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x 6 units down y=2 −6 y=log x−6

Growth/decay formula by a constant percentage increase or decrease is At =a 1±r t where A is the final amount, a is the initial amount, r is the rate of increase, and t is the number of time periods Inverses of relations and functions

Horizontal translation

y=2 x− 2 y=log x−2

y=2 y=log x1

x−1

2 units right 1 unit left

f x=2x x=2y x f −1 x = 2

The inverse can be determined by switching the x and y values, reflecting each point across y = x, or switching the x and y in the equation. Uisng the inverse order of operations (SADMEP) can also determine the inverse. Logarithmic functions Exponential Logarithmic

The Common Ratio in geometric sequences

a r= 2 a1

Stretch by 6

r ≠1

b x =a

log b a= x

Vertical stretch/ compression

y=6 2 y=6 log x 1 y= 2 x 2 1 y= log x 2

x

Properties of logarithms Compression by

1 2

**log b b=1 log b 1=0 for any base b that b0 and b≠1 log b b x = x log x b =x
**

b

Horizontal stretch/ compression

y=2

1 x 5

Stretch by 5

y=log

1 x 5

Compression by

log b mn=log b mlog b n for any positive numbers m, n, and m log b =log b m−log b n n b b≠1 1 3 log b a p = p log b a for any real number p and positive numbers a and b b≠1 log b x= log a x a is the base you want to change to and b is the log a b

**y=23x y=log 3x
**

Reflection

y=−2 y=−log x

x

Across x-axis

base that you are changing from Curve fitting exponential and logarithmic models The ratio of each y value and the previous one is constant. ExpReg finds f x =ab x equations. LnReg for base e.

−x Across y-axis y=2 y=log −x

Permutations and combinations

Summation Formula Permutations: How many ways can a club select a president, vice Constant Linear president, and a secretary? n n Combinations: How many ways can three kittens be chosen from 11? n n1 c=nc k= n items, taken r at a time

Quadratic

∑

k =1

∑

k =1

n! nPr= n−r !

n! nC r = r ! n−r !

2

∑ k 2=

k =1

n

n n1 2 n1 6

Finding the nth term, given an arithmetic sequence

Theoretical probability: favorable outcomes / total outcomes Complement is 1 minus the theoretical probability. A binomial experiment consists of n independent trials that end up either successes or failures. Probability p of success doesn't change, and neither does probability q of failure. pq=1 The binomial probability that there will be r successes is

a n =a 1n−1 d

← d is the common difference Finding the nth term given two terms of an arithmetic sequence Example: Find the 6th term of the arithmetic sequence with a 9=120 and a 14=195 First, find the common difference

P r = nC r p q

r

n− r

Finding missing terms in an arithmetic sequence Example: Fill out 11, __, __, __, -17 First, find the common difference

Exponential functions Exponential growth is Exponential decay is

f x =ab where a0 and b1 f x =ab x where 0b1

x

a n =a 1n−1 d −17=115−1 d −7=d

a 14 =a9 14−9d

Then find the missing terms.

a 2=11 2−1−7=4

**a1 : 120=a 19−115 Finally, evaluate to find a 6 : a 6=06−115=75
**

Then, find Summation Notation

opp hyp

adj hyp

opp adj

hyp opp

hyp adj

adj opp

radians Degrees to radians 180

Radians to 180 degrees radians

Sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic series

a1a n 2 The variable n is the number of terms, a 1 is the first term, and a n is the nth term. S n =n

Sin and Tan are restricted vertically, whereas Cos is restricted horizontally. 5 ← last value of k 2k 2k ← explicit formula k =1 for sequence k = 1 ← first value of k For sequences with alternating Law of Sines Law of Cosines signs, use −1k 1 if a 1 1 a 2=b 2c 2−2bc cos A

∑

5

is positive, and use

−1k if

a 1 is negative.

Finding the nth term given a geometric sequence

a n =a 1 r n−1

Finding the nth term given two terms Example: Find the 10th term of a geometric sequence where a 5=96 and a 7=384 . First, find the common ratio.

Area= bc sin A 2 1 Area= ac sin B 2 1 Area = ab sin C 2

b2 =a 2c2 −2ac cos B c 2=a 2b 2−2ab cos C Area s s−a s−b s−c

sin

A B C =sin =sin a b c

a 7=a 5 r 7−5 Then, find a 1 , while considering both the positive and negative values of r . 96=a 1 25−1 96=a 1 −25−1 a1 =6 a1=6 Finally, evaluate for a 10 while considering the positive and negative

values of r.

a 10=6 210−1 a 10=3072

Finding Geometric Means If a and b are positive terms of a geometric sequence with exactly one term between them, the geometric mean is given by ab . Converge: Diverge:

a 10 =6 −210−1 a 10=−3072

Finding the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series

S n =a 1

1−r n 1−r

Mathematical Induction and Infinite Geometric Series

∣r∣1 ∣r∣≥1

Sum of an infinite geometric series

This Algebra II Cheat Sheet was created by Rishabh Mishra

a 1 infinite sum. In addition, you only need to calculate the S= 1−r first two terms of the series to find everything necessary

for the equation. Trigonometric functions sin cos tan csc sec cot

The series must converge for it to be possible to find an

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