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Algebra II Cheat Sheet

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Vertical

translation

y=2 x 3 3 units up initial amount, r is the rate of increase, and t is the number of time

y=log x3 periods

x 6 units down Inverses of relations and functions

y=2 −6

f x=2x The inverse can be determined by switching the x and

y=log x−6

y values, reflecting each point across y = x, or

x=2y switching the x and y in the equation. Uisng the

x inverse order of operations (SADMEP) can also

Horizontal

y=2 x− 2 2 units right f −1 x =

translation 2 determine the inverse.

y=log x−2

The Common Ratio in Logarithmic functions

x−1 1 unit left

y=2 geometric sequences

Exponential Logarithmic

y=log x1 a

r= 2 r ≠1 b x =a log b a= x

a1

Vertical x Stretch by 6

stretch/

y=6 2

compression y=6 log x Properties of logarithms

1 1 log b b=1

y= 2 x Compression by

2 2 log b 1=0 for any base b that

1 b0 and b≠1

y= log x log b b x = x

2 log x

b =x b

Horizontal 1 Stretch by 5

5

x

m for any positive numbers m, n, and

stretch/ y=2 log b =log b m−log b n

compression n

y=log 1

5

x b b≠1

y=23x Compression by

y=log 3x 3 a and b b≠1

log a x

log b x= a is the base you want to change to and b is the

Reflection

y=−2

x Across x-axis log a b

base that you are changing from

y=−log x

−x Across y-axis Curve fitting exponential and logarithmic models

y=2

The ratio of each y value and the previous one is constant. ExpReg

y=log −x

finds f x =ab x equations. LnReg for base e.

Permutations: How many ways can a club select a president, vice

Constant Linear Quadratic

president, and a secretary?

Combinations: How many ways can three kittens be chosen from 11? n n n

n n1 n n1 2 n1

n items, taken r at a time c=nc ∑k= ∑ 2

∑ k 2= 6

k =1 k =1 k =1

n! n!

nPr= nC r =

n−r ! r ! n−r !

Finding the nth term, given an arithmetic sequence

Theoretical probability: favorable outcomes / total outcomes a n =a 1n−1 d ← d is the common difference

Complement is 1 minus the theoretical probability.

Finding missing terms in an Finding the nth term given

A binomial experiment consists of n independent trials that end up

arithmetic sequence two terms of an arithmetic

either successes or failures. Probability p of success doesn't change, and

Example: Fill out 11, __, __, __, sequence

neither does probability q of failure. pq=1

The binomial probability that there will be r successes is -17 Example: Find the 6th term of the

r n− r First, find the common arithmetic sequence with

P r = nC r p q difference a 9=120 and a 14=195

Exponential functions a n =a 1n−1 d First, find the common difference

Exponential growth is x

f x =ab where a0 and b1 −17=115−1 d a 14 =a9 14−9d

Exponential decay is f x =ab x where 0b1 −7=d

Then find the missing terms. Then, find a1 : opp adj opp hyp hyp adj

a 2=11 2−1−7=4 120=a 19−115 hyp hyp adj opp adj opp

Finally, evaluate to find a 6 :

a 6=06−115=75 radians Degrees to Radians to

180

180 radians degrees

radians

Sum of the first n terms of Summation Notation Sin and Tan are restricted vertically, whereas Cos is restricted

an arithmetic series 5 5 ← last value of k horizontally.

∑ 2k 2k ← explicit formula

S n =n

a1a n

2 k =1 for sequence

k = 1 ← first value of k

The variable n is the number For sequences with alternating Law of Sines Law of Cosines

of terms, a 1 is the first term, signs, use −1k 1 if a 1 1 a 2=b 2c 2−2bc cos A

and a n is the nth term. Area= bc sin A

is positive, and use −1k if 2 b2 =a 2c2 −2ac cos B

a 1 is negative. 1

Area= ac sin B c 2=a 2b 2−2ab cos C

Finding the nth term given a geometric sequence 2

1 Area

a n =a 1 r n−1 Area = ab sin C

2 s s−a s−b s−c

Finding the nth term given two terms

Example: Find the 10th term of a geometric sequence where A B C

a 5=96 and a 7=384 . sin =sin =sin

a b c

First, find the common ratio.

a 7=a 5 r 7−5

Then, find a 1 , while considering both the positive and negative

values of r .

96=a 1 25−1 96=a 1 −25−1

a1 =6 a1=6

Finally, evaluate for a 10 while considering the positive and negative

values of r.

a 10=6 210−1 a 10 =6 −210−1

a 10=3072 a 10=−3072

If a and b are positive n terms of a geometric

series

terms of a geometric

sequence with exactly one

term between them, the

geometric mean is given by

S n =a 1

1−r n

1−r

ab .

Mathematical Induction and Infinite Geometric Series

Converge: ∣r∣1

Diverge: ∣r∣≥1 This Algebra II Cheat Sheet was created by

Rishabh Mishra

Sum of an infinite geometric series

The series must converge for it to be possible to find an

a 1 infinite sum. In addition, you only need to calculate the

S=

1−r first two terms of the series to find everything necessary

for the equation.

Trigonometric functions

sin cos tan csc sec cot

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