Topography on maps

What is topography?
Refers to the shape and height of the land Everywhere is different in shape and height, It may be a highland, a lowland, a steep slope or a gentle slope

Contour lines as a tool to show the topography of a place Spacing  Closely-packed together: steep slopes  Widely-spaced: gentle slopes Pattern 3 types of topography:  Hillslopes  Individual hills  Hilly areas .

Hillslopes The inclined ground surface of a hill is called a hillslope Different hillslopes have different steepness There are 6 types of hillslopes .

Steep slope and gentle slope Refer to Figure 6a and 6b on your textbook .

Even and uneven slopes .

Concave and convex slopes .

Cliff and vertical cliff .

Uneven slope 7. Steep slope 3. Convex slope . Vertical Cliff 5. Concave slope 8.1. Even slope 6. Cliff 4. Gentle slope 2.

There are 6 types of hills .Individual hills Hills are in different shapes and height.

flatland .Escarpment (1)scrap slope± steep slope (2) dip slopegentle slope (3) plain.

Undulating slope Knoll and undulating slope/ plain .An isolated small and low round hill separated from nearby highlands Undulating plain .


Conical hill . get closer and smaller towards the peak .Circular contour lines.A hill in cone shape with a sharp round peak .

Circular contour lines.A hill with a broad round peak . wide and broad towards the peak .Round-topped hill .

Flat-topped hill .widely spaced & enlongated contour .A hill with a broad flat peak .

Knoll . Round-topped hill 3. Escarpment 5. Conical hill 2. Flat-topped hill 4.1.

Hilly area Area with different types of hills and flatlands .

47) .Spur and valley (Figure 7a & b on p.


How to differentiate spurs and valleys? .

Spur or valley? .

A piece of large and flat highland .plateau .

It forms a natural passage through the highlands Saddle .Pass / Gap .A deep narrow valley with steep slopes .A natural pass between two mountains/ hills .

No natural pass could be found .A low region between two high points of a mountain .Col .

Pass-depression between two mountains Saddle.depression between two slopes Col.depression between two peaks Ridge.a mountain more than one peak .

A steep hill with long narrow peak .Ridge .

1. Valley 3. Col . Saddle 6. Plateau 4. Undulating plain 5. Spur 2.


River .