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Standard VI – Environmental Education Contents

Section I: Knowing the Environment.……………………………2 • What is the Environment…….…………………………………….2 • Humans & the Environment………………………………………2 Section II: Natural Resources & Their Utilisation………………3 • Natural Resources – What Are They?……………………...……….3 • Renewable & Non-Renewable………………………………….......3 • What is Non-Renewable Energy…………………………..………..4 • Energy Conservation Song…………………………………………4 • Utilisation & Exploitation of Natural Resources………………........4 Section III/IV: Waste Generation & Management…………........5 • What a Waste………………………………………………………5 • Types of Waste…………………………………………………….5 • What are the Different Sources of Waste…………………………..5 • What’s the Problem With Waste?…………………………………..7 • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle…………………………………………….7 Some Useful Websites……………………………………………..8


Standard VI – Section I: Knowing the Environment
What is the Environment?
Any environment can be considered as a collection of external factors acting on a system. The two environments that a most useful to consider when studying environmental science are the natural environment and the social environment. Natural Environment: comprises of all living (Biotic) and non-living (Abiotic) things in our surroundings. This environment has four major components – ♦ Water (hydrosphere) ♦ Land (lithosphere) ♦ Air (atmosphere) ♦ Living things (biosphere)

Humans & the Environment
As we have seen, the social environment can only exist in the presence of a stable and healthy natural environment. Along the same lines, humans also need the natural environment to survive. Humans depend on both the abiotic and biotic elements of the natural environment. People and Places! People are interacting with their respective environments all the time. Pick an interesting location outside your school (no more then 15 mins away), plan a route and then take a walk. During your walk look out for people interacting with their environments in different ways. Make a note of these actions and then head back to school. Use the information you have gathered to answer the following questions. a) b) Why do people interact with the natural environment? What are THREE abiotic elements which humans depend on for their survival? What are THREE biotic elements which humans depend on for their survival? What did you observe as the most common way in which people interact with the natural environment? Is it just humans who need/depend upon the natural environment in this way? Who or What else depends on the natural environment? What are some of the differences between the natural environment and a man-made or social environment?


d) Social Environment: is an environment constructed by man. It includes the obvious: people, buildings, schools, cars and railways. But, it also includes agriculture, communication, science technology and all the things that comprise of human culture. The social environment’s existence depends on the functioning of the natural environment but in recent years the social environment has begun to change & impose itself on the natural world.


f) g)


Standard VI – Section II: Natural Resources & Their Utilisation
Natural Resources – What Are They?
The Earth is home to more than 6 billion people. All these people need air to breathe, food to eat and water to drink. We also need materials to build our homes, make clothes and energy to perform all these activities. The earth provides us with all of these things and more and together they are termed Natural Resources (NR) Non-Renewable Resources: Nonrenewable resources are those which cannot be reproduced by nature within our lifetimes, and are therefore in limited supply. Nonrenewable resources are fossil fuels, metals, other minerals and groundwater. Human beings are using up resources at a great rate and at a great cost to the health of the natural environment and life on earth. If we wish to continue to use these resources in the future we must ACT NOW and rethink the rate at which we are eating away at earth’s limited natural resources. Find and Circle all the non-renewable resources from the jumble of natural resources below:

Create your own definition of the term Natural Resources Name FIVE different NR and think about how they might be utilized Can you think of who else, other than people, might benefit from these NR



Renewable & Non-Renewable
All natural resources on Earth can be categorized as Renewable or NonRenewable. Whether a resource is renewable or non-renewable depends on how long nature takes to renew it. Renewable Resources: Resources such as trees, fish, oxygen, and fresh water are generally considered to be renewable resources as they can be continually reproduced. Fresh water from the Earth's recycling process, fresh air from the oxygen produced by plants and trees, and trees and fish which can reproduce themselves.

C l Coa Plastic Di amo nds Bag Water Pa pe Oil r Fish Ca rr Petrol ot Oxygen s
When trying to decide what resources are non-renewable and what resources are not remember the following words: Renewable Infinite No limits Lasting Forever Non-renewable Finite Limited Temporary

la oc o h


I ro n


Standard VI – Section II: Natural Resources & Their Utilisation
What is Non-Renewable Energy?
Non-renewable energy comes from sources that can’t be replenished in a short period of time. We get most of our energy from nonrenewable energy sources, which include fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal and from nuclear energy. Fossil fuels are thought to have been formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. . Did you know??? 70% of India’s Electricity is made from Coal which is a nonrenewable source of energy

Utilisation & Exploitation of NR
For thousands of years humans have utilized natural resources in different ways. At first most of this activity was confined to a small & local scale but as our race developed in size and technology these NR were used at a faster & faster rate until their utilisation began to harm the natural world, this extensive use of NR is termed Exploitation. Name FIVE Natural Resources that are being exploited by people and the resulting impact on the environment Investigate a case of exploitation of Natural Resources in your city.

Why is it important to CONSERVE energy?

Create List of NR & Their Uses
I. Atmosphere 1. e.g.: Oxygen – Energy for Animals 2. II. Land 1. 2. III. Water 1. 2. IV. Plant 1. 2. V. Animal 1. 2. Come up with some suggestions for your fellow students to follow, to help prevent the exploitation of one of the following natural resource:

Energy Conservation Song
Not all our energy is the renewable kind, So ways to save it, you must keep in mind, For if we don't, one day there will be, No energy left for you or me! What can we do? What must we change? What habits should we rearrange? There's lots to be done, changes big and small, And most take almost no effort at all! When you leave a room, turn off the light, There's no need to leave it burning all night, The same goes for radios and the TV, That's pretty simple, don't you agree? Of course energy is more than just lights, More than fans & things that glow bright, It’s oil too, and gas and coal So conserving it all should be our goal. If lasting energy we want to ensure, Then make some changes that will endure, To your friends and family say, "Let's save energy every day!"



Standard VI – Section III/IV: Waste Generation & Management
What is Waste?
Waste is just another name for Garbage, Rubbish or Trash. It is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. Waste can exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas. When it exists as a gas it is usually called an Emission. Too much waste or waste that is thrown away improperly causes Pollution. Waste is a human idea. In natural processes there is no waste, only harmless end products. Waste produced in the wild is reintegrated through natural recycling processes, such as dry leaves in a forest decomposing into soil. Make a list of all the things you throw away, as waste, during your day in the space below Label this waste as a Solid, a Liquid or as a Gas Solid Scrap paper Liquid Sewage Gas CO gas - Car

Types of Waste
Waste can be divided into many different categories. To begin with, it can be classified as solid, liquid or gas. It is easy to think of waste as being solid or liquid, we are always throwing away used paper, plastic wrapping, and your bath water disappears down the drain. But, gas waste, although you can’t see it, is also very common. Gas waste includes emissions from factories and exhaust from cars; even the CO2 you breath out is a kind of gaseous waste. Waste can also be divided up on the basis of its source, as we will see later; and it can also be categorized based upon the effect it has on the environment. If we consider the effect of waste on the environment there are three kinds of waste: Category I - does not present a danger of environmental pollution, such as a banana peel. Category II - not harmful initially, but can become dangerous if not thrown away properly, such as tires Category III - toxic or hazardous and requires the most careful handling at all stages of the disposal process, such as diesel oil or batteries

What are the different Sources of Waste?
Waste comes from the following major sources:

♦ Domestic or Household Waste – waste produced by people during their day to day activities. e.g.: old newspapers ♦ Industrial Waste – waste produced by factories. e.g. chemicals ♦ Construction Waste – waste from making
buildings. e.g..: cement

♦ Energy Waste – waste produced by power plants and reactors. e.g.: hot water, CO2 ♦ Mining and Quarrying Waste – waste
created during mining activities. e.g.: stone and soil

♦ Sewage – mostly liquid waste consisting of
human waste products.

♦ Medical Waste – waste produced by hospitals. e.g.: used needles 5

Standard VI – Section III/IV: Waste Generation & Management
Identify potential sources of domestic waste in the typical house below. Also think about their impact on the environment.

List the objects you’ve found in the space below:


Standard VI – Section III/IV: Waste Generation & Management
What’s The Problem With Waste?
• When we throw something away we lose the natural resources, the energy and the time which have been used to make the product • When something is thrown away we put extra pressure on the environment in terms of using more resources and energy to make a product and transporting it • Extraction of materials to replace those that have been thrown away can directly affect the environment through deforestation and mining. • Waste, like chemicals and toxins, can also be hazardous to the environment by polluting the soil and water poisoning the food chain. • We are quickly running out of place and methods to dispose of waste safely Did you know??? Mumbai produces 5000 tonnes of waste a day. This is the weight of about 71,430 people put together

Reduce, Reuse Recycle !
Reduce, Reuse & Recycle – The 3 R’s is an easy way to remember how to cut down waste production at home, school or work. Reduce/Reduction: to make something smaller or use less, resulting in a smaller amount of waste. A key part of waste reduction is conservation - using natural resources wisely, and using less than usual in order avoid waste. You can Reuse materials in their original form instead of throwing them away, or pass those materials on to others who could use them too! Remember, one man's trash is another man's treasure! Recycling occurs when you save and take reusable materials to places where they can be remade into either the same product or new products, rather than to just toss them in the trash Think of different items in the classroom that you can reuse, reduce or recycle (Try and find 3 of each) Make a list of all the different materials that can be recycled by going through your waste and looking for this symbol:

What other reasons can you think of that make waste a problem? How can you reduce the amount of waste you produce at home? Look up the internet or any other source and find out more facts about your city’s Garbage. Student Project: Use any piece of rubbish from your house, either a plastic bottle or an old cardboard box, or even a wafer packet to create something new and useful

If you can explore recycle city at the following website and learn more about recycling:


Standard VI – Some Useful Websites
Food & Agriculture Organisation of the U.N
This UN site contains information on the environment, pollution and waste. U.N Environment Programme
Information on environmental issues and waste. Ministry of Environment & Forests (India)
A government of India website that has information on environmental issues and conservation in India, as well as current environmental policies and laws. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (India – Maharashtra)
Information on management of waste and pollution. U.S Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.A)
Information on the environment, waste management and conservation. Kids Against Waste
Information on waste generation and management. Recycle City (EPA – U.S.A)
A great website for students who want to learn more about waste and the three R’s. Energy Hog
A fun website on energy and its conservation. Rustle the Leaf
A website for environmental comic strips. Reference for comics on this sheet Friends of the Earth (United Kingdom)
A general website on environmental education, natural resources, ecosystems and waste. 8