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Theories of Entrepreneurship

Theories of Entrepreneurship

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Published by: gauravyadav89 on May 30, 2011
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09/23/2014

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Theories of Entrepreneurship

Let us understand the meaning of Theory

A hypothesis proven true through research/testing becomes a theory

Similarly, different theories have been propounded to explain various factors behind the emergence of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs

Different Theories
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Max Weber s theory of social change Hoselitz socio-cultural theory Trait theory of entrepreneurship Economic theory of entrepreneurship Schumpeter s innovation theory McClelland s psychological theory Theory of social behaviour X- Efficiency theory

Max Weber s theory of social change
‡ Entrepreneurial growth dependent upon ethical value system ‡ Spirit of capitalism central to entrepreneurial growth ‡ Spirit of rapid industrial growth depends upon rational use of resources, which ultimately depends upon the value orientation of individuals .the tendency of acquisition and rational economic attitude towards action which are generated by ethical values ‡ Important to distinguish between spirit of capitalism and adventurous spirit

Max Weber s theory of social change
‡ Necessary condition for spirit of capitalism: Favourable mental attitude in society toward acquisition of wealth ‡ Critiques of Weber s theory: - There is a single system of Hindu Values Paritha - Indian community internalised those values and translated those into behaviour - Immune to external pressures and change

Hoselitz Sociological Theory
‡ Specific social culture leads to growth in entrepreneurship ‡ Social sanctions, cultural values and role expectations are responsible for the emergence of entrepreneurship ‡ Three important factors on which his performance depends: His own attitude towards his own occupation Role expectations held by the sanctioning groups Occupational requirements of the job

Hoselitz Sociological Theory
‡ Society s values are most important determinant of the attitudes and role expectations ‡ Grows in societies that permits variability in choice of paths of life and non standard socialisation of individuals

Trait Theory of Entrepreneurship
‡ F.A.Walker believed in the individual s traits/capacities as the main determinant for entrepreneurial growth ‡ An entrepreneur is one who is endowed with more than average capacities in the task of organising and coordinating the factors of production ‡ Eg of traits- Creativity, self confidence , risk taking ability etc

Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship
‡ G.F.Papanek and J.R.Harris, chief proponents of this theory attributed the main reason for entrepreneurial activities to economic incentives ‡ Inner drive of individuals associated with economic gains ‡ Eg of economic factors: Market incentives, availability of sufficient capital etc

Shumpter s Innovation Theory
‡ Entrepreneur is one who seeks to reform or revolutionise the pattern of production by exploiting an innovation ‡ Assigns the role of an innovator to an entrepreneur ‡ Different from an Inventor who creates a new product ‡ Innovator utilises inventions and discoveries in order to make new combinations

Shumpeter s Assumptions
‡ Existence of sufficient availability of capital ‡ Developed financial system ‡ Existence of high level developed technology ‡ Private initiative Therefore, more applicable in developed economies

Limitations of Shumpeter s Theory
‡ Entrepreneur ceases to exist when he is running a business ‡ Ignores risk taking and organising ‡ Focuses on large scale

McClelland s Theory
‡ Locates entrepreneurship in individuals possessing certain psychological traits ‡ Dependent on certain learnt and socially acquired needs that motivates/drive individuals towards entrepreneurial activities ‡ Type of needs Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation

Exercise

Theory of Social Behaviour
‡ Behavioural model of entrepreneurship by Kunkel ‡ Activities of individuals are related to the previous and present surroundings, social structures and physical conditions ‡ Attributes entrepreneurial activity to rewards which act as positive reinforcing stimulus

Theory of Social Behaviour
‡ Four structures in society on which entrepreneurship depends: - Limitation structure - Demand structure - Opportunity structure - Labour structure Theory s limitation evident from its neglect towards situational factors and assumption of ideal structures which ignores discrepancy between objectives, structures etc

X-Efficiency Theory
‡ As per Liebenstein, gap filling is the most significant feature of entrepreneurship ‡ Innovative entrepreneurs come forward/take the leap to check inefficiencies in utilisation of resources through novel ways

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