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Nursing Delivery System

Nursing Delivery System

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Published by: rajeshwari on May 31, 2011
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Rajeshwari S Lecturer Community Health Nursing


Rajeshwari, Msc Nursing (CHN)

Acute care hospital
Government hospital Voluntary hospital. For-profit hospital.

Rajeshwari, Msc Nursing (CHN)

Direct Emergency


Rajeshwari, Msc Nursing (CHN)

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Meeting Patient Needs Primary considerations Number of patients Intensity of care required Staff experience and preparation Patient classification systems/acuity level Categorize patients according to care needs Rajeshwari.

Classification System Considerations Age and functional ability Communication skills Cultural and linguistic diversities Severity/urgency of the admitting condition Scheduled procedures Ability to meet health care requisites Availability of social supports Other specific needs (Recommended by the American Nurses Association Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

more cost-effective care 24 hour/day. 365 day/year staffing needs create staffing challenges Creative staffing options Staff input about staffing Rajeshwari.Meeting Staff Needs Satisfied nurses provide higher quality. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Meeting Organizational Needs Budget and financial management Number of staff Staff mix Licensing and accreditation Customer satisfaction Quality care Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

high-quality care Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .The Number One Challenge Appropriate staffing within budget constraints with well-trained. competent. professional staff members who are committed to providing safe.

Msc Nursing (CHN) . and authority to accomplish patient care Determine who is going to perform what tasks. and who makes decisions Match number and type of caregivers to patient care needs Rajeshwari. responsibility. who is responsible.Nursing Care Delivery Models Detail assignments.

Classic Nursing Care Models Total patient care Functional nursing Team nursing Primary nursing Variations have been adopted to improve care Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Total patient care Rajeshwari.

organizing. Msc Nursing (CHN) unit (PACU) . and performing all care Oldest method of organizing patient care Typically performed by nursing students Common use areas²intensive care unit (ICU) and postanesthetic care Rajeshwari.Total Patient Care Nurse is responsible for planning.

unfragmented care Disadvantages Each RN may have a different approach to care Not cost-effective Lack of RN availability Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .Total Patient Care²cont¶d Advantages High degree of autonomy Lines of responsibility and accountability are clear Patient receives holistic.

Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) . simple tasks Common use area²operating room Rajeshwari.Functional Nursing Staff members assigned to complete specific tasks for a group of patients Evolved during World War II as a result of a nursing shortage Unskilled workers trained to perform routine.

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Functional Nursing²cont¶d Advantages Care is provided economically and efficiently Minimum number of RNs required Tasks are completed quickly Disadvantages Care may be fragmented Patient may be confused with many care providers Caregivers feel unchallenged Rajeshwari.

Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Team Nursing RN as team leader coordinates care for a group of patients Evolved in the 1950s to improve patient satisfaction Goal was to reduce fragmented care Common use areas²most inpatient and outpatient areas Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

comprehensive care with a high proportion of ancillary staff Team members participate in decision making and contribute their own expertise Disadvantages Continuity suffers if daily team assignments vary Team leader must have good leadership skills Rajeshwari.Team Nursing²cont¶d Advantages High-quality. Msc Nursing (CHN) Insufficient time for planning and communication .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Rajeshwari.

Modular Nursing Modification of team nursing Patient unit is divided into modules or units with an RN as team leader The same team of caregivers is assigned consistently to the same geographic area Concept evolved to increase RN involvement in care Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Modular Nursing²cont¶d Advantages Continuity of care is improved RN more involved in planning and coordinating care Geographic closeness and efficient communication Disadvantages Increased costs to stock each module Long corridors not conducive to modular nursing Rajeshwari.

Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

and long-term care settings Rajeshwari. and evaluating care Evolved in the 1970s to improve RN autonomy Common use areas²hospice. home health. Msc Nursing (CHN) .Primary Nursing RN ³primary nurse´ assumes 24-hour responsibility for planning. directing.

not cost-effective Rajeshwari.Primary Nursing²cont¶d Advantages High-quality. Msc Nursing (CHN) . holistic patient care Establish rapport with patient RN feels challenged and rewarded Disadvantages Primary nurse must be able to practice with a high degree of responsibility and autonomy RN must accept 24-hour responsibility More RNs needed.

Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Partnership Model (Co-Primary Nursing RN is partnered with an licensed practical nurse/licensed vocational nurse (LPN/LVN) or nursing assistant to work together consistently Modification of primary nursing to make more efficient use of the RN Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Partnership Model (Co-Primary Nursing)²cont¶d Advantages More cost-effective than primary nursing RN can encourage training and growth of partner Disadvantages RN may have difficulty delegating to partner Consistent partnerships difficult to maintain due to varied schedules Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Patient-Centered Care (Patient-Focused Care) Cross-functional teams of professionals and assistive personnel work together as a unit-based team Recent development in nursing care delivery models More patient oriented than department oriented Models vary considerably among facilities Rajeshwari.

Patient-Centered Care (Patient-Focused Care)²cont¶d Advantages Patient comes into contact with fewer workers Workers are unit based and spend more time in direct-care activities Team is supervised by an RN RN is accountable for a wide range of services and functions at a higher level Cost-effective Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Patient-Centered Care (Patient-Focused Care)²cont¶d Disadvantages Major change in organizational structure is required Departments other than nursing must be willing to accept nursing leadership Nurse manager supervises many types of workers Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Rajeshwari.

planning. evaluation.Case Management First introduced in the 1970s by insurance companies Hospitals adopted the model in the 1980s Value demonstrated through research Components include: Assessment. implementation. Msc Nursing (CHN) . and interaction Rajeshwari.

usually not responsible for direct-care duties Supplemental form of care delivery. or long-term. seriously ill patients. does not replace direct-care model Rajeshwari. expensive cases RN assumes a planning and evaluative role. Msc Nursing (CHN) .Case Management²cont¶d Variations are found in most health care organizations Reserved for chronically ill patients.

RN Case Manager Coordinates the patient¶s care throughout the course of an illness from a payer or facility perspective Employee of the payer (external case management) Employee of the health care facility (internal case management) Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Patient centered care Rajeshwari.

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Managed care Rajeshwari.

Differentiated practice nursing Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Shared goverance Rajeshwari. Msc Nursing (CHN) .

Msc Nursing (CHN) implications .Clinical Pathways Delineate a predetermined written plan of care for a particular health problem Specify desired outcomes and transdisciplinary intervention Address a common medical diagnosis Dictate the type and amount of care given and thus have financial Rajeshwari.

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Clinical Pathways Terminology Patient outcomes Transdisciplinary intervention Variance Trigger Rajeshwari.

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Clinical Pathways Essential Components Consults Laboratory and diagnostic tests Treatments Medications Safety Self-care activities Nutrition Patient and family education Discharge planning Triggers Rajeshwari.

Msc Nursing (CHN) .Choosing a Nursing Care Delivery Model What staff mix is required? Who should make work assignments? Work assigned by task? By patient? How will communication be handled? Who will make decisions? Who will be responsible and accountable? Fit with unit/facility/organization management? Rajeshwari.

staffing.Influences on Nursing Care Delivery Model Selection Health care setting Acute care. and chronic Rajeshwari. and hospice Organizational structure and resources Management. long-term care. long-term. home care. ambulatory care. Msc Nursing (CHN) . supplies. and physical layout Patient needs Acute.

Msc Nursing (CHN) . cost-effective outcomes achieved? Patient and families happy with care? Team members satisfied with care? Good communication among all team members? RNs utilized and challenged appropriately? Rajeshwari.Evaluation of Nursing Care Delivery Models Timely.

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