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Learning Team X: Policing Organizations Q & A Responses CJA/214
Learning Team X: Policing Organizations Q & A Responses The British System of Civil Service allows for each of the civil servants to be both recruited and promoted based on their administrative skills and expertise. Civil Servants tend to avoid political scenarios and are prohibited from actively involving themselves from political campaigns. Civil Servants are classified as career employees and are not particularly appointed by political advisors or elected officials. However, there was a
with the exception of uniformed positions. guarantee of the political neutrality of civil servants by preventing coercion and bribery.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A difference civil service in place throughout the first half of the 19th century. Including rewards hierarchy. In those days. 2 the Civil Service was compiled of appointed officials. The Civil Service System In 1883. developing tests for each position. status hierarchy. Also. and relative security of tenure and removal for political reasons forbidden. the civil service is based on a hierarchical structure. Rank . or judicial branch of government. A senior hierarchy is compiled of officers with lots of experience. senior hierarchy. Furthermore. Civil service also has particular responsibilities which include developing job descriptions. In general. Civil service conducts some but not all the tests and certifies a list of people in line to be hired or promoted. A status hierarchy is when officers rank a particular status inside the department. The three concepts include competitive examinations to enter public service positions. it’s understood that more authority and responsibility come with the job. Members of the civil service system include all positions at an executive. Every organization operates on four formal hierarchies. they are paid significantly more and have the advantage of deciding on their shifts and responsibilities. establishing the minimum standards required for each position. A rewards hierarchy is solely based on rank and seniority while skills and performance are irrelevant. and announcing job openings. Assuming an officer has a higher rank in the department. legislative. the United States embraced a civil service system which was designed based on three concepts from the British System of Civil Service. In fact. and rank hierarchy.
five people are assigned to the civil board by Mayor of every city. Civil service is structured mostly on merit principles. Policing. 3 Currently. the objectives of professionalism allow for great values concerning funding from incoming tax dollars. which is a key element of the criminal justice system.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A hierarchies consist of officers maintaining their ranking until promoted further along. Police officers are government employees but their job descriptions. Civil service provides the open public with equal opportunity. 1883. The purpose of this Act was to prevent the spoils system. skills. The Civil Service System and Police The Civil Service Act was initiated in January. The Civil Service system handles the human resources of law enforcement because they are such a huge portion of the Criminal Justice system. Civil Service systems are also involved with the courts and corrections system. Furthermore. promotions. This arrangement allows the public to receive the best services possible. Specifically. and terminations are controlled by the Civil Service system. However. However. Both the civil and public servants are government careers for civilians whether its agency or department. The Civil Service System. . is governed by three levels. Law enforcement. and parole officers. salaries. The assigned board members interpret administrative code of the civil service systems for the applicable government agencies. bailiffs. and the Criminal Justice System The majority of the countries alternate between public and civil servants. including local. ability. rules and guidelines. positions are granted to supporters of political parties. knowledge. and open competition so everyone is treated the same. The Civil Service system determines the operations of municipal officers. the Louisiana Department of Civil Service in particular helps to manage human resources for other agencies. state. and federal.
In addition. Furthermore. The patrol division contains the most amounts of officers. The unit is supervised by either a captain or lieutenant and officers are assigned based on the recommendation . The Civil Service agencies take on the responsibility to establish job descriptions. if a supervisor neglects to follow these rules they are subject to a grievance reported by the officer which is then investigated by commission to investigate the infraction. The Police department agencies simply follow the rules established by the Civil service system. pay scales. narcotics. and promoting are done on their terms but they still need to oblige the rules and regulations of the civil service. raises. certifying qualified applicants. and recruitment procedures. there are limits to how individual officers are given promotions. community policing. daily operations are done based on the departmental rules and 4 guidelines. street narcotics. Essentially. firing. further actions by the police department including hiring. the supervisor disciplines officers based on the civil service regulations. then the officer is given relief. However. In addition.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A Civil service agencies collectively work with the police department to establish personnel rules and regulations. However. Policing Operations Every law enforcement agency contains a vast amount of officers. and disciplinary procedures. traffic. vice. Other divisions of the police department include the detective bureau. and juvenile. The narcotics unit is a prime example of a specified unit. and bonuses. employee decisions. law enforcement departments will occasionally establish their own rules and regulations. tests. If the commission concludes in investigating the grievance and the supervisor is at fault. the Civil Service system administers tests and are responsible on settling disciplinary action appeals. criteria. Thus.
The theories include the contingency theory. Institutionalized policing organizations are structured as determined by community sovereigns. Organizational Theories Dictate Police Operations Researchers use three organizational theories in order to understand the structures and daily operations for law enforcement. the organization would focus on specializing in a gang unit. The institutional theory states that police organizations are essential social institutions that function similarly to external political and social environments. Thus. Finally. institutional theory. The sovereigns include the mayor. the theory states that organizations should exchange resources to improve their situation. and the resource dependency theory. the daily operations are determined by sovereigns inside the community. Every police organization has a theory which determines how their operations will take place. city council. In addition. or even citizens. The contingency theory in particular is devised on the idea that the organization is designed to accomplish particular goals. Officers must not wear street clothes or have facial hair. the resource dependency theory acknowledges that organizations must build resources in order to survive. if the community had gang related issues. The dress code and personal appearance must meet the criteria of the overall unit. The overview of their job is basically that they must investigate and arrest anyone that is participating in illegal drug activities. Police organizations are also structured based on three of their own organizational 5 theories. positions in special units are hardly assigned based on seniority or rules in the civil service system. For example. In a police organization.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A from the chief. In a contingent organization. Resource dependant police departments operate . like crime control. daily operations are based on the community’s criteria.
Each theory details the different structures which departments will 6 follow. a resource dependant department will start a gang unit if they are given the funding prior due to there efficient work in preventing gang related crimes. This is the reason that anonymous and third party complaints are not accepted because they are usually fraudulent and should not be taken seriously. However. civilian employees of government department and agencies will be affected directly by politics. Its unfortunate but the reality is that a political factor can interfere through fraudulent complaints but the department does whatever possible to control that. citizen complaints should be stabilized by the police force. This is the reason law enforcement supervisors are dictated by the politics for self-advancement and make an effort to eradicate fraudulent complaints. Currently. The complaints that police officers receive should be fairly investigated and without bias. For example. more officers. In particular. Based on elements from the British System of Civil Service. there are also scenarios in which departments are never awarded funding for their operations so they must continue to with the same funding.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A based on the resources that are at their disposal. there have been changes to the American bureaucracy as early as the 19th century. these theories are always methods to operations but they ultimately don’t always provide the solution. better equipment. Americans established three basic elements to create the “new” civil service system. Recommendations to Improve Police Operations The immediate solution to improve police operations is better funding. . and community service polices. However. Complaints that aren’t letigimate should not affect the officer’s personnel file. all business must practice equal opportunity with their employees. However. Across America.
Operating Procedures. The Thatcher Government.akron.ci. the Civil Service system has been able to evolve over the years. The Civil Service. W. (2003). political circumstances still influence different aspects of the countries operations. J.oh. 1-20.us/police/index. 66(1). Retrieved from: http://publicsafety. Retrieved from: http://www. G. (1988).POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A People are no longer hired based on their political affiliations but their abilities and specialties. Retrieved from: Business Source Complete database.civilservice.html Crown Copyright. and The New Civil Service. Police Organizational Performance in the State of Florida: . and Regulations. Rules. (1999). The Financial Management Initiative. Goltz.go v. 7 References Akron Police Department.uk/ Fry. Public Administration. Consequently. In general. (2010).
(2010). M. Public Administration. 225-233. (2007) About the Department of Civil Service.).).civilservice. Retrieved from: http://etd. Nigro. Retrieved from: http://www. Schmalleger.wordiq. Retrieved from: Business Source Complete database.com. Civil Service Reform in the United States. F.la. Civil Service – Definition. & Katz. New York.probertency clopaedia.asp.com. (1982). NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. An Introductory Text for the 21st Century (10th ed. Probert. The Police in America.pdf Louisiana Department of Civil Service. (2009).co m/definition/Civil_service 8 . F. S. 60(2). C. (2008).fcla. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www. M.gov/aboutcivilservice. WorldIQ. Boston.edu/CF/CFE0001363/ Goltz_Jeffrey_W_200612_PhD. An Introduction (6th ed. Walker. Inc.POLICING ORGANIZATIONS Q & A Confirmatory Analysis of the Relationship of the Environment and Design Structure to Performance. Criminal Justice Today. MA: Pearson Education. The Probert Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from: http://www.
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