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PANG & SEAH PTE LTD

1

Chapter

Electrical Fault Level Calculations Using the MVA Method

5

conversions. When these

W

ith modern day personal computers, hand calculations for electrical fault level are becoming a thing of the past. The classical hand calculations, either the ohmic method or the per unit method, will need many formulas and conversions. The ohmic method is cumbersome when The per unit method is not much better because of the many

there are several different voltage levels.

conversions of data to the choosen base values. The complexity is significantly increased when symmetrical component theory is used to solve single phase to earth faults, double phase to earth faults, and phase to

Utility source 22kV, 25kA fault level

3C/300mm2

**phase faults. Most electrical engineers will blindly memorize these abstract formula and cumbersome
**

Generator 3MVA, 6.6kV, 15%

C D

cable of 1km

**engineers are needed to provide on the spot
**

10MVA, 22/6.6kV 9%

38oh m A B

estimates of fault level which are quick and reasonably accurate, they will often fail to deliver. When software programmes are used, it is not uncommon to have errors in modelling and data entry, which will produce fault level several order of magnitude in error from the correct value. This article describes the MVA method, a hand calculation method which is easy to use, easy to remember, quick and accurate.

6.6kV

2MVA, 6.6/0.4k V 6%

Motor 1MVA, 12%

E

F

400volts

3phase fault

Motor 0.4MVA, 15%

FIGURE 5.1 : Typical Single Line

Solution

The The MVA method is a modification of the ohmic method. The first step is to convert the typical single line diagram to the equivalent MVA single line diagram, and then to reduce the MVA single line diagram into a single MVA value at the point of fault. The components of a typical single line are the utility source, transformers, motors, cables and internal generators. diagram. Figure 5.1 is a typical single line

12 The motor has a sub-transient reactance of 12% and will contribute fault current to the fault.09 The transformer has 9% impedance 10 2MVA Transformer The MVA value will be = 33 MVA 0. PANG & SEAH PTE LTD 2 22kV Utility Source The MVA value will be 3 x 22 x 25 = 952MVA. 22 x 22 The MVA value will be = 2420 MVA 0. 22kV Cable V2 .7 MVA 0.M.06 The transformer has 6% impedance 2 6.3 MVA 0. The utility source has a 25kA fault level.15 The generator is synchronized to the utility source and has a sub-transient reactance of 15%.2 The MVA value will be The MVA value will be 3 .6kV Motor The MVA value will be = 8. The MVA value will be Internal Generator = 20 MVA 0. 1 400 Volts Motor 0.4 = 2. Z is the per phase impedance in ohm. Z Where : V is the phase to phase voltage in kV.J.15 The motor has sub-transient reactance of 15% and will contribute fault current to the fault. 10MVA Transformer The MVA value will be = 111 MVA 0.

and illustrated in Figure 5.7 different from the positive sequence MVA.7MVA or 41. The MVA method uses large whole numbers. either add up the MVA values or “parallel up” the MVA values. The fault level Advantages of the MVA Method There is no need to convert impedance from one voltage to another. a requirement in the per unit method. The positive sequence MVA will be the value calculated D 6. The MVA method can be used 20 C 2420 Cable 111 A 10MVA transformer B Generator to calculate single phase to earth fault. only the 2MVA transformer will contribute to the earth fault FIGURE 5. for a 3 phase fault at 400 volts is 28. The next step is to reduce the MVA single line to a single MVA value at the point of fault.3 illustrates the steps for the reduction of the MVA single line to a single MVA value at the point of fault. mathematics. Both the ohmic method and per unit method usually end up with small decimals. 400volts E F The zero sequence MVA will usually be 3phase fault 2. and in most applications the positive sequence MVA will be the same as the negative sequence MVA.2 is the equivalent MVA single line of the typical single line of Figure 5. There is no need to select a common MVA base and then to convert the data to the common MVA base.1.1. The formulas for conversion are complex and not easy to remember. The zero sequence MVA of the 2MVA .4.2 : Equivalent MVA Single Line at 400 volts through the neutral connected solid to earth.3 in the previous example. PANG & SEAH PTE LTD 3 MVA Single Line Figure 5.J. a requirement in the ohmic method . less prone to errors.M. For example in Figure 5. It is more prone to make mistakes in the decimal with resulting errors several orders of magnitude from the correct value.4kA. The reduction uses basic Figure 5. 952 Utility source This makes for easier manipulation and hence Single Phase to Earth Fault So far the calculations were for three phase fault.6kV 33 10MVA transformer 8.

The 1MVA load at 400 volts will be seen as a ( ) MVA or 0.4% at 22kV.3 = 95 + 20 + 8.6kV 33 E F 8. 95 A B The author has been using the MVA method for the past 13 years for small and large projects. Conclusion The MVA method is easy to learn.7 26 = ( 1 + 1 33 123. the combined load at 400 volts will be (1 + 4) MVA or 5 MVA.9%. and has found it most powerful 20 C D 123.6kV A B C D 6. at 22kV. The MVA value of the transformer is 50MVA.7 1 1 1 95 = (952 + 2420 + 111 2.7 = 26 + 2. The voltage drop is equal to the motor starting MVA divided by the sum of the motor starting MVA and the short-circuit MVA.3 400volts 33 E F 400volts 26 E F 400volts E 28.7 ) -1 2. MVA value of the transformer of ( 2 0.98 + 952 or 99.3 123. PANG & SEAH PTE LTD 4 transformer is equal to the positive sequence.3 : MVA Reduction Steps . Figure 5.7 F 400volts 2.5)% or 0. easy to remember.3 6. The zero sequence MVA of the 2MVA transformer is equal to the positive sequence.3 MVA Voltage Drop During Motor Starting The MVA method can also be used to calculate the voltage drop during large motor starting.J. The 5MVA load at 400 volts will be seen as ( 5 x 50 5 + 50 ) MVA or 4.9 – 99.55MVA load 952 4. 1 x 50 1 + 50 A constant 1 MVA load is assumed before the starting of the large motor. quick and accurate.06 ) MVA or 33. The voltage at 22kV due to the load will be 952 0. During motor starting.5%.98 MVA load at 22kV.55 + 952 MVA or 99. The voltage at 22kV due to the motor starting will be Hence the voltage drop to the motor starting will be (99.M. for on the spot estimates.5 is an example.7 FIGURE 5.3 ) -1 28.

3 400volts 400volts Single phase to earth fault = 3 x 10MVA = 30MVA = 43kA at 400volts FIGURE 5.9% 22kV Source of 952MVA fault level 99. PANG & SEAH PTE LTD 5 Positive sequence MVA 28. 6% 98.5% 22kV 3MVA.7 Negative sequence MVA 28.7 10 Zero sequence MVA 400volts 33.M. 6% 3MVA. Starting MVA is 4 times FIGURE 5.0% 400volts 90.END -- .4 : MVA Diagram for Single Phase to Earth Fault Before motor starting During motor starting Source of 952MVA fault level 99.9% 400volts Load of 1MVA Load of 1MVA M 1MVA motor.J.5 : Voltage Dip Calculations -.

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