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Seminar Course Arch.

576/BB Professor Botond BOGNAR

Japanese Architecture Time: Thursday 5:30-8:20 pm
Fall Semester 2009 Place: Temple H Buell Hall 325

BEFORE AND BEYOND THE “BUBBLE” – Issues in Postwar Japanese Architecture

"It is precisely in, and through, an understanding of alien cultures that we can come to a more sensitive and
critical understanding of our own culture and of those prejudices that may lie hidden from us."
Richard J. Bernstein


Japanese architecture both as a present practice and a course of history provides us with particular
features and unique examples. On the one hand, they are deeply rooted in cultural patterns highlighting
important differences between the approaches to design in the East and the West; on the other hand, they
are also derivative of Japan's contemporary conditions: advanced technology, modes of production and
consumption, social order, systems of urbanization, etc., which altogether have by now yielded one of the
most innovative, future oriented, and critical practices in the world of urban architecture today.

The purpose of the course is to expose you, the students, to various architectural design philosophies,
methodologies and practices in an urban and cultural environment different from ours, thus provide you
with an additional tool to further develop your awareness of the built environment as a cultural
phenomenon, as well as a form of political and ideological discourse within society. In so doing, the course
ultimately aims at helping you to come to a better understanding of the nature of the relationship between
society and architecture, or, in general, the built environment, plus the role of the architect in guiding this


The course will investigate the complex, but by all means most remarkable development of postwar
contemporary Japanese architecture and urbanism following up its course until today. This 60-year period
in Japan was marked by both economic booms and recessions, which, sometimes rather severe, have
shaped the development of architectural design and construction in significant ways.

These six decades also witnessed the rise of Japan first as an industrial, then as a informational
superpower. Simultaneously Japanese society too underwent significant changes to which Japanese
architects had to respond. In the turmoil of too often rapid progress, this response was complex and varied
widely according to the individual designers sensibilities, or interpretation of the given conditions. The result
has been, more often than not, a largely variegated architectural and urban landscape, which produced
increasingly high-quality works, and an altogether unique culture and built environment drawing the
attention and admiration of the rest of the world.
Leaving behind the ingrained precepts of modernism, a movement which exhausted itself by the mid or late
1960s, Japanese architects have explored a broad spectrum of innovative directions not only to find exits
from the impasse of the previous paradigm, but also to envision a new one with design solutions better in
tune with the accelerated and too often complex and paradoxical, but surely also exciting times.

The course will examine the changing architectural scenarios in contemporary Japan by way of illustrated
presentations by the instructor as well as group discussions. These will cover the intricate developments of
modernism, the Metabolist movement, the New Wave, the architecture of the bubble economy and the
following long economic downturn, along with the works of such architects as Kenzo Tange, Fumihiko
Maki, Arata Isozaki, Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa, Kazuo Shinohara, Hiroshi Hara, Nikken Sekkei
Ltd, Itsuko Hasegawa, Yoshio Taniguchi, Riken Yamamoto, Toyo Ito, Tadao Ando, Kazuyo Sejima and
SANAA, Kengo Kuma, Atelier Bow Wow, Tele-design, and many others.


Aug. 27 Introduction to the Course and Japan in General

Traditional Architecture 1

Sept. 03 Traditional Architecture 2

10 After the War: Modernism and the architecture of Kenzo Tange.

17 The Metabolist Movement 1

24 The Metabolist Movement 2

Oct. 01 Mannerism and Contextualism: Arata Isozaki and Fumihiko Maki

08 The New Wave of Japanese Architecture 1

15 The New Wave of Japanese Architecture 2

22 Kazuo Shinohara and Tadao Ando

29 The Architecture of the Bubble Era 1

Nov. 05 The Architecture of the Bubble Era 2

12 Beyond the Bubble 1

19 Beyond the Bubble 2

26 NO CLASS (Thanksgiving)


10 Submitting final assignments


1 Each of you is required to read the relevant literature before each class and investigate one well-
defined issue leading to the formulation of a question. First you need to outline the issue you have
been focusing upon in a written statement no longer than a short paragraph (5-8 lines) and then ask
the question in the class for discussion. By Wednesday you need to e-mail it to everyone in class.

Each seminar will start with the discussion generated by the questions. This is to be followed by the
presentation by the instructor about the new topic.

2 Everyone in the class is expected to keep his or her class notes up to date by recording the most
important aspects of the presentation by the instructor. No specific requirements are set for the
class notes and they will not be graded, but you need to show them at the end of the semester.

3 Final assignment is to write a 5 page double-spaced paper (250-280 word per page) with extra
footnotes and / or references and illustrations about one selected and approved building, which has
already been discussed already in class. The paper needs to explore the project in the context of
the architect overall work, concentrating on the most important ideas, theories, or the designer’s
intentions. While some descriptive text is perhaps necessary in each case, your thesis should be
about the embodied/constructed ideas and your deciphered experiential qualities of the built work.

4 For additional one credit, a built (or in some special case, digital) model about the same building
what the paper investigates will be required.


Every part of your work will be evaluated and will influence your final grade: including your attendance on
time, participation in discussions, the quality of your research, presentation, models, and the final paper.


Grade reduction will apply in case of sloppy work, faulty data, not complying with the requirements of the
assignments, unexcused absences from class, tardiness: coming late to classes and/or submitting your
assignments late. Please make sure that your writings are devoid of typos, grammatical errors, etc.


You are allowed, in fact encouraged, to use short, one or two line quotations in your paper, but not more
than 3 or 4 of them. You must reference each quote by author, title of writing, title, place, and date of
publication, and the name of the publisher. If you quote from the internet, please give the URL address.

Everything else would count as plagiarism, which will result in failing the class and academic penalty. Even
if you learn from all your sources, I am interested in your thoughts, analysis, and imaginative evaluations. If
in doubt, please ask. If you have any difficulties related to the class, please come and talk to me in time.

I look forward to working with you all, and wish you a successful semester. Good luck!

Botond Bognar Professor and Edgar A. Tafel Chair in Architecture



- Why Japanese architecture?

- The origin of Japan (Nippon)
- Topography, climate
- Seismic activities and disasters
- Reverence and worship of Nature: agriculture
- Living with nature; festivals (matsuri)
- Nature and art: ikebana, bonsai, haiku, etc.
- Cyclical changes: tracking time (historic periods)
- Language and writing
- Crowded country and urban environments
- Transportation: trains, subways, expressways
- The city as "living room"
- Heterogeneity: coexistence of old and new and everything else


B. Bognar. Contemporary Japanese Architecture. (New York, 1985)

Shinto architecture

- General characteristics of Japanese traditional architecture: structure and techniques

- Architecture and mythology: the spiritual essence of everything: kami
- Shinto as “religion”
- History of Shinto architecture
- Elements of Shinto Shrines - torii the ceremonial gate; shin no mihashira the sacred pillar
- Periodic rebuilding of Shinto Shrines (shikinen sengu)

- ISE-JINGU, Ise, Late 5th C, rebuilt every 20 years; the 61st in 1993
- Izumo Taisha Shrine, Izumo, ~ 6th century; rebuilt in reduced size 1248, 1744
- Itsukushima Shrine, Miyajima, ~ 12th C., 1241, rebuilt 1571
- Toshogu Shrine, Nikko, 1636 (dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu)
- Fushimi Inari Shrine, Kyoto, ~ 8th & 17th Century

Buddhist architecture

- The religion of Buddhism: its origins and importation from China `

- History and Transformation of Buddhist architecture
- Elements of Buddhist Temples (otera, -dera, -ji, -in, -do):
South Gate (nandai mon)
Inner Gate (chúmon)
Cloister Corridor (róka)
Main Hall (kondó, later hondó)
Lecture Hall (kódó)
Pagoda (to and tahóto)
Dormitory (taibó, shoshibó)
- Asuka-dera, Asuka (now Osaka), 588-596
- SHITENNO-JI, ASUKA (now Osaka), early 7th Century
- HORYU–JI TEMPLE, Nara, 607, 679–711
- TODAI–JI TEMPLE, Nara, 752, Rebuilt (Main Hall) 1199,1709;1980;
- KINKAKU–JI (Golden Pavilion), Kyoto, 1397 (Ashikaga, Yoshimitsu)
- DAITOKU–JI TEMPLE, Kyoto, 1509
- KIYOMIZU–DERA TEMPLE, Kyoto, 792, 1634


K. Nishi and K. Hozumi. What is Japanese Architecture (Tokyo, 1985)


Residential architecture

Pit dwellings
- Elements of residential arch.: structure, roof, walls, tatami, engawa,
- Main types of gardens:
Kaiyushiki niwa (stroll garden)
Kare sansui (dry or rock garden)
Cha-niwa (tea garden)
- Castles (shiro, -jo) for land- or warlords (daimyo)
Matsumoto, 1596
Himeji, 1581, 1609
- Residences for commoners (minka)
Farm Houses
Town houses (machiya)

- Pit dwellings (tate ana) in Jomon (10000-300 BC) and early Yayoi Periods (300-300 AD)
- Raised floor buildings of the Yayoi Period
- OLD IMPERIAL PALACE, Kyoto, 794, 1855
- KATSURA RIKYU IMPERIAL VILLA & GARDEN, Kyoto, 1620–47 (Prince Toshihito & Toshitada)
- Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa, Kyoto, 1659 (Emperor Gomizuno)
- Ryoan-ji Temple, Kyoto, ~1499
- Daitoku-ji Temple, Kyoto, 1324-on, 1509

- NIJO–JO, Kyoto, 1603-1626 (Tokugawa Ieyasu)

- HIMEJI CASTLE, Himeji, Hyogo, 1581 (Toyotomi Hideyoshi); 1609 (Ikeda Terumasa)
- MATSUMOTO CASTLE, Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, 1596
- Shirakawa Residences, Shirakawa, Toyama Pref.
- Machiya in the Gion, Shirakawa, Sannen-zaka, and other districts of Kyoto
- YOSHIJIMA and KUSAKABE HOUSES, Takayama, Toyama Pref.,1881
Japanese Urbanism in Historic Perspective

- Prehistoric and early times

- Historic periods and events
- Changing capitals from early times till today:
Naniwa (Osaka), 645-651 AD. Emperor Kotoku
Asuka (south of Nara), 651-668 AD. Empress Saimei
Omi (Otsu), 668-673 AD. Emperor Tenchi
Asuka (further south of Nara), 673-694 AD. Emperor Temmu
Fujiwara (south of Nara), 694-710 AD. Empress Jito
Heijo-kyo (Nara), 710-740 AD. Empress Gemmyo (first permanent capital)
Kuni (north of Nara), 740-742 AD. Emperor Seimu
Shiragaki (Shiga Prefecture), 742-744 AD. Emperor Seimu
Naniwa (Osaka), 744-745 AD. Emperor Seimu
Heijo-kyo (Nara), 745-761 AD. Emperor Seimu
Hora (Shiga Prefecture), 761-769 AD. Empress Koken
Yugi (Osaka Prefecture), 769-784 AD. Empress Shotoku
Nagaoka (southwest of Kyoto) 784-794 AD. Emperor Kammu
Heian-kyo (Kyoto), 794-1868 AD. Emperor Kammu
Tokyo, 1868-present, Emperor Meiji
- Chinese model – Chang'an the T'ang Dynasty (AD 618-907) Capital,
HEIJO–KYO (NARA) 710–794
HEIAN–KYO (KYOTO) 794–1868
EDO (now TOKYO) 1868 - present
- Japanese modification of Chinese model
- Types of urban settlements and their architecture in Japan:
Farming villages (noson): Toga–mura (Toyama Prefecture)
Shirakawa (Toyama Prefecture)
Temple and shrine towns: Kotohira (Kagawa Prefecture)
(monzen-machi) Miyajima (Hiroshima Prefecture)
Nagano (Nagano Prefecture) etc.
Port towns (minato-machi): Nagasaki
Yanai (Hiroshima Prefecture)
Ine (Kyoto Prefecture)
Sakai (Osaka Prefecture)
Post towns (shukuba-machi): Ouchi–juku (Fukushima Prefecture)
Narai–juku (Nagano Prefecture)
Tsumago–juku (Nagano Prefecture)
Magome–juku (Nagano Prefecture), etc.
Merchant or market towns: Kurashiki (Okayama Prefecture)
(sho–kogyo machi) Arimatsu (Aichi Prefecture)
Uchiko (Ehime Prefecture)
Takayama (Gifu Prefecture)
Kawagoe (Saitama Prefecture), etc.
Castle towns (joka-machi): KANAZAWA (Ishikawa Prefecture), etc
EDO (Tokyo)


K. Nishi and K. Hozumi. What is Japanese Architecture. (Tokyo, 1985)

B. Bognar. World Cities: TOKYO (London, 1997)

- Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the launch of modernization in Japan

- Early contacts with Western architecture
- Importation of Western architecture and the role of foreign technicians
- Japanese interpretation of foreign techniques and styles
- Tokyo as the experimental laboratory for testing new urban models
- Western architects and the activities of Josiah Conder in Japan
- Japanese eclecticism: the work of Kingo Tatsuno and Tokuma Katayama
- Sumitomo Eizen and the architecture departments of "zaibatsu"
- The role of technology and the emergence of engineering oriented trends

- GLOVER RESIDENCE, Nagasaki, 1863 (Hidenoshin Koyama w/ Thomas Blake Glover)

- KAICHI ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, Matsumoto, 1876 (Kiyoshige or Seiju Tateishi)
- First Mitsui Bank, Kaiunbashi, Tokyo, 1872 (Kisuke Shimizu)
- Second Mitsui Bank, Surugacho, Tokyo, 1874 (Kisuke Shimizu)
- The first railway line from Shinbashi in Tokyo to Skuragicho in Yokohama, 1972
- Tokyo’s Ginza Redevelopment, 1872 (James Thomas Waters – UK)
- Imperial Museum in Ueno, Tokyo, 1882 (Josiah Conder - UK)
- IWASAKI RESIDENCE, 1896 (Josiah Conder)
- Naval Ministry, Tokyo, 1894 (Josiah Conder)
- MINISTRY OF JUSTICE, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo, 1895 (Ende and Böckmann - Germany)
- KYOTO IMPERIAL MUSEUM, Kyoto, 1895 (Tokuma Katayama)
- Bank of Japan, Otemachi, Tokyo, 1896 (Kingo Tatsuno)
- OSAKA LIBRARY, 1904 (Sumitomo Eizen)
- TOKYO STATION, Tokyo, 1914 (Kingo Tatsuno)

- Japanese industrial revolution and the growing might of the nation

- The National Diet Building and the quest for a national style
- Expressionism and the activities of the Bunriha group:
- The Imperial Hotel and Frank Lloyd Wright in Japan
- The 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake and the rebuilding of Tokyo
- Antonin Raymond and the introduction of international modernism
- Modernism in the West: the first modern architects in Japan
- Government employed architects and the pursuit of international style
- The Modern Movement and Japanese prewar residential architecture
- Interpretations of modernism and the early work of Togo Murano
- The rise of nationalism and the search for an Asian national style

- IMPERIAL HOTEL, Tokyo, 1923 (F.L. Wright - U.S.); demolished

- NATIONAL DIET (PARLIAMENT) BUILDING, Tokyo, 1936 (Architecture Dept. of Ministry of Finance)
- Idea proposal of the Bunriha Group at a Tokyo exhibition, 1920
- CENTRAL TELEGRAPH OFFICE, Tokyo, 1925 (Mamoru Yamada) demolished
- Asahi Newspaper Building, Tokyo, 1927 (Kikuchi Ishimoto) demolished
- HOUSE IN REINANZAKA, Tokyo, 1924 (Antonin Raymond - U.S.)
- DOJUNKAI AOYAMA APARTMENTS, Tokyo, 1926 (Dojunkai Housing Corporation) demolished
- TOKYO CENTRAL POST OFFICE, Tokyo, 1931 (Tetsuro Yoshida)
- Osaka Central Post Office, Osaka, 1939 (Tetsuro Yoshida)
- Sumitomo Building, Osaka, 1926 and 1931 (Sumitomo Eizen)
- Marubeni Building, Kyoto, 1938 (Sumitomo Eizen)
- UBE PUBLIC HALL, Ube, 1937 (Togo Murano)
- TSUCHIURA HOUSE, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 1935 (Tameki Tsuchiura)
- JAPANESE PAVILION AT THE PARIS WORLD'S FAIR, Paris, 1937 (Junzo Sakakura) demolished
- TOKYO IMPERIAL (now Tokyo National) MUSEUM IN UENO, Tokyo, 1937 (Hitoshi Watanabe)
- MAEKAWA RESIDENCE, Tokyo, 1942 (Kunio Maekawa)

- The problem of center - multi centered, fragmented disposition
- Kaleidoscopic structure
- Urban structure: oku, ma
- Street architecture, commercialization, information techniques
- Tokyo the informational world city

- MAPS of Tokyo – Developing Edo as the castle town of the Tokugawa Shogunate
- The Imperial Palace on the location of the previous Edo Castle (1603)
- Maps, woodblock prints, and photograph of Edo and Tokyo (overviews)
- Tokyo the multi-centered city
- Tokyo’s new “center”
- The new Tokyo City Hall of 1991


B. Bognar. Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

B. Bognar. NIKKEN SEKKEI 1900-2000: Building Future Japan (New York, 2000)
D. Stewart. The Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture (Tokyo, 1987)

- Rebuilding the cities after the devastation of the war in Japan

- Japan and the CIAM: triumph of modernism, rationalism, functionalism
- City Hall Program: Tange, Maekawa, Sakakura
- Tange's Hiroshima Project
- Rapid urbanization and industrialization

- Reader's Digest Building, Tokyo, 1951 (Antonin Raymond)

- KAGAWA PREFECTURAL MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, Kamakura, 1951 (Junzo Sakakura)
- Mori Residence, Tokyo, 1951 (Kiyosi Seike)
- WORLD PEACE MEMORIAL CATHEDRAL, Hiroshima, 1953 (Togo Murano)


Kenzo Tange (1913-2005)

- Evolution of Tange’s architecture
- Modernism redefined
- The “West’s favorite Japanese architect”
- The early public buildings and masterpieces of Tange
- Metabolism group: theory and practice of Metabolist architecture
- Urban visions in the 1960s
- Pragmatic urban developments
- Large scale events in Japan and their architecture:
- Tokyo Olympic games of 1964
- Osaka Expo – 70
- The “failure” of the Metabolist Movement and the demise of Modernism

- Japanese Cultural Center, Bangkok, 1943 Unbuilt proposal (Kenzo Tange)

- Tange Residence, Tokyo, 1943 (Kenzo Tange)
- HIROSHIMA PEACE CENTER, Hiroshima, 1955 (Kenzo Tange)
- TOKYO CITY HALL, 1957 (Kenzo Tange) demolished
- KAGAWA PREFECTURAL OFFICES, Takamatsu, 1958 (Kenzo Tange)
- International House of Japan, 1955 (Kunio Maekawa w/Sakakura &
- Tokyo Metropolitan Festival Hall, 1961 (Kunio Maekawa)
- KURE CITY HALL, Kure, 1962 (Junzo Sakakura)
- OLYMPIC STADIUMS, Tokyo, 1964 (Kenzo Tange)
- St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo, 1964 (Kenzo Tange)

- Marine City (project), 1960 (Kiyonori Kikutake)

- TOKYO PLAN - 1960 (project), 1960 (Kenzo Tange)
- City in the Air (projects), 1962 (Arata Isozaki)
- Helix City (projects), 1961 (Kisho Kurokawa)

- Tokyo’s developments and the EXPRESSWAY construction in the city along PRAGMATIC concerns

- Sky House, Tokyo, 1958 (Kiyonori Kikutake)

- HARUMI APARTMENTS, Tokyo, 1958 (Kunio Maekawa) demolished
- Izumo Shrine Office Bldg., Izumo, 1963 (Kiyonori Kikutake)
- HOTEL TOKOEN, Yonago, 1964 (Kiyonori Kikutake)
- TOCHIGI PREFECTURAL CONFERENCE HALL, Utsunomiya, 1969 (Masato Otaka)
- Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto, 1966 (Sachio Otani)
- Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Corp. Tokyo Building, 1967 (Kenzo Tange)
- KUWAIT EMBASSY & CHANCERY BLDG., Tokyo, 1970 (Kenzo Tange)
- OSAKA EXPO–70, FESTIVAL PLAZA & SPACE FRAME. Osaka, 1970 (Kenzo Tange) demolished
- " " Expo Tower (Kiyonori Kikutake)


- Capsule architecture
- Okinawa Expo – 75
- Legacy of Metabolists
- 1963 High rise constructions
- Nikken Sekkei Ltd. and skyscraper architecture

- Capsule House in the Space Frame of the Osaka Expo-70 (Kisho Kurokawa)
- Odakyu Drive-In, Otome Pass, Hakone Mts, 1968 (Kisho Kurokowa)
- SKY BLDG. NO. 3, Tokyo, 1970 (Yoji Watanabe) demolished
- Experimental Leisure Capsule House LC-30X (Kisho Kurokowa)
- NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER, Tokyo, 1972 (Kisho Kurokawa) demolished
- SONY TOWER, Osaka, 1976 (Kisho Kurokawa) demolished
- AQUAPOLIS, OKINAWA EXPO–75, 1975 (Kiyonori Kikutake) demolished
- San Ai Dream Center, Tokyo, 1963 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Palaceside Building, Tokyo, 1966 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- POLA HOME OFFICES, Tokyo, 1971 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- NAKANO SUN PLAZA, Tokyo, 1973 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- MOTOMACHI & CHOJUEN HIGH–RISE APTS, Hiroshima, 1973 (Masato Otaka)
- KAWARACHO HIGH-RISE APARTMENTS, Kawasaki, 1974 (Sachio Otani)
- PANASONIC MULTIMEDIA CENTER, Tokyo, 1992 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- NEC CORPORATION HEADQUARTERS, Tokyo, 1990 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- LONG TERM CREDIT BANK OF JAPAN, Tokyo, 1993 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- KEYENCE CORP. OFFICE & LABORATORY BLDG, Osaka, 1994 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Dowa Phoenix Tower, Osaka, 1995 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Osaka World Trade Center - Cosmo Tower, Osaka, 1995 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)


B. Bognar. Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

R. Boyd. New Directions in Japanese Architecture (New York, 1968)
M. F. Ross. Beyond Metabolism (New York, 1978).
B. Bognar. NIKKEN SEKKEI 1900-2000: Building Future Japan (New York, 2000)

OCT. 01 MANNERISM & CONTEXTUALISM: Arata Isozaki & Fumihiko Maki

The Launching of Japanese Postmodernism

Arata Isozaki (1934-)

- Isozaki, Tange and Metabolism
- Visionary urban schemes: "Cities in the Air"
- Constructive and destructive impulses: the role of irony
- Nine Metaphors:
Hermaphrodites (ambiguity)
Letters (signs, semantics, form and meaning)
Sensual Machines (Technology, high–tech)
Platonic Solids (Cube, Cylinder and the seven operations of a "manner;"
Architecture as a "meaning-producing machine" (performative aspect of arch.)
Twilight (illusion, reflections, transparencies)
Degree Zero (void, empty center, the "bleaching" of meaning)
Ruins (poetics of ruins, "Destruction of the Future City" "Electric Labyrinth")
Shadow (visual uncertainty or toward a "new" Japanese "space;"
- From Manner to MAniera; "MA: Space–Time in Japan," (1978)
- Darkness (return to a "space of darkness"-1964)
- Nine Quotation Sources:
"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland,"
Yin and Yang,
Photography of Man Ray,
Spacecraft Hangars at Cape Kennedy,
Italian Palazzo,
Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass,
Cloud Props Projects by Lissitsky,
Marilyn Monroe in the Nude.
- Shift in direction after the early 1980s: postmodern-classicism

- Tokyo - Plan 1960 (project), 1960 (as a member of Tange's team)

- City in the Air and "Joint Core System" (Project), 1961-62.
- "FUTURE CITY" (project), 1962.
- "City Demolition Industry, Inc." (essay), 1962.
- Oita Medical Hall, Oita, 1960. demolished
- Osaka Expo–70, Festival Plaza facilities, Osaka, 1970 demolished
- “ “ “ Nagasumi Branch, Fukuoka, 1971
- " " " Tokyo Branch, Tokyo, 1971.
- Kitakyushu Municipal Art Museum, Kitakyushu, 1974.
- Kitakyushu Municipal Library, Kitakyushu, 1975.
- KAMIOKA TOWN HALL, Kamioka, 1978.


B. Bognar, Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

P. Drew, The Architecture of Arata Isozaki (New York, 1982).
D. Stewart, The Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture (Tokyo, 1987).
H. Yatsuka, "Textural Strategy and Post–Modernism," SD, Space Design (01/1984, Special feature issue
on Arata Isozaki), pp. 182–186.

Fumihiko Maki (1928-)

- Maki's departure from Metabolism
- Maki and Aldo van Eyck of Team Ten
- Investigations in Collective Form" (1964)
- From physical (formal) to cultural context
- Developing a Japanese Contextualism
- The traditional notions of space and oku
- Modernist vocabulary vs postmodern (Japanese) syntax (ordering system)

- Memorial Auditorium, Chiba University, Chiba, 1963.

- Toyota Memorial Auditorium, Nagoya University, Nagoya 1960.
- Diagrams of the three types of “Collective Form” 1984
- Senri Chuo Building, Osaka, 1970.
- HILLSIDE TERRACE APARTMENTS, Phases 1-3, Tokyo, 1969; 1973; 1976.
- Tsukuba University Central Bldg., Tsukuba, 1974.
- Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus, Fujisawa, 1993-94.
- Iwasaki Art Museum, 1979; and Craft Museum, Ibusuki, 1987.
- YKK GUEST HOUSE, Kurobe, 1983.

B. Bognar, Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

M. F. Ross. Beyond Metabolism (New York, 1978)
______. Fumihiko Maki: Buildings and Projects (New York: 1997)


- Energy crisis and the dark side of industrial progress: the demise of modernist ideology
- Changing attitude in architectural and urban design: Pro- and Anti-Urban Tendencies
- Architecture as language (semiotics) and the quest for meaning
- The “ArchiteXt” Group: Minoru Takeyama, Takefumi Aida, Takamitsu Azuma, Mayumi
Miyawaki, & Makoto Suzuki
- The unique features of Japanese postmodernism – pre-modern but not historicizing
- The new symbolists - 1:
Daydreams and nightmares;
Buildings as toys; etc.
Facade versus face
From the ritualistic to the cosmic
Vernacular and organic trends

- ICHIBAN–, & NIBAN–KAN, Tokyo, 1969 & 1970 (Minoru Takeyama)

- Pepsi Cola Bottliing Plant, Mikasa, Hokkaido, 1972 (Minoru Takeyama)
- HOTEL "BEVERLY TOM," Tomakomai, 1973 (Minoru Takeyama)
- ATELIER "INDIGO," Sapporo, 1976 (Minoru Takeyama)
- AZUMA HOUSE, Tokyo, 1967 (Takamitsu Azuma)
- "Blue Box," Tokyo, 1971 (Mayumi Miyawaki)
- Akita Sogo Bank Honjo Branch, Honjo, 1974 (Mayumi Miyawaki)
- Akita Sogo Bank Morioka Branch, Morioka, 1970 (Mayumi Miyawaki)
- Akita Sogo Bank Kakunodate Branch, Kakunodate, 1974 (Mayumi Miyawaki)
- Nirvana House, and Annihilation House, Fujisawa, 1972 (Takefumi Aida)
- Stepped Platform House, Kawasaki, 1973 (Takefumi Aida)
- PL Institute Kindergarten, Tondabayashi, 1974 (Takefumi Aida)
- An Artist's House, Tokyo, 1968 (Takefumi Aida)
- Toy Block Houses 1–10, Tokyo and Yokohama, 1979–1984 (Takefumi Aida)

- White House, Tokyo, 1973 (Yasufumi Kijima)

- Kamimuta Matsuo Shrine, Kumamoto, 1975 (Yasufumi Kijima)

- FANTASY VILLA, Omi, 1975 (Osamu Ishiyama)

- Face House, Kyoto, 1973 (Kazumasa Yamashita)
- Origin 1 (Hinaya Home Office) Kyoto, 1981 (Shin Takamatsu)

- Ark (Nishina Dental Clinic), Kyoto, 1983 (Shin Takamatsu)

- Pharao (Dental Clinic), Kyoto, 1984 (Shin Takamatsu)
- ANTI–DWELLING BOX, Kushiro, 1971 (Kiko Mozuna)

- ZASSO FOREST SCHOOL, Kyoto, 1977 (Kijo Rokkaku)

- House of the Tree Root, Numata, 1980 (Kijo Rokkaku)
- Constellation House, Wakayama, 1976 (Kiko Mozuna)
- MIRROR IMAGE HOUSE, Niiza, Tokyo, 1980 (Kiko Mozuna)
- Nakauchi House, Nara, 1975 (Toyokazu Watanabe)

- Miyashiro Municipal Center (Shinshukan), Miyashiro, 1980 (Team Zoo)


- Kazuhiro Ishii and his explorations of architectural syntax

- The Structuralist (syntactical) models in Hiromi Fujii’s architecture
- The new symbolists - 2:
Hiroshi Hara and the “Burying the city in architecture”
Architecture of the “bizarre”
- Older generations and the broadening spectrum of architectural directions: Seiichi Shirai,
Togo Murano, Shizutaro Urabe
- The changing course of previous Modernists and Metabolists: Kenzo Tange, Kunio
Maekawa, Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa

- HOUSE WITH 54 WINDOWS, Hiratsuka, 1975 (Kazuhiro Ishii)

- Kindergarten of "54 Roofs," Takebe, 1979 (Kazuhiro Ishii)
- Naoshima Municipal Gymnasium & High School, Naoshima, 1976 & 1979 (Kazuhiro Ishii)

- Project E–1, 1973 (Hiromi Fuji)

- MIYAJIMA HOUSE, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1973 (Hiromi Fujii)
- Todoroki House, Ichikawa, Chiba Pref., 1975 (Hiromi Fujii)
- Marutake Building, Konosu, 1976 (Hiromi Fujii)
- Ushimado International Arts Festival Building, Ushimado, Okayama Pref., 1985 (Hiromi Fujii)
- Mizoe Housing 1, Iizuka, 1988 (Hiromi Fujii)

- HARA HOUSE, Machida, 1974 (Hiroshi Hara)

- Kikuchi House (project), 1978 (Hiroshi Hara)
- NIRAMU HOUSE, Ichinomiya, Chiba Prefecture, 1978 (Hiroshi Hara)
- Sueda Art Gallery, Yufuin, Oita Pref. (Hiroshi Hara)

- Nissei Hibiya Building & Theater, Tokyo, 1963 (Togo Murano)

- INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN, Tokyo, 1974 (Togo Murano)
- SHINWA BANK I, II, III, Sasebo, 1967, 1969, 1975 (Seiichi Shirai)
- NOA BUILDING, Tokyo, 1974 (Seiichi Shirai)
- Shibuya Shoto Museum, Tokyo, 1981 (Seiichi Shirai)
- Kurashiki Ivy Square, Kurashiki, 1974 (Shizutaro Urabe)
- Kurashiki New City Hall, Kurashiki, 1980 (Shizutaro Urabe)
- Sogetsu Art Center, Tokyo, 1977 (Kenzo Tange)
- HANAE MORI BUILDING, Tokyo, 1978 (Kenzo Tange)
- Kaijo Building, Tokyo, 1974 (Kunio Maekawa)
- Kumamoto Prefectural Art Museum, Kumamoto, 1977 (Kunio Maekawa)
- Seibu Shopping Center, Otsu, 1976 (Kiyonori Kikutake)
- Wagi City Hall, Wagi, 1975 (Kisho Kurokawa)
- National Ethnological Museum, Osaka, 1978 (Kisho Kurokawa)
- SAITAMA PREFECTURAL MUSEUM, Urawa, 1982 (Kisho Kurokawa)

B. Bognar. Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

____. ArchiteXt. Special issue of JA, The Japan Architect (06/1976)
B. Bognar (ed.). Minoru Takeyama (London, 1995)
B. Bognar. Togo Murano: Master Architect of Japan (New York, 1996)
H. Yatsuka, "Architecture in the Urban Desert," Oppositions (Winter 1981), pp.3–35.
K. Frampton (ed.). A New Wave of Japanese Architecture (Catalog 10), (New York, 1978).

OCT. 22 THE ARCHITECTURE OF MINIMALISM – Kazuo Shinohara & Tadao Ando

Between the Abstract and the Poetic

Kazuo Shinohara (1925-2006) and his “School”

- “A House is a Work of Art”
- The changing course of Shinohara's work
- The "savage machine," "structuralism," and phenomenal space
- "Gap," new Sachlichkeit
- Prismatic forms, "surfaceness" and "discreteness"

- House at Kugayama, Tokyo, 1954. (Kazuo Shinohara)

- Umbrella House, Tokyo, 1961 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- Repeating Crevice House, Tokyo, 1971 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- TANIKAWA RESIDENCE, Naganohara, Nagano Pref., 1974 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- HOUSE IN UEHARA, Tokyo, 1976 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- HOUSE ON A CURVED ROAD, Tokyo, 1978 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- HOUSE UNDER HIGH–VOLTAGE LINES, Tokyo, 1981 (Kazuo Shinohara)

- House at Minase, Tokyo, 1971 (Kazunari Sakamoto)

- F HOUSE, Tokyo, 1987 (Kazunari Sakamoto)
- House at Midorigaoka, Tokyo, 1975 (Itsuko Hasegawa)
- House in Kuwahara, Matsuyama, 1980 (Itsuko Hasegawa)
- HOUSE IN NERIMA, Tokyo, 1986
- HOUSE IN ODAWARA, Odawara, 1975 (Yuzuru Tominaga)
- U HOUSE IN NAKANO, Tokyo, 1976 (Toyo Ito)


B. Bognar. Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985).

H. Yatsuka, "Architecture in the Urban Desert," Oppositions (Winter 1981)
D. Stewart, The Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture (Tokyo, 1987).
____. Kazuo Shinohara (IAUS Catalog No. 17), (New York, 1982).

Tadao Ando (1941-)

- Hermetic "microcosms" in the urban chaos/desert
- The evolution of a defensive position
- The role of geometry: concrete walls and trabeated pergolas
- The courtyard: the introduction of nature
- "twin" architecture
- Machiya and Sukiya-zukuri tradition
- The poesis of light–and–shadow
- Orchestration of void or no–thingness (mujo)
- The gradual opening of the "box"
- Ando's religious architecture
- Increasingly large complexes

- TOMISHIMA HOUSE, Osaka, 1972.

- Soseikan, Takarazuka, 1974.
- ROW HOUSE AT SUMIYOSHI (Azuma Residence), Osaka, 1976.
- TEZUKAYAMA HOUSE (Manabe Residence), Osaka, 1977.
- WALL HOUSE (Matsumoto Residence), Ashiya, 1977.
- Okusu Residence, Tokyo, 1978.
- GLASS–BLOCK HOUSE (Ishihara Residence), Osaka, 1978.
- Matsumoto Residence, Wakayama, 1980.
- Kojima Housing, Kurashiki, 1981.
- KOSHINO RESIDENCE, Ashiya, 1982.
- ROKKO HOUSING 1, Kobe, 1982.
- Atelier in Oyodo (Ando's Office), Osaka, 1982
- Festival (Commercial Complex), Naha, Okinawa, 1984.
- TIME'S 1 1984 and 2 1991 (Commercial Complex), Kyoto.
- Tea Houses in Oyodo, Osaka, 1985-1988
- ROKKO CHAPEL, Kobe, 1986.
- CHURCH ON THE WATER, Tomamu, Hokkaido, 1988.


B. Bognar, Contemporary Japanese Architecture (New York, 1985)

K. Frampton (ed.), Tadao Ando (New York, 1984).
P. Jodidio. Tadao Ando (Köln, 1997)
H. Yatsuka, "Architecture in the Urban Desert," Oppositions (Winter 1981)


- The process of globalization: Japanese export and trade imbalance

- Japanese capitalism or consumer economy in overdrive
- Soaring land prices
- There is money for everything
- Huge investments in property: buildings and structures
- Building/demolition/building cycle accelerates beyond any “reason”
- Architecture as consumer object
- The new urban renaissance:
Kumamoto Art Polis, Kumamoto Prefecture
- Tokyo the international city
- The delirious "city of desires" with no center nor exterior/interior
- "creative chaos" vs. "progressive anarchy"
- from "hardware" technology to a new, "software" technology
- media architecture
- illusion vs. reality
- The age of experimentation
- "de(con)struction" or dispersion of Architecture
- from Form to no–form (non–con–form), or unstable form vs. composition
- "Zero degree machine"
- high–tech vs. a new primitivism (industrial vernacular)
- toward a New Space as a field or site of action/event
- a "new" phenomenalism
- new sensibilities:
fluctuation, dynamics, the "spaces of flows"
lightness as architectural paradigm
ephemerality, impermanence, temporality
instability and a
sense of catastrophe:
- A new, non-monumental (or "non-permanent") mode of urbanism
- Architects as stars
- The inferior or the trivial and the world-class in architecture
- The “new golden age of Japanese architecture”
- foreign architects in Japan

- TOKYO and Images of and from the contemporary Japanese cityscape

- Kumamoto Art Polis, Kumamoto, 1988 on. Various architects

- TSUKUBA CENTER BUILDING, Tsukuba, 1983 (Arata Isozaki)
Diego Velazquez: Las Meninas (painting by the Spanish painter 1599-1660)
- ART TOWER MITO, Mito 1990 (Arata Isozaki)

- "ORIGIN" No. 3, Kyoto, 1986 (Shin Takamatsu)

- KIRIN PLAZA, Osaka, 1987 (Shin Takamatsu)
- SYNTAX, Kyoto, 1990 (Shin Takamatsu)
- Solaris, Amagasaki, 1990 (Shin Takamatsu)
- IMANISHI MOTOAKASAKA, Building, Tokyo, 1991 (Shin Takamatsu)

- "RISE" CINEMA BUILDING, Tokyo, 1986 (Atsushi Kitagawara)

- Humax Pavilion, Tokyo, 1992 (Hiroyuki Wakabayashi)

- K Museum, Teleport Town, Tokyo, 1997 (Makoto Sei Watanabe)

- Nagoya City Museum of Modern Art, 1987 (Kisho Kurokawa)

- FUJISAWA MUNICIPAL GYM, Fujisawa, 1984 (Fumihiko Maki)
- "SPIRAL" BUILDING, Tokyo, 1985 (Fumihiko Maki)
- TOKYO METROPOLITAN GYMNASIUM, Tokyo, 1990 (Fumihiko Maki)

- 109 Building, Tokyo, 1980 (Minoru Takeyama)

- TOKYO PORT TERMINAL, Tokyo, 1991 (Minoru Takeyama
- Shinohara House, Yokohama, 1984 (Kazuo Shinohara)
- TIT CENTENNIAL HALL, Tokyo, 1987 (Kazuo Shinohara)

- Sakamoto Ryoma Memorial Hall, Kochi, 1991 (Workstation: Akiko & Hiroshi Takahashi)
- NEW TOKYO CITY HALL, Tokyo, 1991 (Kenzo Tange)
- Edo–Tokyo Museum, Tokyo, 1992 (Kiyonori Kikutake)
- UMEDA SKY BUILDING, Osaka, 1993 (Hiroshi Hara)
- Tokyo International Forum, Tokyo, 1996 (Rafael Vinoly)

- "Tower of Wind," Yokohama, 1986 (Toyo Ito)

- Saibu Gas Museum, Fukuoka (Shoei Yoh)

- CHURCH WITH LIGHT & Sunday School, Ibaraki, 1989 & 1998 (Tadao Ando)
- Collezione, Tokyo, 1990 (Tadao Ando)
- WATER TEMPLE, Awaji Island, 1991 (Tadao Ando)
- FOREST OF TOMBS MUSEUM, Kao–machi, Kumamoto Pref., 1992 (Tadao Ando)
- Naoshima Contemporary Art Museum, Naoshima-cho, 1992 (Tadao Ando)
- Chikatsu–Asuka Historical Museum, Minami–Kawachi, Osaka, 1994 (Tadao Ando)
- Meditation Space in the UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France, 1996 (Tadao Ando)

- "Crystal Light," Tokyo, 1987 (Masaharu Takasaki)

- KIHOKU ASTRONOMICAL MUSEUM, Kihoku-cho, Kagoshima Pref., 1995 (Masaharu Takasaki)


- AZABU EDGE Building, Tokyo, 1987 (Ryoji Suzuki)

- SAGISHIMA "RING" Guest House, Mihara, Hiroshima Pref., 1994-97 (Ryoji Suzuki)
- Ashikita Youth Center, Kumamoto, 1998 (Ryoji Suzuki)

- YAMATO INTERNATIONAL, Tokyo, 1985-87 (Hiroshi Hara)

- Josei Primary School, Naha, Okinawa, 1987 (Hiroshi Hara)
- Kenju Park “Forest House,” Nakaiida, Nagano Pref., 1986-87 (Hiroshi Hara)
- IIDA CITY MUSEUM, Iida, Nagano Pref., 1986-88 (Hiroshi Hara)
- Yukian Teahouse, Ikaho, Gumma Pref., 1986-88 (Hiroshi Hara)
- Ose Secondary School, Uchiko-cho, Ehime Pref., 1992 (Hiroshi Hara)

- TOKYO WAR DEAD MEMORIAL PARK, Tokyo, 1988 (Takefumi Aida)

- Saito Memorial Hall, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Omiya, Saitama Pref., 1990 (Takefumi Aida)
- KAWASATO FURUSATO HALL, Kawasato, Saitama Pref., 1994 (Takefumi Aida)

- KAKEGAWA CITY HALL, Kakegawa, Shizuoka Pref., 1996 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Osaka Dome, Osaka, 1997 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-cho, Kochi Pref., 1997 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)
- Tokatsu Techno Plaza, Kashiwa, Chiba Pref., 1998 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)

- KEN DOMON MUSEUM OF PHOTOGRAPHY, Sakata, Yamagata Pref., 1983 (Yoshio Taniguchi)
- TOKYO SEA LIFE PARK, AQUARIUM, 1990; VISITORS CENTER, 1995, Tokyo (Yoshio Taniguchi)
- TOYOTA MUNICIPAL MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, Toyota, Mie Pref., 1996 (Yoshio Taniguchi)
- Rotunda, Yokohama, 1987 (Riken Yamamoto)
- HAMLET--Residential Complex, Tokyo, 1988 (Riken Yamamoto)
- HOTAKUBO DAIICHI PUBLIC HOUSING (K.A.P.), Kumamoto, 1991 (Riken Yamamoto)
- Ryokuen-toshi Inter-junction City, Yokohama, 1992–1994 (Riken Yamamoto)
- IWADEYAMA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, Iwadeyama, Miyagi Pref., 1997 (Riken Yamamoto)

- “SILVER HUT,” Tokyo, 1984 (Toyo Ito)

- "Nomad" Restaurant, Tokyo, 1986 (Toyo Ito)
- YATSUSHIRO MUNICIPAL MUSEUM, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto Pref., 1991 (Toyo Ito)
- Shimosuwa Municipal Museum, Shimosuwa, Nagano Pref., 1992 (Toyo Ito)
- Nagaoka “Lyric” Hall, Nagaoka, Niigata Pref., 1997 (Toyo Ito)
- MEDIATHEQUE, Sendai, Miyagi Pref., 2001 (Toyo Ito)

- Platform House I, Katsuura, Chibe Pref., 1988 (Kazuyo Sejima)

- Platform House II, Yamanashi Pref., 1990 (Kazuyo Sejima)
- Saishunkan Girls' Dormitory (K.A.P.), Kumamoto, 1991 (Kazuyo Sejima)


B. Bognar. World Cities: TOKYO. London: Academy Editions, 1997

B. Bognar. BEYOND THE BUBBLE: The New Japanese Architecture. London: Phaidon, 2008


- The “bubble” bursts in the early 1990s

- Japan’s longest recession & the changes in Japanese society: aging, new “openness” etc.
- Remnants of the “Bubble” Era: mega-projects
- Reduced investment in real estate and architecture
- Younger generation & new Minimalism: Tele-Design, Atelier Bow Wow, Aoki, Sejima, Ban,
- Shifting priorities in architecture and urbanism
- New (information) technologies and the evolution of a new architectural paradigm
- Healing the wounds of the land and nature
- The ecology of architecture; new materiality
- Kengo Kuma and his “erasing architecture”
- Japan and the global marketplace of architecture: toward the Twenty-First Century
- Japanese architects abroad; increased exchange of “information”
- New urban developments: Shiodome, Shinonome, Roppongi Heights, Harima Science City

- Kansai International Airport, Izumisano, Osaka Pref., 1994 (Renzo Piano - Italy + Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)

- KYOTO STATION, Kyoto, 1997 (Hiroshi Hara)

- SAITAMA SUPER ARENA, Omiya, Saitama Pref., 2000 (Nikken Sekkei Ltd. w / Ellerbe Becket - U.S.)
- Sapporo Dome, Sapporo, 2001 (Hiroshi Hara)

- C-HOUSE, Komazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 2002 (Tele Design)

- Slit-Villa / Ren-An, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 2002 (Tele Design)

- GAE HOUSE, Tokyo, 2003 (Atelier Bow Wow)

- Black Dog House, Karuizawa, Nagano Pref., 2004 (Atelier Bow Wow)
- IZU HOUSE, 2004 (Atelier Bow Wow)

- HOUSE IN A PLUM TREE GROVE, Tokyo, 2004 (Kazuyo Sejima)

- Mikimoto Ginza, Tokyo, 2005 (Toyo Ito)
- “Springtecture” (Public Toilets), Harima New Science City, Hyogo Prefecture, 1998 (Shuhei Endo)

- HOUSE STANDARD, Kyoto, 2004 (Waro Kishi)

- PAPER CHURCH, Nagata-ku, Kobe, 1995 (Shigeru Ban)

- Temporary Structure, Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2004 (Shigeru Ban)
- PAPER MUSEUM PAM-A, Mishima, 2002 (Shigeru Ban)
- Shutter House for a Photographer, Tokyo, 2003 (Shigeru Ban)

- LOUIS VUITTON OMOTESANDO, Tokyo, 2002 (Jun Aoki)


- NAKAJIMA GARDEN, Fuji City, 1999 (Yasumitsu Matsunaga)

- Five Cube-Houses, Machida, Nagasaki, 1999 (Hiroshi Hara)

- Fuji Kindergarten, Tokyo, 2007 (Tezuka Architects)



- AWAJI YUMEBUTAI, Awaji Island, 2000 (Tadao Ando)

- CHICHU ART MUSEUM, Naoshima Island, 2004 (Tadao Ando)

- Oasis 21, Nagoya, 2002 (Obayashi Corporation)

- POLA MUSEUM OF ART, Hakone, 2002 (Koichi Yasuda of Nikken Sekkei Ltd.)

- Hanamidori Cultural Center, Tokyo, 2005 (Atelier Bow Wow)

- Island City Central Park GRIN GRIN, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Pref., 2006 (Toyo Ito)

- Kompira San Visitors Center, Kotohira, 2004 (Ryoji Suzuki)

- HIROSHIMA NAKA INCINERATOR, Hiroshima, 2004 (Yoshio Taniguchi)

- SAITAMA PREFECTURAL UNIVERSITY, Koshigaya, Saitama Pref., 1999 (Riken Yamamoto)

- Hiroshima West Fire Station, Hiroshima, 2000 (Riken Yamamoto)
- SHINONOME APARTMENTS, Block Y, Tokyo, 2004 (Riken Yamamoto)

- Fabrica-Benetton Research Center, Treviso, Italy, 1997 (Tadao Ando)

- Pulitzer Foundation Gallery, St. Louis, MO, 2001 (Tadao Ando)
- Fort Worth Museum, Fort Worth, TX, 2002 (Tadao Ando)
- KIRO-SAN OBSERVATORY, Yoshiumi Island, Ehime Pref., 1994 (Kengo Kuma)
- Noh Stage in the Forest, Toyoma, Miyagi Pref., 1996 (Kengo Kuma)
- MUSEUM OF ANDO HIROSHIGE, Bato, Tochigi Pref., 2000 (Kengo Kuma)
- STONE MUSEUM, Nasu, Tochigi Pref., 2000 (Kengo Kuma)
- The Great “Bamboo” Wall, China, 2001 (Kengo Kuma)
- Plastic House, Tokyo, 2001 (Kengo Kuma)
- NAGASAKI ART MUSEUM, Nagasaki, 2004 (Kengo Kuma)
- LVMH Shinsaibashi, Osaka, 2004 (Kengo Kuma)
- LOTUS HOUSE, Kanagawa Prefecture, 2005 (Kengo Kuma)
- Z58 SHOWROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, Shanghai, China, 2006 (Kengo Kuma)
- GINZAN ONSEN FUJIYA RYOKAN, Obanazawa, Yamagata Pref., 2006 (Kengo Kuma)
- YIEN EAST / ARCHIPELAGO, Kyoto, 2007 (Kengo Kuma)
- Asahi Broadcasting Corp. Head Offices, Osaka, 2008 (Kengo Kuma)
- OPPOSITE HOUSE HOTEL, Beijing, China, 2008 (Kengo Kuma)

- TOD’S Omotesando, Tokyo, 2004 (Toyo Ito)

- MEISO NO MORI MUNICIPAL FUNERAL HALL, Kakamigahara, Gifu Pref., 2006 (Toyo Ito)

- New Contemporary Museum of Art, Bowery, New York, USA, 2007 (SANAA)
- LANGEN FOUNDATION GALLERY, Neuss, Germany, 2004 (Tadao Ando)
- 21_21 Design Sight, Tokyo, 2007 (Tadao Ando)


B. Bognar. BEYOND THE BUBBLE: The New Japanese Architecture. (London, 2008)
B. Bognar. KENGO KUMA: Selected Works (New York, 2005).
B. Bognar. MATERIAL IMMATERIAL – The New Works of Kengo Kuma (New York, 2009)
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY (Titles in boldface are important readings)

Related General Reading

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Bognar, Botond. "The Japanese Order of Things: Notes on Humanism and the Man – Environment
Relationship in Japan," Form, Being, Absence: Pratt Journal of Architecture, No. 2, New York: (February
1988), pp. 148–163.

Friedman, Mildred (ed.). Tokyo: Form and Spirit. Minneapolis: Walker Art Center & New York: Abrams,

Greenbie, Barry B. Space and Spirit in Modern Japan.New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Hayashiya, Tatsusaburo, M. Nakamura, and S. Hayashiya. Japanese Arts and the Tea Ceremony. Tokyo:
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____. JAPAN - An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1993.

____. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Vols. 1–9, Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1983.

Lüchinger, Arnulf. Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag, 1981.

Newman, Oscar (ed.). CIAM ‘59 in Otterlo. Stuttgart: Krämer, 1961.

Piggott, Juliet. Japanese Mythology. London: Hamlyn, 1969.

Plummer, Henry: Light in Japanese Architecture. A+U Extra Edition. Tokyo: 1995

Popham, Peter. Tokyo: The City at the End of the World. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International,

Reischauer, Edwin O. JAPAN - The Story of a Nation. Tokyo: Tuttle, 2004 (1981)

Seidensticker, Edward. Low City, High City: Tokyo from Edo to the Earthquake. New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 1983.

Seidensticker, Edward. Tokyo Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1991

Shelton, Barrie. Learning from the Japanese City: West Meets East in Urban Design. London: Spon,

Takashina, Shuji (ed.). Tokyo: Creative Chaos, special issue of Japan Echo (Vol. XIV, 1987).

Tanizaki, Junichiro. In Praise of Shadows (1932), Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1977.

Varley, H. Paul. Japanese Culture, Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1974.

Traditional Architecture

Bognar, Botond. Contemporary Japanese Architecture – Its Development and Challenge. New York: Van
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Bognar, Botond. "The Place of No–thingness: The Japanese House and the Oriental World Views of the
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Bring, Mitchell and Josse Wayembergh. Japanese Gardens - Design and Meaning (1968), New York:
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Brown, S. Azby. The Genius of Japanese Carpentry -- An Account of a Temple Construction. Tokyo and
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Carver, Norman F., Jr. Japanese Folkhouses. (1984) Kalamazoo, MI: Documan Press, 1987 .

Chang, Ching–Yu. "Japanese Spatial Conception 1–11," JA, The Japan Architect (04/ 1984–03/1985).

Coaldrake, H. William. Architecture and Authority in Japan. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

Cram, Ralph Adams. Impressions of Japanese Architecture and the Allied Arts. (1930) New York: Dover
Publications, 1966.

Engel, Heino. Measure and Construction of the Japanese House. Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo: Charles
E. Tuttle Company, 1985.

Hirai, Kiyoshi. Feudal Architecture of Japan. Tokyo: Heibonsha/Weatherhill, 1973.

Hayakawa, Masao. The Garden Art of Japan. Tokyo: Heibonsha/Weatherhill, 1973.

Fujioka, Michio. Japanese Residences and Gardens, Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1983.

Fukuyama, Toshio. Heian Temples: Byodo-in and Chuson-ji. Tokyo: Heibonsha/ Weatherhill, 1976.

Futagawa, Yukio (ed.). Text by Teiji Itoh. Traditional Japanese Houses. (1980) New York: Rizzoli
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Inoue, Mitsuo (Hiroshi Watanabe translation). Space in Japanese Architecture. New York and Tokyo:
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Itoh, Teiji. Traditional Domestic Architecture of Japan. Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1974.

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Okawa, Naomi. Edo Architecture: Katsura and Nikko. Tokyo: Heibonsha/Weatherhill, 1975.

Ooka, Minoru. Temples of Nara and Their Art. Tokyo: Heibonsha/Weatherhill, 1974.

Ota, Hirotaro (ed.). Japanese Architecture and Gardens. Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai, (1966)

____. Japan: Climate, Space and Concept - Process Architecture (No. 25),1981.

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Piggott, Juliet. Japanese Mythology. London: Hamlyn, 1969.

Plutschow, Herbert E. Introducing Kyoto. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1979.

Salastie, Riitta "Ri". Living Tradition of Panda's Cage? An Analysis of the Urban Conservation in Kyoto.
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Seike, Kiyosi. The Art of Japanese Joinery. Tokyo and New York: Weatherhill, 1977.

Slawson, David. Secret Teachings in the Art of Japanese Gardens: Design Principles, Aesthetic Values.
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Suzuki, Kakichi. Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1980.

Taut, Bruno. Houses and People of Japan. (1937). reprinted in Daidalos. (15. December, 1994). pp.62-

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Yagi, Koji. A Japanese Touch for Your Home. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1982.

Young, David and Michiko. Introduction to Japanese Architecture. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions, 2004
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Contemporary Architecture

Bognar, Botond. The Bubble and Beyond: The New Japanese Architecture. London: Phaidon, 2008.

Abe, Kimimasa. “Meiji Architecture” in Naoteru Uyeno. Japanese Arts and Crafts in the Meiji Era
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Aida: ____. Takefumi Aida: Buildings and Projects, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1989.

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