P. 1
Accredited in PR. Study Guide

Accredited in PR. Study Guide

5.0

|Views: 2,830|Likes:
Published by issalbert

More info:

Published by: issalbert on May 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/10/2013

pdf

text

original

These key time periods are listed as described by Broom (2009, EPR, pp. 92-114). Also included are notable
trends and figures during stages.

Seedbed Era (1900-1916)

Organizational Attitudes: Public be informed. Muckraking, social reform, unions.
PR Trend: Defensive publicity. Journalists hired as “interpreters” to get the news out.
Key PR figures:

o Ivy Lee, Jr.—Full disclosure and tell the truth
o President Theodore Roosevelt—bully pulpit

World War I Period (1917 to 1918)

Organizational Attitudes: Public be informed. The war to end all wars.
PR Trend: Organized promotion. Promote patriotism. Use interest groups.
Key PR figure:

o George Creel—The Four Minutemen

Booming Twenties Era (1919 to 1929)

Organizational Attitudes: Mutual understanding.
PR Trend: Promoting products. WWI publicity techniques used for social science.
Key PR figures:

o Edward L. Bernays—Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), Propaganda (1928)
o Arthur Page—Performance = Reputation

Roosevelt Era and World War II (1930 to 1945)

Organizational Attitudes: Mutual understanding. Depression. World War II.
PR Trend: Mass media use. Social responsibility.
Key PR figures:

o Louis McHenry Howe—Responsible performance, persuasive publicity
o Elmer Davis—Office of War Information
o President Franklin D. Roosevelt—“Fireside Chats”

Post War Era (1946 to 1964)

Organizational Attitudes: Mutual adjustment. Professionalism. Post-war service economy,
consumerism.
PR Trend: Credibility. Associations form, including PRSA. Code of Ethics written. Colleges establish

curricula.
TV importance.

APR STUDY GUIDE © 2010 UNIVERSAL ACCREDITATION BOARD PAGE 114

Period of Protest and Empowerment (1965 to 1985)

Organizational Attitudes: Mutual adjustment.
PR Trend: Accommodation. Systems theory. Management by Objectives (MBO). Functional vs.
functionary approach.
Technology increasing.
Key PR figures:

o Marshall McLuhan—Understanding Media, “global village,” “the medium is the message.”

Digital Age and Globalism (1986 to present)

Organizational Attitudes: Mutual adjustment.
PR Trend: Constant technological connections. International relationships. Organizational
transparency.

Comparison of Descriptive and Historical Aspects of Public Relations

Public Relations
Models

Historical Periods

Organizational Attitudes Example Practitioners

Press Agentry

Pre-Seedbed Era (pre-1900s) Public-Be-Damned

P.T. Barnum

Public Information

Seedbed Era (1900-1916)

World War I (1917-1918)

Public-Be-Informed

Ivy Lee

Booming Twenties (1919-
1929)

Two-way Asymmetric

Roosevelt & WWII (1930-
1945)

Mutual Understanding

Edward Bernays and
Arthur Page

Postwar Boom (1946-1964)

Period of Protest and
Empowerment (1965-1985)

Two-way Symmetric

Digital Age and
Globalization (1986-Present)

Mutual Adjustment

Arthur Page, Scott
Cutlip and Allen
Center

Notes: Public relations models as explained in Grunig & Hunt (1984). Historical periods as articulated in
Broom (2009, EPR). Organizational attitudes as articulated by Edward Bernays and Arthur Page (cited in
Broom, 2009, EPR). Example practitioners as identified in Broom (2009, EPR) and Grunig & Hunt (1984).

Acknowledgement: This chart is adapted from one that appears in Sha, B.-L. (2007). Dimensions of public
relations: Moving beyond traditional public relations models. In S. Duhe (Ed.), New media and public relations
(pp. 3-25). New York: Peter Lang.

Additional Resource

Grunig, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing public relations. New York: CBS College Publishing.

APR STUDY GUIDE © 2010 UNIVERSAL ACCREDITATION BOARD PAGE 115

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->