1 Sector area= r Θ 2 Angular speed =Θ time rΘ Linear speed = time Arc length=r Θ

opp hyp csc = hyp opp adj hyp cos = sec = hyp adj opp adj tan = cot = adj opp Deg/Rad convert D∗Π 180O R= D= Π O 180 sin =

Law of Sines (AAS, ASA) Law of cosines (SSS, sin A sin B sin C SAS) = = a b c a 2=b 2+c 2−2 bc cosA Area for SAS A=0.5 bc sin A Area for AAS, ASA sin Bsin C A=0.5 a2 sin A Area=√( s(s−a)(s−b)( s−c)) 1 s= ( a+b+c ) 2

Area for SSS: Graphing trig functions: y=asin (bx +c)+d a≠0 ;b≠0 Amplitude: ∣a∣ 2Π Period: b 1 Frequency: period c Phase shift: − ∣b∣ Midline: y = d Pythagorean identitiess
sin Θ+cos Θ=1
2 2

Ambiguous case If a is acute: ab ah (SSA): =No solution h=b sin A a=opp ab a=h b=adj =One solution If a is obtuse:

Half-Angle Identities

= No solution



( 1−cos Θ ) √ 2 1+cos Θ cos Θ =± ( 2 √ 2 )
sin Θ =± 2 Sum identities

tan Θ =± 2

( 1−cos Θ ) √ 1+cos Θ

1−cos Θ tan Θ = 2 sin Θ sin Θ tan Θ = 2 1+cos Θ

=Two solutions

= One solution =One solution
2 2

tan Θ+1=sec Θ

cot Θ+1=csc Θ



cos (a+b)=cos a cos b−sin a sin b sin( a+b)=sin a cos B+cos a sin B tan a+tan b 1−tan a tan b

Confunction identities sin Θ=cos Π −Θ tan Θ=cot Π −Θ 2 2

( ) cos Θ=sin ( Π −Θ) 2
sin(−Θ)=−sin Θ csc (−Θ)=−csc Θ

( ) cot Θ=tan ( Π −Θ ) 2
cos (−Θ)=cos Θ sec(−Θ)=sec Θ

( ) csc Θ=sec ( Π −Θ) 2
tan (−Θ)=−tan Θ cot (−Θ)=−cot Θ

sec Θ=csc Π −Θ 2

tan (a+b)=

Difference identities cos (a−b)=cos a cos b+sin a sin b sin(a−b)=sin a cos b−cos a sin b tan (a−b)= tan a−tan b 1+tan a tan b

Odd-Even Identities

Power-Reducing Identities 1−cos 2 Θ 1+cos 2 Θ 1−cos 2 Θ cos 2 Θ= tan 2 Θ= 2 2 1+cos 2 Θ Binomial probability Prob=nC x p x q n− x n independent trials, p probability of success, q = 1 - p sin 2 Θ=

Double angle identities
sin 2 Θ=2 sin Θ cosΘ cos 2 Θ=cos Θ−sin Θ cos 2 Θ=2 cos Θ−1 cos 2 Θ=1−2sin Θ
2 2 2 2

2 tan Θ tan 2 Θ= 1−tan 2 Θ

Sigma notation

∑ an=a1+... a k


nth term of arith. seq. Sum of arith. series n a n=a1+(n−1)d S N = (a 1+a n) 2 Sum of finite geo. series a −a r s n= 1 n 1−r

Sum of arith. series n S n= [2a 1+(n−1)d ] 2

nth term of geo. seq. n−1 a n=a1 r

Sum of finite geo. series 1−r n S n=a1 1−r

( )

Sum of inf. geo. series Binomial expansion a1 (a+b) n=nC r an−r br where r =0, 1, 2, n ∣r∣<1 S= 1−r B A≠0 Conic rotation tan 2 Θ= A−C Conic sections Parabolas Hyperbolas

Ellipses Horizontal

(x −h) ( y−k ) + =1 a2 b2 Center Foci Vertices Covertices (h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k) (h, k ± b)



( y−k )2=4FL( x−h) Vertex Focus (h,k) (h + FL, k)

( x −h)2 a2 Center Foci Vertices

( y−k ) 2 b2


(h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k)

Axis of y=k symmetry Directrix x = h – FL

Transverse axis y = k Conjugate axis x = h Asymptotes
y−k = ±b ( x−h) a

Major axis y = k Minor axis x = h Eccentricity (vertical or horizontal): c e= a


(x −h)2 ( y−k )2 + =1 b2 a2 Center Foci Vertices Covertices (h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k) (h, k ± b)

( x−h)2=4FL( y−k ) Vertex Focus (h, k) (h, k + FL)

( y−k )2 ( x−h) 2 − =1 a2 b2 Center Foci Vertices (h, k) (h, k ± c) (h, k ± a)

Axis of x=h symmetry Directrix y = k - FL Circles ( x−h)2+( y−k )2=r 2 Points are as same as an ellipse. Divide by r2 to find a and b. Eccentricity is 0.

Transverse axis x = h Conjugate axis y = k Asymptotes c 2=a2 +b 2 y−k = ±a ( x−h) b

Major axis y = k Minor axis x = h ABC c 2=a2 −b 2

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