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AIRGUN BALLISTICS
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When adult airguns first started to became widely popular in the United States in the
1970s, the power of airguns generally was indicated by their muzzle velocities,
expressed in feet per second (fps) or meters per second (mps). Although Crosman
started their air rifle production in 1923 with .22´ caliber, it was .177´ caliber that
became America¶s favorite caliber until late into the 1980's. At that time, .177´ calibe r
accounted for over 95% of the sales of adult airguns in the U.S. and there was a
rather narrow range of pellet weights and styles available. Because of this, and
because velocity generally is more understood and recognized by the public, velocity
figures were used to give a feeling for the power of the various airguns available. At
that time, it was like we were comparing the speeds of different kinds of cars, not
locomotives and bicycles. When we were considering sporting air rifles of the same
caliber, all firing rather similar projectiles with rather low energies, ³effective
accuracy´ was the key consideration. c

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evertheless, muzzle energy is the most meaningful way to compare the power of
airguns. iving gun power in terms of energy is the most practical way to compare
guns of different caliber and projectiles of considerably different weight. This is now
necessary as the market has become more sophisticated and it is important in
preventing unfair, unrealistic legal comparisons of airguns and firearms. Comparing
guns by energy, generally muzzle energy, also better compares the true efficiency of
various guns. A quick examination of the Beeman, and other top line airgun catalogs,
shows that the more powerful spring piston air rifles are much more efficient in .25´
caliber than in smaller bores. Some of the most powerful spring piston airguns, such
as the Beeman Kodiak, generally are not even offered in .177´ caliber because the
powerful air flow of such guns literally is strangled by the small bore. c

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>ust as with high velocity firearms, over-penetration can be a problem with airguns.
Some airgun projectiles may make a great impression by the number of telephone
book pages they can penetrate, but the wound channel such pellets produce in the
field may be so tiny as to have almost no knock -down effect. Unfortunately, the
"acupuncture" effects of such projectiles and others, such as steel core pellets or
darts, may mean more than just the loss of game to the shooter; they may mean a
long, cruelly lingering death to an injured animal perhaps without the shooter even
knowing that he scored a hit. ven pointed lead pellets may have undesirable over -
penetration if used on very light game at close range. Such prey calls for the use of a
hollow point pellet, or at least a flat head wadcutter pellet. c

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The commonly observed greater accuracy of smaller diameter pellets versus larger
diameter pellets may also reflect a difference in manufacturing tolerance in some
designs. Almost all the attention to producing highly accurate pellets has been
focused on .177´ caliber pellets. The tolerances and sorting of larger pellets usually
has not been held to as rigid a standard. Also, the design and configuration of a
pellet which is highly accurate in .177´ caliber may simply not be as conducive to
stability, especially without careful consideration of proportion, in larger diameter
pellets. The manufacturing perspective and tolerance in making .177" caliber barrels
versus larger bore barrels may be a major consideration in some cases. urther,
when comparing airguns which are supposedly identical, except for caliber, one
generally is comparing guns with the same outside barrel diameter. The smaller bore
barrel has greater weight and stiffness and thus conside rably less barrel oscillation
during firing. This difference is not as pronounced when comparing firearms of larger
bore diameters. Also, as is the case in so many considerations of airgun
performance, minute differences of various factors, which might hav e a great effect
on airgun performance, might simply be swamped by the relatively tremendous force
and projectile mass of firearms. Thus differences which would favor the accuracy of
smaller projectiles in airguns may have little or no significance in fire arms. We are
just starting to understand airgun ballistics, but it is clear that we cannot simply
consider them as if they were small firearms. Many aspects of airgun ballistics will
surely be shown to be partially or even fundamentally different. c

Sometimes, experience reveals that theory springs from experience and not the
other way around. After very extensive testing of Beeman and WS magnum air
rifles, the outstanding airgun author, Tom Holzel, found that .25´ caliber clearly was
the most accurate of the four calibers from .177´ to .25´.
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Testing and Studying Airgun Ballistics: (         
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Testing Perspectives:          ! 


  
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And, try to find a copy, or request an interlibrary loan, of Jock Elliott's wonderful article "A
Perennial Favorite - The Beeman R1" in the January 2005 issue of „ 
magazine. He
feels that, even a quarter of a century after it was introduced, this is the air rifle by which others
are measured!

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