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# Transformations Growth/decay formula by a constant percentage increase or

## decrease is At =a 1±r t where A is the final amount, a is the

Vertical
translation
y=2 x 3 3 units up initial amount, r is the rate of increase, and t is the number of time
y=log x3 periods
x 6 units down Inverses of relations and functions
y=2 −6
f  x=2x The inverse can be determined by switching the x and
y=log x−6
y values, reflecting each point across y = x, or
x=2y switching the x and y in the equation. Uisng the
x inverse order of operations (SADMEP) can also
Horizontal
y=2 x− 2 2 units right f −1  x =
translation 2 determine the inverse.
y=log  x−2
The Common Ratio in Logarithmic functions
x−1 1 unit left
y=2 geometric sequences
Exponential Logarithmic
y=log  x1 a
r= 2 r ≠1 b x =a log b a= x
a1
Vertical x Stretch by 6
stretch/
y=6 2 
compression y=6 log x Properties of logarithms
1 1 log b b=1
y= 2 x  Compression by
2 2 log b 1=0 for any base b that
1 b0 and b≠1
y= log x log b b x = x
2 log x
b =x b

## log b mn=log b mlog b n

Horizontal 1 Stretch by 5
5
x
m for any positive numbers m, n, and
stretch/ y=2 log b =log b m−log b n
compression n
y=log   1
5
x b b≠1

## 1 log b a p = p log b a  for any real number p and positive numbers

y=23x Compression by
y=log 3x 3 a and b b≠1
log a x
log b x= a is the base you want to change to and b is the
Reflection
y=−2
x Across x-axis log a b
base that you are changing from
y=−log x
−x Across y-axis Curve fitting exponential and logarithmic models
y=2
The ratio of each y value and the previous one is constant. ExpReg
y=log −x
finds f  x =ab x equations. LnReg for base e.

## Permutations and combinations Summation Formula

Permutations: How many ways can a club select a president, vice
president, and a secretary?
Combinations: How many ways can three kittens be chosen from 11? n n n
n n1 n n1 2 n1
n items, taken r at a time c=nc ∑k= ∑ 2
∑ k 2= 6
k =1 k =1 k =1
n! n!
nPr= nC r =
 n−r ! r !  n−r !
Finding the nth term, given an arithmetic sequence
Theoretical probability: favorable outcomes / total outcomes a n =a 1n−1 d ← d is the common difference
Complement is 1 minus the theoretical probability.
Finding missing terms in an Finding the nth term given
A binomial experiment consists of n independent trials that end up
arithmetic sequence two terms of an arithmetic
either successes or failures. Probability p of success doesn't change, and
Example: Fill out 11, __, __, __, sequence
neither does probability q of failure. pq=1
The binomial probability that there will be r successes is -17 Example: Find the 6th term of the
r n− r First, find the common arithmetic sequence with
P r = nC r p q difference a 9=120 and a 14=195
Exponential functions a n =a 1n−1 d First, find the common difference
Exponential growth is x
f  x =ab where a0 and b1 −17=115−1 d a 14 =a9 14−9d
Exponential decay is f  x =ab x where 0b1 −7=d
Then find the missing terms. Then, find a1 : opp adj opp hyp hyp adj
a 2=11 2−1−7=4 120=a 19−115 hyp hyp adj opp adj opp
Finally, evaluate to find a 6 :
a 6=06−115=75  radians Degrees to Radians to
180
Sum of the first n terms of Summation Notation Sin and Tan are restricted vertically, whereas Cos is restricted
an arithmetic series 5 5 ← last value of k horizontally.
∑ 2k 2k ← explicit formula
S n =n 
a1a n
2  k =1 for sequence
k = 1 ← first value of k
The variable n is the number For sequences with alternating Law of Sines Law of Cosines
of terms, a 1 is the first term, signs, use −1k 1 if a 1 1 a 2=b 2c 2−2bc cos A
and a n is the nth term. Area= bc sin A
is positive, and use −1k  if 2 b2 =a 2c2 −2ac cos B
a 1 is negative. 1
Area= ac sin B c 2=a 2b 2−2ab cos C
Finding the nth term given a geometric sequence 2
1 Area
a n =a 1 r n−1 Area = ab sin C
2  s  s−a  s−b s−c
Finding the nth term given two terms
Example: Find the 10th term of a geometric sequence where A B C
a 5=96 and a 7=384 . sin =sin =sin
a b c
First, find the common ratio.
a 7=a 5 r  7−5
Then, find a 1 , while considering both the positive and negative
values of r .
96=a 1 25−1 96=a 1 −25−1
a1 =6 a1=6
Finally, evaluate for a 10 while considering the positive and negative
values of r.
a 10=6 210−1 a 10 =6 −210−1
a 10=3072 a 10=−3072

## Finding Geometric Means Finding the sum of the first

If a and b are positive n terms of a geometric
series
terms of a geometric
sequence with exactly one
term between them, the
geometric mean is given by
S n =a 1  
1−r n
1−r
 ab .
Mathematical Induction and Infinite Geometric Series
Converge: ∣r∣1
Diverge: ∣r∣≥1 This Algebra II Cheat Sheet was created by
Rishabh Mishra
Sum of an infinite geometric series
The series must converge for it to be possible to find an
a 1 infinite sum. In addition, you only need to calculate the
S=
1−r first two terms of the series to find everything necessary
for the equation.

Trigonometric functions
sin cos tan csc sec cot