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# Problem Solutions 1

Problem Solutions
Chapter 1
1. - 2. a) 4/52 b) 7.7x104 3. The result of 20 flips is closer to 50-50 on
average. The probability of exactly 10 heads is small (0.18) 4. They stick together
and lose mobility. 5. - 6. 225 7. Foolish. The probability each time is 1/2,
regardless of past history. 8. Molecule: 3.1x10-10 m. Atom: about 2x10-10 m.
Nucleus: about 4x10-15 m 9. 12 10. 7.3x10-11 m , 4.0x10-14 m, 9.5x10-37
m
11. a) 0.2 nm b) 3.3x10-24 kg m/s c) electron: 3.6x106 m/s, proton: 2.0x103
m/s d) electron: 38 eV, proton: 0.021 eV e) 6200 eV 12. a) 0.42 nm b)
1.5x10 10 /m c) 6.3 (=2π) d) 130 m, 0.0483 /m, 6.3 (=2π) 13. p x=6.6x10-24
kgm/s, vx=7.3x106 m/s 14. a ) 3.0x105 b) 27 15. 13 16. 7.8x1080 17.
a) 1.6x10 -14 m b) 3.2 MeV 6
18. a) 38 eV b) 7.3x10 m/s (It could be going in
either direction.) 19. a) x2 b) x2 c) x8 20. - 21. a) 7.6x1054 states/J =
1.2x1036 states/eV b) 8.4 states/eV 22. a) ±35º, ±66º, 90º b) ±45º, 90º c)
±55º 23. They are in a state with orbital angular momentum of l=1, and oriented
opposite to the orientation of the two parallel spins. 24. |µ| = 1.61x10-23 J/T, µz
= ±9.27x10-24 J/T, U=±9.27x10-24 J 25. |µ| = 2.44x10-26 J/T, µz = ±1.41x10-
26 J/T, U=±1.41x10-26 J 26. about 10364 27. ±7.4x10-24 J, ±3.7x10-24 J,
0J 28. a) 9.2x10-8 N b) 1.8x103 N/m c) 4.5x1016 /s d) 30 eV e) about 3
times greater 29. If the kinetic energy were zero, the momentum would be zero,
the wavelength would be infinite, and so the particle would not be contained within the
potential well 30. 4, 8, 21024 = 103.0x1023 31. 77 (27710 23)

Chapter 2
f + γ = ∑ Πσ(φσ + γ σ) = ∑ Πσφσσ + ∑ Πσγ σ = φ+ γ cf = ∑ Πσχφσ = χ∑ Πσφσ = χφ
1. a) b) 2.
16 3. a) 33 1/6, b) 5 1/6 c) -4/3 d) 63 1/2 4. a) 4 1/2 b) 23 1/2
5. 7 7/8 6. -(1/2)µB 7. a) 3/8 b) 6 c) hhtt, htht, htth, thht, thth, tthh,
yes 8. a) 0.59 b) 0.33 c) 0.073 9. 1/36 10. a) 0.48 b) 0.39 11.
a) 0.0042, 56 b) 0.0046 12. 0.156, 5 13. a) 0.313 b) 10 14. 0.165 15.
1820 16. 10 375 17. 0.0252 18. 0.0224 19. a) 6.7x10 -6 b) 4.5x10-2
c) 2.1x10 -35 20. a) 4.0% low b) 1.7% low c) 0.8% low d) 0.4% low
21. 1.0x10 29 22. a) 0.130
b) 0.072 c) 0.026 23. a) 0.062 b) 0.062 24.
Ν! ( ρ−2)Ν − ν− µ
P N (n,m ) =
ν!µ !(Ν − ν − µ )! ρΝ
25. - 26. a) no b)yes 27. 3/40 (There
are 40 unseen cards and 3 of them are queens) 28. a) 1/13 b) 1/4 c) yes
d) 1/52 29. 5.8 cents 30. a) 0.0467 b) 0.155 31. 12.25 32. a) 7 b)
7

Chapter 3
1. a) 16.7 b) 3.7 c) 0.22 2. a) 1.67x107 b) 3.7x103 c) 2.2x10-4 3.
(Justify each step in the Equation 3.3.) 4. a) 1018 b) 109 c) 10-9 5. a)
10 b) 2.6 c) 0.26 6. a) 1027 b) 2.6x1013 c) 2.6x10-14 7. a) 50
2 Problem Solutions

## b) 5 c) 0.080 d) 0.067 8. a) 1014 b) 107

9. a) (1) Definition of mean values with (2) (3) binomial expansion, b)
c) Just do the derivatives and evaluate them at p+q=1 (q=1-p, etc.). 10. a) 100
b) 9.1 c) A=0.0437, B=0.00600 d) 0.0437 e) 0.0326 11. 10116
12. a)
b) - c) - d) - e) - 13. We know with certainty (i.e., probability=1) that a
system must be in one of its possible cofigurations. Therefore, the sum over all
configurations must give a total probability of one. 14. a) A=0.0798,
B=0.0200 b) 0.0798 c) 0.0737 d) 0.0484
e) 0.0108 f) 0.0016 15. 0.607 16. a) 200 b) 10 c) 0.0399 d)
3.3x10 -4 17. a) 60 b) 7.07 c) 0.0564 d) 7.9x10 -3 18. a) 50 b)
1.08x10-3 19. a) 0.0133 b) 5x10-198
20. a) 0.0798 b) 10 -199 21. a) Gaussian=0.44, binomial=0.40 b) Gaussian=
0.040, binomial=0.054 c) Gaussian=0.24, binomial=0.34 22. a)
Gaussian=0.138, binomial=0.137
b) Gaussian = 0.109, binomial = 0.116 c) Gaussian = 0.031, binomial=0.031 d)
Gaussian=3.4x10-4, binomial1.8x10-5 23. a) Gaussian=0.178, binomial=0.176
b) Gaussian = 0.120, binomial = 0.120
c) Gaussian = 0.015, binomial = 0.015 d) Gaussian = 0.00030, binomial
=0.00018
24. 25. 26. a) B=0.0139 b) A=0.0665 c) 0.0273 27. a) 0.20
m and 0.872 m b) 80 m and 17.4 m
c) 4.4 and 0.22 28. a) 0.4 m and 1.2 m b) 160 m and 24 m c) 3 and 0.15
29. a) 0
b) 3.33x10-11 m2 c) 0 d) 0.026 m e) 1.08x105 sec = 30 hours 30. a) 0
and 5.77x10 -12 m
b) 0 and 2.8x10-4 m c) 0 and 0.21 m 31. a) 0 and 1.73x10-10 m b) 0 and
-4
5.5x10 m
32. a) 0.01 m, 0.01 m b) 3 m, 0.17 m c) A=4.0x108 m-1, B=5.0x1017 m-2,
x0=10-16 m
33. a) 2.5x10-14 m b) 5x10-10 m c) 12.6 A 34. a) 0 b) 5.8x10-3 m
c) 1.5x1022
d) 4.6x106 years 35. 4.64 m, 36.2 m, 176 m (Using the standard deviation as
the characteristic spread.) 36. a) : N=2 square terms, and N(N-1)=21 cross
terms
b) : N=3 square terms, and N(N-1)=32 cross terms 37.

Chapter 4
1. - 2. Potential energy in the ice crystal is lower, because energy is released
from the water even though its temperature remains unchanged as it freezes. (In
section F we will learn that a second possibility is that the number of degrees of
freedom per molecule decreases. However, this isn't the case for water that freezes.)
3. a) f'(0)=0, f"(0)=+2 b) f(x)=-2+0x+x2+x3+0x4 c) (-.57, +.54)
4. a) f'(0)=0, f"(0)=+2 2 3
b) f(x)=-1+0x+x +0x -(1/2)x +...4 c) (-.67, +.67)
5.
6. a) 1.25x1029 b) 4x109 J c) W=(1/2)Cpf2 d) 2.8x1013 Pa = 2.8x108 atm e)
5x10-23 eV/Pa
7. B, C, A 8. a) 0.04 nm, 0.02 nm b) 1.66x10-23 kgm/s, 3.32x10-23 kgm/s
c) 0.11 eV
d) about 1300 K 9. a) 1.42x10-46 kgm2 b) 4.9x10-4 eV c) 5.7 K 10. a)
Problem Solutions 3

## 1.95x10-46 kgm2 b) 3.6x10-4 eV c) 4.1 K 11. a) 4.58x10-48 kgm2 b)

-2
1.5x10 eV c) 176 K
12. 6 13. H2O is not a linear molecule as is N2. Therefore, H2O has appreciable
moments of inertia about all three rotational axes, and so rotations about all three
axes can be excited. For N2, however, the rotational inertia about one axis (the one
that passes through both atomic nuclei) is extremely small, and so the energy of the
14. 3 15. a) 6 b) 3 c) no d) decreased e) The iron atoms are
released from the potential wells in which they were bound when in the solid state, so
their potential energy in the liquid state is higher (although still negative). 16. At
very low temperatures, only the 3 translational degrees of freedom. At intermediate
temperatures, 2 rotational degrees of freedom become accessible, making 5
altogether. At very high temperatures, two vibrational degrees of freedom (kinetic and
potential energy due to their vibrational motion along the molecular axis) become
accessible, making 7 degrees of freedom altogether. 17. 20.8 J/moleK = 5.0
cal/moleK 18. a) -0.421 eV b) +0.097 eV c) -0.32 eV 19. a) 0.0707
eV b) 0.0707 eV c ) 0.0625 eV d) u0=+0.0625 eV e) remains same 20. a)
510 m/s
b) 1910 m/s c) 8.9x10-34 kgm2/s d) 8.4 21. a) 35.3 J (1.74x1022 degrees of
23
freedom) b) 420 J (2.076x10 degrees of freedom) 22. 0.70 kg food and 0.42 kg
water.
4 Problem Solutions

Chapter 5
1. a) yes b) yes c) Although the air and walls emit more radiation altogether,
only a small fraction of that hits the rock. 2. a) No, because if the pressure is
zero, then no work is done (pdV=0).
b) If it is not under pressure, then the molecules are not colliding with the walls. So
their energy is not affected by the walls' motions. 3. a) It decreases, because the
system does work, rather than having work done on it. b) As the system
contracts, the potential energy of each particle decreases. (That is why it contracts.
The particles are seeking the configuration of lower potential energy.) Like a ball
rolling downhill, each particle's average kinetic (hence thermal) energy increases as
the potential well deepens. But the gain in thermal energy is less than the loss in
potential energy. 4. 172J or 41 cal, which is about 8% of the latent heat. 5.
a) 120 J b) 796 K 6. a) -1.4x10-2 J b) +6.7x10-3 K
7. u0 is negative, because thermal energy is released when the H2SO4 molecule
enters the solution. The change in chemical potential is negative, because the
molecules go into solution rather than out of solution. They go in the direction that
lowers their chemical potential. 8. The intermolecular attractive forces are much
stronger for the water molecules, making their potential well u0 much deeper.
Correspondingly more energy is required to liberate them. 9. a) The temperature
would fall because the same thermal energy would be distributed over more degrees
of freedom, meaning less thermal energy per degree of freedom. b) The
temperature would fall because the gain in potential energy leaves less energy to be
distributed among the thermal degrees of freedom. 10. 194 K 11. 2760
cal/mol 12. 4150 cal/mol 13. 2560 cal/mol 14. a) +0.012 eV b)
+0.006 eV c) -0.006 eV 15. 1.6x109 K 16. -0.51 eV 17. =18.1
18. 0.029 eV 19. a) In liquid water the molecules are closer together. Their
mutually attractive forces are stronger, and therefore the potential well is deeper at
these closer distances. b) In ice, their reduced thermal motion allows them to
orient and space themselves in a way that lowers their potential energy. c)
Compared to molecules of oil, the water molecule is much more highly polarized,
making stronger electrostatic attraction between the charged parts of the water
molecule and the charged salt ions. 20. a) -0.174 eV b) -0.608 eV 21. a)
20.3 J b) 4.9 cal c) u0 rises. (Less thermal energy but the same total internal
energy.) 22. a) 1550 J b) Internal energy includes only those things that are
entirely internal to the object, and not interactions with things external to the object,
such as an external magnetic or gravitational field. The torque that the external field
exerts on the atomic magnets does tend to flip them into alignment, and this work
done on them does increase their kinetic energy (work energy theorem), which gets
distributed through all thermal degrees of freedom. So the thermal energy of the
system does increase. 23. a) 1.52x105 J b) T=-22 K 24. a) 0.98 liter b)
506 J c) -0.12 0C
25. a) exact b) exact c) inexact d) exact e) exact 26. a) exact b) inexact
c) exact d) exact
27. (1) 47 (2) 47 yes 28. (1) 69 1/2 (2) 54 1/2 no 29. a)
pi(Vf-Vi) b) pf(Vf-Vi) c) yes 30. a) 34 b) 106 c) 64 (In parts a
and b, break each integral into two pieces. For each piece, one of the variables is
constant. For part c, write y in terms of x and integrate over x only.) 31. a) 142
b) 142 c) 142 32. a) w /y2 3 3 3
b) x /w c) d) x /z e) 33. a) 2w/y3
b) c) d) 34. a) x/v+2v2 b) u2v(u2+2v2) c) d) 1/v e) 2uv f) 35.
y(z+1) 36. y e2 y 37. 38. (3/2)V

Chapter 6
1. a) b) c) 2. a) b) c)
Problem Solutions 5

## 3. a) 10 b) 1012 c) 10900 d) 10900 e) 4. In equilibrium, the

probabilities for all 16 possible arrangements are the same. That doesn't mean that
the distribution is even. For example, in equilibrium there is 1 chance in 16 that all 4
molecules might be in the front half of the room, 4 chances in 16 that there are 3 in
front and 1 in back, etc. We should expect to see these very uneven distributions the
appropriate share of the time if the system is in equilibrium. 5. a) +++, ++-, +-+, -
++, +--, -+-, --+, --- b) 3/8 c) 2/8 6. a) 6/16 (same as binomial prediction)
b) 1/16 c) 2/6 7. a) 1.3x10-24
b) 0.30 c) 0.48 8. 9. a) 2.9x10-25 eV b) 11.4x10-25 eV c)
8.6x10 -25 eV 10. 1.7x10 -13 eV 11. a) hh, ht, th, tt b) hhh, hht, hth, thh,
htt, tht, tth, ttt c) hhhh, hhht, hhth, hthh, thhh, hhtt, htht, htth, thht, thth, tthh, httt,
thtt, ttht, ttth, tttt d) yes 12. a) 36 b) 21
13. a) 64 b) 7 14. a) 7776 b) 288 c) 15. a) 1.1x109 b) 3.5x10
9
c)
18 16. a) 6 b) 3 17. a) 20, 10 b) 9900, 4950 c) 9.7x105 ,
3.7x10
1.6x105 d) 1.0x109 1.7x108 18. a) microscopic b) 2 19. a)
macroscopic b) 4.6x10 26 20. a) b) 21. a) 8.4x1024 b) 1.26 c) 22.
4 b) 1.05x10-66 (kgm/s)3 c) 5.4x1032 d) 6.7x108
a) 3.8x10 J e) 23. a)
3.0x107 J b) 4.64x10-67 (kgm/s)3 c) 2.0x1035 d) 1.82x108 e) f)
8 8
c(N2)=2.29x10 , c(O2)=8.63x10 , = 24. a) 1.22x103 J
b) 1.16x10-66 (kgm/s)3 c) 3990 d) 3990 e) 25. When it melts, the volume
in coordinate space accessible to each molecule increases immensely, because the
molecules become mobile and can move throughout the fluid. This volume is much
larger and affords access to many more states than did the much more restricted
volume that was represented in the three potential energy degrees of freedom of the
solid state.
26. a) b)
c) The factor (N/e)N is much larger than (by a factor like NN-1/2).

Chapter 7
1. a) Set df/dE=0 for each, which gives , where n is the first exponent, and m the
second. For all three cases the ratio n/(n+m) is 0.4, giving E=2. b) f(2)/f(1) = 1.7,
187, , f(2)/f(3)= 1.5, 58, 2. 3. a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,4,0,16,0), (1,3,1,9,9),
(2,2,2.8,4,11.3), (3,1,5.2,1,5.2), (4,0,8,0,0) total=25.5 b) 0.20 c) (2,2), 0.44
4. a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,4,0,64,0), (1,3,1,27,27), (2,2,5.7,8,45.3),
(3,1,15.6,1,15.6), (4,0,32,0,0), total=87.9 b) 0.31 c) (2,2), 0.52 5.
a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,6,0,216,0), (1,5,1,125,125), (2,4,4,64,256), (3,3,9,27,243),
(4,2,16,8,128), (5,1,25,1,25), (6,0,36,0,0), total=777 b) (2,4), 0.33
6. a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,6,0,2.21x1023,0), (1,5,1,9.31x1020, 9.31x1020),
(2,4,1.05x106,1.15x1018,1,21x1024), (3,3,3.49x109,2.06x1014,7.19x1023),
(4,2,1.10x1012,1.07x109,1.18x1021), (5,1,9.54x1013,1,9.54x1013),
(6,0,3.66x1015,0,0), total=1.93x1024 b) (2,4), 0.63 7. a)
(E1,E2,E3,1,2,3,0)= (4,0,0,16,0,0,0), (3,1,0,9,1,0,0), (3,0,1,9,0,1,0),
(2,2,0,4,5.7,0,0), (2,1,1,4,1,1,4), (2,0,2,4,0,8,0), (1,3,0,1,15.6,0,0),
(1,2,1,1,5.7,1,5.7), (1,1,2,1,1,8,8), (1,0,3,1,0,27,0), (0,4,0,0,32,0,0), (0,3,1,0,15.6,1,0),
(0,2,2,0,5.7,8,0), (0,1,3,0,1,27,0), (0,0,4,0,0,64,0), total=17.7 b) (1,1,2), 0.45
8. a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,4,0,1024,0), (1,3,1,243,243), (2,2,4,32,128), (3,1,9,1,9),
(4,0,16,0,0), total=380 b) 0.64 9. All states have to be equally probable in
order for the respective probabilities to be proportional to the number of accessible
states. 10. 11. a) 10 b)
6 Problem Solutions

## c) 12. a) 10 b) 1010 c) 100 d) 10900 e) f)

2.00000000000000000009 x10 20
13. 10 14. Same as Table 7.3 except that for every power of 10 that
appears there, you double the power. For example, , etc. 15. a)
(E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,5,0,exp6.99x10 ,0), (1,4,1,exp6.02x1024,exp6.02x1024),
24

(2,3,exp3.61x1024,exp4.77x1024,exp8.38x1024),
(3,2,exp5.73x1024,exp3.01x1024,exp8.74x1024), (4,1,exp7.22x1024,1,exp7.22x1024),
(5,0,exp8.39x1024,0,0) 16. The change is a factor of 17. 18. m1/
(m1+m2) is the fraction of the total number of degrees of freedom that is in system
#1. So the energy in system #1 is in proportion to the number of degrees of freedom
there.
19. a) (E1,E2,1,2,0)= (0,4,0,exp3.61x1024,0),
(1,3,1,exp2.86x1024,exp2.86x1024), (2,2,exp0.60x1024,exp1.81x1024,exp2.41x1024),
(3,1,exp0.95x1024,1,exp0.95x1024), (4,0,exp1.20x1024,0,0), total=exp2.86x1024
b) , or one chance in
20. a) ax=(10log10a)x=10xlog10a b) Use the previous result with a=e c) The
Taylor series expansion of ln(1+ ) around the point =0 gives ln(1+ )=0+ -
2/2+...=(1-/2+...) for<<1 d) for (1+)x take the logarithms, use the
preceding result, and then exponentiate 21. 10219,976 22. a) 1018 b) 1.7x10-
13 m3 c) 55 m , about the same d) 2.0x10-3 J, 2.0x10-12 J 23. a) At the
peak, the distribution has a maximum, so its derivative is zero. b) -, Because each
degree of freedom carries the same energy, on average, the total energy E0 is
apportioned in proportion to the number of degrees of freedom.
c) The second gives -n1/E12-n2/E22, which you manipulate using n1/E1=n2/E2=n0/E0.
d) Substitute the results for the first and second derivatives into Equation 7.5 and
exponentiate it. 24. You want to do an integral of the form, where P(x) is of the
form . To make this difficult integral easier, first square it, . Then combine the
integrands and turn the area integral, dx dy, into an area integral in polar coordinates.
This integral is easy to do and should give you the desired result that . 25. -
26. Thermal energy would have to decrease (temperature falls) if potential energy
increases, because total energy is conserved. 27. Heat flowing from cold to hot,
fluids flowing from lower pressure to higher pressure, particles going from regions of
low concentration to high concentration, friction speeding things up and cooling them
off, etc. In short, have energy conserved, but flowing the wrong way. 28. It takes
about 40 seconds to write 100 zeros, or about 0.4 seconds per zero. At that rate it
would take about 1.3x1016 years to write out 1024 zeros, or about 106 times the age
of the Universe. 29. a) 8 b) 0.96x10-23 J/K , 1.91x10-23 J/K c) 2.87x10-23
J/K 30. a) 80,000
b) 7.32x10-23 J/K , 8.27x10-23 J/K c) 15.59x10-23 J/K 31. a) b) 63.6 J/K ,
95.4 J/K c) 159.0 J/K 32. a) 120 b) 0, 0.693k , 1.099k 1.386k, 1.609k
c) 4.787k, 4.787k
33. a) b) S=kln(f/i)=0.41 J/K 34. a) b) 35. a) 16J
b) 1151 J/K, 3499 J/K, 4650 J/K
36. S=kln(f)-kln(i)=kln(f/i)=kln(f/i)n/2= (n/2)kln(f/i), where n is the
number of degrees of freedom. Solving for n gives n=2S/[kln(Ef/Ei)] a) 1.3x1022
b) 2.1x1025 37. 6.21x105 J
b) c) 6.9 J/K 38. 153k 39. greater volume in momentum space (For molecules
with the same kinetic energy, the ones with the larger mass have the greater
momentum.)
Problem Solutions 7

Chapter 8
1. a) 3N/2 b) Write S=kln with =CE3N/2, and use this in Equation 8.2 for 1/T.
c) Use S=kln and Equation 8.2 to get E= N kT. 2. a) 5x1028 b) 1.02x108 J
3. a) 20, 16
b) E1=5.56x10-19 J, E2=4.44x10-19 J c) 2.7x10-21 J/K d) 4020 K 4. a) 515
ºR b) 322 ºR
c) 5.15x10-21 ºR d) 0.0322 ºR 5. 3.77x10-23 J/K, 137 K 6. 1.380x10-23
J/K 7. a) 0.079 J/K b) 8. 2.65x10-21 J 9. +3.67x10-3 J/K b) -3.53x10-
3 J/K c) +0.14x10-3 J/K 10. a) +13.7 J/K b) -13.2 J/K c) 11. a)
Use p/T= S/ V) E,N where S=kln to get pV=NkT b) R=NAk 12. Use
p/T=S/V)E,N where S=kln to get: a) pV=[1+2bV2]NkT
b) pV=[(1/2)+bV]NkT c) pV11=10bkT 13. Use 1/T=S/E)V,N where S=kln to
get: a) E=NkT
b) E=2NkT c) E=3NkT 14. Use /T=-S/N)E,V where S=kln to get: a)
=-[bV2+ln(EV)]kT
b) c) = - 3kT lnE 15. a) 0=CV1N1(V0-V1)N2
b) dS0=0=dS1+dS2=(S1/V1-S2/V2)dV1 c) p1/T1=p2/T2 16. 110 J/K
17. 250 J/K
18. a) inexact, y b) exact c) inexact, 1/y d) inexact, 1/x e) exact
(would also be exact if multiplied by xy) f) exact g) inexact 1/p 19. a)
7 8
about 10 to 10 J, depending on the room's size b) 660 J c) 60 J d)
2.8x1026 J 20. a) increase b) 21. a) 3.2x10-3 J b) 314 K 22. dE,
dV, dp, dT, d, dN, dS; (1/T)dQ, (1/p)dW 23. 1/T , 1/p 24. a) +0.72x10-2 J
-5
b) 7.5x10 J/K -3
25. a) 3.3x10 J/K b)
26. row 1: 1.16, ; row 2: 2.9x1025, ; row 3: 1.56x1025, 3.18 J/K; row 4: 0.0137 J/K,
27. a) 3.57x10-4 J/K b) 3.57 x10-4 J/K c) for each 28. a)
b) 10 1000 -7
29. a) 3.38x10 J/K b) -8
c) 3.48x10 J/K , 30. a) 3.35x10-9
J/K b) 31. 9.6x10-24 J/K 32. 4.9x10-26 m3 33. a) 0 b) Although there
is greater room in momentum space, there is correspondingly less room in coordinate
space, due to the smaller volume. 34. 3140 K 35. -0.25 eV 36. T=0,
Q≠0, so the derivative is infinite (undefined). 37. a) 3.4 J/K b) 0.10 J/K c)
0.71 J/K d) 1.4 J/K 38. Water. Water's high specific heat means that it can
absorb solar heat (daytime, summer) or release it (nighttime, winter) with relatively
small changes in temperature. So the oceans greatly moderate the climate. 39.
cp would be larger. If held at constant pressure and allowed to expand, the expansion
would cause some cooling, resulting in a smaller net rise in temperature as heat is
added. Smaller rise in temperature means larger heat capacity. 40. a) 0.74
cal/gK b) Table 8.1 has specific heats at constant pressure, not constant volume.
(See above answer). Later, we will learn that cp should be 5/3 times higher than cV for
helium, and it is. 41. For a mole, Nk=R. Write the first law dE=dQ-pdV=RdT. Then
look at dQ/dT for dV=0 (cV) and for pdV=RdT (cp). 42. a) 5.77 J/K b) 43.
a) 7.26 J/K b) 44. 8.56 J/K 45. a) 13,700 J b) The heat released goes
to some other system whose entropy increases as a result of the heat transfer. The
total entropy of the combined system rises. 46. 5670 J 47. a) +0.376 eV b)
0.136 J/K
48. a) +0.269 eV b) 2.94 J/K (work done is irrelevant) 49. 8730 J/K

Chapter 9
1. a) 1 b) 1 2. a) 3 b) 2 c) f=w2+10w(1+z)+110z d) f=x(x-
8 Problem Solutions

10)+10z+10xz
e) z=(f-w2-10w)/[10(w+11)] 3. Perhaps some manifestation of: heat flowing
from cold to hot, something moving backward to the net applied force, particles
diffusing from low chemical potential to high chemical potential. 4. a) x=2 b)
0 c) negative 5. a) (0,0) b) 0 c) 0 d) negative e) negative
6. Write dE1=-dE2, and then use the first law for each dE. 7. Carry out the
derivation from Equation 9.4 to Equation 9.6, with the constraint that dS0>0. 8.
This must be a non equilibrium process where the system gains volume in coordinate
or momentum space without losing volume in the other. (Ex. removing a partition, or
a chemical explosion.) 9. The condition 9.3a applies to systems interacting
thermally only, which precludes particles entering or leaving (i.e. diffusive
interactions).
10. If the system expands, the temperature may drop even if heat is added. Etc.
11. µcrystal<µamorphous 12. µdissolved<µcrystal<µair 13. Mix in some water
and shake it. The sugar moves from the oil to the water, where its chemical potential
is lower. Then let it sit so that the water separates, and remove the water. If you want
to recover the sugar, evaporate the water. 14. a) 30 ºC b) 0.209R=1.73 J/K
c) 0.0168R=0.14 J/K d) They are not engaging in mechanical interactions, so their
volumes are constant, not their pressures. So Cp is irrelevant. 15. - 16. No
because the condition is for purely mechanical interactions. As heat is removed from
the water, it is engaging in thermal interactions, too. 17. No, because the
condition is for purely thermal interactions. The volume of melting ice is changing, so
it is engaging in mechanical interactions as well. If the volume were held constant, the
pressure would fall and the freezing point would rise (T>0) as heat was added
(Q>0) to melt the ice. The condition would be met. 18. They will both move closer
together. 19. You must explain how to measure T and Q for thermal
interactions, p and V for mechanical interactions, or µ and N for diffusive
interactions. (µ will probably be the most difficult, unless you are using voltmeters
for the diffusion of charged particles.) 20. a) [2µ(H2)+µ(O2)]>2µ(H2O) b) The
valence electrons are in lower energy orbitals in the H2O than in the H2 and O2
molecules, on average, so the potential energy reference level, u0, is lower. 21. a)
2.04x10-19 J b) 41.7 K, 0.288x10-19 J c) 0.141 for both 22. a) 0.202 J
-8
b) 4.17x10 K, 2.88x10 -11 J c) 1.41x10 -10 for both 23. a) 3780 J
b) 3.78x10-9 J c) 1.0x10-12 24. a) 3740 J b) 3.94x10-9 J c)
1.05x10 -12 15. 2.25 m 26. a) 3.01x10 24 b) 154 K c) 8.2x10-11%
27. a) 3.35x10 10 b) 3.2x10 -6 28. - 29. a) 6.1x10 -3 b) 6.1x10-12
30. a) 1.2x1010 b) 1.1x105 c) 9x10-6 31. - 32. - 33. a) You could
seal the oven and use the air pressure as a measure of its temperature.
b) Yes. (You wouldn't be able to get food in or out without breaking the pressure
seal.) 34. Constant volume. If you used constant pressure, the volume would
decrease at lower temperatures, meaning that interatomic spacings would get smaller
and interactions would get stronger. This would mean greater deviation from the ideal
gas law (pressure varies linearly with temperature) and would also mean that the
gas liquefies sooner. 35. a) 46 ºC b) -281 ºC 36. a) water b) water
c) The greater pressure favors the phase of lower volume, which is liquid for water,
but not for glass. d) At lower pressure, it is easier to expand, so the water doesn't
have so much trouble freezing. e) Higher pressure favors the denser liquid phase, so
the boiling point rises under increased pressure, and falls under reduced pressure.
37. - 38. a) A2 acquires particles because µ2 is lower. b) N1µ1+N2µ2
c) , , G= 39. Whatever the values of TS and pV for the system, these
values could be have been obtained in an infinite number of different ways, with
different heat transfers and different amounts of work. For example, imagine starting
Problem Solutions 9

with a system in a canister at fixed volume near absolute zero, where the pressure is
nearly zero (pV0). Then simply add heat until the pressure rises to some arbitrary
value. This value of pV was obtained without any work at all having been done.
Similarly, you could get any value of TS through volume changes without any heat at
all having been added. 40. a) 189.3 J/K b) p=2.1x107 Pa
41. Take the differential and subtract dE=TdS--pdV+µdN. 42. - 43. In each
case, write out the full derivative of the appropriate function in Equation 9.14' (e.g.,
dF=-pdV-Vdp+µdN+Ndµ) and then substitute in -SdT+Vdp for Ndµ. 44. In each
case use the integrated energy expression (9.12) in for E. 45. Just carry out the
steps for these proofs that are outlined in Sections F.2, F.3, and F.4. 46. dF=-SdT-
pdV+µdN. dF=-pdV=work done only if dT=dN=0 47. dH=TdS+Vdp+µdN.
dH=TdS=heat added only if dp=dN=0 48. Two interacting systems.
F0=F1+F2=-(p1-p2)V+(µ1-µ2)N, since T=0. Make A2 a reservoir so that p2
and µ2 are constant. Write =p1+p/2 and =µ1+µ/2. To first order F0=0, because
p1=p2 and µ1=µ2 in equilibrium. To second order. F0=-pV µN, and both these
terms must be positive according to the results 9.3. If first order terms are zero and
second order terms are positive, then the function is a minimum. 49. Two
interacting systems. G0=G1+G2=(µ1-µ2)N, since T=p=0. Make A2 a
reservoir so that µ is constant. Write µ =µ +µ/2. To first order G =0, because
2 1 0
µ1=µ2 in equilibrium. To second order. G0=µN/2, and this term must be positive
according to the results 9.3c. If first order terms are zero and second order terms are
positive, then the function is a minimum. 50. ∂f/∂z)y=∂g/∂y)z 51. Each has
the form dw=fdx+gdy+hdz, so you will get the relations corresponding to
∂f/∂y)x,z=∂g/∂x)y,z, ∂f/∂z)x,y=∂h/∂x)y,z , ∂g/∂z)x,y=∂h/∂y)x,z 52. a) Change the
volume by V adiabatically, and measure T . b) Add heat (S=Q/T) at
constant volume, and measure p. c) Add heat (S=Q/T), and measure how
much the volume must change (V) in order to keep the temperature the same.
d) Add heat to a system held at constant volume and measure the changes in
pressure and temperature (p,T). 53. a) Add N particles. To ensure that T
and p retain their original values, two things must be adjusted, such as the volume and
adding or removing heat until the two are at their original values. Then record the net
change in volume, V b) Add heat (S=Q/T) to a system of fixed number of
particles. adjust the volume (V) so that the pressure returns to its original value.
c) Add heat to a system of a fixed number of particles kept at constant volume,
Record both p and T. 54. a) (M12) b) From Ndµ=-SdT+Vdp, we get
(∂µ/∂T)p,N=-(S/N)=0, because S=0 at absolute zero. 55. Solve for p, with c=1
and the given V/N. KE= p2/2m. a) 6.4 eV b) 0.30 MeV

Chapter 10
1. 4 2. a) p=NkT/V, ∂p/∂V)T,N=-NkT/V2=-p/V b) E=(3/2)NkT, ∂E/∂p)T,N=0
3. a) 1/T=CV2/E or E=CV2T b) p/T=2CVlnE c) E=CV2T,
∂E/∂V)T=2CVT=2E/V
d) p=(2x/V)ex, where x=S/CV2 ∂p/∂V)S=(-2x/V2)(3+2x)ex 4. example: =-
CT/Np, where C is a positive constant 5. E=(/2)pV, ∂E/∂p)V,N=(/2)V 6.
- 7. - 8. -
9. a) 2 b) 2N c) 41.4 J d) =(CAE/N2)N e) S=Nkln(CAE/N2) 10. a)
N
b) c) d) dE=TdS-FdL, e) FL=NkT
11. a) S=klnC+bkV4/5+2NklnE b) E=2NkT c) 4N d) pV1/5=(4/5)bkT 12.
pressure=-force/area, with force=p/t, p=2mvx, t=2X/vx, area =YZ. Finally,
10 Problem Solutions

## use the average value of (1/2)mvx2=(1/2)kT. 13. a) N/2 b)

flux=(density)x(velocity)=number per area per second. So
(density)x(velocity)x(area)=
number per second=(N/2V)(vx)(A) c) 2mvx d) force=p/t = (number per
second)x(impulse per particle) =(N/2V)(vx)(A)( 2mvx) e) divide force by the area;
p=(N/V)mvx2 f) use the average value of (1/2)mvx2=(1/2)kT 14. We can
separate the units by using ln(ab)=ln(a)+ln(b). For example, if E is 4J, then
ln(E)=ln(4)+ln(J). At the end, combine all the unit terms into one, and they all cancel,
giving us ln(1)=0 for the units term. 15. =kT[(+2)/2-lnc] = (E+pV-TS)/N
16. Changes in volume cause changes in T, which is reflected in the equation
E=(3/2)NkT. 17. S=klnC+kaV1/2+kbVlnE and use Equations 8.10 a) T=E/(kbV)
1/2
b) p=kT[(a/2V )+blnE] 18. S=klnC+kaNV2+kbNVlnE and use Equations 8.10
a) T=E/(kbNV) b) p=NkT[2aV+blnE] c) =-kT[aV2+bVlnE]
19. H=E+pV=(6/2)RT+RT =25,700 J 20. 6.0x1027 molecules, 3.4x10-9 m
21. 28.97 g, 28.64 g 22. 3260 m3 23.a) c=3.8x106, S=126 J/K·mole b)
c=1.3x1011, S=213 J/K·mole c) c=250, S=45.9 J/K·mole 24. E=6130 J, F=8580
J, H=-56,700 J, G=-54,300 J 25. a) H=7540 J/mole, S=23.5 J/K·mole, E=7540
J/mole b) H=4.07x10 J/mole, S=109 J/K·mole, E=3.76x104 J/mole
4
c) H=3570 J/mole, S=8.5 J/K·mole, E=2740 J/mole 26. p(V-b)=NkT 27.
a) 3.1x10-10 m
b) 33x10-10 m c ) 11 28. a) acetone b) water 29. Add coulomb
repulsion, 1/r21/  2/3, to the pressure term. (p+a/v2-c/v2/3)(v-b)=RT 30. (p-
2/3
c/v )v=RT 31. water: v=0.018 l = 0.6b ethyl alcohol: v=0.058 l = 0.7b
32. [p+a(v-2b)/v3](v-b)=RT or [p+(a/v2)(1-e-c(v-2b))][v-b]=RT , etc.
33. a) From p/T=∂S/∂V)E,N get S=(AV/T)[1+B(1-V/2V0)]+f(E,N) (or other equivalent
forms) where f is any const. or function of E and N. b) =eS/k, where S is given in
part (a). 34. u0= -0.441eV+6k(T-273K) 35. a) xi'= b) mi= 36. a)
193 m/s b) 116,000 m/s, which is about 600 times faster than the motion of the
atoms 37. -4.7 eV 38. a) 1.06x1022 b) 5.9 m/s c) vrms=116,000 m/s
is 2x1010 times larger. 39. a) 2.04x10-21 J b) k=82 N/m c) f=6.8x1012 Hz
40. =1/p=0.99x10-5 m2/N 41. cp-cv = p∂v/∂T)p+NA[∂u0/∂T)p-∂u0/∂T)V]
42. cp-cV = 16.3 J/Kmole, 530 K 43. a) polyatomic b) 8 44. Write
p∂V/∂T)p=pV  = 3.02x10-5 J/K, whereas cp=3R=24.9 J/K. So cp is larger than cV by
only 1.2x10-4 %. 45. a) dV=(1/a)[-(2/p)dp+(1/3T)dT] b) =2/(apV) c)
=1/(3aVT) 
46. =R/pvB, where B=[1--a/pv +2ab/pv ] 3 47. a) 0 b) -p/V
c) -p/V 48. a) dv=(R/pB)dT-[vA/pB]dp, where A=(1-b/v) andB=[1--

a/pv+2ab/pv3] b) - c) R/Av 49. You should get the differential form;
V2dp+(2pV-aT)dV-(aV+b)dT=0, from which you can read off the answers to parts a
and b. a) =(a+b/V)/(2pV-aT)
b) =V/(2pV-aT) 50. a) cp-cV=2.5x10-5R, compared to the real value of 4.5x10-
2R b) =1.13x10-4/K, compared to the real value of 2.1x10-4/K 51. a)
p=83.5 atm -3
b) =2.1x10 /K 52. differential form: Adp+Bdv=RdT, with ,
a) =R/vB b) =A/vB c) cp-cV=pR/B 53. differential form: Cdp + Ddv =
RdT , with C=eBvv , D=eBv(p+pvB+AB) a) =R/vD b) =C/vD c) cp-
cV=pR/D 54. a) 3.03 b) 18.1
Problem Solutions 11

Chapter 11
1. definition of Cp 2. definition of CV 3. ∂S/∂p)T=-∂V/∂T)p=-V ∂S/∂T)V∂T/∂p)V
=(CV/T)[-∂V/∂p)T/∂V/∂T)p]=(CV/T)V/V   ∂S/∂p)T(∂p/∂V)T=∂S/∂p)T/(∂V/∂p)T=(-V)/(-
V)=/ 6. =∂S/∂T)p/(∂V/∂T)p=(Cp/T)/V ∂T/∂p)S=∂V/∂S)p=∂V/∂T)p/∂S/∂T)p=V/
(Cp/T)
8. =-∂V/∂p)T/∂V/∂T)p=V/V   ∂p/∂S)V=-1/(answer to problem 4) 10.
=1/∂V/∂T)p=1/V
      ∂ S/∂V)p/∂S/∂p)V=-(Cp/TV)/(CV/T) 12. =1/∂V/∂p)T=-1/V
13. dV=∂V/∂p)T dp+(V/∂T)pdT=-Vdp+VdT 14. dS=(∂S/∂T)pdT+
(∂S/∂p)Tdp=(Cp/T)dT-Vdp , dV=(∂V/∂T)pdT+(∂V/∂p)Tdp=VdT-Vdp together:
dE=TdS-pdV=(Cp-pVb)dT+V(p-T)dp
15. dE=T(∂S/∂T)VdT+[T(∂S/∂V)T-p]dV=CVdT+[T/-p]dV 16. dV=(∂V/∂S)TdS+
(∂V/∂T)SdT= (/)dS-(CV/T)dT 17. dE=T(∂S/∂p)Vdp+[T(∂S/∂V)p-
p]dV=(CV/)dp+[(Cp/V)-p]dV
18. dE=[T-p(∂V/∂S)T]dS-p(∂V/∂T)SdT=[T-p/]dS+(CVp/T)dT 19.
dT=(∂T/∂p)Vdp+(∂T/∂V)pdV= ( )dp+(1/V)dV 20. dS=(∂S/∂T)pdT+
(∂S/∂p)Tdp=(Cp/T)dT-Vdp 21. a) dE=[T-p(∂V/∂S)p]dS-p(∂V/∂p)Sdp, solve for dS
b) dS=(1/A)dE-(pVCV/CpA)dp, with A=T(1-pV/Cp) 22. a) dN=dV=0 b) 1
c) dp=(∂p/∂T)VdT d) dp=( )dT 23. a) dN=dV=0 b) dS=(∂S/∂T)VdT
c) dS=(CV/T)dT 24. a) dV=(∂V/∂E)SdE+(∂V/∂S)EdS=-(1/p)dE+(T/p)dS b)
dV=(∂V/∂p)Sdp+ (∂V/∂S)pdS=-(VCV/Cp)dp+(TV/Cp)dS c) dV=(∂V/∂p)Tdp+
(∂V/∂T)pdT=Vdp+VdT
d) dS=(∂S/∂p)Tdp+(∂S/∂T)pdT=-Vdp+(Cp/T)dT 25. a) 1 b) dS=(∂S/∂N)T,pdN
c) dS=-(∂µ/∂T)p,NdN 6. a) dE=[T(∂S/∂N)T,p-p(∂V/∂N)T,p+µ]dN b) dE=[-
T(∂µ/∂T)p,N-p(∂µ/∂p)T,N+µ]dN 27. =4.0x10-5 /K (Ignore the smaller terms of
order T2 and T3.) 28. a) and b) Add heat to the system in the cylinder and let it
expand under constant pressure. You must record the values of (V,V,T) to calculate
=(1/V)(V/T)p. c) This will be done the same as parts (a) and (b), but with a
complication for measuring the volume and change in volume for the solid (Vs and
Vs). Put water in the cylinder and measure its volume, Vw. Then add the solid, and
the increase in volume is its volume, Vs. Now add the heat and record the change in
temperature and volume (T and Vtotal). Since you already know w from the
previous measurements, you can calculate Vw=T and subtract this from Vtotal
to get Vs. (Vs=Vtotal-Vw) 29. a) Hold the gas in the cylinder at constant
volume. Add heat Q and measure the temperature change, T. CV=Q/T)V b)
Put the liquid in the cylinder and let the volume change to keep the pressure constant
as you add Q and measure T. Cp=Q/T)p. c) Put volume V of the liquid in
the cylinder and measure the change in volume V as you change the pressure by
p. You will have to add or remove heat to keep the temperature constant as you do
this. =(1/V)(V/p)T d) Immerse the solid in the liquid in the cylinder, and
measure Vtotal and V total as above. To get Vs and Vs for the solid alone, you have
to subtract that of the liquid, determined as above. (Vs=Vtotal-Vw , Vs=Vtotal-
Vw) =(1/V)(V/p)T 30. dz=0=(∂z/∂x)ydx+(∂z/∂y)xdy Now use this to solve
12 Problem Solutions

## for the ratio dx/dy when dz=0. 31. dE=TdS-pdV=T(∂S/∂T)VdT+[T(∂S/∂V)T-

p]dV=CVdT+[T  -p]dV 32. Show that (T /p -1=(RT/pvA)-1,
 and you sthen juggle
the van der Waals equation around to get RT/pvA=(1+a/pv2). 33. a) 0.019 b)
13 34. a) dE=TdS-pdV, with dS=(∂S/∂T)pdT+(∂S/∂p)Tdp and dV= (∂V/∂T)pdT+
(∂V/∂p)Tdp. Collect terms. b) Use Table 11.1 to convert the partial derivatives into
(Cp,CV,,,T,p,V). 35. Write S=(∂S/∂p)Vp+(∂S/∂V)pV and then use Table
11.1 to convert the two partials into (Cp,CV,,,T,p,V) 36. Use
∂2S/∂V∂T=∂2S/∂T∂V and Maxwell's relation (M4) for ∂S/∂V)T. 37. Use
∂2S/∂p∂T=∂2S/∂T∂p and Maxwell's relation (M10) for ∂S/∂p)T. 38. a) p=NkT/V, so
2 2
∂p/∂T)V=Nk/V, and ∂ p/∂T )V=0 2
b) p=RT/(v-b)-a/v , so ∂p/∂T)V=R/(v-b), and
2 2
∂ p/∂T )V=0 39. a) - b) 4.9x106 Pa, 4.2x105 Pa 40. a) - b) 19.7 J/K·mole
2 2
41. a) V=NkT/p, so ∂V/∂T)p=Nk/p, and ∂ V/∂T )p=0 b) From the van der Waals
equation, Avdp+Bpdv=RdT, where A=(1-b/v) and B=(1-a/pv2+2ab/pv3), we get
(∂v/∂T)p=R/pB. The second derivative is (∂2v/∂T2)p=-(R/pB2)(∂B/∂T)p, where
(∂B/∂T)p=(2a/pv3)(1-3b/v)(∂v/∂T)p, and this last derivative is given above (R/pB).
42. (replace p by -B, and V by M everywhere) ∂T/∂M)S=∂B/∂S)M (M1), ∂S/∂M)T=-
∂B/∂T)M (M4), -∂T/∂B)S=∂M/∂S)B (M7), ∂S/∂B)T=∂M/∂T)B (M10) 43.
E=T(∂S/∂T)MT+[T(∂S/∂M)T+B]M

Chapter 12
1. a) dS=(Cp/TV)dV b) dS=(Cp/T)dT 2. a) dE=[(Cp/V)-p]dV b) dE=[Cp-
TV]dT 3. dV=VdT
4. a) dH=CpdT b) dF=-[S+pV]dT c) dG=-SdT 5. a) dH=(Cp/V)dV b)
dF=-[(S/V)+p]dV
c) dG=-(S/V)dV 6. dp=dT=0 7. a)dE=[(Cp/V)-p]dV+[T(∂S/∂N)p,V+µ]dN
b) dE=[T(∂S/∂µ)p,N-p(∂V/∂µ)p,N]dµ+[T(∂S/∂N)p,µ-p(∂V/∂N)p,µ+µ]dN 8. a) dS=( )dV
b) dS=-Vdp 9. a) dE=[(T )-p]dV b) dE=[-TV+pV]dp 10. dV=-Vdp
11. a) dH=[-TV+V]dp
b) dF=pVdp c) dG=Vdp 12. a) dH=[(T )-(1/)]dV b) dF=-pdV c) dG=-
(1/)dV
13. (for an ideal gas, =1/T, =1/p) 14. a/v2 15. a) 530 K b) 800 K c) 61
atm
16. a) nRTln(Vf/Vi) b) nRTln(Vf/Vi) 17. a) Use pV=NkT to eliminate the
volume V, and integrate. b) 5.5 km 18. - 19. 9 20. W=[piVi/(-1)][1-
(Vi/Vf)- 1] 21. a) Start with the rearranged first law, dQ=dE+pdV, with
E=(N/2)kT, and use the definitions CV=∂Q/∂T)V, and Cp=∂Q/∂T)p. b)
(E+pV)=[(/2)NkT+NkT] =[( /2]Nk
 T=CpT 22. a) T=410 K, p=1 atm b)
T=273 K, p=0.667 atm c) T=232 K, p=0.567 atm 23. a) 507 J, 410 J, 379 J
b) 1770 J, 410 J, 0 J
c) 1260 J, 0J, -379 J d) 1770 J, 0J, -531 J 24. Tf/Ti=exp[(V/C)(pf-pi)]
Tf/Ti=exp[-(/C)(Vf-Vi)] Vf/Vi=exp[-(pf-pi)] 25. a) dE=(pVCV/Cp)dp b)
dE=-pdV c) dE=(pCV/T)dT 26. a) 283 K b) inversion 27. a) 1.01x104
Pa/m b) Use T/T=(v/C)p and get Tadiabatic=0.8x10-4 K/m, which is greater
than the lapse rate, so it is stable. 28. Use =(1/V)(∂V/∂T)p and =-(1/V)(∂V/∂p)T
with pV=NkT to get =1/T, =1/p 29. As moist air rises and cools adiabatically,
some of the moisture condenses, releasing latent heat. Consequently, rising moist air
Problem Solutions 13

cools less rapidly with altitude than rising dry air. If the lapse rate falls between these
two, then the moist air will continue to rise, whereas the dry air won't. 30. Use
dT=(∂T/∂p)Sdp dT=(∂T/∂V)SdV dV=(∂V/∂p)Sdp and Table 11.1 31. V=.226 l,
T=531 K, Work=205 J. 32. a) B=p b) 341 m/s c) 33. yes 34. no
35. While moving, a part of the motions of all molecules is coherent - all moving the
same direction together. Friction turns this coherent motion into random thermal
motion. To go back, this random thermal motion would have to turn back into
synchronized coherent motion - all molecules going the same direction together. This
is very unlikely - a state of very low entropy. Like flipping 1024 coins and having them
all land heads. 36. Although the initial kinetic energy of the book is not part of
the internal energy of either system individually, it is part of the internal energy of the
combined system. This kinetic energy in the combined system gets turned into
thermal (internal) energy in the individual systems. 37. -0.32 ºC
38. a) 141 K b) 273 K 39. a) 324 K b) 3.92x10-3 /K c) 0.23 ºC/atm
40. a) 2v(2av-bpv -3ab)/D, where D=(pv -av+2ab)(+2)R b) -2a/(v2R) 41. Tf-
2 3
Ti=(2a/R)(1/vf - 1/vi) 42. a) 796 K b) 721 K 43. a) E=Q=W=0
b) E=-W=-[(NkTi)/(-1)][1-(Vi/Vf)-1], with =(+2)/, Q=0 c) E=0,
Q=W=NkTiln(Vf/Vi) 44. Yes, no heat enters or leaves the gas. No. Volume is
gained under unequal pressures, so entropy increases. (Or, the accessible volume in
coordinate space increases with no change in the volume in momentum space, so the
number of states per particle increases.) 45. a) 256 b) 25 c) 9 46. a)
c 2N b) (2c) 2N (The accessible volume per particle doubles for each gas.) c)
c2N d) The volume doubles, but so does the number of particles, and c
depends on the ratio of the two. 47. series:
parallel:
48. a) 6.6x10-2 W/m2 b) about 2700 times greater 49. a) Rw=3.5x10-2 K/W b)
Ri=9.5x10-2 K/W c) Rs=21.6x10-2 K/W d) Rtotal=2.30x10-2 K/W e) 6.9x109 J
f) electricity: \$286, gas: \$95 50. Take the second derivative with respect to x,
and compare it to 1/K times the first derivative with respect to t. 51. Take the
second derivative with respect to x, and compare it to 1/K times the first derivative
with respect to t. Then use the fact that the Gaussian factor at t=0 is an infinitely
narrow spike beneath which the area is 1 to show that at T(x,t=0)=f(x).

Chapter 13
1. a) Q= [(+2)/2](nRTi/Vi)(Vf-Vi) , W=(nRTi/Vi)(Vf-Vi) b)
Q=W=nRTiln(Vf/Vi)
c) Q=0, W=(nRTi/2)[1-(Vi/Vf)2/] [(-1)=2/] 2. One way is to use
W=-E=-CV(Tf-Ti)=-(/2)nR(Tf-Ti)=-(/2)(pfVf-piVi) with /2=1/(-1). Or you
might integrate ∫pdV with p=const/V, and const =piVi=pfVf. 3. 1730 J
4. The diagram will have "-F" on the vertical axis and "L" on the horizontal axis. 1)
Isothermal heat addition - down and to left. 2) Adiabatic contraction - down steeper to
left. 3) Isothermal heat removal - up to right. 4) Adiabatic extension - up steeper to
right. 5. The diagram will have "-F" on the vertical axis and "L" on the horizontal
axis. 1) Constant length heat addition - straight up. 2) Adiabatic contraction - down
and to left. 3) Constant length heat removal - straight down. 4) Adiabatic extension -
up to right. 6. a) 0.071 moles b) 571 K, 8.47 atm c) 385 J
d) 1371 K e) 1180 J f) 924 J g) 0.46 7. a) p2,V1 ; p2(V1/V3),V3 ;
p1(V1/V3),V3 ; p1,V1 b) Q=(p2-p1)V1/(-1), W=0 ; Q=0, W=[p2V1/(-
1)][1-(V1/V3)-1] ; Q=(p1-p2)(V1/V3)V3/(-1), W=0 ; Q=0, W=[p1V1/(-
14 Problem Solutions

1)][(V1/V3)-1-1]
8. a) p1,V2 ; p1(V2/V3),V3 ; p1(V2/V3),(V1V3/V2) ; p1,V1
b) Q=[/(-1)]p1(V2-V1) , W=p1(V2-V1) ; Q=0 , W=[p1V2/(-1)][1-(V2/V3)-
1]; Q=[/(-1)]p1(V2/V3)-1(V1-V2), W=p1(V2/V3)-1(V1-V2); Q=0,
W=[p1V1/(-1)][(V2/V3)-1-1] 9. They will look like the diagrams of Figure 13.5.
10. (Q,W,E)=(5,0,5), (0,4,-4), (-2,0,-2), (0,-1,1) ; e=0.6 11. a) straight across,
slope down, straight down, slope up to left (Adiabatic is steeper than isothermal, and
both are concave upward.) b) Slope up, straight across, slope down to left, straight
up. (Isochoric is steeper than isobaric, and both are concave upward.) c)
(Q,W,E)=: (1) +++, (2) ++0, (3) -0-, (4) 0-+ 12. a) slope down,
straight down, straight to left, slope up to left. (Adiabatic is steeper than isothermal,
and both are concave upward.) b) straight across, down to left, down to left,
straight up. (Isochoric is steeper than isobaric, and both are concave upward.) c)
(Q,W,E)=: (1) ++0, (2) -0-, (3) ---, (4) 0-+ 13. a) slope down, slope down,
straight to left, straight up. (Adiabatic is steeper than isothermal, and both are
concave upward.) b) straight across, straight down, slope down to left, slope up to
right. (Isochoric is steeper than isobaric, and both are concave upward.) c)
(Q,W,E)=: (1) ++0, (2) 0+-, (3) ---, (4) +0+ 14. a) A rectangle whose
corners are at (p0V0), (p0,2V0), (p0/2,2V0), p0/2,V0) b) T0=p0V0/nR c) In terms of
(nRT0), (Q, W, E)= ((+2)/2, 1, /2),
(-/2,0,- /2), (-(+2)/4,-1/2, - /4), (/4,0,/4) d) 2/(3+4) e) 3/4 15. a) 6 ºC b)
600 kg/s
16. negative 17. The gas turbine's hot reservoir is slightly hotter than the coil,
because heat is flowing from the reservoir to the coil. Vice versa for the refrigerator.
18. a) 0,1 b) 0,∞ 19. a) 2T/(R) b) 2T/[(+2)R] c) 0 d) The
isochoric and isobaric cases curve upward because they slope upward and the slope
increases with increasing T. 20. a) 0 b) -p/V c) -p/V d) The isothermal
and adiabatic cases are concave upward because they slope downward and the slope
decreases with decreasing p and increasing V. 21. a) Q=W=pdV, with
p=(nRT)/V b) S=Q/T (constant T) c) replace (V2/V1) (p 1/p2), because
V=const/p. 22. a) S=dQ/T , with dQ=CpdT b) W=pV with pV=nRT
(constant p) c) S=Cpln(V2/V1) , W=p(V2-V1) 23. a)
W=nRTln(Vf/Vi)=piViln(Vf/Vi) b) pf=pi(Vi/Vf) 24. a) W=(5piVi/2)[1-
(Vi/Vf)] b) pf=pi(Vi/Vf)
25. a) W=p1V1{ln(V2/V1)+(5/2)[1-(V2/V3)2/5]} b) p3=(p1V1/V2)(V2/V3)7/5 26.
a) p=p1V1/V
b) p=p1(V1/V) c) From p=(nRT)/V for isothermal and p=p1(V1/V) for adiabatic,
you should get the slopes as follows: isothermal dp/dV=-p/V , adiabatic dp/dV=-
p/V. 27. a) 2.5 J b) 21 J 28. W=p(V2-V1) , Q=Cp(p6/b)(eaV2-eaV1) ,
(E=Q-W) , S=aCp(V2-V1) 29. a) 1020 J b) 582 J c) 873 J d)
436J e) 0.43 30. a) 22,370 J b) 12,400 J -28,280 J d) -32,050 J e)
-35,060 J 31. a) Q=W=161 J b) Q=1400 J, W=400 J c) Q=0,
W=119 J
32. a) Q=0, W=(5/2)p1v1[1-(v1/v2)2/5] ; Q=(7/2)p1(v1/v2)7/5(v1-v2) ,
W=p1(v1/v2)7/5(v1-v2) ;
Q=(5/2)p1v1[1-(v1/v2)2/5] , W=0 b) Q=W=p1v1ln(v2/v1) ;
Q=(7/2)p1(v1/v2)(v1-v2), Wp1(v1/v2)(v1-v2) ; Q=(5/2)p1v1[1-(v1/v2)] , W=0
c) Q=0, W=(5/2)p1v1[1-(v1/v2)2/5]; Q=W=p1(v1/v2)7/5v2ln(v1/v2) ;
Q=(5/2)p1v1[1-(v1/v2)2/5], W=0 d) Q=W=p1v1ln(v2/v1) ;
Problem Solutions 15

## Q=(5/2)p1v1[(v1/v2)2/5-1] , W=0 ; Q=0, W=(5/2)p1v1[(v1/v2)2/5-1] e) (a)

slope down, straight left, straight up (b) slope down, straight left, straight up (c)
slope down, slope up to left, straight up
(d) slope down, straight down, slope up to left. (Adiabatic slopes are steeper than
isothermal, and all slopes are concave upward.) f) (a) straight down, slope down to
left, slope up (b) straight across, slope down to left, slope up (c) straight down,
straight left, slope up (d) straight across, slope down to left, straight up. (Isochoric
slopes are steeper than isobaric, and all slopes are concave upward.) 33. a)
Q=0, W=(5/2)R(T1-T2) ; Q=W=(5/2)RT2ln((T2/T1) ; Q=(5/2)R(T1-T2) ,
W=0 b) Q=0, W=(5/2)R(T1-T2) ; Q=(7/2)RT2[(T2/T1)5/2-1],
W=RT2[(T2/T1)5/2-1] ; Q=(5/2)RT1[1-(T2/T1)7/2], W=0 34. a)
Q=(7/2)R(T2-T1), W=(7/2)R(T2-T1) ; Q=0, W=(5/2)R(T2-T3) ; Q=(5/2)R(T1-
T3), W=0; Q=W=RT1[(5/2)ln(T3/T2)+ln(T1/T2)] b) straight across, sloping
down, straight down, sloping up and to left. (Adiabatic slopes steeper than isothermal,
and both are concave upwards.) c) slope up, straight down, slope down to left,
straight to left (Isochoric slopes steeper than isobaric, and both are concave upward.)
35. a) In units of p0V0, (Q, W, E)=(7/2,1,5/2), (ln2,ln2,0), (0,5/2,-5/2) b) In units of
p0V0/nR, T= 2, 1, 0.76 36. a) 18,000 J/mole b) (15,000, 11,220, -29,890, -33,560,
-37,240, -43,350, -45,870) J/mole 37. Start with H=E+pV, and then take the
differential form with dQ=0, so dH=Vdp. Then integrate using pV=constant. 38.
(Q,W,E)=: 4,4,0; 0,1,-1; -1,-1,0; 0,-1,1; e=0.25
39. a) [p(105Pa),V(10-3m3),T(K)]=: (2,2,600), (1.13,3,510), (2.26,1.5,510), (4,1,600)
b) (Q,W,E) (in Joules)=: (277,277,0), (0,150,-150), (-236,-236,0), (0,-150,150)
c) 0.15
40. a) 0.12 J b) 0.41 J c) heat pump is more efficient 41. If Q goes from
cold to hot, then S=Q/Th-Q/Tc=[Q/(ThTc)](Tc-Th) <0, violating second law.
42. You should be able to juggle it into the form Weng-Wfrig=Weng' +(a-b)(Qh/Th)(Ta-
Tc). This last term is negative [(a-b)≤0], so Weng-Wfrig≤Weng'. That is, you get less
work output with the refrigeration than without it. 43. Suppose that on your pV
diagram you have isothermal expansion from V1 to V2, adiabatic expansion from V2 to
V3, isothermal compression from V3 to V4, and adiabatic compression from V4 to V1.
Then from the two isothermal parts you should be able to show that
Qh/Th=nRln(V2/V1) and Qc/Tc=nRln(V3/V4). And from the two adiabatic lines you
should bet ThV2=TcV3 and ThV1=TcV4, from which (V2/V1)=(V3/V4). Plug this
into your isothermal results. 44. a) 3.70x1024 b) 3.37x107 J c) 7.2x106 J
d) 0.21
45. a) 0.48 b) 0.44 46. High, because that would give higher efficiency, and get
more work per unit of energy input. 47. Gasoline burns fast, so that the piston
doesn't move much (and therefore, the volume doesn't change much) during the
combustion. In turbine engines, the heat is added while the fluid is in an open tube in
the heat exchanger, so the pressure is the same from one end of the tube to the other.
48. gasoline<about 2 ms, diesel<7.5 ms 49. a) p1,V2, p1V2/nR;
p1(V1/V2)7/2,V1(V2/V1)7/2, p1V1/nR; p1,V1 , p1V1/nR b) Q=(7/2)p1(V2-V1),
W=p1(V2-V1), E=(5/2)p1(V2-V1) ; Q=0, W=-E=(5/2)p1(V2-V1);
Q=W=(7/2)p1V1ln(V1/V2), E=0 50. a) p2,V1, p2V1/nR;
p1(p1/p2)5/2,V1(p2/p1)5/2, p1V1/nR; p1,V1 , p1V1/nR
b) Q=E= (5/2)V1(p2-p1), W=0; Q=0, W=-E=(5/2)V1(p2-p1);
Q=W=(5/2)p1V1ln(p1/p2), E=0 51. a) 750 K, 2.5x106 Pa b) 1500 K c)
0.8 52. 22 kW. 53. The line slopes steeply down until it reaches the mixed
16 Problem Solutions

phase, horizontal across the mixed phase, and then more gently downward in the gas
phase. 54. The line slopes up until it reaches the mixed phase, then horizontal
across the mixed phase, then up again in the gas phase. 55. a) 2.9x1024 J b)
20
2.8x10 J c) 0.01% d) 0.1% e) 7%
f) 0.7%56. about 104 times larger (Reception = 9x1016 W, consumption =9x1012 W)

Chapter 14
1. a) 0.096 eV b) -0.294 eV c) -0.372 eV d) -0.390 eV e) -0.443 eV
f) 0.33 cal into thermal energy, 0.67 cal into u0. 2. Chemical potential decreases.
=- kTln2, from =2-1, and =u0+kTln+f(T). 3. Liquid water’s chemical
potential falls faster, because above 0 ºC the molecules prefer the liquid phase, so it
must have the lower chemical potential. 4. -dN=TdS-dE-pdV
5. (1,2,2/1)=: a) (2,3,1.5) b) (3,6,2) c) (3,4,1.33) d) (6,10,1.67) e) (10,20,2)
f) yes g) yes
6. a) Use Stirling’s formula and ignore 1 in comparison to N b&c) Show that the
derivatives with respect to N and n are positive. It is easier to take the derivative of
the logarithms. If the logarithms are increasing, so are the functions. 7.
S=kln=Nklnc. So if you multiply your answers by k, you should find that
∂S/∂E=Nk/2E=1/T, ∂S/∂V=Nk/V=p/T, and ∂S/∂N=k[lnc-(+2)/2]. If you also
=kT[(+2)/2-lnc]=-kTlnc, as in Equation 14.2. 8. a) - b) - 9. Vp=2.9x10-
68 (kgm/s)3. eV/N=8.1x10-29m3.  =(e/N)(V V /h3)=8000. 10. a)
c r p
Vp=8.7x10 -68 3
(kgm/s) . eV/N=1.0x10 -25 m . c=(e/N)(VrVp/h )=3.0x107. b)
3 3

s=klnc=2.4x10-22J/K = 1.5x10-3eV/K
c) ==-0.35 eV 11. a) E=+60.2 eV, W=-0.013 eV, N=+400 eV,
Q=E+W-N=-339.8 eV b) E=-60.2 eV, W=+0.013 eV, N=-720
eV, Q=E+W-N=+659.8 eV c) 219.8 eV d) Use =-kTlnc+ and solve
for c. c,A=1470 and c,B=40. 12. 12.7, The second (Calculate the average
thermal energy of a particle in each system, and use the fact that cEtherm)3.
13. 2.7 g/m3 14. 5.6 km 15. a) 1.66x10-29 m3, 2.44x10-29 m3, 9.67x10-29
m3, 2.99x10-29 m3 b) 1.05x10-5 eV, 1.54x10-5 eV, 6.12x10-5 eV, 1.89x10-5 eV
c) 2420, 1650, 416, 1350 16. a) u0,A is deeper. b) 0.185 eV (Use Eq.
14.5’.) 17. a) -0.505 eV b) 16 (From Eq. 14.5’.) 18. 3x10-3 kg/m3
19. 0.338 eV
20. 0.0005 eV 21. 2.02x103 Pa, -40 Pa 22. 0.57 ºC, -2.1 ºC 23. 4.9x106 Pa
6
(48 atm) 24. 5.4x10 Pa, 530 m 5
25. a) 10 Pa, or about 1 atm b) Toward the
hot side. c) somewhere around 200,000 to 1,000,000 K 26. =0, since T
and p are fixed (Equation 14.1). 27. No. A+B<C. So to minimize G, the
system stays as A+B, rather than going to C.
28. - (H2SO4) - 2(NaOH) + (Na2SO4) + 2(H2O) = 0 29. To the right,
because 2D+3E<3A+B+4C. 30. a) 3A+B>2C. b) As A and B
become C, 2C rises and (3A+B) falls. So the two approach each other in value.
When they become equal, the reaction stops.
31. a) 45.23 cal/mole·K b) 1.959x10-3 eV/K, 1.965x10-3 eV/K c) =-
-3
3.92x10 eV (=-T)
32. 1.05x107 Pa 33. a) (H+)=10-7 mole/l b) 7 c) 6.51
34. a) E=0.45 mole/l b) If A decreases by 0.03, then B decreases by 0.01, C
decreases by 0.02, and D increases by 0.01. A=0.17, B=0.49, C=0.08, D=0.21,
Problem Solutions 17

giving E=0.27. So E dropped by 0.18 mole/l. 35. a) Use Eq. 14.4 and b) c) - d) –
36. 0.39 eV 37. The line separating the solid and liquid phases should be
vertical. Pressure favors neither phase, so increased pressure has no effect on the
temperature of the phase transition.
38. Water molecules are highly polarized, resulting in strong intermolecular attraction.
Consequently, water molecules in the liquid phase are in a deeper potential well, which
requires larger thermal energies (higher temperatures) for escape. 39. Tc higher
for water. The self attraction is stronger for the water molecules, so larger thermal
energies are required to oppose the tendency for molecules to stick together and
condense into a liquid. 40. a) 43.5 cal/K b) 49.2 cal/K c) 75.2 cal/K d)
41.4 cal/K
41. a) 3.6 atm b) 16 atm c) 97 atm d) 0.082 atm e) 0.0082 atm f)
36% error. We assumed L is a constant, independent of the temperature. 42. We
ignore vliquid compared to vgas. Near the critical point, the two molar volumes do not
differ by much, so we cannot ignore vliquid in this region. 43. a) vsolid =
7.154x10-6 m3, vliquid=7.904x10-6 m3 b) v=+0.750x10-6 m3 c) increase
d) 7.6x108 Pa (Integrate Equation 14.19, dp=(L/v)dT/T.) 44. a)
-6 3
vsolid=19.63x10 m , vliquid=18.00x10 m-6 3 b) v=-1.63x10-6 m3 c) increase
d) 4.3x108 Pa (Integrate Equation 14.19, dp=(L/v)dT/T.) 45. -5 ºC 46. a)
1.36x107 Pa b) 52 mm2 c) no d) yes e) Skates have smaller area of
contact, and therefore exert greater pressure on the ice. So the ice melts faster and
provides more water for lubrication of the slide. 47. pT-B/ReA/RT=constant 48.
a) Tc=8a/(27bR), pc=a/(27b2) b) water: 647 K, 218 atm. methane: 190 K, 46
atm 49. More volume in position space means more accessible states – hence
increased entropy. During adiabatic expansion, the system cools, so as volume in
position space increases, that in momentum space decreases, with the net change in
accessible states being zero. 50. Because g/p)T=v. 51. a) - b) Show that
the second derivative of -TSm is positive for all f. 52. The molten state is a
homogenous mixture of the two ingredients, whereas the solid state consists of a
heterogeneous mixture of microscopic crystals of tin and crystals of lead. The entropy
of mixing favors the homogeneously mixed molten state. 53. Thermal energy is
released when the particles fall into deeper potential wells. So the attraction between
unlike particles is stronger than that between like particles. 54. –35.4 J/K 55. -
56. a) - b) (2X-A-B)<kT/[2f(1-f)] (Ensure that the second derivative of G is
positive.) c) 580 K (greatest restriction at f=1/2) 57. -
Chapter 15
1. a) SR=S0-(E+pV-N)/T b) eSR/k, with SR from part (a) c) P=Ce-( E+p V-
  N)/kT
2. a) 2.9 b) 6.4x108 c) 4.3x1011 3. 3.2x1010 Pa = 3.2x105 atm 4.
17
2.2x10 Pa
5. a) E=+10.2 eV, pV=2.5x10-5 eV b) 4.2x1010 Pa=4.1x105 atm 6. a)
0.572 b) 0.572
c) 0.245 7. a) 0.371 b) 0.371 c) 0.233 8. a) 0.550 b) 0.247 c)
0.111
9. a) 0.798 b) 0.798 c) 0.161 10. a) 0.832 b) 0.832 c) 0.168 11.
4.635 b) 0.990
c) 0.990 d) 9.3x10-5 12. 1160 K 13. a) 0.765 b) 0.235 14. 3.5 K 15.
10.2 times
16. a) 0.622 b) 422 K 17. a) 1010 K b) 2320 K 18. a) 0.901 b) 0.088
c) 8.7x10-3
18 Problem Solutions

## 19. 11,600 K 20. a) 0.154 b) 131 K 21. 348 K 22. 5.4 km 23 a)

4.56x10-3
b) 0.332, 0.333, 0.335 c) 2.84x10-26 J/T d) 0.017 J/T 24. The new constant is
C=[ e -(  s-0)]-1 25. a) 0.368 b) 0.288 26. a) 0.182 b) 9.5x10-3
27. a) 0.08006 eV b) 0.043 28. 1670 K 29. dV=0, so dQ/dT=dE/dT with
E=(NA/2)kT 30. a) 1.41x10-46 kg·m2 b) 4.94x10-4 eV
c) 5.7 K 31. a) 1.16x10-48 kg·m2 b) 0.0599 eV c) 694 K 32. For N2,
7 9
5.7x10 K. For H2, 6.9x10 K 33. a) 2320 K b) 8.1 K c) 3R 34. a) 2.3x10-
24 eV, 4.6x10-24 eV b) 2.7x10-20 K 35. 0.24 K 36. 298 K 37. E/N=[e-
i/kT ]/[e-i/kT] 38. Tighter binding means narrower confinement, shorter
i
wavelengths, higher energies, and therefore higher excitation temperatures for the
bound atoms. 39. a) 0.772 b) 0.076 c) 0.228 40. 836 K 41. 3x10-7
42. a) 4x10 -174
b) 56,800 K 43. a) gl()=nl/(b-a), gu()=nu/(d-c) b) [(b-a)/(d-c)](nu/nl)(e-
c-e-d)/(e-a-e-b)
c) (nu/nl)e- c- a) d) [(b-a)/(d-c)](nu/nl)e-c-a)
 44. a) 0.450 b) 0.310 c)
0.252 45. a) 3 b) 3.8x10-2 eV=6.1x10-21 J c) 508 m/s d) 1920 m/s
5
46. a) 4.94x10 m/s b) 2.13x10 m/s 7 47. (See next.) 48. . Write the
numerator as with 49. 2.8x10-5 m/s 50. a) 0.311 mm/s b) 27 m 51. a)
4.07x10 -21 J b) 2.0x10 -11 radians or 4.1x10 -11 m

Chapter 16
1. 0.006 2. (1.386mkT)1/2 3. a) 0.01 b) 0.81 4. - 5. Use Eq. E.1 with
=m/2.
6. a)  =(1/ m)1/2 b) yes c) (1/2)kT 7. With d3v=v2dvsin d d , integrate
over the angles to get 4 , and use Eq. E.2 for the integral over v (from 0 to ) with
n=1, m/2. 8. (2kT/m)1/2
9. a) 0.39 b) 0.11 c) 7.4x10-3 10. Use Eqs. E.4 with n=1 and E.2 with n=2.
11. a) 0 b) 470 m/s c) 510 m/s d) 416 m/s 12. a) 4(2kT/m)3/2 b)
1460 m/s
13. 1.45 14. a) (2kT/m)1/2 b) 1/2 15. Use Eq. E.4 with n=0. 16. a)
27 2 19
3.14x10 particles/m /s b) 9.86x10 particles/s 17. a) 3.11x10 21
particles/s b) 2.88x10-6 /s
c) N=N0e-Ct, N0=1.08x1027, C=2.88x10-6 /s d) 67 hours 18. a) 2kT (mean
value of KE in x-direction is kT, twice as much as the mean values in the y and z
directions) b) dT/dt=-(T3/2/3V)(k/2πm)1/2 (Write E=(3/2)NkT, so that dE/dt=(3/2)
[(dN/dt)kT+Nk(dT/dt)]. From part (a) you know that dE/dt=(2kT)dN/dt) 19. 122 s
20. Use Eq. 16.8 for dJx with =N/V, and P(vx)dvx given by Eq. 16.3'. Integrate over
vx>0 using Eq.E.2 with n=1. 21. a) 20 m/s b) 14 m/s c) 14 m/s d) 0
e) those moving south 22. a) b) 1 (doesn't change) 23. Water vapor.
1.25 times
24. (N2, He): a) 1.93x10-10m, 1.79x10-10m b) 5.6x10-8m, 6.5x10-8m c)
8.1x109/s, 1.8x1010/s 25. Put v1=V+u/2, v2=V-u/2 in Eq. 16.15. 26. a) 1/2
b) /4 c) 1/3 d) 0 27. a) + b) -x 28. Increased by 29. It would
proceed more slowly, because fatter molecules don't go as far between collisions, and
therefore transfer Q over smaller distances. 30. a) slower b) slower
c) slower d) faster 31. a) D=4.8x10-6 m2/s b) K=4.2x10-3 W/m·K c)
Problem Solutions 19

=5.8x10 -6 kg/m·s2 32. We assumed that all the heat gets transferred in one
collision (i.e., one mean free path). It must take about 5 collisions on average. 33.
43 Watts/m 2 34. As they move in the x direction, they carry their y velocities with
them. This is the way that the different y velocities in neighboring layers get mixed
and evened out. 35. a) #/m3 b) #/m6 c) m2/s d) 3Da 36. a) =(2Dt)1/2
b) 0/(4πDt) 1/2

Chapter 17
1. a) out of page b) radially inward, adds to c) increase, increases, opposes d)
out of page; radially outward, detracts from; decrease, decrease, opposes 2. a)
The magnetic moment of a domain () is much larger than that of an individual atom,
so that zB is much larger than kT. Consequently, the magnetic moments line up
with B and thermal agitation is ineffective in randomizing their orientations.
b) At very low temperatures, or in extremely strong magnetic fields, where kT is small
compared to zB, even for the individual atoms. 3. Overall neutral, but the
negative charge is distributed farther out, and the positive charge more centrally. (So
the negative charge has a larger orbit as the particle spins, making the negative
charge dominate the magnetic moment.) 4. Overall it has more positive charge
than negative, but the negative charge is distributed farther out, and the positive
charge more centrally. (See above.)
5. a) 45º b) 35º c) 30º 6. There must be an even number of electrons.
(Any even combination of ±1/2 gives an integer.) 7. 1.88x10-28 kg 8. a)
l=0,1,2; s=0,1 b) all 15 possible combinations of [(2,1,0,-1,-2),(1,0,-1)] 9.
6.16x10 -27 J/T 10. 8.0x10 -28 J/T 11. Put z=-(lx+2sz)B and x=BB/kT into
Equation 17.10. 12. Use e-1-  for <<1 with =(l x+2sz)x. Eliminate terms
linear in , because lz and sz both come in ± pairs. 13. Show that enx>>e(n-1)x
for x>>1. That should justify keeping only the largest term in each sum in Equation
17.10. 14. 3.4 K 15. a) kT = 2.5x10-2 eV, BB=5.8x10-5 eV , thermal energy
dominates b) 3.7x10-4 K 16. a) 3.75 J·K/T2·mole b) 1.27x10-2 J/T 17. a)
2
1.88 J·K/T ·mole -3
b) 3.75x10 J/T, 0.375 J/T c) 6.7x10 K -5 18. a) 2.50
J·K/T2·mole b) 1.83x10-2 J/T c) 0.959 d) 3.11 J/T 19. a) 1.007 b) 9.53 J/T
20. a) 11.25 J·K/T2·mole b) 3.81x10-6 J/T
c) 6.33x10-30 J/T 21. a) 1.11x10-6 J·K/T2·mole b) 2.31x10-5 J·K/T2·mole c)
-8
7.83x10 J/T·mole
22. a) 3.75 J·K/T2·mole b) 21.3 J·K/T2·mole c) 7.50 J·K/T2·mole 23. a)
5.58 J/T b) 22.3 J/T c) 11.2 J/T 24. 4.13 J/T 2
25. a) 9.38 J·K/T ·mole b)
1.07 J/T c) 91.7 J/T

Chapter 18
1. a) 1 +1.6x10-17 b) 1.68 2. a) 3.03 b) 0.330 c) 0.330 d) 0.0203 eV
e) 1.46 S/k
3. Use P =e , where the entropy of the small system in a given state is
1 and that of the reservoir is S0-S, where S is the loss in entropy due to supplying
energy s to the small system. 4. a) 0.0205, 0.126
b) 0.0021 eV, 0.0126 eV c) yes 5. With Z=se-s, show that the
indicated operation gives sPsEs2, with Ps=(1/Z)e-s. 6. Show that the
2 2
indicated operation gives sPsEs -(sPsEs) with Ps=(1/Z)e - s. 7. -kT2∂/∂T
8. (Use ∂/∂=-kT2∂/∂T)9. a) (Use ∂/∂=-kT2∂/∂T) b) -
- /kT - /kT -∞ -∞
c) Z=1+e 1 +e 2 +...1+e +e +...=1d) The indicated operation should
20 Problem Solutions

## give (kT/Z)[0-(1/kT2)e-1/kT-(2/kT2)e-2/kT-...], and so you have to show that terms

of the form e-axx20 as x∞. e) -
10. a) eCVT/k b) p=CT2 11. a) (V/V0)N b) p=NkT/V c) =-kTln(V/V0)
12. a) (V/V0)NF(T), where F(T)=se-fs/kT b) p=NkT/V c) =-kTln(V/V0) 13. a)
Z=C( 0) -3N/2 N
(V/V0) , where C=se s -C b) (3N/2)kT c) NkT/V d)
-kT[(3/2)ln(0)+ln(V/V0)] e)
f) (3/2)Nk 14. a) 3NkT b) c) NkT[3ln( 0)-(V/V0)] d) Nk[-3ln( 0)+(V/V0)+3]
e) p=NkT/V0f) =kT[3ln( 0)-(V/V0)] 15. a) 2 b) 4 c) 8 16. a) 6 b) 1
17. a) 24
b) 418. a) 4 b) 3 c) no 19. a) 9, 6, no b) 10,000, 5050, no c) case b 20. a)
0.0521 b) 5.21 eV21. a) [e(1+e-580/T)/N]N b) -NkTln[e(1+e-580/T)/N] c) =-
kT{ln[e(1+e-580/T)/N]-1} 22. -
23. a) 3480 K b) 2.3x109 K 24. - 25. a) 137 N/m b) (Multiply both sides by
(1-a).)
−βηω −3 βηω
c) Z = (1 − ε ) d) 3hω /(ε − 1) 26. a) (3N/2)kT b) k[lnZ+3N/2], where
2 3 /2 Ν
Z = [(ες / Ν)(2πµκΤ / η ) ] c) p=NkT/V d) =- kTln( /N) with
2 3/ 2
ς = (V / N)(2pmkT / h )
e) 2=(N/2)(kT)2 27. a) 2.08x10-46 kg·m2 b) 3.35x10-4 eV c) 3.9 K
28. ave=[l(2l+1)e - l l]/[l(2l+1)e - l ] , where el=(/2I)l(l+1) 29. a)
0.196 eV b) 2280 K 30. -x
31. Use e ı-x for x<<1. 32. (3/2)kT, kT, kT,
They are the same. 33. Carry out the steps indicated between Equations 18.18 and
18.19. 34. –0.37 eV 35. a) - b) - c) 153 J/K·mole

Chapter 19
1. a) 0.597 b) 0.403 c) 0.981 d) 0.019 2. a) 2.08 b) 0.020 c) 8.7x10 -
183. No 4. a) 0.460 b) 5.77 5. a) 25.9 b) 2.72 c) 1.001 d) 1.006.
a) 6360 K b) 1060 K c) 381 K 7. a) 1,0 b) 0,1,2 c) boson d) fermions,
fermions8. See Figures 19.1 9. (e x+2)/(e2x+ex+1), where x=(-) 10.
-2x -5x -2x -5x
(2e +5e )/(1+e +e ), where x=(-) 11. -0.173 eV 12. a) ∞ b)
They carry no energy. c) kT 13. - 14. a) 1/2 b) 1 c) ∞ 15. a) 0.693
b) 1.5 16. a) 0.239
b) 0.314 c) 0.457 d) 0.0206, 0.0210, 0.0215 17. a) 8 b) 4/3 c) 1/4
d) 4 e) 1/2
18. a) 36 b) 18 c) 1/6 d) 21 e) 2/7 19. a) s=12, d=4 b) s=6, d=2
c) s=6, d=4
d) s=6, d=0 20. a) (12,0,0), (0,12,0), (0,0,12), (1,2,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,2), (2,0,1),
(0,1,2), (0,2,1)
b) (11,0,0), (0,11,0), (0,0,11), (1,1,0), (1,0,1), (0,1,1) c) (1,1,0), (1,0,1), (0,1,1)
21. a) 1/3 b) 1/2 c) 022. a) (123,0), (0,123), (12,3), (3,12), (23,1), (1, 23),
(13,2), (2,13) b) (111,0), (0,111), (11,1), (1,11)
c) none 23. a) 1/4 b) 1/4 c) 1/2 d) 0 24. 2.5x1034 electrons/m3,
4
about 2.5x10 times denser 25. a) yes b) 0.02 K 26. a) 1.19x10-29 m3
b) 2.29x10-10 m c) no (rp/h=0.03) d) no (rp/h=0.12) e) yes (rp/h=12) 27.
yes (rp/h=9) 28. a) 7.0x1010 K b) 9.4x1011 K 29. a) 4.64x1012 /s b) 35 K c)
large 30. a) 1.1x10-14 eV b) 1.3x10-10 K c) small 31. a) [8πV/h3]p2dp
3/2
b) g()=[4πV(2m) /h ](-0)3 1/2 c) dN/d= [4πV(2m)3/2/h3](-0)1/2/
[e (  -  ) +1] 32. a) 3.99 b) 0.051 eV c) 9.09, 0.28 eV 33. a) 4.05 b)
Problem Solutions 21

0.130 eV c) 17.0, 0.93 eV 34. N=C d/[e (  -  ) ±1] , E=C   d/[e (  -  ) ±1]
35. Write N = dN = g()dand integrate. Solve for . 36. fermion 37. a)
28 eV, 2.2x10 K b) 23 eV, 1.8x10 K
5 5
38. a) 3.3x10 eV , 2.5x10 K
5 9
b) 180
eV, 1.4x106 K c) 1.2x108 eV, 9.5x1011 K 39. a) 2.4x1010 K b) 3.9x1014 kg/m3

Chapter 20
3 3 2 2 4
1. g(ε) = λ(4πς / η χ ) ε − µ χ ε 2. 1, 2, 3 eV  -29 m3, p3=10-72
(kg·m/s)3, h3=10-100 (J·s)3] 4. a) 1.23x1054 states/joule = 1.97x1035 states/eV
b) 6.71x1040 states/joule = 1.07x1022 states/eV 5. a) 6.49x1034 particles/eV
22
b) 0.96x10 particles/eV6. - 7. a) C C kT b) C C (kT)2 8. a) - b)
1 2 1 2
3 3/ 2
µ = −kT ln[((2s +1)V / Nh )(2pmkT)
] 9. Use Equation 19.14 and ex1+x for x<<1.
10. - 11. a) fx=Nvx/2V b) 2mvx c) press.=(N/V)mvx2
d) press.=(N/V)m<v2>ave/3=(2/3)(N/V)ave e) fx=Nc·cos/2V, px=2p·cos,
press.=(N/V)pc·cos2, then average over cos2 and p. 12. There are an infinite
number of photons in this lowest state. 13. –
14. The density of states increases with energy. So there are more states (hence
more fermions) at higher energies than lower ones. So the average is weighted
towards higher energies.
15. - 16. Use the substitutions x=/kT, y=µ/kT 17. –0.39eV 18. - 19. a)
6.8 eV, 4.1 eV, 53,000 K b) 5.6 eV, 3.4 eV, 44,000 K c) -7.6x10-5 eV, -9.2x10-5
eV 20. a) 79 keV, 6.1x108 K b) 43 eV, 330,000 K c) 30 MeV, 2.3x1011 K
21. a) 7.9 eV b) 4.7 eV c) 61,000 K

Chapter 21
1. a) Use ex1+x for x<<1. b) Use L’Hospital’s rule on Cx3/(ex-1), where x=.
2. a) Use ex1+x for x<<1. b) Use L’Hospital’s rule on Cx5/(ex-1), where
x= hc/ .
3. Write the distribution as Cx3/(ex-1), where x= Set the derivative equal to zero
to get x=3(1-e-x). Show that it is satisfied by x=2.82. 4. Write the distribution as
Cx /(e -1), where x=hc/ Set the derivative equal to zero to get x=5(1-e-x). Show
5 x
that it is satisfied by x=4.965=1/(0.201). 2.9 mm·K
5. No. Using the chain rule d=(-hc/2)d, so the distribution in  has an extra
factor of -hc/ compared to the distribution in . This extra factor shifts the position
of the maximum. 6. a) 5.11 mm·K b) 1.87 mm c) 0.881 m d) 1.06 mm,
0.500 m 7. (4π/h3c3)3/(e+1) 8. No 9. Energy absorbed: green
and nothing else. Energy emitted: a blackbody spectrum at temperature T. 10.
4.23x10 -13 J/m , 1.5x10 J/m , which is about 3.5x10 times larger. 11. 4.0x1066 J,
3 -7 3 5
1.5x10 K20 12. a) 3.95x1026 W b) 1.09x1041 J c) 8.7x106 years 13.
a) 16 b) 2 c) 16 14. a) See Figure 19.1 with =0. b) You should get
an integral of the form CT3x  2dx/(ex-1), where C is a constant and the integral is a
standard integral and independent of the temperature. c) You should get an
integral of the form CT4x  3x/(ex-1), where C is a constant and the integral is a
standard integral and independent of the temperature. d) The average energy E/N,
increases linearly in T. 15. Ir/I0 has a peak in the red.
Ia/I0 = Ie/I0 = 1-Ir/I0 have a dip in the red. 16. 1.39x103 W/m2 17. Wait 2
minutes before adding the water, because you want to radiate away as much heat as
possible, and the coffee radiates heat faster when hotter. 18. a) 188 W/m2 b)
9.68x1016 W c) 54% 19. a) about 300 K and 2 m2 b) 920 W
22 Problem Solutions

c) 1.9x104 kcal d) 47 e) Slightly cooler skin temperature greatly reduces the rate
of heat loss through radiation. 20. a) 117 W b) 2400 food Calories 21. a)
net power radiated = 4AT T3
b) d(T)/dt = - C1T , with C1=4AT3/C c) Write this equation as d(T)/T = -
C1dt and integrate, getting T=C2 e- C1t, where C is the temperature difference at
the beginning. 22. Shiny surfaces are poor absorbers, and therefore poor emitters,
so that the tea will stay hot longer. Black surfaces are good absorbers and therefore
good emitters. So the heat will be released faster. 23. The absorptivity would
wiggle between 0 and 1 (like the ratio of the Sun’s curve to that of the 5800 K black
body) for wavelengths shorter than green, but would be about equal to 1 for the green
and longer. reflectivity = 1-absorptivity. 24. - The z-component of a photon’s
velocity is c·cos, so to find the average velocity of those photons moving in the +z-
direction we would have to average c·cos over the +z-hemisphere. 25. Double
glazing reduces the rate of heat loss 26. a) 289 W b) 144 W c) 48 27. 214K,
253K, 279K 28. -
29. Volume in coordinate space is gained without corresponding loss in momentum
space due to the reduction in momentum due to collisions with receding walls. (Free
expansion is a non-equilibrium process, and so entropy increases.) 30. 1.1x106K
1.1x1020K 31. W=-E=Ei-Ef=a(ViTi4-VfTf4), where VT3 is constant (constant
entropy) 32. 2.8x10-3 volts 33. the mean square voltage noise would be half as
large.

Chapter 22
1. 81 N/m 2. a) 0 b) V(x)=-V0(1-x2) c) 0.005% 4% 3. a) 6R 4. a) Nk
b) (Set kT ≈ ηω ) c) No. The number of degrees of freedom decreases as more and
more oscillators become confined to their ground states. 5. a) - b) 8.6x10-3 eV,
13
1.3x10 /s x
c) x/(e -1) d) It starts at one and slopes downward (positive
curvature), approaching 0 as x∞. High temperature limit. 6. a) Use ex-1ex for
x>>1, and ex1-x for x<<1. b) (3Na02/kT2)e-0/kT, and 3Nak. 7.
D(T)=(3/x3)t3dt/(et-1)
8. 58 N/m, 1800 N/m 9. a) cs=/k b) =pcs 10. a) Every other atom is up
and every other one down. Atoms are 2.5 wavelengths apart. b) No. Same as
above but 1.5 wavelengths apart. c) 2 11. 0.013 eV 12. a) 3.42x109 /m
b) 1020 m/s 13. 0.025 eV, 3.8x1013 /s 14. a) B, 2 b) A, 8 15. - 16.
a) g()=(4πA/h2cs2) , D=hcs(Na/πA)1/2-,
 6x10-4K  D=59 K,
CV=(20.8 J/kg·K4)T3 19. a) 90 MeV b) 1012 K 20. 6x10-9 m [Use p=h/r,
p2/2m  kT.]
21. a) =(h2/2m)(Ne/2V)2/3 b) off by (3/4π)2/30.38 c) =p2/2m where
p=h/, so that =(8πV/3Ne)1/3=2.03(V/Ne)1/3=2.03x(spacing) 22. a) 4.14x10-6 J
b) 2x1015, 16.6x10-6 J
23. a) 0.4 K b) 0.04 K 24. 6.25x10-10 /K2 25. a) 1.02x1044 /m3,
6.40x1043 /m3
b) 5.0x1011 K, 3.7x1011 K 26. Density of protons or electrons is 89.8x1030 /m3,
so the Fermi temperature is 4600 K for protons, and 0.85x107 K for electrons. So the
protons are not degenerate, but the electrons are marginal. (You could also use
condition 19.9, in which case you find rp/h=0.7 for the electrons and 31 fore the
protons.) 27. 0.07 K, No 28. 0.0036 29. -, 0.0027
30. 5.9 eV 28
31. a) 5.90x10 /m 3 b) f=5.5 eV 32. 7.0 eV 33. It
Problem Solutions 23

## is larger by 4.2x10-3% 34. a) Kl=1.56x10 J/K4, Ke=3.54x10-4 J/K2 b) 1.5 K

c) electron, 100 times 35. A slope of 0.05x10-3 J/K4 gives D=0.029 eV, and an
intercept of 0.68x10-3 J/K2 gives f=5.2 eV .
36. a) 8.37x1028 /m3 for both b) D=0.029 eV D=4.4x1013 /s D=340 K
c) 3R
d) Kl=5.0x10-5 J/K4 Ke=5.1x10-4 J/K2 e) Kl is the same, Ke is about 25% low f)
3.2 K
37. a) 3.49x10-3 J/K b) 1.29x10-3 J/K 38. - 39. It should begin at zero
and increase linearly (electrons). Then after a few degrees it increases as T3 (lattice)
and then approaches 3 (lattice saturated), whereupon it nearly levels off, increasing
linearly (slowly, electrons) after that until it reaches 4.5 (electrons saturated),
whereupon it levels off for good.

Chapter 23
1. a) Outer orbits overlap with the electron orbits of neighboring atoms, whereas
inner orbits may not.
b) Outer orbits have greater overlap and therefore greater splitting. 2. platinum:
C=2.2x109 /·m,
=-0.96; copper: C=4.6x1010 /·m, =-1.2 3. Same, but the band is full, rather
than half full, and  moves up to between the two bands. 4. In the divalent
metals, the Fermi surface lies at a minimum in the density of states, meaning both
fewer electrons and fewer empty states in the Fermi tail, so the electrons are fewer
and have less mobility. 5. a) Pt=6x10-4 m2/V·s, Cu=4x10-3 m2/V·s b)
Most conduction electrons in conductors are stuck well below the Fermi level, and
cannot respond at all to imposed electric fields. The average mobility is heavily
weighted by these non-mobile electrons.
6. a) Use ex>>1 for x>>1. b) - c) - 7. 2.1x1029 /m3 and 1.8x1029 /m3.
3 3
2.1x10 and 1.8x10 times larger, respectively. 8. 0, 3.5x1012 /m3,
4.5x1021 /m3 9. a) Set ne=nh and solve for . v<<c, and |-|>>kT. b)
0.013 eV 10. a) 4.9x1011 b) -3.22 eV c) 2.8x1017, -3.15 eV 11. a)
ne=nh=4.9x1016 /m3 b) ne=nh=1.0x108 /m3 c) ne=nh=1.1x1021 /m3 12. a)
0.014 eV above
b) 0.033 eV above 13. a) 1.0x1016 /m3 b) 1.0x1015 /m3 14. a) 3.3 A/V·m
-5
b) 8.7x10 A/V·m c) 127 A/V·m 15. a) 6.7x10 , 5.9x10 , 2.5x1013,
15 19
7.7x1023 /m3
b) 2.0x10-4, 5.5, 3.5x10-6, 1.0x106 A/V·m 16. 200 K 17. 1.05 eV 18. a)
249 K b) 294 K c) 18% 19. 9 K 20. x6.9 21. 6.4 eV 22. a) at
(The occupation number for the donor states must be 1/2, because all Nd/2 electrons
are in the Nd donor states.) b) 153 K c) 1021 /m3 2.3x1016 /m3 (Use law of mass
action with ne=1021, to find number of holes in valence band.) d) 430 K
23. a) 0.256 eV b) 1.25x1021 /m3 c) 1.7x1011 /m3 d) 0.460 eV, 1.25x1021 /m3,
1.9x1019 /m3
e) 590 K 24. a) 0.375 eV b) 1.26x1019 /m3 c) 1.7x1013 /m3 d) 0.55 eV
[Actually, it is 0.548 eV, because the material is not quite purely intrinsic. We must
have (no. of holes in valence band)+(no. of donor electrons)=(no. of electrons in
conduction band). Use law of mass action to find the product nh,v·ne,c=1040.38, and
then set ne,c=nh,v+1.25x1019.], 1.62x1020 /m3, 1.49x1020 /m3 e) 420 K
24 Problem Solutions

## 25. a) 0.256 eV b) 1.25x1021 /m3 c) 1.8x1016 /m3 d) 0.4 eV [Actually, it is

0.394 eV. See the explanation in the solution to 27d.], 5.7x1021 /m3, 4.4x1021 /m3
e) 440 K 26. a) 1.00 eV b) 2x1021 /m3 c) 0.262 eV 27. a) 0.405 eV b)
0.202 eV c) 162 K 28. 3.5x1020 /m3 29. 20 K (Only 10-5 of the donors are
ionized, so the Fermi level lies almost on the donor levels.) 30. a) Use the fact
that the probability to cross the barrier is 1 for those approaching from one side, and
e  for those approaching from the other. b) 1.9x1015 /m3 (Use equation from part
a) c) 0.202 eV, 0.602 eV 31. a) 0.7 eV b) 8.0x1021 /m3, 5.5x109 /m3 c)
5.5x109 /m3 , 8.0x1021 /m3 d) 2.0x1022 /m3, 1.9x1011 /m3 32. a) Those
flowing downhill are coming from the side of higher potential energy and lower
concentration. b) Of the n charge carriers, only half (n/2) are going in the positive z-
direction. Averaging v·cos over the positive z hemisphere gives . c) (8kT/m*π)1/2
33. a) 1.3x1011 /m3 b) 1.3x1011 /m3 c) 1.1x105 m/s d) 1.15x10-3 A/m2
34. a) -1.95x10-4 A/m2, -6.00x10-4 A/m2 b) 2.9x10-4 A/m2, 1.56 A/m2

Chapter 24
1. a) P1/P0=e-(1-0)=e-50=10-21.7 b) 1160 K 1.16 K 2. a) Yes (probability
for excitation = 10-17)b) No 3. 2.4x10-3 4. a) 10-477b) 10-24 5.
(M,S)=: ±6, 0; ±4, kln(6); ±2, kln(15); 0, kln(20) 6. a) 0 b) kln(6) 7.
5.4 cm/s 8. Set Nj/Ni=Pj/Pi, and solve for T. 9. Decreases. Decreases.
Increases. Decreases. Decreases. 10. 290, 152 K 11. a) 4.6x10-3 b) 3.5x107
12. Cooling via expansion. Cooling via evaporation. 13. 1.2x10-7 b) 8.6x106
times more 14. Because any heat transfer would be in the wrong direction.
15. 8x10-4 K
16. a) 6.25x10-6 eV b) 6.0x10-5 eV/K c) 0.10 K 17. a) 0.555x1022 b)
0.550x10 22
c) 1.46x10-4 J/K d) 0.012 K 18. a) 0.79 K b) 0.0117 J/K c) 0.00927 J d)
yes
e) 1.6x10-6 K 19. 5.3x10-5 K 20. a) 7.7x10-3 K b) 5.6x10-4 21.
0.9999999999
22. a) 1.87x10-24 kg·m/s b) 4.7x10-26 kg·m/s c) 8x10-5 eV 23. a)
11.0x10-10 m
b) spacing = 3.5x10-10, vibrations are 3x larger 24. Infinite thermal conductivity
makes the temperature is the same throughout, but the boiling point is lowest at the
top, where the pressure is smallest. 25. The normal fluid component slows down
and stops, but the superfluid component keeps on going without friction (i.e., flowing
through the normal component). 26. 3.2 K 27. 0.65
28. a)  b) - c) =10.8x10 -19 J or 6.8 eV, n=3.60x1015 d) =6.0x10-34 J or
3.8x10-15 eV, Te=4.4x10-11 K e) no 29. - 30. Use <p2>=
∫p2g(p)dp/∫g(p)dp, where g(p)=(4πVr/h3)p2 31. - 32. - 33. 2050 km, 5.8 km
34. 1.9 Ms, 7.3 Ms 35. a) x=0.885(M/Ms)1/3 and x=0.356(M/Ms)1/3 b) 600 km and
4.1 km c) 1.2 Ms , 4.7 Ms