Part 3 Organizing Challenges in the 21st Century


7 Organizing for Effectiveness and Efficiency

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. Thomson/South-

All rights reserved. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. will do them.What is Organizing? ‡ Organizing  The process of determining:  The tasks to be done. 7±2 .  Who  How those tasks will be managed and coordinated.

7±3 . All rights reserved.Figure 7.1 The Process of Organizing © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.

Organizational Relationships ‡ The working relationships that exist within an organization affect how its activities are accomplished and coordinated. All rights reserved. ‡ These relationships are defined by:  Chain of command  Span of control  Line and staff responsibilities  Delegation © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. 7±4 .

supervisor.Chain of Command and Unity of Command ‡ Chain of Command  The line of authority and responsibility that flows throughout the organization. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. ‡ Unity of Command  A principle that each employee in the organization is accountable to one. 7±5 . All rights reserved. and only one.

when tasks are very complex. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. 7±6 . All rights reserved.  In contrast. a manager will not need to spend as much time supporting individual subordinates.Span of Control pan ‡ The number of employees reporting to a particular manager. span of control should be relatively narrow. where jobs are highly standardized and routine (low complexity).  In theory. and the span of control may be larger.

7±7 . but provide support for line personnel. All rights reserved. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. ‡ Staff Departments  Those organizational members that are not directly involved in delivering the products and services to the organization.Line and Staff Responsibilities ‡ Line Departments  Those organizational members that are directly involved in delivering the products and services of the organization.

© 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall.2 7. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. NJ. Inc.Figure 7.. 7±8 .2 Alternative Ways to Structure an Organization Source:: Adapted from The Structuring of Organizations by Mintzberg. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.

7±9 . ‡ Responsibility  The obligation to perform the duties assigned. ‡ Informal authority  Ability to influence others that is based on personal characteristics or skills. ‡ Formal authority  Authority inherent in an organizational position. All rights reserved. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.Authority and Responsibility ‡ Authority  The formal right inherent in an organizational position to make decisions.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. 7±10 .Accountability and Delegation ‡ Accountability  Responsibility to the supervisor for results of decisions made and actions taken with delegated authority. All rights reserved.

7±11 .Accountability and Delegation ‡ Delegation  The process of transforming the responsibility for a specific activity or task to another member of the organization. and«  Empowering that individual to accomplish the task effectively. All rights reserved. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.

‡ Do not interfere. Decide which goals/tasks to delegate. ‡ Agree on mission. ‡ Teach/train the person. ‡ Agree on results. ‡ Give information. ‡ Transfer right to decide. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. ‡ Make it public. 3.Table 7. Make assignments. goals. Grant authority to act. 2. ‡ Find a capable person. ‡ Teach the department or organization mission.4 Delegating Authority 1. tasks. All rights reserved. ‡ Transfer right to commit resources. 7±12 . ‡ Establish limits (policy). ‡ Establish monitors and feedback.

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. ‡ Remove roadblocks. Hold responsible/accountable. 7±13 . All rights reserved. Monitor. ‡ Check progress. ‡ Teach.Table 7. 5.4 Delegating Authority (cont¶d) 4. ‡ Give resources. ‡ Reward. ‡ Communicate. ‡ Treat problems and challenges as teaching/learning opportunities. ‡ Give information.

‡ Provides managers the opportunity to accomplish more complicated. ‡ Improved response time as a result of decisions and information not needing to be passed up and down the organization. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.Benefits of Delegation ‡ Leads to a more involved and empowered workforce. 7±14 . or important tasks. ‡ Leads to better decision making. difficult. All rights reserved. ‡ Provides opportunity for employee to develop analytical and problem solving skills.

Reasons for Failing to Delegate ‡ The ³time crunch. 7±15 . ‡ Managers may be insecure about their own value to the organization.´ ‡ Lack of confidence in the abilities of subordinates. All rights reserved. ‡ Managers try to avoid the potential pitfalls of dual accountability. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.

4. 3. Choose the level of delegation carefully. Transfer authority and accountability with the task. 2. All rights reserved. 7±16 .Learning to Delegate Effectively 1. Match the employee to the task. Be organized and communicate clearly. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western.

3 7. January 1980. by permission of publisher. Haynes. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. American Management Association.Figure 7. © 1980. from Supervisory Management. Reprinted. ³Delegation: There¶s More to It Than Letting Someone Else Do It!´ 9±15. New York. 7±17 . All rights reserved. E. All rights reserved.3 Degree of Delegation Source: Adapted from M.

‡ All successful managers delegate authority. and job rotation. job enrichment. © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Implications for Leaders: Organizing Tips ‡ Identify the tasks and activities that must be completed in order for goals to be achieved. Learn how to delegate well and hold people accountable. job enlargement. ‡ Design jobs so that job holders will find their jobs interesting and challenging. ‡ Understand the potential advantages and disadvantages of specialization. 7±18 . ‡ Understand the importance of chain of command and span of control.