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English as a crucial language.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary – Electronic Edition. Version 1.1. Courtney, Rosemary - Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Fisk English Course – Books – Basic one / two, Book four, Book five, Book six, Advanced two, Free Conversation. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. Swan, Michael and Walter, Catherine – How English Works – A Grammar Practice Book With Answers. Oxford.
Planned and Prepared by Ricardo Fernandes Marques
Copyright RICARDO FERNANDES MARQUES Rua Antônio Gonçalves 109 Porto Velho São Gonçalo, R.J Brasil
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
LESSON ELEVEN •
SHORT ANSWERS == ALL THE TENSES PRESENTED UP TO NOW.
MODAL VERBS == MAY, MIGHT,CAN,COULD,SHOULD,OUGHT, MUST AND MUSTN`T PHRASAL VERBS ( IN/ OUT )
TAG QUESTIONS == ALL THE TENSES PRESENTED UP TO NOW. PHRASAL VERBS ( OUT )
• • •
PERFECT TENSES == PART I, AND THEIR USAGES. HOW LONG PHRASAL VERBS ( ON / OFF )
PERFECT TENSES == PART II, AND THEIR USAGES . PHRASAL VERBS ( ON / OFF )
LESSON SIXTEEN • • •
HOW MUCH AND HOW MANY SOME / ANY / NO AND DERIVATES PHRASAL VERBS ( UP / DOWN )
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON SEVENTEEN 4 • • IF CLAUSES == ALL OF THEM. AND THEIR USAGES. TOO AND SO=ALSO (AFF) EITHER AND NEITHER=ALSO (NEG) PHRASAL VERBS ( OVER ) LESSON TWENTY • • • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS== ALL OF THEM. PHRASAL VERBS GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES ECL ENGLISH COURSE 4 . AND THEIR USAGES. AND THEIR USAGES. PHRASAL VERBS ( UP / DOWN ) LESSON EIGHTTEEN • • DIRECT AND INDERECT == USING ALL OF THE TENSES PRESENTED. PHRASAL VERBS ( BACK /AWAY ) LESSON NINETEEN • • • RELATIVE PRONOUNS == ALL OF THEM.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 5 Verb Tenses Do Does Did Will Would Are Were Is Was Are Were Is Are Will Would Is Was I he she you they you you she he they you there there there there there there study speak travel to have need English German England to work to study happy tired every day? every other day? last night? tonight? every day? today? yesterday? at the moment? last night? later? last week? now? this afternoon? tonight? playing doing going to going to anybody many tasks be be going to be going to be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question? an important game a meeting here tonight? this evening? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 5 .
wouldn’t. is. aren’t. won’t./weren’t. wouldn’t. wasn’t. was . won’t. isn’t. was . wasn’t. are. am not. are. 6 ECL ENGLISH COURSE . was . does. is. was . wasn’t.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 6 Short Answers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there there there there there there do. would. am. No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No you he she I/we they I I she he they I/we there there there there there there don’t. doesn’t. isn’t. would. did. will. isn’t./are. aren’t. wasn’t. is./were./weren’t. didn’t./were. will./aren’t.
CAMBRIDGE ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 7 . Will _______ __________ ___ ________ tomorrow? 3. the meaning of which is different from the meaning of its separate parts: 'Look after'.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 7 Substitution Drills 1. Do you__________ ____ _____________ every day? 2. Important Note Phrasal Verb A phrase which consists of a verb in combination with a preposition or adverb or both. 'work out' and 'make up for' are all phrasal verbs. Do ____ always_________ to _________ the ______? Expressions and Useful Phrases I’m damn right / I’m fucking right What the hell are you doing there? Whoever/Wherever/Whenever/Whatever What good would it do? Keep track of # Lose track of To make certain that you know what is happening or has happened to someone or something Take into account = To consider or remember when judging a situation. Would _____ ________ to __________ with ______? 5. Will I ____________ ___________ _____________? 4.
How about ____________________________________________________________________? a. _______________________________________________________________ _________________ ___ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 8 . ______________________________________________________ _____ _______________ ______ a. Make questions for the answers and answers for the questions in the following dialogue. Where _______________________________________________________________________ _? b. ________________________________________________________________________________? b. At what time __________________________________________________________________? b. _________________________________________________________________________________ a. _______________________________ __________________________________________________ b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 11 8 Exercise 1. No. See you! b. a. b.. a. After going to _________________________________________________________________ a.. Cool! That’s a very nice idea . I wouldn’t.
affirmatives and negatives Weak possibility. For questions we use the expression to be + likely Are you likely to travel? It can be a good idea.Formal Permission . negatives and interrogatives (informal) Slight or uncertain possibility.Informal Permission . Can Could ECL ENGLISH COURSE 9 . Can she come here tomorrow? Do you think she can win? It could be a good idea.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 9 Modal Verbs May Can Could Can Could I I I you you open the window? open the window? open the window? drive speak English drive less finish and walk more? all his homework It is too hot here! It is too hot here! It is too hot here! well? three months ago? Permission .Polite Ability Present or Future Ability Past or Conditional Recommendation today? Obligation Should Must she he Expressing the same idea: Should Must Ought to Have to Expressing Possibility May Might Strong possibility .affirmatives and negatives Possibility -affirmatives.
open the window.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 10 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you you you I/we I/we she he may/may not can/can’t could/couldn’t can/can’t could/couldn’t should/shouldn’t must/ doesn’t have to(need to) open the window. _______ he__________ _______ __________ every day? 2. ________ ______ help her (to) ________ ____ _______? 4. open the window. ________ _____ ________ to ________ ______ _______? 5. and walk more. three months ago. all his homework today. drive speak English drive less finish well. Could she ________ ________ ________ every _______? 3. ________ ________ ___________ _______ __________ ? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 10 . Asking Favors Can Could Informal Formal Can you help me with the homework? Could I trouble you to open the window? Prohibition Mustn`t You mustn`t park your car here! Substitution Drills 1.
emphasizes closeness in time or space Instead of = in substitution According to = as stated or in conformity In spite of = in defiance of. To order to enter. outside . At home. Not at home. Not at home. Not at home. etc.intolerable Very High degree but tolerable Phrasal Verbs Call in Call out Send in Send out Drop in Drop out (of) Push in Push out Stay in Stay out Eat in Eat out Be in Be out Get in Get o ut To invite to enter. inside. notwithstanding Due to / On account of / Because of = idea of cause 11 How to use them? Too High degree . At home. To enter To leave ECL ENGLISH COURSE 11 . To visit. outside . inside. To penetrate or cause penetration To make (something or someone) move outwards by pushing it. inside. outside . To cause (someone) to go outside. At home. To shout something loudly. To fall out / To choose to leave school.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 Expressions Along with / together with = accompany.
a. Why don’t you call her out so that she can help you out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ f. b. ________________________________________________________________________________? Mark changed his mind and won’t drop out of school anymore 2. Does she like to stay out now and then? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. ___________________________________________________________ _____________________? He will travel instead of staying in next summer. ______________________________________________________ __________________________? She drops him in every other week . D oes she eat out every weekend? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. c. Give long answers for these questions below. Is he usually in on the weekends? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 12 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 12 12 Exercises 1. How often do you eat out? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ e. Is you r mother out? _________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c. _____________________________________________________________________ ___________? He wouldn’t like to eat a lot at the restaurant. because of his health problem. a. Make questions for these answers below. d.
later. tonight. yesterday. an important game a meeting here every day. at the moment. every other day. last night. tonight. last night. don’t I? doesn’t he? didn’t she? won’t you? would they? aren’t you? were you? isn’t she? wasn’t he? aren’t they? weren’t you? isn’t there? aren’t there? won’t there? wouldn’t there? tonight. every day. wasn’t there? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 13 . last week. today.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 13 Tag Questions I He She You They You You She He They You There There There There will wouldn’t are weren’t is was are were is are will would playing doing going to going to somebody many tasks be be study speaks traveled have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at your house to do a party at the club an answer for this question. now. this afternoon. isn’t there? There is going to be There was going to be this evening.
tonight. now.aren’t was . last week. an important game a meeting here Yes/No there is / isn’t going to be tonight. last night. later.were / wasn’t .weren’t is / isn’t was / wasn’t are / aren’t was . today. this afternoon. 14 ECL ENGLISH COURSE . every other day. last night.are / am not . Yes/No there was / wasn’t going to be this evening. every day. yesterday.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 14 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No you he she I/we they I/we I/we she he they I/we there th ere there there will / won’t would / wouldn’t am .weren’t is / isn’t are / aren’t will / won’t would / wouldn’t study / don’t study speaks / doesn’t speak traveled / didn’t travel have need Spanish French to Australia to work to study busy tired every day. tonight. at the moment.were / wasn’t . playing doing going to going to somebody/anybody many tasks be be chess with him his homework buy some food sell those CDs at my house to do a party at the club an answer for this question.
To decipher. ___________ ___________? 2. To test. ______ ________ to England ________ _______. To be published. _______ _____? Phrasal Verbs Figure out Find out Pick out Put out Throw out Turn out Work out Help out Try out Make out Come out Look out Run out of Break out of Check out To calculate . To experiment. To choose. To help. To lack something. To be expressed in speech. To select. To understand. To result. To understand (something or someone). To calculate. To discover. To be careful (usually in the imperative form). safe or suitable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 15 . To understand. To turn off lights. She ___________ ______________. To exercise. To result. To escape from. To put (something or someone) outside. ________________ ______________? 4. To find a solution. To produce. He________ ___________ yesterday. To cast out. You ______________ meat. To get rid of (something or someone).ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 15 Substitution Drills 1. To leave a place by running. To extinguish fire . To reach a result. To succeed. To come outside . to examine something or get more information about it in order to be certain that it is true. ___________ _____________? 3.
NOBODY.” “A good example is better than a sermon. Soccer is not my cup of tea.” “Don’t bite the hand that feeds you.” Half a loaf is better than no bread. somebody and everybody (and no one etc. E. You can’t lend me some money. SCARCELY.” “Birds of a feather flock together. After negative imperative we use WILL YOU ? After Let’s we use SHALL WE? We use THEY to refer to nobody. Don’t forget.G.G.” “Many hands make light work.G.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases Look out you don’t get robbed. We use non -negative tags after NEVER.” “When poverty comes in the door. By the looks of things. Wait.” “There’s no smoke without fire. long skirts are coming in again Come in = Become fashionable / seasonable ECL ENGLISH COURSE 16 . HARDLY.G. Do y ou think he did that on purpose? Be cut out (for) = To be suited for. We use IT in question tags to refer to NOTHING. and WILL / WOULD / CAN / CAN`T /COULD YOU ? (Informal) to tell or ask people to do things. aren’t I? will you? will you? won’t you? shall we? 16 Informal questions / requests often use negative sentence + question tag. we can use WON`T YOU? to invite people to do things. E.” “All that glitters is not gold. LITTLE. E. By the looks of things… = According to what I can see… E. have talent for E.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 Special Tag Questions I am right. Close the door. can you? After imperatives. One’s cup of tea = What one likes. I’m not cut out for this kind of work. Old and Useful Sayings “All is well that ends well. On purpose = Intentionally # By chance = not intentionally. Sit down.” “Money is the root of all evil.G. love flies out the window. NO. = Be carefull not to get robbed. Let’s have a party. = To be about to say s omething. Wait! I have got his name on the tip of my tongue. I prefer something lighter.). On the tip of one’s tongue.
____________________________________________________________? i. ______________________________________ __________ ___? d. ____________ _________________________? He would enjoy going out with us. I am cooking tonight. Nothing matters. ____________________ __________________________? e. ______________________________? Yes . ____________________________________________________________ _? l. Make sentences with tag questions for these answers below. ___________________________________________________ ___________? k. ________________________________________? c. c. _________________________________________________. The teacher broke his leg last weekend. f. You never wrote her a letter. a. ___________ ______________________________________? m. She hardly spoke. _________________________ ______________________ _. _______________________________? No. he is a lovely little boy. d. ________________________________________ ___? g. _______________________________ ____________________? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 17 . Complete the sentences below with the right tag questions. ______________________________? Of course! 2. You’re never happy. _______________________________? Yes. She likes to play with you. ______________________________________? b. _____________________________________________ ___. Joanne doesn’t like to work here. a. He will ask her out next time he sees her. ______________________________________________________________? h. _______________________________________________________________? j. There’s scarcely enough time. she didn’t work hard last night. _____________________________________ ________ ___. Everybody’s here. There’s no milk. The policeman came to school yesterday. b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 13 17 Exercises 1.
18 The Perfect Tenses Part I Have you worked hard lately? # 1. Past Perf.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Don’t be so worried about these little things. # 2. You’ll see they are not so difficult. Cont. Pres. Has Have he you moved? eaten a lot today? # 3. Perf. Used with periods of time not finished at the moment of speaking. Pres. Perf. Has Have he you gotten sold good grades your car? recently? Has he traveled this month? studying hard doing her homework? the house when you arrived? when you arrived? this semester? Have you been Pres. 3 rd person singular. Cont. # 1. It is also used to give emphasis. Perf. # 3. Pres. 3 rd person singular. 3rd person singular. Had she home Had you been working out trying to hide this secret when she arrived? when you found out the truth? Past Perf. Cont. Perf. Pres. Has she been Had they already painted left Past Perf. 3rd person singular. Something that started in the past and comes up to the present. Pres. Perf. Past Perf. Indefinite Past Time. Perf. Perf. The action may repeat or continue. It is also used to give emphasis. Pres. Something that started in th e past and comes up to now. Had she been ECL ENGLISH COURSE 18 . Used when we want to refer to a past action that was completed or interrupted before another one. 3rd person singular. # 2. Cont. Used when we want to refer to a past action that happened before another one. Pres. Perf. 3rd person singular.
the house when I/we arrived. lately. Yes/No I/we have / haven’t sold Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No he I/we he I/we has / hasn’t have / haven’t has / hasn’t have / haven’t moved . when I/we found out the truth . recently. eaten traveled been studying hard doing her homework . this month. Yes/No she has / hasn’t been Yes/No they had / hadn’t already painted left Yes/No she had / hadn’t home Yes/No I/we had / hadn’t been Yes/No she had / hadn’t been working out trying to hide this secret ECL ENGLISH COURSE 19 . Don’t be so pessimistic! LESSON 14 19 Yes/No Yes/No I/we he have / haven’t has / hasn’t worked gotten hard good grades my/our car. this semester . when I/w e arrived.ECL ENGLISH COURSE Be happy! Give it a Try. a lot today. when she arrived.
I’ve worked here since January.” “Money doesn’t grow on trees. Build castles in the air = To p lan things which will probably no succeed. joking. _______ you ___________ _____________ books ___________? 4.” “Don’t bite off more than you can chew. or being pretentious.” “Where there’s a will there’s a way. Kick (a) habit = To stop. Has _________ ______________ ____________________ lately? 3. haven’t _______? How long have you worked here? How long have you worked here? I’ve worked here for three months. Had _______ ______ ________ before _________ ____ ______? 2. Put one’s foot into it = To say something stupid and embarrassing.” “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. first served.” “Handsome Is as handsome does.” “Like father like son. We ________ ___________ a__________.” “Don’t put the cart before the horse. be a great bargain. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 20 . Come off it! = Stop lying. daydream. Be Greek to = To b e incomprehensible.” “Beauty lies in lover’s Eyes. break off a habit. Waste one’s breath = To speak without result. Be a steal = Something sold very cheaply. __________ _______? 5.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 20 Substitution Drills 1. They _______ had ___________ ___________. Old and Useful Sayings “Water dripping day by day wears the hardest rock away.” Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases For good = Forever .” “First come.
or to stop someone else from doing this. = To keep off . To not go onto an area. job or school after the other people who were with you have left. Used when the answer is negative but there is intention of doing. especially work. To continue doing something without stopping. To continue doing something. or to stop someone or something going onto an area. drink or use something that can harm you. or very recently 21 Phrasal Verbs Send on To send something from someone's old address to their new one (to / for)To write to an organization or place to ask them to send you something: I've sent off for a catalogue. To continue no t to attend. to leave a place. To continue to be in a place. or to do it repeatedly.to not eat. drink or use something that can harm you. aircraft or boat. Used when the answer is negative and there’s no intention of doing.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 Present Perfect Usage Have you ever fallen in love? This is the best food I have ever eaten. bus or aircraft. To go onto a bus. We had to send off to Ireland for a replacement part. No I have never fallen in love. Yes I have already fallen in love. (something such as school). To not eat. Yes I have just fallen in love Used in questions – Uncommon things or in affirmatives to emphasize. To leave a place or something with a springing movement. To criticize someone as soon as they have done something wrong or said something that you disagree with. To start ( military) Send off/away Keep on Keep off Stay on Stay off Get on Get off Jump on Jump off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 21 . No I haven’t fallen in love yet. usually in order to start a journey. To leave a train. To continue to be at a distance from something. train. Used to say that something happened now. very soon. To stop something touching or harming someone or something. Used in affirmative answers to confirm an “ever” question or to emphasize.
e. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____? No.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 22 Exercises 1. j. he hasn’t been there yet. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 22 . __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He had already come back from London when you decided to ask him to bring some books for you. ________________________________________________________________________________? Traveling abroad is what I have ever wanted . Make questions for these answers below. d. ________________________________________________________________________________? They have read that book because of the paper they are preparing . f. ________________________________________________________________________________? She has been there lots of times this month. ________________________________________________________________________________? I have never tried to do something illegal. c. __________________________________________________________________________ ______? He has brought those new tapes for you . h. i. ________________________________________________________________ ________________? They have been trying to fix the bus since morning. ________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____? She has been reading that book for more than three months. b. a. ________________________________________________________________________________? I had been running for thirty minutes when you called me out. g.
Have you ever had to do something you really hated? What? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________ f. What had she done before you told her the truth? __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ i. Where have you been running these days ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ h. Have you ever thought about living abroad? Where? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 23 . Have you ever had an affair? ____________________________________________________________________ ________________ j.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 23 2. a. What has she just done? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ b. Where have you been lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. Why had she sold the furniture before phoning you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. Have you already had lunch ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ g. How long have you been talking over with that girl on the phone? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. Give long answers for these questions below.
Many powerful and wise knights _______________ already ___ ___________ to _____________ the Beast before him. We must bear in mind life is made of victories and defeats. The dragon ____________ ______________ to ________________ his head and ______________ his viscera. Once he ______________ to_______________ with an old and powerful dragon. It _______________ almost a week and after storms. Be prepared for both of them. We must try to face the truth. For those who _________________ the winner____________ the wizard. He could not _______________ what he ________________ inside his heart. A long time ago. I’m so sorry __________ _________________ the winner was the seven-head dragon. To manage To have To read To swallow To be To feel To face To pay To smash To take To try To live To come To hide To stand To reveal To claim To give away To be To believe To fight To prepare To defeat To promise ECL ENGLISH COURSE 24 . ___________ ________ him a visit in order ___________ ______________ his sorceries ______________. He ______________ to be the wisest wizard in that old world. in his soul. on a distant land there _____________ a man who _____________ beyond the woods. He ____________ never ____________ a creature as dangerous and wicked as the sevenhead dragon. After some moons the Day finally ____ ____________. himself. Merlin. He _________________ the great wizard book . That’s a real ending. Life is not a fairy tale. thunders and groans the victor _____________ ________________ tall in the middle of the battlefield. Complete the text below with the appropriate verb tense.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 14 24 3. believing that it could be helpful. but none ______ _____________. He ______________ himself for the great battle.
Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 25 . Criticism (You could have helped me!) Recommendation (past action) Strong p robability or Conclusion of a past action. Used to describe an action which. Perf. Unreal past situation . Cond. Possibility in the past weaker than MUST HAVE. Perf. What might if he had jumped out of the window? if you hadn’t turned down that proposal? What could Whom Where should must you she Cond. Unreal past situation What will you have done Whom would you What may have gone with have happened to the book? have happened to him have happened have talked to? have left her purse? by the end of the year? if they had invited you for the party? it is not here on the desk. Cond. Perf. Perf. at some time in the future. will be past or completed.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 25 The Perfect Tenses Part II Fut. Unreal past situation or Criticism (You might have told me about that!). Slight or uncertain possibility in the past.
He might I / We could have lost I / We should She must have talked to have left her purse ECL ENGLISH COURSE 26 . broken his leg lots of money Jaime’s sister. if I / we hadn’t turned down that proposal.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 26 I / We I / We It will would may have have gone with have fallen have graduated Martha behind the d esk. by the end of the year. Have you already checked it out? if he had jumped out of the window. inside my car. if they had invited me / us for the party.
make-up or something similar. Turn the TV off. To pretend to have a particular feeling or way of behaving which is not real or natural to you: Why are you putting on that silly voice? If people or animals put weight on. To cover part of the body with clothes. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another. until a later time . To stop giving your attention to someone or something.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 27 Phrasal Verbs To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. such as a CD or video. especially sexually: Short girls really turn me on. To stop someone feeling interested or excited. they suddenly start to feel or behave in that way. Turn the TV on. To make a device operate. especially sexually. by pressing a switch. Switch on Switch off Turn on Turn off Put on Put off ECL ENGLISH COURSE 27 . To take someone's attention away from what they want to be doing or should be doing . but usually not sincerely. To interest or excite you. To use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another. they become heavier. Switch the TV on. or sto p them from doing something. shoes. To change a device from one state or type of operation to another. Switch the TV off. To decide or arrange to delay an event or activity until a later time or date. To tell someone that you cannot see them or do something for them. or to cause a device to play something. If someone switches on a particular emotion or behavior.
To start talking again after a pause. (sth off) To decide that a planned event. especially a quality that you have. will not happen. Something that you say in order to agree to do or allow something that you did not want to do or to allow before: "Are you sure you don't want another slice of cake?" "Oh go on then. To become worse in quality. it fires. it stops working. Used when encouraging or asking someone to do something. it explodes. or sometimes a person. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 28 . To continue or pass. it is not good to eat or drink any more because it is too old. To order a dog. INFORMAL something that you say to encourage someone to say or do something. husband or partner in order to have a sexual or romantic relationship with someone else. To use something. UK If food or drink goes off. it starts to ring loudly or make a loud noise . To visit someone for a short time . especially a sports event. If a gun goes off. or to end an activity because it is no longer useful or possible . To talk in an annoying way about something for a long time . To happen in a particular way: The protest march went off peacefully with only two arrests. To continue or move to the next thing . If a light or a machin e goes off. If a warning device goes off.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 28 Phrasal Verbs Go on Go off Call on Call off To start operating. in order to achieve something. but just a small one. to stop attacking someone or something. If a bomb goes off. To leave a wife.
What will I write about? Which house did you go to? Whom is the girl Mark is talking to? 29 Old and Useful Sayings “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 Position of Prepositions We generally place the preposition directly before its object. however. but you can't make him drink. Take a look at the examples: What do you want it for? I don’t know what he needs it for. sometimes it may be placed at the end of the sentence. What should ______________________________ last night before going to bed? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 29 .” Complete the following questions with the suitable clauses. Will _______________________________________ by December? 4. Could he________________________ if he hadn’t broken his leg? 2. Would _________________________________if I had called you? 3.” “All is fair in love and war.” “Better late than never.” “You can lead a horse to water.” “It's no use crying over spilt milk.” “It never rains but it pours.” “Never look a gift horse in the mouth.” “The road to hell is paved with good intentions. 1.
I can’t believe we have just _______________ ___________ __________ gasoline again! d. It’s better to ____________________ i t ___________________. Have you been __________________________ ________________________ this summer? h. Come on! Why don’t you just ____________ _____ __________________ the meeting? b. e. Where did you ______________________________ __________ these beautiful flowers? m. Well at least it ________________ _________ to be a good solution for that problem. Hey! Jane has just finished preparing something in the kitchen. a. Why did she refuse to ________________________ ___________________ her cigarette? c. I can’t believe! You have __________________________ ________________________ a lot! f. How often do you _____________________________ ________________________________? j. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 30 . Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. How long have you_________________________ ________________________ doing this ? l. i.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 30 Exercises 1. When was the last time you _____________________________ __________ somebody? k. She told me she had already _____________ ___ _______ what happened that night. Don’t forget to _____________________ _ ___________ ___ the car before you buy it! g.
TURN __________________________________________________________________________ e. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. PUT ___________________________________________________________________________ b.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 15 31 2. MAKE ___________________________ _______________________________________________ f. a. PUT ____________________________________________________________________________ d. CALL ________________________________________________ __________________________ c. STAY_____________________________________________ __________ ____________________ g. RUN _________________________________________ ________________________________ __ ON OFF OUT IN OUT OF ECL ENGLISH COURSE 31 . GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i. TRY ____________________________________________________________________________ h. SEND __________________________________________________________________________ j.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 32 The Countable and Uncountable nouns How many How much How many books beer brothers or sisters money do you do you do you read usually drink have? a month? on the weekends? How much does she have in her pocket? go to the beach? spend when you go to the beach? a month? a day? How many times How much a month do you do you How many How long CDs do you do you usually buy work out ECL ENGLISH COURSE 32 .
many.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 33 I / We read I / We usually drink lots of books a lot of books a few books few books two books a lot (just) a little little two cans of beer a few. I / We go to the beach a month . lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money once twice three times lots of money a lot of money (just) a little little two bucks much money lots of CDs. on the weekends. I / We have don’t have She has doesn’t have in her pocket. many CDs. brothers or sisters. a few CDs. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 33 . two CDs. I / We spend don’t spend when I / we go to the beach. for two hours a month. I / We work out a day. none. a lot of CDs. Many is mainly used in negatives and questions. few CDs. few. I / We usually buy don’t buy (a month) In this case it’s more common to omit the time expression. Much is mainly used in negatives and questions.
(I don’t like Italian food / cuisine.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 34 Complete the following questions. Any Anything Anywhere No Nobody or No one Nothing Nowhere Yes I have some plans for tonight. (Not all of them. No I have no plans for tonight. I like no Italian restaurant. Sure! Some Any * No A PART OF SOMETHIN G. when we expect a positive answer. General questions. Would you like some help? Could you bring me some water? Oh! I’d love to.) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 34 . Negative sentences. ___________ ___________ times _______________________? 4. How much _________________________________________? How many _________________________________________? Indefinite Pronouns Some Somebody or Someone Anybody or Anyone Something Somewhere • • • • • • • Affirmative sentences. Do you have any plans for tonight? No I don’t have any plans for tonight. 1. Affirmative sentences. with verbs in the negative form. I like some Italian restaurant.) NOT ANY. with verbs in the affirmative form. 5. Questions. ___________ ___________ cars ________________________? 2. (All of them.) NOT IMPORTANT WHICH.* Negative sentences. Offers. I like any Italian restaurant. ___________ ___________ time ________________________? 3.
Make questions using how much our how many for these answers below. ________________________________________________________________________________? Hugh spent ten dollars buying new pencils.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 35 Exercises 1. d. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? Mark likes just a little sugar in his coffee. How much is it? _____________________________________________________________________________________ e. e. How much did it cost? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 35 . a. _______________________________________________ _________________________________? He sold lots of old books last week. _________________________________________________________ _______________________? He doesn’t have much money. How many hours do you usually spend to come here by train? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____ d. c. b. How many times have the policemen come here this week? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. How much has she spent lately? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________________________? I’ve spen t lots of time d oing the exercises . Give long answers for these questions below. 2. a.
usually unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. level or size. To move down to a lower level or place. it stops working. value. To reduce the level of something. If a better situation or an opportunity to do something turns up. To start to talk about a particular subject. it happens or becomes available unexpectedly or in a way that was not planned. it moves down in the sky until it cannot be seen any more. To care for a child until it is an adult. (on)SLANG To use the tongue and lips to touch someone's sexual organs in order to give pleasure . Turn sth/sb down to refuse an offer or request. quality. Go up Go down Turn up Turn do wn Bring up Bring down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 36 . To cause someone in a position of power to lose their job.(with) = come down with To arrive or appear somewhere. If a computer system goes down. To reach as far as something: The path going up to the back door is very muddy. rise or increase. To be reduced in price. it happens. to reach or go as far as: Its roots can go down three metres. you find it unexpectedly. often giving it particular beliefs. If something that you have been looking for turns up. When the sun goes down. If an event such as a crime or a deal goes down.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 36 Phrasal Verbs To move higher. amount.
To swallow. To fall and land on the ground. If information comes up on a computer screen. it fails because there is a problem or disagreement. (against) To have to deal with a problem. (with) To start to suffer from an illness. If a price or a level comes down. especially something that someone has said. If a system. When the sun or moon comes up. Get up Get down Come up Come down B reak up Break down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 37 . To organize a group of people to do something. it becomes available. If someone who is talking on a mobile phone is breaking up. (on) To punish or criticize a person or activity very strongly. usually unexpectedly. To be unable to control your feelings and to start to cry. relationship or discussion breaks down. If a machine or vehicle breaks down. To be mentioned or talked about in conversation. especially one that is not serious. INFORMAL to feel less excited after a very enjoyable experience. it makes you feel unhappy and dissatisfied. To move towards someone. or to tell or help someone to do this. (with) If a marriage breaks up or two people in a romantic relationship break up. To stand up. To write something. If something gets you down. (with) To suggest or think of an idea or plan. To divide something into many pieces. If a person comes down from a drug. it starts to grow stronger. To happen. it becomes lower. their marriage or their relationship ends. it stops working. If a job or opportunity comes up. (to) To reach the usual or necessary standard. they stop feeling its effects. it rises. If the wind gets up. it appears there. (to) To start to direct your efforts and attention towards something. their voice can not fully be heard.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 37 Phrasal Verbs To wake up and get out of bed.
Some people didn’t like my book. a. Why did she ____________________________ _ _______________________ that proposal? c. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 38 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 38 Exercises 1. When was the last time this washing machine __________________ _____________? i. Can you hear what he is speaking? Yeah! Oh I can’t. Could you please ___________________ ___ it __________________ for me? k. h. Now that Andrew’s parents died. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense. Don’t forget to get a coat or you may ______________ ___________ _________ a cold! g. The food didn't ________________________ ____________ __________ my expectations l. who will _________________ him ______________? b. Hey asshole! ____________________ ____________ ___ ____________what you’re doing! e. When was the last time you _________________ ____________ __________ somebody? j. I’m still sleepy! d. I can’t believe we have just _____________________ _______________. Do you know why the boss is upset with you? Yeah! I haven’t________________ ________________ ____________ good results lately. I can’t believe! You _______________________ __________________ _______________ her ! f. Well at least they didn’t ____________________ _____________ _____________ me.
COME __________________________________________________________________________ c. GO _____________________________________________________________________________ i. COME ______________________________________________ ___________________________ b. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ UP UP WITH DOWN DOWN WITH / ON / TO ECL ENGLISH COURSE 39 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 16 39 2. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. BREAK ________________________________________________________________________ j. BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. a. TURN ___________________________________________________________________ _______ e. TURN _________________________________________________________ __________ _______ d. GET_____________________________________________________________________________ g. GET ____ __________________________________________________________ ______________ f.
If it rains.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 40 Future Possible If you meet him tomorrow . If she is late. What are you going to do Where can we go Do you think she may get worse What will you do? What can we do? Where can we go? if he calls you tonight? if we don’t have any money? if she doesn’t take the medicines? Present Unreal If you had lots of money If you received a strange phone call If they studied hard Where would you take her to How late would you wake up Do you think they might work there What would you do? What would you do? What could happen to them? if you could ask her out? if you didn’t have to work the following day? if they spoke good English? Past Unreal If you hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with you If he hadn’t stopped drinking What would she have done Where could you have gone Do you think he might have won Whom would you have flirted with? Where could you have taken her to? What could have happened to us? if she had seen you with that girl? if you hadn’t woken up so late? if he had bet? ECL ENGLISH COURSE 40 .
We could / might have died. if he calls me tonight.M Oh! I think they might / could work there I / We would travel around the world. if I / we could ask her out. If it rains. If she is late. if they spoke good English. We / You can / may go to the movies. if I / we hadn’t woken up so late. if we / you don’t have any money. Past Unreal If I /we hadn’t missed the party If she hadn’t broken up with me If he hadn’t stopped drinking She would have slapp ed me I / We could have gone to the zoo Oh! I think he might / could have won I /we Would have flirted with everything in a skirt. I / We could call the police. They could / might get better grades. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 41 . I’m going to make things clear We / You can go nowhere I think she may / can die I / We will invite him for the party. if I / we didn’t have to work the following day. if he had bet. if she doesn’t take the medicines Present Unreal If I / we had lots of money If I / we received a strange phone call If they studied hard I / We would take her to heaven I/ We would wake up at about 9:00 A. I could have taken her to Paradise. We / You can do nothing. if she had seen me with that girl.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 41 Future Possible If I / we meet him tomorrow.
If___________________________________________________. If I worked out more often. _________________________________________________. d. _ __________ _______ ______________________________. j. If_______________________________________________. ______________________________________________________. If they came here more often . __________________________________________________. If________________________ ________________________. _ ____________________________________________________. we would have helped her.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 42 Exercises 1. c. I will buy new clothes. l. k. If you are feeling lonely. ___________________________ ________________________________________. I would tell you everything. If____________________________________________________. If she is here. they could have gone there. If__________________________________________________. If____________ ___________________________________________. he won’t trouble you anymore. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 42 . b. i. Complete the sentences below with the right clause. she would give him a chance. g. If they had finished the project. f. e. h. If he had paid attention to her. a.
c. 3. Where will you go on your next vacation if you have money ? _____________________________________________________________________________________ d. What would you do if your girlfriend/boyfriend cheated on you? _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. Give long answers for these questions below . What would you do if you lost your job? _________________________________________________________________________________ ____ e. ________________________________ ________________________________________________? He would have tried to call off the meeting . ________________________________________________________________________________? I would never hurt you . ________________________________________________________________________________? I will do my bes t. d. e. b. a. _________________________ _______________________________________________________? She would help me with this . What would you have done if you had had money 10 years ago? _____________________________________________________________________________________ c. Where could you have gone if your friends had called you ? ______ _______________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 43 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 43 2. ________________________________________________________________________________? They can help people. a. Make If-Clause questions for these answers below.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 44 Phrasal Verbs Climb up Climb down Sit up Sit down Add up Grow up Hurry up Speed up Think up Hold down To go up. Hold sth down to keep something. To have a particular result or effect: It all added up to a lot of hard work for all of us. especially costs. To happen or move faster. at a low level. To change your opinion or admit that you were wrong (over). but I fall down on the written work. To not be good at something in comparison with another thing: I'm quite good at speaking Chinese. Let (sb) down (DISAPPOINT). hurry (sb/sth) up To move or do things more quickly than normal or to make someone do this. To fall to the ground. To fail. To produce a new idea or plan. it develops there or in that way. To stay awake and not go to bed although it is late. To show interest or surprise: The news that he was getting married really made her sit up. or to make something happen or move faster. Fall down Let down ECL ENGLISH COURSE 44 . Add (sth) up to calculate the total of two or more numbers. Add up to sth (AMOUNT) to become a particular amount. To sit with a straight back. (City) If a town or city grows up in a particular place or way. (Person)To gradually become an adult. Hold sb/sth down to keep someone or something in a particular place or position and to stop them from moving. To invent. To move your body so that the lower part of it is resting on a seat or on the ground.
usually with your partner. system. to formally establish a new company. his father set him up in the family business. way of working. If a vehicle sets down a passenger. or to make someone become quiet and calm. To become slower. To replace. If a business or other organization starts up. (with) To reach someone in front of you by going faster than them. it is created and starts to operate. To Complete. To arrange for an event or activity to happen. or to make someone or something become slower. organization. or if someone starts one up. To establish someone or yourself in a business or position: After he left college. (on) To reduce. or someone starts it up. (in) To become familiar with a place and to feel happy and confident in it. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 45 . To be less active and relax more. especially to record it in a formal document. To reach the same quality or standard as someone or something else. To start living in a place where you intend to stay for a long time. To prepare something for use. If a vehicle or engine starts up. it starts to work. it stops so that the passenger can get out.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 45 Phrasal Verbs Make up Cut down Slow down Set up Set down Start up Catch up Settle down Look down on To invent. To prepare. etc. To make a tree or other plant fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom. To write or print something. consider someone inferior. (for) To compensate for. especially by putting the different parts of it together. To despise. To become quiet and calm.
I went to the doctor and he told me ________________ ______________ _____________. Smith asked us to ______________________ _________ _____________ production. g. I think I won’t___________ _______________ __________ him. Complete the sentences below with the right p hrasal verb in the right verb tense. I can’t believe she _____________________________ ______________________ that story! d. b. a. j. h. Lea needs money. e. Hey ! ______________________________ _______________________ or we’ll miss the bus! i.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 46 Exercises 1. The car didn’t _ ________ ___________________ __ ____________________ this morning! f. She is the kind of girl who likes to _______ _______ _____ _____ _________ poor boys. Have you finished _______________________________ _______________ the numbers? k. Why doesn’t she ____________ _________ ________ her expenses ? c. Mr. I’ve got to ___________ ____ ________ __ something really good to increase the sales. Now that Andrew passed the exams and I flunked. I’ll never __________________________________ you ________________________________! ECL ENGLISH COURSE 46 .
MAKE _________________________________________________________________________ c. SLOW_________________________________________________________________ _________ i. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. LET ________________________________________________________________ ____________ j.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 17 47 2. CATCH _________________________________________________________________________ e. CUT ____________________________________________________________________________ g. BRING_________________________________________________________________________ h. CLIMB _________________________________________________________________________ UP DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 47 . GROW ________________________________________________________________________ b. THINK _____________________________________________________________ ____________ d. a. SIT _____________________________________________________________________________ f.
He said he had (needed) to study hard. He told me not to close the door.” He said: “I wasn’t studying. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 48 . He said It might be a good idea! He asked me if I would come that night.” He said: “I must study hard. He said he had been studying .” He said: “I don’t work hard every day.” He said: “I can drive. He said he was studying that moment. He said he didn’t have (need) to study hard. He said he couldn’t drive.” He said: “I’ve studied a lot. He said he didn’t work hard every day. He s aid he wasn’t studying that moment.” He said: “I don’t have (need) to study hard. He said he (hadn’t) didn’t play (ed) soccer the day before.” She said: “I’m going to travel tonight.” He said: “I’m not studying now .” He said: “I was studying.” He said: “I’m studying now.” She said: “I was going to buy a car. He said he had studied a lot. He asked to close the door. She said she was going to buy a car.” He said: “I didn’t play soccer yesterday.” He said: “I played soccer yesterday. She told me she would travel the following day. He said he could drive. He said he hadn’t been studying.” She said: “I’m not going to travel tonight.” He said: “I haven’t studied a lot. She said she wasn’t going to buy a car.” He said: “I can’t drive. She told me she wouldn’t travel the following day . He asked what I was doing. She said she’d have finished it by afternoon. She said she was going to travel that night.” She said to me: “I won’t travel tomorrow. She said she wasn’t going to travel that night.” She said to me: “I will travel tomorrow. He said he (had) played soccer the day before. He said he hadn’t studied a lot.” She said: “I wasn’t going to buy a car.” She said: “I’ll have finished it by afternoon.” He said: “It may be a good idea!” He asked me: “will you come tonight?” He asked me: “what are you doing?” He asked: “Close the door!” He said to me: “Don’t close the door!” Indirect Speech He said he worked hard every day.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 48 Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech He said: “I work hard every day.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 49 Tense Changes Simple Present Simple Past Future Immediate Future Future in the Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Future Perfect Can Must Don’t have to(need to) May Questions (with a question word) Questions (with no question word) Affirmative imperative Negative imperative Might Could Should/ought to Would Past Perfect Simple Past Simple Past or Past Perfect Conditional Future in the Past Future in the Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Conditional Perfect Could Had to / Needed to Didn’t have to (need to) Might The Question word + an Aff. structure. It’s preferable to use whether before or. or Neg. because there’s no important change of time. The driver asked if/whether I wanted to go downtown. He says he doesn’t like flowers. To + verb( Infinitive ) not to+ verb( Negative infinitive ) Might Could Shou ld/ought to Would Past Perfect Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether. Tenses don’t change after present. I enquired whether she was coming by road or by air. future or present perfect reporting verbs. according to the previous question. The government has announced that taxes will be raised ECL ENGLISH COURSE 49 . according to the previous question. or Neg. structure. If or Whether + an Aff. I’ll tell her your idea is great. especially in a formal style.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
Last week Next week Now This morning This afternoon This evening Today Tonight Yesterday Tomorrow LAST … NEXT… Ago This/these Here The week before The following week/The next week/The week after Then / That day/right away/At that moment That morning That afternoon That evening That day That night The day before The following/next day THE… BEFORE THE NEXT/FOLLOWING… Before That/those There
Verbs that imply a certain direction may also have to be changed. Examples: come go bring take No and Yes are eliminated in indirect speech.
Idiomatic Expressions and Useful Phrases How do you like…? = What’s you r impression of…? E.G. How do you like our weather? I think it’s very hot or I find it really hot.
Old and Useful Sayings “Speak of the devil and he appears.” “He put his foot in his mouth.” “A word to the wise is enough.” “Out of sight, out of mind.”
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
To avoid. To keep away. To not go somewhere or near something, or to prevent someone from going somewhere or near something. Turn s b away: to not allow someone to enter a place. To move your face so you are not looking at something. To leave or escape from a person or place, often when it is difficult to do this. To go somewhere to have a holiday, often because you need to rest. (with) To succeed in avoiding punishment for something : If I thought I could get away with it, I wouldn't pay any tax at all. Take sth away: to remove something. To subtract a number. Throw sth away/out:to get rid of something that you do not want any more. Throw sth away: to waste a skill or opportunity. To give sth free of charge. To tell people something secret, often without intending to. To show someone's secret feelings. To leave a place or per secretly and son suddenly. (from) To avoid dealing with a problem or difficult situat ion. Run away (with) sb (FEELING).If a feeling or idea runs away with you, you cannot control it and it makes you behave stupidly:Sometimes my imagination runs away with me and I convince myself that they are having an affair. To escape from someone, free oneself of. To remove things from a table after a meal. (of sound, light, wind) To diminish gradually until it ceases. To put things back in their place.
Take away Throw away
Break away Clear away Die away Put away
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18
Answer back Fall back (on) Hold back Keep back Think back Look back (on) Take back Turn back To reply to someone rudely. To make use of sth in an emergency = to turn to someone for help. To control (feelings) To have sth as a secret. To remember. To think about the past. To retract sth said or written. (To begin to) return. To return to a place after you have been somewhere else. get sth back (BE GIVEN) To be given something again that you had before. Get sb back . (ALSO get back at sb) INFORMAL : to do something unpleasant to someone because they have done something unpleasant to you. Ge t back (to)sth : to start doing or talking about something again. Get back (to) sb: to talk to someone again, usually on the telephone, in order to give them some information or because you were not able to speak to them before. Send sth back : to return something to the person who sent it to you, espe cially because it is damaged or not suitable . Give sth back: to return something to the person who gave it to you. Call back (RETURN): to return to a place in order to see someone or collect something. Call sb back (TELEPHONE): to telephone someone again, or to telephone someone who called you earlier. Put sth back (REPLACE): to return an object to where it was before it was moved. Bring sth back (RETURN): to return from somewhere with something. (REMEMBER): to make someone think about something from the past. (DO AGAIN): to start to do or use something that was done or used in the past.
Send back Give back
ECL ENGLISH COURSE
” _________________________________________________________________________________ d. She asked them: “What are you going to do this afternoon?” ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c. He said he had already painted the house. She told me she wouldn’t miss this class. a. _________________________________________________________________________________ c. They told me to calm down. Change into direct speech. They said to me: “We must study hard.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 53 Exercises 1. Change into indirect (Reported) speech. She asked them if they were able to finish the project. a. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 53 .” ______________________________________________________________ ___________________ b. He said: “I like music. _________________________________________________________ ________________________ b. She asked me: “Have you studied a lot lately?” _________________________________________________________________________________ 2.
_____________________________ i t ___________! 4. PUT ____ ________________________________________________________________________ BACK AWAY ECL ENGLISH COURSE 54 . I’ve been trying to _________ ___________________ ___ _______________ _____ my tears. I can’t believe that! Why don’t you __________ __________ ______ your childhood? d. e. CALL __________________________________________________________________________ e. Hey just a second. THROW _______________________________ ________________________________________ b. I’ve gotta hang up but in a few minutes I’ll ________________ _________ _________you. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. a. Now that I’m alone I don’t know who I will _________________ __________ _________ b. ANSWER______________________________________________________________________ d. c. RUN _____ __________________________________________________________ ____________ c. a. When you finish reading this book.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 18 54 3. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences .
always helps her mother. WHOSE – People. WHICH – Things and animals. Jane is sad. In this case subject. We use to join sentences replacing the object.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 55 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Jane always helps her mother. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 55 . The dog which doesn’t like to play is mine. WHOM – People. needs to travel. The dog is mine. Joe needs to travel. is sad. whom I talked to yesterday. I couldn’t notice what she did at the party. who loves cooking. I’ve taken care of him since it was born. I talked to her yesterday. She loves cooking. We use to join sentences replacing the possessive adjective or any other word that indicates ownership. Jane. His mother won the lottery. WHICH – Things and animals. The cat which I’ve taken care of since it was born is yellow. The cat is yellow . In this case object. Where. When. whose mother won the lottery. WHO – People We use to join sentences replacing the subject. The city where I was brought up is far from here He’ll never forget the day when he got his first job. We use to join sentences replacing the subject or the object. It doesn’t like to play. Jane. I can’t understand why she did that. Joe. What and Why can also be used as relative pronouns. things and animals.
but only the ones who were drunk).” “Don’t wash the family’s dirty linen in public. which is an old model. can’t be omitted povides additional information about the subject or object. can be omitted withou distorting the meaning. crashed into the wall. WHOSE can never be omitted. The girl who loves me is cute. “EITHER” AND “NEITHER” USED IN SHORT NEG. The girl who(m) / that I love is cute. (or)So will I. Omission of relative pronouns Relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause.) without commas between commas THAT cannot be used in non-defining relative clauses. (not all. The girl I love is cute. (or) Neither do I. In this case it cannot be omitted.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 Defining and non-defining relative clauses Relative Clause Defining Nondefinig Use provides essential information about the subject or object. How to use them? “TOO” AND “SO” USED IN SHORT AFF. I will too. (an old model is irrelevant to the identification of the car.” “Make do with what you have. Old and Useful Sayings “It takes two to make a fight. Punctuation 56 Example The drivers who were drunk were arrested. The green racing car.” “A burnt child dreads the fire. I don’t either. SENTENCES = “ALSO” She will travel.” ECL ENGLISH COURSE 56 . SENTENCES = “ALSO” She doesn’t like him. because who is the subject of the relative clause..
or move towards someone. Look over Think over Run over Jump over Do over Come over Get over Knock over Boil over Fall over Expressions In time = early enough. move from one place to another. Fall over sth/sb (COVER) LITERARY: to cover something or someone: A shadow fell over her work and she looked up to see who was there . Do sth over (DO AGAIN). To quickly examine something or someone. To seem to be a particular type of person: I watched the interview and felt he came over as quite arrogant. to hurt someone`s feelings Otherwise = if not. On time = at exactly the right time. If someone falls over. To come to a place.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 57 Phrasal Verbs Go over Talk over To examine. the vehicle hits and drives over them. temporarily Step on one`s toes = To offend someone. To flow over the side. To discuss a problem or situation with someone. To jump from one side to another. If a vehicle or its driver runs over someone or something. or else ECL ENGLISH COURSE 57 . To make fall by pushing or hitting. For the time being = for now. To consider carefully. often to find out their opinion or to get advice before making a decision about it. To redecorate. they fall to the ground:She tripped and fell over. To recover from.
_______________________________________________________________________________ __ e. Her stories are always interesting. Phil and Joane bought an old house. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 58 . It belongs to John. _________________________________________________________________________________ i. Her cat died. She bought it last week. That employee was promoted. Janet became very famous. a.I need to talk to him. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ f. He was about to travel on vacation. She works a lot.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 58 Exercises 1. Jane is tired. Debby is traveling. The dress is beautiful. It was imported from Italy. _________________________________________________________________________________ g. The ladder is much bigger. Join the sentences using a relative pronoun . The boy is sick. The dog underwent surgery. __________________________________________________________________________ _______ j. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. They love old things . _____________________________________________________________________ ____________ c. ___________________________________________________________ ______________________ b. _________________________________________________________________________________ h. Its owner is worried. His tie cost a lot of money.
a. I’ve been ________________ it __________. but up to now I found no solution to this. FALL ___________________________________________________________________________ d. b. LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ OVER ECL ENGLISH COURSE 59 . I think it`s time to ____________________ it ____________. Tina hates her bedroom. a. THINK ________________________________________________________________________ b. What were you ______________________ ____________________ on the phone last night? 3.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 19 59 2. I can’t believe you _____________ _________ _______ your test before handing it in! d. GO ____________________________________________________________ _________________ e. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. Hey! be careful ________ __________ ___________ ____________ the glass beside you! e. c. Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences.
ECL ENGLISH COURSE 60 . I fixed the car by myself. Preceded by “by” It Means alone or without help He traveled to England by himself. He looked at himself at the mirror They themselves wrote the letter. Emphasis I talked to the director myself.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 Stop loving yourself and work. you fool!!! 60 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS SUBJECT PRONOUNS I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS MYSELF YOURSELF HIMSELF HERSELF ITSELF OURSELVES YOURSELVES THEMSELVES How to use them? We use the reflexive pronouns in three situations: Subject = Object She hurt herself while cooking.
Create sentences using the following pronouns: a. We ______________________________________________________should talk to the boss. ________________________________________________________________________ _________ c. She / them / herself. f. They / us / their / themselves. e.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 61 Exercises 1. I don’t like pork ________________________________________________________________. 2. She would like to live ___________________________________________________ ______. _________________________________________________________________________________ b. Complete the following sentences with the suitable reflexive pronouns and cases a. He ________________________________________________ fixes the meals in his house. They need to stay awhile ______________________________________________________. We / our /by ourselves. d. _________________________________________________________________________________ d. He / Her / himself . b. _________________________________________________________________________________ e. They painted their houses _____________________________________________________. _________________________________________________________________________________ ECL ENGLISH COURSE 61 . I / my / by myself. c.
To manage without having something : I can’t do without your love. as on the ground. especially clothes. and the car behind ran into me. To quit. To support or help someone . To be in a vertical state or to put into a vertical state.To examine the facts about a problem or situation. often that is lost). To remove by washing.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 62 Phrasal Verbs Settle for Major in Sneak away Carry away Stand up Wash off Take off To accept or agree to something or to decide to have something. bird or insect takes off. especially (of a person or animal) by straightening the legs . If an aircraft. To take (sth)or (someone) away. it leaves the ground and begins to fly. although it is not exactly what you want or it is not the best: She never settles for second best. To investigate. To remove: Trash left on the beach during the day is carried away (= removed) at night by the tide. To put on a piece of clothing to discover if it fits you or if you like it.He ran his motorbike into a tree. To study something as your main subject at university: She majored in philosophy at Harvard. ECL ENGLISH COURSE 62 Lay down Carry in Look into Look for Do without Take over Get along with Back up Give up Run into Turn in Try on . Also carry off.To drive a vehicle accidentally into an object or a person in another vehicle:I had to brake suddenly. To be friendly to. To leave secretly. Take sth off (REMOVE): to remove something. To go to bed ( to sleep ). To try to find (something or someone. furniture. etc. To place (something. To meet by chance. place or area . Take off (FLY) phrasal verb . To stop. To transport or take something toward the inside of a container. To assume the responsibility. someone or oneself) down.
What can’t you _________________________________ _ _______________________ _____ ? 2. LOOK___________________________________________________________________________ c. Complete the sentences below with the right phrasal verb in the right verb tense. BACK __________________________________________________________________________ e. c. Wherever you go. LOOK___ ________________________________________ _______ _________________________ b. DO _____________________________________________________________________________ UP WITHOUT INTO FOR DOWN ECL ENGLISH COURSE 63 . Combine the following verbs with the particles in the box and then create sentences. At what time _______________ you usually _____________________ _______________? e. d. You wouldn’t guess who I __________ _______ ______________ on the bus yesterday. a.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 63 Exercises 1. LAY____________________________________________________________________________ d. I can’t believe you ____________ _____ ______ _____________ ________ your parents! b. a. whatever you do I ____________ always___________ you _______.
Where is________________________sneaking away to?(old man that little white) c. Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. Is this __________________________________ neighbor? ( young our very attractive) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 64 . When will ____________________________________call back? (young nice that girl) b. VERY OLD. Did _________________dog carry away_____________________meat? (brown big the) (old tough that) d. VERY STOUT. Exercise 1. VERY TALL. Why doesn’t________________________________ stand up? (little that parrot green) e.ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determ iner the a this that these those my your Ordinal number first second 27th last Quality word clean attractive handsome nice dirty foolish crazy rich poor delicious unusual tender tough ripe odd large immense modern old dark golden thin fat red tiny slender stout huge fresh ancient white Size big little small tall short Age young old antique middle-aged 6-year-old under-aged 1-month -old green Color brown grey blue 64 Noun horse city ring man boxes couples parrot girlfriend widower cake ship ham steak fruit boys building statue “Very” – Should be placed before the modifier we wish to emphasize: VERY BIG. ETC.
Put the words in parentheses in the correct order: a. Why is she taking off ___________________________ stockings? (light new silk very those) d. (cotton that dark) ECL ENGLISH COURSE 65 .ECL ENGLISH COURSE LESSON 20 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF ADJECTIVES: Determiner a an this that these those our his her Age or Temperature new cool hot cold warm old Shape odd -shaped square rectangular round broad narrow wide flat Color dark light bluish green yellowish greenish brownish reddish Material steel iron gold silver wool silk synthetic wooden plastic leather nylon German French washing ironing Japanese American Origin Gerund English 65 Noun knife gate watch chain sweater stockings material floor dish coat rug refrigerator salad dressing machine board car egg beater Exercise 1. Is she going to put on ______________________________________sweater? (hot that wool yellow) b. When are they going to lay down______________________ __________________rug? (that brownish new rectangular nylon ) e. Why doesn’t he wash off _______________________________spoon? (old soup that greenish) c. They couldn’t carry in ______________________________cloth.
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