~ limit of the material. The load is allowed to act for IS seconds to ell$ure that plastic: now occurs..000 ta) divided by the surface area of indentation.C. Depth of penetration must be less than half of the diameter of the ball. ...91 .. The striker is released and the swing of the pendulum after stritiDa the tat piece is used • UI iodication of impact strenath. 1be Ioadin& for steel and metals of TYPICAL FIGURES Mild steel bas • BriDeD number of about 130. DOt by tensile or other tesII. Cross wires in the mima:ope enable it to be accurately lined up above the edge of tbe indent.uer wiD be .URGICAL TESTS METAU. similar bardness is 3. Initial and ftna1 exte8lion pcriotk are teperatcd by • proAonged sec0ndary stage of extension which foIowJ I"""'t JiBe law. This load. The bottom piston boIds the hardened steel btU 90 Toughness of materials is compared by impact testing. Sudace diameter of the indentation is measured with the aid of a mkroscopc which is prased into the metal beneath it. ~ - which is traversed over the test piece on a graduated slide with a vernier. otherwise the local deformation will tend to cause piling up of the metal around the indent. The 011 pressure is raised until the top piston.:e (Fig. will extend the ~ piece slowly. and the . 1bespeciJDens for cIass 1·pressure veueJ tests arc of dimensions laid down aad tHen across the weld from the middle of the test plate. is Boating. ForOCber metals the recrystallization temperature is ctifferent being about 20lrC lor awer _ room temperature for tin and lead. In fact creep can cause compression or other forms of deformation.. and for aluminium SOOIta.. wbicb supports a weight.being responsible for extensions of metals only. Temperature of the test is around that of recrystallization which for steels starts at about 400"C. CREEP TESTING Creep tests are carried out at controlled temperature over an extended period of time in the order of 10. Hardness can usually be read from a chart OO4.

the same hea. Bend test specimens (B) are required for the inner and outer surfa~ of the weld.m. Propeller shafts with a shnmk on liner and taper fitted propeller are sometimes prone to trettin. MetaJs are normally prot.·1be materials themselves must be from approved manufacturers and tested. These are attached to the shell plate (Fig. • The wearing action produces. 1be action ocean under the outboard end of the liner and under the forward end of the propeller bub. ~ partides themselves. - FREITING A small relative movement between two metallic parts in close contact. can cause a form of mec:hanicaI wear. 71) so that the JongitudinaJ wei. FrettiDgC8D occur in any area where there is • chafil1l ac&iorJ'. ~ c0rro- . Gauge length.. ~ appearance. The test pieces are treated in the same way as the pr~sure vessel material. A macro specimen is taken at (D) and notch Impact specimens from (E).. It is polished and acid etched so that penetration and fusion are highlighted. for identification and image quality indicators. tend to further oxidize. Diameter is limited by the thickness of the Frettiaa CIlIITtIIIoa . Temperature is carefully c:ontroUed during impaI. In some cases the wear particles are found to be bard matcnals such as the chrome compounck from stainless steels. O~r defects may also become evident. The weld joint is tested by specimcn(q which is a tensi~e test PIece .) Tesl plate the extent of the awins after it his been fractured. in its housing. Results for tensile strength and elongation are required.. is sometimes aD indic:anon that fRUinI ClOfI'OSIOII • IA JJRlII1*.Ii~e the red PeA rro. These fad~ are frequently lD pressure vessels of thick walled constructioD and eeeur m low temperature conditions. A frettina actioa exposes bare metal wbicb then tends to oXIdize. wear partida. Test piece (A. the tests would be carried out at the temperature in question.' IS of all weld metal. 70 Impacltaa (CIItup..t tests and for materials which are to operate at low metal temperatures. of the ~de . run through the test plates. Ultrasomc exammanon IS sometimes accepted as an alternative. However they may be straiptened before being subjected to . A t~st plate i~ cut into different specimens with a piece in reserve for retests.a stee. A n~ber of failures ~r during pressure tests due to brittle fractur_e. The scale is kl. Radiographic examination of welds is require~ with ~ea~ type used. A hydraulic test is required on pressure vessels.METALLURGICAL TESTS METALLURGICAL TESTS r... . UsuaUy test plates are not required for the arcumferential seams. and the extent of the swins is shown by the small pointer. troubles. WrkI tests Test pieces are cut from the same material used for the sheD platina. metal.taken across the weld.t treatment as the pressure vessel. A magnifying sJasa is used for closer scrutiny. These ~ IS abrasives. 71 (]us 1 pressure vessel rests MACRO~SCOPIC EXAMINAnON The macro-specimen is taken from across the weld or any section that needs examination. ·93 TESTS FOR CLASS 1 PRESSURE VESSELS Boilers and air receivers are termed 'pressure vessels' and are manufactured by approved firms to the requirements of the various regulating bodies. It is sometirna found on the backs of sheD bearinp and is due to sUpt movement of the bearing she~. diameter and radius bemg in fixed proportions to each other. R. The resuJts of beat treatment and of metal failures are shown up in this way.ected by an oxide t!I~ from sion. in turD. termed fretting. MICRO~SCOPIC EXAMINA nON It is possible to examine the crystals of • metal through a microscope if tbe sudan: has been finely polished and etdled.

fitted bolt shanks are also designed to take some load. The trend towards higher engine powers and the positioning of engines aft. Areas of trouble are improved by relieving in the case of the fretting around shaft liners. 72) are of solid forged ingot steel and usually with solid forged couplings. short length shafts of increased stiffness. COUPLING BOLTS (PROPELLER AND SHAFf FLANGES) Elongation of a tensile test piece produces a related reduction in cross-sectional area. Each tightened bolt holds the flanges hard together in the area local to it. Shaft coupling bolts are tightened to force the races of the flanges together so the friction between the faces will provide some proportion of the drive. Torque is transmitted by the friction between flanges and also through the shanks of the bolts. sometimes caused higher temperature of some bearings due to uneven load distribution. but not the second. However. gave rise to large diameter. Brinelling is a fonn of fretting in ball races caused by vibration of an otherwise stationary race. with bolt holes carefully bored and reamered to give an accurate finish. In a clearance bolt this is not a problem. ·The name is taken from the. MATERIALS AND COUPLINGS The intermediate shafting and the propeller shaft for a fixed propeller (Fig.e . Excessive vibration and resulting damage in many dry cargo and container vessels caused engines to be moved back towards midships (i.• leaving one cargo compartment aft of the machinery space). with the exception of tankers. A gradual indentation results in the race. Shafts are machined all over but of larger diameter and smooth turned in way of the bearings. A 9S . Shafts were long. was based on low engine power and strong hull construction. A fitted bolt when tightened and subject to reductiol1 in cross-section would also fail on the second count and probably be damaged by fretting. A clearance bolt could provide the first requirement. described in the previous chapter. The faces of flanged couplings are also smooth turned. but with a fitted bolt positive contact between the accurately machined bolt and reamered hole would be affected. but being of moderate diameter were able to Hexwith the hull as loading or other conditions changed (and in heavy weather). In the initial stages they can be removed by grinding. Shaft stress was the hidden factor. A circle of bolts is needed for a good all round grip. The elongation of a bolt when tightened similarly causes a loss in area and diameter. The design of flange couplings can be checked by formula given in Lloyds or other classification society regulations.METALLURGICAL TESTS Cracks occur in areas where there is. A loading or ballast condition which changed hull shape and shaft alignment to an unusual degree. The 'conventional midships position for the engines of older vessels.frettinl and extend due to fatipe. The behaviour of the metal is summarised by Poisson's Ratio.BrineU hardness test.

The Pilgrim hydraulic bolt uses the principle embodied in Poisson's Ratio to provide a calculated and definite fitting force between bolt and hole _ The bolt (Fig.h. a good fit and the required tightening. SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS PlnlJeJ shank i .er and irs outer surface is tapered to mat!.. These bolts.l~uplin1!1Fitt· 761 consisrs basicaJl' of two sleel sleeves. Fig. SEALS AND SHAFIlNO SYSTEMS STERN ruses.t~}a~r 96 '\~g~ fJ7 . J. 74 Tapered bolt f J I tapered bolt (Fig.II Fig. . have the advantage [hal they arc easily removed for. the muff coupling allows the shaft to be withdrawn outboard. 74) may be used instead of a conventional coupling bolt (Fig.IY larger than the shaft diame. used in flange couplings and ftance mounted propellers. 73) to obtain MUFF COUPLING An alternative to the conventional Dange couplings for the tailshaf t. r--o \. '---. The SKF'. Stretching makes the bolt di~mete~ small enougb for insertion into the hole after which the nut is nipped up. 73 Fitted bolt .. Release of hydraulic pressure allows the bolt [0 shorten so that (1) predetermined bolt load is produced and (2) diametncal reexpansion gives a good fit of thesltank in tbc hole. . 75) is bollow and before being fined is stretched with hydraulic pressure applied to an inserted rod from a pressure cylinder screwed to the beadof the bolt. inspection and maintenance: also the problem 01 dnving in is avoided.STERN ruBES. . 1be thin tnner·s!Cl!ve hasa hor~·~liSh.

will considerably intreasc its capacity. .. Pressure generated in tbe oil film.. ' The grip of the coupling is checked by measuring the diameter of the outer sleeve before and after tightening.ign permits the use of shorter length or less bearings.. . Roller bearings are installed in many yessels.. When the outer sleeve has been driven on to a predetermined position. 75 Pilpim type bydraulic coupliD& bolt (' MC>'Y (\ .. 78) are used for the purpose... so preventing metal to metal contact.t~.... Tbe wedge of oil gives a greater separation between shaft and bearing than does the oil film in a plain journal. Each pad tilts as oil is delivered to it. SHAFT-BEARINGS 1 ~.d-~ h>w~ SI. oil is injected between the contact surfaces to separate them and tbus overcome the friction between them.. Oil for the operation is supplied.. .. Thus oil delivered as the shaft turns at normal speed. ~ tt. "''T~. The diameter increase should agree with the figure stamped Oft the sleeve. The enhanced load capacity of a tilting pad de. will separate shaft and bearing..d""_ ~~ ~~ . speed and oil viscosity. .1. After disconnecting hoses..s.. The three pressure wedges give a larger total sUpport area tban that obtained with a plain Hydraulic drivin.. 1be nut and sealing Xng close the annular space tbe outer sleeve is hydraulically driven on to the japered inner sleeve. The intermedi. To disconnect the coupling. Oil pressure is maintained in the hydraulic space until the oil between the sleeves drains and normal friction is restored.'J.. carry oil to its . .Ib- -0 . Fi. c. will as itrotates. Replacement of the ineffective side portions of the journal by pads capable of carryinJ load. plugs are li~ted and rust preventive applied to protect exposed seatings. oil pressure is brought to a set pressure in the hydraulic space.. is effective over about one third of the bearing area (Fig.. Tilting pads based on those developed by Michell for thrust blocks (Fig.. by the area wberethe film is generated.~ ~ ~~..~ S'~~ . 77) because of oil loss at the bearing ends and peripherally.. Then with the~hafts supported. A sealing strip is pressed into the groove between the end of the sleeve and the nut.A. Load is supported and transmitted to the journal. ~ ) PLAIN AND TILTING PAD BEARINGS The shaft supported in a plain journal bearing. Tbe remaining tWo-thirds area does not carry load. the forced lubrication pressure is released and drained. two for the forced lubrication and another band or power pump for the driving oil pressure. 99 98 .lso £.. 1be tilt of the pads automttically adjusts to suit load... bas an aftermoat bCarlng--wbicb'is lined top and bottom. OILthe bore of the outer sleeve. At the same time. SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS ~(Z. the tbe the sleeves...of the bydraulic oil pressure. oil \ \ bearing.-- . a-r:~ +4-1 I 1::<. that a wedge of oil is formed.:>"'~~ at ~n endl'ufcoupling is in posltion.:1. i .:.~ t4 bL- STERN TUBES... by band pumps.~e.underside and develop a film of pressure.""'1. The outer sleeve slides off the inner with a rate controlled by release.. The pressure build up is related to speed of rotation.. oil is forced between the sleeves. __.w~dF'lI-72) if supported in plain or tilting pad bearings.

SEAU AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS STERN 1UBES. The two halves of the inner and outer races are fitted and held with clamping rings. Flange couplings dictate that roller bearing races must be in two parts for fitting. IiItiaJ pIId 100 10J . SEALS AND SHAfTING· SYSTEMS ROLLHR BEARINGS RoHer bearings (Fig. 79) arc supplied in sizes to suit shafb up to tbe largest diameter. The length of shaft where the split roller bearing is to be fitted must be machined very accurately and with good finish.. 77 Compuisoa ill plaiD IUd jourMI heMiap F"..STERN ruBES. Adequate speed for build up of fluid film pressure is vital for journal bearings.

differential expansion of the . unless suitable stiffening is employed (particularlywith an end of parboz installation). modem t~.STERN TUBES. panting of the tank top and structural damage. 102 103 . Variations can be caused by change_s JD water temperature or heatin~ of fuel tanks. The load puns the outer end of the shaft down so that there is a tendency for edge .lST BLOCK POSITION The siting of the main thrust block close to the propulsion machincrv.. caused thrust block rock. Axial . Two sets are required.. Friction al low rotational speeds is high.. This resUlts in lift of the aft journal of the block (unless not fitted) and misaliJDDlent of the shaft. alipment problems.in!ltallations are not interchangeable. The stern tube bearing being at the end of the shaft is affected by the overhanging weight of the propeller.)~i.vibratio~ of the shaft system. A larFr tban occeuary deatance will DOt cause harm. In some of the later designs. SEALS AND SHAITING SY'. THRUST BLOCKS limits axial movement of the shaft._e subltaD~ seating provided for the main propulsion machinery provides an ~ fouJUJallOQ. ($ated wlth the stern tube end of the shaftmg system include whirl of the tailshaft. t. Some thrusts are hou~d in the after end of large slow speed diesels or apmst Ie&' boBs. reduces ~any problems due tO. clearuce is essentiACto allow formation o!~1 film in the wedF shape between the collar and the thrust The main thrust bIodt tranafen forward or astern propeler thrust to ~ IDd pads (Fig.of. where direction of load and rotanon changes. Offset pads for non-reversing engine and controllable pitch pr~peller. Use of feelers m the tbrust padlcolIar gap IS likely to QlUIe damaJC and DIlly pvc • false rcadina· THRUST BLOCK SUPPORT f:!:!. the beering is accessible from the machinery space. 'Ibis mak_ ~ suitable for steam turbine inst. :me THRUST PADS STERN TUBES The stem tube bearing is also part of the shaft support system. Friclion is low at aD speeds. caused a contrite. but axial movemeDt of the shaft must be limited for the protectioa of maiD machinery. TotallllO'fClllCllt of the thrust abaft (about 1 DUD being typical) is registered on • dial pu •. instead of those Wltb the famitiar kidney shape. Other problems assl. Offset pads are lDterchangeabl~ In thrust blocks for direct reversing engines. Some. Pads with a raised central pivot position are interchangeable. Deformation produced by the thrust load can cause mis. ~ can be used u an "ternati~ ~tween dmat ring and casins. pivot posit~n of thrust pads may be central or offset.forthe thrust block and a further reason for siting it close to the englDC.. ~relative moveme the I and misali nm t due t droo from II lie wei..lEMS At low speeds tbc~ RIlly be rnctal-to-mctal coatKt witIl wear ud . A comparison of the pressure contours on conventional kidney shaped pads and the circular type shows why the latter are effective. 20 mm W4 in). .loading of the stem tube bearing. Weardown tends to make the alignment worse and whirl may give an additional problem. The actual clearance required depends OD dimensions of pads. non ·rela~lVeto the shaft . Serious vibration problems have sometime. Some uiaJ.r:ust~ocks are fitted with circular pads (Fig. Ifiah bearilll tennterature. to the thrust bcarioa pads... pont loss and faiJun: am result if uial clearance is too small. is ~rmaUy damped by the .!hrust block. caused by slackening of propeller blade load as It turns to the stem frame or by splay of diesel engine crankwebs. The accepted method of c:bectinI thrust deuaace involves jactin& the shaft uiaDy to the end of its travel in one direction and then bM:k to the limit of travel in the other. The forward part of the tail or propeUer shaft is tilted upwards. 81). tions and in ships where dow:lteaminl may be necessary. The low ~uU tem~rature of midship engined refrigerated cargo ships. The ~priJht thrust block and a~y supporting stool must have adequate str~bgth to WIthstand the effect of loading which tends to cause a forward tilt. thrust load and the type of oil employed. perhaps.. _ -THRl. . Roller barinp He DOl: depeadeat 011 speed for effet1We lubration. ~is ~ is also needed to allow for expansion as pu1I warm up to operatina te~. speed.bah anI) the hllil..

. U Shaft Sea . These are fitted at the inboard end of the tube with the outboard end open.. 82) are supported at the after end by the stern frame boss and at the forward end in the aft peak bulkhead. .llery or tunnel space is minimized by the stuffing box gland. end of the tnbe. 1be amount of any sand in the water would tend to be less after passing throl. Transmission of torque from the shaft Yia the key.. Oil in ~ \ \ \ \ \ t \ I I -- 0Il1caviac F. A brass ring secured with set screws and sealed with white lead protects the outer screw thread from sea water. 84). inferior materials. 1tcn. 82 Sea' .. Tbe Noves are shaped with V or. Excessive weardo"" . Staves in the upper part are cut with grain in the axial ditedioa for economy. of bearing materials due to vibration or whirl. to allow accea for water. A ~teel nut at the outboard end retains the tube in position. screws.. poor quality of work when rewooding. 'Welded studs hold the forward flange against the aft peak bulkhead.. A keyway miUod ia die shaft taper acts as a weakeninc factor whleb allows some deformation of tbe surface.~ Of the propeller and inward withdrawal of the propeller shaft (taiIsIaaft).life for vessels with enpnes aft and particularly tankers and ore carriers which spend long periods in ballast bas beeD abort with rewooding being needed in perhaps eighteen 1IIOfttIM.. Bearing . Bearing length is equal to four times shaft diametcf. 81 Round thrust pad SEA WATER LUBRICATED STERN TUBES Sea water lubricated stem tubes (Fig. Sea water ingress to tbe macbi..b" DuriD~ Fig.STERN TUBES.. The grooves also acx:ommodate any debris.. Wastage of the vulnerable steel shaft is prevented by a shrunk on bronze liner and rubber seal sandwiched between the propeller hub and the liner end. However. urip of the propdIer lions the side of the keyway does this . (".xaminabOll..) Ruid film pressure "- I I Fig. The alt«Dativc bearinS materiak are balled on phenolic resins. Radial face !lCais IIinriIlr to those used for oil lubricated stem tubes can be used for sea water llIbtKated stem tubes (Fig.. is an electrolyte which will support galvanic corrosion. well. 83).. lbeir cast iron construction requires strong support in way of the bearing itself.. supplied trom the sea water circulating system and runs out through the after . could necessitate early rewooding. vitae INSPECflON ~doct ~. sea water is .... Poker Cast iron tube The traditiooallipum vitae ltava U'e fitted with end grain vertical beneath the shaft for better wear tetistaacc.. with its collar hard against the stem frame and the bearing section finn within the stern frame boss.... slid . to the propeller InIb c:ases • deformation wllil:b leads to opca tbe keyway. may reveal various defcds (F•. attached to the IKIab by countersunk...ater lubricated slem tube J04 • . presence of sand/sediment in the water or propeller damage. SEALS AND SHAFI1NG SYSTEMS . Sea water which enters at tbe after end or from the circulation system to cool and lubricate. U grooves between thelll at tllc sarface.. er.. after J'UK). beariog weardown is measured by poker gauge. in the bronze bush by bronze keys.e stem frame boss.. from u. '11Iey are held in place.~b the pipe system... E.

ia Cncb UIIer Atlpelt bulkhead ~:~~damag~ Th~ad \ Mellin. should temperature of the seaJ material exceed 11O'"C. The outboard liner additionally protects the steel shaft from sea water contact and corrosion. Shaft whirl can lead to patches marked by cavitation erosion. SEALS AND SHAfTING SYSn. The rubber seal sandwiched by the propeller bub and protective bronze liner. The elastic lip of each nitrile rubber seal. Wastage from corrosion or fretting of the steel shaft beneath the forward end of the hub or locally under the liner could weaken the shaft surface at the hub-liner notch to cause shaft failure through fatigue or corrosion fatigue. at the inboard end. likely to cause fatigue. prevents ingress of sea water which would act as an electrolyte to promote galvanic corrosion of the exposed pan of the sba. fitted to protect the steel shaft against 'black corrosion' may itself be damaged by working conditions. 85) by lip seals. as Oil lubricated Ifenl tube OIL LUBRICATED STERN TUBES Progress from sea water to early oil lubricated stem tubes"'involved exchange of the wood lined bronze carrier for a white metal lined. Oil retention and exclusion of sea water. are reduced by the employmemof sled type keys. Heat produced by the friction will result in hardening and loss of elasticity of the rubber. Cooling at 106 . provide better suppon for the white metal lined bearing.ft.8 N/mm2 (116 Ibflin2). giving conditions when the shaft is rotating. which are. SEALS AND SHAFnNG SYsn:MS stERN ruBES. grips a rubbing surface provided by shon chrome steel liners at outboard and inboard ends of the steel propeller' shaft. The shrunk on bronze liner. The later designs (Fig: 85) with an extended length boss built into the stem frame. Fig.STERN nlBES.MS We. necessitated the fitting of an external face type seal. radiused corners and spooning. Oil is contained within the Simplex type stem tube (Fig. Shaft droop from overhanging weight of the propeller stretches the upper surface and compresses the lower. 84 Sea water lubricated propeUer shaft defects having been a problem. east iron bush. The tube is fabricated and welded direct to the extension of the stem frame boss at the after end and to the aft peak bulkbead at the forward end. The stuffing box was retained in many early oil lubricated stern tubes. . Fia. The imposed alternating effect is"of low frequency and high stress. scorinl occurs in way of the stern gland packing and liner cracking has sometimes penetrated through to cause corrosion cracking in the shaft. A minimum bearing length of two times the shaft diameter will ensure that bearing load does not exceed 0.

-()il circulation aided by coDvection. 86) was introduced by one maker. . rin. The shaft inboard end is titted with an oil Injecnon coupling. if necessary for maintenance or inspection._eel liners act as rubbing surfaces for the ·rubber lip seals and grooving from frictional wear has occurred. without the necessity of drydocking. Two inflatable seals with individual air supplies are fitted in the periphery of the spigot. sometimes termed 'muff' coupling.'. is to apply a bandage around the small gap between the carrier ring and the spherical seating ring.· GLACIER-HERBERT STERN BEARING The propeller shaft is flanged at the after end and the bub of the propeller is bolted to the flange. y machined before being welded into the hull of the vessel. F"II·87 Glacier-Herbert IIeI'D beariJq F"II· 88 Lip type of seal (SInrpkx Compact) 108 109 . The propeller shaft has two short rotating liners of chrome steel. .STERN TUBES. seal the oil space aroundth~ bearing tube. It is split along the horizontal and the two halves are bolted together through flanges along the horizontal join. 88). Lip seals will accept misalignment but a floating ring design (Fig. The axial bolts have constant loading due to the Belleville washer packs. The liner at the after end is bolted to the propeller shaft flange. (The seals shown. is arranged to maintain low temperature of seals at the inboard end. These can be inflated to provide a seal against tbe inside of the carrier ring. The shaft is installed from the outboard end. '0' rings in the peripheries of the spherical carrier ring and of the diaphragm at the inboard end. SEALS MO SHAFTING SYSTEMS STERN ruBES.. with its rotating liner and carrier ring assembled. described and illustrated above in FIg. The bore for the spherical scating ring can be further machined for adjustment if necessary. This forms a shroud around the spigot projecting aft from the spherical seating ring. The outboard and inboard seal housings are attached to the spherical seating ring and the diaphragm. The bearing tube is of spheroidal graphite cast iron and white metal lined. are of the Simplex type. These liners act as rubbing surfaces for the rubber seals. Connections are fitted top and bottom between the two inboard seals. • The spherical carrier ring is bolted to the flange on the after end of the bearing tube. An alternative to using the inflatable seals. SEALS AND SHAI-TING SYSTEMS the outboard end is provided by the sea. 76. New seals are fitted by cutting and vulcanizing in position. The inboard liner is fixed by a clamping ring. The diaphragm is bolted to the flange on tbe inboard end of the bearing tube and is itself bolted to the stern frame casting. The chrome st. Allowance must be made for relative movement of shaft and stem tube due to differential expansion.. but controlled welding is used to maintain aligfunent during hull construction. On the inboard side of the flange there is a carrier ring bolted.. and is supported in the spherical seating ring. respectively. This is the SKF shaft coupling. see FIg.. The problem has been overcome by using a ceramic filler for the groove or alternatively a distance piece to axially displace the seal and ring assembly. The stern frame is f. Sealing the stern bearing space. permits work to be carried out on tbe stem bearing and seals. The Glacier-Herbert stern bearing can be dismantled without drydocking. Alignment of the bearing tube can be adjusted by the distance pieces and wedge chocks which bold the diaphragm.

f!.··tq.d 1~ to ~~~fi~ment during the operation. .TURNB 89) including the st~el The complete beanng con~sts of the art of the stem frame. ~~90). The top ba1f bearing is removed in much the same way 8$ before (Fig.tam bea g co! red with that of boring out the ste~ tion time is reduced by this m~. lubricating oil. 91) is engaged byc. An oil circulatins systen:i 'with a cooler is necessary for split stern bearings. the shaft is supported by a jack positioned forward of the bearing (See Fig. Water in the aftpeakbas.. ~n. of the bearina. be . pressure. MARK IV :QEARING (Fig. The alignment of the tailshaft surface 15 exposed try ~ hecked by means of feeler gauges. to be drawn forward.lraulicaUy and mechanically locked in position. This frame. The t balf bearing is secured by forms the bottom half of the. 91) Later versions of the stem bearing have a number of changes in design. section shown (Fig.puIIcd forward.hod a~alli~ cast iron shell in the bousing. . To examine or repla. mounted Outboanl seal \ propeller""=H~~f~~~b~~aZZ~~~~~iz~~::~~~ Fun inspec:tioo or replaciement of the outboard seaJ and removal of . auxiliary seal is drained before removing the bottom balf bearing.-tbe outboard working seal and the propeller flange bolts can be inspected or chanaed. IS ~ra!ned afloat. at loaded draught. These allow all maintenance and surveY' to be carried out witb the vessel in the water. the Item .arina (Mark I) 111 110 . tailshaft. However.c:ethe bottom balf bearing whilst the ship is aftoat. The space inboard of this. The castingallo. Both seals are funy split being of Crane manufacture (see Fig. a. To carry out work on the outboard fittings.ward._ bydraulic/mechanical sealing ring.cooling action OD stem tubes which are oil lubricated but the aa:essibility of the split bearings means that they are situated in a void space. Fig. 93). The double hydraulically operated jacks w~ch ~re:: clear of ~ shaft thus automatically acting jacks are~lso used to l~~h ~uilrin overhead rail which enables the cap t bringing trolleys mto contact WI a . propeUer mounting bolts WI' inspection and crack detection is carried out tro. if necessaryw~... A welding casting which is welde. The full d visually examine:" an erac e rating the turning gear.:~r: \ Flange. beanng'echan~ locked by nuts.. level and now with alarms as nec:essary.and tailShaft can be c~ed. after the inboard sea] b.. Oil pressure is' kept bigher than the external sea water pressure by a header tank arrangement or by a pneumatically pressurized compensating tank. 90) and the bottom half bearing moved forward.ne~in8 so tbat it will act as a propeller support cradle. The position of the seal is such tt1a. The oil is pump circulated or may be caused to How around the system by the pumping action.relative to the beanng 15 c .ing and removing the rope guant. Installasequence is used to mam. Instruments are fitted for readinp of temperature. The tail shaft can be hydraulically and moved rord tected back to the propeller ftange. 92). rotated around the shaft and lifted clear. The shaft rests on a w rte me . The bottom balf bearitlg complete with outboard working seal can then be wi(b. used to close the gap between the shreud on the forward end of the propeller boss and the stem frame. 1be top half bearing IS lifted and the forward seal released the· overhead rail. . tbe maintenance seal (Fig. a shroud ~as been exteDded back from. Bearing alipment can also be adjusted. out Examination of the fo~ard seal. outside the vessel after trimming or drydock. The. ULL SPLIT STERN "BEARING . 89 Ross-TurnbuU split stern bc.

When in working position. beuina (MtJrlc IV 71"..! to . the bottom half of the stem bearing is clamped by jacks on either side. The top half bearing acts as the top clamp.' The radial face type seals used in the Turnbull split stem bearings are designed for replacement without tbe necessity of removing the shaft.g I ~ . It is located by axial restraining keys and rests 00 chocks which are 6tted after alignment. SEALS AND SHAFIlNG SYSTEMS ~ :: ~ j a c I .) I s -c p drawn into the vessel thus giving access to the shaft. propeller and tailshaft is lifted so that the main chocks can be removed. the assembly is lowered until the propeller is resting in the woud which is part of the stem boss. With the chocks out. STERN roBES. Portable hydraulic jacks are placed under the bearing and the complete assembly of bearing. After removal of the split to the forward face of the tailsbaft Bange the propeller mounting bolts are exposed. n.: J. These seats are also used witb convenliooal stem tubes arranged for oil or sea water tubrication. The tailshaft c:an therefore be ftaneed at the inboard end for eonneetion to the intermediate shafting and at the after end for c:onnection to the propeller because .. Inboard and outboard seals are basically the same on oil lubricated saera tubes 'and each seal is adequate OIl its own while work is carried out on tbe other.93) l ! J v. without disturbiog the propeller. ·· · F'II· 92 EumiDatioD of Ross.. . The jacks are removed and the bottom half bearing is brought forward on the skates.8 . The split seals can be eumined or repaired by the methods described ill fbe section on the Turnbull bearings. CRANE SEALS (Fi. lU . Further lowering of the jacks brings the bottom half bearing away from the taiIshaft and on to the machine states. seal wbich is bolted i i -= 112 .all of the components of the seal can be split for replacement. These can be removed singJy for inspection and crack detection. Removal of the split seal gives access to the bolts and dowels in the propeller flange.s' Ii.. To remove the bottom half bearing (after cl~aring the top) the foUawing procedure is used. together with the seal face and bellows section of the oil seal. Skates are placed under the beariog at the same time. The complete shaft is exposed for examination and crack detection..TunabWl split stem '"t ~ ~ .". Removal of the stem bearing allows a tJanged shaft to be entered [rom aft.

93 Outboard stern shaft seal (Milnebrau) the inboard seal can be inspected and water entry is prevented ~Y the o'!tboard seal.. The ship can be tipped for work on the outboard seal.. The supplied oil preIIUfe provides additional lift lO separate shaft and beariaa and • full flow for coolin. The sketch also shows a circulation and cooling system for the inboard seals· which wilike those at the outboard end. 94) for eitbcr tuny Ioaded or ballast conditions. SHAFf ALIGNMENT ~:baftsystems would ideaUy be installed with straisht atipmcnt and remain iD th. of vessel. oil syIIC:m '0" cord foace sealing strip Fig. prompted installation ot forced lubrication systems..dnJ Fi. The seat of the cutboard seal is bolted to the forward face of the. .UBRlCA nON F~. two or three metres above the maximum load waterUoe~ The email differential pressure ensures that water is excluded. SEALS AND SHAFTING . The stationary face is attache~ to a bellows which IS clear of the shaft and allows the face to follow any motion the shaft may make either from vibration or from differential expansion. ill HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION OR HYDROSTATIC The requirement for stcauUa at slow. Tuten and other ships with large ebanges in draught.. ]S of gun metal. The TOta~mg~at IS ~ ca~t iron of high nickel content (about 14 per cent nickel) tenned NI-R~SIst which .face seal is a s~nthe~lc te~ed lcrrobestos. The possibility of beariQl damaae. This is held In a earner which.wat~r so cast lr~n is used for the seat which is clamped to the shaft by a steel dnve nng. necessitates keeping the aft peak water level at least one metre above the stem tube.. DoIIDIIli_ indic. . 1. SEALS AND SHAFTING SYSTEMS S'I'ERN lUBES. The n..ounting ring of the outboard seal IS bolted to the stern fr~me ~th suitable jointing. The face seal and bellows are of the same materials as used outboard but the springs in the bellows assembly may be of steel. Clamp rings and the various ~uts and bolts are of alumlm~m br~mze.. The cooling of simple stem tubes.:ue for iaboud seal insert assembly coolin. . It is jointed with asbesto_sfibre Il_latenal~nd an '0' ring is fitted for a taper mounted propeller. 94 Typic:al1JTUIpmenl abowiDa tw header tub far ~ willi ..]5 able to stand up to the corrosive ef~cts of se~ wate~.. Materials '01 the inboard seal unit are not in contact with sea . may be fitted with two oil header tanb (Fig.. The seal is protected by a rope guard. leaving the inboard seal in place. propeller flange or to the propeller boss. The bellows assembly cons~sts of monel metal spnngs ID ~ cotton reinforced svntheuc rubber. . the seals operate on a hydrodynamic film an~ a~e hvdraulicallv balanced.t. CCOO\lIIIical speed durin& periods of hip fuel price (or for other reaspos) lives a ~wcr ftuid fIlmot bydrodynamic pressure in stem tubes. cannot ctissipate beat to the sunoundinl water. In practice there are marty factors which affect aIKI alter alignment durinl buiJdin& and throughout the Jih. The. 114 Shipside dn_(Gt. This circulation may be obtaiaed by natural convection.lt state during ship opentioo. Main clamp SYSTEMS The static lubrication system for vessels with moderate cbanges in draught. The face earner and mounting ring are of cast iron with steel clamp nngs for the bellows. beader tanks placed.r STERN ruBES. like the mountmg~ nng.. With the shaft rotating. .

__Pap "menl' SHAFf CHECKS The intention of goad 8IipJDent is to'CDIUIC that bearinp are c:onec:tly iOaded and that the shalt is not IeYel'ely stressed. The method of fair curve alipunent (developed at the Boston Navy Yard in 1954 and refined by otben) accepts the changes of line endured by the shaft J)'Stem and seeks • oomprotDise to suit the vuying conditions. sink of individual plumber blocks. Slope borinl reduces the edse loading problem. but results are uncertain untess the vessel is in the same condition with regard to 10adinJ aDd huD temperatures as when the shaft system was installed. baDast. Heavy weather· produces cban&inI conditions. . 116 . are calculated by tbe exercise. fresh water). The shaft line is continually c:hqed through !be lifetime: of a ship. 'The initial calculation is to determine the load on each bearing. A dial gauge fixed to the bearina indicateS lift. the refereace for accurate borinc of the sterft frame. hull deformation and other facton caD affect results. and Strassbe· A8pecIs of ShUt AfigDmen!"'i . by hull flexure from different c:ooditionlof loadina (cargo. 95) to 8ssess correc:t bearing loads is used as a realistic means of ensuring that statica11yt \be shaft installation is satidactory. The method of jackiDJ (Fil. in terms of load change for each height variation. SEALS AND SfIAF11NQ 5YS'TEWS The propoICd CCfttre line of the shaItins IystcJD for • slipny built ship WU UICd . assuming all bearings to be in a straight line.. 1be procedure involves the use of hydraulic jacks placed on each side of the bearin. A1ipment caD be cbccked with conventionl methods.~ Some ConIere .STERN ru8ES. --. to lift the shaft just clear. and low sea temperature in the tropics cause differential expansion and bogilll. for aU bearings. Influence nmnbcrs. All of tile variables described for a 'pre-fair arrve ship QD be matcbed to find the best CXIIIIpIOIDiIe for' shaft imfaUalioR. The local fadors affecting sbaft aiiprnent include forward tilt of the thrust block. section also kxed downward. The process is then repeated with a simulation of the lowering of each bearing in turn with the computer finding resultant load cbanges on the bearing in question and the others. A plot of lift and load is made . by paralleling of 8anges. would run out of line. Intermediate shafting aIiped from the taiIsba(t. e~ by the jacks. Hydraulic pressure. with pO a«OODt being taken of tailshaft tine and sli&bt droop due to elasticity and overbanJing weight at each shaft flange. . The hull of a moderately sized ship can ftcx ISO mm in heavy weather. The data but of influence numbers enables the effects of changes in alignment from bun tlemrc and local facton to be found. fuel. the engine would linally rest on cbocb set lower tban iIltended. Unless there was reference to a taut wire or other alignment aid. E. shaft lift as 8uid film pressure builds up in beariDp...a PI acllCal . prior to anini of the stem tube with its propeller shaft and propeller. Wilkin T ' • • A. \ends to impose edae loading on the aft end of the stern tube bearing. Uneven bearinJ wear. Propeller weight c:aused droop in the tailslWt and after 1aunc:biD8 the heavy and Rsa bQoyant stem •. References W ' nee. Propeller weight and shah sag. the increase of its own load and alteration in load on cadi of the other bearings.IMAS 73Tbeoretkal ~. The computer program then simulates the raism~ of each bearing through a range and caJculattrs for each small change. ~_. High dedc. _lIT..(1913). . registers the load on the bcariJla.

CHAPTERS Steering Gear ~UDDER CARRIER BEARING .. The resuJt of tIUs beina. rwming at constant speed in tbe same dUectioft. Each pair of rams is bolted· toFtber. wbich aR' tumed and pound to slide in swivel blocks arrangemeat designed to co8vCIrt linear IDOYellleJlt of the rams to the rotary IPO\'cment of the tiller . also serve to brace eadI pair of cylinden wbir:h tend to be pushed apart by tbebydnwlit pressure on the arms. In fout cylinder sets adjacent cyIiodcrs are cnJIf braced by heavy brackets (not sbowD is the _etch of the four ram type) whidI ill conjunction with the auide beams. 1be ~I$ baYe sulM&antial feet bolted to tile IlooIs on wbicb the gear is IDOUftted.. ..setYC alipmeDt. also pease .. water resistant type (cak:ium ~bearinI c:oai<:a1 seat (Fig. When the operatina rod of the pump is ia aid paa..way External rudder stop& are t . pn... nc pide be . tbrust 8DJIe to which the rudder caa bt ~ by the JeW.. welded to the pametal thrUst ring and renMlV81?t ~P~busb. between the upper surfac:e o~t!:t to liIDit its movement to. Tbe oulside stops preveat IIftIimitcd rudder movement. rudder to beCome c1isc:oonected. tbeIe iI_ . say. causinc the... Screw down lub~tors are base' with . I.. 96). 1be ruddea: II. COIltKt with the propeller.oa. The rams are of close grained hard cast iroa or steel wida working surfaces ground to a high finiIh. . 97) bas the. gear there are also stops set to 11mlt the from the mid position... e.. srease time RAM TYPE HYDRAUUCSTEERING GEAR Trunnion Side ~k The tiUer. In the steenPI (pee. the joined ends being bored vertically and bushed to form top and bottom bearinp for the trunnion arms on the Qiivel bb:k (see FIJ.5. J.. comtruction of the stcenn~ heavy weather is prevented by jwnpmg stops Lifting of tbe rudder and 5 rudder and the stem frame. the tiller has two an:as. g dec:k stiffening.. C'naIIad slippers bolted to the sides of the rams. C8D be revened. wbic:b could arise from danIace. Hydraulic pressure is supplied by variable delivery puIIIpI. An alternative type o!. Carrier beanng ~poDCntS ~ and the used for habriCabOD IS a ment. Pumps uy be or the Hele-Shaw radial piston type or of the axial pistoD V . so thai the atands in the cylinders are relieved of side loIck. S'reach way from the mid position. beariDI takes the weight of the rudder 00 • p-case lubricated The rudder carner oc:k' located by the journal. 119 . possibly. Limits on the tclcmotor are set at 35" eacb way ~ the ntid poailioa.. baG.. Support for the be~ ~ p. of oil surr.ce... wi .: wall wiUlocate the rudder stoCk. ~ wed e b8se of the carrier bearmg 15 klcated by . For IJydrauIK aean with four cytinders. die SIIOb of the pump pistoaa can be vllried and· Sow of oil to add frQm die . slide on the machined of the pride beam. and rudder stock. 1bete are let to.0. 39" e~cb. ekctrk: motor drive. ~h'" Q~pluCor fon:ed Ivbric:ation l:OIIIIeCtion by a doubler plate T. ~ carrier is of meesplib~: ~ and steel choCk· Tbe side cbocks. is of (orpd or cast steel.rute). keyed to tile rudder stock. The angle of advantage that the seat biJlding the ~nical seat is shalloW to preve~ of and aDowance is made in the Bearing weardowD ~ ~:or a small vertic::at drop of the ru~r stock. The latter aR' ncceaary to ~ the JUdder from beiIIt forced against the outside stopa.. blbrK:ated .

It consist5 of steel pawls on the motor coupling rim.aJrmunatic ~t ROTARY VANE STEERING GEAR The usual arrangement of three fixed and three moving vanes allows a rudder angle of 10" with a vane-type steering gear. Top and bottom stator ftanges are welded on after oil manifold grooves have been machined.. ne radial cy60der block avtatel on a ftxed steel central piece haftnJ two pons opposite to one another and in line with the bottom at tile rotatinc cylinders... Rotation of the gear is prevented by two anchor bolts held in ftl:ed anchor brackets with rubber shock-absorbing sleeves. JUdIcoa pin with bronze slippen on tbe cod. Without lIOppiaa. " normal inward powiliow IIld . aDd ratdIct sec:ured to the 'HELE-SHAW PlfMp The CODItaIIt speed HeIe-Sbaw pump bu its output coo . The bolts have outer cast-iron bushes to take wear from the steering gear ftanges. the pawls retum to their sear 120 • 121 . The slippers moM with the c:yUadcr bIodI: in JfOOYCI llUlChiDcd ill a pUr of fIoatinJ riop.by the control rod. 100). A larger turning angle is obtained with two fixed and two moving VaDeS if required. are thrown out towards the rim ~ centrifugal force. These pawls willa the motor IUId pump runnio&. Wdb the pump stopped.. 98 Four ram stc:erinJ If*' cli.. the output ca be vuied from zero to fuD in eitbet direction.. ~ at a bronze cylinder body with ~'YCII or nine radial ~rs'. 1bae Be die rinp wbicb ate IDD¥'Cd borizoatllly . ~ pump.tion for quieter response although only one is normally used. When two pumping units are fitted and only one is running.enpac tile teeth of a pump bale.STEERING GEAR ·STEEIUNG GEAJt Aft Fornrd F-e. In each CYIi~r there is an oil IwdeDec1I1Cd piIaoa . Moving vanes are keyed to the cast steel rotor which in turn is fined to a taper on the rudder stock and keyed.or startioa tile pump. Weight of the gear is supported by a rudder carrier bearing beneath it in this design. PUMP NON-REVERSE LOCKING GEAR The set can be RID witb both pumps in open. Vanes arc sealed by steel strips backed by synthetic rubber laid in slots.. 99) are of spberoidaJ graphite cast iron. . wbidl • rotated Ilt constaDt apced in one directioa (Fil. the fixed ones being hek! to the stator by bigb-tensile steel dowel pins and cap screws. by alilnple pushI -puB rod atcadled 10 pide riap in tbe pump. Vanes in the gear shown (Fig.. the idle pump wouJd be driven in the reverse direction by oil pressure from the other but non-reverse Iockiag is fitted in the ftexible coupling between the motor and pump..

Ste~eu cllanaes of pump delivery from zero to lIUlXUDum ID ather direaioa 15 lIICbieved.tves left open. ·The Iketc:b (Fie. pump has a cylinder block with QiaI cylinden.G.G. oae pump can be stopped wit.. through lever or servo contiols.O.G.na. 1be unit sbown (Flg. All four rams work together but in the event of damaae.al c)'linckl hl(1I:1i: __ - .S. Mark IV pump (ew. With· the latter vertJcal. The Pistons are tied tbrougb r'too ~ and bearings to a swash plate or tilting box. The relief valves.en through. there is DO pumping actioo. _ FIJ· 100 HeJe-stmw variable delivery pump Cl Movement " the flO8tin.but have DO axial IDOYCment. Piston stroke and oil ftow arc varied by au.. F.. V. the . sha!' OPERA nON. 98) Oft tbesimplesketcb of tile four ram system shows the conoections from two pumps to four rams. the· supply valva. rings from the mid 'position displac::es the c:in:ular path of rotation of the pistons from that of the cylinder block and produces a pumping action.S.rJ The V.G. ~ remaining pair of rams then operate as • two ram pro The by-p8SSCS" arc 10 parallel with the relief valves. The rudder can be locked by dosin. 101) shows a simplified arrangement.S.5 in mid position and the centres of rotatioa of pistons and block coincide. the drive by • simple constant-speed electric motor.between pipes connecting the oppoeina rams are desiped to I23 Axial cylinder bIoc:k Pia·IOI SiIIaplified unnpmemofV. PUMP The V. VkUr. pump 122 . pump has been developed in recent yeaR to operate with higher pressure with a l'C$ulting dec:rease in size of steering JWS.Jbdi. When the rod . OF FOUR RAM GEAR The pipe arranaement (FII. in an emerpncy.S... either pair of rams can be isolated from the pressure pumps and allowed to idle with the bypass opea.ular movement of the swSSh plate. 102) accOrdingly bas a casin& of fabricated steel rather than "CaIt iroo: The cylinder block with its pistons is driv.. When the swash plate or tilting box is set at an angle by the con~r ~ pistons are caused to reciprocate in their cylinders and prockK:e a pump~g ac_tIOD. IOZ V.S. the pIIIons rotate with the cylinder block . IIequse of the noo-reverse lock arrangement..

. the standby steering mechanism. from B 10 Bt• Pumping of the hydraulic: oil causes movement of the rams UK! the end of rod C moves to C.S. on many vessels. Each Pump bas suction connections through non-return valves from tbe replenishing tank. - rudder is displaced by a bcavysca tbrouP Iiftinc of the relief valves. into the pump gives a cooling action. 1(4).pump contrel is moved. the bunting gear is moved by the rudder stock. the operation of the buntiD8 gear.rs in the pump and this oil is drained to the replenishing tank. The two valves are tonnec:ted to the cylinder through a shut off valve (which is oormaUy left open) and the by-pass which eonaeets both sides of the pressure system. pump) the oil is caused to Bow from the pump casing by a centrifugal action prod1Ked by rotation of the cylinder block.. is connected througb 8 safety spring link to the rudder stock or tiller (Fig. Wben the rudder bas moved through the angle corresponding to the wheel poIition.tbe TELEMOTOR The telemotor bas become. It comprises a transmitter on the bridge and a receiver connected to the variable delivery pump through the hunting gear. 'The hunting gear returns the pump operating rod to bUd position as soon as the helmsman stops turning the wheel. The make up tank' functions automaticaJly throush spring loaded relief and make up . 'The hunting gear will cause the rudder movement to be corrected by putting the pump on strokt. used only wbenthe··automatic steering fails. The other end of this lever. Where an overhead tank is fined (V. By-passing of oil from one side of the system to the other through the relief valves permits tbe rams to move and abnormal stress on the rudder stock is thereby avoided. it will remain there until the wheel and telemotor are moved again. Excess'pressure in the telemotor system causes oil to be released through the relief valve to tbcmake up tank and loss of oil is made up through the lightly loaded make up valve. 103). The sketch shows simply. The transmitter(FlI. As an alternative to millen! oil•• mixture of IIyccroI {JIycerine) and water has been used..G. Jt. Buffer Variable delivery 124 .·alves. HUNTING GEAR The pump control is moved by the te1emotor through a floating lever.'j snERlNO GEAR lift if pressure in the system rises to about 10 per cent above normal This will occur due either to the rudder being hlt by a heaVy sea or from direct loading. This will put the pump 011 sttoke and the rudder will be restored to its previous position. thus causing the pump control to be pulled back to the 8eutraI position B. therefore.COIIIists Of a cylinder with a pedestal base which contains a piston opented by •. Liquid displaced in the transmitter caUSesa corresponding displacement in the receiver and of the pump control. The receiver in me steering sear is sbowD as two fixed f'llIDS with moving opposed cyliDdcrs_ Centering spriDp are fitted to bring the cyJinders to mid position. Losses of oil from the system are automatically made up from this reserve of oil. There is also a band operated bJ"'PIIISThe tank must be bpt topped up. Other oil flowing back. The working fluid is a mineral oil of low viIcosity and pout point and this Jives lOme protection against rusting. The telemotor is the receiver of the bydraulic remote control system from the wheel on the bridge. 'The linkage through tbe floating lever of telemotor. pump and rudder stock forms tbe hunting gear. A cenain amount Of leakage oa:u. net and pinion from the steering wheel. Transmitter and recei¥er are connected by solid drawn copper pipes. The telemotor moves the end of the ftoating rod A to Al and the . whee the piston is in mid position. Movement of the tetemotor' receiver is limited by the stops set at 35". The pump is only required to deliver oil when the steering wheel is moved.

When all air bas been purged from the system and the level intbe replenishing tank ceases to fall.switching the chan. Pumping is continued for some time. tank aod hand pump which are situated in the steering gear compartment. before starting to pump the system through. the shut off between the make up tank and transmitter is closed and the wheel is brought to the mid position so that the piston is at the centre of its travel and the top and bottom parts of the cylinder are connected through the bypass. the gear is thea nIB from bard over to bard over slowly and the air release valves are again checked.be &ear IIl'UIIIlIIII.~. The pbone or other IDCUII of communication between bridge and steeriD& compartment must be tested also. During the charging operation. 1be various tests and c:he«s should be Ioged. The bleed screw at the top of the cylinder is cracked open to get rid of any remaioill8 air. Each section of the pipe is progressively filled with air being released through the bleed screws. When in such waters. • Otargiag methods for steering pIS aDd. 1be variable delivery pump can be used to pump the oil around the system (while keeping the replenisbing tank topped up). The rams may be filled through the filling boles until all air has been displaced. but there are additional requuementJ DOW for other ships as weD. where the blame was attributed at least in part to failure of the steeriDg gear or its c::ootrol system. When charging. ~ the ship is at _ with the automatic pilot ia prokJagcd usc. each stroke of the hand pump should produce a discharge back to the tank which cJ.. At the last section the non-retum valve is opened to allow oil from the end of the pipe to be returned to the priming tank. if the non-return valve is opened.. relDOle control systems. of (wbCre appticable) the ~I: ~ It_nol aear. TIle system is made ready for testing and operation bY closing the charging and oon-return valves and opening the shut-off valve. Using the hand amtrol. tclemotors vary from one tYPe to another. from taoker. the air release valves are closed. The priming tank is filled (and then kept topped up as necessary) and the hand pump operated with the charging valve open. STEERINO GEAIt. After closing the bleed screw on the cylinder.alel'S. casualties. emeJ1CDCYpower supply. By . iDSpediOn must be carried out. CHARGING THE SYSTEM The system is provided with a primin.actly coincides with tbe movement of the pump lever. pipes are disconnected so that the sections of pipe can be washed through.e-over pin. 1be band by-pass valve must be closed. a furtber check is made with the shut off closed and pressure maintained with tbe pump. bridge lteenoB poIIb()Q. auxiliary gear. 1(4) and turned by a bar.~ uaita (pumpI and motors) must be lUDIIini if simultaneous operation . then the non-return valve is closed while pressure is maintained with the pump. ~ tJu:ee-~tbIy CHARGING STEERING GEAR The steering gear itself must be completely filled with oil and all air must be excluded. IlIStructiOaI for cbanaeover must be displayed in the steering compartment and oa the bridp. poISIbie. the shut off between the cylinder and make up tank is opened and the tank is brought up to level. rudder iodic:ator.. Thus the air release valves are opened on hydraulic cylinders and pumps. Fmally the by-pass and stop valves are set for normal running and the pump is started. also stop valves and by-pass valves in the system. power failure aJ~ for re~ ~troI systems and also for the steerint scar power unit. For an initial charge. STEERING GEAR CHECKS Pollution resultin. At intervals emelJCDCY drills (induding local. position on the poop. At this stage. The telenlOlOl' is connected to the hunting JC8f through • control spindle. manual stanDI· must be tested before eDlerins busy or restricted . ~ tile possible eq~~t.. Deed for c:baaaes ia internatioaaJ repIatioaI . ~ opetItion with alternative power) shoUld be carried out. It can be put just on stroke bytbe bandwbeel (Fig. drew atteDtion to 126 . The test procedure to be carried out not IIIOR tbaa 12 boun before departure (or w~k1y on ~-vC!yage vessels) requires operation.1fIICrinI focus of IIttention was OD tanker steerin& gcan. joints are checked for leakage and when the system is full. control and commumcatton. ~ t. All officers am req~ to be familiar with the steerlDJ ~ and the changeover armaaements. IppIied to. the cootrol spindle c:ao be operated from the ClDelFncy steerin. full movement must be cbec:tedand a complete visual.

the major poUution risk with loss of steering on a large tanker. each pump and motor (or equivalent) must be capable of meeting the performance criteria. Main steering gear power units must be arranged to restart automatically when th~ electrical supply is restored after a failure. Statistics show a decrease in hydraulic system reliability with increase in system pressures and age. A rudder indicator must be fitted on the bridge. Main and auxiliary gears are required or there may be duplication of power units.). The possibility of total loss of electrical power is to be guarded against. The standard of performance wben the equipment is working on the ahemalivc Pump r I Shut-off valves (rudder brake) -. the bridge control and the rudder indicator. Design of the system should be such that a single failure in its piping or one power unit (pump and motor or equivalent) will not leave the steering gear inoperable. Any auxiliary steering gear must be power operated if the rudder stock is over 230 mm (9 in. one of which may pass through the em~rgency switchboard. Main and auxiliary gears are required or duplicated pump and motor power units. The steering gear must be able to meet the performance requirement of being able to move the rudder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other with 28 seconds being allowd for that pan of the movement from the 35° extreme toJO" at the other.STEERING GEAR STEEIUNG GEAR to maintain forward mo"IClDent of the sbil!. 105). As well as the two bridge steering gear controls with audible and visual alarms. a local control in the steering gear compartment is also required. by provision of ahernative power for operation of the steering gear. through tbe 'fttcr and therefore a slipstream over the rudder. Short-circuit protection only is to be provided for electric motors and power circuits. TANKERS Stricter international regulations for the steering gears of tankers over 10. Rudder position is to be: indicated in the steering gear compartment as wdl as on the bridge and means of communication provided. PASSENGER VESSELS At maximum service speed the main steering gear of a passenger ship must be able to move the rudder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other. There must be two widely separated power circuits from the main switchboard. and 28 seconds is allowed for that part of the movement from 35° to ](f.. Discussion at intematiooallevel. The emergency supply is to be automatically connected within 4S seconds of main supply failure and must be capable of continuous operation for 30 minutes.000 tons gross were made effective for new vessels from 1980 and at a later date for existing Ships. INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS These now require either that cargo vessels in general must have an auxiliary steering gear as a backup for the main gear (and that if the rudder stock is over 356 mm (14 in. (High pressures of 170 bar permit smaH equipment size. resolved that it will be necessary to have complete bydraulic system Float IIwilCb redundancy on new tankers of 100.) diameter this second gear must be power operated} or that power units and connections are duplicated. 'Power unit' describes the pump and motor or equivalent.000 dwt and above. and the statistics of steering gear failure. 1 1 I _I :"""" ConIl'Ol unit "\ '. U the duplicated power unit alternative is used. 128 129 . Duplicated and widely separated electrical supply circuits are required from the mam switchboard with short-circuit protection only for these and the motors. Failure alarms are to be litted on the bridge. This implies either two complete. .-nd independent hydraulic steering gears or two interconnected circuits with automatic isolation of one from the other should there be a loss of hydraulic fluid (Fig. ) The failures might be due to surges being more extreme in the contemporarv high-pressure plant. when considering the smgle failure concept in relation to the hydraulic system. with manual or automatic means of restarting the power unit motors.

sucb as baneries. J. whichever is greater. Tbe four-ram gear consists of two pairs of rams. CHAYfER9 Pollution PreventionMonitoring-Olly Water Separator-Sewage Treatment OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION ~ major ~ce of oil pollutiOn in the past from the operation of ships was the mto the sea ~ tank washings from tankers. Ballast earned 1D oil cargo and bunker tanks which is therefore contaminated witb oil constitutes another ~Iution ~rce. 94._ 131 . . Steering Gear: New Concepts and Requirements.. . New regulatiol1ll reqwre tankers of certain sizes to have segregated 0( clean ballast tanks. HMSO. after closure of the isolating valves.. E.ac~ed by the operation of an oily water sepualOl' -fiheriaa system With cIi8dtarJe monitorial and control. it mUSl be less than 15 p.000 of the particlllar cargo (previously tbe amount was 1115. ~ brief.tir'-'. (a) not be m a special ~. Oil loss from a fracture in the pipe system would lower the level in the reservoir of the running pump and through the ftoat switch and control unit shut down the isolating valves. SUitable oily wale!' proce5$in~ equipment or retained for discharge asbore. TM Merchiml Shipping (Ctugo Ships Cotutnlaion tmd SlITVey) RquI«iolU 1984. Items and codes are listed on the first page of the book.discharJe machinery space bilges 1010the sea provided: (a~ ~ oiI!D the bilge discharge does not amouat to more than 100 p. than 50 nautical miles from land.p. The alternative power supply aan be taken from the emergency soun:e of electrica: power. The two sets of piping and associated pairs of rams would now be isolated. AdditionaUy (d) tbe Instantaneous rate of discharge must not be more then 60 litreS pc. and (c) be 'on passage. In special areas ~ Wlibm 12 miles of land. The same sort of design can also be used in conjunction with duplicated rotary vane cylinders (one chamber above the other) as indicated in tbe sketch.m. the running pump would be left in ope_tion. with one pump and motor power unit in use. A t~d poll~t~ ~ is from lIUlclIiocry' space bilges. ~ od carao residue IS to be discharged from a tanker it MUST.for settling. . if due to ~ small SIZe of the ship or otber reason Suitable equipment i~ not ~tted. It silould be noted that Government and aassification Society regulations while broadly similar to tbe lMO rules outlined above.'c mto f~rce m October 1983 and which are set out fully in the IMO ~~t1~n ReguJ~tlon~ for the ~evention of Pollution by Oil'. with the next cargo.STEERING GEAR "(. The bilges must only be pumped 1:Iuwgh.m:. 105.m.- supply is that at least it will move the rudder from ISo OD one side to ISO OD the ocher in 6(1 seconds. ~ae References Cowley. (b) this IS . however. _ TIte Merchont Shipping (PtWmgn Ship ConstTUction IINl SUIWy) RquhltWlU 1984. The Oil Record Book for cargo/ ballast operations which is kept by the (b:1e department on aU tankers over ISO gross. is shown in Fig. and (e) the total amount must be oot more than 1130. and this still apPlies to older vessels). tonnage is' ~ to bav~ chronological entries with date. ships ~ 400 g. IS ~ out sunultancously witb the discharge. differ in some repeets and may be more stringent. operanonal code and Item num~!10 appropnate columns. M".000 of the cargo. A number of proposals have been advanced for shutdown and isolating arrangements. but continuing drop in oil level would initiate shutdown of the running pump and start of the other in 4S seconds. unless pumped out via an oily water separator.000 dwt. Previous le&1sla~n mten~ to prevent pollution has been superseded by new rules !hat. The leak could be In either pipe and ram set. and discharge 'OVerboard of the water while retaining the sludge for pumping ashore to the refinery. TT(IIIS. HMSO. each pair being capable of supplying 50% of the torque required. Engme room bilge disf'osal is treated separately in the fCgulations from discharges ~latcdto aqoIballast operations.p.. The system operates in the same way as other four-ram arrangements. I. For normal full ahead running they are operated together to provide 100% torque. . There is the risk that the apparent ~ in safety is jeopardised by added complexity and greater number of components exposed to failure. and the problem remains wbether to shut down the running pump and start the 01 her. If.t.p. . diesel or air motor pump drive. This was reduced by the discharge of tank washings to a slop tank. paper 23. including tankers of more than 100. Other suggestions are for an independent power source used solel~ for 'steering and located In the steering compartment. In ~neral. a~ permin~ to.r mile. It must be aapable of this with the $hip at its deepest draul!ht and running ahead at ODewbaif the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knOh. but duplication of the bydraulie pipework as well as pump and motor power units gives an additional safeguard with complete hydraulic system redundancy. Crude Oil Washing (COW) eliminates the use of water and enab~ c::argo~ues ~o be pumped ashore during cargo discharge because clearun. The oil ~tent of any discharge must be less than 100 p. Air motors have been fitted in a number of ships. (1982).:J\iJ Oil Record Book for cargOlballast qpierations is also requU'~ on any vessel with a bulle oil capacity in excess of 200 mj. (b) be farther. - - -. Cc) the STEERING GEAR FOR LARGE TANKERS AND OTHER VESSELS The principle ofa steering gear suitable for any vessel. One proposal is tbat a second lower level tloat switch be fitted to each reservoir. can. no further oil loss occurred..• vol.

the Bilge . Oil from the top of the chamber is automatically drained to the oil tank. while the eye can register anything from an emulsion to globules of oil a li!_!hliphoto<cll detector cannot.Areas (~edile~an. hut problems wilh observation occurred due to poor light and accumulation of oily deposit on the inside of the glasses. OIL CONTENT MONITORING OverbNrd dischllJ". Red Sea. (g) oil di$char&es (accidental or <. Another approach is to register light scattered water by the sampling pumps (Fig. In S~al..~ioiI content. Items.. and some otben are more strid. Fibre optic tubes are light from the source ud from the sga1ttenKl motor-driven ~tina _ with its slot . Baltic.OILY WA l"ER AND SEWAGE OILY WATER "'''''D SEWAGE " .Od Record Book for machinery space operations. These rise to the oil collecting space.dl!ioCha~ge onuonng and contrOl equipment with alarm and automatic m st~p~ng_ ~ce must also be fitted and in use. Makers may therefore use a sampling and milling a representative sample with a general opaqueness more ea~jly simple photo-cell monitor. to be logged are: (a) oil fuel tank ballasting and cleaning. (d) dlschar~ ~ disposal.m. Water from the first stage passes downwards through a central pipe to the second stage eoaleseer. (c) sludge/oil residue disposai.e pump Firs! s&a&C scparaIion Fie: 106· Simpics Turbulo oily __ ICpUaIOr with eoaIeIciu& ICClllllllIlap Inspection glasses fitted in the overboard discharge pipes of engine room oily water separators allowed sighting of the flow. Row through the sampling chamber keep the glasses clean and they are easily removable for Bilge or ballast water passing through a sample chamber a strong liaht shining directly through onto a . The er.. is fitted and in use. Coalesanl inserts in the left hand chamber take out the remainder of the oil in the form of smaIl droplets which coalesce to form larger drops. ..e waler l DitdwJe flOin bil.. Air is vented by the float controlled release valve. the water and oil will start to separate in the top part of tbe chamber. .. fm: OILY WATER SEPARATOR Th~ perfonn~ of separators has been improved to meet the requirements of stricter regulations by tbe addition in some designs of a second stage coaleseer. The filter in the right hand chamber removes solids and some oil. (e) automatic bilge discbarge. A~ of control air to the diaphragm is through a solenoid operated Pil. The first stage of the Turbulo separator is supplied with oily water from the pump. (f) oil dis~==)~nnglcontrol system failure details. Oil content of the final discharge is below 15 p. Oil droplets from the plates tend to travel upwards.. The. lOS). Regulations applied to vessels of less than 400 tons gross are not as strinFnt Rules ships of over 10. Present-day monitors are based on the same principle. Filter elements in the second stage remove any small droplets of oil in the discbara. at intervals.t..lto-ceU compared with that of cell to the left of the bulb can be registered on a _ .. the oil tending to rise to the upper part.. Further separation occurs in the lower chamber where the liquid has to pass through a series of dished plates before leaving the first stage separator. through the cocks provided. and (e) is nol within a SpeCial Area.ship is: ~nl on passage. and cause tbem to be held until they form larger droplets (coalesce) whkb rise to the oil coUectinS space. being collected at the bafftes and funnelled up to the oil collection space. The discharge was illuminated by a lightbulb fitted on the outside of the glass port opposite the vic. separator was shut down if there was any evidence of oil. The oil drain valve fromtbe top of the first stage separator is a diaphragm controlled piston valve. which must be kept by all shiPS of 400 tons and above.m.p.. However.. Because of the different densities. Discharge within the 12 nautical mile bmlt IS allowed under the same conditions as for Speeial Areas except that the alarm and stopping device are not mandatory. This source light increaees to a maximum and content of the water.9.000 g. Black Sea.UCI~g 011 eoment to below 15 p. of bilges. (d) it is at least 12 nautical miles from land. Oil from the second stage coalescer is drained manually. is the responsibility of the engine room ~partment.. 1'bc capacitance probe senses oil quantity m the collection space and-causes·the solenoid to be energized through the control switcb. Persian Gulf area) bd~e discharge IS pcnnln~ only when an oily water separator or filtering system capable of red..t: valve. (b) disch~ge of the dl!"y ballast or cleaning water. reaching the cell decreases witb increasing oil content of the this light on the pht.p. .

---... m tum help ~ produce plant life wbicb returns oxygen to the Wa&er. 10. pasIIDI ~ a . water. SEWAGE Raw sewage disebarged. . The bacteria build ' the sewase as food and oltJlen for their metabolism... Sbip sewage treatment can be carried out down process and the supply of oxyseR is maintained by blilltblPl&i the. 1'be production of a clean emuent liquid which' is diIi"~U Fig.. but they will DOt distinguish between oil and other particles III the water. RlCOrding and alarm ~le.107 Director lilbl mooitoriq c:hamber 00'- f ..... it is not suitable for on a ship. gives off aD 1UIpIeasant smeD.. : " DecompoatiOa occ:un both with czccssive quantities of waste and .OILY WATER AND SEWAGE oIM·.in restricted waters ~1I.. In the former the decomposition is termed anaerobic &ad wi~h .libration ale also mcorporated.". In a closed dock the effeca of polludon can be clearly seen from the black sludgy water which wben Ilinw4 by the ship's propeller. pnDctpie of operation of the Ieptic: tank..---. Mixer pump Seres type oil short and . ' .--... disdIarJe is fed into the c:outrol computer together ~tb discharge rate and ship s speed to give a permanent record of the monitor!Dg.. • __ . 109 FiB....minjmile time delay)'witb its drive motor in the mac:hinery space and shaft.Y WATER AHDSl!WAOE Ship's side: ~disdwp .. dissolved the water will _ a biO<bcmical (aerobic) action which breaks ~ge into simple ~ and ~ dioxide.. bad. The sampling pUmp can be fitted in the pump room (to keep the sampling pIPC ""~j-t.~(9).-..-. automatic shutdown.. TANKER BALLAST Sampling and monitoring equipment fitted ir.the production of unpleasant odours aad putrefaction.....tipt seal in the bulkhead ..cveDtuaHy overwhelm d.dit dowJt" overboard..:-ftushina aDd reca.. There arc alternatives to the aerobic Ie" rreatmelll 134 .e"" purification ability of the limited quantity of water... . the pump room of a lanker can be made Safe by using fibre optics to transmit light ~ al!d from the sampling chamber (Fi!.. ' amounts.prove accuracy. .the lisht source ~d pboto-c:dI being III the CUJO control room qetbcr with the ClODUOI. In the natural ~~.'Dt of ~ relative to water is small.". t----Ship Oil CClllerIl speed t o# ( CgmparalClf cin:uiI Fig.. ' • These two methods briefly described could be used together ~ lID. ~ OD. Methods of checkiog for oil by chemical test give truer results but they take too long in a situation where excess amounts require immediate shllJdown of the oUy water separator. Oxygen in the air promotes the muJtiplicatiolt of sausfactory decomposition of the wastes."- ...Oil ~ntent readinJ of ~. Alanns. 108 Sofrance type scattered light moaitorinl chamber photo-cell and also by means of switches at ~e peripbery causes the signals to be passed independently to a comparator deVICe.-.. "'.: Where ~ IIIIlCM..

Test results are ill p&rtI per: million or milligrams of suspended solidi per litre. wiD have to meet c:cnun standarda. may bec:oIDe .. Breakdown of the wastes in the aeration compartment is induc:ed by bacteriological organisms promoted by the presence of oxygen.-table and danprous durin& storap.treatmeDt tIDk to deal with the next cbaJJe. two otben involve incubation of samples and would probably be carried·out in a laboratory. carried otd on a UIIlpic of cftluent... Tbae are c:otifonD GrpnisrN.p. . AD asbestos mat filter element is UIed and the solids are collected on this tbcp dried and 'ftiabcd. also create turbulence so that settlement is prevented and good mixing obtained. EmucDt·diIchaqed QVCrboard through the sewage plant wben the wssel is in port or restricted waten. the ftDaI tec:tioo eoatroI lite ditdIIrJe pump. the baetena die 10 daat • DeW coIODy his to be started. One is simply • c:beck of the quantity of solid material in the cflluent. AEROBIC TREATMENT PLANT (Flow-through System) The Trident sewage treatment system sbown (Fig. 1WitI:beI in. The bubbles.... 110) has four compartments. Incoming waste passes through a coarse screen into the primary collection tank where if remains until displaced by overflow into the aeration section. Raults are JiveD as tM. the mixed liquor is displaced into the settlement tank where the biologjcaJ Doc is fonned. is checked by c:on~ion and weiabinJ. The oxygen is supplied t.... be burnt in an incinerator. De bIIcteria in tk aerobic: treatment plant must be kept alive by maintaininl the correct conditioos. Small Q1Wltitiet.D. These are fitted in some vcueII. oripnace from the iDteIdne. RquIar maovaIof iIudac will prcwDt impainrIent ot operation.y the air from the blowers which enters the aeration section througb a fine bubble diffuser at the bottom.. 0( ~ pet' JOO .. T'bey are seasilive to temperature. Thus tests ave been establisbed. H ibe iDsWIation is shut dOwn for a penod. . die top Ioat switch Itaits it. are in foree. As the taat filii. TIle amount of oxygen lakeD up by tbe sample p. The effectiveness of sew .. Disinfedioa of the emucnt at the cad of·the . proVRling oxygen."". lon.. In t unit shown. At the end of the process the is said to be stable and as the activity of the bacteria reduces so the oxyp consumption also drops. There are vanow __ of I&eriIiatioa and tablets of compound used in one method. The diffuser is of~ material so that clean air is needed to prevent blockage. SUSPENDED SOLIDS In this test. One coIiIonn tat consists 01 ~ a_""" •___ Fi.) in JDilIipaIDI 2O'"C with weD oxyaeoated water. to mix with incomlDg wastes.. The sludge is pumped overboard Wbea tbc vCIseJ is at sea dear of areas where restriCtions .O. JI0 Aerobic sewage treatmem system (Htunwonlty Ty~) 136 .with and returned to the aeration chamber. tbroup tbe dllorinator the water forms a sterili1:inJ 1OiutioD. treatment CD sew. dysentry. tcriaI in the efftueot. . per litre 01' OXYGEN DEMAND (B. CUl.OtLY WAIER AND SE\toA.. OILY WAn..css usc ~gen.astro-entcritis etc.1. ID . tbc quantity Of·ioIid . COUFORMCOUNT Tbcre are c:crtaiD tell talc bacteria found in hwnao waste wbicb. and a circulation process with slucJae removed at intervals.. The eftcctivcnesa of dbinfec:tion is cbeckcd by • coliform count. A connection is provided so that the prinuuy collection tank can be pumped out.. Oean effluent from the top of the settling tank is collected in the last compartment for disinfection and discharge overboard.tbe.. it ~ opeDI a soIeDOid YaM: in the water supply line to the hypodJIoriaatM. Apan from these bacteria found in raw sewaae there are also viNIes of the type rapoDIible for illaeua &ike poUonayelitis and infectious hepatitis. ' '-Two . ~ of water and repluity of low.m. When the low IeYelIoet switdlstopa the puMp. Activated slucJse gravitates to the bottom and is continuous) . b'Q1IDeDt proc:CIS wiD reduce the c:otiIona level and also the lcveJ of other orpniSIDI wbicb may be present such as &hose responsible for typboid. a sample (oac litre) and incubatinl it for five days at . -- BIOCHEMICAL Becteria dec:ompoIe aDd in the proc.de¥ice on the solenoid valve allows the correct amount of IOludoD iIIIo. AND SEWAGE ("t\tmical treatment systems in which breakdown is achieved with the aid of chenucals.-. After prolonged aeration. is termed the Bioc:hemicaI Oxygen Demand be puJed by takiD. A timiac .. the sludge is returned to the aeration compartment by an air lift. sew. of diluent.

• Solids are chemically iDet1ed by • caustic compound and delivered via grinder pump to tbe holding tank. the alSposat of ~ ~ ships.ISO mJllitte and. Treatment by clJlorine and caustic based compounds makes the liquid efIIueatac:ceptablc for the purpose. 10produce • c:olony of bac:teriaat d - REGULATIONS Legislation to prevent the discharge of raw sewage into docks. anaerobic bacteria and other organisms thrive. ae... 111) incorporates cbemical treatment of the sewage to be retained. Other problems resulting from the rdeIttion of untreated wastes related to its breakdown by anaerobic bacteria. would gjve a teD-year p'iIce to niIItinI ftSSCls. In gene~.19 . of treated . commlDU~ and disinfected sewase could be disCharged ~ near as" miles ~ land. as apptied to . Y 'AI ATEll AND SEWAGE OILY WATER AND SEWAGE period at 3S"C. Tank size is smaU because Uq\aidefthlent ". overboard Type III-A device to prevent the diIcbarge untreated sewage. sIIoJdd only be dischal)ed outside the 12 mile limit. t. Capacity of the tank is 2 lUres per. with c:orrosion in the tank and production of toxic and ftammable pses. .. Straight holding tanks fOf JeteDtioD of ICWaF during the period of a ship's stay in port were of a size. Passenger vessels or ferries with automatic ~ing for urinals required very latJe bolding tanks. The Elsan type system (FIJ. . "' f~ ~Ied"'ae 1. American legislation defines three type5 of sewage treatment plant: Type I-A device capable of discharging efflueot bal'ioJ DO Visible floating solids and a coliform count of less than 1000 per 100 ~ of effluent. . 138 Ship's sKk SEW. mile limit.. iftter1NltiOoally. The tank is pumped out at sea. ADOlber test takes 24 ~ inaabation temperature of 3s-c. Deadlines have been set for the installation of sewage treatment plant on vessels trading to American ports._) controls. barbours and other closed waters of certain countries has been in existence for some time. . nothiDJ sbouId be ~ within the . The sewage is then pumped out to shore reception facilities or overboard when the vessel is again proceeding out at sea (outside a 12 nautical mile limit).!/ on.penoo per day. Certain countnes had already anticipaled any mtematioaally applied rvIes withtbeir own nationat and region. large enouah to contain not only the actual sewage but also the ftushing water: Each flush deIi¥ered perbapl S litres of sea water. tank. In the stapumt conditions of a plain retention tank where there is DO oxygen.4GE REGULATIONS Aana IV of ~ 7Y18 (IMO) has t~ aim o~ reauiatin. coUiform count of less than 200 per 100 mI._ 1UinIy to the fIusbins system (CIQ:SS ovcr8ows to the suIIaJe tanks). 1'be n~ling. is aUowed in the ports of certain countries. or to sbcR if the ship is In port for along period.01' ELSAN (ZERO DISCHARGE) SYSTEM A retention or holding tank· is required where no discharge of treated" or untreated sew. Type II-A device capable of discbarJin& efIluent with suspended solids not in excess of . A perforated rubber belt is used to separate liquid from solids in the separatin. 1bese cause putrefaction.. The liquid is theft passed tbroup treatment tanks to a pneupress arranaement for 1IIC as a ftUlbin& flUid. WIth more than ten personnel.Yellels 01 ~!' 200 . Many countries dump ~ <nni'sepractically on tbe shoretine.n breakdown by aerobic orpnisms occ:un where· tbere is ample MYaen • described previously.

.. This Bcknowledges that there are oa::asioas wbcn due to problems "1th combustion equipmeot or fuel.3 Cubic mclRl (0.··I:..in·... dispened in the wake. ad • Proccdura aad Anupmads . C SUM" res is obtained froM< die ~" ad AfraoIeIDeDts . trainin& and watchkccpiDa (or dw:ckiDJ of control equipment and alarms) that no smote isproduccdio do5ed waters or.... 10 be c:arried IS • tefereaae:. ). when discharal cargo remains must be removed and also discharged ashorcby _. wiaChe ~ more than 12 nautic:al nWes ""water deptb of 2S mctresmiDimum.... . 11 disdlarpsituated below tllcwatcrlinc and away from tea inlets.. cIiu& ~ the mlllualand lot hiJh residue substanc:cs. 1DIutiDe. I Ite 1OIution... A tpeeiallow capacity pump whicIlleaves the offending liquid 1IIlI~' ~~.3 aabic metres f....~ i.....1 cubic metlel (0. SpcciaI dniDiac ud cIIcbaqe methods have also been produced for fittina to e:xistioa wsek.005 (tpeeiaI ... Traces of type A cargo on the __ • bulkbcads wiD remain until removed by • ~uent wll!.....'. III other couutries the criterion may be different (e. to not IIIORi than ten minutes in the awegak in any two hour period. .~ pre-waIhed willi discbuF of . discharged and delivered to the shore.' ':: 1be carao for typeC 1DCeI in chemic:al ~ l... If diIcMrte of the later washinp is. . if later washinp'" be. black smoke is sometimes inevitable wbcII llabinc up or wbeo • problem occurs. For some tuken there were substantia] reoiains because ~ the inability of the older type of cargo pumps 10 disc:barJc c:ompIetcIy..dc" it is considered to he over the limit and to be bIad: smote. care.. Improved c:IeuiII& of tab anticipated ideas put forward ill draft repIaIioaJ for. .~. of dcari .... Ouidaace for disc:huce 8IboR 01 ealCJOry B caraoes is •• Procedura and Arranpmcota manual.· '. COIl'. Another...'A'lER AND SEWAGE The Clean Air Act in BriuUn is intended to cfiscouraae emission of bI.. A For . for the sake of efficiency...at.....ftt Ty~ • c:hemic:l.. cabic metres for o&dor )~ Guidancc... ~ Rducod 10 leal tbaa 0.. .. c:aIGr ail. black smoke emission may be unavoidable . Smoke from the funnels of vessels In docks or harbours is cbecked for 'blackness' by comparison with the Ringebnad Chart. L 1.. operaoo.. 1bus there is abo • rqaIation appicd to repeated attempts to flash up and reduce SIIlOke. aad carboa tetncbluride. ill c:hemical tanken1MUll..) thea port waslrinllDUlt.bapter 2) were deRpcd for IIIOIC dIicicat di$dlarge 50 that cargo tank rcmainI were miainud.~t_-~..' If C.~* pulQp... pre-wasb to the .~~. darteacd JIass). CI'eOICMe (a'JIII_... OoIy wasbwater added after CUJO· _ .....' :.:" . Che efhent.8 ~ "'. ·.autioa :. residue. oII:IiIf.. . Thus. Ob\'iousl~·.. lift ... ill his dcpanmcnt is to ensure by maintenance.. ~ aceed 0......OILY ... 1bese n:plations are IiJniIar to t)'pt . D eMmiclll iDdude: ~ .minas to reception fac::ilitilll... aad D) .. at any time. aceed 1 p.' lead to a court ease and a heavy fine.' ._bt July 198611U11t be capable UDder tat.. (not· in spec:iaI_) and 0..... Pan of the Clean Air Act is taken up with examples of the line of dcfcnsc that may be taken in court.at from the tanka . apinst disc:barge of cargo remains or tank wasbiap from whatever CIU'JO muined in the tanks of chemicaJ tankers. f 1 1 ! LJr.~--Mid.. aception for wbidl CQIltent must beieSl . into the propcDcr where it wiD be broIta ..l~:Ym"1 the cfiScbUJC ioto the lei! of type A substances...._ . . IOIIIC alcohols. tbcre was DO real :restrictioII. "water' from ~ . includes: acclOne cyanohydrin~ aad cobalt UpbtheaatelR soWeftt 8aphSha. tbaa O. Qk:iunt • 3$1. . Presence 0( ebcmical alter this would not.. . The overall responsibility of the Chief EnJincer aud otbcn. time limit durinf!. .~ outIide ... where there are • number of shan emissions: the aggregate tUne must be: limited to three minutes inuy twenty minute period... __ .... dIoIe" ':.: of water 8owiD& over and adjaceat to the bud is used.. Record Boot. freely diIcbarJed. After this..nes (~ B •.1Iie cIiIcIwJe of.. The washinl throuJh to clear cargo is solely for that purpose alli:l_It... c. Faihue to comply with them rna.. AIR POLLUTION ~ PREVENTION OF POLLUTION FROM BULK CHEMICAL CARRIERS Uotil the regulations to control aud prevent pollution of the sea by chcmiaIls came into force on the 6th April 1987....... iii:.t. c:IIIoride. ne rules ¥C extended so iaclude those for sub$equcDt tank . -.hil1l1 qp. Regulations therefore U5Ud. as a means to reduce poIIutioa.<i~'rL .. die DIes for·.:: ~ C c:bemicU include: aoctic 1M:icI.. 'Ibele is a ieqIIiremeat iD. as a complete deanilll operation. and which ~rry them...put of !be ruliallimits ..Ib-. the disctulfle from the tank until the tank iI empty.... list of T1~ A cbemicals. 1peCiaI_ (BaItic_'BID: Sea ese. ~mic:aIs in this category . my be pumped "" . I.. Otber countries h3\'C' their own equivalent regulations.iatbe.!.moI'C camp&ete cIiIcMrae of cargo.......... The pumps for tbe type B . certain value.K. cate... ...cs: .aIer generations of cargo pumps (see c. benzene..!. .C1 .1 per ClCDt (wiPt) wIlDe in port.y iDducIe • spec::i&c.. c::arao --.....lbe . sea. reduce coateat of '*tqory A c:bcmic:als to ...):.·I.. nmutiM do not eueed 0.· CIJci.....1I inc:lucIe: acrylonitrile. ·It is i_oded iii shall cany the cbemic:aJ. ).g. If darter tbaa m. dircc:tioos for discbarF and tank ..p. UsuIIy the combGltion system would be shut down again or adjusted fairly quicSIy at cmilsioa ad in • shoner time than four minutes.~. type A chemicall .. and completion 1¥MhiDa: routine c:a be pumped cwerboard ...s SIIlOkc from lh~ chimneys of industrial and other premi5cs ud from shipI.:. Rqulations wbida came in fon:e OIl abc 6th April 1987 divide bulk liquid c:bemical caqoes into four eare.. is prohibitcci.tO l .. wasbinp arc coasidcred as fonninJ • residual mature constitllfiiti. IjO! ... d'. The Odly factors Iimitina poIIutioo wen: JODChriII and the fact lbat carso remainina in taDks after discbarJe toOStituted a lois to the shipper....t~ ryp.... its c:adinuous production must not be for longer than four _utes... The WashiRI proc::ess i5 contiaueduntil the c:ootent Qf the tyPQ below..:. black smoke visible duouJb. Where difficulties.. A ship's spcc4 tbaa seYeIl kDob.:.OSpcr cent CUboa clilulplUde is ... ad IIydnJdIIaric cbIoride sOIutioa.. which black smoke emission is not penalised: ill the U..y 1986111U1t be capBIe of -.

rap. and the proliferation of plastic· bags has made· casual dumpinl a major nuisance. NGUoIII Uquid Subltanccs in B~) Rep)atioa 1987.n r .nce . . wiD be· __ . 2 Content.. The ·nuislUlQ!value extends to blockage of sea water inlet strainers and components such as ejectors. 551. pacbainl. An exceptioa made for food wastes will permit disposal onIv beyond the 12 mile limit. . of. The plastic items do not rot or break down. I R. provided that they have been passed through a comminuter or grinder. food wastes and other ReJDI such as paper products. ' . Marine Pollution. if the vessel is in a special HMSO. HMSO. Research has sbown that the majority oflarbage washed up on British beaches. Oddments made of plastic.. At a later date.lations 1988. The introduction of plastie cxmtainers and packagiRg. into the sea is DOt permitted uoIeu: 1 The ship is proceeding at DOt _ than seven knots. . An incinerator implies air pollutiOn topther with tile peoalty of iaitial expenditure and operating C8Its (fuel). (PrftentioaOt Oil Pollution) Regulations 1983. There is a 2S mile limit beyond wbiclt dUDaago. requires provision of garbaae disposal facilities by ports and terminals at a reasonable cbarae.. nean. fIlftber regulations is dependent on im~ of Ihore disposal fKilitica.. ean be disposed of. 3 The' wssel is more than twelve miles from land. The United Kingdom Regulations.r" t OlL Y WATER AND SEWAGE OILY WATER AND SEWAGE I The discharge of type D cbemialk.ar. with bappens~re will be • complete ban OD the dumpin. use of synthetics for ropes and fishing nets. crockery and. 1)c: Merchant Shippin. $}'IUhetic fishing nets and any otber iUbIIances wIUclit COQld be 10 c:aaqorized. Dumping of plastics iI not IlIowed in any '. •. The dumping of refuse within 3 ftIiIes of any coutIifte is prohibited. They are also obvious and unsightly.ccepIioa HMSO. Rubbish from ships bas tnditionaUy been dumped at sea where most of it Sank or in the case of food wastes. lOJether with other areD severely at riIk from poUution by prbaae. . was cateB by seabirds or fish.. metal and other materials have proved dangerous to wild life./erences The MerchaniSbippin.· syntbetic ropes. lenera) refuse in tile special areas.. controls for special areas wbidl include the tdcditerra. Not aU sipatory countries wiD make this provisioII in the immediate futURo . The Merc:bant SbippiDa(1.. Annex V of the IMO Marpol73f18 convention which seeks to control disposal of garbase is now in force. GARBAGE DISPOSAL Domestic refuse ashore iI tontpIetely removed and disposed of by buryina or burning.ore striaJcot. Tbere is a limit imposed on tile quantity discbarged. comminution of the above muse is DOt neCessary." FaciIitic:s for Garbap:) Replations 1988. Baltic and Black seas.1inina and packing lhatcrials wbich may Ooat. TIIIIina ot the. Substances passing tbroush • pinder IIIlISt be rendered small enough COpass through a 2S nun screeD. gIassI bottles. originated from ships. The Merchant Shippina (Cootrol of PoUuIioe . aste. LcgisIatioD ill the United Kingdom. Wbea this Statutory 1nstnuDeD1I1987 No. Beyond the 12 miles line. ilIdude incineratins or on board retention until the ~I rcac:heI a pun with reception facilities. (Prevention of Pollution by Garbalc) Reln. There is a complete ban on tlledumpiDS of pIasticIat sea in any ~ Options for disposal of Ptastics in the farm of . came into force on the 31st December 1988 as The NerdwJtSbippmg (Prevention of Polluti_by G~) Replations 1981. area. These new regulations seek to reduce the garbage nuisance by imposing limits ~ tIM: dumping of the various kinds of . Outlidc of this area. ~mc. wbicIl give effect to the IMO c:ooveation. of the discharge is made up pi only ODe part of the ten pans of wilter. metals caD be disposed of.

Despite precautions near tile .'-' \' ' Steam heated evaporators with their higher heating surface::_ . They are used 10 advantaF OIl some passenaer cruise vessels and are fttted in ships which may remain stopped at sea for various ~ (tankers awaitilll OrdeR.. 1bese Coalesce forming drops large enough to fall back against the vapour &OW. because magnesium hy~JftJnn when surfaces are at 8O"C or more..ditlons or higher than usual heating water temperature. to keep density down.. 'Iocc' which mostly discharges with the brine.. of the bri~e by the brine pump or ejector. 6O"C. OF WATER CHAPTBRIO Production of Water Modem low pressure evaporators and reverse osmosis s~ Jive relatively trouble fRC operation particularly in comparisoo with the types that . will :Cleter acid cleaning to make it an annual exercise. The small quantity of soft calcium carbonate scale can be removed by periodic c. Without continuous cratiWCnt cleaning may be necessary after perhaps two months. . The lingle effect. The demister of. ru~_iCl_'" Pnl-~1l. outside a 20 mile limit). Scale is not a major problcn:t where submerged heating coils reach a tempera. re. Waminl is given in M Notice M620 that evaponlOD mUll IlOl be operated within 20 miles of a coastline and that this distalltC should be peater in some circumstances. Reverse osmosis systems were instaUcd to pvc instant wa1er production capaaty without extensive modifications (as with vessels CDIIIID8Ildeercd for hostilities in the Falklands war). Evaporation of part of the sea water leaves a brine the density of which must be controlled by continual removal through a brine ejector or pump. white scale. are removed by the air ejector. The relatively low temperature jacket water entering at about 6S"C and leaving at about 6O"C will produce evaporation because vacuum conditions reduce boiling temperature of the sea water from 10lfC to less than 4S"'C..Ji ". Use of continuous treatment. heat is too low for formation of magnesium scales and ~ brine deDllty IS controlled..leaning with a . but which will not condense. Another safeguard IS the distillate return loop system.of ~nly. high vacuum. Air and other gases released by heating of the sea water. They are sufficiently teUabie to provide the water needed for the: engine room and domestic consumption during c:ontinuout and UDIIttendeci operltlbn. ~.Yh· CORROSION m. Storage capacity for water can be donated to commercial camine.l PRODUCTIOr-. The higher evaporabon -rate would increase brine density and p~ ~ formatioa but output is restricted to the rated figure. to cope with excess evaporation due to ~ao tube con. ture .. An advantaae of low pressure evaporators is that they enable·ocherwilc wasted beat from diesel engine jacket coolin. '1:. Contmuous removal.. disposal of chemical wastes from industry. calcium sulphate will not cause problems. limits density.~ Vapour ~volved at a very rapid rate by boiling of the sea water feed tends to carry with-it droplets of salt water which must be removed to avoid contamination of the product. Pollution is present in inshore waters from JeWaae outfalls.benefit more from chemical dosing.j DISTILLATE TREATMENT 1be low operating temperature of the evaporator sterilize the product. any excess distillate being returned to the brine sump. submerged tube evaporator sbown (Fig.tP~:A. water to be put to soOO use.'""N'){1 The steel shell of evaporators is prone to corrosion.. Other potential scale-forming salts are calcium sulphate and magnesium compou_. Loss of carbon dioxide from calcium bicarbonate leaves plain calcium carbonate which has poor solubility and a tendency to lonn soft. knitted monel metal wire or polypropylene collects the salt filled waler droplets as they are carried through by the air. drainace of femma from the land and isolated cases of pollution from JfOUDdins or c:oUision of ships and spillage ofcarao· Condensale pump LOW PRESSURE EVAPORATORS Low pressure evaporators for the production of water may be heated by waste steam on steamships or by engine cooling water OD motonhips. rolled and bonded to the 1be adhesive is heat cured and integrity of the DR~"IM.. ' . One of the gases liberated is ~ from calcium bicarbonate in the sea water. 112) is supplied with diesel engine cooling water as the heating medium. form of natural rubber.commer~ available agent or the evaporator can be conbDually dosed wnh synthetiC polymer to bind the scale fanning salt in.me fitted in older ships.

ULTRA. salt or other solution on the The With tbe ftO UJ_ ..mcm~. me!Q.p.. it will evaporate. . wa r--but not salts (Fig.. maximum. Pure tel ""'_ urized by. states that the ElectroKatadyn process in use since the 19605. MI401.+--------. although instantly effective. While the water resides in the domestic tank. c. This condition makes it corrosive to pipe systCIIII and less than beneficial to the human digestive tract. as a constituent of sodium hypochlorite (a liquid) or as solid granules of calcium chloride dissolved in water... The addition of hardness salts also gives the water a better taste. . The pheOO'.. It is used in conjunction with other methods but not as the sole means of sterilization. brane result that the salt solution is diluted but the water remamspure.. 1be liquid level ill the fUDnc~nses as pure water p~ ~rough the ~t and into the solution. neutralite unit. removes acidity. Unlike the gas chlorine.PRODUcnON OF WATER may enter with the sea water and pass through to the domcstie water tank and system. Distilled water having left behind the compounds pre¥iously dissolved in it.'1C1lO!l : important in the absorptioo of water through the roots of plants and 1ft arum and plant systems generaIly. chlorine should preserve sterility.p.-.1 p. has also been approved.ne 15 permeable memu. A later notice. ------T--I PRODUC1'ION OF WA~. J46 .. water may become infested due to build up of a colony of organisms from some initial contamination. water.--~-__' The electrokatadyn process (Fig.. Ultra-violet radiation from low pressure mercury lamps is used for pretreatment disinfection in some reverse osmosis plant. filter allowing passage of water but not of the salt. Silver content of the system should· be 0. all of the water is delivered through the device and the current setting is such as to give a concentration of 0. J: 141 . will not last and will DOt. For production of large amoun" of pure ~ REVERSE OSMoslS ::Bh. Silver is toxic to the various risk organisms. .!'n . The action WI acts tias a despite rise of head of the salt solution relative to that of the pure con BOCA dramabe' labotatory demonstration uses a parchment-covered.·1be addition is set to briog chlorine content to 0. being a gas.tsapply t I Water oudel TREATMENT WITH CHLORINE STERILIZATION Initial treatment involves passing the distillate through. The bypassed water is then added to the rest in the pipeline.-_. of silver. 11S). rsed . ..m. war· TREATMENT WI1H SILVER ION ADDITION- Wet ___. :.m. therefore.materials Salt water on one side of the membr-. .2 p. Some absorption of carbon dioxide from the water and the neutnlizing effect of these compounds.m..VIOLET LIGHT Chlorine and silver jon sterilization give lasting protection but sterilization by ultra-violet light.into. In the long term. a scrm-permea bl. Additionally there is a likelihood that while in the domestic tank. 114). Osmo~c pressure can be obtained measurin the bead of the solution when the action ceases.. The amount of metal released to water passing through the unit is controlled by the current setting. ta'ncr of . containiAg magnesium and calcium carbonate. The passage of water from storage tanks to the domestic system is by way of a carbon filter which removes the chlorine taste. 113) accepted as an alternative to chlorination (see M 1401) involves the use of a driven silver anode to inject silver ions into the distilled water product of the low temperature evaporator. it will not evaporate but remains suspended in the water. .m.p. Cblorine. Sterilization by addition of chlorine. is recommeaded in Merchant Shipping Notice M 1214.08 p. . The sterilizer is placed close to the production equipment with the conditioning unit being installed after the sterilizer and before the storage tank. more . mp and forced against the matcnaJ. prevent re-infection. tastes nat and tends to be slightly acidic due to ready absorption of carbon dioxide (C02). is injected for sterili2ing purposes. rted thistle funnel partly iWed with solubon and ~me In a con I m:~ water (Fi . If a large volume has to be treated only part is by passed through and a high current setting is used to inject a large amount of silver. With low water ftow.. f' Reverse osmosis is a water filtration process whid1 makes use 0 scDl!· "--_. by The mem:rane and the parcbment are semi-permeable and allow the wa~r molecules through but not the larger salt molecules. the term used to describe the passage of pure water from one ~ of IS other.

A dosing chemical. 149 . High pressure pump C1ean waler Sea wiler feed Fig. 114 Demonstration of osmosis water. Design of the cartridges (Fig.PRODucnONOFWATER Clean 'IIIIeJ' Fig. One problem with any filtration system is that deposit accumulates and gradually blocks the filter. the membrane area must be large and it must be tough enough to withstand the pump pressure: The material used for sea water purification is spirally wound polyamide or polysulphonate sheets.is also injected to assist the action. 116) is therefore such that the sea water feed passes over the membrane sheets so that the washing action keeps the surfaces clear of deposit. 115 Reverse osmosis J48 - .

is to be sterilized. T. A. lSt \ .p. the surfaces hosed to clean them. Tanks surfaces are prepared by wire brushing and priming. if necessary. Super-chlorinating when the vessel is drydocked. should be treated by sterilization. Noise and Vibration NOISE DOMESTIC WATER TANKS Harmful organisms in drinking water storage tanks have caused major health problems on passenger vessels and to oil platform personnel. Gilchrist. the Modem Alternative. at six-month intervals. 95. MER.m. Washing with a 50 p. HMSO. consists of leaving a 50 p. solution of chlorine is suggested.fRODUcnON OF WATER Treatment is also necessary to make the water product of reverse osmosis potable. All water from ashore. M 1401 Disinfection of Ships' Domestic Fresh Water. J. At the twelve-montb inspection. The Department of Transport recommends in Merchant Shipping Notice number M 1214 that because of the risk from kgionelkl bacteria entering the respiratory system by way of fine mist from a shower spray. R. before application of a cement wash. Trans. foUowed by Bushing.. The hose must be stored clear of the deck where contamination is unlikely. be pumped out and.p. (1987). vol. . • The transfer hose for fresh water is to be marked and kept exclusively for that purpose. Sea Water Distillers. 88. Drinking Water from the Sea: Reverse Osmosis. The method is much the same_ for water produced in low temperature evaporators. I. E. 'aUl~ritM=s and the United ship' which sets survey. When chlorine is used. aU water including that for washing only. paper 38.m. cleaning and recoaring may be needed. Tanks should.p. Mar. are available. Trans.. The ends must be capped after use. References M 1214 Recommendations to Prevent Contamination of Ships' Fresh Water Storage and Distribution Systems. J. vol. Legionella and Ships' Water Systems. Mar. The Merchant Shipping (Crew Accommodation) Regulations 1978. c. (1987). whether for drinking or washing purposes. among others.m. E.2 p. This on measure- ISO - ~> . E. chlorine solution in the tank over four hours. Epoxy and other coatings developed for use in fresh water tanks. CHAPTER}} TREATMENT OF WATER FROM SHORE SOURCES There is a risk that water supplied from ashore may contain harmfuJorganisms which can multiply and infect drinking or washing water storage tanks.. Allanson.x. Hill. (976). and Charnley. the dose must be such as to give a concentration of 0.

. Readinp . diesel generators at 120 dB(A). (b) as I .. planned maintenance decrees exact periods between overhauls of rotating macbinery as dose as possible to the sIWt. Reediop of l'ibrtlioa mapitude and &equeDcy are recorded manually from basic instnuDeDli but some equipment incorporates data c:oDec:ton from wbida informatioa iI fe4 to a computer for analysil..: Many of the available ear muffs and plugs are not adequate. Only when the noise is at 85 dB(A) or less is there no limit on exposure time. is seen as another surveiUanc:c metbod. . of condition monitoring for maintcnanc:c. or are worn or dama&ed.' . Varying degrees of vibration. aaotber and more acceptable option. VIBRA nON ANALYSIS WARNING Ear protection is necessary and a suitable warning should be posted at the entrance to any space in which noise levels reach or exceed 90 dB(A) . tenda to remove ftexibil~ty and sensible alteration of running hours. NOISE AND vtBRA nON NOISE AND Vl8~11QN . If. y also be taken 011 casinp. Readings of 105 have been taken near slow-speed engine cylinder heads and figures of 100 dB( A) between. There are also / VIBRATION AND CONDITION MONITORING Routine maintenance of ships machinery has been based on running ~urs as recommended by equipment manufacturers.. Dismantling machinery and equipment for survey may. and the acceptable maximum daily dose if the ears are not protected is 30 seconds. and found to have no faults and a potential for many more hours of operation. permit adequate speech communication . reciprocating machinery) where there are upIMIanc:cd forces. Equipment has been frequently taken out of service for planned maintenanc~ r .~" "tt·. The alternative to planned maintenance. will result from these and other defects. There are limits set on the safe time of exposure to certain levels of sound. 1bere are also fixed installations with a display unit. A DOte in the code of practice states: 'Face-to-face conversation should be sa"'tisfactory at a distance of approximately 0. should be limited to 5 minutes.p.. .2 m for normal voice effort and up to about 9 m when shouting. .75 m using a raised voice. for readings of 100 dB(A).. Used oil analysis an alternative method of determining engine condition. 87 dB(A) (for 16 hours) or 90 dB(A) (for 8 hours). eJl8I~ Fooln. medium-speed diesel generators.. Tbe: vibratioD pick·up is placed OD each bcarina in tunt 10 record in tbe wrtical.. by mutual agreement. horizontal and uiaI directions.. The cost of stripping down is paid not only in terms of replacement joints. Unprotected exposure to a noise level of 110 dB(A). vibration monitorm.blevibratioo. Noticeable or at least IDeMW'e8. Telephone usage is likely to be slightly difficult'. Telephone and radio usage should be acceptable'.. ... Other recommended maximum levels are: Galleys and pantries-70 dB(A) Sleeping cabins and hospital-60 dB(A) Day cabins and offices-65 dB(A) Mess rooms and recreation rooms-65 dB(A) Damage-to the hearing is based on sound level and time of exposure. can be expensive in terms of the extent of resulting damaae. Hearing is most at risk in machinery spaces where noise levels may be greater than the recommended maximum. Breakdown maintenance is not the remedy of the prudent enpnecr. A note relating to this states: 'Face-to-face conversation should be satisfactory at distances of up to 1. . has been measured in a location between two high speed 1800 r. depending OD the progress of the fault. Condition monitorin&. may suffer severe and obvious vibration. as measured in a small machinery space with medium speed and fast diesel units. supports and at other relevant points. Other defects which would be made apparent by increasing vibration. by . and. Unfortunately. be costly in the same way. Exposure to this degree of sound energy is potentially harmful. The ideal limit for manned machinery spaces of 90 dB(A) should be endured for not longer' than 8 hours per day. for example. arc damap:d or worn bearings and gear teeth which are mating badly. A rotatins machine with inadequate founda~ or bearinl support. Measurements of vibration CQ be made: (a) if a problem develops and diagnosis is DCCCSAI'Y.. as an alternative to tatin& machinery apart for survey. The recommended maximum noise level in the wheelhouse is 65 dB(A). The result 1$ that planned maintenance has proved to be _ . The figure of 110 dB(A) is the recommended limit for unmanned machinery spaces in which personnel may be engaged in maintenance work on a dailv basis! Exposure time should be limited to 50 minutes per day. The performance of approved types should be checked against measured noise levels to ensure that they are capable o( reducing effects to an equivalent of 85 dB(A) (for unlimited exposure time). A noise level. imbalance or misalignment.. VIBRATION MONITORING INSTRUMENT READINGS Vibration readinp are taken' maiDIy on the bearin& housings 152 153 .. seals and pans but sometimes in damage inflicted and ultimate breakdown built in. is becoming more widely used • the means of detel1Dinin& wben machinery should be overbau.m. tbose unavoidable vibrations associated with c:crtain equipment [i. The operating and maintenance experienee of ships' engineers provided the foundation for planned maintenance schemes..~ cost effecttve. and (c) as a substitute for cla&sifieatioD society survey where agreement has b(eD reacbed with the society. during the procedure of openiog the equipment.led. Overhaul times have then been adjusted by experience and the requirements of government depanment andIor classification society survey.e. of repairing after breakdown. aff.(. Instruments with a built-in capability for 011 lite analysis are available. The limit for 87 dB(A) is 16 hours. is associated with most mechanical problems that occ:ur in macbiocs. Oassific:ation societies are now wiIlin& to ac:ccpt.

MER_ cooIen. (1978). 20 SURVEY OF MACHINERY To satisfy the requirements of classification. 151-2 Dec:k water seal. 62. . Other factors Wbicb will contribute perhaps in a major way to the identification of problems are aIIo taken ioto account·. The ~gs are obtaioed with the machinery in a steady running state. 27-9.. 21. 132-3 CoIferdaml.. 51 Disc and bafIIes.7 Crine seal. CJl.water tanks. 7 AmmoDia..ount. 55 Chalk and paraftin tat. ~ valve. 38 boule valve.62 Fretting. 140 Oeao bIbst taDb. Central c:ooIiDJ system. ISO Dry pipe tectioD alum valve. Machinery which is operated with condition monitoring has only to be opened for examination when readings indicate a deterioration. B-41 Bulk Decibels (dB).. 21 Chemical tanken. 101-2 CoiIPbI bolts. 21 Colliform c... TrGns. condition monitoring. 53 • Cathode ray ~. 27-9 0IemiaI tanker ~~1 Chemical as £ledro. 93-4 Fuel blender. 35 Dye penetrant tatiIIJ. system.I36-8 BafIles (cooler). Noise Reduction in Ships. 7 Pistillate treatment. Vibration-identifying the source. 94 Benzene..63 ADaerobiI:. 165 Factor of safety.14 Creep. 33-6 Facd~36-4S flame failure/59 Flammable nmtures. 37.. 19 co. MtII'. Thomas. 31 ' 000riDa~46 ~i~- Face seal (oil). hitbi. 89 CRep testing. alarm.. 29-31 Defrost arrancements.. 18-19 Float ehamber. 89 Ferrous sulpbate. BrineWol. load and operating temperatures are DOted together with any history of component failure. CbarginJ telemotor. 63-70 Axial strain. 64 Density (fuel). 113. In the past. system. co. 125 CharJinJ steeriDa . The rondition and performance is checked on a planned basis. SO Freoos..1:38-9 ~&re~. HMSO. (J990). 50-1 Crude oil w. the two methods to provide CO. This facility has now been extended. BromotriftuorometbaDe. 9 Coalesc:er (oilY water. 89 Qude oil refining. A.. 1 CentrifuJC Ilt8PJClQCDts (fuel). Aising.. iDdicator.. EaJine 39-41 Entry to eaclOIOIiI~. (:opper roller beaia&.hours to dictate when equipment should be opened for inspcc:tion and· overhaul.118-19 Catalytic finc:s. 131-B Combustible: . the classification ~eties have permitted designated chief engineers to carry out surveys themselves in ports and places where DO surveyor from the society was available. 19-20 Caoditioo ~ 1!52-4 Coolers.katadya ~.34 &cIoIed~16 &poe rocXr.. but items are only opened for examination when vibration and other readings show there has been a deterioration.teaa.7-12 . 135 Automatic freoa S)'Itenl. pos5Ibly. 136-7 Air coDdi~r Air in ~ (frldse). 55-6' Fuel daIa aod testiD&. 61"':2 E. 145-6 Domestie. 1 JIRIIUI'C veaeI tests. 7 FITC main.. yearly intervals or the alternative of a tontinuous survey over a period of five years can be agreed on. 5-7 Ceotrifupl pump. 86 n-80 CONDITION MONITORING MAINTENANCE AND PLANNED greater cost effectiveness. 23 DeepweU pump. 99-102 Biocbemical 0KYJCIl demand (BOD). 35-6 Fractiona~ tower. en. BrineU bardDess tat. 37. 51-2 Foaminstal"'. 74 . 7-8 Bearinp (shaft). 64. B. 19-20 RIOQI Eqine I00III .l40 Air . Uoyds .. A complete survey of a ship's machinery can be carried out at four. /. the condition of ships and their machinery has to be demonstrated at regular intervals to surveyors from the societies.. Noise Levels on Board Ships.M . 140-1 Chemical taoter· . 56 . 137 Blender (fuel). 113-4 Face seal (sea water). Code of Practice (or Noise Levels in Ships. based on calendar or running. EvaporalOl' (lridSC). 31 COa Bacteria.xpIosimeter.20 ~rbearin&. The shortcomings of a planned maintenance scheme. 16 . Thus details such as speed. 41-5 154 155 . 81 rio.90-1 . 126 Qwpy tClt. 4 Floc:culatioo. 43-5 144-5 . 115-17 AlumiDium bruI. 36-9 Cupro-niCkcl. E. vol.. 91-2 Chemical stain tubes. . Many shipping companies now use a combination of. 91-3 Cleao Air Act.69 Evaporator (water ~)... 13--15 Ceotral priminl system. Foam bnncII ~. 74 Floc point.. 95-C' 0ea0iD& au.asbjna (COW). INO.. A condition that must be satisfied is that the vessel has a suitable planned maintenance scheme in operation with.S. Regulations. 38-9 References Approved Planned Maintenance Scbemes an Alternative to C.3 ~t (shaft). . 47-8 Dual purpoI8 . 84 .. 93-4 Frettiog aad corrosion. can be reduced by incorporation of condition monitoring. Designated chief engineers are now empowered to Qrry out surveys at sea or in any port on much but not all of the machinery. 74 Air poDution. ~9 sew-. solving the problem. 146-7 EIIaII ". ~taab.). The latter continuous survey of machinery has involved the opening up and examination of approximately one-fifth of the IIlKbincry in each year. Index Aerobic sewalN! ~t. ' NOISE 'AND VIBRATION FAULT DIAGNOSIS An investigation of excessive vibration relies mainly on vibration frequency readings to identify normal and abnormal vibntions.

1 Shore water treatmCJlt. 86 • StniD 86 Ultrasonic ~.. valves. 90-1 HeIe. 5 Water spray 1JIfeID. 73 Oil tuker cargo pwnpiac. 121.:tiq(sha& . 122-3 Water boa (cooIen~7 Water COIItenl( . 53 Vapour compressi<la cycle. 'I V. 86 Leak detector lamp. pump. ..1. 38:-9 PretreatmeDt ud post treatmeDt (R. 101-2 Room solenoids. 2 Inert PI system. U12-3 ' T"II~ pad ~. 133-5 Oil lubricated stem tube. 45-9 Sieerina gear charPna. Jbdiosnpbic ~tioD (distilled water). 2 VibIlltion anal '. steerin$ gear. 52 PressUre vacuum (p..1S4 (1eWIp). Tbresbold limit valUe 20· TIuuit bJocb. 82 Pipc:1iDes. 142-3 Gas free certificate. 23-4 lo&ematioiW shore CODDeCtioa. 48-9 ~ system. 6S-7 99-100 as &oIati.. riDt primer. US lciogol ~tor. ~ Noa-destruclive testioC Nozzle (dual purpose). IM-13 :"9 .V. 1~9 !-iIudied PI c:aIJO puBIIIift&. 132-3 Osdllosc:ope. 126 142 156 157 . lIZ Muioe safety c:ard. 88 Pump . 20-1 Purifier. 91-2 Impeller (pump). Primer . 50-1 Reverse OSIIlOIis. S6- Steerioa cear SteeriDa JCar repJatioas. 7-9 TurnbuO split stem beuiDJ. 68-9 ~ Mapetic i:nct detcctioD. 127-9 Sprinkler bead. pump. 146 ~"Stem tubl!t.. U8 . 24-5 Pressure vessel (~. 12-13 Section M~ eumination. ). 153 Vibration~.. 20 Sptit ttern bearinD. 118-19 euminatioft. lS Spray DOZZIes (mulsi-spray).39-41 Harduels testiq.. &l-4 Garbage diIposaI.. Z3 " Sea .. 18-21 OiIylwaler separator. 20 ~==ic~~. ftIve. 81 I. j2 Survey of m~ SuspeDded ~~ Stresi~86 ~~ Cia fuel)"~ . ~ LqioneIM bacteria. 14-6 ResidUal fuel. 16-17 plant. 67-8 Ross. 121-2 HiP expaosioo foam. Packaa:e 60 boiler combustioa system.. 43-S High preaure cutoOUt. 129-30 sboclr. 18-19 L P... 2S-6 HomopDiser.Turnbulstern beariq.15 Vanadium Cia fuel). 82-4 Ram type Iteain& pro 119-25 J:ldriprants.116-17 Lateral straio.48 Quartz crystal. 9-11 PIaiD~. 61 Variable delivery pump. S3-5 ~buIb..f6 Underdwge {fridae).e (fridge).. ISO SmotberiDg instaJIatioD. 138-9 Shaft alipment. us HjdrOicalic lUbric:atioa. (NDT). 108 HaIoo"IY*m.oiIdIeiteIllioa test. 97-9 MulsMprily.:rificW modes. 110-13 .). 147-50 RoIIer~. 8S Oven:har.. 97 Pour point (fuel).) ftive.52-4 VlICOSity (fueJr. 151-2 ~i:':~'3r parifter.. 110-13 YaDe TUlBDium.l4-5 Pressurelvac:uum YIIve.." MIIIIIMII.. ~100 PoisIon's IlIl1O. Modulus. iaIpecdoa. 106 Oil rectifier (fridge). 41-3 Noise. 86 HydryJeo sulphide. 67-8 Sour crueIes. 20 Treatment (distilled water).. X. 1. 41-3" Weardciwa (rUdder). 92 ..-l04-5 Stem hydrodynamic: lubrication. 62-3 RefJilerator 1ubricatioD. 123-4 Steerin& par Wlum. 22 Glacier-Herbert stem bcMin&. .82-4 YIeld poiat. 115 Stem hydrostatic lubric:atioa 115 StiffaeS. lubricited Item tube. 12 Plumed 1MiateDaDc:e. YCIUI!t. 137 149-SO Telemotor. flO beuiaa. 72-3 Refriaerator faults. ~ nI¥e (&remat)..56-7 HoobSLa ....-3 Volute c:asins. 136-7.S. 36-9 Sodium (in Iud). 79-80 Lip type seal.G.. 145-6 Tube cooler. 7 Saubber flDelt pi).. 33 hDetrameter. 71-4 RefriFrator oil m:ovay.. 81 jS • Oil CDIItent moaitorin&. S3-5 treatmeDt ~. 18 Rudder curier !WtuY iDspectioD.. 84-6 Ultra-violet liaht. 99-102 Shaft seal (fridae) 70..Fuel UadIin& I8d tratmc:at. . CIOIIboIIer (frld&e).. 86 86-7 W.O. 6S Hip vcIocily vent.. ~9"". 7 Lower ~ limit.3-5 ~Md~ " 140-1 Proof stress.room&. 12 1bresbold limit value (TLV).. J. 53 Solenoids. 104-5 Seawater pipeIiDes. 92 Moisture ill system (frld&e).. 2S-7 Oil WIker hazards.I2S-6':: T~~t26"· Tensile test..s.. 1. Thermostatic apa . 86. US-16 Shaft beirin~. " Impact tesbq.. 154 Plate coolers. 7S-6 OxYFn analyser. 29-31 !-Mjuid peaettaDt test.as Spray/jet DOZZIe. 74-5 Muff c::uupIins.52-6 Gamma fa)'l.

• .