Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Radio Network Planning

———————————————————
Editor in chief: Zhao Qiyong Checked by(Chinese version): Zhao Qiyong Checked by( English version): Overseas Radio Network Planning & Optimization Section

T5-030010-20011110-C-1.0

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. October, 2001

1

Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Radio Network Planning T5-030010-20011110-C-1.0 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd provides customers with omnidirectional technical support and users can contact either a nearby Huawei Office or customer service center, or the headquarters of our company directly.

Copyright © 2001 by Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

All Rights Reserved
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks
®

, HUAWEI®, C&C08, EAST8000, HONET, ViewPoint, INtess, ETS, DMC, SBS,

TELLIN, InfoLink, Netkey, Quidway, SYNLOCK, Radium, , M900/M1800, TELESIGHT, Quidview, NETENGINE, Musa, OptiX, Airbridge, Tellwin, Inmedia, VRP, DOPRA, iTELLIN are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

2

Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Notice
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Although every effort has been made to make this document as accurate, complete, and clear as possible, Huawei Technologies assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Address: Zip code: Tel: Fax: Website: E-mail: Huawei Customer Service Building, Kefa Road, Science-based Industrial Park, Shenzhen, P. R. China 518057 +86-755-6540036 +86-755-6540035 http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

3

Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Copyright claim

All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
(R)

, HUAWEI(R), 华为(R), C&C08(R), EAST8000(R), HONET(R), 视点(R), ViewPoint(R),

INtess , ETS(R), 万维通快车站(R), DMC(R), SBS(R), TELLIN(R), InfoLink(R), Netkey(R),
(R)

Quidway(R), SYNLOCK(R), Radium(R), 雷 霆 (R),

(R)

,

M900/M1800(R),

TELESIGHT(R), Quidview(R), NETENGINETM, MusaTM, 视 点 通 TM, OptiXTM, HUAWEITM, TellwinTM, InmediaTM, VRPTM, DOPRATM, iTELLINTM are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

4

Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Preface 1 Version Description
This book is about GSM radio planning optimization. Some of the methods discussed here can serve as references for future mobile communications system.

2 Introduction
Radio Network Planning attempts to tell the commonly-adopted planning optimization methods based on Huawei GSM equipment. This book covers radio propagation, preplanning, antenna-feeder knowledge, BSC algorithm, frequency planning, traffic statistics, optimization, and some special topics. The last part of the book introduces briefly the planning optimization methods on future mobile communications system. We acknowledge the many efforts from our colleagues who have grown up together with the company’s network planning. We show our respect and salute for their unswerving and unstinting contributions that have made the publication of this book possible. The editor in chief of this book is Zhao qiyong. The editors are Zheng shuhui, Si fazhong, Cheng jing, Cheng xin, Li xia. Zhao qiyong is responsible for the final version and check. We wish to thank our colleagues who have added their discussion when they are the most busy, in particular: Xiong yunxuan, Tan guanzhong, Miao jiashu, Li yuzhi, Wang Mingming, Yang yajun, Li Chengfei, Dong xiaohong, Wang cheng, He qun, Li zhongdong, Chen yongjian, Dong hengshang, Xiang lijing, and Bai xiaobing. We also wish to extend our thanks to the colleagure in the Material Development Department for their effort in compiling and proofreading, particularly Zhang jun, Cheng lin, and Weng haishang. Your critisms and recommendations are greatly appreciated.

3 Intended Readers
This manual is intended for the following readers: Installation and maintenance engineers Engineering technicians Telecom administrators

v

Radio Network Planning

Table of contents

Table of contents
Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview ..................................................................................... 1-12 1.1 Network Planning Flow .................................................................................................... 1-12 1.2 Network Pre-planning ...................................................................................................... 1-14 1.2.1 Outline of the Network Pre-planning ..................................................................... 1-14 1.2.2 Pre-planning Foundation....................................................................................... 1-15 1.2.3 Pre-planning Process............................................................................................ 1-16 1.2.4 Pre-planning Difficulties ........................................................................................ 1-24 Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface......................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 GSM System Introduction.................................................................................................. 2-1 2.2 Radio Channel Structure ................................................................................................... 2-3 2.2.1 Time Slot and Frame Structure ............................................................................... 2-3 2.2.2 Physical Channel .................................................................................................... 2-5 2.2.3 Logic Channel ......................................................................................................... 2-6 2.2.4 Allowed Channel Combination Type....................................................................... 2-8 2.2.5 The Frame Structure of the Logic Channel............................................................. 2-9 2.2.6 The Use of the Common Control Channel.............................................................. 2-9 2.2.7 The Early Timing of Uplink and Downlink as well as MS........................................ 2-9 Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theory.......................................................................................... 2-1 3.1 Basic knowledge of Radio Propagation............................................................................. 2-1 3.2 Radio Propagation Environment........................................................................................ 2-3 3.2.1 Frequency Division Introduction.............................................................................. 2-3 3.2.2 Fast Fading and Slow Fading ................................................................................. 2-3 3.2.3 Propagation Loss .................................................................................................... 2-6 3.3 Radio Propagation Model ................................................................................................ 2-10 3.4 Correction for propagation model .................................................................................... 2-16 3.4.1 CW Basics............................................................................................................. 2-16 3.4.2 CW Test Method ................................................................................................... 2-16 3.4.3 Correction for Propagation Model and Instance ................................................... 2-18 3.5 Doppler Effect and its Impact on Handover..................................................................... 2-19 3.6 Fresnel Zone.................................................................................................................... 2-22 3.7 ASSET Software Introduction .......................................................................................... 2-24 Chapter 4 About Antenna & Feeder cable .................................................................................. 4-1 4.1 Basics of Antenna .............................................................................................................. 4-1 4.1.1 Antenna gain ........................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.2 Directional Diagram................................................................................................. 4-2 4.1.3 Polarization.............................................................................................................. 4-3 4.1.4 Other technical indicators of antenna ..................................................................... 4-4 4.1.5 Antenna diversity..................................................................................................... 4-6

vi

......................................2........................................................................ 4-22 4..............1 Link Budget Model ....................................................................................................... 4-18 5.......................3 Application Principle for Suburb Base Station Antenna........................... 4-34 4...........1 Definition of location area.................2 Division of location areas ............1 Current Problems of Using Antenna ............................................ 4-6 5...5 Capacity Distribution.....2 Types of distributed antenna system ................................................6 Location Area Design .........2 Intelligent Antenna .................5....... 4-37 4.................................................................4.............................................. 4-1 5......................................................... 4-12 5.................4...............................................................7...... 4-39 Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network .................................................. 4-32 4.......................4 Antenna Installation Interval..........................................8 Reference for antenna selection .....2....1 Design of Base Station Address .......................... 4-4 5......................2 Application Principle for Base Station Antenna in Urban Areas .................................................2...................4 Application principle for base station antennas in rural areas .............4.............................2 Antenna Separation in GSM System ...................... 4-7 5............. 4-24 4....................................1 Voice channel distribution .........................1.......................................3 Antenna Downtilt Planning........2...................2 Feeder cable ................................5...................................................2 Antenna new technology ...........................1 Environment for Antenna Installation ...................2 Configuration of control channel . 4-27 4..............................4 Design of Coverage Area .. 4-27 4.......Radio Network Planning Table of contents 4............................................. 4-12 4.................................1 Antenna Downtilt Design...............................2..............................6...........................3.3......................... 4-25 4... 4-30 4................................................. 4-18 5..................................................................................................7.. 4-24 4............5...4.......... 4-16 5............................... 4-10 5.............................5........7 Distributed antenna system ..1 Principle for composition of distributed antenna system..................1 Tower amplifier... 4-10 4.......6...................1 Shaped beam technology .....................................................3 Antenna Separation Form GSM and CDMA Base Station ..4...........................7 Notes on special antennas.3.............................6............................... 4-19 4.......................... 4-20 5................................................................ 4-22 vii .............................3 Indexes for component key technologies..2........................2 Design of Parameters for Base Station Project ............................................................................ 4-30 4.............6.............1 Principle for combining and distribution unit ....................................................................................4..............................................................................................................2 Reference point for base station sensitivity ...............................................3 Link Budget .......................................................................2 Combining and distribution unit configuration .....4 Antenna Selection.............7................. 4-26 4........... 4-4 5..................................... 4-13 5... 4-25 4............................................................4... 4-10 4.................................................................................. 4-35 4.............................6 Outdoor antenna feeder system ............... 4-12 5..................................................5 Combining and distribution unit ..............................................................5 Application principle for antennas to cover highroads ................................................................................................ 4-29 4.......................................................................................... 4-21 5......................................4................................. 4-1 5................. 4-8 4........................................................ 4-37 4......... 4-34 4.............................2 Practical Application.3......................6 Other factors in antenna application ... 4-21 5.........................6 Three-sector base station antenna selection derivation ................... 4-19 4........................... 4-38 4...... 4-24 4.............

........ 6-3 7...6.......... 6-27 7....................................... 6-16 6.................... 4-28 5.............1 Design of indoor antenna system.......3 Frequency Plan ...... 6-4 6............................................................6.............................................2........... 6-15 7..........................................................................................1 Network Selection ...................................................7................................................................................................Radio Network Planning Table of contents 5.................2 Power Control......................1..................................................................1 Handover Decision Flow ....2.....................................................................................................................................2.........................................1................. 6-1 6.........2 Measurement Report Pre-processing ....................3 Discontinuous Transmission ......................................................................... 6-4 7... 6-3 6...............................................3............................................................... 6-31 7.........6 Load Handover..............3...2 Fast Fading Characteristic and Coverage Problem of GSM1800..................................................5 Emergency Handover ...................8 Power prediction after handover .....................3 Location Updating ...................... 6-11 7..............1 MR Preprocessing...6 Dual-band Network Technology .......................................................................................... 6-11 7....... 6-21 7.... 6-25 7......................3....................5 Dual-band Networking Engineering Implementation ............. 6-16 7.......................1 Necessity for Building Dual-band Network....7 Normal Handover ....... 6-32 7....................8 Design of Cell Data........4 Compact Frequency Reuse ....................3...... 6-8 7.......................1 Frequency Planning..........................................2 Cell Selection and Reselection ............................5 New Channel Allocation Algorithm ...................................................... 4-38 Chapter 6 Frequency Planning and Anti-interference Technology................................................................................................................................................................7....................... 6-21 6....3.............1 System message ........................................4 Traffic guidance and Control Policy of Dual-band Network ........2 Capacity Analysis and Design......................... 4-25 5...........4.......................4 Huawei Power Control Technology ..7 Design of Indoor Coverage System.........................................................................................................2.............. 6-17 7............6.............................................3................... 6-26 7..............................................2 Anti-interference Technology.............................. 6-1 6.......................3 Penalty Processing .............. 6-19 7..................................................................3.............................2 Cell Selection and Cell Reselection.......... 6-35 7.............................. 4-37 5........3.. 6-4 7.......................... 6-30 7............1 Frequency hopping Technology..................3 Basic Frequency Reuse .........................................................2 Principles of the Frequency Planning ........... 6-37 viii ......................1...................................................4...........................................................6.................................... 6-16 6................... 6-31 7................3 Dual-band Networking Structure .1.........7....... 6-1 6.......... 6-22 Chapter 7 Parameter Design ..... 4-35 5........................................................................................... 6-13 7........................................ 6-31 7..............................................................................6................................................ 6-13 7................................9 Concentric Circle Algorithm.............2 Second Generation of Huawei Power Control Policy ..............................................................6................................................2............ 4-28 5..............................2........3 Calculation of location areas .......4 Handover Sequencing Algorithm ................................................................ 6-1 7...................................... 6-6 6..................... 6-1 7........................3................................................................................................................................................................. 6-12 7..........1 Frequency Division and C/I Requirements .....3 Huawei Handover Algorithm ...............................

....................2...........................2 Analysis of Key Indexes of Traffic Statistics ................................................2 Coverage.................................... 8-52 8...1 ANT Drive Test Equipment ....... 8-47 8.1 Routine Performance Measurement Tasks Necessary to Be Registered .............................................1............... 8-6 9...................................6 TCH Congestion Ratio ................1 Process of Network Optimization.................................................................................................................1..........................................................................................................................3..3............... 8-1 9........................... 8-6 9.............................2.................................................................................................2 SDCCH Drop-off Ratio .............................................................................................................. 8-17 9.......................................4.....................................6 Call Drop ...................................2...................1 Brief Introduction to the Calling Flows ......................................... 8-41 8.......................4 SDCCH Congestion Rate..................................................................3 Spectrum Analyzer...........................................................................1 TCH Drop-off Ratio .............. 8-9 9................. 8-10 9...................... 8-12 9................... 8-43 8..............................................................6 Subsequent Handover Flow (MS Roams from MSVb to MSCb ).... 8-44 8.....................................2...............................2 Signaling Analyzer ...................................................3................4................................3 SDCCH Call Drop Rate......... 8-49 8................ 8-52 8...................................................4 Incoming BSC Handover Success Ratio ...............................................................................................................3............ 8-4 9...............5 Outgoing BSC Handover Success Ratio ..............................................3...... 8-1 9......................2.......................4 Problem Positioning according to Network Indices .............................................3... 8-52 8................4.. 8-4 9..................2............................... 8-7 9..................4 Handover Flow between the BSCs .................4.................7 SDCCH Congestion Ratio................. 8-18 ix ................................ 8-45 8.......................................2.. 8-11 9........ 8-42 8...............................................4 Network Optimization Software............................................................................................1 TCH Call Drop Rate .....2 Common Tools Used in Network Optimization.......................... 8-47 8... 8-52 Chapter 9 Network Optimization........4 Interference ..3 Handover Flow within the BSC .................................................5 Handover Flow between MSCs...............................................2.....................................2 Calling Flow (Calling Party).........8 Radio Connection Ratio ................. 8-49 8.......... 8-8 9.................1............................2............ 8-3 9........................................................................................1.2 Performance Measurement Tasks Used for Network Optimization and Location Problems ..................... 8-52 8.............................................................1...2.............................................................................1.3.........2........1 Ultra-early TCH Assignment Flow.........................3........................ 8-46 8.......................................................................................................2 TCH Congestion Rate ..... 8-4 9........................................................................................ 8-41 8.................................3 Intercell Handover Success Ratio Within the BSC .................................................................... 8-50 8................3 Description of Traffic Statistics Registration ................3 Capacity ........ 8-17 9.............................. 8-3 9...................................................4............5 Handover...................... 8-48 8. 8-12 9.............2............... 8-48 8................................. 8-16 9..........................3 Radio Network Problems Positioning and Solving ...............1 Obtaining Basic Information ...........................5 Rate of Handover Completion............... 8-40 8.......................Radio Network Planning Table of contents Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics.....................

........................... 8-16 10..........................1.......................................................................................................... 8-23 10.......................................... 8-23 10............................ 11-9 x ...................... 8-21 10...............................................................5 Other Main Problems.....2 GPRS BSS and MS Function Introduction.... 8-23 10.......................................1...4............................................................ 8-6 10.................................................................................................... 8-14 10.......................7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) .... 8-8 10............ 8-6 10.................................................................... 11-1 11........................................................................................................................4 Antenna feeder......... 11-1 11.................8 Other causes ..........1.....................2.......................1 GPRS Basic Principle ................................................................................4....................................................................... 8-24 Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Technology............................ 8-1 10.......................................... 11-5 11.4...4 Access slow..............................................5 unilateral connection ................................ 8-17 10....................................2 Positioning Methods of High TCH Congestion Ratio .............................5 Packet Access Mode....................3..........................3 Voice Prompt ... 8-8 10...6 Traffic Analysis ..........................................................1 Paging Strategy...........4 The Problem of Signal Fluctuation ....................2 Base Station Site Selection.....7 Multipath Effect ...... 8-18 10..........................4....... 8-1 10...................1 Poor Voice Quality ................................1..........................3.........3 GPRS Signaling Model ...... 11-1 11.............................................1............. 8-23 10..............5 Interferences ...5......4....3........................ 8-18 10.................1 Equipment Configuration.............................. 8-1 10................................. 8-20 10.............1.....................................................4......................................................................1............4.....4... 8-9 10................................................................................ 11-8 11...................................3 Analysis on the Problem ”Subscriber Out of the Service Area” .................................................1 Examine the Stableness of the Base Station’s Transmission Power ..............5.................................................................................................................................5...........4............................ 8-12 10.................................................................................................5.............................4 Supplementary Notes............................... 11-2 11......................1 The Problem of Coverage..........................3 Power Control and DTX .............. CDU connections ....3 Slow to attach the network ............ 11-4 11......................................................................................................................................................................................1........1........................ 11-7 11...................1..1..............................................................................................2 Paging procedure................... 8-13 10.............. 8-12 10.... 11-7 11............................................................4 Radio Packet Channel Configuration..... 8-3 10........................8 Radio Resource Distribution ......................................................... 8-20 Chapter 10 Special Topic..............................3...2 TCH Congestion .............4 TRX Down .....1 GPRS Network Structure ............ 8-23 10.......6 Paging Processing ............................................6 Cell Congestion ..........Radio Network Planning Table of contents 9.......................3 Antenna Engineering Design and Installation ..... 8-21 10........1....................2 Failure to attach the network.. 8-2 10............................2 Cell Reselection (in idle state) or Handover (in conversation state) .. 8-17 10... 8-20 10............................. combiner (divider).........................................................5 Parameters settings and others .1.......2........................................5.........................1 The Causes of High TCH Congestion Ratio ................................................... 8-20 10...................................................................

................................ 11-9 11.........................................................4 Summary .......................................................... 11-37 11............10 Radio Link Control............................9 Packet System Message..............................................5 The Receive Sensitivity of the WCDMA System..........1 GPRS Capacity Planning ................................15 Flow Control and QoS Guarantee.. 11-13 11......................................1..........4...... 11-37 11.........................................................3................... 11-20 11........................................................ 11-30 11...................................................................................................1................3.......1............................2.......11 Channel Code and CS Change Control................3 WCDMA Service Description and Calculation ..............................................1......................................2....14 Cell Reselection Control..................................................i 2 Participation in the Primary Design of Radio Products ......................................................12 Radio Link Monitoring ............................. i xi .......................................1................ 11-26 11...2 GPRS Coverage Planning .. 11-15 11.........................2 WCDMA Radio Capacity Calculation............................3.................................1.................................................................2 System Interface . 11-15 11.. 11-40 11.....1 UMTS System Network Composition....................................................3................... 11-34 11........................................................... 11-17 11.............................................13 Radio Frequency Power Control ...3 WCDMA System Overview..............................................2.. 11-11 11................ 11-49 Conclusion ...........................3 Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication ...........................3 GPRS Frequency Planning ...........ii 3 Radio Products Marketing and Marketing Plan Preparation............................................................................ 11-12 11............. 11-23 11................................................... 11-10 11......... 11-11 11.4.............................1 The Content of the WCDMA Network Planning ... 11-12 11...................................1.......... i 1 Research on the Network Planning Technology...........................4.............16 Mobility Management and Communication Management........................ 11-22 11..........3......ii 4 Radio Project Implementation ........................................2.. 11-14 11........... 11-26 11.. 11-23 11..............4 WCDMA System Network Planning ....................................................2 GPRS Network Planning ................................................................................... iii Reference Documents .....................................................................Radio Network Planning Table of contents 11................................................4 Some of the Key Technologies in the WCDMA System ...........................................................1......................................................................................................................

whose capacity and coverage area are both as large as possible and which can adapt to the network development and capacity extension in the future.1 Network Planning Flow The purpose of the network planning is to construct a radio network. at a certain cost and guaranteeing the network service quality.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview 1. how to increase the network capacity and how to meet the requirement of the network development in the future have to be considered while designing. whose most important factor is the coverage area. which requires the knowledge in multiple aspects from wired to wireless. All of the above-mentioned problems need to be solved through the network planning. capacity. and abundant practical experiences. quality. small as each cell parameter. At the same time. The purpose of traffic coverage analysis is to provide the foundation for the network planning. which covers the whole process of the network construction. It needs to collect the following information: cost. available 1-12 . grade of service (GoS). the network planning is also a comprehensive technique. large as the general design idea. cost and so on. the Network Planning Flow Figure 1-1 Network Planning Flow The first phase is traffic coverage analysis. when the radio frequency resource is limited. capacity. from the network capacity prediction to the detailed project design. The telecom providers mostly concern the service quality provided by the system. quality. from the radio transmission research to the antenna feeder equipment specification analysis. The network planning is a systematic engineering. See Figure 1-1. from the network performance test to the adjustment and optimization of the system parameters. which will realize the benign balance in coverage. coverage.

). effects on the cell splitting. install and debug the system to make it run normally. Then recommend a suitable station address plan and make sure if the electromagnetic environment around the base station is pure. population distribution. The third phase is survey. When the traffic hits a certain amount. Perform the field examination following the ideal station address book. the planning of the adjacent cell and running parameters of each cell. 1-13 . The second phase is emulation. the network needs frequent optimization and adjustment. The fifth phase is installation and debugging. The purpose is to guarantee the coverage and capacity of a certain area and avoid the interference. economic benefit. Record the possible station addresses according to the different construction conditions (including power supply. coverage area prediction and so on. electromagnetic background and land taken over. information of the increase of the system. the network needs expand the capacity. etc. etc. The emulation is the site planning of the subscriber distribution with the help of the planning software. In this phase. the Huawei Company applies the network planning software ASSET. Consider the range of deviation from the ideal stations. Following the design data. according to the actual base station distribution and station type. thus it returns to the phase of traffic coverage analysis.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview frequency band. The sixth phase is optimization. income distribution and the fixed telephone set subscription. Along with the increase of subscribers. The fourth phase is the system design. Set the frequency. transmission.

2. The output content of the pre-planning includes: the base station distribution. transmitter output power. and look up into the ERL table to get the number of channels to be configured for each base station according to the call lost ratio index Estimate the type of the largest base station according to the frequency bandwidth provided by the construction company. cell data and so on. If it cannot meet the capacity requirement of the local area. antenna azimuth angle and gain. and then analyze and decide to apply the omnidirectional or directional station to meet the requirement of coverage and capacity according to the different places of the area. Select the design parameters: antenna height (above the ground). antenna declination angle. and mark the most dense regions of the subscribers as the addresses of the stations to be constructed at the first step. It also needs to select the ideal station locations on the map and estimate the base station channel number again. Predict the coverage area of each base station cell according to the propagation models of different regions. feeder line length and antenna feeder system loss. from where you can observe with the help of a local relief map or an administration map. (3) Analyze and decide the structure of the network and the base stations. combining and distribution methods. (2) Decide the position of the ideal station according to the cellular structure. Its major tasks are as follows (1) Analyze the construction company’s requirements of the coverage area and the capacity. receiver sensitivity.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview 1. analyze and decide if it’s necessary to construct a Hierarchical Network according to the subscriber distribution. namely perform the preliminary emulation Select the design index: Select the minimum input power and the penetration ratio index at the coverage area edge. It reflects the systematic design level of the network planning and decides the layout of the future network. it needs to add the number of base stations following the principle of cell splitting according to the real conditions. base station height above sea level. channel distribution. Then mark other base stations on the map according to the ideal cellular structure. Deliver the adjustment opinions for 1-14 .1 Outline of the Network Pre-planning The pre-planning is the basic of the radio mobile network. Firstly. base station type.2 Network Pre-planning 1. transmission conditions and the city development plan. Predict the traffic according to the geographic location of each base station. (4) Compute the cell channel number of each base station. (5) Predict the coverage area and decide the base station project data. You may select several key points in the area. base station diversity reception and diversity gains and so on.

it needs to conduct an antenna feeder configuration scheme. Then propose a suitable address scheme based on the integrating consideration of the deviation range from the ideal address. make sure which area has coverage and capacity requirements to meet and which area has so little subscribers that it’s not economical to construct a station. Since the network construction is divided into different phases. After selecting the address. As to the network moving. when there are a few subscribers. (7) Frequency and Adjacent Cell Planning Make the frequency and adjacent cell plan according to the real base station distribution and type. Perform the field examination following the ideal station address. In the case of lacking traffic distribution data. improving network service quality is generally the objective. Record the possible station address. (6) Select the real station address and decide the station type.) 1-15 . it needs to investigate sufficiently the antenna feeder combination of the original manufacturer. II. electromagnetic background and land taken over. and height according to the potential blind area and weak signals. the consecutive covering of the network should be focused on.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview the base station address. at the beginning of the network construction. After decided the station type. declination angle. it needs to collect the information of the network constructed in the adjacent related areas (including the coverage area design and frequency design of the adjacent base stations along the dividing line. in the late phase of the construction. economic benefit and coverage area prediction and so on. you should carry out the field investigation and analysis. according to the different construction conditions (including power supply. transmission. etc. decide the real station type according to the number of the base station channel. Service Area Requirements and Traffic The traffic distribution and coverage requirement of a certain area is one of the foundations of the network planning and generally provided by the construction company.2 Pre-planning Foundation I. Generally. antenna direction. effects on the future cell splitting. the development of the planned base station capacity and the antenna combination supported by the current equipments and deliver the best combination scheme of the antenna feeder. Information of the Adjacent Network For good preparation of the local network planning. You should distinguish the short-term and long-term objects of the network construction. You may ignore or reduce the service quality index.). In the case without clear requirements.2. Mark these data and traffic distribution data on a geographical or a city planning map on the scale of 1/50000 or 1/200000. the overall coverage and capacity requirements of an area cannot be realized from the very beginning. (8) Cell Data Making 1. you can mark how much percent each different area accounts for the assumed total subscriber number. And get the project data of the real base station in the end.

which decides the design principle. quality and development space of the future network 1. service level and frequency re-use pattern of the radio network of the coverage area. like city. stand the dense buildings. In the center of the city.. Generally speaking. developed economy. it’s 1-16 . you can divide the radio coverage area into several types: big city. In the center of the city. The shopping center is rather flourishing and very promising. In the center of the town. Before constructing an ideal network. The pre-planning is in the early stage of the radio mobile network construction and the most important phase. hill. The field strength defining of the falling edge of the service area concerns: mobile sensitivity -102dBm. (2) Define the Field Strength of the Edge of the Coverage Area. quick fading protection 4dB (3dB for countryside). With comparatively dense population. railway and sea-route. In order to decide the coverage area of the cell. In the connection area between the above-mentioned areas. construction density distribution and ground vegetation (forest. the propagation fading of the GSM1800 signal is averagely more than that of the GSM900 signal by 8dB. roads and scene points and so on). countryside. mountainous area and water. common provincial highway. It also includes some roads in the mountainous areas. and plus the indoor signal improvement storage. the antenna gains of the GSM1800 system is averagely more than that of the GSM900 system by 3dB Since the radio links have up and down directions. national highway. consideration should be taken for the indoor requirements. small town and countryside. etc). etc. Generally. middle-sized city. urban. and so on.In the big and middle-sized cities. there are various transport arteries. grassland and crops.. fairly large traffic. rather developed economy. the average insertion loss 15 dB. and noise (environmental and interfering noises) protection 5dB. it is suggested to apply the Omnidirectional Coverage in the countryside on the plain and the areas with limited landform. including: speedway. floor building data. major provincial highway. slow fading protection 8dB (6dB for countryside). transport artery (including the newly built buildings. and the shopping cente is flourishing. These areas need covering too. it needs to consider of the balance of the uplink and downlink. moderate amount of traffic. Area type Big city Middle-sized city Small town Countryside Description With dense population. buildings stand rather densely. middle-sized and small cities and speedways. promising economic development.3 Pre-planning Process I. like the building type. The shopping center has a certain scale and rather promising. developing economy and rather low traffic. 5dB. It reflects the system design level of the network planning. Landform and Field Object Data Landform data: champagne. and the coverage area is defined by the weaker direction. as to the outdoor requirement. With a big population. With a population in low density. railway and sea-route. Field object data: human environment.2. large traffic. etc. The pre-planning decides the layout. flat. and the Directional Coverage in the big. Coverage Analysis (1) Type of the Coverage Area Different signal propagation models are applied for the areas of different types.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview III. high buildings stand in great numbers.

on the other hand. What needs to explain is that. Along with the deeper network construction and the increasing subscriber number. it 1-17 . As to the transport arteries. But even in the big cities. the network can be accessed from 90% of the area and 99% of the time. and gradually improved along with the consecutive construction of the network. (2) High Layer Station The high layer station in the big and middle-sized cities refers to the base station. Most of the network traffic is carried by the middle layer base station. and installed on the top of the buildings. national significant tourism areas. even to a degree out of control and that no suitable floor objects can be applied. and which generally covers several blocks. the address selection. This requirement should be enhanced in the outdoor areas of the big cities and simplified in the countryside. while in the big cities. national roads. Network Structure Analysis While considering the layout of the base station. it needs to analyze deeply the network structure. On one hand. press centers. railways and sea-routes. it needs to gradually enhance the indoor coverage construction of the significant areas (for example. whose antenna is generally 40 ~ 50 meters high and much higher than the average height of the buildings. based on the experiences of the project construction and maintenance. It has been carrying most of the traffic generated in the network running. the average station distance between middle layer stations is suggested not to be under 0. Generally.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview necessary to make a good power budget and keep the balance of the uplink and downlink as much as possible. as for other major roads. the middle layer station can efficiently apply the frequency resource (better than the high layer station).4Km. the buildings will affects the signal strength between each base stations more obviously. whose antenna is generally 25~30 meters high and a little higher than the average height of the buildings. top grade commercial office buildings. different standards should be applied. design and construction of the base station. at the beginning. At the same time of network planning according to the traffic.6 to 5km. speedways. subways. areas along the railways with large traffic. the requirement of the network service becomes higher and higher. according to the domestic regulations. Since the high layer station cannot make full use of the frequency resource. government offices. II. the network can be divided by layer into high layer. In China. (1) Middle Layer Station The middle layer station of the big and middle-sized cities refers to the base station. Except in the countryside. airport lounge buildings. the outdoor full coverage is generally realized in cities. Most of the base stations in the small towns and countryside are middle layer stations. entertainment centers and large shopping malls. If more of the station distance is reduced. network maintenance and quality control will face a very big challenge. thus the network service quality cannot be guaranteed. except of some special high layer stations constructed because of the traffic direction control or landform. the average station distance between most of the two middle layer stations ranges from 0. middle layer and low layer station. it can efficiently absorb the traffic (better than the low layer station). (3) Define the Coverage Ratio The defining of the coverage ratio is different according to different coverage areas. whose average station distance between the middle layer stations is under 0. the network planning and construction should be performed for 90% of the object. and whose coverage area covers several middle layer base stations. and the consecutive covered blind areas should be limited according to the different artery types. there are also some areas.6km.

family income. The traffic calculation formula is: A= n /3600 In this way. Therefore. III. In the extremely high traffic area of the dense commercial areas. But they have rather low capacity of absorbing the traffic. After getting the predicted total capacity of the network construction. the base stations are generally constructed in the city. 1-18 . road. The antennas are generally installed on the outside wall of the lower floors of a building. you need to predict the subscriber distribution density. or the rooms of a building.025Erl and 0. the subscribers in the cities account for more percentage of the predicted total subscribers. or changed from the original base stations. the speech channel needed for a special base station can be predicted according to the traffic prediction. (3) Low Layer Station The low layer station refers to the base station. Generally. when a station departs a little from the hot traffic center. After the field investigation with the help of the map. whose antenna is less than 20 meters high and lower than the average height of the buildings. the top of the low roof garden or somewhere.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview should only be considered of and constructed. along with the deeper development of the network construction. The low layer stations will develops into the layered network structure. single layer network design is applied. mainly because the coverage area of the low layer station is small. etc. most base stations are middle layer station. Only after predicting the network capacity of the early stage and the late stage. small towns and countryside because of the traffic direction control and wide coverage. in big cities and some special middle-sized cities with many high buildings. the subscribers in the suburbs and along the transport arteries will increase in the percentage. national economical development and city construction. it can hardly have an ideal traffic. The high layer station address selection should follow the principle of “little but extractive”. The different charge policy is also an important factor when the subscribers decide to access the network or not. you can make a reasonable investment decision. which meets the requirement of the indoor coverage. when the basic network is established. The low layer stations are frequently used. the low layer station construction needs you to consider if the purpose of construction is to supplement the coverage or solve the problem of high traffic. and at the same time avoids the interference and difficulties of station selection due to the too short distance between stations. fixed telephone subscription ration. building group. Capacity Analysis (1) Capacity Prediction The network construction requires the consideration of economical feasibility and rationality. at the early stage of the network construction. The high layer station is constructed mainly to solve the coverage problem of the high buildings in the cities. At the early stage of the network construction. Considering the real requirement of the project. suburb and transport artery. the new base stations will be added of adjusted according to the traffic and coverage requirement. The coverage area only includes a street. which will affect the address selection and the scale defining of the low layer station. Some high layer stations are also constructed in the suburb. part of a street or the rooms of a building. So the percentage ration can be applied for the prediction. The network capacity prediction should be based on the integrating consideration of the population distribution. Generally the traffic of each subscriber from a city and a suburb is 0. the low layer stations are constructed with the microcell layer and distributed antenna system.020Erl respectively. the general network structure can be decided.

The number of channels in a unit area is increased through setting new cells with smaller radius than the original ones and 1-19 . In the GSM system. As to the traffic share of the two bands in dual band network construction. there are two capacity solutions. the system capacity is increased. The antenna should be shortened and the transmitter power should be reduced accordingly. it means the planning of different cell radius according to the traffic density of different areas.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview  Caution: It’s necessary to consider of the effects of the cell splitting while calculating the speech channel number. the cell capacity should be planned reasonably and the channel usage ratio should be raised as much as possible without affecting the good voice quality. Limited by the cell coverage area and the bandwidth of the available frequency. The call loss applies 2% or 5% depending on the real conditions. decide the number of the base station (cell) and the base station configuration according to the frequency re-use pattern. integrate the coverage requirements (appearing as the antenna interface EIRP requirements). antenna and the feeder line. on the premise of guaranteeing the network quality at a certain level. sector capacity expansion. we hereunder make some more description of the common cell splitting measure of 1 into 4. and finally select the suitable base station type and the combination of the Combiner/divider unit. namely a few stations with high level configurations and any stations with lower level of configurations. (2) Cell Splitting The cell splitting is an effective way of network capacity expansion. They have obvious superiority and inferiority. Reduce or avoid the transition area. the new base station construction and base station capacity expansion are two methods to increase the capacity. microcell and indoor coverage and so on. Different capacity expansion strategies. The cell splitting means to construct more base stations and increase the system construction investment. the ERL model is applied to calculate the density of the traffic. The cell splitting is a way to split the congested cell into smaller cells. In the network construction. Each cell has its own base stations. In another word. Without affecting the consecutive splitting. the looser frequency bandwidth can be used to realize the high usage ratio of the channels. Since the cell splitting is fairly important. which can be carried by the network. It includes the performance of splitting a large omnidirectional base station into several sector cells and splitting the sector cells into smaller cells. Make the existing base stations still usable. Because the cell splitting increases the re-use time of the channel. After defining the total capacity. It’s necessary to consider the following factors: Be able to keep the image repetition of the frequency re-use regularity. like adding 900M/1800M base station. In the real networking. which should be considered according to the different conditions of each area. are applied for the areas of different traffic density.

The cell splitting allows the system growing through the smaller cells. without affecting the channel distribution strategy necessary for keeping the minimum co-channel re-use genes between the co-channel cells. Suppose that the traffic in service area of the base station A is saturated (namely the congestion of base station A is over the acceptable value). And the system capacity is increased accordingly. the smaller cells are added on the premise of not changing the frequency re-use plan of the system. 以 The circle with the radius R covers the area 4 times large as the area covered by the circle with a radius of R/2. The increasing number of the cell increases the cluster number in the coverage area and then the channel number in the coverage area. In the example showed in Picture 1-2. see Picture 1-2: Figure 1-2 Cell Splitting (1 in 4) Schematic Diagram In order to cover the whole service area with these smaller cells. Therefore new base stations are needed to increase the channel number in the area and reduce the coverage area of each single base station. The cell splitting just zooms out the geometric shape of the cluster pro rata. As to the new smaller cells. the radius of each new cell is half of that of the original ones. thus the capacity is increased. can be given by checking the power Pr received from the edge between the new and 1-20 . The Picture 1-2 is an example of cell splitting. the transmission power should be reduced.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview fitting these cells (called as microcells) among the original cells. The transmission power of the new cell. Suppose each cell is split by half of its radius. the base station is placed on the corner of the cell. whose radius is half of that of the original one. instead of the larger cells. Thus. about 4 times of the original cells are needed draw a circle with the radius R to make it easier to understand.

when there are two scales of cells in one area. IV. if all cells apply the lower transmission power. and let all powers received equal. The above analysis tells that the coverage area design of the radio network will not only solve the problem of the coverage area. it’s very difficult for the service providers to find the exact period suitable for the cell splitting. As shown in the Picture 1-2. the time of handover will be reduced. This needs to ensure that the frequency re-use scheme of the new microcell is the same as that of the original cell. After the field examination. therefore the frequency distribution becomes even more complex. the construction of the base station is limited by the investment and restricts with each other. limited by the frequency resource and restricting each other. So the cells in different scales exist simultaneously. some channels used by the smaller cells won’t be able to separate from the co-channel cells. more channels of the lower power group are needed to meet the increasing demand. Generally. not all cells split at the same time. The size of the two channel groups is decided by the splitting progress. However. and the other one of which the bigger cells. construct the base station in the center of a city with a safe subscriber prediction. then gradually enlarge the number of the base 1-21 . the formula (3) tells that the original transmission power cannot be simply applied for all of the new cells and the new transmission power also cannot be applied for all of the original ones. The problem of the coverage area will be solved through constructing multiple base stations/cells. In fact. The antenna is often declined to focus the emission energy toward the ground. then Pt2=Pt1/16 3 That is to say. When the bigger cells are used for high speed mobile communication. instead of on the horizontal direction. the transmission power should be reduced by 12dB. the channels in the original cell should be divided into two groups. it needs to maintain the minimum distance between the co-channel cells. the channels in the low power group are less. and then the cell splitting will cover the whole area and the radius of each cell in the system becomes smaller. However. The splitting progress will not stop until all channels in the area are used in the lower power group. and letting them equal. Under this condition. n represents the path attenuation index. At the same time. part of the area of the bigger cell will be excluded from the service area. At the early stage of the splitting progress. but also meet the subscriber capacity requirement.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview original cells. As to the Picture 1-2: Pr[at the edge of the old cell] and Pr[at the edge of the new cell] P t2 (R/2) −n P t1 R −n 1 2 Here. If let n=4. If all cells apply the bigger transmission power. 另 On the other hand. attention should be paid to the problem of handover so that the high speed and low speed mobile subscribers can enjoy the service simultaneously. Therefore a unified planning is necessary. in order to cover the original coverage area with the microcells and reach the S/I requirements. in order to limit the radio coverage of the newly formed microcell. Pt1 and Pt2 represent the base station transmission power of the larger and smaller cells respectively. Station Address Planning The purpose of the station address planning is to select the best location for the base station. Accordingly. one of which meets the re-use requirement of the smaller cells. While the subscriber capacity is decided by the channel configuration.

when it declines too much. Thus the ideal station address is selected. As to the base station moving. 在 In the vertical plane. In order to guarantee the normality of the network structure design and avoid the interference as much as possible. The base station. the antennas of each sector in each base station of the local area is recommended to have the same direction. omnidirectional and directional antenna based on the horizontal direction. the antenna gain doesn’t need to be too high. avoiding the back lobe interfering the cell behind or the side lobe interfering the neighbor sector. In other words. areas with uneven traffic and center of city with many high buildings. The antenna direction angle and the declination angle (electronic declination or mechanical declination) should be designed reasonably. Generally the gain of the omnidirectional antenna is 6dBd~9dBd. all antennas have directions. the interference has to be avoided. 1-22 . the real station type will be defined according to the traffic distribution and the channel number of the base station. the necessity of height adjustment of the antenna is decided according to the network construction condition. The base station antennas are divided into two types. and the microcell and distributed antenna are applied in part of the hot spots to provide the multi-layer coverage and meet the capacity requirement. In the areas of different traffic density. the space between the base stations is different. In the subscriber density cities. While the antenna direction needs to be adjusted in the base stations close to the sea. On the other hand. the common base stations (excluding the microcell and indoor distributed antenna system) are installed with the directional antenna at the angle of 65 degree. because of the landform. This is firstly because the irregularity of the landform and buildings causes the uneven signal coverage figure. As to the whole network. you should consider of the possibility of many addresses. not only the coverage but the interference should be considered before positioning the antenna. the base station cell antennas nearby cannot be installed with an azimuth angle facing the street in order to avoid the wave-guide effect. it’s difficult to select the address. you cannot only think of the location of one base station. the address selection of the base station should be based on a certain principle. the ratio emission in front of and behind the antenna must be considered. Generally. generally applies the directional antenna with high gain. in the area of high traffic density. In order to avoid the antenna interference. V. What’s need highlighting is that because there are high buildings along many streets in cities in different size. with a few centralized subscribers and needing a wide coverage. the omnidirectional base station is constructed only in the villages on the plain or some special landform. Parameter Design of the Base Station Engineering Decide the height of antenna hanging position according to the different coverage area types. The gain of the directional antenna refers to the gain in the maximum transmission direction. along the river. objects required by subscribers to cover and the installation environment. In a real project. and avoid the “blind under tower”. the gain of the directional antenna is 9dBd~16dBd. In some mountainous area. the base station has to be constructed on the mountain. the space between stations should be small. it's better to select the directional antenna or the omnidirectional antenna with an electric declination angle. for example designed as 0 /120 /240 or 30 /150 /270 . instead. while the directional antenna is used in the base station of other areas on the whole. The antenna declination angle should be decided according to the special conditions on the premise of reducing the interference to the co-channel cell and covering the whole coverage area without unnecessary blind area.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview station on the map based on the principle of the cell mesh radius. Since the change of one address will affect the location of other base stations. transport artery and the city-suburb combination. Generally. After the address has been selected. network structures and average height of the buildings.

different aggressive frequency re-use patterns. The cells of frequency re-use should have a certain interval between each other to meet the requirement of the adjacent frequency carrier-to-interference ratio. At the same time. frequency band applied. Accordingly the effects between the base stations need considering. (3) When the cell coverage area cannot hit the co-channel reference index. are applied according to the different equipment functions. 1×3. different aggressive frequency re-use patterns. Adjust the station address or other design parameters (including the antenna type. When the signal in the coverage area is weak or there is blind area in it. reserve part of the frequency band for the microcell to construct layered network. VII. azimuth angle. the direction and gain of the antenna. the declination angle and transmission power). Its frequency re-use coefficient is rather small. and to see if it can meet the demand of the subscribers. combiner and the tower amplification unit should be selected according to the special conditions. emission environment (landform. The re-use degrees of the same frequency are different in the different re-use patterns.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview Generally speaking. application of the diversity reception. VI. city construction and other man-made environment). In a certain area. transmitter output power. broadcast station can be applied to solve the problem. Coverage Prediction The coverage prediction is to predict the coverage of the network to be constructed. according to the address selected and the type designed. The coverage area of a base station mainly concerns the following factors: service quality index. the obliquity of 3~6 degree for the dense city center. are applied according to the different equipment functions. (2) In the small and middle-sized cities. The coverage can be predicted with the help of the ASSET Network Planning Tools to select a map with a suitable accuracy. height of position. the adjustment should be done. on the promise of enough coverage. In addition. Whether it’s necessary to 1-23 . it should be considered to increase the height of the antenna position or the number of the base station according to the cell splitting principle. the microcell can be considered to solve the problem according to the conditions. where is not economical to construct a site. the number of the base station (cell) is decided by the frequency planning pattern.. etc. available sensibility of the receiver. the suitable feeder line. Frequency Planning The frequency re-use pattern is one of the important factors to be considered in the cell system planning. (2) If the cell coverage areas don’t overlap one another enough. design a rather big declination angle for the cells near to the water surface to avoid the interference to the opposite side of the water. like MRP. The frequency re-use refers to the application of the radio channels at the same frequency in the cells of different coverage areas. Different frequency re-use patterns are applied in areas of different types. Generally speaking: (1) In the big and middle-sized cities. In case the result of the network coverage prediction cannot meet the requirements. make adjustment as follow: Adjust the cell channel configuration. no declination for the suburb and artery cell in order to widen the coverage area. The usual measures include: (1) When there are subscribers outside the cell coverage area.

should have been decided in the above base station design. cell handover band selection. (4) There are strict rules for the cell structure and the cell splitting behavior designed for the frequency re-use.4 Pre-planning Difficulties As shown in the above progress. LAC Planning LAC is also an important resource. big difference of the multi-approach emission caused by the various man-made buildings. and the difficulties in theoretic prediction of the coverage area. (3) Limited frequency resources. In the GSM system of Huawei. 1. turn on which handover algorism. can be allocated some independent frequency bands. and whether to use the functions. constructed on the mountains for some geographic reasons. severely fluctuate signal. IX. power control and DTX. The station address planning can hardly be carried out in the real project due to various reasons. which are rich in the resources. the planners should present the initial allocation and resource application of the LAC based on the consideration of network structure and scale. (3) In the towns and villages. 1-24 . The stations. the pre-planning difficulties are reflected in the following aspects: (1) Complex emission environment.2. At the pre-planning stage. At the pre-planning stage.Radio Network Planning Chapter 1 Network Planning Overview construct the layered network depends on the real condition. Its frequency re-use coefficient is a little bigger than that of the big and middle-sized cities. It’s getting more serious along with the big increasing of the subscriber. Except for the human noises. What has to be highlighted is: the cell attribute parameters. which can be by no means ignored. Cell Data Making In order to guarantee the good and stable running of the network. the planners should present the application for the frequency resource according to the scale and frequency planning pattern of the radio network. channel allocation algorism selection. coverage prediction and frequency planning. (5) The investment control is the technical and economical issue of the network construction. it’s also necessary to configure the relevant data for each base station cell. as to the detailed data design and configuration. (2) Severe interference. VIII. the standard 4×3 frequency re-use pattern can be applied. intermodulation interference and other radio interference should be considered and controlled in the permitted index during the engineering design. 1800 BSS network planning for reference. please read the Data Configuration Criterion of the GSM900. like frequency hopping. all adjacent frequency interference.

OSS NMC NSS OMC DPPS PCS SEMC BTS MS BSS BTS BSC MSC/VLR HLR/AUC EIR PSTN ISDN PDN OSS: Operation and Maintenance Subsystem BSS: Base Station Subsystem NSS: Network Subsystem NMC: Network Management Center DPPS: Data Post Processing System SEMC: Security Management Center PCS: SIM Card Personalization Center OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center MSC: Mobile Switching Center VLR: Visitor Location Register HLR: Home Location Register AUC: Authentication Center EIR: Equipment Identification Register BSC: Base Station Controller 2-1 .1 GSM System Introduction GSM system structure is shown as in Figure 2-1.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface 2.

When the omnidirectional antenna is used. Location Area refers to the area where a mobile station can move freely without location update. To be specific. In order to call a mobile station. it takes charge of transceiving radio signals and managing radio resources. Of course this requires the interworking with OSS. In design. Within this area.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface BTS: Base Transceiver Station MS: Mobile Station PDN: Public Date Network PSTN: Public Switched Telephon Network ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network Figure 2-1 GSM System Structure Figure 2-1 illustrates that a GSM system consists of three subsystems: Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OSS). common channel and signaling processing. is a cell. It has such functions as switching. At the same time. communication management. 2-2 . billing record processing. which is a network independent from other communications networks such as ISDN and PSTN. the cell is equivalent to the base station area. Cell refers to the radio coverage area labelled by base station identity code or global cell identity code. One location area may consists of several cells or base station areas. MSC Area refers to a part of the PLMN network covered by all the cells controlled by one MSC.Its major responsibilities include call processing. mobility management. and Network Subsystem (NSS). Base Station Subsystem (BSS). Connected to the mobile station via radio interface. it connects to NSS to realize the connection beteen different mobile subscribers as well as between mobile subscribers and subscribers of the fixed network to send system information and subscriber information.BSS is mainly responsible for transceiving radio signals and managing wirelsss resource. and local opreation and maintenance. Base Station Area refers to the area of all the cells within the range of one or more BTSs placed in the same area. and management between different GSM subscribers as well as between GSM sbscribers and subscribers of other communications networks. BSS is the basic part of the GSM system which deals directly with the radio cellular aspect. connection. security management. a specific cellular area. PLMN Area refers to the whole area covered by the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). The actual GSM network can be divided into several different areas.One MSC area may consist of several location areas. part of the radio resource management. it include the following aspects: Service Area is the area where the service is available for mobile stations. NSS is the core part of the whole GSM system. subcribers of different communications networks can communicate with a mobile station without knowing its exact position. the calling can be initiated from all the base stations in one location area at the same time. subscriber data and equipment management.

and frequency hopping technology. the value of n is set to be 8.577ms(15/26ms). Time Dividion Multiple Access. while the frequency bandwidth it occupies is called a frequency slot. As is shown in Figure 2-3. and this kind of frame is called TDMA frame that is each TDMA frame is composed of eight consecutive slots. also named Um interface. Burst occupies 200kHz frequency band width.2 Radio Channel Structure In PLMN. the signal transmission via the wirless channel has to undergo a series of regulations and a set of standards has to be established. The transmission unit through the Um interface is the Burst composed of about 100 modulated bits. The frequency slot is equivalent to the radio frequency channel in the GSM norm. The time a slot occupies is called a time slot. The frame is often represented in the form of n consecutively occurred slots.1 Time Slot and Frame Structure The Um interface integrates such technologies as Frequency Dividion Multiple Access (FDMA). and it last 0.2. 2.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Figure 2-2 GSM Area Classification 2. In the GSM system. 2-3 . This set of regulations for signal transmission via the radio channel is the so-called Air Interface. the time and frequency window it occupies is called slot. MS connects to the fixed part of the GSM system via radio channel so as to enable subscribers to access communications services. In order to realize the interconnection of MS and BTS.

The cycle of the 51 multiframe structure is 3060/13ms. Otherwise. Figure 2-4 The TDMA frame structure of the channel The explanation for the above figure is as follows: A TDMA frame lasts 4. and the changing unit is 200kHz. its core frequency is changing. A physical channel can be identified and differentiated from others according to the number of one of its slots in the TDMA frame. 2-4 . which are used as service channels and associated control channels. then its core frequency is constant.615ms(120/26ms). It is qualified to say that each radio frequency channel consists of eight physical channels. which are used as control channels. which is a TDMA frame. The complete TDMA frame structure is shown as in Figure 2-4. while the Burst structure in Figure 2-5. composed of eight time slots. Several TDMA frames constitute a multiframe. and this number is called time slot number. The cycle of the 26 multiframe structure is 120ms. the cycle is eight.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Figure 2-3 The concept of time slot One physical channel is the burst sent in specific and cyclic slots. whose structures have two kinds: 26 multiframe and 51 multiframe. If a radio frequency channel is not frequency hopping. and it contains 51 TDMA frames. In the GSM system. and it contains 26 TDMA frames.

2-5 . which contains 51×26 1326 TDMA frames. that is three hours twenty-eight minutes fifty-three seconds and 760 milliseconds.2. It is composed of the slot flow between BTS and MS. Several super frames constitute a hyper frame.76s. a hyper frame contains 2715648 TDMA frames. The cycle of super frames is 6.12s.Therefore. which contains 2048 super frames. which are numbered from zero to 2715647. Each super frame may contain 51 26-multiframes or 26 51-multiframes. any physical channel has to be described from two dimensions: frequency and time. Its cycle is 12533.In each cycle.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Several multiframes constitute a super frame. Figure 2-5 Several kinds of Burst structure 2.2 Physical Channel The physical channel is the combination of frequency division and time division.

TCH include the following kinds of traffic channels: Enhanced full rate speech TCH (TCH/EFS) Full rate speech TCH (TCH/FS) 9. Time domain description TN----time slot number FN----TDMA frame number 2.3 Logic Channel The logic channel results from the time complexing on the physical channel. which is used to correct the MS frequency. 1.8) 2.8kbit/s full rate data TCH (TCH/F4. which is used to broadcast all kinds of information to MS. Traffic Channel(TCH) TCH carries speech or subscriber data.4) II. Control Channel (CCH) The control channel mainly carries signaling or synchronous data.6) 4. Frequency domain description (1) The working frequency band of the GSM system Uplink (MS BTS): 890 915MHz Downlink (BTS 1710 1785MHz 1805 1880MHz MS): 935 960MHz Duplex interval: 45MHz(900M) 95MHz(1800M) Carrier frequency interval: 200kHz (2)Frequency hopping (3)Cell (frequency point) distribution and mobile station (frequency point) distribution (4) Mobility distribution deviation and frequency hopping serial generating number II.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface I. 2-6 . Different logic channels are used for different kinds of information transmission between BTS and MS.2.6kbit/s full rate data TCH (TCH/F9. It can be divided into four kinds according to the different tasks processed: (1) Broadcasting Channel (BCH) BCH is the one-point-to-many-points unidirectional control channel from BTS to MS.4kbit/s full rate data TCH (TCH/F2. BCH can be divided into three kinds: FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel. and the full rate TCH carries the information with the rate of 22. The explanation for the logic channel defined in the GSM norm is as follows: I.8kbit/s.

BCCH: Broadcasting Control Channel. which is used to assign the special control channel to the connection with the successful access. 2-7 . SACCH/C8: Slow Associated Control Channel associated with SDCCH/8. which is mainly used to carry signaling information necessary for the access management function.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface SCH: Synchronous Channel. It carries cell broadcasting short message service information. which is used to broadcast cell informaiton. and it can also carry other kinds of signaling. which is used in the MS frame synchronization and BTS identification. It can be divided into the following kinds: SDCCH/8: Separate Dedicated Control Channel. SACCH/TF: Slow Associated Control Channel associated with TCH/F. FACCH/F: Fast Associated Control Channel/Full Rate. which is used by MS to randomly access the uplink channel of the network. AGCH: Access Grant Channel. which is used by BTS to page MS. Based on the requirement for the communications control process. (4) Cell Broadcasting Channel (CBCH) CBCH is used to broadcast cell short message bit/s only with the downlink direction. RACH: Random Access Channel. DCCH is assigned to MS to enable it to conduct point-to-point signaling transmission with BTS. (3) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) DCCH is point-to-point bidirectional control channel. SACCH/C4: Slow Associated Control Channel associated with SDCCH/4. It includes three parts: PCH: Paging channel. SDCCH/4: Separate Dedicated Control Channel combined with BCCH/CCCH. (2) Common Control Channel (CCCH) CCCH is the one-point-to-many-points bidirectional control channel. The summary for the logic channel supported by M900 BTS is shown as in Figure 2-6. CCCH is commonly used by all MSs of the network. and it uses the same physical channel with SDCCH.

2. The channel combination types allowed in GSM PHASE 2 Norm are as follows: (1) TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF (2) TCH/H (0.3)(Combined BCCH) (6) BCCH + CCCH (Extended BCCH) (7)SDCCH/8(0.4 Allowed Channel Combination Type The logic channel is projected to the physical channel based on a specific rule. If the system supports SMSCB. .7)+ SACCH/C8 (0.1)+ TCH/H(1.. 2-8 . .0)+ FACCH/H(0.1) (3) TCH/H (0.1) (4) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (main BCCH) (5) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0.7) A Note: 1.1)+ SACCH/TH(0.3)+ SACCH/C4 (0. The combination (5)(Combined CCCH) can only be adopted when there is no other CCCH in the cell.1)+ SACCH/TH(0.1)+ FACCH/H(0.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Figure 2-6 Logic Channel Classification 2.. the SDCCH (1/8) in the combination (5) and (7) used as CBCH 2.

things are different. the GSM Norm works hard on the frame structure of the logical channel. but for MS. As far as MS is concerned. uplinks refer to the links from MS to BTS. Due to the mobility of MS. Therefore. the transmission of MS must take place earlier. However. and this is called the early timing of MS.The cell is uniquely labeled by this carrier frequency. it will be great.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface 3. which is called C0 in the protocol. In order to realize high-performance system.2. Parameter BS_PA_MFRMS. 2. The CCCH_GROUP and PAGING_GROUP of the MS as well as the paging and discontinuous reception.6 The Use of the Common Control Channel The following explanation is for the use of the common control channel: Among all the carrier frequencies in a cell. Form BTS perspective. there always exists a transmission delay from MS to the BTS in its service cell. That is to say.The range for the early time is between 0 233µs (this limitation comes from protection bit time domain feature of Access Burst). there is only one carrier frequency can support BCCH. CCCH = PCH + RACH + AGCH + NCH. 2. the frame structure of logical channels is always cyclic in time. Of course. 2-9 . Parameter BS_AG_BLKS_RES. because there is no need for the MS to protect its transmitter while it is receiving. this delay is constant. in the GSM system. which can reduce the volume of the MS to a large extent.2.7 The Early Timing of Uplink and Downlink as well as MS In the GSM system. C0 carrier frequency must transmit at the constant frequency with the constant power.2. C0 carrier frequency is not allowed for frequency hopping. Parameter BS_CCCH_SDCCH_COMB and combined BCCH. Parameter BS_CC_CHANS and extended BCCH. although different logic channels have different cycles. 2. TN0 with and only with C0 can support channel combination (4) and (5). if the requirement for simultaneous transmission and reception can be avoided. In order to realize this point. it also supports CCCH. The frequency used by C0 carrier frequency is called Scaling Frequency. which results in the complicated frame structure system of the GSM system. In order to compensate for the transmission delay to and from BTS.5 The Frame Structure of the Logic Channel Different logic channels have different frame structures. while downlinks refer to those from BTS to MS. and this delay is usually not constant. the TDMA frame of the uplink is always three BPs (about 1730µs) behind that of the downlink. that is main BCCH and combined BCCH.

otherwise. the method of self-adaptive timing adjustment is employed to ensure that the MS in the special mode always uses proper early timing value. it will lose the synchronization with BTS. the accurate deviation between the uplink and downlink is three BPs less the early timing value.Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface from the MS perspective. 2-10 . In the GSM system. The MS in the special mode must transmit using proper early timing value at any time.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface 2-11 .

Radio Network Planning Table of Contents xii .

and ionosphere wave. It is well known that the radio wave can be transmitted from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna in multiple modes: forward wave or free space wave. troposphere layer can generate electric wave scattering because of uneven refractive rate.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theory 3. As shown in Figure 3-1(a). forward wave transmits along straight lines. Such three surface waves are shown in Figure 3-1(c). the simple method between transmitters and receivers is free space propagation. The Surface wave transmits along the earth surface. It will be discussed in the following parts. radio coverage. As shown in Figure 3-1. troposphere reflecting wave. electromagnetic interference between systems and final parameters of radio devices. communication probability calculation. backward wave and surface wave. this definition is also used for stadia propagation in land (between two microwave towers). ionosphere layer also has the feature of continuous fluctuation. Some energy from the transmitting antenna can directly reach to the receiver. which is a heterogeneous medium. The second method is the earth wave or surface wave. as shown in Figure 3-1(e). Such propagation is used for long-distance communication. 2-1 . Troposphere method is applied to radio communication with the wavelength less than 10 meters (frequency larger than 30MHz). Surface wave transmits on the earth surface. Other names for free space are forward wave or stadia wave. as far as electronic propagation is concerned. earth wave or surface wave.1 Basic knowledge of Radio Propagation When planning and constructing a mobile communication network. as shown in Figure 3-1(d). The radio wave reflected from troposphere layer might have one or more leaps. and such fluctuation is rapid fluctuation at random. The fourth method is propagation through ionospheric reflection. it can cause ground current. so that it can be used for communication between satellite and exterior space. Its reflection factors decrease with an increase of height. some of the energy is absorbed by the ground. It is generated from the troposphere layer. as shown in Figure 3-1(b). we must understand the features of the electric waves to define the frequency band. some energy reaches to the receiver after reflecting on the earth surface. It is the keystone for system design. In addition. meteors in troposphere layer can also scatter electric waves. When the electric wave is less than 1 meter in length (frequency larger than 300 MHz). efficient use of frequency spectrum and EMC (Electronic Magnetic Compatibility). Besides reflection. The third method is that troposphere reflecting wave. In addition. some reaches to the receiver through surface wave. Earth wave is the combination of three waves: the forward wave. frequency allocation. Like the troposphere layer. Free space refers to isotropy (identical in axes characters) and uniformity (even texture) in such zone. When energy is absorbed by the ground. Cellular system radio propagation is adopted the second method of electric wave propagation. changing with time because of air conditions. the troposphere layer is the reflected body. Since the earth surface is not ideal for propagation. Such reflection factors with gradual change cause electric wave bending.

The second one is based upon measurement in various environments. it ignores the irregularity of the Earth.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy (a) (b) Scatterer Ground wave (c) Ionization layer (d) (e) (a) Forward wave transmits along straight line (b) Stadia communication application (c) Earth (e) Radio wave propagation (d) Troposphere lay scatters radio wave irregularly. including irregular landform and manmade obstacles. In the cellular system. which is applied to separate objects. therefore earth wave propagation can be adopted in such condition. especially the higher frequency and lower mobile antenna commonly existing in mobile communication. considers the actual experience data. such as mountain and other solid objects. Secondly. it provides necessary tool for calculating signal level covering different cells. coverage area is . the second one. In most cases. which considers the influence of mountains and other obstacles upon the measurement and the refraction law. There are three methods for predicatingsignal level radio coverage: the first one is pure theory. However. there are at least two propagation models: the first one is FCC suggested model. 2-2 . wave transmits through ionosphere reflection Figure 3-1 Different Propagation Modes There are two reasons for propagation study when designing cellular system: first. established by Okumura. it can calculate monkey-chatter interference and cochannel interference. The third method is the improved model upon the above two methods.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. the main propagation mode for electromagnetic wave from the transmitter to the receiver is scattering. reflection from the surface of building or refraction from artificial and natural objects. Frequency in different frequency spectrum has different propagation characteristics. we only pay attention to UHF spectrum.2. As to mobile communication. as shown in Figure 3-2. Frequency Classification Extremely Low Frequency Voice Frequency Very-low Frequency Low Frequency Medium Frequency High Frequency Very High Frequency Ultra High Frequency Super High Frequency Extremely High Frequency Designation ELF VF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF to 30Hz to 300Hz 300 to 3000Hz 3 to 30KHz 30 to 300KHz 300 to 3000KHz 3 to 30MHz 30 to 300MHz 300 to 3000MHz 3 to 30GHz 30 to 300GHz 300 to 3000GHz 3 30 3. as shown in Figure the following table. in a typical cellular mobile communication environment.2. Thus.1 Frequency Division Introduction The Radio frequency from 3Hz to 3000GHz are separated into 12 bands. communication between the cellular base station and mobile station completes not through direct path but many other paths. 2-3 .2 Fast Fading and Slow Fading According to the last section. In UHF frequency. i.2 Radio Propagation Environment 3. direct path between the receiver and the transmitter is obstructed by buildings or other objects.e.

The distribution of deep fading point in space is approximately half wavelength away (900MHz is 17cm. A great number of propagation paths result in so called multipath phenomenon. Studies show that if the mobile cell receives the amplitude. If the mobile antenna is at the deep fading point at that time (when mobile user in a car stay at the deep fading point because of redlight.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy building reflected wave reflected wave diffracted wave forward wave ground Figure 3-2 Multipath Propagation Model All the signal components compose a multi standing wave. Essentially. then the azimuth angle of the synthesis signal and the probability density function of amplitude are as follows: p( ) = p(r) = r 2 1 2 0≤ r2 2 2 ≤ 2π r≥0 (3-1) (3-2) e (− ) Among them. Usually. we call it Redlight Problem). the difference between the maximum and the minimum is about 1/4 wavelength. related technologies like hopping should be applied to solve this problem. 1800 or 1900Mhz is 8cm). Therefore. such phenomenon is called multipath fading or fast fading. (3-1) and (3-2) represent the azimuth angle is even distribution between 0 to 2π. such propagation character causes time dispersion phenomenon. whose synthesis amplitude and phase will undergo great fluctuation with the movement of mobile stations. as shown in Figure 3-3. phase and angle of respective component at random. The synthesis signal level fades 20 to 30dB in a few car bodies away. “r” is the standard deviation. Besides. multipath fading is a fast change. while the probability density function of electric 2-4 . voice quality is very poor. the signal level of which increases or decreases with corresponding changes of the components.

In CDMA communication. or adopting polarity diversity to guarantee the signals received by the master and diversity antenna having different fading characteristics. please see related GSM protocol. When communicating in land.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy field abides by Rayleigh Distribution. It is caused by the shadow effect. It requires that the spacing between the master and diversity antenna is 10 times more than the radio signal wavelength (the antenna spacing is more than 4 meters in GSM900). As to the air channel coding of GSM mobile communication. forest and topographical relief in the way of radio propagation will cause shadow in electromagnetic field. 25 MHz). error code checking and correcting. appear slow changes as changing position. The equalizing ability to different ranges (time window) of the base station receiver is also a form of space diversity. Variation of signal medium value in a larger range of distribution with time and place all abides by Logarithmic Normal Distribution. as well as slow changes in vertical gradient of atmosphere dielectric constant. Such master diversity receiving effect is guaranteed by the irrelevancy received by the master diversity. such is also a form of space diversity. A large number of test data shows that such irrelevancy can be obtained if the interval between the two frequencies is larger than 200 KHz. The change is depended upon the obstacle condition and working frequency. Statistics show that such medium value variation also abides by Logarithmic Normal Distribution. In GSM mobile communication. while in CDMA mobile communication. Time diversity mainly adopts the methods of symbol interleave. The medium value of receiving signal level will change when electromagnetic shadow is produced by different obstacles the mobile station encounters. The basic of frequency diversity theory is the correlation bandwidth. after more than an interval between two frequencies. Signals the base station receiving from the master and diversity channels are respectively combined after equalization through the Maximum Likelihood Sequence Equalizer (MLSE). signal medium value variation as time changing is less than that as place changing. such change is called slow fading. except for fast Rayleigh fading in instantaneous value. multi path is also called Rayleigh fading.e. However. A great number of studies shows that the average signal levels received by the mobile station. each channel works in wide band (narrow band CDMA is 1. it shows that its medium value variation abides by Logarithmic Normal Distribution. Different code has different anti-fading characteristics. radio refraction coefficient changes as the climate conditions change with times. Irrelevance refers to the signals received respectively by the master antenna and diversity antenna having no fading at the same time. Mobile station (mobile phone) has no such space diversity function with only one antenna. their space fading characteristics are considered irrelevant. slow fading shall be considered. in fixed-point communication. so that their synthesis distribution still abides by Logarithmic Normal Distribution. i. Space diversity mainly adopts the master diversity antenna receiving method. is a spread frequency communication. Buildings. the mobile station and multi base stations communicate at the same time to select the best signal for handover. which results in slow changes in signal level medium value in the same place as time changing. usually. Therefore. when soft switching is performed. as shown in Figure 3-3. Additionally. As to this fast fading. so that such slow fading can be ignored. frequency diversity and space diversity (polarity diversity). changing rate has relations with obstacles and driving speed. and also called shadow fading. the base station adopts the methods of time diversity. frequency diversity mainly adopts spread spectrum. By studying this fading law. The distribution standard deviation is rt. which actually. r=rL. 2-5 . hopping is simply applied to obtain hopping gain.

Having the equation of path loss in free space. 2 according to measurement result. when wavelength λ decreases (increase frequency f). In the above equation. signal level received by specialized receiver is a major feature. The antenna height of the mobile station is represents h ). as shown in Figure 3-4. When d doubles. The propagation loss of free space is: L p = 32. Meanwhile. first study the characteristics of the two antennas in free space (homogeneous medium with isotropy. If the working frequency is already known. and B 2-6 . Such signal level decrease is called propagation loss.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy Received power . In the actual cellular system. In radio propagation studies. there are two influences in cellular environment: the first one is fast fading. and the second one is slow changes in receiving signal level resulted from directly visible path.e. (3-3) can be also written as: L p = L 0 + 10 lg(d km ) Of the equation. propagation signal level decreases. long-term signal level change. Owing to the interference of propagation path and landform. i. value ranges from 3 to 5. That is to say. zero electric conductivity). Take the ideal omnidirectional antenna as an example. no absorption. the actual propagation can be considered between the two antennas on plain but imperfect surface. the channel works in fast fading in accordance with Rayleigh distribution. h and h respectively (A represents h . is called path loss slope. propagation loss is in inverse proportion to d. d is distance (kilometers).3 Propagation Loss In propagation studies.20 Fast fading Slow fading -40 -60 10 20 30 Distance ( m) Figure 3-3 Fast fading and slow fading In general. and superimposes amplitude with signal to meet with slow fading in Logarithmic Normal Distribution. free space path loss increases by 6 dB. 3. We can compensate these losses by increasing radiation and receiving antenna gain. path loss increases. Suppose the whole propagation path surface is absolutely plain (without refraction).4 + 20 lg(f MHz ) + 20 lg(d km ) (3-3) Among which. (3-4) . f is frequency.2.

slopping landform and water-and-land mixed landform and so on. Various landforms and ground objects differ greatly. the power received reduced by 12 dB. rolling height less than or equal to 20 meters as well as slight difference in average surface height. It is impossible to have absolutely plain landform in actual application. if distance doubles. separated mountains. Okumura defines the rolling height as the difference between 10% and 90% of rolling topography 10 kilometers ahead of the mobile station. which can be divided into the following types based upon their conditions: hills. This equation shows that if antenna height doubles. i. “Quasi smooth landform” refers to the landform with gentle rolling topography. . propagation path loss on plain grounds is: L p = 10 lg d − 20 lg h c − 20 lg h m (3-5) Of which.e. CCIR defines it as the difference between over 90% and over 10% of rolling topography 10 to 50 kilometers ahead of the receiver. 2-7 . Other landforms are generally called “irregular landform”. Such complex landforms can be divided into two types: “quasi smooth landform” and “irregular landform”. so the impact on radio propagation loss in mobile communication also varies.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy A B (a) A B (b) A B A' (a) multireflection ground reflection (c) (b) simple reflection (c) mapping method of finding path difference between stadia and Figure 3-4 Propagation on Plain Surface As compared with the path loss in free space. 6 dB can be 4 compensated for loss. while the receiving power of the mobile station changes with the fourth power of distance.

Under the first condition. Two kinds of obstacles shown in Figure 3-5. no obstacles appear in stadium path at H.5 + 0. i.5e 0. we assume that the height of obstacle is negative number.225/v) vm1 0[v<1 −1[v[0 − 2.62v) = 20 lg lg(0. medium urban area and suburb area. In the first condition.45v ) = 20 lg lg(0. which is known from the following equation. dense urban area. we also analyze diffraction loss when analyzing propagation loss in mountainous area or dense urban areas with close skyscrapers.12 − (0.38) 2 ) = 20 lg lg(−0. “knife-shaped”. When predicating path loss. Diffraction loss can be calculated through the diffraction constant v. while positive number in the second condition.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy When analyzing propagation loss in urban areas and their nearby areas. Loss can be calculated by the method commonly used in physical optics. The obstacle height must be compared with propagation wavelength. In general. we can view these obstacles as pointed obstacles. Diffraction loss is used to measure the height of obstacles and antenna. we can also classify “irregular landform” by congestion in regions as open area. e. the diffraction loss to long wavelength is less than that to short one. As to the same obstacle. Under the second condition.1v + 0. v = −H 2/ (1/d 1 + 1/d 2 ) 6) The approximate value of diffraction loss can be calculated from the following equations: F=0 = 20 lg lg(0. obstacles appear in radio path.4 [ v < −1 v < −2.4 − 0.4 (3- (3-7) 2-8 .

Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy (a) Negative height (b) positive height Figure 3-5 Radio propagation past the cutting edge 2-9 .

If predictive method is not adopted. hills. a good model should be easy to use. such as plains. These environmental factors. it is divided into two types: outdoor propagation model and indoor propagation model. We can easily select the best layout solution for cellular station address with accurate predictive method through computer calculation. Most of models predict path loss in radio propagation path. different working frequency results in different receiving signal fading. For instance. involved in many variables in propagation model. Its value is to guarantee accuracy and to save labor. Models should be clear enough not to give users any subjective judgment and explanation. buildings and vegetation and consider experience will only result in network problems of coverage and quality or in resource wasting because of too close base stations. expense and time. In order to improve models. then the only one is cut-and-try method. It is the basic of mobile communication in cell planning. Good recognition is very important. It is money-wasting and labor-wasting by adopting this method. radio propagation model is affected by system working frequency and mobile station movement. Quantity. Commonly used models are shown in Table 3-1. radio propagation environment is various in provinces and cities. Main factors involved in propagation environment in a specific area are: Natural (mountains. In addition. it is an essential task to select the cellular station address with signal coverage so as to avoid interference. which is carried out through actual measurement. such as open areas. Conditions of natural and man-made electromagnetic noise. stationary mobile station differs high-speed moving mobile station in propagation environment. suburb and urban areas. Therefore.3 Radio Propagation Model Propagation model is very important. hills and mountains. Measure the coverage area of cellular station address to select the best one from all the suggested solutions. play an important role. Using different models might have different structures. Therefore. Therefore. or different man-made environment. physiognomy. height. distribution and material characteristics of man-made buildings. With a vast territory. A good mobile radio propagation model is flexible to adjust according to different landforms. but also on whether the operators can invest rationally to satisfy users’ needs. etc. In the same area. for different predictive value can be deduced from that in the same area. A good model shall have good recognition and acceptability. statistical method is used to measure a large number of data and correct models. Before planning a cellular system in an area. 4. Characteristics of vegetation in the area. plains and water area). Therefore. propagation environment and propagation models have great differences between cities in plain area and the ones in hills area. it is not easy to form a good mobile radio propagation model. 2-10 . Climate conditions. Generally. we can say that the accuracy of propagation model not only influences on whether the cell planning is proper. Also. to ignore different factors of landforms.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. Correction for propagation model will be introduced in section 3. propagation environment plays an important role in radio propagation model. by comparing and evaluating the performance of all the solutions output from the computer.

9 lg f − 13.7)hm − (1.33 lg f − 40. ---Distance between mobile stations.8) lg lgf log(11.1lg f − 0. Hata model is composed of the average data measured in Japan.55 lg h b ) lg d − A Cost231h m + C m L (3-8-1:Okumura-Hata) (3-8-2:Cost231-Hata) ---Path loss from the base station to the mobile station. .Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy Table 3-1 Common Propagation Models Model name Okumura-Hata Cost231-Hata Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Keenan-Motley Used in ASSET planning Scope of Application Applied to 150-1000 MHz macro cellular predication Applied to 150-2000 MHz macro cellular predication Applied to 900 and 1800 MHz micro cellular predication Applied to 900 and 1800 MHz indoor predication Applied to 900 and 1800 MHz macro cellular predication Below is the brief introduction of Okumura-Hata model and Cost231-Hata model as well as the propagation model used in ASSET network planning software.75h m )) 2 − 4. C while 3 dB in big cities. unit: m.97 (with frequency more than log The value in big city is 3.55 + 26. propagation model can be revised as Lps = Lp Urban area − 2[lg(f /28)]2 − 5. f h h d --The value is 0dB in medium-size cities or in suburb with medium woods density.1 lg f − 0.16 lg f − 13.9 − 6.82 lg h b + (44. A Cost231hm 1.56lg − 0.9 − 6.56 lg f − 0.2(log 400MHz). 5 m.55 lg h b ) lg d − A Okumurah m L p = 46. unit: MHz.3 + 33.4 (3-9) In open areas. ---Antenna height of the base station. having average value 1.78(lg f ) 2 + 18.82 lg h b + (44. unit: km. Path loss value in general areas can be approximately represented with the following equation: L p = 69.8 ). AOkumurahm MS height correction. unit: dB ---Carrier wave frequency. unit: m. ---Mobile station antenna height (1-10 m).7 h m − (1. value in medium sized cities (1. In suburb area.94 (3- 10) 2-11 . the propagation is revised as L po = L p Urban area − 4.

3+(33. 94 {Fc=15002000MHz} ---Distance fading constant. 16+1. ---The available height of mobile station and base station antenna. 55+(26. which is considered in ASSET planning software to improve propagation model. 9+1. 56)lg(Fc)-0. ---The revision coefficient of ground object in the prediction is: the field density of the prediction point is revised based upon the clutter type of that point. 56lg(Fc))-0. 16lg(Fc) {Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46. 78[log(Fc)]2+18. 9+1. Consider various ground objects and relief having influence on radio propagation in actual environment so as to guarantee the accuracy of prediction result. 3+(33. 8 {Fc=1500-2000MHz} Suburb area: K1=69. 8-4.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy In the actual radio propagation environment. 56)lg(Fc)-0. unit: m. 33log(Fc)-40. 56)lg(Fc)-0. ---The revision coefficient of diffraction. 56)lg(Fc)-0. The center of medium-size city: K1=69. h h As to the radio propagation in different areas and cities. ---The revision coefficient of base station height. 8-4.5. 55+26. K value will have different value owing to different landform and relief as well as different city environment. K 2-12 . 4{Fc=1500-2000MHz} Open area: K1=69. and has nothing to do with the clutter type in the propagation path. 55+(26. 4{Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46. 3+(33. various relief shall be considered. 8 -2(log(Fc/28))2 . 56lg(Fc))-0. 16+1. 8 {Fc=1500-2000MHz} Center of big city K1=69.5. 55+(26. 56lg(Fc))-0. 94 {Fc=1501000MHz} K1=46. 9+1. 9+1. ---The revision coefficient of mobile station antenna height. 33log(Fc)-40. And all the losses in the propagation path lie in the medium value loss. The model expression is as follows: L p = K 1 + K 2 lg d + K 3 (h m ) + K 4 lg h m + K 5 lg(H eff ) + K 6 lg(H eff ) lg d + K 7 diffn + K clutter In the above expression (the following expressions are applied to macro cell): ---the constant related to frequency. 78(log(Fc))2+18. d ---Distance between the base station and the mobile station. 3+Cm+(33. 8 -2(log(Fc/28))2 . 8 {Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46. 16+1. unit: km.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy value and some clutter fading values used in radio propagation analysis in mediumsize cities are shown in Table 3-2. 2-13 .

thanks to the complicated environment. glass and bricks. There are two frequencies in GSM mobile communication system. e. Owing to complicated variables. 88/1800MHz Large city 0. building loss can be only calculated based upon the surrounding environment. 50 0 5 16 Medium value of propagation loss can be calculated according to these K values. 00 -3. Building loss is to be considered when the cellular mobile communication is used indoors.-2. 88/1800MHz Urban 0/900MHz Large city. 1800MHz level difference between indoors and outdoors is larger than 900MHz. 00 -13. 54/900MHz Urban. percentage coverage of the window area. 00 5. 00 -2. 90 -2. i. 163/1800MHz Large city 44. the problems of complicated propagation environment and the direction of incident wave make it impossible to quantize indoor-and-outdoor level difference. 00 -1. 82 -6. The 2-14 . Loss in the building with isolation only added to the ceiling is less than that in the building with isolation both added to the ceiling and inside walls. building direction. While the relation between wavelength and penetration loss is worth further study. Building loss refers to the functions of wall structure (steel. In addition. indoor radio components are the superimposition of penetration components and diffraction components. and the diffraction accounts for the majority. the less the diffraction loss is. 00 -2. Below are some conclusions we draw: The average penetration loss in urban buildings is more than those in suburb areas and remote areas. Loss in the area with window zone is generally less than that without window zone. building height. generally speaking. Fading in street wall with aluminum support frame is more than that without aluminum support frame. However. Therefore. 00 13. some revision is required. or is uncertain.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy Table3-2 K parameter value K parameter name K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter fading value Inland Water Wetland Open Areas Rangeland Forest Industrial & Commercial Areas Village Parallel_Low_Buildings Suburban Urban Dense urban High Building Parameter value 150/900MHz Urban. 50 -2. However. The longer the wavelength is.e. 8 -3. 900MHz and 1800MHz. etc). 90 -2.-2. 160/1800MHz Urban 146/900MHz Large city. 55 -0. Loss in the open area within buildings is less than that in the wall area with corridors. Different frequency results in different propagation characteristics.

and 13dB in suburb area. 4dB/m. The average penetration loss in the first floor is about 18dB in urban area. the slope of loss line is -1. For example. so as to optimize the plan. Tunnel propagation loss shall be considered when calculating radio propagation in tunnels. d = 2 $ $ h eff + 2 $ $ h m Per contra. 9dB/story. e. The measurement of specific floors shows that loss characteristic inside buildings can be treated as a waveguide with fading. it can be approximately considered that loss and distance appear the inverse exponential change of fourth power. 2-15 . the influence of leaves on propagation in UHF frequency shall be considered. when radio propagates along the corridor direction. Studies show that. if the distance between the two antennas doubles. As to GSM frequency. the relation between the loss curve and working frequency show exponential fading. which is vertical to the outdoor window. the unit is m. then the battle-sight range of radio wave is d (unit: m). the loss can reach to 0. the equator radium is 6378000m). Assume that the earth radium is (unit: m. the base station height can be calculated. h height of base station antenna.e. the unit is also m. such as desert or sea.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy best method is to test indoor-and-outdoor level difference in a specific environment. the signal loss in summer is about 10 dB more than that in winter. vertically polarized signal loss is more than the horizontally-polarized one. in general. i. if the expectation coverage range is known (when path loss is not the major factor). The earth curvature shall be considered under such conditions. Besides. The experiment result shows that propagation loss in a specific distance reduces as the frequency increases. According to record data. for leaves flourish in summer. The average floor penetration loss refers to the function of the floor height. simply regard the tunnel as a wave-guide with loss. Radio battle-sight distance might be very far in wide coverage. At this moment. When the working frequency band is below 2GHz. then the loss increases by 12dB. h m h eff is the height of mobile is the station antenna and the base station antenna respectively.

then the normal fading will be averaged. that is. The influence of Raleigh fading must be removed so as to obtain the local average value. continuous wave test. if the intrinsic length 2L is too short. The information of latitude and longitude of these test data and incoming level form the data source of model correction. According to experiences. Therefore.4. say. then the influence of Raleigh fading still exists. at least 5 test stations in big cities with dense population. m(x) is local value. The principle of station selection is to cover ground objects as many as possible (these ground objects come from digital map) In actual test. which can be expressed as follows: m(x ) = 1 2L x+L x−L ¶ r(y )dy (3-12) In which. proper test stations can be selected according to the following standards: (1) The antenna height is above 20 meters. test stations and quantity need to be determined. Li Jianye. as well as on the accuracy of the propagation model prediction corrected through CW test. x is distance. CW test is aimed to obtain the local average value of various locations in an area on whole way. a famous communication expert. the difference between r (x) and m(x) is as small as possible. 1 test station is enough. if 2L is too long.2 CW Test Method I. 2-16 . also called intrinsic length. r(x) is incoming signal. the mixture of long-term fading and space propagation loss. Select station for CW test Before testing. the intrinsic length is 40 wave lengths. the difference between the tested data and the actual local value is less than 1 dB by sampling 50 sampling points (the test equipment and the error of digital map are ignored). has proved that.1 CW Basics Correction for propagation model is required to obtain the radio propagation model in accordance with local actual environment and to improve the accuracy of coverage predication so as to lay a good foundation for network planning.4. e. CW test. in CW test. Random process theory is used to analyze mobile communication propagation. When a group of signal data r (x) is averaged. in GSM system. which can be expressed as follows: r(x ) = m(x )r 0 (x ) (3-11) In which. which is mainly depended on the antenna height of test base station and the effective radiant power (EIRP). r0(x) is Rayleigh fading. 2L is the average sample interval length.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. is a necessary step for model correction by correcting data obtained from CW test and digital map. Therefore. as to mediumsize and small-size cities. i. to determine 2L has great influence on the degree of approximation between the tested data and the actual local average. 3.4 Correction for propagation model 3.

test software as well as portable PC. using the power meter to measure the forward power and reflection power of the antenna. General test equipment samples by time only. CW test There are three sampling ways of the professional CW test equipment: sampling by time. use triangulation method to measure the height of the building. The measure accuracy is very high.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy (2) The antenna height is above 5 meters over the nearest obstacle. The antenna height is the height of the building plus antenna mast height and half the antenna height. The test system includes test receiver. CW test preparation CW test first needs a test base station to transmit RF signal with or without FM modulation. Speed is 2-17 . Rx_Feeder_Loss is the feeder cable loss of the test receiver. The sampling rate of the test receiver is as fast as possible. Rx_Antenna_Gain is the antenna gain of the test receiver (dBi). and use angle instrument to test the slope angle of the antenna. III. Sweep frequency by using portable test equipment to ensure the normal work of the test base station equipment. The calculation formula is below: EIRP = 10 lg[P_forward (mW) − P_reflect(mW)] + Tx_Antenna_Gain + Rx_Antenna_Gain − Rx_Feeder_Loss 5m (3-13) In which. feeder cable. GPS receiver. distance measuring instrument. pulse and distance. Figure 3-6 Diagrammatic representation of station selection standard The obstacle here refers to the highest building at the top of which the antenna is located. power amplifier and HF signal source. The building as a station shall be higher than the average height of the surrounding buildings. P_forward is forward transmitting power. Calculate the EIPR of the test base station. Use GPS to measure the latitude and longitude of the station. After the equipment of base station is installed in the selected test station. After normal installation and debugging of the base station equipment. The base station includes transmitting antenna. then make a drive test by using CW test equipment. without any interference signal in surroundings. record the EIRP of the base station. Tx_Antenna_Gain is the transmitting antenna gain of the test station (dBi). P_reflected is reflection power. Test by distance sampling can meet the Theorem of Lee’s requirement of sampling 36~50 sampling points with 40 wave lengths. II.

Different ground objects determine different K(clutter). which is also the closest value to propagation model predication value. Test paths should not be selected on highways and on the wide and flat streets. the degree of influence of each K parameter is different. Sample as much data as possible in each test base station. test paths with various ground objects are selected as random drive test. but on the narrow streets.3 Correction for Propagation Model and Instance Digital map is needed for model correction. Below is the specific method of model correction based upon the above-mentioned ASSET planning software. 3. interference analysis and frequency planning. coverage prediction. The intensity difference between the signal level parallel to the signal propagation direction and that vertical one is around 10dB. Generally. Propagation models developed for computer aided analysis are different. thus saving labor. The local average value is the data tested through CW test expectation. which has nothing to do with the propagation distance and antenna height. K5 and K6 are determined by specific test data and test path. while the adjustment of K2. Parameters from K1 to K7 in ASSET model are determined by specific propagation environment. The mobile station has slight changes in height (about 1. 2-18 . 5m).8 /T sample (3-14) During the test. The digital map used in mobile communication contains the geographical information such as relief height and ground usage.4. it is better to test in each station over 4 hours. but based on Okumura basic models. they can be directly applied to planning prediction. we know that K1 and K(clutter) are constant. When the mobile station is within the distance of 3km away from the test base station. It needs to be pointed out that if the model parameters of the city similar to the existing landform and ground objects. which effect radio propagation in mobile communication. K3 and K4 are the height modifying factor of the mobile station. and the antenna height. and provide modified parameters. so that in a deterministic base station. it is better to sample the same amount of samples in longitudinal and lateral streets to remove their effects. When CW test data obtained. Stop recording when the car stops for redlight. K(clutter) is the correction factor depended on different ground objects. the local average value is determined in a deterministic location. It is the important fundamental data for planning software in model correction. but there exists an upper speed limit. It is unnecessary to redo CW test and model correction. so that K3 and K4 can be eventually classified as micro-adjustment in the final stage. Among a great many of K parameters in the standard model. The upper speed limit (Vmax) has relation with the maximum sampling speed of CW equipment: V max = 0. Therefore. The landform and ground objects are fixed within a period of time. these K parameters are gradually fitted from CW test data.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy not strict in distance sampling. K parameters can be acquired in two ways: K parameter testing method and the minimum variance method. when testing on the street within 3km in radium of the base station. the receiving signals are affected greatly by the building structure around the base station. By analyzing the models.

and transmits f2 to the base station. f1 f3 f2 V(km/h) Figure 3-7 MS moves towards BTS The signal frequency of BTS is f1. MS receives the signal frequency f2 because of the Doppler Effect. and the frequency fˊreceived by the base station is fˊ=f/(1±U/c) (3-16) In the formula. u is the travel speed of MS.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. Through FCH channel of BCCH channel.5 Doppler Effect and its Impact on Handover In GSM system. Below are several special conditions discussed: (1) MS moves towards BTS at the speed of v. (2) MS is the frequency source f. v is the travel speed of MS. the frequency fˊreceived by the mobile phone is fˊ=f(1±V/c) (3-15) In the formula. c is the radio signal propagation speed (3E8 m/sec) Select “+” when MS moves towards the base station and select “-” when it is away from the base station. c is the radio signal propagation speed (3E8 m/sec) Select “-” when MS moves towards the base station and select “+” when it is away from the base station. BTS can control MS to synchronize the frequency with BTS. Below is the formulas based on the above-mentioned: f2=f1(1+v/c) f3=f2/(1-v/c) f3=f1(1+v/c)/(1-v/c)=f1(c+v)/(c-v) 2-19 . f3 is the frequency received by BTS because of the Doppler Effect. the relation of frequency change caused by Doppler effect is given through the following formula: (1) the base station is the frequency source f. as shown in Figure 3-7.

below are the formulas based upon the above-mentioned formula: f2=f1(1-v/c) f3=f2/(1+v/c) f3=f1(1-v/c)/(1+v/c)=f1(c-v)/(c+v) The relative frequency change is (f3-f1)/f1=-2v/(c+v) (3-18) The travel speed of MS is slow as compared with signal propagation speed. and transmits f2 to the base station.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy The relative frequency change is (f3-f1)/f1=2v/(c-v) (3-17) (1) MS moves away from BTS at the speed of v. f3 f1 f2 V(km/h) Figure 3-8 MS moves away from BTS The signal frequency of BTS is f1. as shown in Figure 3-8. As to 900M frequency. while decreases in the second one. 2-20 . Frequency increases in the first condition. Through FCH channel of BCH channel. therefore relative frequency change is almost the same in these two conditions except for the opposite direction. while 342Hz as to 1800M. Frequency f3 received by BTS because of the Doppler Effect. The relation between the relative frequency and MS speed can be illustrated in Figure 3-9. 19ppm. Figure 3-9 Graph of relation between the relative frequency and MS speed The graph shows that when MS speed is 100km/h. the relative frequency change is 0. MS receives the signal frequency f2 because of the Doppler Effect. the deviation is 171Hz. BTS can control MS to synchronize the frequency with BTS.

On the other hand. MS obtains the monitoring information of the BCCH channel of the neighboring cells through BA table. controls MS to adjust its frequency and a certain number of kHz to monitor the neighboring cell level. When handover is performed. the signal f2ˊ received by MS might appear between the two MS adjustment frequencies. Receiving data error might be another reason for effecting handover. Thus. So that MS cannot correctly monitor BTS1 signal level. which causes unsuccessful handover. Take the Figure 3-10 as an example. the deviation is the superimposition of the above two conditions. f3' f1' f2' V(km/h) BTS1 MS BTS2 f2 f3 f1 Figure 3-10 MS moves between the two base stations 2-21 . it might appear Doppler frequency changes. Such long time information report will also result in abnormally monitoring the neighboring cells level. as shown in Figure 310. MS monitors BTS1 level. which make MS unable to receive the signals of the neighboring cells correctly.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy (3) MS moves between the two base stations at the speed of v. which will receive data by f1 sampling clock. RXlev information reported from SACCH shall be transmitted at least once every 30s. The frequency change caused by the Doppler Effect will effect the signal frequency f1(c+v)/(c-v) received by the base station.

then The simulation result shows that when the gain obtained swings as the mobile d station moves towards the base station. the path difference between the direct wave and the reflected wave is phase difference is = 4 hthr d . then the reflected wave will cause destruction. away is more than 4h t h r . d is the horizontal distance from the transmitter to the receiver. the gain won’t swing as the mobile station is In the actual propagation environment. on these reflection points.h r refer to the height of the transmitter and the receiver above the ground respectively. while when is . as shown in Figure 3-11. is less than . less than . when d from the base station. and the electric direction of the reflected wave is just opposite to the original with the phase difference of 180 degree. say. the h t . when 2n 1 . is more than . it can generate 6dB signal power gain.6 Fresnel Zone There are direct wave and reflected wave in the propagation path from the transmitter to the receiver. the first Fresnel zone definition contains some ellipsoids of reflection points. if the antenna height is relatively low and the distance is relatively far. 2 The change from this point is caused or caused together by the change of antenna height and propagation distance.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. is less than 4h t h r . the difference between the direct way path and the reflected wave path is small. Figure 3-11 Graphs of Direct incidence and reflection Ignore part of the signals from the transmitting point to the receiver through ground wave propagation (signals in ultra-high frequency and very-high frequency band can be ignored). the path difference between the reflected wave and direct way is half a wavelength. as shown 2-22 . then the square of the ratio of the total receiving field density an the free space density (unit: V/m) is: E rec 2 l 4 sin( 2 ) = 4 sin 2 2 hthr d (3-19) is The formula shows that n is a natural number. 2h t h r d . the two signals can be offset. In addition.

On the definition basis of the first Fresnel zone. if 55% of the first Fresnel zone. otherwise it might become the obstructive multi-path interference. As a matter of fact. the phrase difference between the two reflection paths is 180 degree. used for stadia microwave link designing remain unobstructed. and d r is the distance to the receiver) is: with h 0 (m) = dtdr d = 548 d tkm d rkm d km f MHz (3-20) Figure 3-12 The radium of the first Fresnel zone Take an example to illustrate that: in typical cities. Therefore. this point’s first Fresnel zone is h 0 l 5m. The radium of the nth Fresnel zone is: h n (m) = n dtdr d = 548 nd tkm d rkm d km f MHz (3-21) If the direct path jumps over the wavy terrains and ground buildings. then the conditions of other Fresnel zones won’t affect the diffraction loss. the height of antenna shall be built as high as possible above the ground. 2-23 . define the nth Fresnel zone as the reflection-point set. The first Fresnel zone is the main propagation zone. a point in the path with the coverage range is 2km. in which its propagation is half wavelength more than the n-1th.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy in Figure 3-12. The obstructive effect grows as the frequency increases. the diffraction loss is least. as to the frequency of 900MHz. suppose that the distance from this point to the transmitting antenna is 100m. its radium of the first Fresnel zone (the distance to the transmitter is d t . This conclusion will be applied to the below-mentioned antenna project designing. then the reflected wave will have positive effect on direct wave. As to a point in the path d in length. when obstacles don’t block the first Fresnel zone. according to experience.

each grid represents a sampling point. ground object disaggregated data is used to describe planar ground coverage. we can configure the system hardware parameters. industrial area. DEM data and DOM data adopts the grid data format. digital map is convenient to store. interference analysis and microwave propagation and so on) and simulate the network operation effect to guide the project construction. and used to calculate radio propagation path loss. The accuracy of the digitalized map includes 20m. Construction vector data is also applied to micro cellular prediction. Digital ground elevation model and ground object disaggregated model has related to prediction. downtown. Map data usually is composed of three data types: digital elevation model (DEM). digital map can be divided into vector digital map and grid digital map (such as scanning map). In order to cover prediction. we need to prepare and know the following information: Digitalized map with proper ratio of accuracy. Before using the ASSET software. frequency allocation and complete the network design (such as coverage prediction. feeder system parameters. or displayed on the computer screen by visual processing. open area. while 5m accuracy is generally used for micro cellular planning. Before officially beginning planning. ASSET software is the network planning software designed by Aircom company. Network and base station information mainly includes the configuration of MSC and BSC. latitude and longitude of the base station. ASSET network planning is carried out on the basis of digital map. transmit and update. Owing to different storage structure. Design consideration includes the purpose of this planning. which can be transformed into paper map by processing in computer. determine the frequency reuse mode (3) Add network element with multi methods (MSC. network hierarchy. the following work needs to be done: (1) Define the parameters related to propagation model and feeder system. traffic analysis. 50m. antenna type. such as forest. high building area and so on. network capacity. rivers and so on. lakes. Digital ground elevation model is used to describe the basic relief of this area and directly participate in the calculation of radio propagation model. configuration of network functional parameters. while LDM adopts vector data. frequency plan. 100. 50m or 100m accuracy can be applied to rural area. BSC.7 ASSET Software Introduction Below is the brief introduction about the above-mentioned ASSET planning software. 5m. and input antenna database (2) Define layer. By using ASSET software. neighboring cell allocation. we usually use vector digital map.Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 3. BTS and cell layer) (4) Improve various parameters in the database 2-24 . 20m accuracy is applied to urban area and suburb area. including highway. LDM is used to describe the relation between the plane distribution and the space of linear ground objects. Digital map is a map for record and storage in digital form. cell frequency hierarchy. streets. digital object model (DOM) and linear vector model (LDM). frequency range and frequency reuse mode.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy Thus. 2-25 . we can make use of ASSET software to complete the entire planning process.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 3 Radio Propagation Theroy 2-26 .

medium wave. it is divided into the following types in terms of its structual features: linear antenna and dish antenna. The antenna gain in a direction is the ratio of thepower density to that of ideal point source or half-wave dipole in the maxium radiation direction (dB refers to the difference). directoinal diagram. The ominidirectional radiator is one that assumes radiating equal power in all the directions. the antenna system serves as an interface with the exterior media. See Figure 4-1 for the diagram.1. while dBd is the reference value relative to half-wave dipole antenna. The definition of antenna gain is related to ominidirectional antenna or half-wave dipole antenna.1 Antenna gain Gain is one of the most important parameters for the antenna system. short wave. The model. Antenna radiation and receive radio wave: in transmission. Ideal isolated wave source Theoretical half wave dipole directional antenna dBd dBi Figure 4-1 Gain Comparison dBi indicates that antenna gain is the reference value of directional antenna relative to the ominidirectional radiator. it converts electromagnetic wave into high frequency current. the antenna works to convert high frequency current into electromagnetic wave. while receiving. 4-1 . Antenna can be divided into the following types in light of their work frequency band: untra-long wave.1 Basics of Antenna In a radio communiction system. it is divided into the following types in terms of direction: omni-antenna and directional antena. 4. long wave.15. gain. ultrashort wave and mircowave. driving antenna power. The relation between these two is expressed as follows: dB i = dB d + 2.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Chapter 4 About Antenna & Feeder cable 4. simple or complicated antenna configuration and atenna polarization etc will affect system performance.

where the antenna is in the shape of a column. For linear antenna. The directional diagram expressed in radiation filed strength is called field strength directional diagram. The plan antenna adopts E plane and H plane as the two principal planes. known as plane directional diagram. as the ground has great effect. The lobes other than the major lobe are called secondary lobe or side lobe or parasite lobe. also known as antenna beam. it adopts vertical plane and horizontal plane as its principal plan. where its antenna in the shape of a board. expressed in power indensity. The antenna directional diagram is a space solid figure. The radiation lobe required in the maximum radiation direction in the directional diagram is called antenna major lobe. The maxium of normalization direction diagram is 1. it is called phase directional directional diagram. The side lobe in the direction opposite to the major lobe is called back lobe as shown in Figure 4-2(a): diagram of omni-antenna horizontal lobe and vertical lobe. But the one in common application is a directional diagram inside two principal planes perpendicular to each other.2 Directional Diagram The directional diagram describes the dirstribution of antenna radiation electromagenetic field according to angular coordinate within a fixed range.1. 4-2(b): diagram of horizontal lobe and vertical lobe for directional antenna.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4. Figure 4-2(a) Diagram of omni-antenna lobe 4-2 .

as shown in Figure 4-3: vertical polarization incidental plane incidental wave reflection plane horizontal plane incidental plane incidental wave incidental plane Figure 4-3 Polarization Diagram As the horizontal polarized wave is perpendicular to the incident plane. it is parallel to the tangent plane of the reflection plane. Front-to-back ratio. it is called horizontal polarized wave.1.3 Polarization Polarization is one radiation feature describing the space direction of electromagnetic wave field strength vector. Normally. The electromagnetic wave with the space direction of electric field vector unchanged at any time is called straight line polarized wave. Take transmitting antenna for example. this is known as vertical polarization.707 (the gain falls by 3dB). Half power point lobe width refers to the included angle after the maximum electric field falls by 0. thus it is called horizontal polarization. antenna polarization refers to the polarization of electric wave radiated by the antenna in the maximum radiation direction (for transmitting antenna) or the polarization of incident plane wave (for receiving antenna) in the maximum receiving power (polarization match) direction. if the electric filed direction of the antenna radiation wave is within the radiation plane (made up of incident ray and the normal line of reflection plane). as the incident plane is aways perpendicular to the tangent plane of the reflection plane.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Figure 4-2(b) Diagram of directoinal antenna lobe The parameters commonly used for antenna diectional diagram include the following: Zero power lobe width refers to the included angle between the two zero radiation directions on both sides of maximum major lobe. this is also known as quadrature polarized wave. 4. The electric 4-3 . as the electric field vector of vertical polarized wave is parallel to the incident plane. when the electric direction of antenna radiation wave is perpendicular to the incident plane (made up of incident ray and the normal line of reflection plane). Secondary lobe level refers to the ratio of maximum secondary lobe to the maximum major lobe. Electric angle of downtilt.

the cross polarization and preset polarization is perpendicular in direction. For linear ploarized antenna.5:1. such as 40dB. Both the circular polarized wave and ellipse polarized wave feature rotating phase. Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) For VSWR in the base station antenna of mobile communication cellular system. if VSWR=1. the cross polarization and the preset polarization are opposite in rotating direction. The ratio of maximum and minimum value of their neighboring voltages is the voltage standing wave ratio. the isolation between the ports used for both receiving and transmitting shall be more than 30dB.1. known as circular polarized wave. Both circular polarized wave or ellipse polarized wave is composed of two linear polarized waves perpendicualr to each other. the reflection wave and incident wave will overlap on the feeder cable to form standing wave.(dB) = 20 lg Г . then the reflection coefficient is: Г = Z A −Z 0 Z A +Z 0 . For populous downtown area. it will shorten the communication distance. R.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder field vector forms a plane together with the transmitting direction.L. and the reflection power will return to the power amplifier of the transmitter. the antenna with greater front-to-back ratio shall be used. The energy of this kind is called cross polarized radiation component.4 Other technical indicators of antenna I. If this ratio is too high. so cross polarization is called quadrature polarization. III. R. Normally. For circular polarization antenna. II. it is called ellipse polarized wave. Port isolation For a multi-port antenna. where is 50 ohm. 1− Г . The return loss may also be used to indicate the match characteristic of the port. so that the power tube will get damaged easily.L. Front-to-back ratio (F/B) The difference between antenna maximum beam and back 180~_30° side lobe . VSWR = 1+ Г When antenna input impedance is not consistent with its characteristic impedance. If the two waves are of the same size. so as to reduce the indoor disturbance of the back lobe against high-rise buildings. Antenna may possibly radiate energy it does not need via polarization not preset. the antenna front-to-back ratio ranges between 18 45dB. The locus of electric field vector end points is a circle. 4. The space dirction of electric field vector is not aways the same. If indicates the antenna input impedance and is the antenna’s standard characteristic impedance. they will form ellipse polarized wave. known as polarized plane. 4-4 . such as bipolarization antenna and dual-band bipolarizatin antenna. if the locus is a ellipse.=13. its maximum value should be less than or equal to 1. they will make up circluar polarized wave.5:1. if not. in positive value.98dB.

There is no such requirement for parent zone base station antenna. the base station antenna should reduce the secondary lobes aimed at the interference area so as to raise D/U value. high gain antenna requires zero point filling technology to improve the nearby coverage and avoid signal fluctuation arising from unequal coverage in an effective way. if one atenna port is input a maximum of six carrier waves. In this case. As a result. Wind loading Base station antenna is normally installed on top of high buildings and iron towers. it indicates that the antenna is filled with zero point. Power capacity It refers to average power capacity. IX. the input interface for antenna adopts 7/16DIN-Female. Zero point filling Base station antenna is designed as shaped beam. Antenna input interface In order to improve the reliability of passive intermodulation and RF connection. the first upper secondary lobe should be less than -18dB. Upper secondary lobe suppressioin For cellular system. In order to make the ratiation level within the service area more even. in shaping beams. Antenna contains other coupling equipment such as match. The base station in parent zone has no such requirement in this respect. Normally. the antenna shall have a single port power capacity of more than 200W (when the environmental temmperature is 65 ). Before used. where the wind is very strong all year round. in order to improve the capacity of frequency multiplexing and reduce co-channel interference against its neighboring area. when the zero depth is greater than -20dB relative to the main beam. Passive intermodulation (PIM) In order to improve non-linear interference noise. the antenna should be as small as possible in size and as light as possible in weight. In consideration of the actaul maximum input power of the base station antenna (single carrier wave power is 20W). Antenna size and weight In order for the storage. VII. V. PIM of the antenna should be less than -103dBm (2x10W). especially in coastal areas. the antenna port should have a cover so as not to generate oxide or keep from foreign substance. then the input power of antenna is 120W. besides meeting various electric indicators. balance and phase ship.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder IV. 4-5 . so the power it can bear is limited. VI. thus it is requested that antenna be able to work properly against the wind at a speed of 36m/s. VIII. X. In particular. the first zero point of the lower secondary lobe needs to be filled without nay obvious zero depth. and get undamaged when the wind blows at a speed of 55m/s. transport and safety of antenna.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder XI. Work temperature and humidity Base station antenna should work properly within the environmental temperature range of -40 +65 . that is.1. With the movement of mobile station. frequency diversity. antenna size and height etc. channel interweaving. using the diversity method. then output the signals from various tributaries after consolidation. that is. Base station antenna should work properly within the environmental relative humidity ranging between 0 100%. receive the signals hardly related to each other which carry the same message in serveral tributaries. proof against moisture. Normally. Only obvious diversity is discussed hereunder. These two values are the major factors attributed to unstable receiving signal in mobile communication. such as RAKE receiving technology. antifading error correction coding technology. time diversity and field component diversity etc. General obvious diversity is used for suppressing rayleigh fading. several base stations separated by space fully or partly cover the same area. ploarization diversity. By implied diversity. the multiple slow fading signals transmitted via independent fading paths are unrelated to one another. 4. The omniantenna in a base station must permit of reverse installation and meet the above three proof requirements at the same time. This diversity may be divided into two types: base station obvious diversity and general obvious diversity. it is meant to imply the diversity function in the signal to be transmitted using signal design technologies. Due to different transmitting paths of electric wave and different shadow effects of land forms and ground objects. in this way will the probability of heavy fading at the receive terminal be reduced to a large extent. XIII. choose the best base station and mobile station to establish communication so as to eliminate the shadow effects and other geographic effects. and sometimes are obviously far from realistic. base station obvoius diversity is also called multiple base station diversity. XII. which make the receiving signal deteriorate greatly. while the logarithm normal fading varies with the signal average (median value). Lightning protection all the RF input ports of a base station antenna are required to be directlly grounded via DC. which will produce no interference. As there are multiple signals available. The traditional ways for this purpose are space diversity. “Three proof” capacity The base station antenna must possess the capacity of “three proof”. therefore.5 Antenna diversity I. such methods cost much in modile communication. Diversity characteristic Signal fading in mobile radio environment will give rise to serious problems. if using diversity combination and selecting tributary with the best SNR from the signals of various tributaries. the effect of fading is reduced by a large degree. proof against salt atmosphere and proof against mildew. diversity technology is used at the receiving station address in that the receiving equipment is passive. The diversity is of two types: one is obivious diversity and the other is implied diversity. It is unlikely that the signals undergo heavy fading at the same time. 4-6 . Therefore. Although this situation can be improved by increasing signal transmitting power. angle diversitym. In the base station obvious diversity. rayleigh fading will vary rapidly with the signal instantaneous value. that is. however.

Normally. the diversity antenna is designed in accordance with the parameter .. + k q S q (t ) where k 1 . because proper synthetic technique will bring forth desirable performance..In mobile communication. at the frequency output terminal and at the here should be fundamental frequency output terminal after demodulation. 5dB. These two methods are discussed as follows. then various diversity plans are able to implement the same related persformances. . Such technology is with a problem: principle of reciprocity can not be applied unless the mobile communication channels are simplified into an approximate linear time variation system.S q (t ) before synthesis. as it is very unlikely that heavy fading occurs at the same time. The relation between h and the actual antenna height h and antenna interval D is: . k q refers to weight coefficient. To reduce the effect of deterioration on transmitting diversity out of FDD work mode. II. the antenna interval of 4-7 . The so-called synthesis is nothing but how to sum up S() signals after synthetized can be expressed as follows: S(t ) = k 1 S 1 (t ) + k 2 S 2 (t ) + .For example. Mobile communication usually adopts space diversity and polarization diversity with the diversity gain of around . is normally 10. use Q multiple diversity with Q signals as S 1 (t ). But in fact. we usually adopt closed loop control to send diversity. The transmitting diversity technology is applied widely in 3G. the implementation of principle of reciprocity for receiving and transmitting of this system also requires that the transmitting and receiving are done within the same frequency band with the same fading characteristics...Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder It can be seen that the above diversity only improves the quality of uplink signals. where the interval between receiving and transmitting is far greater than the related bandwidth.These compound techniques are an important part of antenna technology. Moreover.We must also consider how to synthesize the multiple signals received by the diversity. equal gain compound (EGC). There are four synthetic techniques in common use: maximum ratio compound (MRC).If each coefficient relevant to each tributary is identical. The longer the space interval.. medium frequency signal S fundamental signal or . . Diversity and synthesis The diversity characteristics depend on the relevant coefficients between the quantity of diversity tributary and the receiving diversity. () understood as high frequency signal. the greater difference the muli-path transmission will have and the less relativity of the filed indensity received. And this is so-called transmitting diversity technology. k 2 . most mobile communication systems resort to FDD work mode.. whether it is possible to use the principle of reciprocity for linear system to implement the diversity technology for receiving end of mobile station larged limited in volumn shifted equally to the transmitting end. For antenna placed in horizontal interval. the diversity will reduce the fading effect to its minimum. any slight space change may result in great change in filed indensity. To select different weight coefficients will produce different synthesis method..For this purpose. Considering that the synthesis can be performed between each diversity antenna and the receiver. S 2 (t ). III. while the limit of mobile station in terms of volume. its details will not be mentioned herein. price and battery capacity etc makes it possible to implement speace diversity of multiple antenna. The in general form. As it goes beyond this textbook. Space diversity Space diversity is performed using the random change of field indensity with the space changes. the antenna is 30 meters in height. selective compound (SEC) and switch compound (SWC). it is required to determine necessary space intervals. To improve the transmitting quality of downlink signals.For example. In this situation.

mutual interference will not occur. there is no much difference between the said two polarization methods in practical application. Currently. when various multi-path signals at the receiving points are averaged. The space diversity requires two pieces of receiving antenna at certain intervals. This means that after the signals are transmitted via mobile radio medium. However.1. the above difference will basically disappear. Polarization diversity The polarization of electromagnetic wave is described hereinbefore. dual polarization diversity is able to provide low relativity indoors or in a car compared with the space diversity. Comparison between space diversity and polarization The greatest advantage of polarization diversity is to save antenna installation space.5 dB in improvement more than the space diversity. transmita and receive). There might be a difference of 1 2dB. for one dual poluaration antenna. In addition. the dual polarization antenna using vertical and horizontal quadrature polarized dipole compared with the dual polarization antenna using 45 quadrature polarized dipole (suppose the other conditions are the same). while polarization requires only one such antenna. as coupling effect is not used for medium. the energy of vertical polarized wave will leak to the horizontal polarized wave and vice versa. but how much difference remains to be proved in test. Antenna is poluarized in two manners: horizontal poloarization and vertical polarization. However. the said difference may possibly exist in a vast plain. As the path loss of horizontal polarizaton antenna is greater than that of vertical polarization antenna (the horizontal polarized wave has more chance of deploarization than the vertical polarized wave). receive) or three sets (receive. the space diversity antenna commonly seen in the project is made up of two sets (receive/transmit. 4.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 3 meters will get better diversity gain. To sum up. 45 quadrate polarization antenna is commonly seen on the present market. more and more projects have applied dual polarization antenna. But coupling effect will occur in mobile communication environment. for this direction is that of the major 4-8 . the enery leakage only involves a very small amount. as multi-path transmission exits. This is a standard three-sector celluar layout.Fortunately. From the diagram.6 Three-sector base station antenna selection derivation First of all. As a result. The accuracy of this conclusion is verified in various tests. But in practical application environment.5dB. In comparison. However. we can see that the interval between the two three-sector base stations is R+r. its gain improvement degree is 1. in an ideal free space (a mobile phone receiving antenna is vertically polarized). while one frequency carries signals of the said different polarization manners. the vertical antenna interval is greater than the horizontal antenna interval. compared with the main enery flow. we usually use R to estimate the cell coverage radius. while R=2r. Favorable diversity gains can be obtained through ploarization diversity. V. General space diversity is able to obtain a link gain of 3. the signals received by the mobile phone from the antenna is 3dB more than that of the latter. if the base station shares it for transmitting and receiving antenna in the way of dual polarization. In theory. This antenna contains two different types of polarization dipole. IV. the advantage of dual polarization receiving antenna is saving space for antenna installation. As transmitting antenna.Up to date. thus reducing the installation cost. it will gain 1.The greatest advantage of polarization diversity antenna only requires the installation of one set of antenna. let’s make clear a concept concering the cell base station radius as shown in Figure 4-4.5 dB less than the space diversity.

e. it will be around 10dB less than that in the direction of major lobe (deduction is as follows). If calcualted from path loss. the distance covered in r direction is half that in R direction. too. this layout may adopt directional antenna with a horizontal lobe (Azimuth beamwidth) of 60 65 degrees. To 4-9 . Figure 4-4 Three-sector Celluar Layout According to this feature. the effective radiated power in this direction as required may be about 10dB less than that in the direction of major lobe.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder lobe of directional antenna. that is. because their diagram of horizontal lobe gain has this feature. If R indicates the cell radius. As shown in Figure 4-5. However. while discussing a problem of this kind. then the cell area is S=0. Therefore.6495 R R. i. for the area whose included angle with the major lobe direction of the cell antenna.5981 r r. Figure 4-5 Presentation of R and r Let’s deduce the theoretic basis for the difference of 10dB between R direction and r direction in terms of path loss. we need to make clear what to be used as the cell radius. In a celluar cell. At this point the cell area is S=2. people sometimes call r as the cell radius. but r is often used to indicate the cell radius in cellluar layout. r=R/2. this cell is requried to cover a range of r=R/2. in this standard cell of 120 degrees.

There are two types of shaped beam. We choose urban HATA model for the path loss and the path loss from Point A to Point B is expressed in Equation (1): EIRPR-RXLEVB=69. it is always a complicated problem to reduce interference of the same channel. Suppose EIRP transmitted from Cell A is EIRPR in R direction and is EIRPr in r direction. shaped plane.5.9-6.9-6. as the height h1of base station increases from 5m to 100m.2. RxlvelB=RxlevelC.e.55lgh1)lgr (2) (1) The two equations subtract each other and the following equation will appear after coordination: EIRPR-EIRPr=(44. One is the radial direction diagram on the shaped plane.55lgh1) Through computer simulation.3×(44.1 Shaped beam technology In the cellular mobile system. while the base station antenna will radiate level as high as possible to its service area radiation. that is. lg(R/r) Series 1 Figure 4-6 Diagram of relation between the height of base station and value of EIRPR-EIRPr 4.9-6.55+21.55+21.55lgh1) Put R=2r in the result and you will get the following: EIRPR-EIRPr=0.55lgh1)lgR The path loss from Point A to Point C is expressed in Equation (2): EIRPr-RXLEVc=69.9-6.82lgh1+(44. the field intensity on the edge of this cell should be basically equal. i.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder keep balanced coverage.66lgf-13. In the cellular system.2 Antenna new technology 4. the cellular interference distance will increase.55lgh1)×(lgR-lgr)=(44.82lgh1+(44.9-6. and (EIRPR-EIRPr) decreases from 12 to 9. the other is radial direction diagram on the shaped vertical plane. 4-10 . Shaped beam technology has improved the reuse of spatial frequency spectrum. so that base station antenn will radiate level as low as possible to another cell using the same frequency.66lgf-13. it may be roughly treated as 10dB as shown in Figure 4-6. while replacing the omnidirectional beam with the fan-shaped beam.

while adjusting the downtilt angel of antenna. Corresponding to different methods for beam downtilt. The overall antenna directional diagram is within the local base station sector. Using the cosecant square shaped beam power directional diagram of the vertical plane may eliminate the zero points below the major lobe. 4-11 . thus changing the breadth of horizontal and vertical component as well as the component field intensity. In this way. This is attributed to the following reasons: the electric antenna is installed perpendicular to the ground (mechanical downtilt of 0 5 is optional). and the other is antenna to make adjustment of electric downtilt angle one the site according to practical needs. so the total carrierto-interference ratio increases. the interference level drops more than the carrier level. Electric adjustment antenna is of two types: one is the preset fixed electric downtilt angle antenna. The latter is described as follows. the overall antenna directional diagram is not within the sector of base station and the sector in the neighboring base station will also receive the signals from the said base station. We simply need such a directional diagram. in the event of network optimization. Strictly speaking. so as to ensure the antenna directional diagram will not change greatly after the change of downtilt angle. After electric adjustment antenna adopts the methods combining mechanic and electronics to decline by 15 . so as to ensure the antenna downtilt angle is at its best value. the form of antenna directional diagram changes greatly from the shape of juicy pear (grown in Hebei Province) to the shape of spindle. Through electric signal the antenna dipole phase is adjusted. to adjust the antenna downtilt angle. the advantage of electric antenna is: in the event of great downtilt angle. Although the coverage distance in the major lobe direction of the antenna undergoes no obvious change. but will not produce interference.One is electric adjustment downtilt to adjust the beam downtilt by changing the excitation coefficient of antenna array. To increase the downtilt degree will reduce the sector coverage. and the other is mechanical adjustment to change the downtilt angle of the antennal. the antenna itself will move too. so as to change antenna coverage distance. the antenna vertical directional diagram indicates that the existance of side lobe zero point may possibly lead to blind zone within the area to be covered. the antenna itself will not move. the coverage distance is obviously shorten in the major lobe direction with antenna directional diagram changing not so much.To date.The said technology mainly aims to decline the major beam so as to compress the FR level towards the directio and increase the carrier-to-interference ratio. but they are for the same purpose. you may use special test equipment for mobile communication to monitor the adjustment of antenna downtilt angle. so as to bring down the call loss and reduce the interference. This is also known as zero point filling technology. Once the antenna is installed. the antenna directional diagram will be transformed seriously. In addition. the vertical component and horizontal component of the antenna will remain unchanged in terms of breadth. After the mechanical antenna is installed perpendicular to the ground. It is necessary to change the antenna downtilt angle by adjusting the position of the rear rack of antenna. and changing the downtilt angle. In addition. thus resulting in interference. At the same time the filed intensity in each direction of the antenna increases or decreases. Although the coverage distance in the major lobe direction is obviously shortened.In this case. in the course of adjusting antenna downtilt angel.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder When the antenna at a fixed height illuminates a limited horizontal plane. Therefore. you do not have to shut down while using electric antenna. so that the area to be covered has equal receiving signal level. beam downtilt is not really the shaped beam technology. the global celluar system around is basically using a processing technology known as beam downtilt. antenna is divided into electric adjustment antenna and mechanical antenna. As a result. although the carrier wave level on the edge of area falls. management and maintenance. there are two ways to decline the beam. When the mechanical antenna declines by 15 . the directional diagram of the antenna will not change greatly with the coverage distance shortened obviously in the direction of major lobe.

It has become major factors for people to consider how to eliminate co-channel interference (CCI). to produce space directional beam so that the antenna major beam is aimed at the direction where the user signals arrive with its side lobes aimed at the direction where the interference signal will arrive. it is necessary to shorten the station distance and increase the antenna downtilt angle. In addition. The greatest disadvantages of system radio base station is it wastes radio signal energy.1 . One of the important reasons is that the downtilt degree of mechanical antenna is too large.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder The step degree of downtilt angle for electric antenna is 0. Otherwise. such as mountaintop or special buildings. Therefore. the Level 3 intermodulation index is very important to eliminate adjacent frequency interference and scattering interference. large interference will occur. And monitoring cannot be conducted when the antenna downtilt angle is being adjusted. the radio mobile communicaiton technology as the major means of individual communication in the future attracts much attention among the general public. the applied research on intelligent antenna technology is just in the ascendant and reveals huge potentials. in the area of high traffic intensity with small distance between base stations but much carrier frequency. only a small amount of signal energy can reach the destination. it is requested that the index for Level 3 intermodulation should reach around -150dBc. it is required to shut down the entire system. It is recommended that the mechanical antenna be replaced by electric antenna in traffic-intensive areas. Normally. when the base station is receiving signals. Besides. it receives not only useful signals 4-12 . Furthermore. Normally. so antenna directional diagram gets distorted seriously. the index for Level 3 normal intermodulation of electric antenna is -150dBc. and it will differ form the actual best downtilt angle to some extent. However. while the step degree for mechanical antenna is 1 . while such index for mechanical antenna is -120dBc. it takes much trouble to adjust the downtilt angle for mechanical antenna. To solve the problem of insufficient capacity in areas with much traffic. the antenna directional diagram will be distorted quite seriously. They may also perform remote monitoring adjustment on the base station antenna on top of high mountains and in remote areas. While adjusting the downtilt angle of mechanical antenna. In addition. China Mobile Communication Network is suffering much call loss and large interference in the areas with high traffic intensity. when the downtilt angle is more than 10 . In particular. it is very different to solve the problem of high call loss and large interference in areas with high user intensity through mechanical antenna. 4. Currently. electric antenna is highly precise and yields good result. The replaced antennas may be installed in the rural areas and suburbs where the traffic intensity is relatively low. while adjusting antenna downtilt angle. the maintenance personnel shall have to clime to the place where the antenna is installed at night before making adjustment. When electric antenna is installed. the maintenance personnel do not have to clime to the place where the antenna is installed but adjust the downtilt angle on the ground. The downtilt angle of mechanical antenna is a theoretical value through calculation by computer simulation analysis software. it is rather difficult to adjust some antennas after they have been installed. so as to attain the objective of making most of mobile user signals and of deleting or suppressing the interference signals.2 Intelligent Antenna With the rapid development of global telecommunication services. the difference of the two is 30dBc. The intelligent antenna uses digital signal processing technology and adopts advanced switched beam technology as well as adaptive spatial digital processing technology. But while using mechanical antenna.2. multi-address interference (MAI) and multi-pathm fading in improving the performance of radio mobile communication system. Compared with other deepening and maturing technologies for eliminating interferences. Therefore. Thus.

It is able to receive the signals from a specified user and transfer the signal enegy to the said user in a more effective way. adaptive antenna adopts an array element structure of 6 16 antennas with a interval of 1/2 wavelength between array elements. Different from traditional TDMA. known as multi-beam antenna and adaptive antenna. Intelligent antenna is of two major types: multi-beam intelligent antenna and adaptive array antenna. the receiving effect will be the worst. The general structure of intelligent antenna is shown in Figure 4-7(a): 4-13 . To be specific. the latter is the main type of intelligent antenna. the interval is generally half wave length. multi-beam antenna cannot achieve best reception of signals. FDMA or CDMA. (5) Reduce transmitting power of base station. With the users moving in the cell. the correlativity of received signals to each other will be reduced. intelligent antenna will improve the performance of future mobile communication system in the following aspects: (1) Enlarge system coverage. Thus. so as to make the signals received the strongest. the user is still able to differentiate them in light of the space transmitting paths of the signals. Normally. It is not the case with intelligent antenna. multibeam antenna has such advantages as simple structure and no need for judging the direction where the user signal reaches. As user signals are not necessarily at the center of fixed beams. If such interval is too large. Adaptive array antenna provides different space channels tantamount to the cables for wire transmission in light of different user signals.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder but also interference noice from other signals. It is generally used as receiving antenna. which works to notably reduce the interference of user signals with each other under the control of parellel antenna beams directed to different users. (2) Reduce interference and raise system capacity. so as to lower system cost and reduce interference between signals and environmental pollution of electromagnetism. if such interval is too small. so as to ward off the effect of interference on the system. compared with adaptive array antenna. (4) Raise the sensitivity of base station. the base station will choose different beams accordingly. frequency or address code. Multi-antenna uses multiple parallel beams to cover the entire user area with each beam pointing to a fixed place. With the same time slot. The beamwidth varies with the number of array elements. Adaptive array antenna system adopts digital signal processing technology to identify the direction where the user signals reach and then form major beam of the antenna in this direction. when the user is at the edge of beam with the interference signal at the heart of beam. there will arise unnecessary grid slobes. However. Therefore. Intelligent antenna is equal to a time space filter. (3) Improve utilization rate of high frequency spectrum. intelligent antenna introduces the fourth dimension multiple access: SDMA.

(2) various minimum mean square algorithms (LMS). each FR receive-and-sent unit has ADC and DAC. As shown in Firgure 4-7(b). These adaptive algorithm has their own advantages and disadvantages. ESPRIT. Adaptive algorithms in common use include the following: (1) Direct sampling covariance matrix inversion algorithm (DMI). and maximum likelihood algorithms etc. (4) constant model algorithm (CMA) etc. and convert the digital signals to be transmitted into analog baseband signals. so as to perform the conversion between analog signals and digital signals. the most common of which are SINR. What should be pointed out is that this group of radio receive-and-transmit units will use the same local vibration source. The representative algorithm for signal direction AOA (Angle of Arrival) is Music. or Wiener-Kolmogorov solution. it describes a block diagram of CDMA base station with intelligent antenna. All the signals received and 4-14 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Figure 4-7(a) Structure of Intelligent Antenna (b) Diagram of TDD Radio Base Station with Intelligent Antenna Antenna array may take such shapes as straight line. MMSE. It has been proved that the best weight coefficients using the above four rules will result in equal steady state solution. From the figure. circle or two-dimention plane. we can see that compared with the traditional base station without intelligent antenna. Hereunder is the detailed description of matrix expression of shaped beams. it has FR part composed of an antenna array and a group of receive-and-transmit units on its hardware. Proper algorithm should be selected in practical application in light of practical conditions. recursion least square algorithm (RLS). The aim of adaptive beam shaping is to obtain best weight coefficient through adaptive algorithm. which enables antenna array to produce directional beams pointing to the mobile subscribers according to certain standards and automatically adjust the weight coefficient so as to achieve space filtering as required. while the hardware for baseband signal processing is basically the same. which convert the baseband analog signals received into digital signals. Intelligent antenna is required to solve the following two key problems: identify the signal direction and achieve digital shaping (matrix). What algorith to take requires considering adaptive rules. The core of antenna system is the digital signal processing unit. minimum mean square and maximum likelihood etc. As shown in Figure 4-7(b). working in TDD mode. so as to ensure this group is working in a corelative way.

and there are several algorithms available. Ominidirectional beam and shaped beam Intelligent antenna’s major functions are performed through adaptive transmission and shaping the received beam. the following problems should be solved in respect of standard. Use Yj( ) to indicate Symbol tranmitted to this user from code channel j. Intelligent antenna technology will bring much good to radio communicaiton. It must be pointed out that the only thing already known is the geometric structure and the signals received by various receivers of the antenna array in finding this beam shaping matrix. and have other interferences and noises. Furthermore. we must find out a good algorithm for uplink beam shaping. Obviously. the researchers have done a lot of work. These upsteam signals have such effects as multi-address interference. The signals transmitted from antenna array element i via the downlink beam shaping of intelligent antenna (adjust the amplitude and phase of the signals transmitted from each transmitter in the base station) can be expressed as: where U is downsteam beam shaping matrix for element uji( ). Use Si(n) for the output of Receiver i as shown in the figure at n time point. in order for the user to get the best signals. From Figure 4-7(b). consideration must be given to the problems arising from the application of intelligent antenna to CDMA system. Next. the shaping of beams received and 4-15 . produce and network design: I. or a method for obtaining W matrix. whose matrix element is Wij( ). let’s first study the signals from multiple user terminals. it is necessary to find out a good algorithm for downlink beam shaping. Through deamplification and the corresponding digital siganl processing. multi-path transmission and doppler frequency shift. the total data received from the intelligent antenna should be: W refers to uplink beam shaping matrix.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder transmitted are connected by a group of high-speed digital buses and baseband digital signal processor. In this respect. you may get the data received from each code channel. However. mainly limited to the processing capacity of baseband processor and the requirements on real-time work. or a method for obtaining U matrix. the intelligent antenna will shape its downlink beams. especially in improving CDMA system performance and reducing its cost. to get the best receiption. If we use Xji( ) to indicate the array elements of Symbol of Code channel j received at Antenna i . then after beam shaping (composition) on the baseband. At the same time. fading.

synchronization. which serves to improve the system performance directly. in general. the base station must provide omnidirectional and directional shaped beams. 4-16 . therefore. That is to say. one more access process may be added to transmit signals to each user in a fixed direction. broadcast and paging). the base station will use omnidirectional beams for transmission (such physical channels in the system as Pilot. when the user is not transmitting but only receiving signals and moving within the area covered by the base station (idle status). only omnidirectional downlink beam should be used. This must be taken into account in system design. an omnidirectional channel requirs much higher transmitting power (the maximum power possible is 101gN dB higher than the dedicated channel. In this case.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder transmitted is done on the basis of geometric structure. However. it is impossible fo the base station to know exactly where the user is. In this sense. as the users move. In addition. For the base station with omnidirectional coverage as shown in Figure 4-8. it is impossible for the base station to locate the useres. Shared downlink channel and discontinuous transmission The mobile communication system providing IP data services is designed with uplink and downlink channels shared by multiple users and discontinuous transmission technology is used in the base station and at the user terminal. In a base station using intelligent antenna.where N is the quantity of antenna array elements. system requirements and the user signals received with respect to the base station antenna. Under mobile communication system. different beams are transmitted from different code channels. These two methods each have their advantages and may be possibly used. the intelligent antenna uses shaped beams on the uplink signal of each user. Figure 4-8 Diagram of Coverage Requirements on Different Channels II.

so as to achieve the best results. it is required to provide technology of automatic and real time alignm of intelligent antenna. it is impossible that the radio transceiver on each channel is totally the same. its doppler frequency shif approaches 200Hz and the change of user terminal location within 10ms will reach 28cm. it is required to combine the intelligent antenna with other anti-interference digital signal processing technologies. Alignment of intelligent antenna While using intelligent antenna. will definitely be totally the same. work level and environmental conditions. V. Under the serious environment of multipath high-speed movements. It will not only fail to gain the advantages of intelligent antenna but also cannot even communicate at all.These digital signal processing technologies include joint detection. the practical intelligent antenna algorithm still can neither solve the problem of multi-path interference arising from time delay over the width of one code nor overcome channel deterioration as a result of doppler effect out of high-speed movements.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder III. mobile communication is a time variant channel. moreover. interference cancellation and Rake receiption etc. At 2GHz frequency band. its performance may vary with such factors as period. when the user terminal moves at a speed of 100km/h. While using intelligent antenna in TDD system. to use intelligent antenna may allow you to design the physical layer in a more effective way. basic technologies for the physical layer as modulation demodulation. error correction and data multiple connection. For example. so as to reduce the interference arising from cell search and random access etc. Thus. it already exceeds one wavelength. thus the functions of intelligent antenna are brought into full play. resulting in huge error in shaping downlink beams. specified uplink and downlink Pilot time slots are used in the design of time slots at the physical layer. use the uplink beam shaping coefficient directly to shape downlink beam in accordance with the principle of reciprocity in electromagnetic field theory. spread spectrum. in the TD-SCDMA-recommended system. VI. Therefore. TDD cycle is expected to be reduced at least by half. Frame structure and relevant physical layer technology There is no special requirement on physical layer technology for a mobile communication system in using intelligent antenna. However. Without real-time automatic alignment. 4-17 . Combination of antenna with other anti-interference technologies Presently. but for actual radio base station. the combination of intelligent antenna with joint detection or interference cancellation already has practical algorithm. Currently. the downlink beam shaping will be affected seriously. so it is requested that TDD cycle should not be too long. there must be a comprise between the algorithm complication and real time implementation of the intelligent antenna.. Intelligetn antenna uses received signals to shape the uplink and downlink beams. so that the interval between transmitting and receiving is within the range of 2-3ms in order to ensure the intelligent antenna works in a proper way. If this system terminal is required to mover faster. TDD uplink and downlink conversion cycle should be shortened further. synchronous CDMA technology is used to simplify the tranceiver. Moreover. For example. IV. while the algorithm for its combination with Rake receiver is still under research. channel coding. Problem of beam shaping speed It must be noted that due to the mobility of user terminal.

4-18 . this determines it impossible to have a large number of antenna elements. the performances of intelligent antenna will increase with the increase in the number of antenna array elements. The characteristic of multiple sources and paths requires the research and development of intelligent antenna to gain momentus in the following aspects: have a full understanding of the mobile communication environment. so the complication of baseband processing requires more and more in respect of microelectronic technique. other new problems occur to intelligent antenna: serious multi-path problem and message sources generally outnumber antenna array elements. to increase the number of antenna array elements will add to the complication of the system. the number of elements should range between 6 and 16. such as power control. It has become possible to apply intelligent antenna to WCDMA TDD system. intelligent antenna is one of the key technologies for TD-SCDMA system. Nowadays. as the mobile communication environment is particular. synchronous technologies and RAKE receiption with the objective of eliminating. especially the space dimension characteristic. balancing and utilizing interference in a better way so as to improve system performance. Consideration of equipment complication Apparently. On the basis of understanding the particularity of mobile communication environment. As a matter of fact. CDMA system trends towards broad band and the code rate already stands quite high.According to the current level. intelligent antenna technology is considered internationally as a major development trend of mobile communication technology later than the third generation. Such complication will ascend by geometrical progression in respect of the quantity of baseband digital signals to be processed. develop new algorithms in seamless connection with the mobile communication system and other radio technologies. Currently. However. research on the interworking of intelligent antenna with other technologies. multipl user detection.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder VII. In addition. which requires not only new models created for mobile communication environment but more test results. In this way.

However.1 Antenna Downtilt Design In designing antenna downtilts. thus forming a specific celluar network. antenna height. it is appropriate to select the antenna with higher gains in network planning within a region of intensive base stations. but antenna with high gains will easily result in unfavorable coverage in the vicinity. ranging from the macro layout of multiple base stations in radio network to the location of a single base station. direction. zero point filling technology must taken into account. it is not necessarily adaptable to all the transmission environments. Normally. As a result of such reasons as manufacturing technique.As radio signals are transmitted closed related to the environment (such as loss in the area with dense high buildings. gains. the performance indexes of the antenna itself are selected according to the characteristics of radio network such as the intensity of base stations and macro coverage goal. which will have effect on the transmission of electric waves). direction.3. the horizontal half power angle of the antenna is in inverse ratio against its vertical half power angle with their relationship expressed as follows: G =32600/( ) Where Ga is antenna gain (a multiplying factor. we know thaqt when antenna gain is relatively small. consideration must given to the following factors: antenna height. Hereunder is the analysis of the relationship between such elements of the anntenna as its height. The factors affecting cellular layout in radio network planning are mainly reflected through the design of project parameters. azimuth angle. It must be noted that this formula only yields a theoretical value. while the antenna height. 4. if careful consideration is given to the regularity of cellular structure as well as the range to be covered by the cell and coverage goal. the vertical half power angle and the horizontal half power angle of antenna are normally large. and vice versa. which should be converted into dB value). downtilt and coverage goal (cell radius is R). lobe width. it may help lay a solid foundation for the quality of radio network.3 Antenna Downtilt Planning In cellular communication.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4. before specific application. In serious cases. the reflection of mountains.e. the actual antenna index will be different. coverage theory. As is known all. In order to better control trans-regional coverage. it seldom changes thereafter. direction. regular cellular layout. downtilt and coverage goal should be finalized in accordance with the parameters specified previously and the specific coverage goal of a single cell. and the recommended value of the antenna downtilt under certain condition will be given. once the location of base station is determined in combination of networking requirements and external ojective conditions. frequency multiplexing theory and BSS functional algorithm are all based on the same precondtion. especially the width of vertical lobe. water surface or huge glass walls. when the antenna gain is determined. From the above formula. downtilt and EIRP etc. vertical half power angle and the cell range expected to be covered. Therefore. it is prefered to look up antenna technical manual. 4-19 . is vertical half power angle and is horizontal half power angle. i.

azimuth angle. the distance D must be less than the distance worked out according to the formula in absence of a downtilt. the relationship between the coverage distance and antenna downtilt is shown in Figure 4-10. In a situation where the vertical beam width is 17 degrees and the base station antenna is 40 meters high. when the antenna has no downtilt or the angle is very small. antenna gain will come down slowly.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder For the base stations distributed in downtown areas. while considering the size of antenna downtilt. downtilt as and the vertical half power angle as . Figure 4-9 Relation between Antenna Major Lobe Beams and the Ground It can be seen that when antenna downtilt is 0 degree. then the relation between the antenna major lobe beams and the ground as shown in Figure 4-9. the application of this formula is limited by the following conditions: the downtilt must be greater than half of the half power angle. For vertical beam width in the above formula. The actual result of practical application on the optimism site reveals that this formula is of great guiding significance. When the vertical beam width is 6. as the above formula fails to consider the downtilt. the service range of each cell is subject to the height. within the scope of half power angle. According to the above analysis and the theories for triangle geometry. the scope ranging from the extension line of the half power angle to the intersection point on the ground (Point B) may be regarded as the actual coverage area of this antenna. gain. downtilt. According to technical performance of the antenna. antenna beam major lobes or major energy radiate horizontally. when the antenna downtilt is relatively large. At this point. it can be deduced that the relationship between antenna height. the coverage radius may be calculated through Okumura-Hata or COST231 formula. and coverage distance is as follows: = arctan(H/D)+ /2 The above formula may be used to estimate the coverage distance after the downtilt has been adjusted. antenna gain (especially the upper lobe) will fall sharply. thus it is impossible to work out the coverage radius (if there is an accurate transmission model and digital map. when antenna declines by degrees. much energy will be radiated in the direction from Point A to Point B. direction estimation can be done in accordance with the size of vertical half power angle and the downtilt of the antenna on the basis of triangle geomety formula as follows: Suppose the radius to be covered is D(m) with antenna height as H(m). beyond the half power angle. However. In this case. transmitting power and land forms and ground objects with regard to the antenna. the extension line in the direction of major lobes will ultimately intersect a point on the ground (Point A). pleaes refer to the specific antenna technical index or work out the rough value.5 degrees 4-20 . ASSET may be figured out). As antenna is of certain beam width vertically. Therefore.

to control trans-regional coverage in a better way. coverage distance-declination angle distance (meter ) declination angle (degree) Figure 4-10 Relation between Coverage Distance and Downtilt (vertical beam width as 17 degrees. and antenna height as 40 meters) Seen from the above two figures. 4-21 . In this way. As a result. we should choose an antenna of small vertical beam width with zero point filling function while selecting antennas in the planning stage. the relation between the coverage distance and the vertical beam width of the antenna is as follows: The smaller the vertical beam width. and antenna height as 40 meters) coverage distance-declination angle distance (meter ) declination angle (degree) Figure 4-11 Relation between Coverage Distance and Downtilt (vertical beam width as 65 degrees. when the antenna height and downtilt are specified. the relationship the coverage distance and antenna downtilt is shown in Figure 4-11. it will prevent trans-regional interference and improve the coverage in the vicinity and indoor coverage. However.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder and the base station antenna is 40 meters high. the coverage distance will be shorter.

According to what is discussed above and in combination with A anntenna in most common use and the commonly seen antenna height antenna (25 50 meters). it is necessary to adopt the combination of electric downtilt and mechanical downtilt. For example. The distance D from the base station in downtown area to the coverage desitination may be simplified as the designed cell radius (diameter as R). a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. As electric downtilt is more expensive and requires customization. Combine mechanical downtilt in network capacity enlargement and optimization. the antenna height H refers to the relative height of the base station and the coverage designation. a gain of 15 dBi Vertical half power angle of antenna 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Cell radius R(m) 200 250 250 250 250 500 500 500 500 800 1000 Antenna height 50 50 40 30 25 50 40 30 25 30 30 Downtilt angle 20 17 15 13 12 12 11 10 9 8 2 From this we can see that when the cell radius is too small. we cannot but reduce the antenna height. 800 and 1000 meters. As the anntenna capable of onsite adjustment of electric downtilt angle is rather expensive. the lobes are easily distorted. the minimum cell radius is 250 meters. It must be noted that the adjustment of downtilt may serve to control the coverage area in addition to improve the indoors coverage in the vicinity of the base station. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees.2 Practical Application In order for practical application considering the necessary overlap of some areas between adjacent cells. in the event of more than 10 degrees. The same is true of other circumstances. so as to set large downtilt angle of 15 20 degrees. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. Antenna model 65 degrees. for a base station with its antenna of 40-50 meters in height. the ideal height for macro cellular antenna in downtown areas is 4-22 . antenna mechanical downtilt cannot ensure control of coverage area. As a result. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. Otherwise. At this time. Normally. Therefore. At this time. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. both of which have equal effect on the coverage.Antenna downtilt is divided into mechanical downtilt and electric downtilt. thus causing new trans-regional interference or excessive cross coverage between neighboring cells. 4. GSM900 selects antenna of 65 degrees and 15dBi. another conclusion is that the downtilt of mechanical downtilt should not exceed the half power beam width within the vertical plane of the said antenna. thus causing unexpected interference against other cells. we usually adopts mechanical desclination. It is generally believed that it is a scientific approach to keep the mechanical downtilt of the antenna below 10 degrees. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. the horizontal lobe or gain will get larger. coverage is distorted. we wish to adopt electric antenna in populous downtown areas for networking.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder when the vertical beam width grows smaller. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. In application. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. if it is difficult to reduce the height. 500. a gain of 15 dBi 65 degrees. and this article only treats of the areas similar to plains. the width of vertical lobe ranges between 11-15 degrees. the value recommended for antenna downtilt angle under the cell radius of 250. antennas of medium gain are usually chosen in urban areas. in terms of the goal of maximum rationaliztion. we normally use antenna with preset factory 6 7 degrees of electric downtilt (or the average downtilt angle within the coverage area). but the coverage far from the base station will get worse.3.

When the base station is over 800 meters away from the coverage destination. wide vertical lobe (low gain). In this case. the most concern is still the coverage of a large area. the surrounding geographical environment around the base station will be combined to use the obstruction of tall building or mountain to control the coverage area.e. and thus the inverse and upright installation will have equal effect. the major lobe should avoid being directed to a straight street. However. careful consideration should be given to inverse installation.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 25 30 meters and the antenna in suburbs or directed to the suburbs is 40 meters in height. At this time. dense architectural complex and slope on electric waves. consideration should also be given to shadow effect caused by the buidling roof. it is recommended to adopt electric downtilt while selecting antenna in populous urban areas. its angle of downtilt may also be large. However. if the base station has been installed in a higher position. R=800m) between stations. the surroundings around the base station are quite complex. It is required to consider the downtilt angle at this time. When a cell needs to cover an area higher than the antenna. water surface and tall glass walls into consideration in that such reflection will easily cause unexpected adjacent frequency interference with other base stations and even its own time dispersion effect. because the front-to-back ratio for general antenna nowadays only stands at 20dB. Normally. If the base station is placed too high and thus necessitating the coverage of valleys far lower than the base station ( more than 50 60 meters or depression angle more than 5 degrees) and only omni-antenna can be used. under special circumstances.). in practical networking. The back lobes with strong signals will easily cause much interference against high buildings. Networking in populous downtown area should also consider the street effect and unexpected trans-regional coverage arising from the antenna major lobe right directed to the street. it is necessary to consider using omni-antenna characterized by electric downtilt angle (3 degrees or 5 degrees etc. and take note of the effect of upper secondary lobes. 4-23 . We must also give consideration to the direction after the antenna back lobe declines on the major lobe of the antenna. it is possible to adopt inverse directional antenna or negative angle of downtilt. in practial project. for example. 50 The above method for calculating downtilt angle is mainly applicable to the dense base station networking with an interval of less than 1200 meters (i. zero point filling or improvement on the gain of lower secondary lobe in order to improve the coverage near the base station and avoid possible signal fluctuation caused by “blind under tower” and unequal coverage. The antenna is required to proof against water. The downtilt angle must also take the reflection from the neighboring mountains. In general. the vertical power angle of omni-antenna is symetric vertically along the plane. the vertical directional diagram of specific omni-antenna should still be taken into consideration to check if the electric downtilt angle is already available. the angle of downtilt is normally 1 4 degrees. Therefore. It is not necessary to consider the effect of vertical half power angle in working out the antenna downtilt angle.

we select an antenna whose horizonal half power beam width is 65 . the entire network uses a single type of omni-antenna. rual area and highroad. interference and network service quality of the network. those antennas with beam width over 90 will not be chosen. As a result. almost the gains of all the antennas used in the entire network stand quite high. it is recommended to select the antennas with medium gains.4 Antenna Selection In mobile communication network. thus distorting the directional diagram and causing problems with coverage. For example. the environment for using antennas can be divided into 4 types in light of the land form or the distribution of traffic: urban area. As the selection of antenna is closely related to coverage requirement. the beam widht of antenna horizonal half power should be small. consideration is only given to selecting dual polarization antenna from the angle of engineering installation. reducing the itnerference between base stations and improving frequency multiplexing rate. Too much attention is focused on the high gain performance of the antenna without regard to the disadvantages of such performance. high secondary lobe.4. and reduce the interference between base stations. in selecting omni-antenna. Selection of antenna gain As the base station in urban areas normally requies no large coverage distance. In principle. A proper antenna will enlarge the coverage. The weak points of high-gain antenna are as follows: large size. it is a very important part to select an antenna. which leads to “blind under tower” as a result of narrow vertical plane beam when the antenna is placed high. simulation indicates there should be different limits on downtilt angle in light of antennas with different gains. 4. Normally. deep zero lobe and narrow vertical beams. the vertical beam of 4-24 . Actually.1 Current Problems of Using Antenna Little consideration is given to the relation between the actual land form and the antenna directional diagram with antenna selected simply in consideration of the distribution of covered traffic. many places decline the antenna in a very large angle in order to reduce interference without regard to antenna directional diagram. Without regard to the difference between dual polarization antenna and vertical polarization antenna in terms of use. Oblivious to the limit on the use of antenna. 4. Selection of antenna horizonal half power beam width As there are a large number of base stations distributed in urban areas.2 Application Principle for Base Station Antenna in Urban Areas In urban areas._ II. the antenna should meet the following requirements: I. overlapping coverage and frequency interference will arise as a serious problem. suburb. Normally. We should make a choice in light of practical conditions such as the requirement on coverage. heavy.4. as the base stations are densely distributes. reduce interference and improve service quality. it is requeste that a single base station covers a small area in hopes of reducing trans-regional coverage. To reduce the overlapping area of adjacent sectors. traffic.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4. Thus.

in general.3 Application Principle for Suburb Base Station Antenna In the suburbs. We may estimate what type of antenn is required according to the coverage area as required. If the equipment buyer requires farther base station coverage distance. the application of antennas should follow the principles hereunder. it is recommended to select a gain of 15dBi (900MHz) or 15-18dBi (1800MHz) for antennas in urban areas. it is allowed to select an antenna with its first upper secondary lobe suppressed and the first lower zero point filled (shaping technology). It should be noted that the large coverage herein does not mean long coverage distance but large coverage area without apprarent directions. it is not recommended to adopt an omni-antenna in this case. if the coverage distance is required to be long. and the traffic around the base station is scattered.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder antenna can be made wider. it is recommended to select dual poluarization antenna. antenns with higher gains such as 17dBi 18dBi can be selected. Generally. whose size is subject to practical conditions (6-9 preferred). As it is different to select a site for an urban base station. things are largely different. it is generally very small. Inside a city. If a lot of base stations are around. we should use a 4-25 . 4. the coverage distance is not as long as the directional base station. refer to the slection antennas in uran areas for the the principle for antenna selection. the installation space for antenna is limited. we should select an antenna with fixed electric downtilt angle. while designing base station coverage in urban areas.4. According to the current antenna models.At the same time. Under indentical or similar electric indicators.4 Application principle for base station antennas in rural areas As rural areas require small amount of traffic but large coverage. Generally. However. reduce trans-regional interference and improve D/U value (the ratio of useful signal level to useless signal level). we should also pay attention to the following fact: as omni-directional base station has small gains. At the same time. it is recommended in this case to adopt the omnidirectional coverage of base station. Even if a downtilt angle is used. If the base station is required to cover its neighboring areas without obvious directions. the antenna of this kind usually has no fixed angle of downtilt. it is imperative to give priority to the antenna with its horizonal half power beam width of 90 . For a base station on the outskirt of a city. in order to raise the frequency multiplexing rate. the size and weight of antenna can become smaller instrumental to the installation and reducing cost. Normally. Whether to adopt an angle of downtilt is subject to practical conditions. it is required to use three directional antennas to attain this objective. so as to enhance the coverage effect within the area to be covered. In principle. 4. it is better to select an antenna of small size. When there are few base stations around. With a view to smooth upgrading in the furture.4. we may comply with the following basic principles: We may select an antenna with its horizonal half power beam width as 65 or 90 in light of practical conditions.

8-shaped antenna may be used for this purpose.4.In this way. narrow beam directional antenna can be used to this effect. To cover highroads and scattered villages around them. For high stations in mountaineous areas (the relative height of antenna is over 50 meters). It is recommended to give priority to 8shaped antenna and 210 antenna to cover highroads. To cover an expressway and the towns along the highroad. As required for large coverage in rural areas. While solving this problem via an angle of downtilt. The directional diagram of the said two antennas is shown as follows. we should generally select antennas with zero point filling function to solve the problem with “blind under tower” in short range. we may consider using an omni-antenna. To cover expressways. the principle for selecting antenna is as follows: For a base station designed to cover the areas along railways and highroads. we may substitute two pieces of vertical polarization antenna for dual polarization antenna. the number of base stations may fall. 4. so as to achieve the coverage of expressways. we should note the reduction of coverage area. the antenna with horizonal half power beam width of 210 may be used.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder directional antenna with horizonal half beam width of either 90 or 120 . if conditions permit. Another thing requiring attention is that vertical polarization antenna has more diversity effect and stronger capacity against slow fading than dual polarization antenna.5 Application principle for antennas to cover highroads To covcer highroad areas. 210 directional diagram town highroad base station mountain Figure 4-12 (a) 210-degree Antenna 4-26 .

in selecting antennas. 4. this must be considered more carefully. as the azimuth angle of antenna requires regular adjustment during the network optimization period. we may consider using omni-antenna. In fact. capacity expansion will inevitably lead to the drop in coverage distance. especially in rural areas. we should take into account of an omni-antenna with zero point filling.4. where few types of stations exist. with the increase of carrier frequency. capacity expansion in the future and basic performances should also be taken into consideration in selecting antennas. these problems should be anticipated when antenna type is selected.7 Notes on special antennas Zero point filled antenna serve to solve the problem of “blind under tower” without any effect in other respects. consideration should be given to the distribution of traffic and surrounding station types. In addition. and there is almost no traffic on the other side. Here is a simple example: If 210 antenna is selected for an expressway. If the traffic is only distributed on one side of the base station. the quantity of carrier frequency should increase to meet the demand on capacity expansion provided that the said area sees a traffic rise in the future. In rural areas.4. if the traffic is distributed equally around the base station. Due to different CF configurations of base station.6 Other factors in antenna application The basic principles for selecting antennas in different places are described as above. 4-27 . In this case. In addition. It is recommended that antennas with zero point filling are used for all the omni-antennas so as to avoid the problem of “blind under tower”. we may consider 210 antenna. we may consider directional antenna of narrow beams or 8-shaped antenna. it is recommended to select an antenna with its azimuth adjusted electrically after the antenna with electrically adjustable azimuth is mature upon argumentation.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 8-shaped directional diagram Highroad Base station Mountain Figure 4-12 (b) 8-shaped antenna 4. At the same time. insertion loss will increase. Unless cavity combiner is used. If traffic exists only on a narrow and long highroad.

If a base station installed on top of a mountain is required to cover the areas at the foot of the mountain. it is recommended to give top priority to them in respect of expressway coverage. it is recommended to select an antenna with wide vertical half power beam for the coverage.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder With regard to 8-shaped and 210 antennas.5dBi or a directional antenna of 14dBi with vertical beam width of around 20 . such as omni-antenna with a gain of 8. 4-28 .

it should also be selected. First consider 210-degree antenna. Generally no downtilt angle is added. it is preferred to have zero point filling. if some areas are not well covered in some directions. First consider 8-shaped antenna and then consider 0. the angle should not be too large. If mechanical downtilt angle is to be installed. Generally no downtilt angle is added. Exressways Directional station Directional station + omnidirectional station Mountainous areas Omnidirectional station Directional station 4-29 .4.5/0. Generally no downtilt angle is added.In addition. then consider the combination of directional antenna+ omni-antenna First consider antenna with zero point filling function. Normally.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4. First consider antenna with low gain and vertical beam width before adding a downtilt angle. select antennas with low or medium gains and fixed electric angle of downtilt.8 Reference for antenna selection Land form Statoin type Directional station Recommendation for antenna selection Normally. Urban area Suburb Directional station Plains & rural areas Directional station Omnidirectional station Generally no downtilt angle is added. then consider antenna of lower gain before adding a downtilt angle. Remark While installing an antenna. make sure that the mechanical downtilt angle is no more than 10 degrees. antennas with its horizonal half power beam width of 90 degrees may be selected. if an antenna with electrically adjustable azimuth is available. Generally.5 configuration using power splitter. It is perferred to use vertical single polarization antenna. select an antenna of 90 degrees or of 120 degrees. select antennas with high gains. First there must be zero point filled antenna without regard to angle of downtilt. subject to the density of base stations. Generally no downtilt angle is added. Generally no downtilt angle is added. permitting of electrically adjustable azimuth or mechanical downtilt angle.

(4) Control function: to exercise the control of the power attenuation over the master and slave receiving channel (dynamic state 15dB.1 Principle for combining and distribution unit The combining and distribution unit has the following functions of detection and alarm: (1) Standing wave dection: to monitor the status of antenna feeder. (3) Tower amplification alarm: when tower amplification works with the fault signals taken from its feeding current. select different tower amplification feeding current at the same time. it will give corresponding alarm signals and indication. it has three kinds of modules that can provide combining and distribution unit: CDU. 4. alarm signal will occur. SCU and EDU. (2) Low noise amplifier fault alarm: as the fault signal is taken from the feeding current of low noise amplifier. Take Huawei equipment for example. alarm signal will occur.5:1 or 2.5 Combining and distribution unit The combining and distribution unit is mainly to achieve transceiver duplexing. Schematic diagram of CDU is shown in Figure 4-13. transmitting signal combiner. Figure 4-13 CDU Schematic Diagram 4-30 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4. filtering and receiving signal filtering. low noise amplification and distribution.5.5:1). when the current exceeds a certain range or there is no current. when the current exceeds a certain range or there is no current. and provide tower amplification with feeding circuit. and share the same antenna unit with multiple signals transmitted and received. perform function of switching on and off feeding current. step 1dB). When it detects that the standing wave exceeds the preset threshold (1.

4-31 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder SCU schematic diagram is shown in Figure 4-14. Combiner TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4 Combiner Combiner TX-DUP Figure 4-14 SCU Schematic Diagram EDU schematic diagram is shown in Figure 4-15.

2 Combining and distribution unit configuration This section takes Huawei equipment to explain the configuration of various combining and distribution units: FC number for each cell 7 8TRX Regular configuration plan 2CDU 2SCU Large coverage configuration plan Remark Large station is mostly located in the urban area. which are configured and used in light of different station types. In applying large coverage configuration plans. it is necessary to combine Huawei’s concentric circle 5 6TRX CDU+CDU+SCU CDU+CDU+SCU 4-32 .5. The following indexes are specified: for each combination (two combined into one). which is basically applicable to large coverage. insertion loss is 3dB and duplexer insertion loss is 1dB or so. 4. in theory.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Figure 4-15 EDU Schematic Diagram Different combining and distribution units have different losses.

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

technology 3 4TRX 1 2TRX CDU+SCU CDU Dual CDU EDU or dual CDU EDU is only applicable to the situation where each sector has no less than 2 CF. Changes are required in capacity expansion.

What should be noted is that large coverage plan as mentioned above is a recommendation on the precondition of not increasing antennas and feeders in each cell. In practical network application, we may flexibly select different configurations (antennal feeder + amplifier {40W 60W 80W etc})in light of the coverage and capacity demands for different stations if the conditions for uplink and downlink balance are met; and in combination with Huawei Company’s BSC software algorithm (such as concentric circle control technology applicable to when each CF coverage is not the same in the same cell), so as to attain the best coverage effects.

4-33

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

4.6 Outdoor antenna feeder system
Outdoor antenna feeder system includes antenna, tower amplifier, feeder cable, jumper and lightning arrester, as shown in Figure 4-16. Antenna has been described above and the following is devoted to tower amplifier and feeder cable.

Figure 4-16 Composition of outdoor antenna feeder system

4.6.1 Tower amplifier
In terms of technial principle, tower amplifier is to reduce the noise coefficient of the base station receiving system, so as to improve the sensitivity of base station receiving system. Tower amplifier makes different contributions to uplink, distinguished from each other in light of the performance of low noise amplifier of the tower amplifier itself, but it is not the right way only to focus on its gains. Generally, the uplink and downlink balance with tower amplification increased should be modified and calculated in accordance with the method for testing its actual sensitivity. Tower amplifiers of sub band or all band should be seleted in light of different frequency bands. The principle for triplex tower amplifier is shown in Figure 4-17. This tower amplifier shares signal transmission and reception (only one feeder tube is required) and has bypass functioons (automatic bypass in the event of fault, when it receives a gain of about.

4-34

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

Figure 4-17 Digram of Duplex Tower Amplifier

4.6.2 Feeder cable
It is very important to select feeder cables in the overall system design. As the line is exposed outdoors, the cable needs to stand up to the water wash. Foam is pressed into the cable as isloation medium and air can be also taken as isolation medium.When bent, the air-insulative cable can easily result in short circuit; therefore, it is seldom adopted.

I. Use of feeder cable
There are two types feeder cable in common use, that is, 7/8" feeder cable and 5/4" feeder cable. They are used as follows: (1) GSM900 feeder cable: 7/8" feeder cable is used for a length of less than 80m, while 5/4" feeder cable for a length of more than 80m. (2) GSM1800 feeder cable 7/8" feeder cable is used for a length of less than 50m; while 5/4" feeder cable for a length of more than 50m.

II. Technical indexes for the insertion loss of several feeder cables
Feeder cable type 890MHz SYFY-50-22(7/8 inch) LDF5-50A (7/8 inch) LDF6-50 (5/4 inch) M1474A (7/8 inch) HFC22D-A (7/8 inch) FSJ4-50B(1/2 inch) 4.03 4.03 2.98 100 meter attenuation (dB) 1,000M Hz 4.3 3.17 4.3 4.47 11.9 1,700M Hz 5.87 5.87 4.31 2,000MHz 6.46 6.46 4.77 6.6 6.7 17.7 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 Standing wave (Any length)

11.2

16.1

4-35

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

III. Installtin of feeder cable
The feeder cable used for installation should be the shortest of all and easy for installation and maintenance. The curvature of feeder cable should comply with the requiremetn of manufacturers on feeder cable.Whether the antenna is installed on the tower, roof and any other place, the external conductor of its feeder cable should be grounded well before it goes into the equipment room.

4-36

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

4.7 Distributed antenna system
With the development of mobile communication, the subscribers have higher and higher demand on service quality. People expect to communicate anywhere at any time. However, as some places (complicated areas with multiple blocks such as inside a large building, tunnel and metro) are not reachable if only covered by outdoor base station antenna and there will arise some blind spots unreachable by signals, thus causing communication interruption. In some areas, as the signals from different base stations are all quite strong, the mobile station has to switch frequently, thus causing communication interruption. Someone calls this pingpong effect. To resolve the above problems, distributed antenna system comes into existence. Besides, we may also transfer the capacity of a cell with excessive communication capacity to another area, so as to solve the problem with the distribution of system capacity.

4.7.1 Principle for composition of distributed antenna system
Figure 4-18 is the schematic diagram of the composition of a distributed antenna system. In terms of function, it is equal to one single poluarization antenna connected to a base station.

Figure 4-18 Diagram of the Composition of a Distributed Antenna System

The downlink signals from the base station go to the distributed antenna system via the interface. These signals form multiple tributaries via the power splitter, each of which can be divided into smaller tributaries via the power splitter. The end of each tributary is connected with a small antenna. Each small antenna covers a certain area. When the signal is not strong enough, it will be amplified by bi-directional amplifier with certain gains; on the contrary, the uplink signals in each tributary area, via small antenna, power splitter and bi-directional amplifier, will reach the base station through interface. In the above system, the transmission and distributiojn of signlas can be performed through coaxial cable and FR power splitter or through optical link. In addition, it can also be a mixture of coaxial cable, power splitter and raditation antenna: disclosure cable.

4-37

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 4

About Antenna Feeder

4.7.2 Types of distributed antenna system
I. Coaxial feeding distributed antenna system

Figure 4-19 Coaxial Feeding Distributed Antenna System

II. Disclosure cable
In some narrow and long coverage areas, it is a better way of coverage in using disclosure cable. A terminal load is required at cable terminal.

Figure 4-20 Disclosure cable Compared with coaxial feeding, the cost for the equipment and fees for installation for disclosure cable are quite expensive.

III. 3. Fiber feeding distributed antenna system For applications with large coverage and long transmission distance, optical fiber can be used to replace coaxial feeding.

4-38

Its disadvantage is that it requires local power and automatic detection equipment.Compared with coaxial feeding.6dB 1. the system only adopts two types of equal power dividers.25dB 3. Two-in-one combiner (mixed conducting bridge of 3dB) The technical indexes of combiner are shown in the following table: Work frequency band Port imbalance Insertion loss Port standing wave Power capacity GSM900 890 960MHz 0. The manufactures may differ from each other in practice.7. Equal power divider Equal power divider works to distribute the energy of base station equally into several tributaries. To simply the project design.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Figure 4-21 Fiber distributed antenna system Figure 4-21 is the diagram of fiber distributed antenna system. whose indexes are as follows: Description Work frequency band 4-39 1 to 2 800 2000MHz 1 to 4 . thus forming common components for coverage distribution.5dB 300W GSM1800 1710 1880MHz II.3 Indexes for component key technologies I. fiber feeding for short haul system is more expensive but the feeding loss is small. IV. Summary Distributed antenna type Coaxial feeding Disclosure cable Fiber feeding Advantages Flexible design Low cost High reliability Flexible design Low loss Easy for installation Disadvantages Large loss High cost High cost Poor design flexibility The equipment at overage terminal requires power 4.

couplers with different coupling degrees can be selected in light of practical needs. 1710 1880MHz 2 360 900M directional antenna 890 960MHz 1800M directional antenna 1710 1880MHz 8 90 Work frequency band Gain (2dBi) Horizontal beam width Form of polarization Power capacity Standing wave Connector type <2 7 90 Vertical 300W <1. to distribute the signals of the base station equally to each antenna in order to ensure equal coverage and avoid waste of energy.5dB 1.3dB As we stipulate that this system is a small-sized one for simple indoor coverage.5 N_Female <1. also known as unequal power divider. Power coupler The coupler here is bi-directional coupler. If a long and narrow area is to be covered. In the system design of distributed antenna.5dB 1. IV. it is necessary to specify the length in light of practical needs and make connectors. For places with a small area to be covered by a single antenna.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Power distribution ratio Insertion loss Port standing wave Connector type 1:1 3. With a view to reducing the types of system components so as to bring down the cost. Type N type N type 4-40 . this system only selects the following three types of couplers with different coupling degrees: Description Work frequency band Coupling degree Insertion loss Port standign wave Connector type 7dB coupler 7dB 1.2dB 800 10dB coupler 2000MHz 10dB 0. which basically meets the requirement for indoor coverage. The following three kinds of antenna is nice to the look and enjoys desirable performance.5 V. In project design. Coaxial connector As the length of the feeder cable for indoor distribution system is not specified. III. Indoor antenna In general. the distributed antenna system uses antenna of small gains and does not specifically require the half power width of beams. it is recommended to use dual frequency omnidirectional antenna. The system selects two types of coaxial connectors. Dual frequency band omni-antenna 890 960.5dB N_Female 1:1:1:1 6. we should try to avoid the existence of more than two power dividion components (or coupler) along the path from the base station to each antenna.5 N_Female 15dB coupler 15dB 0. the above three types of couplers can basically meet the requirement for project design.5dB The insertion loss as defined in the above table includes the distribution loss. so as to ensure power balance of uplink signals. it is however recommended to adopt a directional antenna. This is attributed to the characteristics of indoor coverage.

which does not get bent easily. the other is 7/8 inch feeder tube with little loss but high cost. ( the loss 2 meters away from the coupling hole with an error of ±10dB) 7/8" 14040121 Able to prevent flaming and proof against ultraviolet VII.22dB/m 1800MHz: 0. Ordinary feeder cable In the project design of antenna system.2 Coaxial connector -N type connector 50Ω/straight/femaleconfigured with 7/8"LDF550A cable 7/8" VI. its end may either use a small antenna as load or use the load directly for match. so that the electromagnetic wave may leak from the holes to cover a certain area. each hole is equal to a small antenna.051dB/m 1800MHz 0. The load index as defined in the list is: Work frequency band Characteristic impedance Port standing wave ratio Connector type Power capacity 0 2GHz 50Ω <1.076dB/m 900MHz 72dB 1800MHz 84dB. Two types of feeder cable in the list are selected.Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder Description Type of calbe configured Impedance Standing wave Coaxial connector-N type connector-50Ω/right angle/male-nut installation-configured with SYV-507-1 SYV-50-7-1 50Ω 1. Performance impedance Attenuation constant Type of N connection configured Bending properties SYV-50-7-1 50Ω 900MHz: 0.0659dB/m 14040121 Poor VIII. Disclosure cable In such narrow and long coverage areas as tunnel and metro.15 N_Male 300W 4-41 . In this case. it is a better way to use disclosure cable. The former is applicable to the tributary connection from the power divider to antenna. feeder cable should be used to connect all the components. and the latter is applicable to trunk connectioon from one power divider to another power divider.31dB/m 14040184 Good LDF5-50A-7/8" 50Ω 1000MHz: 0.0446dB/m 2000MHz: 0. Description Characteristic impedance Attenuation constant Coupling loss Cable structure specification Type of supporting connetor Fire-proof performance 50Ω 900MHz 0. Disclosure cable is common cable with holes in its shell. Load While using disclosure cable. One is SYV cable easy to be bent with a large loss but low cost.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 4 About Antenna Feeder 4-42 .

transmitting power. highroads and rural areas with a large area to be covered is free of limit on cellular meshes. for other areas requiring coverage. news center and major hotels and avoid overlapping coverage in these areas. Such work involves the following in detail: (1) Decide the way of frequency multiplexing in light of frequency bandwidth.). it is recommended that the overlapping coverage of 4-1 . the design of base station address should generally meet the following requirements: (1) The address should serve to meet the objective of rational cell structure. railway station. During the stage where the network is established and there are few base stations. top priority should be given to ensuring good communication in special areas such as the place of governmental agencies. (3) Determine the theoretic position of the base station. existing telecommunications buildings and post offices should be chosen as the station address.1 Design of Base Station Address In planning a radio network. station addresses should be designed in accordance with standard cellular structure. For this purpose.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network The most important of all in designing a radio network concerns the design of network layout. (5) Assume parameters relevant to the base station (hierarchical structure of the network. plan the frequency and adjacent areas. deviate the direction of antenna’s major lobe from co-frequency cells. (2) Estimate the number of base stations required for the network based on experience. the station address should be arranged within a range of 1/4 radius of cellular base station (r for minimum width). the station should be generally located at the center of an area where most of the subscribers live. airport. so as to control interference in an effective way. anti-interference and traffic balance. it is required to consider the overall network structure. direction and angle of declination etc. the operator is possibly required to consult with the proprietors as to the station to be chosen. (3) Point the major lobe of antenna to the areas with dense traffic so as to enhance the signal intensity in this area and thus improve the communication quality. and make a choice in such major respects as coverage. In urban areas. height to be hung. make a comprehensive analysis using an electronic map and a paper map of the urban area (information about ground objects and surface relief preferred). 5. and then complete the related cell data. In designing a station address. antenna type. so that their facilities such as equipment room. It is allowed to choose several standby station addresses within this range. In general. In practice. while address selection for suburbs. so as to accomplish the entire planning process. (4) Estimate network capacity. Standby station address is required in the course of selecting a base station. power supply and iron tower can be fully utilized. (2) Without affecting the layout of base stations. On the basis of determining the basic layout of base station.

hills. the overlapping depth of cover between the coverage areas in suburbs and towns with the directional included angle of the sectors no less than 90°. it should be determined not only based on the distribution of traffic around each base station but also from the perspective of the overall network. according to GSM protocol. In places such as outskirts and trunk roads. the environment is safe without occupying much fertile land. it is required to consider whether the level difference between them meets C/I value. cities and an environment with high buildings. the height of building may be wisely used to classify the network structure. that is. to avoid trans-regional coverage. where traffic is convenient. and to ease the difficulty in engineering construction and make it easy for maintenance. The address for a base station should be a place near reflecting objects or put the directional antenna back on to the reflecting objects when the base station is far away. In general. (4) Generally. it is recommended to adopt. In general. (6) The designed station address should be kept far away from the forest so as to avoid the fading of receiving signals. A larger number of carrier wave should be configured for a cell of high density.8 Km). such places should not be near high-power radio transmitting station or other interference sources. but those with a time window of over 16 ms are regarded as the cofrequency interference signals against the master signals. the same azimuth for each urban base station. master signals are over 12dB greater than the multi-path signals. electric supply is available.  Note: Time dispersion mainly refers to the problem of cofrequency interference arising from the time difference between master signals arriving at the receiver and other multipath signals in terms of time for transmission in space (transmission distance). Attention should also be paid to the correspondence between the carrier wave number and the cell in designing. (8) Attention must be paid to the effect of time dispersion in choosing an address from mountainous areas. limnological regions with steep banks or many lakes. the major antenna lobe in populous downtown area should be kept from facing a straight street. if possible. (5) New base stations should be installed in places. the base station antenna in populous urban areas should be as high as 25 30 meters but it is 40 50 meters in the suburbs (or pointing to suburb cells). 4-2 . the receiver equalizer must be equipped with a time window of 16 ms (equivalent to 4.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network antenna in adjacent sectors should not exceed 10% in depth. high mountains in urban areas or suburbs(over 200 300 meters higher than the urban areas in altitude above sea level ) are not regarded as station addresses in order to prevent co-frequency interference and avoid areas with weak signals within their respective coverage areas. (7) The designed station address must ensure the transmission link between it and the base station controller is connected well. In this case. Multipath signals with a time window less than 16 ms are harmless and even instrumental. the antenna bearing should be adjusted in light of the objects to be covered. (9) While choosing an address form urban high buildings. in order not to make it complicated to plan the network when the cell breaks apart in the future. whose intensity should not exceed the indexes for the shield of base station equipment against useless radiation. The time window of Huawei receivers is more than 20ms. In designing an azimuth angle. the antennas for major base stations should be a litter taller than the average height of buildings.

4-3 . we should make the most of land features. such an open area as the turn of a highroad.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network (10) In choosing an address for highroads or mountain coverage.

1 Environment for Antenna Installation Installation environment involves the environment near the antenna and the environment around the base station. In this case. the interval between antennas and the effect of an iron tower and building floors on the antenna are the main concern. Survey is an important part to specify the base station layout ultimately. This work should be done on the basis of field survey. attention is mainly focused on the effect of buildings less than 500 meters high on transmission. in using a compass. hanging height. the antenna transmitting direction is preferably perpendicular to the wall. such as the distribution of buildings. as long as the front-to-back ratio of antenna is more than 20dB. the included angle between the antenna transmitting direction and the wall is required to exceed 75°.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. it is required to determine the engineering parameters for each base station. Spectrum survey aims to know if the electromagnetic environment around the base station and the antenna at present and in the near future is in good condition. feeder line type and transmitting power of each base station cell. gain. If its azimuth angle must be adjusted. in an effort to make the positioning accuracy less than 30 m. the effect of signals reflected from the wall in its negative direction on those in the radiating direction will be rather meager. including various project documents. substances made of iron should be avoided in order to magnetization. power supply and natural environment. antenna direction. 4-4 . Address survey is focused on the conditions for installing antenna and equipment. We must know well the generation situation about the project before the survey and collect various data relative to the project. background information. such as high buildings. compass.2 Design of Parameters for Base Station Project When an address is selected. To install a directional antenna on a wall. Make sure that such instruments are usable before setting out. information about existing network and local map. make a detailed record of the surroundings around the base station. as shown in Figure 5-1. For the environment near the antenna. which will cause overlarge difference in measurement. a contract configuration list. 5. In addition. Optical measurement is to check if there is a barrier around the base station. specify the antenna parameters and on the other side.2. The focus of the following description is on the installation and design of antenna. this record is to avoid oblivion in the case of numerous base stations. A field survey for base station involves optical measurement. azimuth. including: the latitude and longitude of the place of a base station antenna. Attention must be paid to the following during the survey: while using GPS to position the latitude and longitude of a base station. Such instruments as digital camera. angle of declination. latest network planning and exploration survey of base stations should be prepared. On the one side. whether there is powerful interference equipment and shared address equipment. GPS. ruler and laptop should be prepared. which may reflect the electric waves. spectrum measurement and address survey. do not allow other persons to stay around GPS. For the environment around the base station.

5 2 3 3. For 900M GSM. At this moment. the radius of first fresnel zone within this range is about 5m. antenna 5 (a) antenna <50-100m <50-100m <5m (b) Figure 5-2 Headroom Requirement for Antenna In installing antennas for a base station. consideration must be given to the bearing of the roof and the antenna under stress against the wind in terms of engineering. the antenna should be placed higher than the roof. we are able to attain the base station coverage as we have expected. when the antenna is to be installed away from the building edges. By making a wise use of the height of the buildings around it.5 4-5 . so as to reduce or eliminate shadows. Without regard to the effect of the antenna’s declination angle. The huge barriers near the base station such as high buildings and mountains often cause shadows.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network no more than 15 antennas direction vertical direction Figure 5-1 Included Angle Between the Antenna and the Wall in Installation To get a most desirable coverage. we should try to avoid these barriers in installing the antennas. GSM900 Distance from the antenna to the building edge D(m) 0 1 1 10 10 30 >30 Height from antenna base to building roof H(m) 0. the following two tables give the recommended height of the antenna from the roof in the case of GSM900 and GSM1800. we should also make sure if the antennas will produce a large shadow in its coverage area. The requirement on the headroom around the antenna is shown in Figure 5-2. Thus. The antenna should be installed close to the building edges. attention must be paid to keeping the edges of the building from holding up beam radiation. the headroom around the antenna is required to be 50 100m. which means that the base of the base station antenna should be 5 meters higher than its environment. When a directional antenna is installed on top of a building. As the building roofs are diversified and complex.

It is worked out as follows: For vertical arrangement layout. Between the two systems. The included angle between the connecting line of two antenna mounts and the antenna direction should fall within the following range: Antenna horizontal plane lobe width 60-70 Included angle between the connecting line of two antenna >40 45 mounts and the antenna direction 90 >55 120 >70 Omni-antenna antenna horizontal interval 10 meters or antenna vertical interval 0. the horizontal interval between the antennas is equal to or more than 1m. and S1. G2 are respectively the gains of the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna in their maximum radiation direction (dBi). This is also applicable to the shared-address system for GSM900 and GSM1800. when the two antennas of the same sector are in the same direction. d is horizontal separation. v=28+40lg(k/λ) (dB) For horizontal arrangement layout. S is 0.2 Antenna Separation in GSM System To avoid inter-modulation interference. subject to the special antenna directional diagram. G1. The antenna separation is subject to the antenna radiation directional diagram. λ is the length of carrier wave. and 120° fan-shaped beam antenna S is -7dBp.5m. 65° fan-shaped beam antenna S is about -18dBp. The antenna mount for GSM900 and GSM1800 systems should meet the following requirements: Directional antenna In the same system.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network GSM1800 Distance from the antenna to the building edge D(m) 0 2 2 10 >10 Height from antenna base to building roof H(m) 0. Tx-Tx: 30dB. the distance from the lower antenna edge to the enclosing wall on the building roof 0. spatial distance and gain with no regard to the attenuation caused by voltage standing wave ratio.5 meter.5 meters. k is vertical separation. negative value relative to master beam). S2 are respectively the secondary lobe level of the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna in the direction of 90° (dBp. 4-6 .5 meter. The included angle between the line connecting the lower antenna edge with the antenna face pointing to the roof and the horizontal direction is more than 150. Normally. the horizontal interval between the two antennas in the same sector is equal to or more than 0. there must be space between the receiver and transmitter of the base station: Tx-Rx: 30dB.5 1 2 5. the horizontal interval between the two antennas in the same sector is equal to or more than 4m. The vertical interval of antenna is equal to or more than 0. Lv=22+20lg(d/λ)-(G1+G2)-(S1+S2) (dB) Where Lv refers to required separation. 90°fan-shaped beam antenna S is -9dBp. In the event of omni-antenna.5 meters. the distance from the antenna base to the enclosing wall on the roof is equal or more than 0.2.

it is not discussed herein. interference against each other will easily occur. The degree in system performance fall depends on the intensity of interference signals. scattering interference plays a major part and has the most effect. thus raising the noise level of GSM receiver only to worsen GSM uplink. the performance of receiving unit of interfered base station. As there is less inter-modulation interference and block interference than the scattering interference.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. block interference and intermodulation interference.3 Antenna Separation Form GSM and CDMA Base Station The analysis of CDMA and GSM system interference should be based on the relation between the frequency of two systems and their characteristics in transmitting and receiving so as to study the interference in detail. and finally they are received by the receiver of the interfered base station. and worsen the network quality. Thus it is the key concern in network design. which in turn remain subject to the performance of the sending unit of interfering base station. reduce the coverage of the base station. the signals output from the amplifier of interference source base station are first filtered by the send filter. Of these three different interferences. If there is no enough separation between two base stations or the send filter interfering the base station fails to provide enough outband attenuation. then the signals falling into the band width of the interfered base station might be very strong. The power of scattering interference arriving at the antenna terminal of the interfered base station can be expressed in the following formula: Ib PTX−AMP Pattenuation I isolation 10 lg 4-7 WB int erf ered WB int erf ering . Take the scattering interference of CDMA2000 1X against GSM900 for explanation. and thus increase the noise threshold of the receiver.2. frequency band interval and antenna separation. the transmission from CDMA2000 1X will interfere with GSM900. then attenuate accordingly due to the separation between two base stations. the frequency bands of China Unicom’s CDMA2000 1X and the present GSM900 are as follows: BTS transmission (MHz) GSM900 CDMA 935-960 870-880 890-915 825-835 BTS receiving (MHz) As the two are too close to each other. The interference mainly involves the following three aspects: scattering interference. The diagram of an interference model is shown as follows: Figure 5-3 Diagram of Interference Model Seen from Figure 5-3. which receives disclosure signal beyond the CDMA band and fall within the channels of GSM receiver. Currently. Mostly.

23MHz. the worst of all is that the high end of CDMA system interferes with the frequency at the lowest end of GSM system. In figuring out the interference level of the interfered base station. the difference and conversion between the two should be taken into consideration. and we will get: I isolation PTX−AMP Pattenuation Ib 10 lg WB int erf ered WB int erf ering If the CDMA2000 1X transmitting frequency band is the last one at high end. I. the density × bandwidth bottom noise is expressed in logarithm as follows: 174 noise coefficient scattering interference is: -113-10 -123dBm/200kHz This requires the scattering interference or intermodulation of other systems falling on GSM receiver should be less than this value.49MHz. WBinterfered is the signal bandwidth of interfered base station.5 dB. Pattenuation is the outband suppressed attenuation of the send filter. Regulate the above formula.56 .Ib 10lg (200kHz/100kHz) = 57 lg(200000)=-174+53+8 113dBm. also understood as the defined bandwidth of the scattering radiation. To be specific.23MHz for filtering and 4-8 . PTX-AMP is the power (dBm) output from the interference source amplifier.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network where. at each transmitting frequency band. Only in this way will it cause serious interference against GSM system.(-123dBm/200kHz) + 10lg (200kHz/100kHz) dBm/200kHz In other words. use a band-limiting filter with a bandwidth of 1. CDMA2000 1X amplification output with the scattering falling within 890-915MHz 13dBm/100kHz.56 . All things considered. there should be a separation of 57dB between them. Suppose the receiver noise coefficient is 8. we consider the problem of interferences between the two and sharedaddress construction in the initial design. Thus. and attenuates at 890MHz up to 56dB and at 909MHz up to 80dB. To ensure that the sensitivity is not affected. that is. Ib refers to the interference level (dBm)received at the receiving terminal of the interfered base station. such as receiver. that is 878. multiplexer and separator. In this case. we can get the following: Iisolation = (-13dBm/100kHz). Then. whether CDMA antenna and GSM900 antenna share a station address. the external interference level is required to be lower than the bottom receiver noise by 10dB. filter outband channel noises of receiver with the receiver placed on different equipment. On equipment interference As stipulated in IA/EIA-97 protocol. There are many ways to reduce the interference: make the spatial distance between the antennas enough. Iisolation = (-13dBm/100kHz). The specific measures for realization is to filter and combine each transmitting frequency band using a band-limiting filter with a bandwidth of only 1. The bottom noise of GSM receiver is: noise noise coefficient. CDMA system will cause serious interference against GSM900. and WBinterfering refers to the measurable bandwidth of interference signals. the affected sensitivity amounts to around 0. the scattering interference of CDMA antenna interface falling with the receiving frequency band of GSM900 should be less than -13 dBm/100kHz. Iisolation refers to the separation (dB) between base station antennas. The band-limiting filter of this kind has great outband attenuation.56 . Then the possible maximum = -13 .Ib 10lg (200kHz/100kHz) Ib is the maximum interference level (dBm) received by interference base station allowed at its receiving antenna terminal. On this basis.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network combination. Suppose GSM900 and CDMA20001X antennas are placed horizontally and both adopt 65 degree antennas. 4-9 . we can get the following: 57=22 20lg(Dh/λ) (10+10) 180m The horizontal interval between the two base station antennas d Effective antenna gain in the direction of radiation (dBi) 10 15 Separation requirement (dB) 57 57 Antenna interval requirement (m) 180 569 2) CDMA and GSM900 antennas share a station address (antennas placed on the same platform and separated horizontally).2: For vertical arrangement layout. Effective antenna gain in the direction of radiation (dBi) 10 15 Separation requirement (dB) 57 57 Antenna interval requirement (m) 3 9 3) CDMA and GSM900 antenna share a station address (antennas are scattered on different platforms of the iron tower and vertically separated). 57=22 20lg(Dh/λ) (15+15) + ((-18)+ (-18)) According to the above formula.7m. Requirment of antenna separation To minimize the above interferences. Suppose the antenna gains of GSM and CDMA20001x in the direction of radiation are both 15dBi. To quote the formula as defined in Section 5. II. we come to an conclusion that the vertical interval between the antennas is 为 d 1. Lv=28+40lg(k/λ)(dB) For horizontal arrangement layout. omni-antenna and directional antenna. 65°antenna plane side lobe is about -18dB in the direction of 90 degrees and then the effective gains in the said direction are 15-18 -3dBi. According to the foregoing analysis. so as to reduce the requirement for spatial distance. we conclude that the horizontal interval between the antennas is d 9m. According to the above formula. the separation between CDMA2000 1X equipment and GSM should be at least 57dB.2. directional antenna. Lv=22+20lg(d/λ)-(G1+G2)-(S1+S2)(dB) Here are several circumstances to explain the requirement on the separation between CDMA and GSM900 antennas: 1) CDMA and GSM900 antennas do not share a station address with antennas installed horizontally opposite each other (or shared-address omni-antenna). it is required to keep a proper separation between the antennas of two systems. This band limiting will attenuate greatly outside the band. 57=28+40lg(k/λ) From the above formula. Suppose the effective gains between the two antennas in the maximum radiation direction are 10dBi respectively (feeder line loss considered) with interference signals of 890MHz.

attention should be paid to the following in the event of space diversity: to cover a highroad. In general. its horizontal interval of diversity antenna will be greater. If the two antennas on the plane are 10 wavelengths away from each other. for example. In addition. 1λ=0. The indexes of importance are as follows: scattering radiation. But when antenna interval is 6m. vertical separation is required to stand at 5 6 times that of the same diversity gain. thus distorting the antenna directional diagram. In practical networking. it obviously reduces attenuation. In order to keep the fluctuation of directional diagram caused by the effect of the two antennas upon each other below 2dB. in practical project. it is very difficult to install an antenna to the tower. and diversity antenna interval is less than 3m.2.32m (900MHz). The higher the antenna is installed. the horizontal interval between diversity antennas stands at 0. 1λ=0. the iron tower holds up between all omni-antennas. the diversity distance should be more than 3 meters in the event of any antenna effective height. attenuation will be reduced. Generally.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network What is described above is a way of deduction. the two pairs of antenna are within each other’s near field. in actual project. Note: space diversity distance(4--6m for GSM) actual installed distance Figure 5-4 Diagram of Antenna Space Diversity Distance The following table shows the requirement for GSM antenna interval (suppose there is no barrier between the antennas. the distance between the two receiving antennas is 12 18λ. In addition. we do not adopt vertical diversity but vertical separation. 5.16m (1800MHz).11 times that of the effective height of the antenna. Although the receiving diversity requires two or more ports. especially for omni-antenna.4 Antenna Installation Interval Diversity technology is one of the most effective measures to withstand attenuation. the horizontal interval can be reduced obviously): Omni-antenna: Separation requirement: TX-TX. When the effective installation height of diversity antenna is less than 30m. thus reducing the power of a mobile station and improving the transmission quality. for diversity reception. which serves as an advantage to the entire system. calculation of interference power of the interference signals against the interfered equipment and calculation of antenna separation. which requires us to figure it out on our own in combination with the equipment indexes. we will have to install antennas of other type at shared address. we generally make the connecting line (diversity plane) of two receiving antennas perpendicular to the highroad. TX-RX: 30dB Vertical interval Horizontal interval (recommended) Remark 4-10 . In the event of space diversity.

25m 2m Horizontal interval 0. but whatever the form.5m Adjacent sector antenna (placed on the same Vertical interval platform) GSM900: TX-TX/TX-RX -----GSM1800: TX-TX/TX-RX ----Diversity requirement GSM900: RX-RX ------ 4m (recommended 6m) 2m (recommended 3m) GSM1800: RX-RX ------ No effect of the iron tower structure in antenna forwarding direction No effect of the iron tower structure in antenna forwarding direction GSM900 and GSM1800 are installed in flexible forms. TX-RX GSM900: RX-RX GSM1800: RX-RX 0. GSM900 antenna and GSM1800 antenna shall meet the aforementioned requirements for their respective interval. TX-RX: 30dB Antenna of the same sector Vertical interval Horizontal interval GSM900: TX-TX.25m 0. TX-RX 0. TX-RX 0.5m 0. TX-RX GSM1800: TX-TX.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network Antenna from tower 2m Antenna from tower2m Antenna from tower2m Antenna from tower2m Antenna from tower2m GSM900: TX-TX.5m 4m Remark No effect of the iron tower structure in antenna forwarding direction No effect of the iron tower structure in antenna forwarding direction Remark GSM1800: TX-TX. 4-11 .5m Diversity requirement: ----------- Gain=10dBi: 10m Gain=10dBi: 5m Gain=10dBi: 1m 4m(recommended 6m) 2m(recommended 3m) Directional antenna: Required separation between TX-TX. TX-RX GSM900+GSM1800: TX-TX.5m 0.

3 Link Budget After the project parameters for the base station are specified. and the downlink signals on the edge of cell are relatively weaker. The principle for tower amplifier is to add a low noise amplifier at the front end of base station receiving system.1 Link Budget Model Figure 5-5 Link Estimation Model To figure out uplink and downlink balance. At this moment. but the uplink signals are too weak and thus the voice quality is not good enough. However. and as a result of such factors as the difference in receiver noise deterioration performance. which reduce the signalto-noise ratio (S/N) of system reception.3. it is deemed that a balance is reached. such signals will easily be “engulfed” by the strong signals from other cells. close to the receiving antenna. Normally.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. if the uplink signal coverage is greater than the downlink signal coverage. the mobile station will be forced to wait under this coverage.e. The active parts of the bases station receiving system and the thermal movement in RF conductor will cause heat noises. In mobile communication system. it is necessary to work out a link budget in order to further estimate its coverage. it is necessary to take into account of a very important component. this difference will generally fluctuate within a range of 2-3dB. An excellent system should implement power budgeting in design. 5. the radio link is divided into uplink and downlink. i. Of course. so as to strike a balance between the uplink signals and downlink signals within the coverage area. when the level difference between the uplink and downlink signals reaches the sensitivity difference between base station receiver and mobile phone receiver. as the fading of uplink and downlink channels is not totally the same. so as to improve the receiving performance of the base station. From the survey report on Abis interface. balance is not necessarily absolute equality. 4-12 . Otherwise. so that it restricts the base station sensitivity from rising and reduces the communication quality. it is required to consider the sensitivity of the base station equipment selected. we can judge clearly whether there is a balance between the uplink and downlink signals. if the downlink signal coverage is greater than the uplink signal coverage.

RBER and BER. feeder line loss is Lfb. thus Equation (3) will change to Equation (4): Poutb=Poutm+Gdb+(Pinm-Pinb)+Lcb+Lfb (4) 5. Then it follows: Pinm+Mf=Poutb-Lcb-Lfb+Gab-Ld+Gam-Pmn (1) For uplink signal link. base station antenna gain is Gab. For signaling channel. it functions to improve the receiving performance of the base station.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network In terms of technical principle. FER is defined as the ratio of the deleted frames to the frames received. the gain received and sent by the antenna is equal. Then it follows: Pinb+Mf=Poutm+Gam-Ld+Gab+Gdb-Lfb-Pbn Normally. the output power of the mobile station transmitter is Poutm. When the function of bit error detection in the receiver indicates a frame is at fault. this frame will be defined as deleted. No tower amplifier Without a tower amplifier.2 Reference point for base station sensitivity I. Normally. the loss of space transmission is Ld. Pmn (2) Pbn. and modulation and decoder circuit. base station diversity receives a gain of Gdb. For a downlink signal link. Definition of sensitivity Receiver sensitivity refers to the minimum signal level needed to be input from the receiver input terminal under the circumstances where the receiver meets certain bit error rate. the receiving level of the mobile station is Pinm. the combiner loss is Lcb. the power of base station transmitter is Poutb. the mobile station antenna gain is Gam. In accordance with the principle of reciprocity. To measure receiver sensitivity aims to check the performance of receiver analog RF circuit. its fading margin is Mf and the noise deterioration at the side of mobile station is Pmn. the receiving level of the base station is Pinb and noise deterioration at the side of mobile station is Pbn. intermediate frequency circuit. It is not necessary to consider the loss of uplink feeder line. the tower amplification is to reduce the noise coefficient of base station receiving system so as to improve the service quality inside the service area. the following equation appears Poutb=Poutm+Gdb+(Pinm-Pinb)+Lcb ( 3) II. the uplink and downlink balance with amplifier added should be modified and worked out according to the test method for its practical sensitivity. the input interface of the multiplexer on top of the cabinet should be taken as the reference point for sensitivity. this is normally caused when 3-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) detects errors or bad frame indication (BFI) arising from other processing functions occurs. For full rate voice channel. I. The contributions made by the power amplifier to the uplink shall be distinguished in light of the performance of its own low noise amplifier rather than only based on the gains. 4-13 . With tower amplifier The tower amplifier input interface is taken as the reference point for sensitivity if there is a tower amplifier.3. Performances to measure receiver error bit rate are the three parameters including FER. after consolidation. In this way.

RBER or BER is better than or equal to the value stipulated under multi-path transmission condition for the specified type of channel (such as FACCH. its FER. No definition of FER is available for data services. conduct several sample measurements on each channel. RACH and TCH). Static reference sensitivity level Static reference sensitivity level of a receiver is the signal level added by a standard test signal to the receiver input terminal. (3) The measurement involves the statistical characteristic of height. As channel bit error rate is random. RBER or BER is better than or equal to the value stipulated under static transmission condition for a specified type of channel (such as FACCH. Multi-path reference sensitivity level Multi-path reference sensitivity level of a receiver is the signal level of a standard test signal at the receiver input terminal. As a result. At this point. SDCCH. When the number of sample measurements is definite. That is the ratio of number of bit errors in the fame detected as “good” to the total number of bits transmitted in “good” frames. of the data produced after receiver demodulation and channel decoding. (4) The time for test should be reduced to the minimum. RACH and TCH). Typical multi-path transmission conditions include TU50 (at a urban car speed of 50km/h). RA250 (at a speed of 250km/h in rural areas) and HT100 (at a speed of 100km/h in hill environment) etc.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network this is usually caused when the Fire code (FIRE) or other group codes detect errors. and the bit error rate gained from every measurement falls within a certain range of test errors. SDCCH. we can measure the receiver sensitivity by measuring if the receiver bit error rate meets the requirements as stipulated while inputting sensitivity level to the receiver. its FER. (2) For each independent sample test. with diversity sensitivity. the requirements for reference sensitivity level under two conditions are stipulated with respect to receiver sensitivity: static reference sensitivity level and multi-path reference sensitivity level. Bit error rate (BER) is defined as the ratio of bit errors received to all the data bits transmitted. it is deemed that bit error rate of this channel has met the requirement on bit error rate as stipulated.2%). the difference in bit error and error frame indicator under the status of frequency hopping and no frequency hopping. of the data produced after receiver demodulation and channel decoding. That is. At this point. In light of different transmission conditions.7%}. there is a high possibility of passing through a “bad” unit probability higher than 99. Let’s talk about the requirements and measurement for these two kinds sensitivity level in GSM system as follows. attention should be paid to the following differences in defining the sensitivity: without diversity sensitivity. we normally measure the receiver bit error rate by statistical measurement. RBER is defined as the bit error rate of those not announced as deleted frames. the times through a “bad” unit should be kept as low as possible (probability lower than0. The limit value of sampled number and test bit error should meet the following requirements: (1) For each independent sample test. Besides. 4-14 .

Sensitivity test point without tower amplifier Figure 5-7 Sensitivity test of base station without tower amplifier 4-15 . Sensitivity test point in the event of tower amplifier Figure 5-6 Sensitivity Test on Base Station with Tower Amplifier Fi III.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network II.

slow fading protection 5dB.87dB/100 meters (1800MHz). inside the building Received by mobile phone. The calculation results are as follows: (1) M900 outdoors coverage radius in urban areas Mobile phone minimum receiving level is Pmr min = −90dBm. indoor 7dB.4 Design of Coverage Area In practical project planning. The sensitivity of GSM900 2W (33dBm) mobile station is -102dBm. Mobile phone sensitivity -102 dBm. interference noise of 2dB. fast fading protection 3dB.8dB. the work frequency band (900MHz and 1800MHz) used. SCU insertion loss is 6. and 5. in a small sleeper car or inside the room on the first floor of an ordinary building Outdoors -70 -80 -90 Suppose: GSM900 and GSM1800 base station antennas are both 30 meters high. penetration loss of 10dB. Coverage radius should be the maximum transmitting power of TRX. and M1800 sensitivity is -108dBm. CDU insertion loss is 5. Let’s combine the requirement on service quality index for mobile communication network (for example).03dBm/100 meters (900MHz). The mobile station antenna is as high as 1.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. penetration loss of 18dB. radio transmission environment and the coverage indexes required by the equipment buyer. reachability of 90% within the coverage area). interference noise of 2dB. the effective coverage of base station is subject to the following factors: effective transmitting power of base station. fast fading protection 3dB. environmental noise protection 2dB. Select Okumura transmission model. give the coverage of base station theoretically under various coverage requirements. The feeder line is as long as 50m. fast fading protection 3dB. Application environment Minimum receiving power (dBm) Other indexes Mobile phone sensitivity -102 dBm. slow fading protection (indoors) 7dB (slow normal divergency. When M900 uses CDU. and -100dBm for 1800 1W (30dBm) mobile station. the type and position of antenna. slow fading protection 5dB. Mobile phone sensitivity -102 dBm. Received by mobile phone. outdoors 8dB.5 meters with a gain of 0dB.5dB. interference noise of 2dB. and through examples. environmental noise fading protection 2dB. environmental noise protection 2dB. Ordinary urban environment. its sensitivity is -110dBm. 4. power budget. TRX amounts to 40 The effective radiation power of base station antenna is: 4-16 . The maximum transmitting power of M900 W (46dBm). 65-degree directional antenna gain is 13dBd (M900) and 16dBd (M1800).

90 − 6.93 + 16 + 2.4 So d = 5.90 − 6.82 lg h b + (44.3 + 33.55 + 26.82 lg h b + (44.15 = 55.15 = 53.90 − 6. the coverage radius base station in the suburb is better than that in the urban area. and maximum transmission loss possible is: L p = EIRP − Pmr min = 53. Okumura transmission model is: L p = 46. (2) M900 inside a building in urban area Mobile phone minimum receiving level Pmr min = −70dBm.16 lg f − 13.75km This indicates the base station can cover an area of 2. (3) M900 coverage radius in the suburbs mobile phone minimum receiving level Pmr min = −90dBm L p = EIRP − Pmr min = 53.9 lg f − 13.5 − 2.55 lg h b ) lg d − A h m − 2[lg(f/28 )] 2 − 5.65dBm Where L com is combiner loss.65 − (−90 ) = 143.8km in radius.65dB According to Okumura transmission model as described above: L p = 69.65dB d = 0. the coverage radius should be the maximum transmitting power of TRX.8 ) = 0.65 − (−70 ) = 123. L p = EIRP − Pmr min = 53.55 lg h b ) lg d − A h m where h b refers to the height of base station antenna.7 )h m − (1.01dB Substitute the above equation with each known member. and the result is d = 2.65 − (−90 ) = 143. (4) M1800 outdoor coverage radius in the urban area mobile phone minimum receiving level Pmr min = −90dBm.8km.01 + 13 + 2. and f =900MHz. L bf is feeder line loss and Ga b is the gain of base station antenna. EIRP = Pbt − L com − L bf + Ga b = 46 − 5. As the maximum transmitting power of M1800 TRX amounts to 40W(46dBm).16 lg f − 13.73dB For 1800MHz.5 − 2. but for the users on the first floor of a building 750m away from the base station.55 lg h b ) lg d − A hm 4-17 .65dB Okumura transmission model for urban areas should be modified as follows: L p = 69.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network EIRP = Pbt − L com − L bf + Ga b = 46 − 5.73dBm L p = EIRP − Pmr min = 145. the reception quality falls short of the requirement.55 + 26. h m is the height of mobile A h m = (1.4km It is obvious that in terms of the same configuration of base station.1 lg f − 0. phone antenna.82 lg h b + (44.56 lg f − 0.

A h m = (1. (4) Divide this Erl number by the average user traffic when busy. (1) According to the bandwidth and multiplexing mode currently used for GSM network within the planned area. and get the maximum traffic a base station is able to load (Erl number). and then according to the index for radio channel call loss and traffic.70 0.1 lg f − 0.1 Voice channel distribution The capacity of base station refers to the number of channels to be configured for a base station or a cell.8 ) = 0. (2) Each CF has 8 channels. but for the users on the first floor of a building 500m away from the base station. (3) According to the number of voice number and call loss index (generally 2% for dense traffic area and 5% for other areas). 5. and you will get the maximum number of users a base station is able to satisfy.7km. According to the range of base station or cell and user density distribution. refer to Erl B table.73dB d = 0.75 2.73 − (−70 ) = 125. L p = EIRP − Pmr min = 55. (5) M1800 inside the room of an urban building mobile phone minimum receiving level Pmr min = −70dBm. minus the number of control channels. This indicates the base station is able to cover an area of 1. we can get the maximum CF number to be configured with a base station. we will get the maximum number of voice channels to be configured with each base station. and the result will be d = 1. The said results are summarized in the following table: Mobile phone minimum receiving power (dBm) -70 -90 -90 -90 -70 Application environment M900 Inside the room of a building Outdoors in urban areas In the suburbs Outdoors in urban areas Inside the room of a building TRX transmitting power (W) 40 40 40 40 40 Coverage radius (km) 0. refer to Erl B table and work out the number of voice channels to be configured.04dB Substitute the above expression with each known member. the reception quality falls short of the requirement.46km.7km in radius.80 5.56 lg f − 0. it is clear that the coverage of M1800 is less than that of M900 and the coverage of an urban base station is less than that in the suburb.5 Capacity Distribution 5. It involves the number of radio voice channels and number of control channels.5. f = 1800 MHz. figure out the total number of users.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network Besides.46 M1800 From the table.40 1.7 )h m − (1. 4-18 .

industry competition.53 53. Erl traffic model is used to work out the traffic density a network is capable of bearing. and save transmission while meeting the capacity. WAP and SMS etc. (9) Such dynamic factors as roaming ratio. the construction unit will generally consider delaying the construction of this base station. attention should be paid to the separation between the omniantenna and directional antenna.7 56.96 9..18 23.03 21. microcell etc. If the number of users in a base station is too small. Call loss may be 2% or 5% in light of practical conditions.65 38. we can see that the larger the number of cell CF. (12) Reserve in advance some CF. we can work out the number of base stations to be configured through the area of the region with this user density and the actual coverage area of the base station as known above. (13) In some special areas. In this case. at least two base stations are needed for an important county and at least two CF for an important sector. the resources for equipment (carrier frequency. use economical micro base stations to provide coverage for rural areas and high roads and use HDSL for transmission in these areas. micro cells and micro base stations to cover newly developed areas and for the selection in the optimization period.2 14. the large the call loss rate. Installation in light of layers is preferred. algorithm in light of layers can be used for control. in terms of traffic control. the higher utilization rate of TCH channel is. 4-19 .9 Traffic (Erl) 5% 2.03 27. (6) When a region with different user density are specified.).33 34. (7) For important places. (8) For areas with possible bursting traffic (competition venues and seasonal tourist resorts etc. new service development (GPRS. (14) For some highroads requiring little traffic but large coverage. user mobility factor. rate change.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network (5) Using the data for user density. we may find out the coverage area of this base station. Channel utilization rate is an important indicator for assessing the quality of planning and design.82 30.5 cell networking mode with single CF micro base station + power divider + two sets of directional antennas. we may resort to 0.73 From the above table. it is necessary to consider the backup of base station and the realization of CF mutual aid function. one-way toll and economic growth should be taken into account.1 48.5+0.25 63.63 69.55 61.) and frequency resources should be reserved in advance.68 42. base stations made up of omni-directional/directional mixed cells can be used to give full reign to their respective edges in coverage and capacity. The larger traffic each TCH is able to bear. (10) To configure a base station.55 46.73 16. such as the use of ABIS interface at 15:1 and 12:1 and cascading etc. Erl B table is shown as follows: CF number for each cell 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TCH number 6 14 21 29 36 44 52 59 67 75 2% 2.).27 8. (11) Actively adopt cellular system plus distributed antennas to meet the urban coverage and capacity. it is necessary to consider ABIS interface transmission.

I. This function mainly involves the following aspects: dynamic allocation from SDCCH to TCH channel and restoration from SDCCH to TCH channel. reduce the effect of SDCCH channel initial configuration on system performance and increase the system capacity. it even becomes almost impossible to do so after the large-scale application of layered network and short messages. Use dynamic allocation algorithm. As a result. 5. as a result. we generally take 85% of the traffic as defined in Erl B table as the reference for the traffic density a computer network is able to bear. the designed network capacity is 13. and determine whether to perform dynamic configuration according to the input parameters: at a point when the cell’s SDCCH chancel is busy and the number of idle TCH channels exceeds a certain value.000 in 2 years. the equipment of some manufactures at the present supports SDCCH dynamic allocation. It is discovered in practical application that when the actual traffic via each line of a base station cell reaches 85% 90% of TCH traffic (call loss 2%) given in Erl B table. in consideration of congestion. SDCCH distribution In GSM system. SDCCH channel dynamic allocation enables the dynamic adjustment of SDCCH capacity. on TCH) SDCCH/4 SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 + SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 SDCCH/4 + 2 * SDCCH/8 It is very difficult to sum up a traffic model for SDCCH channel.e.2 Configuration of control channel I.5/(85%)=158. however. These data estimated for traffic capacity needs to be counted and completed gradually in the course of network construction. so as to reduce the congestion of SDCCH channel congestion. TRX number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 General configuration (SDCCH/8 + SDCCH/4) SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 + SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 + SDCCH/4 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8+SDCCH/4 3*SDCCH/8 Configuration of the edge of location area SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8 + SDCCH/4 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8 2*SDCCH/8+SDCCH/4 3*SDCCH/8 3*SDCCH/8 General configuration (use Immediate ass. then we know that the network capacity as required is 10* (1+10%+10%+15%)=135. most of the time during the general call creation process and position update process. Example: The capacity of local network requires expansion.5. considering roaming factor (according to traffic statistics and development trend) 10%. users will reach 100. then the idle TCH channels will be 4-20 . 160. In considering the share of traffic between these two in constructing a dual frequency network. i. we generally use 85% of the traffic as given in Erl B table as the reference for the traffic density that the computer is able to bear. In accordance with service development and in combination of population growth and network popularization. the probability of congestion in this base station cell will obviously rise. Fortunately. dynamic factor 15% (with bursting traffic considered). the mobile station works on SDCCH channel.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network As a result of the limit on cell coverage and usable frequency bandwidth.800. The following table is the configuration principles recommended for SDCCH.000. it is necessary to plan the cell capacity in a rational way in an effort to improve the channel utilization rate under the precondition of ensuring sound voice quality. mobile factor (It mainly refers to the users moves within the local network instead of roaming) 10%. wider frequency bandwidth can be used to realize high utilization rate of the channel. In particular.000.

in the case of more than 4 TRX.e. After a while. so that the user may be called when necessary. when the cell’s SDCCH channel stays idle. The mobile station will work out the paging group where it belongs in light of its own IMSI. In practical network. and the network calls the entire location area in order to call the mobile user. The functions of a location area are described as follows: call connection with mobile users should be created at the side of network. The related CCCH channel parameters include the following: [CCCH configuration]. MSC/VLR. it is recommended that CCCH channel occupy one physical channel and share it with SDCCH. Whether to share a physical channel with SDCCH channel. in the case of 3 or 4 TRX. In this way. minimize the said parameter as much as possible in order to shorten the time for mobile station to respond to paging. II. The two parameters of [number of access grant reserved channels] and [CCCH configuration] determine the capacity of access grant channels.e.1 Definition of location area Under GSM protocol. After that. [frame number coding between identical paging]decides how many paging subchannels the paging group of a cell is divided into. every paging group in each cell corresponds to a paging sub-channel. i. The value of [number of access grant reserved channel} in principle is: on the precondition of ensuring the access grant channel is not overloaded. CCCH allocation Public control channels mainly include AGCH. 5.6. SIM cards of mobile subscribers store the location 4-21 . [number of access grant reserved channels]. The basic information about the current location of local registered users (information about MSC/VLR where the user is connected) is kept in the equipment at network side. All service channels of each cell share CCCH channel. it works out the position of the paging sub-channels belonging to the said paging group. along with [CCCH channel configuration] and [number of access grant reserved channels] jointly determines the total number of paging sub-channels in a cell. the entire mobile communication network is divided into difference service areas in light of different location area codes. it is recommended to work out the capacity of paging channel in CCCH and perform specific configuration. keeps the basic information and location information about all the mobile users stationed currently under this MSC (information about specific location area). It is necessary to record the location information about the said mobile user at any time. [number of access grant reserved channels]decides the ratio occupied by paging channel and access grant channel on CCCH. BSC will restore SDCCH channel dynamically allocated to TCH channel. PCH and RACH intended to send access grant (i. [CCCH configuration] serves to designate the type of CCCH channel configuration.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network converted to SDCCH channels according to corresponding setting. the equipment at network side. As each subscriber to the mobile station (corresponding to each IMSI) belongs to a paging group. immediate assignment) and paging message.6 Location Area Design 5. the mobile station only listens in the contents in the paging subchannel it belongs to with no regard to the contents in other paging sub-channels. it is recommended that CCCH channel occupy one physical channel and does not share it with SDCCH channel. [frame number coding between identical paging]. CCCH channel may either share the same physical channel (one time slot) with SDCCH or solely use a physical channel. In the case of 1 or 2 TRX in the cell. so as to improve the service performance of the system.

When it discovers the location information stored in SIM card is inconsistent with the information delivered from the associated channel. after locked to a broadcast channel.6. When the mobile station is in communication state. as shown in Figure 5-8. Location area is a basic unit underlying GSM system. The calculation of location areas is related to the paging strategies of different manufacturers. Generally. the mobile station will undergo an increase in location update processes. if the location area covers a too large range.2 Division of location areas To specify the location of a mobile station. compare the location information. If LAC covers a too small area. then the same paging message in the network paging mobile station will be delivered in many cells. PLMN MSC CELL CELL MSC LA CELL CELL CELL CELL LA CELL CELL CELL CELL LA CELL CELL CELL CELL LA CELL CELL Figure 5-8 Division of service areas 5. The following is the principles for location area planning: (1) Location area cannot be divided into over large or over small areas.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network information of these users (specific information about location area). the paging message will be delivered on the basis of location area with the paging messages of one mobile user in the location area delivered to all the cells. and increasing the signaling flow at Abis interface. it is then necessary to send signaling to the registration place to modify MSC/VLR information in HLR and delete old MSC/VLR information. If MSC/VLR is discovered to have changed. that is. it will start up location update immediately. it will start up location update without delay. it will continuously intercept the location area information of broadcast channels. thus leading to the overload of PCH channel. that is. it is recommended that the number of TRX in each location area 4-22 . Refer to “calculation of location area” as described in the next section for details. When a mobile station is in service. the coverage of each GSM PLMN will be divided into many location areas.e. One location area may include one or multiple BSC but it belongs to a single MSC. If inconsistent. on the contrary. To ensure the paging to mobile subscriber is not lost. The size of location area (i. VLR and SIM card is consistent with each other at any time. the mobile station will start up location update. it will intercept the location information delivered by an associated channel. it is requested that the location information kept in HLR. The task of location update is to register new location area in the current MSC/VLR. thus increasing the signaling flow in the system. coverage of one location area code LAC) is a very key factor in the system. compare to check if the location area information stored in SIM card is consistent with that delivered by the broadcast channel. Once it discovers the location information in SIM card is inconsistent with the location information delivered by the broadcast channel. When the mobile station is in standby state. after the communication is over.

in big cities with high traffic. and the boundary shall not put in a place with high traffic (such as shopping malls). Thus there arise some signals. in allocation of location arrears. In the initial stage where the network is first constructed. the division may adopt the method in light of sections or another inner and external ring or mixed way).Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network is around 300. as there is no much traffic. streets should not be taken as the boundary for dividing location areas. however. and then some mobile phones will not perform normal location update immediately. it is very necessary to monitor PCH load and traffic growth in the long run. as shown in Figure 5-9: Figure 5-9 Diagram of LAC Division In addition. the location areas are distributed in the way of a concentric circle (the urban area in the inner circle may be divided into several location areas due to capacity factor. to add a slave BCCH channel may increase PCH capacity effectively at a sacrifice of one voice channel. As a result. it is required that the boundary of location area should not be parallel or perpendicular to 4-23 . (2) Perform LAC area division in light of the geographic distribution and action of mobile subscribers. which are not in the service areas. Of course. Inside the circle. In the event of no such geographic environment. In the event of discontinuous coverage between the suburb and the urban area. the location areas used for ordinary suburbs (counties) are different from those in urban areas. such geographic factors as mountains and rivers in the urban areas can be used as the boundary of location areas. if there are more than two location areas. it is likely that mobile phone fails to perform location update when the update time is due at the cyclic position. Practice has proved that the LAC division in this way may not only decrease users not in the service area but also improve the completion rate and call successful rate. the number of TRX one LAC is able to accommodate may be greater than this value. so as to avoid the above phenomena. so as to reach the goal that there is fewer location updates on the edge of the location area. the LAC in the urban area is consistent with that in the suburb. so as to reduce the overlapping depth of different cells under the two location areas. Generally. If this goes to the urban area. For this reason. After the protection time (generally set in MSC) the system will consider IMSI undergoes hidden separation.

it is recommended to use the same location area. in the initial period of network construction. the boundary of a location area should be located at the place of base station on the outskirts. Here is some experience in the construction of a dual-frequency network with regard to the division of location area: (1) If M1800 and M900 use a MSC separately. there are two ways of design: divided in light of geographic locations and frequency bands. which absorbs traffic by setting parameters. It is required to make the mobile station stay in M1800 cell. so as to avoid the users in this area updating their locations very frequently. the load brought to the system arising from location update should be taken into full account in designing signaling channels. A dual-frequency network requires more in respect of location area division. Figure 5-10 Divide Location Areas in Light of Frequency Band 900 Cell 900 Cell 900 Cell 900 Cell 1800 Cell 1800小区 1800 Cell 1800 Cell 1800 Cell 1800 Cell LA1 LA2 Divide location areas in light of geographic locations Figure 5-11 Divide Location Areas in Light of Geographic Locations 4-24 . (2) If M1800 and M900 share in one MSC.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network the streets but in oblique crossing. In the areas where the urban area meets the suburb. so as to reduce the switch and repeated selection between the two frequency bands. instead of at the place where the city proper adjoins the suburb with dense traffic. as long as the system capacity permits. if it is necessary to divide it into two or more location areas due to limited paging capacity. Refer to Figure 5-10 and Figure 5-11 for details. their location areas will surely differ. At the same time.

the number of paging blocks is: 4. so as to reduce the switch and repeated selection between the two frequency bands. on the boundary of a location area. 4-25 . which absorbs traffic. there are 1/0. (2) Prerequisite (a) All the cells are configured with a non-combination BCCH (b) Number of reserved access grant blocks is A Note: Paging block is 9-A 1 frame=4. For non-combination BCCH (1) Purpose Work out the number of users or CF number one location area accommodates. thus there is much signaling flow.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network To divide location areas in light of frequency band requires setting parameters in consideration of frequent update due to the switch and repeated selection between two frequency bands. 1multiframe=51frame=0. At the same time.25 frames within 1 second. To divide location areas in light of geographic locations may serve to solve the problem of frequent location update arising from dual frequency switch and repeated selection. so that the mobile station will remain in M1800 cell. At the same time. which can send: 2 IMSI pages.2354s. 5.2354=4.3 Calculation of location areas I. it is required to design the location area boundary carefully.615ms. there exist the location updates caused by the switch and repeated selection at the same frequency band and dual frequency band. Ratio of TMSI to IMSI in paging X×(Y/(Y+1))×1 paging sub-block +X×(1/(Y+1))×2 paging sub-block = 4 X=4×(Y+1)/(Y+2) Message sub-block number of each paging (d) Paging resending ratio is C (e) Time length of average call is D (unit: second) (f) Caller: called: received point-to-point short message = E: E: F Note: Each paging block consists of 23 bytes. but it is necessary to modify the office data of the previous M900 network.25×(9-A) (c) The number of paging messages in each paging block is B: Note: Paging times each paging block is able to deliver. that is. the load brought to the system arising from location update should be taken into full account in designing signaling channels.6. 2 TMSI and 1 IMSI page.

(4) Example If the number of reserved access grant blocks is 2.2/0.25×7=29.03.03=73440 users.2 Note: If some CF does not aim to improve traffic but to meet its coverage. 77760/0. 79.2ERL If the traffic for each user when busy is 0. Suppose the duration of each call is 60S. and it may support 57024 calls. and the maximum of traffic of each TRX on the average within 1 hour is 7. the paging channel will undergo congestion.2 pages may be delivered within 1 second. we think when it exceeds 30%. which may require flow control protection.25×(9-A)×B×30%×2×E×D/[(E+F)×C] Number of users in each location area: possible traffic in each location area/G CF number in each location area: possible traffic in each location area/7. And supports CF of 2203.1. so each parameter should be submitted with different value. Suppose caller: called: short message (received) = 5:5:1. Suppose IMSI and TMSI paging occupies half.1 = 77760 pages.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 4 TMSI pages Call times corresponding to each page (caller or called) is: (2*E)/(E+F) (g) Traffic of each user when busy G (unit: Erl) (h) In consideration of the distribution of paging commands.2×3600×30%=85536 pages can be delivered within 1 hour. the number of CF it can support can be improved.017=2203. Then a maximum of 29. then each paging block is able to send 8/3 pages. then the traffic for 1 call is 60/3600=0. it supports 85536/1.2 TCH on the average. Traffic models in different areas and different periods are different. That is. If short messages burst suddenly. 4-26 .e. i.017ERL. it may support 2203. then 1 multiframe has (9-2)=7 paging block and 4.7×8/3 = 79. then the paging amount will increase with supported users on the decline.2 (3) Formula Traffic in each location area: 4. (i) Each TRX has 7. Suppose MSC paging resend ratio is 1.2/7.7 paging blocks can be sent within 1 second.6×0.017ERL corresponds to 6/10 page.2=306TRX. Then 0.

it is necessary to consult with the operators in respect of the planning for location areas for specification. For combined BCCH. Numbering Rules and Post & Telecommunications 900-1800 Technical System should be the reference for principles for CGI and CI coding. With a view to different traffic density. the number of supported CF will increase. supported number of CF will decrease. Domestically. III. For multiple BCCH. 4-27 . BCCH cells and multiple BCCH cells to make up a location area separately. Generally speaking. it is recommended to combine BCCH cells.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network II.

RF design (1) Link budget For indoor coverage. It is difficult to increase the network capacity. It affects the planning of frequency for the entire network. we need to consider the following problems: Try to avoid the effect of newly-built indoor system on the existing network. capacity design and frequency plan. so as to distinguish indoor from outdoor How to provide sufficient indoor network capacity Support new services and new functions Here is an analysis in terms of design of indoor antenna system. it is urgently needed to solve the problem of indoor coverage. Direct station mode requires much on source level and both the intermodulation interference and co-frequency interference are serious in bad communication quality at high rate of call drops. outdoor high-power base station and highly installed antenna. these solutions will lead to the following problems: As wall penetration involves a large loss and indoor coverage renders bad effect.7 Design of Indoor Coverage System Currently. the development of value-added services for group users is restricted (such as GPRS data service) To improve the service level.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. Serious “detached island effect” As a result of quality and capacity. In the design intended for a solution to indoor coverage. the formula for link budget is as follows: Pant = MS sens + RFm arg + IFm arg + BL + LNFm arg + L path − G ant P a n t = antenna input interface power MS sens = −104dBm equipment receiving sensitivity RFm arg = rayleigh fading margin IFm arg = access margin (dependent on environment) LNFm arg = design access. generally 5dB 4-28 .7. Capacity problem fails to be solved fundamentally.1 Design of indoor antenna system I. there will be a large number of blind spots impossible for communication. such as the mode of direct station. The network capacity is limited at a low call successful rate. However. 5. the indoor coverage mainly depends on the extension of existing outdoor coverage.

(2) Service quality design (degree of being interfered) The degrees of being interfered in respect of an indoor cell are described as follows: The building where the indoor cell is located is at the same height as the surrounding buildings. in link budgeting. in estimating and designing interference margins. here are values of some typical penetration loss: Partition wall block: 5~20dB Floor block: 20dB 2~15dB Block of furniture and other impediments: Thick glass: 6~10dB The penetration loss of train carriages: 15~30dB Penetration loss of lifts: 30dB or so Loss of signals from fixed signal source at the track curve of tunnels: 10~40dB /km Loss of oblong tunnels: 10~15dB/km The loss of column tunnel is 35~40dB/km. in the same coverage area.5+20logd (km)+20logf (MHz) α: Loss of other objects. it is ensured if possible that the effective radiation power (EIRP) of each antenna interface is consistent with its error kept within 10dB. it is necessary to configure the maximum transmitting power for mobile phone and meanwhile enable the function of dynamic power control of the mobile phone. and thus tunnels usually use disclosure cables for coverage During the course of link budgeting. The indoor system possesses dedicated frequency involving little cell frequency multiplexing. it is necessary to take the following key factors into account: in an indoor multi-antenna system. and thus it is not necessary to use antenna diversity to improve the density of uplink signals. the margins will differ in light of the distance away from the external walls of the building. the level of designed level is quite high. Little interference 4-29 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network B L= human body loss 900MHz 5dB 1800/1900MHz 3dB G ant = antenna gain L path =Path loss Where path loss Lpath is: Lpath 32. Frequency multiplexing 12 The outdoor system covers the area where indoor cells are located not effectively. the link budget for test points is usually based on the link with minimum path loss.5+20logd (km)+20logf (MHz)+α In the formula: Free space loss Lp 32. The closer to the external wall. floor and impediments. it is necessary to preserve some margins in preparation for design error correction and the extension of antenna system in the future. the designed interference margins will be larger. to reduce uplink interferences.

indoor structure. Hereunder are the antenna design guidelines for some typical areas: (1) Guideline for the antenna wiring in a single cell When a single cell achieves the building coverage. as shown in the following table. each antenna should be configured to ensure the equal distribution of signals within the coverage area of the cell. Figure 5-12 Guideline for Antenna Wiring in a Single Cell (2) Antenna Wiring Guideline for Multiple Cells When multiple cells achieve the building indoor coverage. there are more interference design margins (IFmarg) within the said area. set antennas in light of different areas (type. What needs to be noted is. Generally. as shown in Figure 5-12. and then analyze the path loss. interference environment and service targets (general public/business group users) with respect to the building. Each antenna 4-30 . the actual interference level can be obtained through field test. number and place for installation). structure. and the higher the level that mobile phone needs to receive. it is recommended to install the antennas in a zigzag way. Antenna system design The concept for the design of indoor distributed system is as follows: first survey the type. Actual level interference degree Major interference degree Medium interference degree Minor interference degree Receiving level the mobile phone requires (dBm) -65 -75 -85 II. (3) Service quality design (interference design margin) The higher the interference degree is. in adopting indoor dual-frequency system. the mobile phone will receive the designed level according to the indexes as defined in 1800 system.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network General interference Degree in interference The use of environment and frequency between the two The building where indoor cells are located is a high-rise compared with the surrounding buildings Frequency multiplexing 9 The actual interference level will vary with the change of network layout and the fresh planning of frequency. it is necessary to note that there must be some interval between co-frequency multiplexing cells.

as shown in Figure 5-14. as shown in Figure 5-13. or multi-antenna system with low output power is adopted for this purpose. it is generally recommended to install the antennas between different layers in the same position. Figure 5-13 Guideline for Antenna Wiring in Multiple Cells (3) Antenna layout in a closed environment When the exterior wall of the building is relatively thick. to ensure sound service quality.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network should be configured likewise to ensure the equal distribution of signals within the coverage area of the cell. where the cell edge is confined to inside the building. it will suffer large interference from outdoor co-frequency. 4-31 . as shown in Figure 5-15. there will be little signal attenuation. thus the frequencies between floors can be planned with ease. Figure 5-14 Antenna Layout in Closed Environment (4) Antenna layout in a half-open environment If the exterior wall of the building is built of a structure of glass window/wall. If the inside of the building is an open meeting environment. If it involves compact frequency multiplexing. thus necessitating dedicated frequency for planning. then the signals attenuate greatly with little disclosure and little interference from outdoor co-frequency.

The interval between the co-frequency cells of different floors is larger than that in other environments. It requires dedicated frequency for planning. and thus having little interference against the outside. as shown in Figure 5-17. In this case. multiple directional antennas and omni-antennas are generally adopted for indoor coverage. some signals will leak through the corridor windows. the output power of the antenna is generally large so as to ensure sound coverage. Rational design of effective cell radiation power will easily serve to control the cell coverage. Figure 5-16 Antenna Layout for Buildings of Frame Structure (6) Antenna layout for office buildings For such areas as offices of indoor business groups that require high service quality. thus requiring that the antennas are installed in the corridor. 4-32 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network Figure 5-15 Antenna Layout in Half-open Environment (5) Antenna layout for building of frame structure When the building has many interior walls and these walls are thick. as shown in Figure 5-16.

The key coverage areas are the lifts with large passage of people. Figure 5-18 Antenna Layout for Parking Lot 4-33 . automatic moving stairs and entrance to parking lots. as shown in Figure 5-18. which require some coverage but have no special need of capacity. the receiving level of mobile phone is not required to be high (around 90dBm).Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network Figure 5-17 Antenna Layout for Office Buildings (7) Antenna Layout for Parking Lots Such areas as parking lots.

hung on the exterior wall with its near side radiating indoors. understand the blind spots. block against signals. The distribution of existing signals in coverage area. while the small directional antennas are installed. Figure 5-19 Antenna Layout for Supermarkets III. 4-34 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network (8) Supermarket Such areas as supermarkets have some requirements in terms of both coverage and capacity. Access position and mode of signals. involving the following aspects: Area of coverage in detail. wiring diagram of the final output system. list of materials In particular. it should be stressed that omni-antennas are generally installed at the center of the ceiling. as shown in Figure 5-19. Examine the positions where equipment can be installed. and meet the C/I requirement on outdoor system. The topological structure. requirement of signal coverage quality. Composition of buildings in the coverage area. Survey Finalize the installation and wiring of antenna through survey. different from place to place. hot spots and signal point of impingement. so as to minimize its effect on outdoor system. and the antenna system in these places may be set in light of the actual building structure.

At this moment. to ensure reasonable reselection relationship in the cells indoors and outdoors. as the indoor high-rise coverage system with desirable indoor coverage may be regarded independent of the outdoor system.. GOS and the traffic of each user can be referred to in accordance Example Public service area Airport. while the inter-layer switch threshold and magnetic hysteresis can be specified and adjusted in light of practical conditions about the network (coverage. the coverage level may reach -70dBm. as shown in Figure 5-20. it is only required to consider the switch relationship between indoor cell and external cell at the entrance to the building. in accordance with the test result. coverage test may be conducted. Normally.7. Reduce switch from inside to outside through traffic control The measures are as follows: in Idle status. adjust the initial antenna design to meet the coverage requirement. if there are no dense partition walls. It is necessary to take the characteristic of unequal capacity distribution and bursting in a comprehensive way. Figure 5-20 Diagram of Coverage Test IV. the priority level of indoor cells may be set higher. set CRO and TO etc. as shown in the following table: Type of indoor service area Features of the service area It is rather difficult to estimate the traffic. within the range of 30m of the antenna. In this case. a small indoor omni-antenna of 2dBi should be used. it is first required to specify the type of indoor service areas.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network If possible. so as to ease the impact of the switch and external network. 5.2 Capacity Analysis and Design Before capacity analysis. 4-35 . or plan the frequency anew to meet the requirement on voice quality. for the average flow by the day and at night will differ in different periods. interference etc). so that all the traffic whose level is higher than a certain switch threshold between layers is kept in the indoor cell. shopping center and sports field etc. if the radiation power of antenna interface is 10dBm. However.

the original single cell is required to split into at least 3 cells so as to ensure frequency multiplexing.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 with the outdoor cells. To avoid frequency interference. The former is applicable to indoor coverage requiring small capacity. indoor cell should be prevented from splitting. The utilization rate of the previous fixed telephone network stands high.1Erl. Frequency A Figure 5-22 Vertical Cell Split 4-36 . co-frequency cell is generally to be separated at an interval of four layers. but there is a certain space between them. as shown in Figure 5-22. when the capacity for indoor single cell falls short of requirement. up to 0. Frequency A Frequency B The cell frequency for different floors can be multiplexed. where the traffic is relatively fixed easy for estimation. the current distributed system is organized in two cell ways: single cell and vertical split. But this is vertical split way. and the traffic of each user is also high. while the latter is applicable to areas with dense indoor traffic. GOS is 1%. Design of Radio Network Business service area Office buildings. it is also necessary to perform cell split. star commercial hotels Distributed antenna system Distributed antenna system Power divider Distributed antenna system Distributed antenna system Power divider Distributed antenna system Distributed antenna system Figure 5-21 (a) Diagram of a Single Cell (b) Diagram of Vertical Divided Multiple Cells As shown in Figure 5-21. Generally. In the event of vertical cell split. Likewise. but the service quality is required to be high.

make sure not select the adjacent frequency of these frequencies. Furthermore. while TCH layer can be planned in the manner of RF jumping to reduce interference. the service cell is generally the cell with the strongest signal level. If there is no frequency dedicated to indoor system and stealthy frequency is used. if 900M frequency falls short of the requirement. it should also be noted that before the start of layered network structure. and the adjacent frequency interference is not obvious. If the frequency resources permit. when the layered network structure is started. stealthy frequency should be used. As the urban environment is complicated. attention shall be paid to reducing the adjacent frequency interferences. the frequency planning is relatively simple. the frequency plan for indoor coverage system of high buildings should pay attention to this. At this point. As a result of quality and capacity factors (such as the development of GPRS high rate data services). but it is recommended to adopt dedicated frequency band for higher floors with heavy interference. Generally speaking.7. the interference from medium and high buildings is generally rather serious. especially the effect of antenna back lobe. 4-37 . The ultimate frequency is selected on the basis of actual interference environment test. at the same time. the lower floors of a building adopts regular frequency plan. 1800M frequency should be introduced in dual frequency system. the frequency multiplexing for business service areas and public service areas is basically the same. In particular. with the aid of BTS equipment’s uplink frequency band scan function to search for uplink usable frequencies. and with the aid of downlink function of roadside equipment to search for downlink usable frequencies. try to ensure BCCH frequency free of interference.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. the service cell is not necessarily the cell with the strongest signal level. dedicated frequency band should be adopted for indoor coverage.3 Frequency Plan If dedicated frequency is adopted indoors. if the frequency resources are not enough. Normally.

4-38 . it is also required to design the cell configuration data related to each base station. what algorithm to start and whether to use frequency hopping. What requires special explanation is: the selection of cell switching area. power control and DTX as well as other functions should have been specified in the design.8 Design of Cell Data To ensure the sound and stable running of the network. various switches and power control algorithms. coverage estimation and frequency planning for the base station.Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 5. including such radio parameters as cell system message parameters.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 5 Design of Radio Network 4-39 .

Radio Network Planning Table of Contents xl .

1 Frequency Planning Today. 6-1 . 2 f1(n) (n-1)×0. 6. DCS1800 It has total 374 frequency bands. but with the promotion of the common adjacent frequency interference. in other word. with the corresponding frequency sequence numbers of 512-561. its capacity is limited by the given frequency bandwidth.1 Frequency Division and C/I Requirements The cellular system is generally divided into the GSM900M and DCS1800M systems with the carrier frequency interval of 200 kHz. with less capacity. the Mobile occupies 890-909/935-954MHz. with 200kHz of protective band on each end. will certainly cause the problem how to reduce the common adjacent frequency interference with which we must be faced: in the equivalent areas. the frequency reuse. a good frequency plan may realize the promotion of the network capacity on the basis of maintaining a good voice quality. the sequence numbers (ARFCN) are 512-885. How to obtain the balance between the capacity and the voice quality is the problem that must be settled by the frequency plan. The division of its uplink and downlink frequencies is as follows: Network type GSM900 DCS1800 Frequency bandwidth (uplink/downlink)(MHz) 890 915/935 960 1710 1785/1805 1880 I. 2 f1(n) (n-512)×0. 2 (MHz) 95 (MHz) The Mobile occupies 1710MHz-1720MHz. 2 (MHz) 45 (MHz) II. the sequence numbers (ARFCN) are 1-124. based on the frequencies. with more compact frequency reuse. GSM900 It has total 124 frequency bands. the capacity is promoted to a certain content.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology Chapter 6 Frequency Planning and Antiinterference Technology 6.1. The relation between the frequency and the sequence number (n) is as follows: Base station receiving: f1(n) Base station sending: f2(n) 1710. for the development of the cellular system. However. especially the compact frequency reuse pattern. According to the national regulation. The relation between the frequency and the sequence number (n) is as follows: Base station receiving: f1(n) Base station sending: f2(n) 890. the less the common adjacent frequency interference is. while Unicom occupies 909-915/954-960MHz. the more incompact the frequency reuse interval is. while the Unicom occupies 1745 MHz-1755MHz. The frequency may satisfy the requirements of the capacity in a certain area only by reusing. with the corresponding sequence numbers of 687-736.

the higher the frequency availability. so-called common frequency interference.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology III.2. K=1. Figure 6-1 Interference schematic diagram Let: q= D R = 3&K (1) then the analysis of the common frequency interference is: C I = C Ik (2) where Ik is number k interference signal. but with higher interference. Figure 6-1 describes the distribution of the interference. j are integers. The closer the interval between both frequencies is. By the derivation. . N. The above expression may also be: C I = 1 (q k ) − (3) is the path fading where is number K common frequency interference factor. since the frequency resource is limited.. 6-2 . C/I requirements In the cellular system. and [fn] is the reuse frequency. reuse interval and path fading. the cell is indicated by the regular hexagon. the reuse frequency cluster number K is obtained: K=i2+ij+j2 where i. For the convenience of analysis. The replicated use of the frequency would cause the interference with each other. . D is the reuse interval. the replicated use of the frequency is an effective approach for promoting the frequency availability. In the figure. The strength of the interference power is dependent on the effective emission power.

but some frequency bands must be reserved (when the frequency is sufficient for use) at the division junctures or the frequency bands are to be divided. . the frequency interval between TCHs in the same cell is preferably over 400K.2 Principles of the Frequency Planning A good network structure is the basis of a good frequency planning. it has 3dB allowance in engineering. it has 3dB allowance in engineering. if the conditions of the six interference cells are the same.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology offset determined by the actual geographic environment. (3) When the frequency hopping is not used. and further the relation between C/I and K. the plan is carried out beginning from the place where the base stations are closely packed. Due to the irregularity of the site distribution. it is needed to be adjusted according to the actual situations. i. however. 6. Whatever patterns may be used for the frequency plan. the following principles should be observed: (1) It is not allowed that there are cofrequency frequency bands in the same base station. (2) In the same cell. If the cellular arrangement is not proper. it is done in a geographic division mode. then q −1 = (6 & C I ) 1 (4) For the 120 degrees of directional base station. the interference sources are still calculated by six (the worst condition). generally it is 4. e. Adjacent frequency suppression ratio: C/A -9dB. it is difficult to guarantee that the frequencies of the same level of carrier frequencies can be planed fully according to the common pattern of 4×3 or 3×3. the first level of the interference source includes six (since the interference over the second level is small. the frequency interval between BCCH and TCH is preferably over 400K. the path fading value =3-5. e. C/I 12dB. each base station will undertake more interference sources. Generally. according to the demodulation requirements of the signal in the air interface. considering the influences of the antenna side and back lobes. 6-3 . the one with the largest interference is to be taken into consideration. For the base station with the omnidirectional antenna. GSM specifies that the common adjacent frequency protective ratio should meet the following requirements: Common frequency C/I: C/I 9dB. When the frequency plan is carried out in a certain area. The selection of the juncture should be away from the hotspot area or complicated networking area. it may be omitted). i. C/A -6dB Second adjacent suppression ratio: C/A2 -41dB.1. . it can be obtained from the expression (4) C I = (q −1 ) 6 (5) The relation between C/I and q can be obtained from the above expression. in the mobile environment. GSM is an interference limited system. it is theoretically thought that there are two interference sources.

the new adjacent frequency interference problem may be occur: for example. it is ensured that the frequency hopping band should double the number of the hopping carrier frequencies or over. after the adjacent frequency suppression ratio is determined via the parameter adjusting. (6) Generally. the direct adjacent base stations should avoid cofrequency (even though the directions of their antenna main lobe are different. however. total 12 cells are the frequency cluster. Figure 6-2 shows the 4×3 frequency reuse cell cluster. For various cells in the same cluster. 6. the influences of the side lobes and back lobes may be difficult to be estimated due to the reasons of the antenna and environment). and the PBGT handover may not be occur because the field density is less than that of the cell A. the BCCH of its adjacent cell B is 51. the adjacent frequency may be employed in the direct adjacent opposite cells. which is the basis of other frequency reuse patterns. The solution is: respectively allocating the independent frequency range to the BCCH frequency and the TCH frequency without any interleaving as possible. when a mobile phone makes a call on the number 50 TCH of the cell A. after the downlink power control is enabled. the case that there are the same BCCH and the same BSIC in the adjacent areas should be avoided.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology (4) In non 1×3 reuse pattern. Since the PBGT handover algorithm is judged based on the BCCH field density (path dissipation). which causes the new adjacent frequency interference. for the 1×3 reuse. (7) Pay attention to the cofrequency reuse. their frequencies are different. (8) Enabling the PBGT handover. when the BCCH frequency and the TCH frequency are alternatively allocated. "4" refers to 4 sites. properly increasing the expected level of the downlink power control. (5) Considering the complexity of the suspending antenna and propagation environment. 6-4 . the base stations with closer distance should prevent from the opposite cofrequency (including diagonal opposite) as possible. the downlink timeslot of the call on the number 50 of the cell A may be less than BCCH of its adjacent cell B because of the power control.1. reducing the overlapped coverage between the cells.3 Basic Frequency Reuse The most basic frequency reuse pattern of GSM is the 4×3 frequency reuse. "3" indicates that each site has 3 cells.

A3} or {B1. C2. D2. B2. A2. It is assumed that the available bandwidth is 12. or {D1. their frequencies are different. C3}. covering other cells in the figure. 2MHZ. the channel number is 34-95. When allocating the frequencies to the base stations. D3} is selected. 6-5 . B3} or {C1. and reusing one grouplink of frequencies in the 12 frequency cluster.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology Figure 6-2 Basic frequency reuse 4×3 reuse cluster For the 12 cells shown in the figure. the average largest site type is S5/5/5. the rule {A1. in the case of 12. Table 6-1 4×3 frequency reuse assignment table A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 34 40 52 64 76 88 41 53 65 77 89 42 54 66 78 90 43 55 67 79 91 44 56 68 80 92 45 57 69 81 93 46 58 70 82 94 D2 35 47 59 71 83 95 A3 36 48 60 72 84 B3 37 49 61 73 85 C3 38 50 62 74 86 D3 39 51 63 75 87 It can be seen from the table. the co-frequency or adjacent frequency may not occur in the same cell and the adjacent cell. the assignment of the 12 channel groups is shown in Table 6-1. An example is used to describe the 4×3 frequency reuse. 2MHz.

that is. micorcell and distributive antenna system. for the equipment. in addition. how to appropriately plan the frequencies becomes a challenging question. Various compact reuse technologies utilize the multi-layer concept on the whole. and of the PBGT handover. Since each carrier layer is to utilize the different reuse patterns as possible. how to reduce the interference is the key to guarantee the system service quality. Considering that BCCH must at intervals send the system message for the detection and contact of the mobile phones. for the system function. 1×3 and the like. the most used are MRP. after 6-6 . the purpose for various carrier layers to utilizing different reuse degrees is to prevent the interference as possible. TCH frequency plan is made by utilizing patterns such as 3×3. and the frequency plan is to be made generally by utilizing the 4×3 or more incompact frequency reuse pattern. channel assignment algorithm and the functions such as DTX and frequency hopping are improved and developed. 2×3. so that the frequencies participated in the hopping are increased. and subsequently the handover. and various frequency compact reuse technologies emerge accordingly. If there are the frequency band with smaller interference and the frequency band with larger interference simultaneously in a cell. optimized channel assignment algorithm. over 14 of frequency bands are generally assigned to BCCH. it will certainly bring along the rapid increase of the capacity. With the application of cell splitting. it appears as the utilization of the DTX and frequency hopping technologies. as the frequency reuse is very compact. For the planning.4 Compact Frequency Reuse When the network construction is developed to certain content. Different frequency reuse technologies need the corresponding software and hardware technology supports. various layers utilize different frequency reuse pattern.1. while the interference is increased. it includes the appropriate settings of various thresholds of the base station static power and handover. the frequency bands of any two of the cells in the network are not the same. which is embodied in the following aspects: In the case of the non-uniform network site types. uplink/ downlink power control. and the like. so that the mobile phones can decode correctly and the report correctness of the mobile phones may be increased. For the parameter settings. Currently. as not each of cells is to utilize TRXs of the last layer or layers. planning the BCCH and TCH in multi-layer. BCCH should be assigned with at least 12 frequency bands. there are no thoroughly co-frequency cells. and of the frequency hopping parameters for reducing the possibility of the collision of the common adjacent frequencies to the maximum extent. TRXs of the last layer or layers of TRXs may realize the more compact reuse degree (even though in the case of no frequency hopping). In other words. During the actual assignment. it appears as the appropriate selection of the base station position and the cell direction. It is to be mentioned here. power control. After the multiple frequency reuse is realized. the appropriate setting of the height and declination angle of the antenna for reducing the cross-cell coverage. considering the irregularity of the base station distribution and the change of the directional angles of the cells. it puts forward more strict requirements with regard to the stray indexes of the base station equipment and the selective indexes of the adjacent channel. the TRXs are also increased in the cell.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology 6. IUO and FRACTIONAL REUSE (1×3) technologies. it is put forward more strict requirements for the selection of the antennas. increasing the gain. and put forward more strict requirements for the network construction in turn.

Multiple compact reuse pattern (MRP) The multiple compact reuse technology is also called MRP (Multiple Reuse Pattern). the reuse of the layer that is closer to the top layer is more compact. For example: BCCH utilizes the 4×3 reuse pattern. the interfered frequency band may still be utilized normally. the frequency bands arranged in each layer which are illustrated by way of the following example. in the same GSM network. the number of the channels in the unit area will be increased significantly. without putting forward any special software/hardware requirements.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology the hopping technology is utilized. Although the interference is variable with regard to each burst. It is established based on the concept of a carrier multi-layer. it can be seen from the figure. . . the same color refers to the same grouplink of frequencies that are reused. L2. Figure 6-3 shows the schematic diagram of its structure. According to the compact reuse rules. …. I. Figure 6-3 Schematic diagram of multiple compact reuse In the figure. the voice quality will be dependent on the average value of the interference with regard to a specific connection. In the case of the given frequency. which is put into operation. conform to the following expression: n1 n2 n3 n4 . According to the characteristics of the Viterbi decoder. each of which acts as a carrier layer. allowing the simultaneous existence of several different frequency reuse patterns. TCH utilizes 3×3 and 2×3 patterns. Lm refer to the frequency layers in the cell. . . . L1. That is to say. Layer BCCH TCH1 n1 n2 Number of frequency band 6-7 . nm. the frequency band with smaller interference and the frequency with larger interference will be merged. the size of the circle refers to the coverage range. Essentially. all of available frequency bands are divided into several groups. MRP is a frequency planning method. comparing the multiple compact reuse with the same reuses in various layers.

... e.... the rules of the BCCH and TCH carrier layers may utilize the continuous grouping pattern.... Table 6-2 has no reserved frequency band.. .. the BCCH frequency band is preferably added with 1-2 additional frequency bands for planning.. assuming that the available frequency bandwidth is 10MHz and the signal channel numbers are 46-94... TCHm-1 nm For example.. 6-8 ..Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology n3 TCH2 .. For the continuous grouping pattern... i.. total 12-14 frequency bands for planning.

this pattern is useful for reducing the network interference. there may be the cofrequency/adjacent interference in the base station frequency layer. THC2. 3. the maximum configuration of the base station can be made to S4/4/4. each layer of frequencies are selected at regular intervals. THC3 and MICRO. 5. In the figure. In the case of the traditional 4/12 reuse pattern. the service channel is divided into TCH1-TCH5. In addition to the continuous assignment. With regarding to the continuous grouping pattern. total 5 groups of the carrier layers. …. it is assumed that the frequencies that may be assigned to BCCH are 1. and the interference between the base station frequency layers occurs at the frequency boundary point. in the case of 10MHz of the bandwidth. the base station configuration is made to S6/6/6. the frequency plan is carried out in the entire network. 12 frequency bands are obtained for BCCH. the carrier layer where the broadcasting channel (BCCH) is located has 12 frequency bands for reusing. In the case that there are the adjacent frequency interference within the layer instead of between the layers. each grouplink is assigned with different numbers of frequency bands for reusing. Thus. According to the above assignment of the frequency bands for various carrier types. the rest frequencies are assigned to TCH1. 37. the interval assignment may be utilized.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology Table 6-2 Continuously assigning MRP Carrier type BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 TCH4 TCH5 Absolute carrier number of the available frequency band 46 57 58 66 67 74 75 82 83 88 89 94 Number of the available frequency bands 12 9 8 8 6 6 It can be seen from the above table. the above frequency bands are thus divided into 6 groups. Figure 6-4 Discontinuous frequency assignment 6-9 . when the traffic is not very busy. Figure 6-4 shows the schematic diagram of the interval assignment. from which.

Further. TRXs are also increased in the cell. e. for the mobile phones in the small circle. the frequency bands with the more compact frequency reuse such as the frequency bands except BCCH. the frequency bands with more incompact frequency reuse such as the BCCH frequency band. It should be mentioned here. after MRP is utilized. increasing the gains. the last layer of TRX may realize the more compact reuse. It is seen from Figure 6-5. The Viterbi decoder can still demodulate the code element correctly. Cell A Signal Cell B Interference Big circle Small circle Figure 6-5 Schematic diagram of the compact frequency reuse in the concentric circle cell 6-10 . the TRX powers corresponding to some of the frequency bands are adjust down. since the mobile phones in the small circle is far away from the interference source. when the MRP frequency assignment is carried out. in the initial frequency planning. II. If the frequency resources are available. while the interference is increased. The interference appears in the concept of the average value. so that the frequencies participated in the hopping is increased. since the mobile phones in the great circle utilize the frequency with the incompact reuse. to divide the frequency bands into two parts. after the hopping technology is utilized. the great circle and the small circle. If there are the frequency point with smaller interference and the frequency point with larger interference simultaneously in a cell. the voice quality can be guaranteed. even though the frequency with the compact reuse is used. as possible. it is very effective to reserve a given frequency bands for the microcell and for settling the troublesome problems in optimization. Ordinary concentric circle technology The ordinary concentric circle technology is to divide the ordinary cell into two service layers. which does not affect the normal operation of the base station. and the average frequency reuse degree of the TCH layer is at least between 7-8. For the mobile phones in the great circle. the minimum frequency reuse degree of the TCH layer is recommended not less than 6. the frequency point with smaller interference and the frequency with larger interference will be merged. Also. as possible. the voice quality can still be guaranteed. i. the system capacity can be effectively increased by utilizing the compact frequency reuse pattern for the frequency bands across the small circle.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology The reason that MRP may realize the frequency compact reuse layer by layer so as to realize the increase of TRX is: since not every cell needs the last layer of TRX during the initial stage. . so that two concentric circles with different coverage in the coverage range.

so as to realize the network quality higher than 1×3. The frequency assignment of IUO is described by way of an example. the interval of the frequency reuse is larger. the handover control. i. utilizing the compact reuse pattern. or so-called two layers. and the network quality is also guaranteed. based on this feature. The problem caused by the use of the ordinary concentric circle is that the traffic control. one layer is called "REGULAR layer". III. Based on the feature that the coverage ranges of the inner circle and excircle are different. comparing to MRP. utilizing the incompact frequency reuse pattern. the intelligent underlay/overlay (IUO) technology is introduced. which can effectively reduce the congestion condition in the excircle. Figure 6-6 Schematic diagram of the IUO structure It is seen from the figure. as the inner circle of the concentric circle can utilize the more compact frequency reuse pattern. for example. all the TRXs in the cell are the same.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology If the inner circle is overlapped with the excircle or inner circle of the other cell. 4MHz. the concentric circle cell is just the same as the 1×3. The design philosophy of the IUO is shown in Figure 6-6. it can increase the network capacity to the larger extent. this technology may be used to guide the traffic in the cell in which the coverage ranges of some carriers are different. 6-11 . e. the concentric circle in this case can effectively reduce the interference in the entire network without reducing the network capacity. in which. when the excircle of the concentric circle cell is configured with only one carrier BCCH. . When the ordinary concentric circle technology is utilized. Intelligent underlay/overlay (IUO) To guarantee that the coverage ranges of all the carriers in the base station are identical. In some special case. the IUO philosophy is to divide the base station frequencies into two parts. Figure 6-7 shows the example of IUO frequency assignment. and the other "SUPER layer". between the inner circle and the excircle. using 4×3 frequency reuse pattern. assuming that the assignable frequency band is 10. For "REGULAR layer". therefore. the signal level threshold and TA value threshold are generally regarded as the handover basis. the interval of the frequency reuse is smaller. the inner circle can be switched to another cell directly. for "SUPER layer". and other TCH carriers are all configured on the inner circle with the 1×3 frequency reuse pattern. and the average frequency reuse degree is the same as the 1×3.

and C/I is unbearably deteriorated when the average load factor is 1. Assuming 10MHz bandwidth. the TCH frequency bands that may be used by each cell are 12. the frequencies of the S layer are used. if the 4×3 reuse pattern is utilized. . The problem caused by the use of IUO is that SUPER interference is larger. the curve chart 6-8 of FR and C/I is obtained. once it is found that C/I goes beyond a given standard. The 4×3 reuse pattern is utilized. each cell is assigned with 3 TCH frequency bands. C/I>17db. the maximum site type is S5/5/5. the cofrequency reuse cell is predefined in the system. HSN. and TCH utilizes 36 frequency bands. the frequencies of the R layer are used. Both of the judgment and handover are completed automatically. if FR LOAD is 50%. If the fractional reuse 1×3 is used. the RF hopping technology should be utilized. with the site type of S4/4/4. IV. BCCH occupies 14 frequency bands. C/I detection is based on the RXLEV and RXQUAL of the BCCH channel in the adjacent cell reported by MS. the maximum site type is only S4/4/4. it is recommended that the actual average frequency 6-12 . when the frequency hopping is used. utilizing the 4×3 reuse pattern. For example: when the frequency hopping is not used. the collection of the available hopping frequencies is far lager than the number of TRXs. 5. Fractional reuse technology (1×3 or 1×1 fractional reuse) The fractional reuse technology and the 1×3 or 1×1 reuse technology are combined with each other. when C/I<bad threshold. MAIO parameters should be set. When C/I>good threshold. calculates the C/I. the frequencies of the R layer are used. and the MA. According to the previously obtained relational expression of C/I and K and the relation between K and FR. If the 4×3 reuse pattern is utilized for planning. The mobile phones report the best and strongest signal of the six measurements. SUPER utilizes 12 frequency bands and the 2×3 reuse pattern. e. from which it can be seen. the system will switch the user to the REGULAR layer. so as to avoid the collision of the frequencies. C/I<7db. After the IUO technology is utilized. C/I>11db. the better C/I ratio (12dB) can be guaranteed when the average load factor is 0. and the actual available frequencies used by the cell are dependent on the fractional reuse ratio. the specific handover algorithm is needed to be provided by the equipment to judge the interference in the network. with the maximum site type of S7/7/7. for the 1×3 or 1×1 reuse. specifically. the true 1X3 pattern. on the other hand. i. The traffic of the R/S layers can be controlled by adjusting the threshold value. the frequencies of the R layer are used. the base station judges the component of the cofrequency cell. C/I<12db. forcing it as the adjacent cell. then TRX=12×50%=6. and obtains the criterion for the R/S layer handover. the frequencies of the S layer are used. REGULAR layer utilizes 24 frequency bands. the reuse interval is smaller and the interference is larger. the frequencies of the S layer are used. 50 frequency bands.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology Figure 6-7 Example of IUO frequency assignment BCCH R S TCH TCH reuse: 15 TRX TRX reuse: 12 reuse: 6 BCCH selects 15 frequency bands.

comparing to the small traffic. when this pseudo spread spectrum pattern is used. which is the bottom line of the current frequency reuse degree. and perform the adjustment for optimization. Figure 6-8 Relation graph of FR and C/I It should also be mentioned.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology reuse degree is not less than 6. The preferred method is to simulate the interference conditions with the large traffic by sending the idle Burst function when the network is initially established. In this reuse pattern. the interference may be expressed as the collision probability of the common adjacent frequencies. the quality is seriously deteriorated when the traffic increases. the result of the simulation shows that the collision probability is only relative to FR. independent from how much the available frequencies are and how much the available TRXs are. if the initial plan is incorrectly made. Figure 6-9 1×3 fractional reuse frequency assignment 6-13 .

HSN of the site B is 2. the different sites utilize the different HSNs. HSN of the site B is 2. TRX2. Unicom 900 frequency band: 96-124 Carrier configuration: S3/3/3 BCCH carrier layer: 96-109 TCH carrier layer: 110-124 (1) Sequence grouping solution TCH is grouped in sequence. Now the specific application of the 1×3 reuse pattern will be described by an example of the Unicom GSM900 network somewhere. MAIOs of the two carriers TCH1 and TCH2 in each cell are 0 and 2 respectively. TRX1 utilizes one of the N BCCH carriers. different sites utilize different HSNs. and the carriers of the same layer in the same base station utilize the different MAIO. Assuming that the frequency hopping groups are allocated as follows: Grouplink one: 110 Grouplink two: 115 Grouplink three: 120 111 116 121 112 117 122 113 118 123 114 119 124 reuse pattern: 4×3 reuse pattern: 1×3 HSN of the site A is 1. and so on. MAIOs of the two carriers TCH1 and TCH2 in the grouplink three cell are 4 and 0 respectively. the three cells in the same base station utilize the same HSN. but MAIO is different. (2) Interval grouping solution TCH utilizes the interval grouping. at a certain time. comparing to the TCH interval grouping. MAIOs of the two carriers TCH1 and TCH2 in the grouplink one cell are 0 and 1 respectively.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology Figure 6-9 shows the base station frequency arrangement in the case of the 1×3 fractional reuse pattern visually. the possible collision of the cofrequencies in the adjacent cells opposite to the different sites are increased. however. the three cells in the same base station utilize the same HSN. and so on. Assuming that the frequency hopping groups are allocated as follows: Grouplink one: 110113 Grouplink two: 111 114 Grouplink three: 112 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 HSN of the site A is 1. 6-14 . The frequency bands assigned in a cell is to be described now. Each TRX (2-4) is configured with the same MA and HSN. Total N (>12) BCCH frequency bands and 18 TCH frequency bands. MAIOs of the two carriers TCH1 and TCH2 in the grouplink two cell are 2 and 3 respectively. In this way. the possible collision of the cofrequencies between the cells parallel to the different sites in direction is increased. TRX3 and TRX4 that are using the 1×3 pattern are assigned to the 3 frequency bands of the 6 TCH carriers. the possible collision of the cofrequencies in the adjacent cells opposite to the different sites are reduced. MAIOs of the two carriers TCH1 and TCH2 are 0 and 2 respectively. all the carrier of the same layer in the network utilize the same MAIO. the cofrequencies among the three different cells in the same site are avoided. comparing to the TCH sequence grouping. the cofrequencies among the three different cells in the same site are avoided. comparing to the TCH interval grouping. in this way.

the better guarantee of the service quality in the entire network will be actually implemented. which grouping pattern being utilized should be considered together with the actual environment situations. it is useful for homogenizing the influence caused by the interference by utilizing the interval grouping pattern. it is recommended that the sequence grouping solution is to be utilized. Therefore. the possible collision of the cofrequencies between the cells parallel to the different sites in direction is reduced. however. thus. comparing to the TCH sequence grouping. both sequence grouping and interval grouping patterns have some defects. 6-15 . as the irregularity of the base station distribution. generally. it is obviously advantageous to utilize the sequence grouping pattern. the adjacent frequency influence of the adjacent cell opposite to the central area where the base stations are compact dense and are regularly distributed is larger than that of the adjacent cell parallel to the central area in direction.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology however. however. After the new channel allocation algorithm in the compact reuse pattern is realized. in the areas around the dense base stations. With respect to the question how to grouplink TCH so that the 1×3 frequency hopping interference is relatively smaller.

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology

6.2 Anti-interference Technology
6.2.1 Frequency hopping Technology
I. Several concepts
(1) Frequency hopping Frequency hopping means that the carrier frequencies with useful information hop with the time sequence under the control of a sequence called hopping sequence number (HSN). A hopping sequence is an array that uniquely specifies all (N) frequencies, in the set of the frequencies (MA) including N frequencies, by the hopping sequence number (HSN), mobile allocation index offset (MAIO) and frame number(FN) through a given algorithm. N channels in the different timeslots may utilize the same hopping sequence, the different channels in the same timeslot in the same cell utilize the different mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). (2) Hopping mode Hopping mode is divided into the frame hopping and slot hopping in terms of the time domain, and into the RF hopping and baseband hopping in the carrier realization mode. Frame hopping:hopping by the unite of TDMA frame, in this mode, each carrier may be regarded as a channel; the TCH on the TRX carrier where the BCCH is located during the frame hopping in a cell can not participate in the hopping, other different carriers should have different MAIOs, this is the special case of the slot hopping. Slot hopping: every slot frequency band of every TDMA frame changes once, the TCH in the TRX where the BCCH is located during the slot hopping may participate in the hopping, however, it is currently realized only during the baseband hopping. RF hopping: both of the transmitting TX and receiving RX of the TRX participate in the hopping. The number of the frequencies that participate in the hopping in a cell may be larger than the number of the TRXs in this cell. Baseband hopping: each transmitter works at a fixed frequency, TX does not participate in the hopping, and the transmission hopping is implemented through the switching of the baseband signal, but RX must participate in the hopping. Therefore, the number of the hopping frequencies in a cell may not be larger than the number of TRXs in this cell. (3) Frequency hopping algorithm Now several parameters will be described first: CA: cell allocation table, it is the set of the frequencies used in the cell; FN: TDMA frame number, it is broadcast in the synchronous channel. BTS and MS are synchronized through FN (0-2715647);

6-16

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology
MA: a set of the radio frequenc channels numbers used for the mobile station, it is a subset of CA. MA includes N frequency channel numbers, 1 N 64 MAIO: mobile allocation index offset (0-N-1); during the communication, the radio frequency sequence number used in the air interface is one element of the set MA. MAI (mobile allocation index, 0-N-1) is used to determine one specific element of the set MA, in other words, the actually used frequencies are specified by the MAI. MAIO is a initial offset of the MAI, its purpose is to prevent multiple channels from scrambling for the same carrier in the same time. HSN: hopping sequence (generator) number (0-63); it is the sequent hopping when HSN=0; and it is the random hopping when HSN 0.

Only after the actual functions of various parameters in the hopping algorithm and the hopping mechanism are well understood, the relative parameters may be reasonably set, so as to put the system in the optimized operation. Figure 6-9 is the flow chart of calculating the actual operation frequency of the carrier at every hopping slot. Among them: MAI=(S+MAIO) MOD N,RFCHN=MA (MAI); S is obtained by calculating according to the frame number and hopping sequence number, and MAI is obtained from S plus S hopping offset moding the number of the carriers in the MA set.

6-17

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology
MAIO (0 N-1) FN T3(0 50) HSN (0 63) FN T1(0 2047) FN T2(0 25)

MAI (m0 mN-1)

NBIN bits

6bits

6bits

11bits
T1R= T1 MOD 64

5bits
Represent in 7 bits

6bits Exclusive OR 6bits Addition 7bits Look-up table 7bits Addition T=T3 mod 2^NBIN NBIN bits N 8bits M'=M mod 2^NBIN

7bits

M'<N

NBIN bits Y

S=(M'+T) mod N NBIN bits MAI=(S+MAIO) mod NBIN bits RFCN=MA MAI
Figure 6-10 Hopping algorithm

S=M'

N

In Figure 6-10: mod: mode ^: power NBIN: INTEGER (log2N+1) Table:

6-18

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology
Contents 48 0 101 80 55 87 82 77 117 16 91 125 98 64 47 34 111 19 58 108 114 49 15 99 63 25 118 127 75 3 40 122 4 7 21 17 1 81 85 13 38 68 107 37 90 79 24 123 36 76 18 6 109 110 32 60 43 119 46 95 59 56 89 71 26 5 66 52 61 39 78 124 96 57 112 33 106 121 53 22 93 102 23 86 103 29 31 92 42 113 84 105 94 104 54 12 11 8 62 51 120 9 65 73 100 2 74 88 45 67 126 72 97 70

Address 000-009 010-019 020-029 030-039 040-049 050-059 060-069 070-079 080-089 090-099 100-109 110-113

(4) Concept of the synchronous cell The concept of the synchronous cell is very important for the establishment of the hopping strategy and the effective reduction of the interference in the network. BTS and MS are synchronized through the appointment of the frame number. In the synchronous cells, since the frame number used by each TRX in various cells are the same, the same HSN may be used in various hopping group, and the MAIO is properly set, so as to avoid the collisions of the common or adjacent frequencies of various cells in the same base station or the collisions of the common adjacent frequencies in one cell.

II. Frequency hopping function
The frequency hopping is introduced in the GSM system, because the frequency hopping provides two functions: frequency diversity and interference averaging. (1) Frequency diversity The frequency hopping can reduce the influence of signal strength variations caused by the multipath fading, this function may be equivalent to the frequency diversity. In the mobile communication, due to the influence of the Rayleigh fading, the radio transmission signal may change rapidly in the large amplitude, and this change is relative to the frequency. As the difference between the frequencies is larger, the fading will be more independent; for the mobile communication band, 200KHz frequency interval basically guarantee the noncorrelation of the fading characteristics between the frequencies, and 1MHz can thoroughly guarantee this noncorrelation. By the hopping, all of the burst pulses containing the same voice frame code word will not be damaged by the Rayleigh fading in a manner, as shown in Figure 6-11.

6-19

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology

Received signal level

Distance

Figure 6-11 Fading The statistics shows that the frequency hopping gain is relative to the environment factor, especially to the movement speed of the mobile station. When MS moves in a high speed, the position change of two burst pulses in the same channel will be subjected to the influence of other fading; the higher the speed is, the lower the gain is. However, for the numerous users who move slowly with the mobile phones, the frequency diversity is advantageous. Further, the hopping gain is also relative to the number of the frequencies , when the number of the frequencies is reduced, the gain is reduced, too. The relation between the number of the frequencies and the hopping gain in such a way that the hopping is the pseudo spread spectrum, the obtained gain is the processing gain obtained from the useful signal spread transmission frequency band. The basic method for actually measuring the hopping gain is that, on the prerequisite that the same FER is required, the receiver will require for different C/Is at various numbers of the frequency hopping bands, and the difference between these C/I is the gain obtained from the hopping. Some documents list the relation between the number of the frequency hopping bands and the hopping gain (the actual gain will be subjected to the environmental influence):
The number of the carriers that participate in the hopping =1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >=11 Frequency diversity gain 0 3 4 5 5. 5 6 6. 3 6. 5 6. 8 6. 9 7

(2) Interference averaging The frequency hopping provides the difference of the interference in the transmission path, so that all the burst pulses that contain a part of the code words may not be

6-20

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology

damaged by the interference in the same manner, and the original data can be recovered from other part of the receiving stream through the correction coding and interleaving of the system. Obviously, the frequency hopping may obtain a certain gain only when the interference is distributed in a narrow band; if the interference is distributed in a wide band, all the burst pulses will be damaged, and the original data can not be recovered, so that no gain can be obtained. In the actual network, the interference is generally distributed in a narrow band. In the state of the hopping, it is found that the error bit ratio tends to upward in the test, however, people subjectively feel that the voice quality is improved. The reason is that, though the error bit ratio is increased, but the index of the voice frame erase ratio (FER) is improved, in the view of the voice communication, it is understood that the voice quality is improved; however, in the view of the data service, it may have some defects, especially, when the data speed rate is very high, the frequency hopping becomes harmful. This result will be seen from the simulation of the GPRS later.

6.2.2 Power Control
I. Mobile station power control
The mobile station power control is divided into two adjusting stages, i. e. , the stable adjusting stage and the initial adjusting stage. The stable adjusting is the normal method for performing the power control algorithm, while the initial adjusting is used in the time when the call connection is initially started. When a connection is performed, MS is output as the nominal power of the cell where it is located (the nominal power indicates that the MS transmitting power is the MS maximum transmitting power MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH in the broadcast system messages on the BCCH channel of the cell where it is located. If MS does not support this power class, the supported power class that is nearest to it will be utilized, such as the maximum output power class supported by the reported MS Classmark in the establishment indication message). However, since BTS may simultaneously support multiple calls, the receiving signal intensity should be reduced in a new connection as quick as possible, otherwise, the quality of other call supported by this BTS may be deteriorated due to the saturation of the BTS multi-coupler, and the call quality of other cells may be affected due to the high interference. Therefore, the purpose of the initial stage power control adjusting is to reduce the MS transmitting power as quick as possible until the stable measurement report is obtained, so that the MS can be adjusted according to the stable power control algorithm. The parameters that must be selected in the uplink power control, such as the expected desirable uplink receiving level, desirable uplink receiving quality, etc. , are all set by the O&M data management console, the data configuration can be dynamically carried out according to the actual situations of the cell. After a given number of the uplink measurement reports is received, by the processing methods such as interpolation and filtering, the actual uplink receiving level and the receiving quality are obtained, then they are compared with the desirable uplink receiving level and the receiving quality, with the power control algorithm, the power class to which the MS should be adjusted is calculated; if it is different from the current MS output power class and meets a given application restricted conditions (such as the power adjusting step length restriction, MS output power range restriction), the power adjusting command is sent. The essence of the uplink power control adjusting is to enable the actual uplink receiving level and receiving quality obtained from interpolation and filtering to progressively approach the desirable uplink receiving level and receiving quality set by O&M. The purpose for the interpolation and filtering of the measurement reports is to process the lost measurement report, clear the temporary nature (spilliness), so as to ensure the stability of the power control algorithm.
6-21

The static power level is defined in the cell attribute table of the data management console. If the requirements cannot be satisfied when the dynamic power control reaches its maximum value. the MR message numbers reported by the BTS are discontinuous. the class 6 is 34 dBm. third. the length of the filters are also different. the discontinuous DTX mechanism is introduced into the GSM. except that the base power control utilizes only the stable power control algorithm. no voice message is transmitted.3 Discontinuous Transmission During a communication process. Base station power control The base station power control is an optional function. it prohibits the radio signals that is thought to be unwanted 6-22 . 6. The base station power control is divided into the static power control and the dynamic power control..2. II. the MR message optional items reported by the BTS will cause the discontinuity of some measurement reports no longer. second. thus. the range of the dynamic power control is Pn-Pn-30dB. With respect to this case. so as to ensure the stability of the algorithm. The base station power control is basically identical to the MS power control. the mobile users are making calls only in 40% of times. class 0 of the receiving level is the lowest. while the class 63 of the receiving level is the highest. As the dynamic power control classes are set to 15. so as to determine the power value to be adjusted to. The parameters that must be selected in the power control include the receiving level threshold (lower limitation) to be performed the power control and the receivable maximum sending level threshold (upper limitation). and only the downward adjustment is performed in the initial stage. the static power control classes should be adjusted to increase the maximum output power value Pn of the dynamic power control. which is divided into several cases. (3) Power control adjusting The power adjusting calculation is made according to the difference degree between the current receipt conditions and the expected value. with numbers from 0 to 63. Power control process (1) Interpolation of the measurement report The actual measurement report (MR) will be lost. when the maximum power output by the base station is 46dBm (40W). in most of times. The receiving level RXLEV is divided into 64 classes.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology The difference between the initial stage power control and the stable stage power control is that the expected uplink receiving level and receiving quality in the initial stage is different from that in the stable stage. the MR message is lost due to the error of the MR message format reported by the BTS. the system resources are wasted greatly. The 0505 protocol specification specifies that the base station static power class is divided into 6 (2dB/per class). In engineering. First. the first order interpolation formula is used to estimate the lost measurement report. III. the later is the fine adjusting based on the former. (2) Filtering of the measurement report The purpose for the filtering of the measurement report is to clear the temporary nature. i. e. the maximum output power value Pn of the current dynamic power control is specified. the purpose for doing so is to avoid the call loss due to the lower power.

determining whether the next 20ms voice block is either voice or noise. generally. 64. When the DTX mode is activated. 53. it is controlled taking BSC as the unit. these 8 burst pulse frame numbers are 52. the noise signal will be regarded as the voice by the VAD and be encoded for sending. which is to measure and average the level and quality of the 12 slots. when no voice and signaling are transmitted. For the conformity. including the 8 continuous TCH burst pulses (for the TCH/F channel. Whether the downlink DTX in the network is used is to be set by the network operator in the switching side. 59 respectively. i. By calculating some signal parameters and according to some thresholds. There are two measuring methods in the GSM: one is called global measurement. and whether the discontinuous transmission mode is utilized during the last measurement report period is indicated in every SACCH measurement report of the BTS ad mobile station. The downlink VAD is in TC. which is to average the level and quality in the 104 slots of the entire measuring period (26 multiframes of 4 TCHs). 57. the base station and mobile station will complete both measuring methods. Whether the downlink DTXs of some manufacturers are used may also be set taking the cell as the unit. the other is called the local measurement. 56. and transmitted regularly in the system message of each cell broadcast. these 4 burst pulse frame numbers are 12. notify whether the downlink DTX is used. They may be activated by the system parameter according to the respective situations. whether the uplink/downlink of the system activate the DTX function. The VAD technology is to generate a group of thresholds in every 20ms voice block time. To implement this mechanism of the DTX. when the background noise is very high. BSC is to decide that either global measuring or local measuring is used for judging. 90 respectively). but they are two programs that is no relative to each other. whether the other party activates this function. the source must be able to indicate when the transmission is required and when is not. 55. However. VAD can determine whether the receiving signal is either voice or noise. which uses the voice detection VAD technology. setting the DTX parameter in the system message. according to this indication. This judgment is based on a energy law: the energy of the noise is less than that of the voice. this parameter is composed of 2 bits. 38 . 58. The uplink DTX is set by the network operator in the radio side. the control message is transmitted to the base station baseband processing part through the special signaling channel. 54. DTX may be used in both uplink and down link. 0-103 TDMA frames are taken as a circulation. and then to TC through the inband signaling of the TRAU frame. . called SID) and 4 SACCH burst pulses carrying the measurement report (0-103 TDMA frames are taken as a circulation.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology by the users to reduce the interference level. its coding mode is shown as the follows: DTX 0 1 10 11 Meaning The mobile station may use DTX The mobile station must use DTX The mobile station is not allowed to use DTX Reserved The parameter DTX is included in the information unit "Cell options". the mobile phone is to determine whether the uplink DTX function is enabled according to this message. they have the description information of the comfortable noise. the voice encoder must detect it is either voice or noise. while the uplink VAD is in the mobile phone. 6-23 . so as to increase the efficiency of the system. e.

when it is used together with the frequency hopping. the C/I cofrequency interference ratio of the system will be improved. DTX should be realized in every cell. The main functions of the DTX technology in the uplink/downlink are: the uplink can save the mobile phone battery and reduce the interference in the system. larger system capacity may be obtained. however. the downlink can reduce the power consumption of the base station. reduce the interference and reduce the crosstalk in the base station. the carrier where the BCCH is located does not use this technology.Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology The discontinuous transmission is applicable for the voice as well as the opaque data transmission. 6-24 . especially. This improvement may be applied to the cell planning with the compact frequency reuse. When the downlink DTX is utilized together with the uplink DTX.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 6 Frequency Plan and Antiinterference Technology 6-25 .

Radio Network Planning Table of contents 26 .

For these integrated phenomena. The research on radio network parameters should take potential dangerous factors of radio network (such as large traffic. During the analysis. 2TER. The system message includes main radio network parameters at are interfaces. Furthermore. Only when you confirm that the network problem is really caused by service can the radio parameter adjustment be made. please refer to Data Configuration Specifications for GSM900 and 1800 BSS Network Planning. Therefore. Through receiving the system messages. BTS.1 System message To obtain or provide various services. mobile phones can correctly access and select appropriate network and can fully utilize various services provided by the network so as to perfectly cooperate with the network. etc. Especially. specifically speaking. please pay attention to application recommendations of actual networking algorithm and guide to problem analysis.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Chapter 7 Parameter Design The network planning is concerned with hundreds of parameters. or the parameter adjusting may lead to great side effect. long-term practice and experience accumulation are needed. In the GSM system. and many network problems and phenomena result from the combined function of many functional algorithms and radio networking modes. etc. large quantities of radio parameters are set based on cell or local area. channel allocation. including network identification parameters. 5TER and 6. To accomplish this task.) into consideration (please do not limit your attention to individual small network). which will not be described in this section. please firstly determine whether the problem is caused by equipment fault (including connection problem). In addition. To support GPRS. 7. 2BIS. and system messages transmitted in SACCH channel. the parameters are not independent from each other. 6-1 . etc. abnormal user behavior. 5BIS. if certain problem occurs to local area in the network. Huawei BSC also supports system message 13. mainly including system messages 5. which consists of complicated algorithms and protocols. For description of other parameters. this task is more urgent and it is more complicated and difficult to conduct integrated application of these parameters with combination of the characteristics of radio network. please combine the theoretic research and practical experiences to conduct complete and indepth analysis of special topics from various aspects such as MSC. 2. this chapter mainly describes some protocols and algorithms related to the network planning. please consider the influence of parameter setting in an area upon other areas or especially neighboring areas during parameter planning and adjusting. mainly including system messages 1. the MS needs many messages from the network. power control. cell selection parameters. when the radio network is getting more and more complicated and the traffic and capacity are getting larger and larger. such as system message. Only with deep understanding of the algorithms and protocols can we flexibly apply these parameters to various different actual environments. characteristics of radio network. Therefore. BSC. system control parameters and network function parameters. etc. while the inter-area parameters generally have strong relativity. handover. The system message can be divided into two parts: System messages transmitted in BCCH channel. and these messages broadcast at radio interfaces are called system messages. 3 and 4.

power control indication (PWRC). RACH Control Para. Generally. accessible minimum received level (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN). radio link timeout (Radio_Link_Timeout). CA table). Access level Control (AC). Network Color Code Permitted NCC Permitted} and frequency allocation table of neighboring cells (i. 6-2 .. cell identifier. System message 2. so system message 2BIS carries information of other frequencies (which are in the same frequency band as system message 2) in the BA1 table. 2bis and 2ter mainly includes information of the following parameters: Neighboring cell description (BA1 table).e. and mobile phones can conduct cell reselection in idle mode through reading and decoding the BA1 table. It is optional and transmitted in BCCH channel. additional reselection parameter indication (ACS). the frequency allocation table carried by system message 2 can only describe a limited number of frequencies. cell access barred (CELL_BAR_ACCESS).Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design I. RACH and parameters related to cell selection. Emergency Call enabled (EC). Common control channel configuration (CCCH-CONF). Call reestablishment enabled (RE). etc. Only dual frequency mobile phones read this message (single frequency 900 or 1800 mobile phones will neglect this message. Cell Selection Hysteresis. II. System message 1 System message 1 mainly describes Random Access Control information (RACH) and Cell frequency Allocation table (i. System message 3 is one of the most important system messages. number of accessed modules allowed to be reserved (BS_AG_BLKS_RES). number of expanded transmission timeslots (Tx_interger). NCC Permitted. III. but neglects frequency messages of neighboring cells carried by 2BIS and 2TER messages. transmitted in BCCH channel. System message 2TER mainly describes expended frequency allocation table of neighboring cells (part of BA1 table). Periodic location updating timer (T3212). etc. etc. For a 900 mobile phone in PHASE 1. System message 3 System message 3 mainly describes location area identifier. half-rate indication (NECI). It is compulsory and is transmitted in BCCH. multi-band reporting (Multiband_Reporting). discontinuous transmission (DTX). IMSI Attach-Detach allowed (ATT). System message 3 mainly includes information of the following parameters: Cell Global Identity (CGI)... maximum power level of control channel (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH).e. transmitted in BCCH channel. extended neighboring cell description (Extended). transmitted in BCCH channel. System message 2BIS mainly describes RACH and expanded frequency allocation table of neighboring cells (it is also a part of BA1 table). System messages 2. RACH Control Para. number of paging channel multi-frames (BS-PA-MFRAMS). it only identifies frequency of neighboring cell described by system message 2. so these messages are unnecessary for single frequency mobile phone. Since this message carries frequency information of different frequency band from the frequency of current cell. system messages 2. In general. System message 1 mainly includes information of the following parameters: CA table. maximum retransmission times (MAX retrans). 2BIS and 2TER different parts of the BA1 table respectively. BA1 table). 2bis and 2ter System message 2 mainly describes RACH.

NCC Permitted. Generally. Similarly. it only can identify neighboring cell frequency described in system message 5. etc. cell reselection parameter indication (PI). cell selection/reselection and location update. The optional IE CBCH description and the MA describe the configuration of the CBCH channel and corresponding frequency information when the system supports cell broadcast. System messages 5. Different from system message 2. Cell Option. but neglects frequency information of neighboring cell carried by messages 5BIS and 5TER. BA2 table). Similarly. mobile phones can read frequencies described in system message 5 in communication state and report relevant information of neighboring cells in measurement report so that the report can be used as basis of handover. extended neighboring cell description (Extended). It is optional and is transmitted in SACCH. V. cell selection parameter and optional CBCH channel information. the frequency allocation table carried by system message 5 can only describe a limited number of frequencies. System message 4 mainly includes information of the following parameters: Location Area Identity (LAI). Temporary Offset (TO) and Penalty Time (PT).. It is compulsory and is transmitted in SACCH channel. Cell Reselection Offset (CRO). VI. System message 5BIS mainly describes frequency information of neighboring cells (part of BA2 table).Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design IV. mobile phone can conduct the following operations: Network selection. 5bis.).e. System message 5. It is compulsory and is transmitted in BCCH. so system message 5BIS carries information of other frequencies (which are in the same frequency band as system message 5) in the BA2 table. System message 4 System message 4 mainly describes location area identifier. etc. System message 6 is also one of the important system messages. 5bis and 5ter mainly include information of relevant parameters such as neighboring cell description (Neighbor Cell Desc. Cell Bar Qualification (CBQ).2 Cell Selection and Cell Reselection In idle mode. 6-3 . CBCH channel description and CBCH MA. for a mobile phone in PHASE 1. It is transmitted in SACCH channel. It is compulsory and is transmitted in the SACCH channel. Cell Selection Para. System message 5TER mainly describes frequency information of neighboring cells (it is also a part of BA2 table). 5ter System message 5 mainly describes frequency information of neighboring cells (i. RACH. System message 6 mainly includes information of the following parameters: Information on relevant parameters such as CGI. 7. cell identifier and some parameters describing cell functions. only dual frequency mobile phones can read this message (single frequency 900 or 1800 mobile phones will neglect this message). System message 6 System message 6 mainly describes location area identifier.. RACH Control Para.

the mobile station will search for an appropriate resident cell according to the descending order of the received level strength so that the mobile station can receive system messages from the network. it will add the network (VPLMN) to the list. Even in roaming mode. If a mobile phone is not within the coverage area of the HPLMN.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 7. (3) The cell does not belong to barred national roaming location area. After successful location update in manual network selection mode. Successful location update There are two network selection modes: Automatic mode and manual mode. then the mobile phone will select Visit Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). Conditions of appropriate and normal resident cell The priority of cell can be divided into: Normal. the list is still reserved. the mobile station will still periodically attempt to search for the HPLMN.1 Network Selection The mobile station always preferably selects Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN). (2) Manual mode The mobile station provides a network list and the subscriber selects the network to be accessed. the mobile station will periodically attempt to search for the HPLMN. I.2. Its periodic value T is stored in the SIM card (If T is not available in the SIM. (3) Periodically searching for HPLMN in national roaming mode In national roaming mode. then please use the default value of 30 minutes). (1) Automatic mode The mobile station automatically select available network of the highest priority. (2) The cell is not barred. The mobile phone stores a “PLMN not allowed” list in the SIM card. 6-4 . low priority and bar access. Success sign of network selection by mobile station: Successfully finding appropriate resident cell in the network. The HPLMN is not included in the list. After power-off or pulling out the SIM card.2. (1) Power on or start network selection when entering coverage area (2) Subscriber reselection A subscriber can start network selection at anytime. This network list includes “PLMN not allowed”. 7.2 Cell Selection and Reselection In the selected network. The appropriate conditions include: (1) The cell belongs to the selected network. the network (VPLMN) will be deleted from the list. Only when there is no appropriate “normal” cell will the “low priority” cell be selected. When the mobile phone conduct the location updating of location registration in the VPLMN and receives the location updating rejection including “PLMN not allowed”.

If no appropriate cell is available.5s and the maximum time to read the data of a synchronized BCCH TRX is 1. Where the time to obtain system message is exceptional.9s(n>1). the mobile phone will also finally select a cell of the highest level (but the mobile phone has conducted the decoding of TRXs in all the BA lists. the mobile phone may select the 900 network regardless of the priority. at least 40 RF channels for 1800M system and at least 40 RF channels for PSC1900) to obtain the received level of each RF channel and to calculate the corresponding RLA_C. in this case the mobile phone has already performed all decoding and identification of the above frequencies. 0) For DCS 1800 3 mobile phones. Please note that if all the cells in this case are cells of low priority. (2) “Storage table” cell selection In this case.9s. For each stored BCCH TRX of the selected network. The measured samples of different RF TRXs are uniformly distributed within this period of time. the mobile phone will continue to search. The cell of normal priority will be selected preferably among these TRXs. Cell selection To implement cell selection and reselection. The cell priority is determined by both CBQ(CELL_BAR_QUALIFY) and CBA(CELL_ BAR_ACCESS). since all the contents of the BCCH frequency list stored in the mobile phone only cover 900M frequencies.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. When a mobile phone over 900M network enters the 900/1800 network.MAX((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. the mobile station has a previously stored BCCH frequency list of the selected network (more than one). If the appropriate cell is only the cell of low priority. The average received level (RLA_C) should be unweighted average value of the receiving signal level measured with dBm. 0) 6-5 . being n*1. C1 is: C1=RLA_C-RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN-MAX((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH+POWER OFFSET. CELL_BAR QUALIFY 0 0 1 1 CELL_BAR ACCESS 0 1 0 1 Cell selection priority Normal Barred Low Low Status for cell reselection Normal Barred Normal Normal II. The maximum time to synchronize a BCCH TRX is 0. (1) Normal cell selection A mobile phone will search all RF channels in the system (at least 30 RF channels for 900M system. the mobile phone executes the same sampling process as normal cell selection (only aiming at the stored BCCH TRX). (3) Cell selection criteria The path loss criteria parameter C1 should be used for cell selection: C1=RLA_C . the mobile phone will also select the cell of best level. mobile phones require that all monitored frequencies should maintain an average received level grade. Then the sequencing according to the descending order of the levels will be performed and BCCH will be selected.P).P). The averaging of the received level of each TRX should at least based upon five measured samples (with a time about 3 to 5 seconds). However.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design (4) The radio path loss between MS and BTS is under the threshold set for the network. If the “storage table” cell selection fails. please start normal cell selection.

The mobile phone at least attempts to decode all BCCH data of the service cell every 30s. N refers to the number of BCCH TRXs not in the service cell). the TRXs with strongest signal level possibly are distributed in different bands. In idle state. The RLA_C is calculated by averaging the sampled level values received from 5s to Max (5s. If ≤ 0 DSC . the mobile phone will synchronize and read information of 6 BCCH TRXs (with highest signal level) not in the service cell as soon as possible (The BCCH TRXs should be in the BA table).Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Where all the parameters have the same unit dBm. the TRXs in the list (in BA list)of 6 BCCH TRXs with the highest signal level not in service cell will be updated either (possibly the frequencies will be updated faster). When the mobile phone resides in a cell. then a downlink signaling link fault occurs. at least five level measurement samples are needed (RLA_C value is often updated). then this TRX will be regarded as a new TRX and the BCCH data will be read once again. If the BSIC changes. Downlink signaling link fault The downlink link fault criteria are based upon downlink signaling link fault counter (DSC). when the mobile phone attempts to decode the message in the paging subchannel. POWER OFFSET: Power offset used by DCS 1800 3 mobile phones. the mobile phone attempts to detect the BSIC (base station color code) of the 6 BCCH TRXs (with the highest signal level) not in service cell so as to confirm whether it monitors the same cell. the mobile phone will keep on monitoring the information of all the BCCH TRXs specified by the BCCH allocation table (BA). IV. the mobile phone will average each received level of the BCCH TRX (where. and also within the time period from 5s to Max {5 . III. The meaning of each parameter is as follows: RLA_C: Average received level of mobile station RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: Minimum accessible received level of mobile station MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH: Maximum CCH power level P: Maximum transmitting power level of mobile station. For multi-frequency mobile phones. With respect to service cell. Therefore. the value of DSC will increase by one whenever a message is successfully decoded (but should not exceed the initialized value). The downlink signaling link fault will lead to cell reselection. For each RLA_C (average received level). which is related to MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH The so-called appropriate cells should meet the requirement: C1>0. and it at least attempts to decode the BCCH data block (which exerts influence upon cell reselection parameters) carried in 6 BCCH TRXs (with the highest signal level) not in service cell every five minutes. the DSC will be initialized to an integer close to 90/N to the greatest extent (N stands for BS_PA_MFRMS---number of frames among same paging. five consecutive paging blocks of that MS). the data of this BCCH TRX should be decoded in 30s. ((5 * N + 6) DIV 7) * BS_PA_MFRMS / 4}s. with a value range: 2 to 9). If the message decoding fails. At least every 30s. Cell reselection After the cell selection and when the cell reselection starts. When the mobile phone finds that a new BCCH TRX has become one of the six TRXs with the highest signal level. 6-6 . Each time when the measurement of RLA_C is updated. each paging block of the mobile phone at least needs one received level sample. the DSC will decrease by four.

The mobile phone will keep on checking the following conditions: (1) The path loss (C1) of the current service cell is decreased to a value less than 0 within 5s. then the C2 value of the new service subtracted by 5dB keeps on exceeding C2 value of the service cell in 5s. At least every 5s. where: CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET: Cell Reselection Offset (CRO) is used to manually correct C2. 6-7 . The mobile phone will calculate C1 and C2 of all cells not in service (neighboring cells) again if necessary. A new cell meeting the above condition is the better cell. T: A timer with the initial value of 0. C2 value of the new cell subtracted by cell reselection hysteresis (CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS. the corresponding cell will be reset. the path loss criteria parameter C2 is used for cell reselection. TEMPORARY_OFFSET and PENALTY_TIME are also broadcast in BCCH system messages 3 and 4. H(x) : For non-service cells (neighboring cells): H(x) = 0 when x < 0 = 1 When x > 0 For service cell: H(x) = 0 If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND in system messages 3 and 4 broadcast in BCCH is set as 1. When this cell is deleted from the list of the six neighboring cells with the highest signal level by the mobile station. the counter T corresponding to this cell starts to count to the accuracy of a TDMA frame (about 4. It indicates that the path loss of the cell is too great. (2) The C2 value of an appropriated non-service cell keeps on exceeding C1 value of the service cell in 5s and also meets the following conditions: (a) If the new cell is in different location area. determining the action time of the TO. C2 is determined by the following formula: C2=C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET-TEMPORARY_OFFSET*H(PENALTY_TIME-T) When PENALTY_TIME< >31. then the mobile phone will think that all cell reselection parameters are 0. TEMPORARY_OFFSET: Temporary Offset (TO). the mobile phone should not reselect the previous resident cell in 5s. although the cell may meet the cell reselection conditions. the previous service cell enters the list of the six neighboring cells with the highest signal level. then the mobile phone will perform cell reselection. the mobile phone will calculate C1 and C2 of the service cell. If cell reselection is needed.62 ms). C2 = C1-CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET When PENALTY_TIME =31. After finding the better cell and cell reselection. PENALTY_TIME: Penalty Time (PT). C2=C1. then the cell reselection parameters CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET. therefore. Corresponding to the parameter C1 applied to cell selection. broadcast in system messages 3 and 4 in BCCH channel of the service cell) keeps on exceeding C2 value of the service cell. and the T value is PENALTY_TIME.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design The mobile station in resident state will keep on selecting cell better than the current cell. If the better cell is available. (b) If cell reselection occurs in recent 15s. If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND is set as 0. When a certain cell is recorded in the list of the six neighboring cells with the highest signal level by the mobile station.

It can be divided into the following several types of location update. the MSC will send the “location update accepted” 6-8 . it will request the network to change the stored location information. it is found that there is a cell better than the current resident cell in the same location area. According to the different location update identifiers. the mobile station does not need to provide IMSI number. The updating is conducted I the current VLR. This process is called location update. After the TMSI re-allocation of the mobile station is finished. and also it will send a new TMSI number (it is appropriate for the TMSI reallocation command not to carry the TMSI number. which moves in the same location area. once the mobile station finds that the LAI in its memory is different from the LAI number of the current cell.. the location update can be divided into normal location update (location update of offside location area). ). Dividing specifically. Firstly. the location updating division depends whether the location update program belongs to the same VLR and whether the participation of IMSI number is needed. or with the application of the Cell Reselection Hysteresis parameter (CRH). During this process. If the MSC sends this message to the VLR when it receives it. in broad sense. it should make registration. This message carries the TMSI number and LAI numbers of the mobile station with clearly indication of normal location updating. (1) Location update of different location areas in the same VLR (INTRA VLR LOCATION UPDATE) This is the simplest location updating process. the mobile station must inform the network of the location area change. the VLR will update the location message of the mobile station and store the new LAI number. i. there is a better cell in another location area of the network. but in this case the mobile station will still use the previous TMSI) to the mobile station. without the need to notify HLR. the mobile station has marked in the initialized message carried by SABM frame sent to the network that the direct access reason is location updating request (MM LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST). the following conditions will lead to cell reselection: (1) The radio path loss of the current resident cell is too great (C1 ≤0 (2) The downlink of the current resident cell fails (DSC ≤0 (3) The current resident cell has been barred. so the network does not take part in the processing.3 Location Updating I. During the initialization. periodic location update (corresponding to T3212) and IMSI attachment (corresponding to mobile stations powered on). and if cell reselection occurs in this case and the service cell of the mobile station has changed. This process is called “forced registration”.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design To summarize. ). considering mobile station powered on in idle state. Normal location update (location update of offside location area) When a mobile station moves from one location area to another location area. the mobile station only conducts cell reselection. (5) The random access times reaches the maximum retry times broadcast in BACH. but the mobile phone has not successfully accessed to the current resident cell yet. That is to say. the mobile station will not inform the network of the change. but not the location update.e.2. that is to say. 7. If two cells are not in the same location area before and after reselection. (4) According to the cell reselection parameter C2.

The network will indicate clearly the current subscriber state in the system data when receiving this message. since it directly request authorization parameters from the HLR through the IMSI number. IMSI attachment and detachment The IMSI attachment and detachment means to add a binary mark to the subscriber record in the MSC/VLR. the VLR will send identity request message to the MS to ask for the IMSI number. (3) Extra-VLR Location update and the IMSI number is transmitted The location updating process is the same as the above one and is simpler. (2) Extra-VLR Location update and the TMSI number is transmitted When a mobile station enters a cell. This notification process is implemented as follows: The mobile station sends an “IMSI attachment” message (IMSI ATTATCH)” to the network so that the network can know that the current state of the mobile phone has changed. After the VLR obtains the IMSI number. The old VLR will delete all the information of the MS after receiving the message and will also send “cancel location confirmation” message back to the HLR (MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION_RESULT). while the IMSI detachment means to set the mark as access not allowed. The location message includes MS identifier and relevant information so that the HLR can query data and set up path. 6-9 . The old VLR will return the IMSI and authorization parameters of the mobile station to the new VLR. the HLR will provide the VLR with necessary subscriber information through originating message of inserting subscriber data (MAP_INSERT_SUBSCRIBER_DATA). When the HLR receives the response of the VLR. and the only difference is that the LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message clearly indicates that the location updating type is IMSI attachment. it releases the channel location update end. then it will perform the IMSI attachment process. including information such as authorization parameters. etc. it will send location updating confirmation message to the VLR.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design (LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT) to the mobile station. After power-on. then in the location updating request. such that the network can originate its paging program when the paging message of the mobile station arrives. it will educe the previous VLR address according to the old TMSI and LAI numbers and also it will request the old VLR to send the IMSE and authorization parameters (MAP_SEND_IDENTIFICATION). It program process is basically the same as that of INTRA VLR LOCATION UPDATE. After this. if the mobile station finds that its stored LAI number is not consistent with the current LAI number. if it finds that the stored LAI number is different from the current LAI number. After power-on. The IMSI attachment process means to set the mark as access allowed. then the HLR will store the current VLR number and will also send “Cancel location message” to the old VLR (MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION). If the new VLR cannot obtain the IMSI due to certain reasons. After that. When the mobile phone powers on. II. if the new MSC/VLR has normal service authority. it will send location updating message to the HLR of the MS. if the mobile station finds that its stored LAI number is consistent with the current LAI number. When the VLR finds that the LAI number does not belong to itself. Its initialization message includes the IMSI number of the mobile station. After the HLR receives this message. then it will execute normal location updating process. The new VLR will continue the process of authorization encryption and TMSI re-allocation. it will send its old LAI number and the stored TMSI number to the VLR through the MSC. it should notify the network of the power-on state.

e. etc. However. Periodic location updating If the following conditions occur. The result is of course that the network cannot receive the paging response. When the powered-on mobile station moves out of the covered area (i. With the help of the system broadcast message of BCCH in the cell.. III. the BSS sends the periodic location updating time (T3212) to all subscribers in the cell so as to force the mobile stations to automatically originate the location updating request to the network after the timer is timeout (the request reason should be marked as “periodic location updating”. Thus. if the link is off poor quality due to certain interference in the uplink lf the radio path. the HLR will request the roaming number (MSRN) from the VLR where the subscriber is located. To improve the connected rate. Correspondingly. the HLR will be informed that the subscriber has detached from the network. (c). the network will always lose connection with the mobile phones: (a). it means that the system still think that the MS is in attachment state. When this subscriber is paged. When the mobile station sends the “IMSI Detach” message to the network. if the mobile station is being paged. the mobile station will automatically originate location-updating request to the network if it finds that the T3212 is timeout. then the system will send the paging message in the location area which the subscriber has registered before. the coverage differs greatly for different areas. in such case. the paging program will not be executed and the paging message will be directly treated. When the above three cases occur. for the NSS part. the network cannot know the current state of the mobile phone and it will still think that the mobile station is in attachment state. Thus. After the MS sending out this message. the mobile station will read T3212 from the system message of the current service cell. only one command is sent from the MS to the MSC/VLR. After that. After the cell selection or reselection. During this process. The periodic location updating is an important means for the close connection between the network and mobile subscribers. This difference should be taken into consideration in LAC division. it is much better to set the IMSI detachment time with LAC as unit for the convenience of matching with the periodic location updating time setting. When the MSC receives the IMSI detachment request. but the HLR is not informed of the message that the subscriber has detached from the network. it still cannot inform the network of its current state. This is a piece of unconfirmed message. and also it will set the timer and store it in its SIM card.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design It the mobile station wants to power off. then the network possibly cannot correctly decode the message. which will lead to invalid system resources seizure. the network can understand whether any change occur to the current state of the mobile station. it will define to trigger the IMSI detachment process through a key. Therefore. so as to prevent paging for such mobile stations (such paging will lead to waste of system resources). it is expected that the time be set as a shorter value (on the precondition that it is longer than periodic location updating time). This period of time is called the IMSI detachment time. frequent location updating will lead to side effects: On one hand. blind area) of the network. To solve this problem. In this case. the signaling traffic of the network will be greatly increased and the utilization ratio of radio resources is 6-10 . such as playing the announcement “The subscriber is powered off”. This is the periodic location updating mechanism. the RR connection will be abandoned automatically. the shorter the periodic location updating time. the GSM system takes corresponding measures to force the mobile station to report its current location to the network after a certain period of time. (b). so the two of them lose connection. therefore. the better the overall performance of the network. When the mobile station is powered off. Therefore. and meanwhile. However. with this kind of mechanism. it will notify the VLR to add the “Detach” mark to the IMSI. the mobile station cannot send any instructions to the network. the network will periodically query the subscribers marked as IMSI attachment in its VLR and it will change the identifier of the subscribers (which do not have any connection with the network during this period of time) as IMSI detachment (IMSI DETATCH).

so the standby time of the mobile phone in the system is greatly shortened. 7. the Macro layer is the main force 900 layer.3. Where. Purpose of hierarchical network design: To rapidly expand the network capacity with the application of the hierarchical network and to remove the bottleneck of network frequency resources. Huawei M900/M1800 system has adopted hierarchical network architecture. 7. To widen the coverage range and to improve the signal quality of hot spots and large-traffic areas. the power consumption of the mobile phone will be severely increased.1 Handover Decision Flow The decision flow of Huawei handover algorithm is shown in Figure 7-2. on the other hand. please take the actual conditions into integrated consideration in T3212 setting. Macro. BSC and BTS. Try best to guide the dual frequency mobile phones to be resident in M1800 cells so as to ease the congestion state of the original M900 network. Micro and Pico. the Micro layer is the main force 1800 layer and the Pico layer is the microcell layer of 900 and 1800. 6-11 .Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design decreased. Therefore.3 Huawei Handover Algorithm To adapt to the rapid development of mobile communication service and to solve the problems of insufficient frequency resources and network congestion. Umbrella Cell GSM900 Cell GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM1800 Cell GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Micro Cell GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800 Figure 7-1 Hierarchical network architecture The whole network uses four layers as the basic framework: Umbrella. as shown in 7-1. which will exert some influence upon the processing capacity of MSC. Each layer can be configured with 16 priorities. which provides operators with sufficient network planning space so as to adapt to various complicated networking environment.

The continuity of the MR is judged by Measurement result number. and the interpolation algorithm adopts simplified one-order interpolation method (the lost value is calculated according to the measurement value at both ends of the lost measurement result). there are different filter lengths. Measurement Result (MR) Interpolation Generally. we use the method of obtaining current values for decision-making by the simple forward averaging. MR filtering (MR Time Evaluation) The series of measured values corresponding to a radio link will not be a smooth curve. 6-12 .3. At present.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Figure 7-2 Decision flow of Huawei handover algorithm 7. This process is regarded as MR filtering. To remove accidental factors in handover decision. the MS will periodically report the measurement results of the uplinks and neighboring cells. The number of forward obtained values is called filter length. smooth processing should be conducted for various measured values. For different types of measured values. This processing is called MR interpolation calculation. If due to some reason. the received measurement results are discontinuous. then these lost measurement results should be interpolated within a certain loss limit. II. There many methods for MR averaging.2 Measurement Report Pre-processing The measurement report pre-processing mainly includes the following two functions: I. and the BTS will combine the measurements of corresponding uplinks to form Measurement Result and then will report to the BSC.

K criteria and 16bit criteria. RXLEV(o) and RXLEV(n) are MS received levels of the service cell and the neighboring cell respectively. since only the neighboring cells whose received lever is higher than the minimum received level can enter the candidate cell list. BQ and TA penalty For emergency handover caused by BQ and TA. the neighboring cells are tailored according their received levels. (since in this case it cannot obtain the TA and receiving quality of the original service cell except the received level).3. M criteria Firstly.Pa(n)) Where. the original service cell will be punished during a certain period of time. P =max_power_of_ms. in cell handover.4 Handover Sequencing Algorithm To select an appropriate destination handover cell. when the service cell fails in handover to the neighboring cell. II. MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) is maximum transmitting power of mobile phone limited by the BSS. Therefore. 7. I. After the MS is handed over to its neighboring cell due to TA and BQ. the penalty-processing module also includes the handover penalty for BQ and TA. but continue handover attempts to the cell.3. the destination cell should be punished during a certain period of time so as to avoid frequency unsuccessful handover attempts.Pa(o)) For neighboring cells: RXLEV(n) > MSRXMIN(n)+ MAX(0. it will terminate regarding the neighboring cell as the destination cell. Thus it will lead to frequent invalid handover attempts and exert great influence upon the system performance. while MSRXMIN(o) and MSRXMIN(n) are the minimum received levels of the MS required by the service cell and the neighboring cell. after handover to the destination cell.3 Penalty Processing I. the neighboring cells will be queued according a certain sequencing principle.e. The M criteria. thus leading to “ping-pong handover”. if the received level of the original cell is higher. priority. then the MS will still possibly be handed over back to the original service cell. once the destination cell needs handover due to reasons such as traffic. once the handover fails. For the service cell: RXLEV(o) >MSRXMIN(o) + MAX(0. i. Pa(o)=MS_TXPWR_MAX(o)-P.. etc.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 7. Pa(n)=MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P. i. determine whether the received levels of the neighboring cells are higher than the minimum received level. 6-13 .e.. Penalty for handover failure Among existing algorithms. Therefore.

i. Bit 11: Load adjusting bit.e. Bit 4: the handover hysteresis comparing bit between cells of the same layer. It results from the sequencing of six candidate cells and one service cell according the received level (with the combination of the received level and the corresponding penalty). There are 64 priorities.. the uplinks of the mobile phone can also meet the requirements. if the candidate cell is the neighboring cell and the load is greater than or equal to the local handover receiving threshold. III. 6-14 . then it is set as 1. All neighboring cells are sequenced according to this value and the priorities of the neighboring cells are reduced from front to back. the cell with the minimum value is selected as the handover cell. when the received level of a neighboring cell subtracted by the received level of the service cell is less than the inter-cell handover hysteresis. please refer to the load handover data table. it is set as 1. The bits are used for determine the layers and priority levels (when the level of the neighboring cell or service cell is lower than relationship between the inter-layer handover threshold and hysteresis. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The specific meaning of each bit is as follows: Bits 1 to 3: Sequencing based upon the received level of each cell. to the contrary.e. If the level of the neighboring cell or the service cell is lower than the relationship between the interlayer handover threshold and hysteresis. the K hysteresis. then it is set as 1. The actual received level of the downlink of a neighboring cell subtracted by a virtual offset (K hysteresis) is the received level of the neighboring cell finally obtained by the service cell. which is equivalent to a threshold between different cells and plays the function of handover stabilizer. they will be screened and set as 0). if the maximum power of the mobile phone exceeds the maximum transmitting level required by the BSS. or it will be set as 0. For the load handover start threshold and receiving threshold. Bit 12: Common BSC adjusting bit (i. then Pa is equal to zero. A hysteresis exists among the cells. If the candidate cell is the service cell and the load is greater than or equal to the local handover start threshold.. Bit 3 of the service cell is zero all the time. 16 bits criteria Huwei BSC handover algorithm is based upon the 16bit criteria of each cell. it will be screened and set as 0. it is set as 0. sharing the same BSC).. Thus.e. or it will be set as 0. Bits 5 to 10: Bits in handover layering and leveling. K criteria The sequencing of candidate cells is based upon the received level. i. the bit plays its due function. No matter whether the load handover switch is opened or not. the minimum received level of downlink should be added with a compensation value to meet the requirements of uplink received level of the neighboring cell. The method can be described as follows: The existing algorithm only considers the minimum received power threshold of downlink and does not consider uplink. II. When the received level of a neighboring cell subtracted by the received level of the service cell is greater than the inter-cell handover hysteresis.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design max_power_of_ms is the maximum transmitting power of the mobile phone itself.

the best cell will be selected only according to the current cell sequencing. During emergency handover. then use the filter for judging the rapid level decrease to conduct appropriate processing. considering over fluctuation of the original level.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Bit 13: Adjustment bit sharing the same MSC. Whether the level of the neighboring cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold + hysteresis or the level of the service cell is higher than the inter-layer handover threshold – hysteresis.5 Emergency Handover The emergency handover means that the triggering of the handover is rapid. For rapid level decrease. Handover caused by high TA The timing advance can serve as a criterion for restricting cell size in a sense. so as to speed up the time response characteristic of the system. it is planned to filter the level for a short period of time and then to judge whether the level is rapidly decreased with an appropriate filter (the filter is specially used to judge rapid level decrease). the BSC will originate an emergency handover due to high TA value. When the level of the neighboring cell or service cell is lower than relationship between the inter-layer handover threshold and hysteresis. Bit 15: Cell type adjusting bit (mainly used for 70KM extended cell). III. shown as follows: CF(nT) = m i=0 $C((n − i)T) < Where.3. if the normal handover flow is used (i. If it does.e. not multiple sequencing. II. rapid decrease of received level and great interference.. 6-15 . 7. C(nT) (when j=0) is the measured value of the current signal strength and C((n-j)T) is the corresponding measured result in the Jth period (T) before the current period. The reason of high BER may result from low signal power or channel interference. they will be screened and set as 0. the handover is triggered when the received level of the MS is lower than the edge handover threshold). the emergency handover mainly destinations at four cases: High TA. Since in this case. The BSC will judge whether the TA of the current MS exceeds the defined maximum TA threshold TALIM (Timing Advanced LIMit). The judgement of rapid level decrease is the emphasis of this part. After filtering of the averaging filter. The bit is set as 0 or 1. Bit 14: Inter-layer handover threshold adjusting bit. Emergency handover caused by rapid level decrease This is mainly used to judge the emergency handover due to rapid decrease of the received level of the MS. The decision method is to introduce the concept of fast filter. then the MS may be disconnected without rapid trigger since it still is making P/N decision. Emergency handover caused by BQ The transmission quality of links is measured with BER (Bit Error Ratio). poor receiving quality. At present. The averaged filter length is set as QCKFALLLEN (3 by default). I.

please gradually hand over the load to Cell B. To implement the load handover function. Load handover area Normal handover boundary Cell A Cell B CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLSOFFSE CONF_HO_RXLE T V CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLSRAM P Figure 7-3 Schematic diagram of load handover Thus. then the load handover will not be performed. If the allowed identifier of load handover is set as HoClsAcc. The purpose of setting the load handover area is to prevent that too many subscribers are handed over to the neighboring cell simultaneously. it can be seen that if the system permits the load handover.3. then the system is allowed to perform load handover. then the load will be appropriately distributed to neighboring cells of low load so that the load is uniformly distributed over the whole network and to decrease the blocking rate. If it is. so as to prevent great influence of load handover upon the overall system. i. 7.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design IV. If it is and also the subscriber is within the load handover area. The gradual handover to Cell 6-16 . please judge whether the local of the cell where the subscriber is located is higher than the load handover threshold (ClsLevel).6 Load Handover The so-called load handover means that when the load of a cell is too heavy. but the received level is still high.e. The load handover area refers to the area between the edge handover threshold and the edge handover threshold plus load handover area offset (ClsOffset). then it is thought that the channel has been interfered and the emergency handover due to uplink/downlink interference will be originated. then the subscriber will be handed over to the neighboring cell (if the load is lower than the received threshold ClsAcc. otherwise the cell neither can hand over subscribers to the neighboring cell due to heavy load nor the cell will accept the subscribers handed over from other cell. then the ClsAcc must be lower than ClsLevel). The traffic load handover can only be performed in cells of the same BSC. the system allows the load to be handed over to its neighboring cell and also it allows to accept the subscribers handed over due to load reason. then all the subscribers within the load handover area will become load handover objects simultaneously and will be handed over to Cell B.. The current design supports the handover between different layers of the hierarchical network. Therefore. Please refer to Figure 7-3. Emergency handover caused by uplink/downlink interference If the BER of the link increases. This will exert great influence upon the BSC processor and meanwhile it may lead to blocking of the destination cell. first of all please judge whether the flow level of the current system is higher than the allowed load handover threshold (ClsSysFlowLvl). During load handover.

The network characteristic adjusting module will simultaneously judge whether the neighboring cell and the service cell share the same BSC/MSC. it is guaranteed that in the same condition. if P uplink levels of the MS or service cell are lower than the edge handover threshold. and the priority of whether the cells share the same BSC is higher than the leveled priority. please set the On/Off of CO_BSC_MSC_TREATMENT. For example: The cell of level 1 has a priority higher than the cell of level 2. since such means will change the normal cell layout and will cause accidental network quality problems such as strong signal fluctuation. Edge handover In N MRs. The cells are divided into four levels. the higher the priority. load handover and direct reuse. are applicable to abnormal traffic peak in local area of the radio network as emergency measures or real hierarchical implementation. please note the lower the level. therefore. all subscribers in the load handover area can be handed over to Cell B. and each level is divided into 16 priorities. 6-17 . After basic cell sequencing. Leveled cell handover The handover of dual frequency system is implemented through setting the cells as different levels (CellLevel) and different priorities (CellPriority). and the cell of high priority will be sequenced at the front. the MS will be handed over to cell of high priority preferably.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design B is controlled by classified load handover step (ClsRamp). the cell levels and priorities will play function in the sequencing of the candidate cells to which the MS may be handed over. etc. When the timer reaches a certain time (ClsPeriod). When the load handover is allowed. The cell leveling function is implemented through setting cell levels and priority of cells in the same level. and the cell with priority set as 1 has a higher priority than the cell with a priority set as 2. Here. Functions such as CRO. the relationship between cells should be judged.3. so they should not be regarded as the main solutions to traffic congestion. the cells will be sequenced again according to the levels and priorities of the candidate cells. Thus. According to the actual requirements. the dual frequency system is regarded as a network. Thus. leveled traffic control. 7. If it is set as “On”. then please consider adjusting the sector TRX configuration of the base station and the network layout. the system allows the subscribers within CONF_HO_RXLEV and CONF_HO_RXLEV +2*ClsRAMP to be handed over to Cell B. then the edge handover will be triggered. then please adjust the queue of the candidate cells according to whether the neighboring cell and the service cell configured by the data management console share the same BSC/MSC. the system allows the subscribers within CONF_HO_RXLEV and CONF_HO_RXLEV+ClsRamp to be handed over to Cell B and in the meantime. This part is implemented in the network characteristic adjusting module of the handover algorithm. Hereafter. etc. The edge handover requires that the candidate cells should be in front of the service cell in the queue of candidate cells. If a local area of the network always needs load handover or direct reuse. the GSM1800 system can be set as higher priority. the higher the priority and the lower the priority level.7 Normal Handover I. II. That is to say. the system will start the load handover timer (TimerTCLS). because in order to meet the requirements of independent networking and to reduce handovers between BSC and MSC as much as possible. This process continues until all subscribers in the load handover area are handed over to Cell B. Here.

(4) Providing subscribers with best current service quality all along.PWR_C_D) . The triggering criterion of the PBGT handover is: If the path loss of the neighboring cell is less than the path loss of the service cell by a certain threshold and also meets the P/N criteria during a certain period of measurement time. Thus.(Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX (n). then the PBGT handover will be triggered.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design III.P) . 6-18 . (2) Reducing the dual frequency handover times. the actual radio coverage range is greatly larger than the distance between base stations. it will lead to extra-cell coverage phenomenon. PBGT handover In regions with dense network architecture. Specifically speaking. The PBGT handover at least can bring about the following advantages: (1) Solving the problem of extra-cell coverage.RXLEV_DL . Where P. N and PBGT_Ho_Margin(n) are set in the Data Management Console. please introduce the PBGT handover algorithm based upon path loss.08 protocol describes the calculation of the PGBT in it appendix as follows: PBGT(n) = (Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX. which increases interference upon the radio environment and influences networking planning and optimizing. the PBGT handover can be triggered. (3) Providing more flexible means for traffic guidance and control.RXLEV_NCELL(n)) --Equal to the downlink received level of the neighboring cell -(Downlink received level of the service cell + Power control level) The meaning of each parameter is as follows: MS_TXPWR_MAX: The maximum MS transmitting power allowed by the service cell MS_TXPWR_MAX (n): The maximum MS transmitting power allowed by the neighboring cell n RXLEV_DL: The downlink receiving power of the service cell RXLEV_NCELL(n): The downlink receiving power of the neighboring cell n PWR_C_D: The difference of the maximum downlink transmitting power of the service cell and the actual downlink transmitting power of the service cell caused by power control P: The maximum transmitting power of the MS When PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n). The GSM05. To solve this problem. and PBGT(n) is calculated according to the parameters configured through the Data Management Console and the measurement results reported by the BTS. The PBGT handover algorithm is a handover algorithm based upon path loss. if the MS keeps communication in a cell. P measurements among N measurements meet PBGT(n) > PGBT_Ho_Margin(n).P) . The PBGT handover algorithm searches in real time whether there exists a cell which has smaller path loss and meets certain system requirements and also it will judge whether the handover is needed. it cannot be effectively handed over to a closer cell needing lower transmitting power. Therefore.

However. time penalty should be applied to the microcell. Generally. then when the neighboring cell passes the M criteria. we describe the speed sensitivity handover in the Active mode. Therefore. Principle 1: If the mobile station is making fast motion relative to the microcell network. IV. then perfect connection quality can be guaranteed even for MSs in the edge areas of the cell during extra-cell handover. However. there exists another problem: A portable mobile station can be regarded as making fast motion relative to cell size. if Q microcells think hat the MS is in fast motion. If the service cell is a macrocell: To prevent the fast mobile station registered in macrocell from entering the microcell network. and in the meantime. 7. Here. time penalty should be applied to the microcell. macrocells are used to provide service for these mobile stations with fast motion so that the extra-cell handover times will not increase considerably. such rapid motion may lead to quite a number of extra-cell handovers so that it is difficult to implement call control. Please refer to Figure 7-4. Subtract the received level of the cell by a larger value before the timer is timeout so that the cell will be sequenced at the back of the queue of candidate cells. if the MSs are very close to the base station during the extra-cell handover (especially when the distance between base stations is very short). If the penalty time of a certain neighboring cell is not 0. Speed sensitivity handover The handover will be conducted according to the relative speed of the mobile station so as to reduce the handover times and disconnection rate. portable mobile stations are relatively fixed. unreasonable extra-cell handover times will not be resulted even in dense mircocell network. excessive power level will shorten the battery life of the MS. Principle 2: To prevent the fast mobile station registered in macrocell from entering the microcell network. please start the time penalty timer. If the service cell is a microcell: This algorithm adopts the method of obtaining statistic of the microcells the MS passes. then the MS will be handed over the macrocell. How to judge whether a mobile station is making fast motion and what method should be used to hand over it to the macrocell are problems to solve.8 Power prediction after handover If the transmitting power after handover is the maximum transmitting power of the MSs allowed by the new cell.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design In addition. Although the power control can rapidly reduce the transmitting power of a mobile station to an appropriate level. the MS will be handed over to this cell only in emergency handover.3. the PBGT handover can only be performed between cells of the same level and priority and also can only be triggered in TCH channel. If processed by macrocell network. the RF power peak after extra-cell handover may lead to uplink/downlink interference upon the radio network. the corresponding statistical parameter will be cleared. 6-19 . then it is unnecessary to use the maximum allowed transmitting power. the please hand over it to the macrocell network. Furthermore. Generally. Among the P microcells.

Based upon this. we can set the optimum uplink received level of the cell so as to guarantee perfect communication quality during and after handover. the received level of the MS » the received level of the base station. The difference between the received level of the MS and the optimum uplink received level reflects the difference between the maximum transmitting power of the base station and the required transmitting power after handover.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n). the calculation formula of the initial transmitting power of the MS after handover is as follows: MS_TXPWR(n) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) . This difference is equal to the difference between the maximum transmitting power of the MS and the required transmitting power after handover. we can deduce the optimized algorithm of the initial MS transmitting power after handover so as to replace the maximum allowed transmitting power with optimized initial MS transmitting power. It can also reduce the uplink power control times after handover so that the uplink level can verge to the expected power control value faster.MsOptLevel(n))) Function Max( ) guarantees that the difference between the downlink level and the optimum uplink received level of the destination cell is not negative.e. This value is represented with the optimum received level. the received level of the MS is also approaches to the optimum uplink received level. Please define the following variables: MS_TXPWR_MAX(n): The maximum MS transmitting power of mobile phone allowed by neighboring cell n MS_TXPWR(n): The actual transmitting power of mobile phone allowed by neighboring cell n BSPWR(n): Output power of the base station transmitter of neighboring cell n BSTX_MAX(n): The maximum allowed transmitting power of neighboring cell n PATH_LOSS_UL(n): The uplink path loss of neighboring cell n PATH_LOSS_DL(n): The downlink path loss of neighboring cell n RXLEV_NCELL(n): The downlink signal level of neighboring cell n MsOptLevel(n): The optimum uplink received level of neighboring cell n After handover. P) MS_TXPWR(n) BTS1 HO BTS2 Figure 7-4 In case without handover power prediction In fact.Max(0.(RXLEV_NCELL(n). 6-20 . i.. When the received level of the base station approaches to the optimum uplink received level. Therefore. please guarantee that the uplink received level is a perfect value so as to prevent possible handover failure or call disconnection.

close the uplink power control function and set up communication connection in the inner circle and excircle respectively. then after the connection of inner circle has been set up. In this case. then please select any a test point. then the initial transmitting power of the MS after handover should use the maximum allowed transmitting power (not the optimum value). while the measured value of the neighboring cell is based upon measured excircle value of large power (indicating a kind of unequality). insertion loss difference of combiners. the border of inner circle and excircle can be adjusted flexibly such that the inner circle and excircle can reasonably share traffic in the precondition of guaranteeing various network indices. MSTX_LIM_MIN(n) ) Where. For inter-office handover. and then measure the stable signal strength difference of the inner circle and excircle in communication state (the data is configured as this difference). so when a subscriber is in the inner circle area. If the inner circle and 6-21 . 7. The power difference of the inner circle and excircle is generally the sum of the power difference of inner circle/excircle power amplifier. The transmitting power of the inner circle is less than that of the excircle.9 Concentric Circle Algorithm The division of inner circle and excircle of Huawei concentric circle cell is based upon the downlink received level and timing advance of mobile phones (such as Figure 7-6). path loss difference of difference antennas and path loss difference of difference frequencies. If the inner circle and excircle shares the same antenna. A=MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-Max(0. then MS_TXPWR(n) » Max( Min( A. the measured value of the service cell obtained from the MR (Measurement Result) is based upon measured inner circle value of small power.3. P ).(RXLEV_NCELL(n) . According to the received level threshold and timing advance threshold. please do not calculate the optimum value of the initial transmitting power of the MS after handover. please make power compensation for the inner circle so that the service cell will have equal position as the neighboring cell during sequencing.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design To guarantee the calculated power is not beyond the MS capability and to set the lower limit (MSTX_LIM_MIN(n)) of the MS transmitting power so as to prevent too low MS transmitting power due to improper parameter setting.MsOptLevel(n))) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) RXLEV_NCELL(n) MS_TXPWR(n) MsOptLevel(n) BTS1 HO BTS2 Figure 7-5 Case with handover power prediction If the uplink power control of the destination handover cell is not opened.

then please select three test points and test according to the previous method.e. there is a “blank” segment between the inner circle and excircle expressed by the formulas. Excircle Receiving level threshold Receiving level hysteresis TA threshold nner circle TA hysteresis Figure 7-6 Division of inner circle and excircle for concentric circle cell I. In the figure. Its main function is to prevent the ping-pong handover.: Received level threshold≤. and finally average the difference. If the TA value is 63 and the TA Hysteresis value is 0.TA Hysteresis This area is the hysteresis area of the concentric circle. the channel allocation technology of the concentric circle cell adopts different allocation policies for different channel allocation conditions.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design excircle does not share the same antenna. It is the same as the hysteresis concept of ordinary handover algorithm. mainly including the following conditions: 6-22 . The inner circle area can be expressed as: received level > Received level threshold + Received level Hysteresis and threshold .TA Hysteresis +Received threshold . i. the TA threshold and path loss threshold are the thresholds preset by the system and the broken line stands for the actually configured threshold. There is a hysteresis between the value of the real limited area and the configured value. then the border of the inner circle is completely determined by the parameter TA.Received level Hysteresis < Received level Received level threshold≤ TA< TA level Hysteresis and TA threshold . Channel allocation technology of concentric circle cell With the consideration of the characteristics of concentric circle cells.TA Hysteresis The excircle area can be expressed as: received level ≤ Received level threshold -Received level Hysteresis threshold + TA Hysteresis or TA ≥ TA TA<TA Obviously. if the received level threshold is 63 and the received level Hysteresis is 0. then the border of the inner circle is completely determined by the received level parameter.

Call disconnection may occur if the MS is not allowed to be directly handed over to the neighboring cell from the inner circle. if there is a great number of incoming handovers (generally such handover is not triggered at cell edge). when the subscriber is within the excircle range. The basic principle is: through adding the measured value of BCCH in the destination cell to the handover request message between BSC cells. for example when the excircle is congested. To guarantee the service quality. Decision criteria of concentric handover: 6-23 . so as to implement the purpose that the appropriate service layer provides subscribers with appropriate services. the MS should be handed over to the excircle channel so as to maintain the connection. The concentric circle channel allocation policy is used for channel allocation such that the appropriate service layer will provide service for mobile phones handed over to the cell. in ordinary networking condition. provide the values for concentric circle cell decision and select the service layer to allocate channels preferably. In generally. maybe the MS needs to be handed over to a neighboring cell directly from the inner circle. the TA value of the destination cell cannot be obtained. However. please judge the subscriber position according to the MR in SDCCH. the inner circle has more channels. therefore. Firstly.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design (1) Instant assignment There are not the received level and TA for reference during the instant assignment. so the traffic bearing capacity of the inner circle is far greater than the excircle. if an MS sets up connection in the inner circle. The decision method in this case is basically the same as that of the concentric handover decision. II. then allocate the excircle channels. so the TA condition in the concentric circle decision cannot be considered. therefore. then try best to allocate the inner circle channels. in such a case. the inner circle channels can be selected preferably. The inner circle only has a limited coverage. and when there is not any available inner circle channel. While in dual frequency networking condition. the mode of preferable inner circle/excircle selection without policy is applied with switch selection. The signaling channels of the inner circle will be allocation only when there is not any available signaling channel in the excircle. the concentric handover is inter-cell handover. Therefore. it should be handed over to the inner circle. Concentric circle handover technology Generally. if an MS sets up connection in the excircle. In some special cases. try best to allocate the excircle channels. For example. When the subscriber is within the inner circle range. then allocate the inner circle channel. so in this case the excircle channels can be selected preferably. (4) Inter-BSC handover Since the received level and TA of the neighboring cell cannot be obtained. (2) Assignment The channel allocation policy of concentric circle is used for channel allocation. then when the MS moves to the border of the inner circle and excircle. then when the MS moves to the service area of the inner circle. 900/1800 shares the same station in most cases. and when there is not any available excircle channel. the SDCCH channels in the excircle will be allocated preferably. (3) Internal handover of BSC It is applicable to non-concentric circle handover and direct handover to neighboring cell from the inner circle. Similarly. the inter-BSC handover is triggered at cell edges.

so the concentric circle handover is triggered.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design (1) Handover from excircle to inner circle When the current service layer is the excircle. Because. IN this case. if the excircle does not have any available channel. data configuration [Duration of concentric circle handover] 6-24 . Where. When the handover from the excircle to the inner circle is triggered.e.. such as PBGT handover. In this case. etc. (2) Handover from inner circle to excircle When the service layer is the inner circle. then the handover to the neighboring cell is not allowed. in this case if the handover to the neighboring cell is triggered. if P among N measurement times meets ≤ Rxlev Received level threshold -Received level Hysteresis – Downlink power control compensation or ≥ If TA threshold + TA Hysteresis . edge handover. the condition for triggering the handover from the excircle to the inner circle is that the received level of the current service cell is higher than a threshold. i. However..e. if the inner circle does not have any available channel.TA Hysteresis. then handover from the excircle to the inner circle will be triggered. it will directly return the handover rejection message (the cause value is “no available channel”). the network optimization is not reflected and the handover may increase the excircle load of the neighboring cell. the meaning of each parameter is as follows: Rxlev: The downlink received level of the current channel Downlink power compensation: Due to power consumption of the current channel caused by the downlink power control. When the handover from the inner circle to the excircle is triggered. The handover from the excircle to the neighboring cell can be implemented through other handover modes. i. then it will directly return the handover rejection message (the cause value is “no available channel”). if P among N measurement times meets the following condition Rxlev > Received level threshold +Received level Hysteresis – Downlink power control compensation. the direct handover to the neighboring cell is not allowed. data configuration [Statistic time of concentric circle handover] N: P/N decision parameter. Please not that the BCCH TRX channel needs special processing. and also If TA < TA threshold . while the inner circle has higher traffic bearing capacity and has higher priority level. then the handover from the inner circle to the excircle will be triggered. the calculation is the current BS power level multiplied by 2. P: P/N decision parameter.

Our main design considerations include: firstly. the power control efficiency can be improved and the instability of the algorithm can be removed since such solution can bring about more information for reference and better power control policy adjustment can be conducted.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 7. Thus. 6-25 . These MRs may be used to estimate the current receiving condition or to predict future MR values. The MR prediction filtering function is mainly an improved means for dealing with in sufficient power control hysteresis. appropriate compensation should be made. the MR compensation is a kind of remedial measure to solve the problem that the received level in the MR before power adjustment obviously cannot reflect the current receiving condition. the initial power adjustment has been cancelled in the second generation of power control algorithm. put forward power adjustment requirements according to receiving quality and received level. For high accuracy.4 Huawei Power Control Technology The second generation of Huawei power control algorithm can implement the following functions: (1) MR (Measurement Result) compensation (2) Filtering of predicted MR (3) Canceling initial adjustment stage (relative to the first generation of Huawei power control algorithm) (4) Adjusting power calculation decision optimization After power control. To achieve concise and explicit concept and in the meantime prevent the initial adjustment after introduction of accessed level optimization measure from becoming a useless adjustment process. and then implement the decision with combined consideration.

the present situation is that. However. MR compensation Every time when an MR is received.4. We had such an assumption before that these MRs were obtained in the condition of constant transmitting power. 6-26 . so the change would be compensated on the basis of the current transmitting power. we can judge whether the transmitting power has changed according to the actual MRs). we thought that the path loss had changed. these latest MRs possibly are obtained in different transmitting power conditions. To reduce such error. the method of using the MRs before power adjustment to estimate the received level in current transmitting power condition will surely lead to error. Thus. To make decision. take integrated consideration of certain number of new MRs.1 MR Preprocessing I. The specific method is to compensate the received level for the historical MRs at the moment when the power adjustment changes (considering adjustment delay. Thus. the MR will be placed in the MR queue to serve as the original materials for power control and handover decision. the MRs before power adjustment should be compensated.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Se con d gen era tion of Huaw ei power control algorithm Is MR compensation allowed Yes MR queue compensation No MR queue compensation No MS power processing No Yes Yes MS power processing Uplink MR prediction filtering MS power processing MS power Control MS power processing Figure 7-7 Flow diagram of the second generation of Huawei power control algorithm 7. if we found that the average received level had changed.

the transmitting power will be adjusted after three MRs. Generally. different receiving quality values correspond to different average received levels. Therefore. If the hysteresis is very severe. Thus. it will accelerate this change. the prediction times can be set in the background. This value can be directly used during average decision of power control. the receiving quality is possibly 0. if the received level requires that the transmitting power should be decreased by 6dB. after the transmitting power adjusment command on the uplink is sent out. and so on. the power control 6-27 .Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design The MR compensation after power adjustment is to guarantee the accuracy of the MR prediction function of the second generation of power control algorithm. the delivering of power control command in advance will facilitate the effective control of the received level. The following three steps are taken for the calculation of adjustment power: I. the transmitting power will be adjusted immediately. but to the contrary.2 Second Generation of Huawei Power Control Policy According to the actual communication state based upon different power adjustment requirement combinations. and then calculate the weighed mean value (P2) of N2 points before N1 points. then after the power adjustment. The sending and transmission of power control command and power adjustment will take certain period of time. which is beneficial to stable received level and high receiving quality. When the receiving quality is 0. When the receiving quality is not 0. To improve the system controllability. the corresponding average received level when the receiving quality is 0 is far greater than the average received level when the receiving quality is not 0. 7. and finally predict received level (Py) of the subsequent points according to N1 and N2. II. the average received levels are almost the same. the power control hysteresis is mainly applied to the uplinks. then the transmitting power change not only cannot compensate the receiving change. Please refer to the current receiving quality in final determination of step adjustment. To guarantee rapid and accurate positioning of the power adjustment. However. The basic principle of the prediction filtering is: Firstly. This value can also serve as a new MR to predict the next reference value with the same method.4. The newer the MRs is. calculate the weighed mean value (P1) of the received levels in N1 MRs approaching to the calculation moment. the prediction filtering value of the received level is: Py=P1 + (P1-P2) × a (a stands for the amplification coefficient) Here. so there will exist certain hysteresis between the receiving change and corresponding transmitting power adjustment. because according to our estimation of the actually measured results. the newer MRs reflect comparatively current situations more accurately. so the power adjustment cannot play its due active function. As. the time weighing is used. after the power adjustment command on downlink is sent out. the second generation of Huawei power control algorithm adopts pertinent power control policy so as to guarantee the validity and stability of the power control algorithm. Calculating adjustment power step according to the received level (AdjStep_Lev) To improve the system flexibility and to prevent power control fluctuation. In general. the dualthreshold power control policy is used. Thus. the larger the weighed value will be. Prediction filtering The power control is a process of transmitting power control based upon the current received level and the receiving quality. It can be predicted that. the variable step power control is used.

PcLowerThresoldsLev PcUpperThresoldsLev stands for the upper/lower threshold. the transmitting power will not be adjusted. so as to better match with the actual situations and to make the power adjustment more efficient. then similarly. the receiving quality may require higher transmitting power. the data: Rxlev is the actual received level after prediction filtering. decreased power step and the adjustment step based upon the comparison of the received level and threshold. the power will increase.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design is implemented. when we judge Rxlev>PcUpperThresoldsLev. In this case we can judge that when Rxlev<PcLowerThresoldsLev. It is recommended that the appropriate distance be 6 to 10dB. Thus. Based on the first generation of Huawei power control algorithm. In this case. AdjStepThr_Lev=IncrStep_Lev =(PcLowerThresoldsLev+PcUpperThresoldsLev)/2Rxlev When the received level is higher. With such consideration. In≥ this case. AdjStepThr_Lev=DecrStep_Lev =Rxlev(PcUpperThresoldsLev+PcLowerThresoldsLev)/2 When the received level falls between the upper threshold and the lower threshold. In the above formula. the receiving quality possibly turns to 4. IncrStep_Lev. if the received level requires that the transmitting power should be decreased by 6dB. (2) The maximum reference adjustment step of the current receiving quality (CurQulMaxStep). The receiving quality is divided into three quality areas (0. or the power control will be too sensitive to the change of the received levels. (1) The adjustment step AdjStepThr_Lev based upon the comparison of the actual received level and the threshold. above 3). or the power control will be not so sensitive to the change of the received levels and will lead to greater fluctuation of the received levels. respectively standing for increased power step. when we judge that when PcUpperThresoldsLev Rxlev ≥ PcLowerThresoldsLev. and each quality area specifies a maximum reference adjustment step (can be set in the background). then after the power adjustment. the transmitting power will not be adjusted. the second generation of Huawei power control algorithm has been improved with direct requirements for control target. which will lead to power control fluctuation easily and will excessively restrict the improvement space of the transmitting power due to low receiving quality. DecrStep_Lev and AdjStepThr_Lev are the calculated values. we take the measure of appropriately referring to the current receiving quality in the adjustment step based upon the power of the received level. the power will decrease. some actual receiving conditions are taken into consideration. The higher the receiving 6-28 . which is set through the background. The adjustment step based upon the final power of the received level will use the smaller one of the following two values. the power adjustment just now is not as good as that when the receiving quality is 0. 1 to 2. Therefore. it also should not be too small. When the receiving quality is 1. The distance between the two thresholds should not be too great. However. When the received level is low. The range can float upwards/downwards according to the actual requirements. For the convenience of more effective adjustment.

but the transmitting should be adjusted for those out of the quality area. AdjStep_Qul is the adjustment step of the receiving quality and is also set through the background. Thus it facilitates in guaranteeing the stability of the algorithm. The setting cannot be too great. The receiving quality threshold is also set as dual threshold. PcgoodThresoldsQul PcbadThresoldsQul stands for the good/poor receiving quality thresholds. the system faces more interference and is quite sensitive. The setting should not be too small. the receiving quality improvement is based upon the transmitting power increase. Calculating adjustment power step (AdjStep_Qul) according to receiving quality Generally. (3) Please do not adjust the transmitting power when the receiving quality falls between the upper/lower thresholds If ≥ Qulity≥ PcgoodThresoldsQul PcbadThresoldsQul transmitting power. and furthermore. 6-29 . This value can be set in the background. The adjustment step calculated according to the received level is: AdjStep_Lev =min (AdjStepThr_Lev. Generally. so please increase the transmitting power gradually. This interference is mutual. We have used the fixed step. or the algorithm cannot attain the purpose of fast power control. CurQulMaxStep). please pay attention to the power adjustment caused by receiving quality change so as to prevent the vicious cycle of improving transmitting power due to low quality. . that of quality area 1 be 4 to 8dB and that of quality area 2 be about 3dB or 4dB. the receiving quality varies with interference. The result of such group effect is that all GSM systems use the maximum transmitting power. The lower the quality. to guarantee the stability of the algorithm. (b). the greater the step. This value should not be too great. Because you cannot estimate the influence of the transmitting level change upon the receiving quality. (2) Decreasing transmitting power for high receiving quality If Qulity<PcgoodThresoldsQul. The setting of the maximum allowed adjustment for each quality area is based upon two aspects: (a). which will lead to decreased power control validity. since in most cases. but the receiving quality is not improved at all. II. In this case. the receiving quality is very poor. the increased power of a call is equivalent to the increased interference of another call. The transmitting power will not be adjusted for receiving quality within the quality area. (1) Improving transmitting power for low receiving quality If Qulity>PcbadThresoldsQul. it is recommended that the good threshold be 0 and the poor threshold be 2.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design quality is. The main interference in the GSM system is the cofrequency interference generated during frequency multiplexing. the smaller the step. It is recommended that the value be set as 2 to 4dB. please decrease the transmitting power and decrease the step to AdjStep_Qul. because in this case. which can be set through the background. please increase the transmitting power and increase the step to AdjStep_Qul. It is recommended that the maximum reference adjustment step of quality area 0 be 8 to 16dB. or the due reference function cannot be implemented. Therefore. please do not adjust the Data in the formula: Qulity is the actual receiving quality value after filtering. please try to prevent large step during power adjustment.

try best to meet its requirements.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design III. Based upon the above principles. Thus.5 New Channel Allocation Algorithm The new channel allocation algorithm is based upon the optimization mechanism. If it will. please pay attention to the power control fluctuation due to mutual action of the received level and the receiving quality. 7. Thus. on one hand. after. The lower the level. The method to avoid such fluctuation is: If only the receiving quality has power adjustment requirement. (3) Historical seizure record priority. then please consider the stability of the algorithm and forbid unstable adjustment. the more preferable the channel allocation will be. then please check after the adjustment. Successful seizure: Priority increased. Combining the two power control requirements When taking the two requirements into combined consideration. and after than the received level again requires an increase f 4dB. we can obtain the power step to be finally adjusted. AdjStep_Qul) Add AdjStep_Lev Add AdjStep_Lev No action Reduce AdjStep_Qul Add AdjStep_Qul Furthermore. when the two requirements are not consistent or completely opposite. the new channel allocation algorithm can provide subscribers with communication channels as good as possible. reflecting the channel quality. For example. the poor receiving quality requires an increase of 4dB. AdjStep_Qul) No action Reduce djStep_Lev Add Max(AdjStep_Lev. The higher the level is. the transmitting power should be decreased by 4dB according to the received level. whether the received level will exceed the dualthreshold range. (2) TRX priority TRX priority: It is determined by the network parameter “TRX optimization level”. Comparing with the classical first generation of channel allocation algorithm based upon rotation. the more difficult the channel allocation will be. then please do not conduct the power adjustment. the following power adjustment table is obtained: Adjust step according to received level Reduce AdjStep_Lev Reduce AdjStep_Lev Reduce AdjStep_Lev Add AdjStep_Lev Add AdjStep_Lev Add AdjStep_Lev No action No action No action Adjust step according to receiving quality Reduce AdjStep_Qul Add AdjStep_Qul No action Add AdjStep_Qul Reduce AdjStep_Qul No action No action Reduce AdjStep_Qul Add AdjStep_Qul Take adjustment results into comprehensive consideration Reduce Max (AdjStep_Lev. The uplink/downlink adjustment policies should be consistent. besides the adjustment as shown in the above table. Failed seizure: Priority decreased 6-30 . The new channel allocation algorithm considers the following optimization factors: Interference priority. TRX priority and historical seizure record priority. the fluctuation is generated due to cyclic increase/decrease. so as to avoid power control fluctuation. (1) Interference priority The interference priority is consistent with the interference carried by the radio resources indication message. and on the other hand.

economic and effective expansion scheme. every period of time. these methods cannot slove the problem of insufficient network capacity fundamentally. and within buildings. I. GSM1800 Coverage requirements (1) Outdoor coverage If the distance between base stations is not so great. you should also considering building new sites in necessary places.6. besides the building of GSM1800 sites on the original GSM900 sites. the mobile communication frequency resources and radio channels will become more insufficient. The fast fading characteristic of GSM1800 goes against perfect coverage of GSM1800 (the coverage of the GSM1800 exerts direct influence upon the network performance. 890 to 815MHz) and the communication bandwidth as high as 75M can effectively solve the bottleneck of GSM900 frequency resources.2 Fast Fading Characteristic and Coverage Problem of GSM1800 Since the working frequency of GSM1800 is one time that of GSM900. expanding microcell. that is to say. the transmission loss of GSM1800 is higher than that of GSM 900 by 6dB.6 Dual-band Network Technology 7. Therefore. according to the COST-231 model and actual experiences. adopting multiple frequency multiplexing technology (MRP). There are many methods for GSM system expansion. To restore the historical seizure record priority of channels after deterioration. 7. etc. within the horizon. (2) It has the same specifications as the GSM900 system and can repeatedly utilize the existing GSM900 sites. The city 6-31 . including adding macrocell base stations. the transmission loss of GSM1800 is higher than that of GSM by 10dB. then the outdoor coverage is easily implemented. we should increase the historical seizure record priority by a constant. 7.6. half-rate application. However. it is higher than that by 5 to 17dB (depending different media). reducing distance between base stations. the distance between base stations in downtown area should not be greater than 1000 meters.1 Necessity for Building Dual-band Network Predicted according to the 4 × 3 networking mode of macrocells. the introduction of GSM1800 (1805 to 1880MHz and 1710 to 1785MHz) network will bring about the following advantages: (1) The application of different frequencies from GSM900 (935 to 960MHz. while beyond the horizon.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Call disconnection during seizure: Priority decreased Interference during seizure: Priority decreased. Comparatively. the building of the GSM1800 network is a fast and effective means to solve the expansion problem fundamentally. (2) Indoor coverage To guarantee perfect indoor coverage of the GSM1800 system. the maximum subscriber number supported by the GSM900 macrocell is about 40 million. If necessary. if there is not a fast.

7. large number of dual-band handovers.3 Dual-band Networking Structure There are three dual-band networking modes: Independent MSC networking. one-step station building. MSCsharing/independent BSC networking and BSC-sharing networking. it is recommended that the distance between base stations be about 500 to 800 meters. The first two networking modes are generally called independent networking and the BSC-sharing networking is also called hybrid networking. and gradual station building in high-dense regions so as to save investment. frequent dual-band handover. there does not exist any problem. GSM1800 characteristics in different coverage degrees (1) Perfect consecutive coverage The GSM1800 system has the following characteristics: easy to absorb traffic. With consideration of long-term application. high requirements for determining traffic hotspot. and small volume of initial investment. inconvenient to construct and maintain.6. these problems can be avoided. high requirements for determining traffic hotspot. gradual expansion according to TRX setting. (2) Consecutive coverage in hotspot regions The GSM1800 system has the following characteristics: Only absorbing limited traffic. However. inconvenient to construct and maintain. (3) Sporadic coverage in hotspot regions The GSM1800 system has the following characteristics: SM1800: Only absorbing very small. the independent networking is superior to the hybrid networking. small number of inter-layer handover. Technically speaking. big investment and difficult to determine all stations at one time. and it also increases the load of signaling links. The independent networking relatively increases inter-office handover and location updating times. therefore. but manual factor exerts great influence. high operation quality. easy to control traffic distribution. The independent networking is concerned with cooperation of different manufacturers. II. difficult in frequency allocation and network optimization due to irregular distribution of GSM1800 base stations. easy to implement frequency allocation and network optimization. 6-32 . difficult in frequency allocation and network optimization due to irregular distribution of GSM1800 base stations. convenient to construct and maintain.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design buildings in China mainly adopts the reinforced concrete structure with high transmission loss.

It is characterized by explicit networking planning.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design I. It is convenient for whole network management and new service development. MSC-sharing/independent BSC networking BTS MS BTS OMC MSC/VLR SMC BTS MS BTS BSC HLR/AUC EIR BSC GSM900 GSM1800 Figure 7-9 MSC-sharing/independent BSC networking mode 6-33 . (7). Independent MSC networking BTS MS BTS EIR OMC SMC BTS MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR HLR/AUC BSC MSC/VLR GSM900 GSM1800 Figure 7-8 Independent MSC networking mode Characteristics: (1). It will not exert any influence upon the original network. (2). clear network data configuration and easy engineering implementation. (6) Competition is introduced so as to decrease equipment investment and improve service quality. II. (4). (5). (3). It needs large volume of initial investment in network building and small volume of unit user investment. Both MSC and BSC have backup to enhance the network security. It meets the requirements for long-term network expansion.

(4) It needs small volume of initial investment in network building and small volume of unit user investment. (3) It has limited expansion space. This characteristic is more obvious when the BSC capacity is smaller. so it is hard to deduce the price and improve the service. (3) It has limited expansion space. (5) Competition can be introduced so as to decrease equipment investment and improve service quality to some degree. so it may lead to difficulty in engineering and maintenance for network development. 6-34 .Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design Characteristics: (1) It will exert great influence upon the original network. (6) The BSC has backup so as to achieve certain network security III. (2) It needs re-planning of the NSS and it is quite difficult to implement the engineering. (4) Restricted new service development (5) Competition cannot be introduced. BSC-sharing networking BTS MS BTS BTS BSC OMC MSC/VLR SMC EIR HLR/AUC BTS MS BTS BTS BSC GSM900 GSM1800 BTS GSM1800/GSM900 Figure 7-10 BSC-sharing networking mode Characteristics: (1) It may exert great influence upon the original network. but largest volume of unit user investment. (6) It needs small volume of initial investment in network building. so it may lead to difficulty in engineering and maintenance for network development. (2) It needs re-planning of the NSS and it is quite difficult to implement the engineering.

it is hoped that the MR reporting of the mobile station is not only based upon signal strength. 2 and 3. (3) In communication state. The parameter “Multi-band report (MBR)” is used to indicate the mobile station needs to report contents of neighboring cells at multiple bands. the operator hopes that the mobile station will enter a certain frequency band preferably during extra-cell handover. the mobile phone can adjust the traffic allocation through direct retry.6. when a subscriber powers on a mobile phone to perform cell selection or to perform cell reselection in standby state. when a mobile station reports the measured result of the neighboring cells to the network. I. (2) During call connection setup. the following principles should be followed: During the initial period of dual-band network construction. (4) Various dual-band traffic handover methods can be used to implement reasonable cell traffic load. the network can understand various capabilities of mobile stations through querying the CLASSMARK of mobile stations. through setting the system parameters.4 Traffic guidance and Control Policy of Dual-band Network According to original intention of building the 1800 network. If multi-band networking.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 7. the subscriber will spend more time in waiting for the 1800M system before communication so as to avoid unnecessary handover. When the dual-band subscribers reach a certain number. power capability and encryption capability of mobile stations are characterized by the level (CLASSMARK) of mobile stations. the service capability. please set ECSC as NO for single frequency GSM application area and set it as YES for dual-band GSM application area. according to the actual network situations. it only needs to report the contents of the 6 neighboring cells with the highest signal level in a frequency band. the mobile station should immediately report its CLASSMARK3 to the network. through the division of cells into different levels and the division of the same layer cell into different levels (HCS. Y indicates that after link setup. hierarchical cell system). therefore. Thus. To implement different traffic control policies. ECSC can either be Y or N. then all frequencies share the traffic so as to reduce handover times and to provide quality service. the traffic will goes to 1800M cell of lower level and low priority as much as possible. In single frequency GSM system. generally. 6-35 . the 1800M cell will have higher priority or better cell measurement comparison value so as to become the service cell of dual-band subscriber more easily. and N indicates that the mobile station is not allowed to report its CLASSMARK3 to the network. but also based upon signal frequency band. In a general GSM system. The main information in CLASSMARK3 targets at dual-band application. please try best to let 1800M cells to absorb dual-band subscribers. various control policies are used: (1) In the idle mode. Therefore. To implement flexible and effective dual-band traffic guidance and control. the operators only need to adjust different parameters. The CLASSMARK of mobile stations can be divided into CLASSMARKs1. ECSC and MBR In the GSM system. support band.

etc. However. try best to make subscribers wait in the 1800 cells so that the calls are also set up in the 1800 cells. 1: The mobile station needs to report the measurement result of an allowed neighboring cell at each band (not including the band used by the current service cell) with highest signal level and know NCC included in the neighboring cell table. Generally.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 0: According to the signal strength of the neighboring cells. III. in this case. the mobile station will report the measurement results of the six allowed neighboring cells with the highest signal level and with known NCC. through reasonable parameter adjustment. Dual-band handover In communication state. the function of traffic-loading is implemented. please set the MBR as “0”.. please refer to the following principles in setting the value: If the traffic of each band is basically the same. etc. The neighboring cell at the band of the current service cell will be reported in residual position. If there are still residual positions. please set the MBR as “1” or “2”. IV. PBGT handover. 1800 cells will have higher reselection priorities. so as to guarantee successful call connection. then please set the MBR as “3”. we make the 1800 cell have higher priority by setting parameters CBQ (Cell Bar Qualification) and CBA (Cell Bar Accesses). Direct retry Provided that during the call originating process in 900M band. For the case between the above two conditions. connection and control of certain number of signalings through the control channel. then the SDCCH is used to assign TCH so as to connection the voice channel. then please use the direct retry so that the SDCCH will assign a TCH for the mobile station. Thus. Cell selection and reselection In cell selection. the value is related to the service traffic at each band. speed-sensitive handover. it is found that the service channel is full. such as leveled handover. through the setting of CRO. TO. In multi-band application environment. Therefore. II. load handover. whether the mobile phone accesses the 1800 cell or 900 cell depends upon the cell priority (it depends upon parameter C1 if the priorities are the same). so C1 value of 900M cell is generally higher that of 1800M cell. reasonable traffic distribution between the frequencies can be implemented with the application of various Huawei dual-band handover algorithms. However. then the conditions of other neighboring cells will be reported (regardless of frequency band). the 1800M signals is of great attenuation. a mobile station has implemented switching. 6-36 . In the idle mode. If the traffic of each band is obviously different and the operator hopes the mobile station to enter a certain band preferably. then when the operator does not need band selectivity. regardless of the band the neighboring cells are located. The value range of MBR is 0 to 3.

in the precondition that the 1800M network shares most of the traffic. most mobile phones will access the 1800 cells and most of them will not reselect the 900M cells. which facilitates the debugging of the newly-built GSM1800 network and the newly-expanded GSM900 network respectively. when powered on. I. especial in indoor environment. the mobile phones are very slow to access the network. while in MSC-sharing networking condition.. when powered on. in independent MSC networking. when powered on. However. However. (3) A considerable number of single frequency 900M mobile phones still exist. it only leads to cell reselection one more time. set the CBA and CBQ such that the 900M 1800M cells have the same normal priority. Others In current 900/1800 dual-band networking. 7. (2) The 1800M coverage is not continuous. Therefore: (1) In current network condition. in independent MSC networking. including site survey.e. it needs the location updating one more time). a mobile phone can easily reselect the 1800M network from the 900M network so as to guide the traffic. we can set CBA and CBQ such that the 1800 cells have higher priority. the above cases (2) and (3)). The network planning is the first tache in radio network construction. through the selection of CAQ and CBA values. Deployment preparation It mainly implements dual-band network technology coordination and network planning. In current poor 1800M coverage condition. the 900M cells become cells of low priority. the mobile phones can access the network at fastest speed. thus. single 1800 network debugging and 900/1800 dualband network debugging. Based upon perfect adjustment of individual single networks.5 Dual-band Networking Engineering Implementation For engineering implementation. the location updating this time can be neglected among the total number of locations. Huawei has been focusing on the research on the cooperation of dual-band technologies all along and has sufficient technical reserve strength. then conduct gradual dual-band network cutover debugging according to sites so as to finally implement the construction f the whole dual-band network. if the mobile phone approaches to a 900M. such method will lead to a redundant location updating. Thus. etc. 6-37 . in most cases (e..Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design V. The traffic guidance is implemented with CRO. the mobile phone may have to select a 900M cell since it possibly cannot find 1800M signal at all.6. while the 1800M cells become cells of normal priority. The construction of the whole dual-band network can be divided into three stages as a whole: Deployment preparation. According our original recommendations. the policy of stepped debugging and gradual opening is used for dual-band network construction and optimization. there exist the following objective phenomena: (1) With the CRO value during cell reselection. (2) When the 1800M network basically implements continuous coverage and most mobile phones are dual-band ones. electromagnetic test.g. coverage test. The dual-band technology coordination is the precondition to implement dual-band cooperation of different manufacturers. However. then when it selects a 1800M cell through CRO. the inconsistency of LAC leads to the location updating one more time (i.

conduct optimization adjustment targeting at the problems and verify the optimization results. including. Single 1800 network debugging Without the need of data modification of the original 900M network. of each cell in the 1800 network aims to guarantee the perfect operation of the single 1800M network. On one hand. uplink/downlink power balance. analyze the traffic measurement data of the whole network and check the network operation index.. etc. The tests include: Cell reselection and location updating test. etc. dialing. etc. At this stage. Please observe the stable operation of the dual-band network after cooperation. the 900 network still provides service for subscribers and the 1800 network does not absorb any traffic. obliquity. traffic load control. continuous communication mode test. etc. contrast test of 900 and 1800 coverage. parameter adjustment. implement the process of “Design of dual-band cooperation—Debugging of single network operation—Debugging of dual-band network operation” and finally implement the construction and optimization of the dual-band network. main street call and handover test.Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design II. dual-band network handover test. interference. and then please conduct test again after adjusting relevant network parameters until the network indices meet the design requirements. 900/1800 dual-band debugging After the GSM900/1800 dual-band network is put into service. automatic re-dialing and frequency sweeping test. conduct the complete test of the single 1800 network. Through the above-mentioned three stages of work. determine the existing problems and necessary adjustment measures. these tests aim to find existing network problems. outdoor dialing test in major regions.) and the optimization of parameters such as transmitting power and obliquity. handover. and on the other hand. the tests (power. edge area handover test. According to the drive test data analysis and traffic measurement data analysis. poor coverage area and indoor dialing test. power control. coverage. please try to find existing network problems through various means such as drive test. III. 6-38 . contrast test of power adjustment. etc.

Wireless Network Planning Chapter 7 Parameter Design 6-39 .

then the statistics result will be returned back to the BAM.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics Huawei BSC traffic statistics system provides perfect measurement types and rich counters. the traffic statistics terminal. Therefore we can view the statistics result on the traffic statistics terminal. The BSC traffic statistics system consists of the BAM. facilitating the network operators to learn about the BSC running status. the statistics task will be sent to the foreground host via the BAM for statistics. the OMC server. etc. In order to have an understanding of the statistics points of all indexes and to analyze problems. The specific statistics flow is as follows: after registering on the traffic statistics terminal. 8-40 . to locate the network problems and to optimize the network. we will introduce some important calling flows first.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.1 Ultra-early TCH Assignment Flow MS Channel Request (RACH) BTS BSC MSC Channel Required Channel Activation (TCH) Channel Activation Acknowledge Immediate Assignment Command Immediate assignment (AGCH) CM-Service Request Complete layer 3 information CM-Service Req CM-Service Accept CM-Service Accept Assignment Request Mode modify Mode modify ACK Channel Mode modify Channel Mode modify ACK Assignment Complete 8-41 .1 Brief Introduction to the Calling Flows 8.1.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.2 Calling Flow (Calling Party) MS Channel_req BTS Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND First SABM BSC MSC Establish_IND( CM Service Req) CR(Complete_l3_information) CC CM Service Accepted Setup Call Proceeding Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack Assignment_Req ASSIGNMENT COMMAND First SABM ASSIGNMENT CMP Alerting Connect Connect Ack Establish_IND Assignment_CMP Conversation Disconnect Release Release Complete Clear_CMD Clear_CMP 8-42 .1.

After the completion of a handover.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.3 Handover Flow within the BSC The handover process within the BSC is controlled and implemented by the BSC. MS BTS1 BSC BTS2 Measure Report from MS MS MSC Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack HANDOVER COMMAND Handover Access PHY INFO PHY INFO Handover_Detect first SABM Establish_IND HANDOVER COMPLETE Handover_Performed 8-43 . the BCS will inform the MSC of this handover in a piece of Handover_performed message.1.

the originating BSC sends the handover command to the original BTS. and the n0w BTS will report Hand_Detect on detecting the handover and access of MS. And the old A-bis interface will disconnect the link to release the resource.4 Handover Flow between the BSCs When realized through the A interface. MS BTS1 BSC1 MSC BSC2 BTS2 MS Measure Report from MS Handover_Required Handover_Request Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack HANDOVER COMMAND Handover_CMD Handover_Request_Ack Handover Access Handover_Detect Handover_Detect PHY INFO PHY INFO first SABM Establish_IND HANDOVER COMPLETE Clear_CMD Clear_Cmp Handover_Cmp 8-44 . and then report HANDOVER COMPLETE after establishing a link with MS. and MSC requests the destination BSC for handover and gets Handover-Request_Ack.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8. When realized through the A-bis interface. the handover between the BSCs goes like this: an originating BSC originates Handover_Request to the destination BSC.1. then it sends the handover command “Handover_CMD” to the originating BSC.

) Radio channel acknowledge (Send handover report ) IAM ACM HANDOVER CMD Forward MS to new channel via original BSS HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR COMPLETE Send end signal(MAP) Release PCM0 Send end signal BSS2 selects a new TCH to connect to the PCM circuit MS enters the destination cell ANS ~ ~ Release (TUP/ISUP) End signal ~ ~ End signal(MAP) Disconnect the physical link between MSCa and MSCb Handover report Release handover report 8-45 .1.5 Handover Flow between MSCs MS Um Mobile MS E BSS1 Measurement of radio transmission signal A MSCa MSCb A B BSS2 Um VLRb HANDOVER REQ. (The global destination cell table) Perform handover(MAP) (The global destination cell I The global service cell ID Channel type ) HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE (PCM&Channel type) (Including new TCH and handover reference number ) (Assign handover number ) Radio channel ack.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.(MAP) Including new TCH and HON Allocation handover number Send handover report (HON.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.1.6 Subsequent Handover Flow (MS Roams from MSVb to MSCb MS MSCa BSS2 Measurement of radio transmission signal HANDOVER REQUIRED (The destination cell table ) ) MS VLRb' Roam E MSCb MSCb' VLRb BSS2' Perform subsequent handover (MAP) (The destination cell table . HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE Send end signal (MAP) ANS End signal (MAP) CLEAR COMMAND Release (TUP) CLEAR COMPLETE End signal (MAP) Release (TUP/ISUP) Release handover report Release HON ~ ~ ~ ~ Disconnect the physical link between MSCa and MSCb Release handover report Disconnect the physical link between MSCa and MSCb’ Release HON 8-46 .) Perform handover (The destination cell ID . Channel type ) HANDOVER REQUEST (PCM&Channel type) HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE (Including new TCH number and handover number ) Allocate handover number(Assign handover number ) Radio channel acknowledge Radio channnel ack.MSC No. (MAP) (Include New TCH and HON) Send handover report(HON) (Send handover report ) IAM ACM Subsequent handover ack. The service cell ID. The destination cell ID .

(5) Receive the message MSG_ABIS_HO_DETECT during handover within the BSC.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8. the handover is not of SDCCH type. At this time. (3) The message of the completion of assignment is sent in the process of assignment (4) Receive the message MSG_ABIS_HO_DETECT during incoming BSC for handover. “Timer for radio link connection” in the Cell Attribute Table.1 TCH Drop-off Ratio No 001 Measurement type Formula description Index name TCH drop-off ratio (%) General BSC performance measurement/cell performance measurement TCH drop-off ratio=TCH drop-off times /TCH occupation success ratio Analysis of the statistical point of the original index TCH drop-off times: (1) When the message CLEAR REQ is sent to MSC. and the current channel is of TCH type. “Maximum retransmission times of physical information”. (2) Receive the message CH_ACT_ACK in the state of CS_WAIT_RR_EST. (2) “Counter for radio link failure” in the Cell System Message Table. the current occupied channel is of TCH type. 1. 8-47 .2 Analysis of Key Indexes of Traffic Statistics 8. Successful TCH occupation times: (1) Receive the message CH_ACT_ACK during the immediate assignment.2. In the “General BSC performance measurement” The calculating formula of the “call loss ratio” in the former version: Call loss ratio (%) =Drop-off times after conversation/(Successful connection times + Successful incoming BSC handover times) * 100% The calculating formula of “TCH drop-off ratio” in the updated version: TCH drop-off ratio (%) =TCH drop-off times / Successful TCH occupation times *100% Others Configuration of the parameters that affect the drop-off ratio: (1) “Number of SACCH multiframes”. At this time the handover is not of SDCCH type. if the channel is of TCH type.

None Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Others 8. Incoming SDCCH handover sending the message HO_CMP fails TN_WAIT_HO_DETECT. For the handover involved between the MSCs. 003 Measurement type Formula description Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Others Inter-cell handover success ratio within the BSC (%) General BSC performance measurement Inter-cell handover success ratio within the BSC=Times of successful inter-cell handover within the BSC/ Times of Inter-cell handover attempts within the BSC.2. (4) In the BSC SDCCH handover receives HO_DETECT.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8. (2) The handover-related data configuration. BA2 and the handover data table under the handover menu see whether the data configuration are correct and handover threshold settings are reasonable.2 SDCCH Drop-off Ratio No 002 Measurement type Formula description Index name SDCCH drop-off ratio (%) Cell performance measurement SDCCH drop-off ratio=SDCCH drop-off Times / SDCCH occupation success times (All) SDCCH drop-off times(1)send out CLEAR_REQ. (3) Incoming SDCCH handover receives HO_DETECT. With respect to (1) there are following cases: Incoming SDCCH handover the message HO_DETECT is illegal. SDCCH occupation success times (All):(1) When receiving CH_ACT_ACK in the process of assignment. No. and the channel is of SDCCH type. (1) When receiving the handover requests (inter-cell within the BSC) None Index name 8-48 . the current channel is SDCCH. TN_WAIT_HO_CMP (SDCCH handover) Time out TN_WAIT_INTER_HO_CMP (SDCCH handover) time out TN_T8 (Outgoing BSC handover is completed) time out Internal clearance resulted from other various reasons. For BSC/BTS : ∆f/f(frequency offset)≤5E-8 . Check Tables BA1. it is necessary to check or confirm if the opposite MSC has been configured with the handover data of the local MSC.2. the channel is SDCCH. (2) When receiving ERROR_IND. Times of successful inter-cell handovers within the BSC: (1) The completion of handover in the BSC. Incoming SDCCH handover the message HO_CMP is illegal. BSC clock and MSC clock and judge if these clocks are out of frame. If not. but the successful handover is not available. For MSC: ∆f/f (frequency offset)≤ 1E-8.3 Intercell Handover Success Ratio Within the BSC The factors which affect the handover success ratio include:(1) Base station clock. (2) When receiving the message CH_ACT_ACK in the state of CS_WAIT_RR_EST. then there is handover request. the channel is of SDCCH type. Times of the inter-cell handover attempts within the BSC.

Index name 8. 005 Measurement type Formula description Outgoing BSC handover success ratio (%) General BSC performance measurement Outgoing BSC handover success ratio =Times of successful outgoing BSC handovers/ Times of outgoing BSC handover attempts Times of successful outgoing BSC handover: (1) For outgoing handover CLEAR_CMD is received because of HO_SUCC.5 Outgoing BSC Handover Success Ratio No. Times of outgoing BSC handover attempts: (1) Statistics begins when the message HO_REQ is sent to MSC (including direct operation retry) Index name Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Other 8-49 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.2.4 Incoming BSC Handover Success Ratio No 004 Measurement type Formula description Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Others Incoming BSC handover success ratio (%) General BSC performance measurement Incoming BSC handover success ratio =Incoming BSC handover success ratio/ Incoming BSC handover attempts Successful incoming BSC handover times(1) When HO_CMP is sent to MSC successfullyTimes of successful handover within the BSC:(1) When the incoming handover request message from MSC is received.2.

6 TCH Congestion Ratio TCH congestion ratio (handover excluded)=Times of TCH occupation failures (handover excluded)/Times of TCH occupation requests (handover excluded)*100% TCH congestion ratio (handover included) =Times of TCH occupation failures (handover included)/ Times of TCH Occupation requests (handover included)*100% 100 No.008 indexes Times of within the BSC incoming cell handover TCH occupation failures (due to congestion) 8-50 . Times of ultra-early assigned TCH occupation requests: (1) No resource is available and the immediate assignment is allowed when distributing SDCCH. None Index name TCH congestion ratio (handover included)(%) Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Other No. Times of ultra-early assigned TCH Occupation Failures (1) Receive CH_ACT_NACK in the process of ultra-early assignment (including receiving CH_ACT_NACK when the satellite transmission state is WAIT_RR_EST. (2) When the channel request is received.2. 008 Measurement type Index name Formula description Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Cell performance measurement TCH congestion ratio (handover included)=(Times of TCH call occupation Failures +Times of ultra-early assigned TCH occupation failures +Times of incoming cell handover within the BSC TCH Occupation Failures (due to congestion)+ Times of between BSCs incoming cell handover TCH occupation failures (due to congestion) / (Times of TCH call occupation requests +Times of ultra-early assigned TCH occupation requests + Times of within the BSC Incoming cell handover TCH occupation requests +Times of between BSCs incoming cell handover TCH occupation requests) Times of TCH call occupation failures: (1) Times of ultra-early assigned TCH occupation failures Times of TCH call occupation requests: (1) Times of Ultra-early Assigned TCH occupation requests The above indexes please refer to the analysis of No. Measurement type Formula description 007 TCH congestion ratio (handover excluded)(%) Cell performance measurement TCH congestion ratio (handover excluded)=(Times of TCH call occupation Failures + ultra-early assigned TCH occupation failures) / (Times of TCH call occupation requests + Times of ultra-early assigned TCH occupation requests Times of TCH call occupation failures (1) Send out assignment failure message. the emergency call). the channel is of TCH type (for example.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8. (2) CVI_INTERNAL_ERR (internal error) is the return cause when channels are distributed in the process of ultra-early assignment (3) CVI_NO_ACCEPT (illegal channel request) is the return cause when the channels are distributed in the process of ultra-early assignment (4) Channel has not been assigned when the channels are distributed in the process of ultra-early assignment (5) TN_WAIT_CH_ACT timed out in the process of ultra-early assignment Times of TCH call occupation requests: (1) Receiving MSC assignment request message.

(TCH handover) Times of incoming cell handover TCH occupation requests between BSCs: (1) When receiving incoming handover request message (TCH handover).Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics Others 1) TCH channel assignment fails during incoming cell handover within the BSC. None 8-51 .Times of incoming cell handover TCH occupation requests in BSC: (1) When receiving inter-cell incoming cell handover request message within the BSC. Times of between BSCs incoming cell handover TCH occupation failures (due to congestion): (1) The reason for sending handover failure message when incoming cell handover between BSCs is that the TCH channel has not been assigned.

It is suggested that the statistics circle be 60 minutes.It is suggested that the statistics circle be 60 minutes.7 SDCCH Congestion Ratio No 006 Measurement type Formula description Index name SDCCH congestion ratio %) Cell performance measurement SDCCH congestion ratio (%)=Times of All Busy SDCCH occupation / Times of SDCCH occupation requests (All) Times of all busy SDCCH occupation: (1) When SDCCH channel has not been assigned Times of SDCCH occupation requests (all) (1) Receiving the channel request message (the channel is SDCCH) (2)Once receiving the channel request message immediately assign TCH. The general BSC performance measurement task is compulsory.3.2.2. And SDCCH can be assigned when there is no TCH (3) SDCCH handover within the BSC (4) Incoming BSC handover the handover is of SDCCH type None Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Other 8.2 Performance Measurement Tasks Used for Network Optimization and Location Problems Incoming and outgoing cell handover performance measurement.7. uplink and downlink balance performance measurement.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics 8.6 and 8. and the statistics time period be 00:00~24:00 8. defined and undefined adjacent cells performance measurement. All the indexes under this statistics function type should be registered as much as possible either at the beginning of the deployment or at the stable system running stage. drop-off performance measurement. 8.3.2. uplink frequency band scanning statistics. This index is specified in the report of the mobile office. and interference band statistics after sending idle Burst.3 Description of Traffic Statistics Registration 8.2. receiving quality. power control performance measurement. Cell performance measurement task is compulsory. are all the good instruments both for checking whether the data 8-52 .8 Radio Connection Ratio No 009 Measurement type Formula description Analysis of the statistical point of the original index Others Index name Radio connection ratio Radio connection ratio (1-SDCCH congestion ratio)*(1-TCH congestion ratio)*100% The respective indexes in this formua are illustrated as follows: For calculation of SDCCH congestion ratio and TCH congestion ratio please refer to Sections 8.1 Routine Performance Measurement Tasks Necessary to Be Registered 1. and the statistics time period be 00:00~24:00 2. receiving level performance measurement.

At the beginning of deployment. this kind of tasks should be registered as many as possible. Therefore the tasks of these types should be registered with pertinence in case of the subtask numbers being inadequate for use. 8-53 . This task could be deleted in the stable system running stage. the tasks of the above types consume subtask numbers extremely.7 link and the A interface are normal.Radio Network Planning Chapter 8 Traffic Statistics configuration is reasonable and for network optimization.Except the SCCP protocol performance measurement. SCCP protocol performance measurement and MTP link performance measurement can be used to detect whether NO. LAPD protocol performance measurement is used to monitor whether LAPD link and Abis interface are normal. and in the stable system running stage they could be deleted.

1 Process of Network Optimization The mobile communication network of GSM generally falls into Mobile SwitchingTransporting Part and Radio Part. analyzing the operation status of network. a higher QoS. it also contributes to foundations and principles for future network expansion. Optimization here refers to optimization based on a sound implementation of network planning. 9. moreover signaling tracking and analyzing almost plays a crucial role in solving difficult problems. preparing for optimization test equipment and software. Meanwhile. drive test. Undoubtedly. more economic network operation. In this sense. Radio network optimization refers to reasonable modification to planning and designing of communication networks according to certain principles so that a more reliable. the Radio Part always becomes the decisive factor affecting the QoS of the GSM network. this is of great significance for network operators and subscribers. collection of 8-1 . Due to the mobility of subscribers and the complexity of radio waves in propagation. network planning report. optimization is a supplement to the aspects failing to be taken into adequate consideration or resource adjustment for burst situations as suggested in a large traffic burst. traffic statistics and subjective perception on the part of human are taken as the basis for optimization. Procedures for network optimization are as follows: Preparatory Work Obtaining Basic Information of Network on Site Drive Test and Traffic Statistics Collection Data Analysis Network Parameter Modification N Does it meet the performance indices? Y Network Optimization Report Preparatory work at early stage include obtaining knowledge of progressive status in network construction. and a higher utilization ratio for network resource can be achieved. Generally.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization Chapter 9 Network Optimization Network optimization serves for the pursuit of a maximum application of network resource and a maximum improvement of QoS.

Data collection covers subjective reflection of mobile subscribers. etc. data collection in drive test. tools for network optimization analysis. Network performance indices are in conformity with the General Indices of State Standard. communication with customers to understand specific demand of customers. confirmation of engineering parameters and network indices for practical installation. Network Optimization Report covers measures used in this optimization. 8-2 . network performance indices expected. Network Parameter modification includes network engineering parameter modification and network function parameter modification. and positive suggestions for network development. OMC traffic statistical analysis. etc. Obtaining of basic network information at site include further inspections on local radio environment. Data analysis include background analysis of optimization software. hot spots of traffic.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization engineering and designing documents. OMC data collection. etc.

It mainly covers adjustment to antenna height hanging on masts. Carrier-To-Interference Ratio. Meanwhile. the actual installation status of antenna and feeders can also be verified. etc. voice quality and other on site data can be obtained.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9. timed call-up test. IV. Modification to antenna state has an important effect on coverage improvement and interference reduction. traffic load. Supports Multimode Test ANT optimization software supports frequency scanning and call connection test in full frequency band. lonely island positioning. and engineering parameter inspection. the software supports dual network test and interference test. handover level. Real-time Graphic Description Window In idle state. Among them. According to user’s demand. etc. the ANT Optimization software can display real time BCCH field intensity and main information of the host cell and six neighboring cells. According to test result. Data Analysis and Statistical Function Background analysis of ANT optimization software cover Blind Zone of network coverage. etc) can be displayed in real time icons.2. II. In two-handset-test mode. field intensity distribution. modification to system parameters. III. modification to system parameters mainly covers modification to transmission power. continuous connection test. antenna status shall be implemented accordingly. frequency configuration. the numbers of SDCCH and TCH channels for configuration. handover failure.2 Common Tools Used in Network Optimization 9. problem positioning and geographical representation of all indices can be implemented. In background analyzing. Geological Positioning Function ANT Optimization Software applies high precision GPS in geographical positioning. data playing-back. Through simulating the actual state of subscribers in practical application. Various test measures can be applied in combination with others according to demand. ANT optimization software can also display real time handover behavior and all indices of connection quality. azimuth. co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference. frequency scanning analysis. parameters of adjacent cells. Path of drive test and all performances of a handset (as Call Drop. assignment failure. system performance evaluation. down tilt. etc. In connection mode. Functions of ANT test software are mainly as follows: I. radio indices statistics. etc. 8-3 . frequency scanning test.1 ANT Drive Test Equipment ANT software can be used in re-selection test with mobile station in idle state. ANT optimization software can automatically create radio measurement and statistical report including interference statistics.

etc. 9. and INAP. A-G interface. to assist commission and maintenance personnel and network optimization personnel in spotting network problems. A-G interface signaling information. a small omni-directional antenna can be connected to the spectrum analyzer to implement broadband omni-directional test.2. extract survey report. amplitude of each line. As HP E4402 is equipped with a built-in pre-amplifier. so that the operation state of the entire network can be obtained. SS 7 interface signaling information of ISUP. handover failure. The only difference between the two lies in that the omni-directional antenna is changed into a directional antenna. “MONITOR ABIS offline” (ABIS interface signaling analysis offline).2. a network optimization engineer can collect and analyze data of Abis interface and A interface. “GSM-BERT offline” (error code inspection and analysis offline). and error code). traffic statistical results and commissioning engineering data recorded in BSC Traffic Statistical Terminal. and reference level. spurious radiation. in a proper way to indicate statistical data of calls. Software Input includes configuration data of Data Management Terminal. 9. TUP. Respectively they are “MA-10 Control (on-line test of interface signaling for ABIS interface. In this way. Shall a signal be detected. inter-modulation attenuation. power of adjacent channels. traffic congestion and other problems in a cell can be spotted. no external amplifier is needed. At this time.4 Network Optimization Software Network Optimization Software is a kind of application software. Reference level can be set as 0dBm and amplitude of each line as 10dBm. scanning frequency of the spectrum analyzer is generally set in 880 960MHz 900MHz or 1700 1890MHz 1800MHz . Data output of the software is in diagrams and tables along with 8-4 . quick scanning of time domain. major causes and locations of Call Drop. location of the signal can be spotted.3 Spectrum Analyzer A spectrum analyzer is mainly used in test of attributes of a frequency domain including spectrum. In electromagnetic background test. and resolution bandwidth will also be properly modified to carry out a detailed analysis of the signal. scanning bandwidth will be narrowed down according to frequency band of the signal. survey the complete process of signaling connection. With Signaling Analyzer MA-10. and carry out contrastive study of these data against downlink signal collected from drive test (This ingenuous use of time points as indices and a combined application of latitude and longitude stored in equipment for downlink drive test can generate a uplink coverage graph and quality graph). “MONITOR MSC offline” (AG interface signaling analysis offline).2 Signaling Analyzer Signaling Analyzer MA-10 can be used in on-line test of the ABIS interface signaling information. There are five sub application programs in MA-10 Test Software.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9. The following example presents the HP E4402 in application. Signal positioning is similar to this operation. It can also be applied in testing of error code covering PCM BERT and GSM BERT in transmission routes and analyzing in background offline state by opening the signaling information files. A spectrum analyzer is frequently used in network optimization to carry out electromagnetic background test. “PCM-BERT offline”(error code inspection and analysis offline).2. It can. By swinging the directional angle and watching the magnitude of the signal.

creation of report across BSCs. but is not limited to co-channel searching. 8-5 . neighboring cell searching and geographical representation Function of Experience Lab Engineering Management Good optimization software can adequately act as everyday work platform for radio engineers and maintainers (supervisors and optimizers).Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization failure spotting and suggestions for solutions. lead into and out of report. and network planning data Display of digital map in geographical representation Trend representation with flexible customization View Traffic Statistical result: Multi-functions and View with selfdefining configuration Data Filter: automatic detection of unusual points and indicate in geographical representation Index analysis and failure diagnose. BSIC searching. report preview. configuration data. template management. Free report function covers self-defined report. Functions of general network optimization software shall be as follows: Introduction of Traffic Statistical data. report in any format. neighboring channel searching. HUAWEI possesses a selfdeveloped Optimization software SNA. the output also supports flexible report forms. CGI agreement inspection. In addition. Parameter Analysis includes.

1 Obtaining Basic Information The purpose of obtaining basic information of a network lies in finding out possible aspects with problems and making out a test plan and an optimization plan according to actual situations so as to avoid blind operation. The following cases of optimization all refer to optimization after a sound earlier stage planning and a good implementation of the planning. No more details will be accounted here. traffic statistical data is an important method to understand network performance. report of cell parameter design. a practical drive test in this area can be used to confirm the failure a step further so that proper solution may be adopted. Traffic Statistical Data From major indices including TCH Call Drop rate. I. there are always installation problems and hardware problems as suggested in installation of antenna in opposite directions. handover completion rate. etc. The example suggested in handover failure and interference in large areas caused by uncompleted construction of base stations or erection errors is a good case in point. etc.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9. For example. network operation status can be understood. If necessary. however. Shall failure be proved within a specific area according to traffic statistics.3. SDCCH congestion rate. especially those to engineering parameters. modifications to planning. network topology. Firstly. problems with some carriers of base station. With traffic volume on the network. progressive status of the present project is also needed.3 Radio Network Problems Positioning and Solving 9. This may offer a general idea of the network. This optimization is a continuous effort of error correction. status of base station installation completion. Distinctive problems can also be detected from it. document for earlier stage network planning is needed. a familiarity with planning state of earlier stages is prerequisite. an extensive drive test shall be carried out to understand the network status when traffic volume becomes very low or nil. SDCCH Call Drop rate. 8-6 . The documents may include planning report. To this end. II. TCH congestion rate. state of commissioning and simple drive test. table of engineering parameters. Special attention shall be paid to network loophole caused by engineering erection quality or progressive status. Drive Test Data For a network in commissioning. transmission function of idle BURST in the base station can be started to study the downlink interference status under high traffic simulation. Secondly. report for frequency planning. In optimization practice. Necessary adjustment shall be furnished for practical problems.

Blind Zone for Signals A Blind Zone results from no overlapping between coverage areas of two base stations or no overlapping caused by obstructions. Cross Cell Coverage In actual networks. When a call is connected into the “island” of a base station. On the other hand. In coverage optimization. Therefore. Subjective Sense Possible problems of the network can be judged from complaints of customers. etc. Transmission directly along road should be largely avoided so as to eliminate island effect by reducing the coverage of base stations. co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference to other cells. Meanwhile. down tilt or gain of the antenna should be modified. interference should be taken into consideration in introduction of repeaters in application. II. and tall buildings can be recovered by introduction of repeaters.2 Coverage Range of cell coverage is one of the important indices in QoS evaluation for GSM networks.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization III. care should be taken to possible co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference caused by coverage expansion. Major factors affecting coverage are as follows: I. which is far from the base station. suggestions of telecom companies. Should there are more subscribers in the non-overlapping area of two base stations. subjective senses of engineers on site. leak cables. adjacent channel interference and inter-modulation interference between TACS and GSM can be solved by eliminating interference. An Overall Knowledge of Network Coverage. height of antenna) so that the overlapping depth of coverage may reach a level of 0. (3) Blind Zones within tunnels. construction of a new base station is expected. Traffic Distribution IV. repeaters can also bring about inter-modulation interference. Repeaters can effectively recover Blind Zones in coverage area and expand the scope of coverage. 9. Interference State. 8-7 . Increasing the coverage range of these two base stations (as the case suggested by increasing transmission power. Hence the “island” problem was created. configuration handover in this cell may immediately result in Call Drop once the mobile station leaves this “island” area. or dimension of the area is relatively bigger. To solve this problem. or micro station technologies. signals emitted from high base stations can be transmitted on hilly landforms or along roads to places far way. Problem of Blind Zone caused by co-channel inference.27R (R here refers to radius of the cell). (2) A Blind Zone caused by valley and back hillside can be recovered by constructing new base stations and repeaters in those areas. modification to azimuth and down tilt is often used to change service range of the cell. underground garages.3.

the minimum access level may be suitably increased and handover threshold may be appropriately decreased to reduce traffic. (3) Start-up Load Handover and Directional Retry 8-8 . by setting CBQ and CBA of low traffic cells. down-tilt. It is also advisable to adopt new dual frequency networks. II. Accordingly.3. micro cells. Traffic Congestion With OMC traffic statistics data. or cell split. transmission power of base stations and handset. measures to ease the congestion are as follows: (1) Modify the antenna height. it is recommended that more carriers be added. Traffic Balance For some base stations with congestions. For congestion cells. Moreover. It is also possible to judge the traffic congestion status by comparing the busy hour traffic volume against calculation capacity of each base station cell. TCH congestion rate can be obtained (with occupation at all busy).3 Capacity I. etc. or construction of new base stations in common sites be adopted. (2) Modify the configuration for part of parameters In overloaded areas. the minimum access level may be properly reduced and handover threshold may be appropriately increased to increase traffic. these cells may be assigned with higher selection PRI. A suitable increase in CRO can make it more easily for the cell to be re-selected.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9.

. 0.6 .8% 0.28 0. Beside..2 . Table 3-1 Relational Correspondence between Signal Quality Level and Error Rate RxQual class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean Ber (%) 0.e.05 18.6%.. Level of voice quality can be used in positioning. shall idle channel fall into Interference Band 4 and Interference Band 5 continuously.8% >12.4% 6. Level ranges can be set through Data ConfigurationTerminal. There might be interferences in both uplinks and downlinks. Downlink interference can be measured with instrument for drive test by maintaining the conversation status. In this way.. 0. 8-9 .8 . 1.6% 1..) In addition. i.14 0.4 . 12..57 1.4% 0. Corresponding bit error rates are listed in Table 3-1. Interference band is an indication of idle TCH levels of 5 grades in all.. General requirement of voice quality shall not be lower than 3. the code error rate shall be less than 1. there are also interferences caused by Multi-path Effect and external factors of the network as the interferences of TACS and repeaters.8% Uplink interference can be positioned with the numbers of interference bands and Call Drop rates in HUAWEI OMC traffic statistics terminal.1 Ber range <0. 3. it also brings forth co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference (This is called internal interference of the system. Interference Positioning GSM is a dual system with a difference of 45MHz between uplink frequency and downlink frequency.. 6. it can be determined that there exists interference..53 9.4 Interference PLMN cellular system makes use of frequency multiplexing to improve application efficiency of spectrum and to increase system capacity.2 . Meanwhile. I.2% 0. measurement report for uplink and downlink can be viewed from Signaling Analyzer MA-10 connected to ABIS interface..4 .26 4.2% 3..Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9.13 2.. uplink interference and downlink interference can also be positioned.3. Look at the following example: Table 3-2 Level Range of Interference Band Interference Band 1 Interference Band 2 Interference Band 3 Interference Band 4 Interference Band 5 -110 -105 -98 -90 -87 -105dBm -98dBm -90dBm -87dBm -47dBm Generally. Voice quality are of 7 levels.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization II. (2) Decrease transmission power of base stations. (7) Start-up of anti-interference techniques used in GSM as Power Control. even Call Drop may occur. inter-modulation interference may be generated (as tertiary interference). handover must beimplemented. inter-modulation interference may also be created. it may have interference on the GSM receiver. etc. handover delays or frequent handovers. With OMC traffic statistical data.3. 9. (5) Modify down tilt of the antenna. (8) Due to non-linearity feature of TACS-TX amplifier. etc. Shall the signal be in the bandwidth of GSM receiver. (6) Optimization of frequency configuration. Causes and resolvent of abnormal handover are as follows: (1) Handover threshold configrated too low (2) Congestion in adjacent cells. tracking of handover failures. Shall the TACS and GSM share a common site. BCCH. These parameters cover LAC. P inappropriate (6) Networking in combination with other cells consisting of products by other manufactures. voice quality may be greatly reduced. Frequent handover problems include voice quality declination or Call Drop caused by handover failure and handover delay. Otherwise. no idle channel available (3) Configuration of relation with neighboring cells missing (4) Handover hysteresis and handover priority configuration inappropriate (5) Configuration for the best statistical time N. (3) Modify antenna height. Ways to reduce interference (1) Increase the distance between two adjacent cells of the same or neighboring frequencies. CI. Intermodulation reduction may be accomplished by increasing the transmission power of GSM downlink and optimizing the frequency configuration. 8-10 . voice quality declination and system load increase caused by frequent handovers. unbalance traffic caused by unreasonable ratios of outgoing and incoming handovers. parameters of these external cells must be secured correct. In some cases. Drive test equipment can be used in testing of continuousconnection. Frequency Hopping. handover completion ratio. etc.5 Handover When a mobile subscriber moves from one cell into another. Discontinuous Transmission. incoming and outgoing handover ratio of the cell can be analyzed. (4) Modify azimuth of the antenna.

8-11 . Causes of Radio Link Failure are as follows: (1) When the mobile station enters into a Blind Zone for field intensity coverage. there are two critical parameters affecting Call Drop.3. This finally leads to a CallDrop. the mobile station requests for handover. etc.). take the mobile station is in CELL 1. There are also Call Drops caused by non-radio link reasons as Abis interface failure. After the handset is directed into CELL 2. As the definition for neighboring cells was lost. the mobile station then makes out the sequence of cells to for incoming handover. a handover may result in CallDrop. These two parameters shall be suitably configured according to traffic volume and coverage. Call Drop may result from RF factors. Call Drop here refers to Call Drop after distribution of traffic channels. and inappropriate configuration for parameters. The mobile station may be directed into CELL 2. (4) With imbalance between uplinks and downlinks. For our products. One is radio link timer failure for downlinks. According to downlink level.6 Call Drop In GSM network operation. there would be no cells available for handover. This further leads to CallDrop. the other is the number of SACCH multi-frames for uplinks. (3) When a mobile station approaches cell boundary in driving. There exists imbalance between uplink and downlink in the neighboring cells. or there are congestions in neighboring cells. Call Drop may occur due to bad uplink.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9. interference. There are various causes of Call Drop with the direct ones as field intensity. For example. A interface failure. Call Drop has been the hot spot of complaint from customers. (2) Internal or external interference of the network may result in SACCH frame decoding failure. CELL 2 (suppose that there are good downlinks but very weak uplinks.

In analyzing traffic statistical indices. handover parameters. 9. Lonely Islands) (3) Inappropriate handover (planning of adjacent cells. major indices can be basically arranged in the order importance as follows: TCH Call Drop rate. the abnormal cells must be analyzed one by one. With busy channels at present. Should there be. Call Drop may be improved to a certain extent. etc. a judgment can be passed that there is interference in a general sense.4. TCH congestion rate. Usually. Antenna Direction) (5) Inappropriate Parameter configuration (Counter for radio link failure. in practical analysis and solution of a certain problem. The interference band statistics shall be considered in a comprehensive approach. it generally increases with the increase of traffic. TCH Congestion rate. Shall the problem of low handover completion rate be properly solved. SDCCH Call Drop rate. external interference.) (2) Bad coverage (Blind Zones. interference from the equipment itself. handover completion rate. Interference (network internal interference. resource indication message becomes difficult to be reported uplink. Shall the interference be an internal one. SDCCH congestion rate. It shall also be noted here that interference band is reported uplink to BSC via RF resource indication message by carrier channels of base stations in idle state. These indices can be expertly used in the analysis of network operation status. Power Amplifier. as many indices are inter. and five. traffic volume. however can affect many other indices at the same time. Interference and coverage. etc.related.4 Problem Positioning according to Network Indices An important method to testify the effectiveness of optimization effort is to inspect major network indices covering TCH Call Drop rate. the first thing to be made clear is whether there are cells with abnormal indices. handover completion rate. an external interference bears no relations with traffic volume. four.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization 9. SDCCH Call Drop rate. 8-12 . Therefore.) (4) Imbalance between uplinks and downlinks (Tower Amplifier. effort may be focused on a certain index with combination of others. Power Amplifier. external interference) Judgment : (1) Analyze the regular patterns of interference band in traffic statistics With more than one idle channel presented in interference band three. number of SACCH multi-frames (6) Equipment problem (Carrier board. In view of the seriousness caused by abnormal indices. Tower Amplifier) Each factor will be analyzed as a subject as follows I.1 TCH Call Drop Rate Causes of high rate of call drop are as follows: (1) Interference (network internal interference.

relations between adjacent cells. More handovers caused by bad downlink quality suggests downlink interference. the average uplink signal intensity and down link signal intensity are too low. or external interference for the frequency band of this carrier board. or in the measurement of outgoing cell handover performance. (2) Measurement of receiving level performance. (5) Measurement of Call Drop performance The average level and quality of Call Drop is recorded for reference. handover parameters. level at Call Drop too low and TA abnormal before Call Drop are detected. interference can be avoided by modifying the transmission power. (3) Proportion of bad Quality Handovers In the measurement of cell performance / the measurement of inter-cell handover performance . number of attempts for outgoing cell handover caused by all sorts of reasons was recorded in traffic statistics. According to actual status. More handovers caused by bad uplink quality suggests uplink interference. (3) Adopt frequency hopping. check the road section with interference and inspection distribution of signal quality. it suggests that there is interference. (3) In measurement of cell performance and performance of handover between cells. the ratio of low receiving level is detected too high. and lonely islands) Judgment: (1) Measurement of power control performance. adjacent channel interference.) This is a statistical task specifically for carriers. Coverage (Blind Zones. Solution: (1) In actual drive test. interference frequency band can be detected. (4) Measurement of receiving quality performance Specifically for carriers. Shall there be too many handovers caused by bad quality. Source of interference can be spotted. This is for reference. (4) Solve the equipment problems (as TRX self-excitation). (2) With a spectrum analyzer. (6) Too many handover failures together with too many recovery failures.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (2) Measurement of receiving level performance (A matrix indicating relationship between level and quality is expected. threshold level for handover prompt and average receiving level are detected too low. (4) In Call Drop Performance measurement. II. or frequency band planning of a cell concerned. it suggests that there are co-channel interference. If there are too many high levels of low quality. It is very possible that there is interference within the cell. 8-13 . DTX and power control. Origins of overlapping signals causing interference should be made clear in cells. the statistical data of average receiving quality will be made for reference. down tilt of antenna.

(6) Low rate of incoming handover completion. the minimum access threshold of handover candidate cells. Too many handovers together with too many recovery completions are detected. (10) Performance test of outgoing handover from a cell. (6) The average level of a undefined adjacent cells is too high. Average receiving level of defined adjacent cells is detected too high (excessive coverage). Solution: (1) A drive test is recommended to be carried out in areas with estimated bad coverage. There are too many such cells(lonely islands). (7) TCH Performance measurement: Times of handover is not in proportion to times of TCH call occupation completion. 8-14 . (transmission power of a base station. (4) Performance measurement of undefined adjacent cells. (9) Measurement of power control performance. Find out an adjacent cell with low incoming handover completion rate so that causes can be further detected from target cells.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (5) Performance measurement of defined adjacent cells. down tilt and height of the antenna. Levels of undefined adjacent cells are too high and the number of report for undefined cells goes beyond standard. see if the average distance between MS and BTS is in conformity with design ideology. (2) Performance measurement of handovers between cells. Adjacent cell with too low an average level can be spotted. Inappropriate handover (planning for adjacent cells and parameters for handover) Judgment: (1) Check the handover parameter. Inappropriate parameter configuration for counterpart cells is detected. (8) Measurement of power control performance. (5) Performance measurement for outgoing handovers: low rate of outgoing handover completion out of a cell (for a specific cell). relations of adjacent cells. See if there is inappropriate parameter configuration. minimum access level of handset. More handover failures together with more recovery failures are detected. (3) Increase base stations. (7) Performance measurement of defined adjacent cells. see if the maximum distance between MS and BTS are overdue in several consecutive periods. (3) Performance measurement of handover between cells. low handover completion rate into a certain adjacent cell. (2) Modify network parameter according to drive test. (handover/call>3) Solution: (1) Add appropriately adjacent cells. III.

Specifically for Tower Amplifiers with alarm. (2) Register “Call Drop Performance Measurement” in traffic statistics. minimum access level of the handset. Analyze the average receiving level of uplinks and downlinks. Equipment problems (carrier board. Power Amplifier. (3) Register “Power Control Performance Measurement” in traffic statistics. IV. Solution: (1) Check Tower Amplifiers and Power Amplifiers. Power Amplifier.) Judgment (1) Register “measurement for balance performance between uplinks and downlinks” in traffic statistics. (2) Check to see if the antenna direction is in accordance with design direction. number of SACCH multi-frames. Analyze if there really exists imbalance between uplinks and downlinks. (2) TCH Performance measurement: TCH application ratio abnormal. Imbalance between uplinks and downlinks (Tower Amplifier. VI.) Positioning of Problems: Check configuration for parameters concerned: System information data sheet: counter for radio link failure. the test may be focused on the Tower Amplifiers with alarm.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (2) Modify handover parameters. (5) Check the BSC data configuration (Handset. (3) TCH Performance measurement: too many times of Call Drop and interruption on ground link failure. (3) Check to see if it was caused by combiner alarm. Sheet of cell attributes: number of SACCH multi-frames. Solution: Modify inappropriate configuration for parameters mentioned above. transmission power of base stations.) V. antenna direction. Analyze the level and quality of uplinks and downlinks at Call Loss. Tower Amplifier) Judgment: (1) TCH Performance measurement: times of A interface failure abnormal with TCH occupation. 8-15 . (4) Check the MA-10 measurement report. timer for radio link connection. Current values should be the main concern. Inappropriate configuration of radio parameters (counter for radio link failure.

A cell with traffic load smaller than 0. modify azimuth. TRX board alarm. analyze to see if there is transmission break or board failure (as suggested by carrier board failure or poor contact. Inadequate System Capacity or Traffic Imbalance Judgment: (1) Too high a traffic for each line (DGT specifies that a cell with a traffic load greater than 0. when there are too many times of occupation at all busy. start-up load handover.8 per line is taken as a super busy cell. there might be problems with part of the equipment. modify the minimum access level for handsets. Power Amplifier board. One is TCH occupation at all busy. Interference (network internal interference and external interference) TCH congestion rate falls into two parts. According to alarm data.2 TCH Congestion Rate Main reasons of high TCH congestion rate are as follows: (1) Inadequate system capacity (2) Too much interference (3) Coverage (4) Handover reason (5) Inappropriate parameter configuration (system information) Every factor will be analyzed as a topic: I. LAPD broken link.4.) (3) Modify major indices of cell (modify CRO.1 is taken as a super idle cell. Alarm for PCM synchronization loss at A interface.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (4) Shall Call Drop rate and congestion rate of this cell remain high. (3) Traffic imbalance (inspect traffic imbalance between three sectors of a base station or between several stations) (4) In performance statistics of incoming handover into a cell. 8-16 . II. This results in real channel allocation failure and further leads to channel request failure. (2) Modify the cell coverage (modify transmission power of base stations. and height of antenna. there are too many handover failures because of congestion. Solution: (1) Capacity expansion or modification to carrier configuration between busy cells and idle cells. CUI/FPU alarm).) 9. modify cell handover parameters). Solution: (1) Watch over transmission and board alarm (TC board failure. there will be a long term all busy. down tilt. modify cell priority.) (2) With an applicable rate of 100% for channels. HPA.

4. 9. III.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization The other one is channel assignment failure caused by various reasons after the assignment command being sent out. refer to analysis for TCH Call Drop Rate.4 SDCCH Congestion Rate Main factors causing high SDCCH congestion rate are as follows: (1) Inappropriate parameter configuration (system information) (2) Inadequate system capacity Each factor will be analyzed as a special topic as follows: 8-17 . Judgment and solutions: Refer to judgment and solution to interference in TCH Call Drop. Causes of Handover (imbalance between incoming handovers and outgoing handovers) Judgment: (1) Times of handover is not in proportion to that of TCH call occupation completion (3 handover/call specifically for the cell) (2) Times of incoming handover is far greater than that of outgoing handover (this results in traffic imbalance). Times of TCH occupation failure (including handover)--times of TCH occupation at all busy. Solution Modify handover parameters.3 SDCCH Call Drop Rate For SDCCH Call Drop Rate. channel assignment failure caused by non-assignment availability factors. With too many occupation failures.4. 9. IV. Parameter Configuration Inappropriate Judgment: Check the handset configuration for the minimum access level. Solution: Modify the inappropriate parameter configuration V.e. Coverage (Blind Zones. there is possible interference within the network. i. lonely island) Judgment and solution: Refer to judgment and solution to coverage in TCH Call Drop rate.

4. Main reasons of low handover completion rate: (1) Inappropriate handover (2) Equipment failure (damage in certain carrier boards. SDCCH configuration number shall be increased or dynamic SDCCH assignment function and TCH carrier shall be engaged. With this ratio in abnormal. First. (2) Ratio of location update times against times of all assignment instructions (too many location update). II. Solutions: (1) Parameter modification (threshold of random access error. RACH access threshold). CRO.) (3) Congestion (4) Interference (5) Coverage 8-18 .) (3) In dual band networks. Inadequate system capacity Apart from factors mentioned above.5 Rate of Handover Completion Subject for analysis: Adjacent cells with low rates for outgoing handover completion and service cell with low rates for incoming handover completion. cell reselection hysteresis parameters. (2) Pay attention to parameter configuration for partition of location area and location update (configuration for 1800MHz dual band network. 9. (1) The ratio of immidiate assignment success is too low. etc. Inappropriate parameter configuration Judgment: Measurement of random access performance: Times of immidiate assignment completion (the sum of location update + the sum of calls and other reasons)/Times of immidiate assignment< 85% The above formula presents the ratio of handset report uplink est_ind against immidiate assignment command downlink. it suggests that there might be inappropriate configuration for relevant parameters. excessive location update may be caused by excessive handover between mobile switch centers.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization I. The ratio generally should be in the range of 80 90%. CRO. etc. Modification shall be made to handover parameters of the 1800MHz dual network. etc. judgment shall be passed onto the following issues according to inter cell Performance measurement: Is the rate for incoming handover completion low? Is the rate for outgoing handover completion low? Low rate of outgoing handover completion shall be further studied via cell Performance measurement to detect which is the adjacent cell with the lowest outgoing handover completion rate.maximum times for retransmission. time for periodic location update. the number of TS in transmission expansion. there might be capacity problems.

(2) TCH availability abnormal. TRX alarm. With handover/call>3. the upper clock becomes unstable or the upper clock is overly floating.) Position and Solution: (1) Check to see if the configuration for handover thresholds of TA and BQ and handover switch is appropriate. 8-19 . handover parameters shall be inspected and modified. PBGT threshold. LAPD broken link. (5)Inter cell handover Performance measurement: the average level for handover prompt is detected too low. TIMEOUT. there might be ping-pong handovers. (5) Survey the transmission and board alarm (TC failure. defined adjacent cells with few handovers can be spotted. I. configuration of handover parameters. A interface PCM synchronization loss alarm. Further analysis may be carried out over other factors affecting low rate of handover completion. inter layer handover hysteresis. Equipment problem Subject for Analysis: A service cell with low rate of incoming handover completion and adjacent cells with low rate of outgoing handover completion.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (6) Imbalance between uplinks and downlinks (7) Clock problem (The base station changes into an internal clock. (6) Check the provision of clock alarm. (4) Times of handover is not in proportion to that of TCH call occupation completion. Power Amplification board. (Handover parameters include configuration of layers. (3) Too many times of Call Drop and call interruption resulted from terrestrial link problem. there might be problems with part of the equipment. HPA. II. These cells can be recommended to be deleted. (4) Shall Call Drop rate and congestion rate remain high in a cell.) In analysis. CUI/FPU alarm) According to alarm data. Adjacent cells shall be suitably added. Inappropriate handover (planning for adjacent cells. This may result from too low a handover threshold including edge threshold in configuration. etc). inter cell handover hysteresis. (3) In defining the Performance measurement of adjacent cells. (2) Performance measurement of undefined adjacent cells: level and the number of measurement reports of undefined adjacent cells exceed standard. handover arameters. see if there is a transmission failure or a malfunctioning board (as a carrier board failure or bad contact). In this case. Positioning of Problems: (1) There are channels being activated in target cells but NACK. BTS synchronization loss with BSC. and other problems can be eliminated in the first place. relations of adjacent cells.

With phenomenon mentioned above. Congestion Subject for Analysis: A service cell with low rate of incoming handover completion and adjacent cells with low rate of outgoing handover completion. modify down tilt of antenna.4. 8-20 . care shall be taken to configuration for relevant parameters (RACH access threshold. if there are (1) Too many incoming handover failures (caused by congestion) in measurement of incoming handover performance. Make out a list of super busy cells and super idle cells. equipment failure. start-up load handover. with reference to TCH Call Drop analysis.) III. It suggests that there is no channel available to be applied. Congestion shall be solved as follows. (2) Times of outgoing handover attempts . estimate the future trend of traffic.) (2) Modify major parameters of the cell (modify CRO.times of outgoing handover is too great in measurement of handover performance between cells. IV.6 Traffic Analysis Calculate traffic volume of the specific area (mean traffic per line) to see if it is necessary to implement capacity expansion. Based on historic traffic data. There might be congestion in the target cell. Others After the problems of parameter configuration.Radio Network Planning Chapter 9 Network Optimization (7) Due to the fact that handover between base stations is limited by access level and quality. 9. modify RACH access threshold. modify the minimum access level. and congestion being solved. balance for uplink and downlink analysis and solution. Random Access Error Threshold. Traffic trend. Analyze if there are cells with abnormal traffic volume. the time of all busy shall be studied to confirm the existence of congestion. Positioning of Problems: After the problem of inappropriate parameter configuration and equipment failure being solved. the problem of cells with low rate for incoming handover completion and adjacent cells with low rate incoming handover completion can be solved by interference. modify random access error threshold.) (3) Capacity expansion or modification to configuration of carriers of the cell. Solution: (1) Modify cell coverage (modify transmission power of base stations. modify cell priority and handover parameter of the cell. coverage. the maximum number of TCH in all busy.

Radio Network Planning Table of contents i .

1 Equipment Configuration I. Under normal circumstances the 900M directional antenna gain shall be in the range of 15-17dBi. use EDU. first consider the network quality from the perspective of network coverage and select appropriate antenna. antenna feeder organization. etc. Preferably omni-antenna with built-in low incidence should be used. Tower Amplification For some areas or bands whose uplink signal quality needs to be strengthened. For cells with less than. For city areas the directional antenna with horizontal half power angle of 65 degrees is preferable. The problem of coverage concerns a large number of aspects. the 1800M directional antenna gain shall be in the range of 15-18dBi. or equal to 5 TRXs. 8-1 . 10. installation quality and parameter setting.1 The Problem of Coverage At present there are more or less problem of coverage in the network. III. use CDU combiner. or equal to 4 TRXs. consider designing tower amplification. If the omni-antenna is built over high mountains. the problem of “Shadow right under the tower” should be taken into account too.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. When high gain antenna is used. the problem of “Shadow right under the tower” should be taken into account. or equal to 2 TRXs. Antenna Using high gain antenna can improve the base station’s coverage capacity to a certain extent. Combiner Configuration Solution recommendations under normal circumstances: For cells with less than. This section analyses the problem of coverage that is available on-line from the perspective of base station selection. antenna installation. carrier configuration. Preferably zero-point filling antenna should be used. When doing network planning. consider using cavity combiner or fourin-one (SCU) combiner. For cells with more than. II.1.

The antenna direction difference between the old and newly built network For directional cells. while the newly built antenna’s direction is 90/270. Due explanations are also desirable. it will have bad coverage on the nearby area and good coverage on the faraway area where there aren’t many subscribers. If the base station is too high. This is because the omni antenna’s vertical beamwidth is narrow. If the tower platform has not enough space to install the antenna. and multipath effect to ensure that the base station will be constructed as expected. Solution recommendations: During the engineering design. This may make the previous good coverage a bad one. such change shall be duly recorded. But the mobile phone subscribers are only concerned with the change from good to bad. the main beam of the directional antenna or the direction of the omni antenna shall point to the places where heavy coverage is emphasized. such as: the old antenna’s direction (transmit and diversity antenna) is 0/180. main roads.2 Base Station Site Selection I. In cases where such change is desired due to the increase of the base station in the urban area for purpose of controlling the coverage area. The issue shall be explained thoroughly if it cannot be solved ultimately. When there is a possibility that bad station location and antenna installation may lead to the problem of coverage. the on-site surveying personnel shall insist their viewpoints from the perspective of network coverage. The planning personnel shall assist the network carriers to decide the coverage areas and objectives after a thorough study of the geographical features. the explanations shall be given for decreasing the antenna height. in particular the omni antenna base station shall not be too high. which will give rise to complaints. the buildings’ absorption and loss features. 8-2 . Usually for intensively populated urban areas the height of the base station’s antenna is 25-30 meters. II. In cases where the direction change is desired. the height of the base station’s antenna in the suburbs (or the ones that point to the suburbs) is 40-50 meters. Usually the height of the omni antenna base station shall not be 50-60 meters more than the covered area. and previous bad coverage a good one. such as: the old antenna’s direction was 0/120/240. The difference of the antenna height between the old and newly built network The engineering design shall be so made as to ensure that the height of the new antenna is not lower than that of the old antenna. Bad base station location and antenna installation will lead to the problem of coverage. This will cause the change of the diversity surface and transmit antenna position. if the antenna direction of the newly built network is different from that of the old network. For base stations that are too high. the base station.1.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. residential areas. What shall be explained is also the base station’s coverage areas and objectives (in particular government offices. III. shopping centers and former cell’s coverage margins). the antenna shall be so designed as to make the direction of it as identical as that of the old one. the built-in down-tilt omni antennas or antennas with broad vertical beam are desirable. airports. For omni cells. if the antenna direction of the newly built network is different from that of the old network. Concerning the directional antenna’s down-tilt of the newly built network Preferably the down-tilt shall not change. hotels. as well as the cell’s carrier frequency configurations. while the newly built antenna’s direction is 60/180/300. Furthermore. IV.

which cannot be found by analyzing the field intensity distribution of the main BCCH frequency band in the downlink. or mountains. Possible phenomenon clue for fault discovery: The mobile phone is somewhere in the cell but cannot call out (the receiving antenna is in the other direction. the base station’s uplink and downlink signals are balanced. After excluding the possibility that it is caused by transmitting antenna. Shadow usually comes into being as a result of huge hindrance near the base station. The problem of shadow adjacent to the coverage area in the directional cell During the installation of the directional antenna. check if the jumper or feeder of the receiving antenna are wrongly installed. (2) Wrong receiving antenna installation: This problem. 10. can cause bad uplink in the current cell.1. Caution must be taken to circumvent such hindrance during the installation. Bad antenna installation may leave the mobile phone subscribers such impression that the base station’s uplink coverage capacity is weak. caution must be taken to avoid the creation of large area of shadow in its coverage area. after the change. such as skyscrapers. the marginal coverage of the cell within the directional base station can be worse than that of the previous omni station. Unilateral call connection.3 Antenna Engineering Design and Installation I. (1) The transmitting antenna is installed inverse. II. Change omni cell to directional cell As the half power angle of the directional antenna’s beamwidth is 65 or 90 degrees. From a distance of the cell. 8-3 . Unexpected severe interferences with the adjacent frequencies. or irrational handover ratio. drop-off happens frequently (infrequent near the base station). and the beamwidth of the omni antenna is 360 degrees. or if there are any call-out or handover problems. power control triggered by the uplink signal. etc. This type of error is easy to discover in the network. also review the measurement report to see if the uplink level is too low. make sure that the main beam of the directional antenna points to the area where emphatic coverage is desired and describe the coverage differences between the omni-antenna and directional antenna.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic V. The field intensity distribution of the BCCH frequency band between the adjacent sectors were found to be displaced during the drive test. Transmitting feeder and the cell’s antenna were mistakenly connected or BTS set top jumper was mistakenly connected. The problem of the directional antenna installation Generally. During the planning. It can be found by checking installation or by analyzing the field intensity distribution of the BCCH frequency band during the drive test. the uplink is bad). Drop-off after frequent handovers (the handovers are found to be mostly caused by weak uplink signal strength or bad uplink quality).

For this reason. The main transmitting antenna should be directed to the area where the subscribers are heavily populated. it must be installed high above the antenna surface. There are mainly 3 points concerning the design and installation of the omni antenna: (1) The interval between the omni antennas and the interval between the antenna and the tower (2) Diversity direction: the diversity surface should be directed to the area where subscribers are heavily populated (3) The position of the host transmitting antenna (TX) (the host transmitting antenna refers to that of the BCCH transmitting channel). These base stations are mainly to serve the mobile subscribers along the road or subscribers in the villages. caution must be taken so that the wave beam is not hindered by the edge of the building. The common mistake that is made during the installation of the antenna feeder is that the distribution of the above subscribers are not fully taken into account.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic When the directional antenna is installed at the surface of the top of the building. leaving the subscribers such impression that the coverage is bad. IV. leading to the incomplete utilization of the performance of the base station. and that the antenna is not installed near the edge. The following figure is on the direction of the base station omni antenna that covers the roads: 8-4 . when the antenna must be installed away from the edge of the building. thus reducing or extirpating the shadow. III. or from counties to other cities. the bearing capacity of the building surface and the antenna’s against-wind force must be taken into account during the engineering. The effective horizontal interval of the 1800M directional antenna space diversity should be more than 2m. Due to the complexity of the antenna surface. The problems during the omni-antenna installation Omni base stations are mostly located along the roads from villages to counties. The problem of the directional antenna diversity interval The effective horizontal interval of the 900M directional antenna space diversity should be more than 4m (at least greater than 3m).

Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) RXLEV_NCELL(n) MS_TXPWR(n) MsOptLevel(n) BTS1 HO BTS2 8-5 .

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is commonly set between -100dBm to –105dBm.1. Usually. and to balance between the coverage and call drop ratio. Setting the parameter too small will lead to the situation that the mobile phone can receive the signal but cannot call out. II. ignoring which may cause the unbalance between the uplink and downlink. decreasing the transmitting power can also worsen the indoor coverage. the antenna and feeder’s VSWR is normal but downlink signal is weak. increase the down-tilt.5 Parameters settings and others The parameters that affect the coverage include base station static transmitting power level. or decreasing the base station’s transmitting power. RACH Parameters Setting To control the uplink access (call. III. Cell Selection and Reselection Parameters C1 and C2 decide the cell selection and reselection. radio link failure timer. Setting the parameter too great will make it difficult for the mobile phone to select the cell. NCC_PERMITTED. Huawei adds the parameter “RACH access threshold” in the BTS3. CELL_BAR_QUALIFY. and connection are: BSIC. when viewed from the subscriber’s perspective. which. The horizontal interval for 1800M omni antenna is more than 2m. During the parameter setting. The other parameters settings that have effect on the mobile phone attached. So what are commonly adopted arefalling down the height of the antenna and increasing the down-tilt. I. the number of mobile phone’s maximum retransfer. and the mobile phone’s minimum access threshold. 10. check if the divider connection is correct and the divider is open. IV. is set subject to the radio environment’s bottom noise and statistical result. handover. access. lower the height of the antenna. CELL_BAR_ACCESS. is the mobile phone’s call drop and no coverage. also note the differences of sensitivity and maximum transmitting power between the 900M and 1800M networks.X base station. CDU connections When the amplifier work normally. Static Power Setting To reduce the interference with the adjacent frequencies. RACH access threshold. the number of send 8-6 . check if the connector between the amplifier and CDU (combiner) and the connector between CDU and set top are correct.1. which is usually greater than 180. Other Parameters and Phenomena The setting of the random access error threshold can also restrict the mobile phone’s access. Its value. a distance of more than 2m is required between the omni antenna and the tower. Also note if the fan works normally. The horizontal effective interval for 900M omni antenna is more than 4m.4 Antenna feeder. and effectively controls the mobile phone’s uplink access. paging response). 10. The parameter can go upward from –110dBm. When the antenna-feeder connection is correct but the uplink is weak.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic Figure 10-1 Installation of the base station omni antenna that covers the roads In addition. combiner (divider).

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

distribution time slots (the number of extended distribution time slots), the number of SACCH multi-frames, the number of maximum physical retransfer, radio link connection timer, location update and paging-related parameters (including LAC distribution), handover-related parameters, power control-related parameters, flow control-related parameters, roaming permit-related parameters, TRX power settings of different CDU channels, etc. When the base station’s upper clock is bad, MCK (TMU) is failure, propagation is unstable, or the carrier frequency board is failure (no warning, sometimes stable interferences), the mobile phone’s accessing, call and handover (usually asynchronous handover) will be affected. When the system information is wrong or is not delivered correctly, the mobile phone’s accessing, call or handover will be affected. When the frequency interference is severe, the mobile phone’s accessing, call and handover will be affected. When the channel is congested the mobile phone’s handover and call access will be affected. Multipath effect can lead to signal fluctuation During the cell reselection and frequent location border update, the signal of the mobile phone will fluctuate. During the connection, direct re-try and load handover caused by congestion can lead to strong fluctuation of the signal; Priority handover (for layered network) and edge handover (the edge handover threshold is set too low and there is no PBGT handover) can also lead to strong fluctuation of the signal. If the power control and handover parameters are not set properly during the signal fluctuation, the fluctuation will be strengthened until call drop happens. The cross-area coverage or coverage in the border areas for different services can all cause problems, leading to the subscriber’s huge increase of roaming bill. To solve the problem, the coverage area should be controlled or enlarged during the planning and optimization phase to avoid mutual cell reselection or only single-direction cell reselection. Solve the problem by adjusting the height, down-tilt, and direction of the antenna, CRH and MS minimum access threshold, and BAI table. The mobile phone subscriber having not sufficient understanding on the terrain, construction material’s absorption loss, or multipath effect will tend to rise questions on coverage.

8-7

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

10.2 TCH Congestion
In 2001, the mobile phone companies in all the provinces presented five indexes as network quality criteria. They are: long distance call success ratio, traffic call drop ratio, traffic channel availability ratio, radio successful connection ratio, and worst cells ratio, the last two of which are directly influenced by TCH congestion ratio.

10.2.1 The Causes of High TCH Congestion Ratio
The causes for high TCH congestion ratio are many, among others, data configuration problems, hardware problems and external interference. But in light of solution steps and sequence, it is desirable to first check the software and hardware problems of the equipment per se, and then check other equipment-unrelated factors such as external interference and constraints due to complex terrain (1) Interface A trunk circuit data configuration errors. (2) Carrier frequency board faults or unstable performance, leading to high congestion ratio. (3) Bad base station hardware installation causes unbalanced uplink and downlink level, leading to TCH congestion. (a) Uplink branch: antenna tower amplifier feeder line discharge arrester set top connector divider or CDU TRX board Divider cascaded half-rigid cable connection error, leading to uplink level discrepancy; Half-rigid cable distortion or loose connector, leading to the problem; Data bus problem. (b) Downlink branch: TRX HPA combiner or CDU set top connector discharge arrester feeder line tower amplifier antenna The transmit branch has antenna feeder – standing wave ratio warning; Half-rigid cable distortion or loose connector; Cell antenna connection error or TRX natural transmit channel discrepancy cause the discrepancy in the coverage direction and area of main BCCH carrier and expansion carrier, leading to TCH congestion. (4) The repeater station is subordinated to the host cell. The repeater station doesn’t expand as the cell does. (5) Interferences leading to congestion (6) Isolated station or complex terrain causes TCH assignment failure, leading to congestion. (7) Huge real traffic leading to congestion.

8-8

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

10.2.2 Positioning Methods of High TCH Congestion Ratio
I. Remote Analysis of Congestion Ratio Cause
(1) By traffic statistics analysis By conducting traffic statistics analysis on the cell’s TCH performance, check if TCH congestion is due to all-busy congestion. If it is, the problem can be solved by network optimization which delegates the cell’s traffic to other cells, or by advising the operator to expand. If the problem is not due to all-busy congestion, check if the congestion is related to interference, namely, check interference 1 to 5. If interfered, the cell’s call drop ratio can be a little high. Register the receiving performance measurement traffic statistics tasks. Query the traffic statistics result by object and see if the uplink/downlink measurement report in the same TRX is balanced to decide if the uplink/downlink hardware branch is balanced. Query the traffic statistics result by time and see if there is any exceptions regarding the measurement report number in the same cell to decide if the congestion is related to that board. (2) View the warning Check the station warning to which the high-congestion-ratio cell belongs to see if there are any abnormal warning, such as VSWR warning, PCM synchronization lost warning, uplink data bus warning, etc, and decide if the congestion is related to that warning, taking into account the traffic statistics. (3) Remote maintenance terminal of the base station Check if the software of the boards in the base station is uniform. The version upgrade shall be subject to the notice from SUPPORT website. Use the maintenance terminal of the base station to congest in turn the cell carrier board’s TCH channels that have high congestion ratio to see if the high congestion ratio is related to that cell’s carrier board. Solution principles: If the fluctuation of the congestion ratio is related to the block of the carrier board’s channel, then very possibly that board is at fault. Check if there is any co-channel interference. Check the hardware performance of the uplink, downlink, and the board. If the congestion is not related to the carrier board, then the whole cell may be interfered or affected by the terrain. (4) Use the Signaling Analyzer to diagnose the ABIS interface message. According to the call flow and TCH assignment failure statistics, use the Signaling Analyzer to trace the ABIS interface message at every high-congestion-ratio cell. The figure shown here uses MA10 Signaling Analyzer, the detailed analysis of which is as follows: Analyze the assignment command Assignment CMD delivered in SDCCH, as the TEI value in figure 10-2, to determine the carrier board that SDCCH is in. The carrier board that TCH is in can be determined by referring to the ARFCN radio frequency band. Determine if the assignment failures are all in a TRX. Also analyze the causes of the assignment failures by focusing on the mobile phone’s TA value, uplink/downlink level value, and uplink/downlink signal quality in the measurement report. Local calling is required.
8-9

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

If assignment failure points to a certain TRX board, the cause can be one of the following: TRX board down or unstable performance; Caused by bad uplink/downlink level. The uplink branch/downlink branch hardware is at fault; Bad uplink/downlink signal quality. Decide which branch is interfered, taking into account the mobile phone’s TA value.

Figure 10-2 ABIS signaling If the assignment failures are randomly distributed over the carrier boards of the whole cell, the analysis on the measurement report may point to the following causes: (1) Complex terrain within the coverage area of the base station; (2)Interference of the frequency band within the whole the cell, such as the one from the repeater station

II. Examination on the local base station
(1) Local maintenance: See if there are any abnormal warnings and solve them timely. (2) Check if there are any such hardware problems in the uplink and downlink antenna feeder branch as loose connector, inverse antenna, half-rigid cable connection error, and backplane loose wiring, etc. (3) Use mobile phones for calling in the same place; Calling by every carrier or by every channel to see if there are any time slots or boards that cannot be assigned. Check weather all the carrier’s downlink levels are approached. For carrier board whose levels are uneven, replace the board or uplink/downlink antenna feeder system to look for the causes.

8-10

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

Note: for frequency hopping cells, use command line parameters to change that cell to non-frequency-hopping cell for the convenience of local calling. (4) Do the drive test by the network optimization software ANT-PLOT to see if there is any handover exceptions, downlink interference for any clues on the problem of congestion. (5) Use the spectrum analyzer to look for the interference source. (6) See if the terrain of the station’s coverage area is complex.

8-11

Radio network Planning

Chapter 10 Special Topic

10.3 Voice Prompt
The voice prompt in GSM is controlled by the MSC of GSM network and broadcast to the subscribers. MSC plays the pre-recorded voice prompt in the channel corresponding to the voice card according to the different cause values and data configuration of the message. Typical voice prompt problems can take the following forms: (1) When the called is in idle state, “The subscriber you’re calling is busy” or “The mobile phone you’re calling has turned off” is delivered. (2) When the called is in idle state, “The subscriber you’re calling is out of the service area” is delivered. (3) When the called is in idle state, “For the time being the subscriber you’re calling cannot be accessed” is delivered. The reasons that cause the above phenomena can be some of the following: Subscriber status management exception on the NSS side, roaming number fetch failure, or no paging response. In the following section we emphasize on the analysis of the problem “Subscriber out of the service area”.

10.3.1 Paging Strategy
The primary causes for the problem of “subscriber out of the service area” are twofold: one is paging response time over; the other is no paging response. First let’s look at how the paging is done. The paging strategy can be divided into the following three parts as per MSC, BSC, and BTS.

I. MSC Paging Retransfer and Paging Mode Selection
MSC can page the same message for a maximum of four times. If the latest paging is not responded, it will retransfer the paging message. The resend time interval is 3 seconds, 3 seconds, 2 seconds, and 2 seconds respectively. Two seconds after the last resend, i.e., twelve seconds after the first retransfer, if the paging is not responded, MSC will regard it as time-over and deliver prompt tone of “Subscriber out of the service area” to the subscriber. The paging methods MSC can choose are TMSI and IMSI.

II. BSC Paging Group Calculation and Paging Message Transfer between the Modules
After BSC receives the Paging Request delivered by MSC, it will calculate the paging group that the paging belongs to by the last three digits of IMSI, the cell’s CCCH channel configuration, and the paging block configuration, and then deliver Paging Command to that cell. Under multiple modules conditions, the Paging Command needs to be transferred between the modules.

III. BTS Paging Queue and Paging Combination
After BTS receives the Paging Command from BSC, it will put the paging in the Paging Group Queue that the Paging Command designates, and send the paging content of

8-12

For example: all the cells in a region belong to one location area. its paging sub group is 37. If someone calls 13013362000. the paging will be sent to that subscriber from the cells in that area. 37 paging group. it will send Paging Request to the BSC to which the location area belongs. 8-13 . After the mobile phone receives the paging directed at 460013361000037. and finish an instant assignment according to the instant assignment from the network side. it will report the Paging Response in the assigned SDCCH channel and complete a call connection process. but also detect any paging in the Paging Subchannel to which it belongs. a SDCCH channel will be assigned to that mobile phone. create Paging Command. the mobile phone will stay in a cell that belongs to a location area. it will send Channel Request to the Network Side and finish an immidiate assignment process. and reports the paging response.In one paging reserve block. If this immidiate assignment is successful. and deliver the Paging Command to all the cells in the location area. If the mobile phone is in “Attached. there are 6x(9-1)=48 paging groups in every cell. If there is idle SDCCH channel in the cell. So every time the paging is delivered. At present. but also detect paging in its Paging Sub-channel. The mobile phone will decide the paging group it belongs to according to the last three digits of its IMSI and the number of the paging groups. Idle” state. the common control channel parameter configuration for the cells is as follows: One non-combined CCCH The number of frames between the same paging: 6 The number of access reserve block:1 Thus. it will send a channel request. Note: The Paging Response is reported in Establishment Indication. Faults in any one of the above-mentioned four steps will lead to the problem of “subscriber out of the service area”. Therefore when the mobile phone receives the paging that is directed to it. then detect in the relevant sub-channel. When a mobile phone is being called.2 Paging procedure When in idle state.3. If the assignment is successful. BTS must combine the paging according to the paging message type in the queue. and the IMSI is 460013361000037. it will send Channel Request to the Network Side and finish an immidiate assignment process.When in idle state.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic the paging group at intervals of the same paging frame period. The BSC will calculate the mobile phone’s paging subgroup. The mobile phone’s location area information is stored in VLR. 2 IMSI paging or 4 TMSI paging can be delivered. MSC will read the mobile phone’s location area and status information from VLR. MS Paging Detection and Paging Response When in idle state the mobile phone can not only receive the system information from the broadcast channel. When in idle state the mobile phone can not only receive the system information from the broadcast channel. For a mobile phone whose number is 13013362000. it will report Paging Response to the assigned SDCCH channel and complete a call connection process. Therefore after the mobile phone receives the paging that is directed to it. 10. every queue length of the paging group in BTS is 9. the mobile phone establishes the connection in the channel. IV. the last three digits of its IMSI is 037. the mobile phone will always listen to the paging sub channel related to the No.

whenever the MS is performing open/close. so the subscriber status is still “attached”. But what happens is that there is no message reported and the subscriber status doesn’t change. there are the following reasons that cause this problem: I. after the call drop the mobile phone follows the principles of ASAP (as soon as possible) and energy saving to access the network. Under the protocols of GSM 02 and 03. In real situations. Different mobile phones have different accessing mode and speed after the drop-off. there are cases when MSC didn’t deliver the paging. leading to the problem of “Subscriber out of the service area”. this 8-14 . For example. is down. Paging is still delivered to that subscriber when it is called. leading to paging response time out or no paging response. The differences of the mobile phone’s fake accessing and accessing mode According to the protocol. MSC subscriber status management If MSC subscriber status management is down and the request cannot be delivered to BSC. Such abnormalities are non-recurrent. the mobile phone will decide when to start next time according to its own algorithm. mostly Ericsson. From the flow of the paging response report and analysis on the real cases. 1800M mobile phones search 40 BCCH frequency bands. TRX. After the failed attempt. And can be identified by being traced by the GSM subscriber interface of MSC Maintenance Station.3. Some mobile phones. Mobile phones of different models have different algorithms. II. and antenna feeder. Under the low speed accessing mode. In addition mobile phones of different manufacturers have different accessing mode. it will display the message that it has already been attached. “Out of service area” message will come out when the time is out. the paging response (in essence the instruction to set up connection) cannot be reported to BSC. leading to time-out.3 Analysis on the Problem ”Subscriber Out of the Service Area” The reasons that cause “Subscriber out of the service area” are the time-out of the mobile phone’s response to the paging or no response. For example. it takes 50 minutes to access the network after the mobile phone drops off the network and re-enter the coverage area. it will fail to detect the mobile phone’s access pulse or to establish connection with the mobile phone within the time limit. then MS will fail to receive the paging and to respond. some models of Motorola mobile phones can set accessing network frequency. the access speed can be 10 seconds faster. Double frequency mobile phones search 70 frequency bands. we found that T2688 in somewhere is slow in getting online. So. including DSP. Some mobile phones. Dialing that subscriber will receive the message that it is close. after several failures in finding the network. III. After the amplifier and the antenna feeder are discarded. The mobile phone will attempt to access the network in receiving signal’s strength order. As this situation involves air interface and sometimes can be caused by the problems of MS. If the mobile phone fails to update its position when attempting open. will stop doing so for a long time to come. There were also such abnormalities as faulted called being regarded as caller and 3Tick release abnormalities.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. 900M mobile phones search 30 frequency bands. Receiver in the base station If the receiver of the base station. don’t perform the above operations. the diagnosis of it is difficult and dictates experts equipped with special devices. causing some to have long time in accessing. Another example is that IMSI is not detached when the mobile phone switches off. it must update its position and do the IMSI detachment according to the system’s requirement.

VII. it is possible that some of the paging groups are overloaded. Reducing “the number of access grant reserved block” to a proper extent will increase the number of PCH sub channels. the solution is subject to real situation. PCH Overload The paging message in the network is random. “the number of access grant reserved block”. If there is no SDCCH channel available. at any area the base station and the mobile phone can receive (or not receive) the other side’s signal simultaneously. In these areas. such as random radio link failure or surface link failure. Increasing the number of CCCH channels in the cell can significantly improve the system’s paging capacity. “MS minimum access level”. If PCH is severely overloaded. including paging response. VI. random radio link failure. Therefore in these areas it is very common for the “Subscriber out of the service area” message to occur. or the battery is down. In particular. Thus this method is seldom used. leading to failure to send the paging messages out timely. adjust the radio parameters such as “RACH access threshold”. SDCCH Congestion After the mobile phone receives the paging command. Uplink / Downlink Unbalance of Radio Link The radio signal can be classified into uplink and downlink according to the propagation direction. that is to say. the uplink signal quality worsens. Mobile Phone Quality When the mobile phone’s radio frequency module is down. So in the network there must be some areas where he downlink signal can cover but the uplink signal cannot. and the capability to receive the paging command and access the network lowers.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic problem is related to the mobile phone itself and can be solved by the switch on and switch off of the mobile phone. but at the same time reducing the number of TCH configurations. adjust that cell’s coverage area to reduce the SDCCH congestion. To solve such problem of “Subscriber out of the service area”. thus causing the problem of “Subscriber out of the service area”. etc. This situation can be improved by modifying CCCH configuration parameters “the number of frames in the same paging”. thus lowering the flow of the paging message. note that the displacements of the measured level value in the measurement report for different versions of base stations are different. while the network cannot receive the message reported by the subscriber. Reducing “the number of frames in the same paging” will improve the frequency of sending the paging message. The uncertainty of the radio signal propagation and the discrepancy of the actual circumstances dictate that complete balance within the whole network is impossible. Mobile phones with such problems are prone to have the phenomenon of “Subscriber out of the service area”. For the SDCCH all busy situation. Due to the restrictions on the structure of the radio channels and the limitations on the capability to send the paging command. IV. and “CCCH channel allocation”. “random access error threshold”. or if the procedure to set up SDCCH channel fails. and the resend paging cannot be responded within the valid time. the antenna loosens. the subscriber can receive message sent by the network. V. its receiving sensitivity goes down. For congestion caused by other reasons. The causes for the SDCCH congestion are SDCCH all busy. thus the problem of “Subscriber out of the service area” occurs. The evaluation on the quality of the mobile phone 8-15 . Ideally the uplink-downlink are at balance. and “RSSI check” to optimize the balance. thus increasing the capacity of the paging channels. it will send channel request to the network side. the size of the location area needs to be reduced. the paging response cannot be delivered to the network side.

(3) Problems in the radio frequency part of the mobile phone will lead to failure to receive.As the subscriber status in the VLR has not changed. due to the temporary congestion of the SDCCH channel. The problems of the mobile phone can take the following forms: (1) Bad power supply leads to insufficient uplink transmitting power and uplink access failure. As the paging sub channel of the cell where the subscriber is in is fixed.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic sometimes requires special devices. and the paging response cannot be reported. bad signal quality will lead to the failure to deliver the paging or paging response to the peer side. and the call drop is not uncommon . but the subscriber cannot receive the paging message and cannot respond to the paging message. There is a significant percentage of complaints concerning the problem of “Subscriber out of the service area” that is due to bad coverage. the paging response cannot reach the network side. so the chance for that sub channel overload increases significantly. the network side can deliver paging message normally. 10. or high frequency error within some frequency band. For such “Subscriber out of the service area” phenomenon. the MS cannot be assigned an SDCCH channel. the quality can be improved by increasing the number of the base stations and perfecting the coverage. unstable transmission. These phenomena are all normal no-paging-response. For example. Calling that subscriber many times will be very likely to encounter the phenomenon of “Subscriber out of the service area”. because of the radio channel congestion or radio signal coverage. when that subscriber is being called. Or because of the low quality of the signal. it is certain that the problem of “No paging response” occurs. VIII. usually indoors. causing the phenomenon “Subscriber out of the service area”. 8-16 .3. the signal quality is likely to be bad. (2) Faulted mobile phone software leads to the mobile phone’s exceptional dead-end and failure to respond to the paging message. in which case the first dial may receive the prompt tone of “Subscriber out of the service area” and the second dial may succeed. It is normal under this circumstance that “Subscriber out of the service area” occurs. It is an exception only when the attempt to call an idle state subscriber with good signal continuously for a long time receives “Subscriber out of the service area”. In some areas where the coverage is bad. Non-comprehensive Coverage In areas where the radio signal coverage is not good.4 Supplementary Notes In the radio network.

(a) Use the spectrum analyzer 8594 and do the test by feeding the signal received through omni-mini antenna to the spectrum analyzer directly. as shown in the following figure: 8-17 . Spectrum analyzer 8594 30dB attenuator HPA Figure 10-3 Directly measure the base station’s output power (b) Connect the base 13M clock and CMD57 reference clock input by the clock line and synchronize the equipment to the frequency band to test every timeslot’s power.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. leading to channel congestion (7) Multipath effect 10. After ensuring the output power stability.4 The Problem of Signal Fluctuation The causes that can lead to the mobile phone’s signal fluctuation are: (1) Fluctuation in the base station’s transmission power (2) Cell reselection (in idle state) or handover (in conversation state) (3) Power control. let’s check the installation quality of the antenna feeder to see if there is any instability in the standing waves. then the possibility that signal fluctuation is due to the 13M clock’s fluctuation can be excluded. and that base station’s 13M clock works stably. (2) Within the visual distance of the antenna (about 1km away. frequency error. DTX (4) TRX faults (5) Interference (6) Huge traffic. The purpose is to test the influence of the multipath propagation). connect to the HPA’s amplifier interface that sends BCCH through 30dB attenuator. then the possibility that the signal fluctuation is due to the equipment’s output power instability can be excluded.1 Examine the Stableness of the Base Station’s Transmission Power (1) Directly measure the base station’s output power (a) Use Spectrum Analyzer 8594. If the test result shows that every timeslot’s frequency error and phase error conform to the standards. If the installation quality is good.4. and phase error. test the base station’s transmitting level to see if it is stable.

After several seconds the conversation is on again.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic spectrum analyzer 8594 Omni-mini antenna Figure 10-4 Use the mini-antenna to test the base station’s transmitting level (b) Use the mobile phone SAGEM and the test software MobileShow to do the test at the place that is within visual distance and is 1 km away. The shortcoming of it is that it cannot obtain the concrete value of the output power in the amplifier interface. If the threshold value for the uplink power control is set too low. leading to the fluctuation of the signal. This. The level value at this time is about -75dBm. call drop will arise. (2) Use the test mobile phone SAGEM and software MobileShow to see if the cell reselection and handover occur as the signal fluctuates. it is desirable to set the downlink level control to 8-18 . But if the network has serious trans-cell coverage. frequent cell reselection and handover can also arise. 10. the uplink signal from the mobile phone to the base station will be weak. This phenomenon normally happens at the edge of the cell. Call drop happens. if the adjacent signal’s quality is not strong to maintain the conversation. will give rise to handover. we can determine if the output power at the amplifier interface is stable. the receiving level in the mobile phone fluctuates. use the following testing methods: (1) Watch and test the mobile phone to see if the cell reselection or handover occur as the signal level changes.4. By the above tests we can decide if the signal level fluctuation is caused by the cell reselection or handover.2 Cell Reselection (in idle state) or Handover (in conversation state) Both cell reselection and handover can lead to the fluctuation of the signal. Preserve and test the signal wave by the laptop computer to see weather the transmitting level is stable. together with the normal fluctuation in the radio space. the Level Indicator in the mobile phone points to one scale or zero scale. During handover. So such fluctuation is not easy to be seen when the signal is strong.3 Power Control and DTX When the power control or DTX is down. suddenly the peer’s voice at the other end of the line cannot be heard in the middle of the conversation. the level fluctuation cannot be displayed in the mobile phone. To find the causes. It seldom happens that the output power of the base station is unstable.4.. Phenomenon: The Level Indicator points to full scale. 10. So when the network’s downlink power control is on. By the above test. If the downlink level exceeds this value. Naturally the Level Indicator in the mobile phone will go down to one scale or zero scale from the previous full scale. Procedure and Analysis: The Level Indicator pointing to full scale means that mobile phone is in good receiving quality.

So the scale change in the Level Indicator is not the real-time performance of the receiving signal’s strength. along with the normal fluctuation under the radio environment. So the signal fluctuation of the narrow pulse duration will be partly smoothed away. call the uplink power control parameters from the background and set the reasonable threshold value (preferably –80dBm. (not necessarily cutoff at every trough. By watching the Um interface from the background. In addition. Next we monitored and tested the downlink level of the mobile phone by connecting it to mobile show.One further note: the level indicated in the mobile phone is the mean value of its radio frequency level. the subscriber will experience intermittent cutoff and recovery. The coverage only reaches to the edge of the lobe. Certainly as the radio fluctuation for the mobile phones that are near to the base station is small. In light of the call drop. If the signal in the adjacent cell is not sufficient to sustain the conversation or the drop-off. It is delayed.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 75dBm. so is its call drop ratio. the downlink receiving level was strong and stable. the level in the mobile phone will return to full scale from 0 scale. there will be a drop-off. If the situations are likewise. but the strength of the signal continued to go down. the conversation goes on. and maintained at this value for about 10 seconds and then it dropped off. If this time it is successful. the antenna is usually placed at high tower. the level went down from –85dBm along the 60 degree slope. its minimum level was not enough to drop off the mobile phone. because of the effect from the uplink power control. but certainly weakening of the conversation quality). when it went to the middle of the slope. so is its chance of call drop. and maintained some time for conversation at about –85dBm. we found that starting from a certain time (subject to small differences every time). As the uplink power control makes any level from the mobile phone to the base station very weak. so it orders the mobile phone to hand over to the adjacent cell. so the chance for the fluctuation is greater. until call drop happens. the downlink power at the drop-off point was measured to be -85dBm by the spectrum analyzer. If the quality in the adjacent cell is good. the level indicated in the mobile phone after the handover is the downlink level of the adjacent cell. the radiation lobe is in fusiform. And the downlink level of the adjacent cell is quite small. no fluctuation was found. and test the modifications. Then it continued to go upward. the reasonableness of which will affect the quality of the network and the fluctuation of the signal.In addition the parameters concerning the handover need to be set as per the real situation. will cause the base station to think that the conversation quality in that cell is poor. That. . otherwise. Solution: First make some brief judgments according to the above analysis. and they keep performing trial dialing. until at last the level was almost the same with that of the other areas (about –105dBm). and there happened a handover in the middle of the slope. there happened a handover.Then it repeated the above procedure. the uplink signal has almost approached the uplink level’s minimum threshold value when it reached the base station. it went upward along the 60 degree slope after another 10 seconds. so naturally the mobile phone’s level goes down to 1 scale or 0 scale. If after 10 seconds it didn’t drop off. due to the periodicity of the above square waves. During diagnosis. we found that before or after the drop-off and handover. that is to say. making its path like a sloped square wave. along with the randomness of the environment’s fluctuation in the radio space. the conversation can go on. giving rise to drop-off regardless of the distance. the conversation recovers. and after a while. we did the following monitoring and testing: Test the downlink power at the combiner’s test interface. Though there was a fluctuation of 10-15dB. Please do the modifications only after a thorough understanding of the meaning of each parameter.So it can be determined that the handover and drop-off were caused by the bad uplink quality. the base station will order the mobile phone to hand over back to the previous cell. As the indoor radio fluctuation is greater than outdoor radio fluctuation. until it dropped off at some trough. When the subscriber is having long time conversation. 8-19 . The carrier’s office is usually located at that area. This is the reason why the conversation suddenly cuts off but doesn’t call drop. so the area right under the tower is blinded. and the uplink level was mostly at –105dBm.

decide where the fault is and substitute the standby board for the at-fault board. the interval for the examiner to encounter such fault may vary.5 Interferences Interferences can lead to signal fluctuations. It is possible that after the penalty time the mobile phone switches to other cell again. the more difficult for it to discover the cause. What is the normal procedure is that BSC activates a TCH channel by sending to BTS in the current cell a signal activation command.4. and the Indicator lowering from full scale to 1 scale or 0 scale. After eight subscribers’ calls. Interferences can cause the timeout for the DCS counter (90/the multiframes between the same paging) in the mobile phones at the current service area. On the other hand. 10. there is no fault warning when the carrier frequency is not being used. first SDCCH channel is assigned. Furthermore. then the TCH will fail to set up the communication. such as no power output or output too small. a TCH will be assigned to the mobile phone for its use by the network.4 TRX Down Phenomenon: The mobile phone’s Receiving Signal Indicator points to the full scale. As the number of callers is large. the first subscriber occupies the first carrier frequency. is the fluctuation of signals. and so on. (or one subscriber’s eight consecutive calls). use two mobile phones and finish continuous testing on all the carrier frequencies at the cell within several minutes. and then the channel is assigned to the mobile phone. leading to the fluctuations of the signal. As a result. this method can be one of the effective ways to determine if there are any faults in the carrier frequency channels at the cell. When the TRX where the TCH is located is down. When the subscriber dials the number and press <OK>.4.4. in which case the level indicated in the mobile phone goes up. But what actually happens is that (in times when the current cell is congested) the network gives the mobile phone a command to switch to other cells. which when reflected on the mobile phone side. thus leading to normal conversation after several calls. Solution: See if there is any warning in the TRX at the background when the mobile phone is having call test. the level goes down immediately. whose signal is weaker than the current cell. thus leading to cell reselection. the second subscriber occupies the first carrier frequency. If yes. 10. At the opening phase. but the warning of Power Too Small after the assignment. This phenomenon happens intermittently. Cause and Analysis: After <OK> key is pressed. TCH will switch to the second carrier frequency. that is to say. As the TCH’s assignment is dynamic. replace that TRX with the adjacent carrier frequency amplifier or TRX. at the same time the Indicator lowers to one scale or zero scale. BCCH assigns a TCH to the mobile phone through SDCCH. Or after hooking the mobile phone is in IDLE state and receives the BCCH signal from the cell where the mobile 8-20 . the second time slot.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. the mobile phone drops out within a few seconds. After a few seconds it will return to the Wait Status. leading to drop-off. whose signal is stronger. the first time slot. And the more the number of carrier frequencies in the cell. after the corresponding signaling is finished. and the Indicator returns to full scale.6 Cell Congestion First let us explain the problem by analyzing the signals: After a call is initiated by the mobile phone.

Even when the mobile receiver is static. The incident waves arrive in different directions and have different propagation delay. ranging from the simple visual distance propagation to encountering such terrain as buildings. 8-21 . there is in most cases no visual propagation between the mobile station to the base station. Most cellular radio systems operate in the city.7 Multipath Effect Multipath effect is one of the main causes that lead to the signal fluctuation in the network. thus causing attenuation. host diversity antenna. The signal received by the mobile station at any position in the space consists of many signal waves. and what’s more.e. Furthermore.8 Other causes (1) Poor antenna feeder connection will lead to ups and downs of the standing wave. thus giving rise to the attenuation and infidelity of the signal being received. which reflected in the Indicator is the going up of the signal strength. So multipath will lead to the fluctuation of the mobile phone’s receiving level. it means the signal received by the host antenna doesn’t have the simultaneous attenuation feature with the signal received by the diversity antenna. The effectiveness of this host diversity receipt is guaranteed by the irrelevancy of the host diversity antenna receipt. attenuation can still arise as the signal being received is affected by the propagation medium (the air flow change). There is no visual path between the transmitter and receiver. after passing paths of different length. At the same time the strength of the electromagnetic waves attenuates as the distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. By irrelevancy. diffraction. multipath effect may still arise due to the reflection of the surface and the surrounding buildings.4. These multipath components are combined in vectors by the receiver. and scattering. the electro-magnetic waves. The attenuation in the radio environment can be classified into fast attenuation and slow attenuation according to the estimation on the field intensity.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic phone is in. The method the base station uses to solve the fast-attenuation phenomenon is space diversity (polarized diversity). Even if there is such a path for visual propagation. which when reflected in the mobile phone. which have randomly distributed amplitude. or that the polarized diversity is used to guarantee the different attenuation features of the signals received by the host diversity antenna. In skyscraper cities. Whereas the single antenna mobile station (mobile phone) is helpless before the fast-attenuation feature under the radio environment. causing congestion in the cell. The form the electromagnetic wave takes to propagate is diverse. phase. as the height of the mobile antenna (mobile phone) is much lower than that of the surrounding buildings. i. hills and trees. Therefore the essential cause of this problem is too much traffic. as different objects have different multipath reflections. the skyscrapers produce strong scattering loss. In the main. interfere to produce multi-path loss. 10. it can take the forms of reflection. or by the moving objects where the radio channel is in. 10.4. The performance of the radio communications system is largely constrained by the radio channel. is the fluctuation of the signals (2) Serious propagation flickers will lead to the amplification of the on/off in the base station. and incident angle. The propagation path between the transmitter and receiver is very complex. This requires that the gap of the host diversity antenna is 10 times greater than the radio signal wavelength (for GSM 900M the antenna gap must be greater than 4 meters).

8-22 . (4) The signal level after the assignment will fluctuate deeply due to the difference of the carrier combination method or the disaccord of transmission channel gain within the cell.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic (3) Some mobile phones will also have fluctuation of the level when doing location area updating. This is especially so when in the location area border of the city.

5 Other Main Problems 10. when the first access request is not decoded successfully. The paging may be delayed for 0-0. especially when the frequency is density reuse. Notwithstanding the foregoing. This will also cause the slow attach speed. In areas where coverage is poor.5.4 Access slow Possible causes: (1) Effect on the same number of paging multi-frames.5. (2) Effect on the number of time slots during propagation extension.2 Failure to attach the network Cannot update the location area The CGI table of MSC fails to keep record of the cell. Furthermore as the mobile phone needs to decode the scanned frequency band according to the level. propagation and system processing of the cell.1 Poor Voice Quality (1) Hardware faults.Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10. leading to poor receiving level and receiving quality. 8-23 .477 to 1 second. it can only access the network after ensuring that there is no higher priority. the mobile phone will try to access the network by scanning for the strongest signal. (2) Worse interference leads to poor voice quality.235N seconds. Generally when the mobile phone is opened. As the network access procedure includes authority verification on the mobile phone. many factors shall be considered in an integrated way. 10.5.5. In cases when the information is invalid or there is no stored information. (Subject to the parameters) (3) Related to the system processing performance. resend may be delayed for 55x0. (3) Poor coverage. when the cell has a low access priority.3 Slow to attach the network Possibly related to the mobile phone’s access mode. it will try to access the network according to the information stored when the mobile phone was closed last time. 10. the speed is also related to the performance. Certainly its setting is related to many a factor such as location area. poor propagation and bad grounding will lead to poor voice quality. As the scanning method may differ. leading to location area update failure and network access failure 10. so does the access speed. Its parameter change shall be considered in an integrated way.

5 unilateral connection The common cause may come from the equipment or transmission. 8-24 .Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 10.5. This problem will be introducted in detail in other documents.

Radio network Planning Chapter 10 Special Topic 8-1 .

1 GPRS Basic Principle 11. 25.1. 75 or X. Besides. GPRS shares the BSS system of the existing GSM network. the MS is required to support the GPRS service.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Technology 11. but both the software and hardware need the corresponding update. Figure 11-1 and Figure 11-2 are the composition graphs of the GPRS network from different perspectives. Meanwhile. GPRS. etc. the interfaces of all the entities of the GPRS network and the GSM network have to be defined correspondingly. GPRS supports the interconnection with PSPDN via GGSN.1 GPRS Network Structure GPRS network has introduced such concepts as packet switching and packet transmission. which enhanced GSM network’s support for data services in terms of network system. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). GPRS also supports direct interconnection with IP network. is another network superimposed on the existing GSM network. and the interface protocol may be X. At the same time. Figure 11-1 GPRS Network Structure 11-1 . The GPRS network adds to the original GSM network such entities as Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). in fact.

II. BTS is the radio transceiving equipment serving a specific or several cells. and controlled by BSC. A interface support and Abis interface support. the main responsibilities of BSC include: Various kinds of radio resources management The mapping from the radio service channel to terrestrial circuit. BTS BTS is the radio part of the BSS. The main responsibilities of BTS include: 11-2 .1. Circuit-switched call control. BSC BSC is the core control part of the GSM/GPRS base station subsystem. For packet-switched services. and the channel configuration for the PCU and the Pb/G-Abis interface configuration are mainly conducted at BSC. For circuit-switched services. the responsibilities of BSC include: Packet radio channel configuration.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A TE R MT Um BSS Gn Gs Gb SGSN Gn Gp GGSN Other PLMN D SM-SC C HLR Gr Gc Gi GGSN Gf EIR Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface PDN TE SGSN Figure 11-2 GPRS Network Composition 11. the operation and maintenance commands on BTS via OMC must be controlled or transferred by BSC.2 GPRS BSS and MS Function Introduction I. One BSC can control several BTSs. Controlling the conversion of the radio channel between packetswitched services and circuit-switched services. Besides. Providing necessary packet calling control support for cells without PBCCH.

Helping BSC accomplish part of the layer 3 function of the Um interface. and the logic link to SGSN can be established. and become one entity with the mobile terminal (MT). BSS should comprehensively 11-3 . Packet data transmission. (4) MS Multiple time slot Capability Level MS can be divided into 29 levels based on the multiple time slot capability.TE can be independent desktop computer. The functions of MT and TE can be integrated into one physical device. (3) Mobile Station Mobile Station (MS) can be viewed as the integrated entity with all the functions of MT and TE. III. it communicates with BTS via air interface. the function of MT is equivalent to the Modem connecting TE to the GPRS system. It is used to transceive the packet data of terminal subscribers in the GPRS system. and transparently transmitting layer 3 message. The MT of GPRS must be configured with GPRS function software to access GPRS system services. MSs at different levels have different packet channels simultaneously available. which has been detailed in the following table. from the perspective of TE. the G-Abis interface. A handset reports its multiple time slot capability level in the packet resource request information. Type C: it cannot attach to the GPRS network and the GSM network simultaneously. all the functions provided by the GPRS network are to set up a packet data transport passageway between TE and external data networks. (2) Mobile Terminal Mobile Terminal (MT) on the one hand communicates with TE. and its main functions include: Most of the packet radio resource management functions. PCU PCU is the equipment introduced by BSS to support GPRS. MS has three types: Type A: it allows simultaneous packet switching service and circuit switching service. GPRS MS (1) Terminal Equipment Terminal Equipment (TE) is the computer terminal equipment operated and maintained by terminal subscribers. on the other hand. In the data communications process. Type B: it can be attached to the GPRS network and the GSM network simultaneously. but it does not allow the simultaneous circuit switching service and packet switching service. and the Pb interface IV. Supporting the Gb interface. The functions of TE can also be integrated into the hand-held mobile terminal equipment.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Realizing the radio transmission and the related control function between BTS and MS via the Um interface. To some extent. Accomplishing the layer 1 and layer 2 functions of the Um interface. It can be one physical entity or two (TE+MT). Packet calling control function.

1. The multiple time slot capability is usually represented as X (RX)+X (TX). as well as the air interface radio frequency related functions. 3+1 GPRS handset refers to the one with three time slots maximally allowed for the downlink reception and one time slot maximally allowed for the uplink transmission.3 GPRS Signaling Model The signaling model of GPRS BSS is shown as in Figure 11-3. The multiple time slot capability of MS should try to be met with the observance of the principle of making full use of the radio resources. when assigning radio resources for MS. that is the maximum time slot number allowed for the downlink and the maximum time slot number allowed for the uplink. and NS. Multislot class Maximum number of slots Rx 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 Multislot class Maximum number of slots Rx 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA Tx 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Sum NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 11. available radio channel condition. required class of quality of services. GMM/SM LLC Relay GMM/SM LLC RLC MAC BSSGP BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb RLC MAC GSM RF Network Service GSM RF L1bis Um MS BSS SGSN GMM: GPRS Mobility Management RLC: Radio Link Control LLC: Logical Link Control MAC: Medium Access Control BSSGP: Base Station System GPRS Protocol 11-4 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology consider such aspects as the MS data traffic. For example. Its main responsibility is to accomplish the protocol layer function such as RLC/MAC. etc. BSSGP.

Packet Notification Channel (PNCH): it is only used in downlink to notify MS of point-to-multipoint multi-path transmission (PTM-M) calling. which have already been broadcast by BCCH. used to transmit packet signaling in the data transport process.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology SM: Session Management Figure 11-3 The Signaling Model of GPRS BSS 11. If there is no PCCCH in a cell. MS in the GPRS Attach mode only monitors PBCCH. BCCH will indicate it. BCCH will broadcast parameters that will be used in the packet services. Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH): it is only used in uplink to request one or more PDTCHs. All PDTCHs are unidirectional. packet services information can be transmitted via CCCH. 8kbps. Radio Packet Logic Channel Types The radio packet logic channels include the following four types: (1) Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) PDTCH is used to transmit subscriber data in the packet switching mode. SI13 tells MS that this cell has already been equipped with PBCCH. Besides. Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH): it is only used in downlink to assign one or more PDTCHs. circuit switching services information can be transmitted via PCCCH.4 Radio Packet Channel Configuration I. If there is PCCCH. If there is no PBCCH. via system message. That is to say. either uplink (that is PDTCH/U used for the data transmission form MS to the GPRS network) or downlink (that is PDTCH/D used for the data transmission from the GPRS network to MS). 11-5 . (4) Packet Dedicated Channel Packet dedicated channels have the following types: Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH): bidirectional. and the transmission rate ranges from zero to 22. and pays no attention to BCCH. Packet Timing advance Control Channel Uplink PTCCH/U: it is used to transmit random access pulse so as to estimate the timing advance of MS for packet services. (2) Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) PBCCH is to broadcast the necessary parameters resulted from MS access to the network because of packet services.1. If there is PBCCH in a cell. it also broadcasts circuit switching service parameters. (3) Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) PCCCH includes the following types of channels: Packet Paging Channel (PPCH): it is only used in downlink to page MS.

where the third type can be divided into fixed PDCH and dynamic PDCH. PCCCH: PAGCH and PPCH can map to any radio block of the downlink channels except the one occupied by PBCCH. III. and one cell can only have one channel combination of this kind. Channels of the third combination type are mainly used for uplink and downlink packet data transmission. Ltd. Therefore. The fixed PDCH is specially used for GPRS packet data transport.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Packet Timing advance Control Channel downlink (PTCCH/D): it is used to renew transmission timing advance information for several MSs. can support all packet channel functions. Its structure is shown as in Figure 11-4. B3. and the mapping sequence is in conformity with the above-mentioned order. and each packet channel has 52 multiframes. The PCU of Huawei Technologies Co. B6. while the dynamic PDCH can dynamically switch from TCH and PDTCH according to service requirements. Every four frames constitute a radio block. The Mapping from Logic Channel to Physical Channel GPRS packet channel adopts 52 multiframe structure. and B9. Packet Logic Channel Combination Types The combination types include: PBCCH + PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH Where PCCCH = PPCH + PRACH + PAGCH + PNCH When a cell is required to be equipped with PBCCH. Ltd. The GPRS PCU system of Huawei Technologies Co. When there are quite a few MSs in a cell and the PCCCH is relatively busy. One PTCCH/D corresponds with several PTCCH/Us. PRACH is the uplink 11-6 . and cannot be forcefully occupied by circuit-switched services. It is TCH in the initial state of the system. one or several channel combinations of the second type can be added. Each cell can be equipped with one or several channels of this combination type. The specific number is determined by the busy degree of its broadcasting channel. supports all of the channel combination types. and it will switch to PDCH when there is packet service demand. II. while it will switch from PDCH to TCH when there is circuit service demand. Only when there exists channel of the first combination type can exist the channel of the second combination type in a cell. B0 B1 B2 X B3 B4 B5 X B6 B7 B8 X B9 B10 B11 X B0~B11 12 radio blocks X: idle fram es Figure 11-4 Radio Channel Structure where: PBCCH channel: it can be mapped to such radio blocks as B0. the first type will be adopted. each radio channel can be divided into 12 radio blocks and four idle frames.

. and mobility management.. this kind of channel request type is often treated as one-phase or two-phase access. 11. and mobility management. etc. PTCCH: the 12th and 38th uplink frame of each 52 multiframe is a PTCCH uplink channel. and it is used to transmit the radio signaling of the air interface. MS will be assigned radio resources once and for all such as TFI.5 Packet Access Mode When data transport occurs in the upper layer of MS. and mobility management will be treated as two-phase access treatment.6 Paging Processing In the GPRS/GSM system. MS packet access mainly includes the following types: short access. After that. paging response. MS will undergo resource assignment (including TFI. Ltd. etc. etc. If what is to be transmitted is the MS measurement report. PAGCH. supports all the access types. PACCH: it can map to all the radio blocks.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology frame corresponding with the radio block occupied by PBCCH. the RLC/MAC of MS will initiate the packet access. 11. For two-phase access channel request. radio priority. Then MS begins transmitting data.1. which is of benefit to the proper resource assignment for MS. the channel request type is single block without establishing TBF access. Therefore. cell renewing. where such access types as paging response. dynamic assigned USF or fixed assigned radio block bit table. paging includes packet paging and circuit paging. For short access and one-phase access. When the data to be transmitted are more than eight RLC blocks. the channel request type of MS will be one-phase access or two-phase access. where he number of data packet will be determined by CS-1 coding. and it is used for packet data transmission. and MS begins transmitting data via the assigned resources. cell renewing. the channel request type of MS will be short access. whereas the packet resource request is a RLC/MAC signaling packet coded by CS-1. cell renewing. it carries comparatively much more information including TLLI of MS. the multiple time slot capability of MS. The system of Huawei Technologies Co. Besides. PPCH. However. or radio block bit table) for the second time. When the data to be transmitted are less than eight RLC blocks. the channel request type also includes paging response. PDTCH: it can map to all the radio blocks. single block without establishing TBF access. and the 12th and 38th downlink frame of two consecutive 52 multiframes constitute a PTCCH downlink channel. 11-7 . and the RLC mode is required to be the confirmed mode. two-phase access. for the first time only one radio block will be assigned to MS. and MS transmits packet resource request information via the single assigned radio block.1. USF. Because the packet channel request is only the eight-bit or eleven-bit access pulse. which will be introduced in the following. one-phase access. the carried information is very little.

it will initiate GPRS SUSPEND process to suspend the GPRS service. II. the request message transmits directly via PPCH. and then reach PCU via SGSN. SGSN should initiate packet paging to accurately locate MS. if an MS is already GPRS attached. then PCU transfers the paging message to BSC via Pb interface. MS connects to RACH on the reception of this circuit paging message. the downlink data will be able to be transmitted. then PACCH will be used for the transmission. its circuit paging will go through Gs interface and Gb interface. 11. Ltd. In Network Operation Mode One.. The paging request message initiated by SGSN will be sent to PCU via Gb interface. the GPRS/GSM system will be run in the Network Operation Mode One. and then send to PCU the paging response packet as data mode via air interface. and PCU will transform it into packet paging request to be transmitted via Um interface. After SGSN receives the paging response. Paging Co-ordination In the GSM network. PCU will send this message to BSC via Pb interface. MSC determines the location area the MS has registered in. If there exists PCCCH in the BSS system configuration. Obviously. supports the above-mentioned packet paging and circuit paging functions. and reach SGSN via MSC. and the GPRS/GSM system can only run in the Network Operation Mode Two and Three. MS will greatly reduce its power consumption if it can support DRX. then PPCH will be used for the transmission. if the MS has been assigned PDCH. it will initiate uplink temporary block flow (TBF) to establish a procedure. whereas the MS not supporting DRX has to interpret all the paging messages in the paging channel. Packet Paging When there is downlink data to be transmitted to MS. and the system has been configured with PCCCH. The MS supporting DRX only receives the paging message (packet paging and circuit paging) from its corresponding paging group in the paging channel. If no PDCH has been assigned and the system has not been configured with PCCCH. The MS will not resume the GPRS service until the circuit is released. and initiates circuit connection establishing process. and BSC will transmit this circuit paging via PCH. MS should adopt DRX. The circuit paging of the GSM service can be sent via GPRS packet channelThat is to say.1. If there is no PCCCH in the BSS system configuration. PCU determines which channel will be used for the transmission. 11-8 . and BSC will transmit it via PCH. If no PDCH has been assigned.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology I. PCU then transfers it to SGSN. After MS receives the packet paging message. If the MS is currently engaged in the GPRS service.7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) In order to reduce the power consumption when the MS is idle. the circuit paging message will be transmit via CCCH. and sends the circuit paging message to all BSCs in this location area. within a certain processing period. The PCU of Huawei Technologies Co. when a circuit call reaches the MSC which is expected to locate a certain subscriber. If there is no Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. If there exists Gs interface between SGSN and MSC. The algorithm adopted by MS to determine the paging group is the same with that of PCU or BSC.

SI13 message will not be broadcast if GPRS is not supported. and can make the best resource distribution based on the MS multiple time slot capability and the radio resources.. which can be referred to ETSI GSM 05. the required quality grade of services. it can transmit data in this channel and the other channels with a bigger number. Dynamic Distribution The radio block used by the MS has been allocated by PCU temporarily. The only difference lies in that the number of time slot used by the MS may exceed its multiple time slot capability. available radio channels. After MS receives the USF value of one of the channels. II.9 Packet System Message The packet system message is mainly used to broadcast the parameters necessary for MS to access network because of service demand in a cell. 11. etc. Medium Access Control Mode There are three kinds of Medium Access Control (MAC) modes: fixed distribution. The PCU system of Huawei Technologies at present supports MS with 1~12 grade multiple time slot capability. 11. BCCH should add new SI13 message. PCU has to distribute radio blocks for a second time. The cell can be configured with PBCCH. Extended Dynamic Distribution The resource distribution mechanism is the same with that of dynamic distribution. MS will be notified whether there is PBCCH in the cell 11-9 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology During the MS ATTACH/GPRS ATTACH process.8 Radio Resource Distribution I. or not be configured. 02 Standard. When PCU distributes radio resources to MS. When the cell supports the GPRS service. MS with different grade may have different number of packet channels that can be used concurrently. it will monitor the USF value of the downlink radio block of the assigned channel. and extended dynamic distribution. It can choose MAC mode according to the subscriber configuration within the cell or the TRX range. After the MS receives the assignment message.1. then MS will transmit data in the corresponding uplink radio block. If the radio block has been used up and there are still data to be transmitted. Fixed Distribution The radio block used by the MS has been allocated by PCU before hand. it should be informed whether the GPRS/GSM network supports DRX and the other DRX parameters or not. Ltd has realized the dynamic distribution function. Otherwise.1. Co. it should take into consideration the MS data transmission quantity. MS Multiple Time Slot Capability The multiple time slot capability of MS can be divided into 29 grades. If this value is the same with the assigned USF value. it will assign MS several radio channels and the uplink state flag (USF) value for each radio channel. When PCU distributes radio resources to MS. The BSS system of Huawei Technologies. dynamic distribution. The MS multiple time slot capability should try to be satisfied while observing the principle of making full use of radio resources.

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

via SI13. PBCCH mainly broadcast the packet system message dedicated to the GRPS service. The packet system message includes the following types: PSI1, PSI2, PSI3, PSI3bis, PSI4, PSI5, and PSI13. PSI1 mainly includes information like cell selection, PRACH control,, control channel description, and power control parameters. PSI2 mainly includes reference frequency list, cell allocation table, GPRS mobile allocation table, and PCCCH description. PSI3 mainly includes the BA table of the adjacent cells, serving cell/nonserving cell selection parameters, etc. PSI3bis mainly includes the BA table of the adjacent cells, nonserving cell selection parameters, etc. PSI4 mainly includes the PDCH list used in the MS measurement in the serving cell. PSI5 mainly includes measurement report, network control cell reselection information, etc. PSI13 is the same as the SI13 which is broadcast via the BCCH, and it mainly includes the access-related information which is unique of the GPRS cell. PSI1~PSI4 can be broadcast both via PBCCH and via PACCH. PSI5 can be broadcast only via PBCCH. PSI13 can be broadcast only via PACCH. When there is PBCCH in a cell, the PSI13 message then will not be broadcast via PACCH, which will however cyclically broadcast PSI1. When there is no PBCCH in a cell, PACCH can only cyclically broadcast PSI13 message. The BSS system of Huawei Technologies, Co, Ltd. can perform the transmission of all the system messages related to the GPRS service, and it can realize the control retransmission, fast retransmission, low-speed retransmission of the system messages. It can also control the system message transmission via PACCH based on the PBCCH/PCCCH configuration of the cell.

11.1.10 Radio Link Control
Radio Link Control (RLC) layer is mainly responsible for the LLC-PDU packet disassembling and assembling. It uses a kind of slide-window protocol and ensures that data are transmitted between the corresponding layers by employing confirmed or unconfirmed mode. The size of the GPRS RLC slide-window is 64. When confirmed mode is adopted, each transmitted data block of Temporary Block Flow (TBF) needs the confirmation from the receiver. Otherwise, it has to be retransmitted. The TBF cannot be released until all the data have been transmitted and the confirmation by the receiver has been received. When the unconfirmed mode is adopted, the transmitted data block needs no confirmation from the receiver. The lost data or the error data can be replaced by filling bits. TBF can be released once the data transmission is finished. The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co. Ltd. supports both the confirmed and unconfirmed modes. It can specify the uplink data transmission RLC mode according to the MS request information, and determine the downlink data transmission RLC mode according to the downlink LLC-PDU packet type.

11-10

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

11.1.11 Channel Code and CS Change Control
GPRS has four types of channel coding modes. The transmission rate and the number of transmitted RLC/MAC packet bytes of each coding mode are as follows:
Channel Coding Mode CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 RLC/MAC Data Block Size (octets) 23 33 39 53 Rate (kbps) 9. 05 13. 4 15. 6 21. 4

Different channel code modes have different transmission rates and different requirement for air transmission quality. The higher the transmission rate is, the higher the requirement for transmission quality is. In the data transmission process, BSS can dynamically adjust channel code mode according to the changes of radio transmission quality so as to realize the purpose of trying to improve transmission rate on the principle of making full use of radio resources and guaranteeing the transmission quality. The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd. at present supports four code modes: CS-1~CS-4. It can dynamically change between these four modes according to the radio transmission quality.

11.1.12 Radio Link Monitoring
In order to enhance the transmission efficiency in the GPRS system, several kinds of link monitoring methods have been applied to the Um interface. The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd. has realized the following kinds of link monitoring functions as specified in the protocol:

I. Link Monitoring in the Uplink Dynamic Distribution Mode
When MAC is in the dynamic distribution mode, PCU assigns resources for each TBF via USF. MS determines its uplink usage right by detecting its USF value on the assigned channel. Once MS detects its assigned USF, it will transmit data block on the corresponding uplink channel. If the radio link quality is bad, and MS cannot properly receive its USF value, it will not be able to transmit data block to the network in the corresponding uplink block. According to the protocol requirement, PCU detects the validity of the links by monitoring the size of N3101. N3101 is initialized to be zero when the TBF is established. PCU each time assigns one block to one TBF. After that, it will expect to receive the information of this TBF. If no corresponding data block has been received, then N3101 will be added one. During this process, once the MS data block is received, N3101 will return to zero. If the value of N3101 reaches its maximum value N3101_max, PCU will activate timer T3169. When T3169 spills, TBF will be released, and the corresponding resources can be used again.

II. Downlink Monitoring
For the downlink TBF, PCU assigns uplink signaling channel for MS by setting the RRBP on the downlink data block. PCU monitors this signaling channel via N3105 counter so as to test the validity of TBF. N3105 is initialized to be zero when the TBF is established. PCU each time sets RRBP on downlink data block of TBF. After that, it will expect to receive the control information of this TBF on the corresponding uplink block. If no corresponding data block is received, then N3105 will be added one. If correct reception occurs, then N3105 will return to its original state. If the value of N3105 is larger than or the same as its maximum value N3105_max, PCU will activate timer T3195. Once T3195 spills, TBF will be released, and the corresponding resources can be used again.
11-11

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

III. Uplink Release Monitoring
PCU ensures the normal release of the uplink TBF via 3103 counter according to the protocol. N3103 is initialized to be zero when the TBF is established. After PCU has correctly received all the uplink TBF data, it will send Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (FAI=1 indicates the last confirmation) to MS, and set RRBP in hope that MS will confirm this message. If PCU does not receive correct packet control Ack/Nack information in the corresponding uplink block, then N3103 will be added one. If N3103 exceeds the preset maximum value, PCU will activate T3169. When T3169 spills, TBF will be released, and the corresponding resources can be used again.

11.1.13 Radio Frequency Power Control
I. Uplink Power Control
The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co, Ltd. provides uplink open loop power control algorithm. The detailed formula can be referred to in the ETSI GSM 05. 08 protocal. The basic idea of the open loop power control is that supposing the uplink and the downlink have the same path loss, MS therefore can adjust the output power based on the received signal level. In the GPRS cell there will be SI13 message broadcast, in which exists a parameter named ALPHA, which will be used by MS to calculate the output power value of its uplink PDCH (PCH). That is to say, the power value actually adjusted by MS results from the calculated adjustable power value multiplied by the ALPHA coefficient. ALPHA ranges from 0. 0 to 1. 0. At present values except 1. 0 are not used. They are reserved. When the value is 0. 0, it means that the handset does not perform power control.

II. Downlink Power Control
At present, the PCU of most companies does not support downlink power control. It should be explained that the above-mentioned condition refers to that in which handsets perform packet data communications. When voice communication is needed, it will return to the normal GSM control flow.

11.1.14 Cell Reselection Control
I. Cell Reselection Network Control Mode
There are three kinds of GPRS network control modes: NC0, NC1, and NC2. The meaning of each network control mode is as follows: NC0: MS performs cell selection automatically, and does not send measurement report. NC1: MS performs cell selection automatically, and sends measurement report. NC2 network control: MS sends measurement report and accepts the cell reselection of the network control. The BSS system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd can determine network control mode according to the subscriber data configuration. At present, NC0 mode is supported.

11-12

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

II. Cell Automatic Reselection
MS monitors the PBCCH/BCCH carrier of the adjacent cell at any time, and determines the best cell to attach based on the information such as the carrier signal intensity, the base station color code in the carrier, etc. Meanwhile, it informs the system of its own route area by initiating the route area update flow.

III. Cell Change Control
MS regularly submits measuring report to BSS according to the cell system message broadcasting parameters. BSS takes full consideration of the MS measurement report, the load of each adjacent cell, etc. and sends cell change command to MS, requiring the MS to attach to a specific cell.

11.1.15 Flow Control and QoS Guarantee
I. Flow Control
Due to the different physical medium and transmission protocol between Gb interface and Um interface, the transmission rate of these two kinds of interfaces is different. The transmission rate of Gb interface is higher than that of Um interface. Besides, in the downlink data transmission, data transmission via Um interface is limited by such factors as MS multiple time slot capability, radio quality, available radio channels in the cell, etc. Therefore, the transmission rate is not constant, and the downlink data needs flow control. In the normal work of a cell, the PCU system should activate flow control program, and regularly reports the bucket size and bucket flow speed of this cell according to the radio packet channel condition. Meanwhile, it also reports the bucket size and the bucket flow speed of MS based on the MS occupied radio resource condition (the bucket of a cell refers to the maximum packet data quantity saved that this cell allows. It changes as the number of packet channels in the cell changes. The bucket of MS refers to the maximum packet data quantity this MS allows. It changes as the number of assigned MS channels changes. The bucket flow speed refers to the data transmission rate). SGSN appropriately adjusts the downlink data flow speed of the cell and each of the MS according to the reported parameters so as to realize the flow control on the downlink data. The PCU system of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. can realize the downlink data flow control, and is able to regularly report the bucket size and bucket flow speed of the active cell and the active MS to the SGSN. It is also able to adjust the parameters to be reported according to the cell packet resources and the variation of the MS occupied resources.

II. QoS Guarantee
The quality of service (OoS) of GPRS mainly includes the following indexes: priority, delay grade, reliability grade, peak load grade, and average load grade. Each index can be divided further into several grades. Because these indexes are the point-topoint requirements for the entire packet data transmission, and it involves many factors like the air interface radio resources, Gb interface frame relay link resources, GPRS backbone network transmission bandwidth, and various kinds of GPRS equipment processing capabilities, the QoS requirement is met all according to the Best Effort grade at present. That is to say, data will be transmitted as soon as possible according to the principle of making the best use of resources.

11-13

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

Because services with different QoS occupy different system resources, and the subscriber service quality is also different, carriers can differentiate subscribers according to the different QoS grades and adopts flexible charge policies, which is beneficiary for the spread of the GPRS service. The PCU of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd can assign MS radio resources based on the radio priority required by the data transmission, peak load grade, and average load grade. The MS with higher radio priority and higher load grade will be granted priority in the radio resources distribution. The QoS requirement will be met according to the Best Effort grade.

11.1.16 Mobility Management and Communication Management
I. Mobility Management
The mobility management is used in PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) to support the function of tracing the current location of MS. The mobility management function of the GPRS network is similar to that of the current GSM system. One or several cells form a route area (a subset of a location area), and one SGSN provides services for one or several route areas. The MS location tracing is determined by the MS mobility management status. GPRS mobility management mainly includes GPRS Attach/Detach, cell/route area update, joint route area/location area update, paging, etc. After an MS accomplishes GPRS Attach, SGSN will establish mobility context for the MS and store the current location and status information of the subscriber. When the MS roams between different cells and route areas in the future, it will activate cell/route area update flow, and SGSN will also store the latest information of this MS so as to realize the location tracing for the MS. When MS performs such flows as joint GPRS Attach/IMSI Attach, joint cell/route area update, SGSN will communicate with MSC about MS location information via Gs interface. In this way only once mobility management flow can realize the MS location tracing by the packet switching service and circuit switching service. The detailed flow can refer to ETSI GSM 03. 60 protocol. Because the layer-by-layer encapsulation feature of packet data, in the mobility management all the flow signaling except the paging flow is transmitted as data in BSS. That is to say, BSS is only related to the paging function of the mobility management. After BSS gets the paging packet from SGSN, it selects the necessary information and sends the paging information via the air interface.

II. Communication Management
GPRS communication management mainly includes conversation management, billing management, etc. However, because the upper layer signaling is transmitted as packet data, BSS almost does not participate in the conversation management process except transmitting signaling data. In addition, the billing information collection is mainly performed in SGSN and GGSN. BSS does not participate in the billing management.

11-14

Radio Network Planning

Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

11.2 GPRS Network Planning
11.2.1 GPRS Capacity Planning
The voice traffic calculation already has mature mode, that is the Erlang table. Traffic (A), channel number (N) and call loss rate (B) have the following relation. If any two out of the three parameters are known, the third one can be worked out by the following formula.

B

N

AN N = An n!

The packet data traffic can not directly employ the Erlang B table, which is due to the unique features of the packet data. The packet traffic of the fixed network has a calculation solution, which is very difficult to be used in the mobile environment. GPRS data traffic model has something to do with application occasions such as Email, web browsing, online games, etc. Different types of application have different data quantity, which is determined by the byte number, packet number, delay class, and service type.

I. The Calculation of Subscriber Average Access Rate
In the real application planning, the busy hour average traffic for each subscriber should be estimated. Before the estimation, we should first estimate the average subscriber access rate, which is determined by the CS1-CS2 ratio (the GPRS channel coding at the initial stage generally employs CS1-CS2), subscriber’s multiple time slot capability, BLER, header, and the average load factor. Before the calculation of subscriber average access rate, we should make a series of hypothesises: There is no SNDCP compression or decompression, nor segmentation or recombination (such an IP packet is transmitted as a single LLC PDU at the LLC layer) The LLC frame format is: LLC header (9-byte)+SDNCP header (4 byte) + IP data +FCS (3 byte). Each packet occupies one RLC length of indication byte. LLC employs unconfirmed transmission mode; while RLC employs confirmed mode and considers 10% retransmission rate. The average IP packet length is 150 bytes. The IP data stream should be continuous at least within the range of ten IP packets. In the RLC confirmed transmission mode, each comparatively long time interval of IP packets means a TBF connecting and releasing process. Normaly during each TBF connecting and releasing process, the consumption of RLC/MAC control block occupies 20% of that of the total radio block. And also includes the processing time for connecting and releasing TBF. Besides, we already know
11-15

4 13. 868Kbps. The protocol header of the FR. In this condition.96 CS-4 (Kbps) 21. the number of the LLC PDU bits transmitted by each RLC data packet is 20 bytes. 30 bytes. except the tail bit. 11-16 . The RLC/MAC header usually occupies three bits. 1 ) 20 Where: M is the minimum RLC data block number necessary to transmit n LLC PDUs A1 is the total number of all the bytes in n LLC PDUs A2 is the total number of all the bytes of n IP packets B is the total number of all the LLC PDU bytes supported by each RLC data block T is the time necessary to transmit n LLC PDUs.19 CS-2 (Kbps) 13. M T VIP VGb A1 / B (M A2 / T VIP (150 53) / 150 1. that is n IP packets VIP is the estimated IP layer carrying rate of each PDCH VGb is the estimated carrying rate at the Gb interface layer of each PDCH X represents the upper round-off for X.6 9.42 16 7. NS.09 Suppose the proportion of the CS1 and CS2 in the designed network is 1:9.14 16 10. 36 bytes. BSSGP. CS2. and CS4. The following formula can be used to estimate the average data rate of the IP layer in various kinds of CS coding methods. while X for X. 42*10% 8. The result of the calculation is as follows: represents the lower round-off CS-1 (Kbps) U interface physical layer speed IP carrier speed Carrier speed needed at the Abis interface physical layer Carrier speed needed at Gb interface physical layer 9. 2 M 0. in such coding methods as CS1. and SNDCP of the Gb interface is 53 bytes. 14*90%=7. The average IP layer rate per time slot in the network is: 5.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Every 20ms one radio block will be transmitted.05 5.63 32 18. LLC. CS3. 327 VIP M 0.77 32 12.79 CS-3 (Kbps) 15.4 8. and 50 bytes respectively.

and usually is set to be 1/20 or so. r3 stands for idle-seizure ratio. which refers to the percentage of the traffic in the busiest day agaist the traffic in a whole month. and the subscriber multiple time slot capability is employed by 60%. and with the consideration of the mobile data characteristics. II. The average access rate for each subscriber will be 7. the estimation for the subscriber average data rate generally adopts the following method: The fixed IP Model (from ChinaNet) will be referred to. It has much to do with the service type. In a certain coverage area. 162Kbps.2. It has nothing to do with the service type. it will not be hard for us to plan the capacity of the whole network.2 GPRS Coverage Planning The coverage area of the GPRS is determined by the channel coding scheme. the average bandwidth for each subscriber in the GPRS field can be worked out: S = r1 r2 (A n V = S/A = r1 r2 where: S stands for the local network traffic V is the network busy hour subscriber average traffic A stands for local subscriber number n stands for the average network access times of a subscriber in a month T stands for the average communication duration each time r1 stands for the busy day concentration coefficient. 868*3*60%=14. It is set to be 1/4. which refers to the percentage of the traffic in the busiest hour agaist the traffic in a whole day. The Calculation of Subscriber Average Traffic At present.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Suppose the future mainstream MS type is 3+1. After the average traffic for each subscriber has been estimated. China Mobile has conducted an estimation on the average traffic for each GPRS subscriber during 2001-2002. In the GPRS system. E/N is a restriction factor. C/I is the major restriction factor. which refers to the ratio between the data downloading period and the whole online period. and the result is 180bps. BLER(Block Error Rate)=10% 11-17 . R stands for the subscriber access rate According to the above method. various GPRS voice channel correction coding schemes should be in conformity with standard requirement. n T r3 R / 3600) T r3 R / 3600 11. For interference restriction areas. r2 stands for the busy hour concentration coefficient.

CS2. the GPRS coverage area will reduce to the 88% of the original. should determine the GPRS coverage area according to the corresponding scale. the related performance curve can be worked out by simulation tools. CS3. Once the GPRS load functions. For the voice serving area. Table 11-2 The Percentage of the Serving Area with the GPRS Channel Coding Compared with Voice Subscriber Serving Area (%) Channel Coding CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 Okumura-Hata 79 61 54 34 Walfish-Ikegami 80 63 57 37 The channel coding scheme of data subscribers based on circuit-switching corresponds to 4. 4kbps GPRS data subscribers serving areas. 4kbps data subscriber serving area reduces to 85%. 2 The coverage area estimation still adopts Okumura-Hata Model (for the distance longer than one kilometer) and Walfish-Ikegami Model (for small base stations). 6kbps. 5 13. The result shows that in the normal GSM busy hour traffic condition. 8 12. The simulation condition aims at the RLC/MAC layer. We can compare them with the 14. 6kbps circuit-switched data subscribers. 7 17. 90% coverage can be realized. 8 13. it stands for the serving area in different channel coding condition. with FH) 7. 8 C/I (dB. Figure 11-6 illustrates the relationship between C/I and distance. The result is shown in Table 11-1: Table 11-1 GPRS Channel Coding Scheme~C/I Channel Coding CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 C/I (dB. CS4) in some reference. and also determine whether the GPRS network is capable of continuous coverage or not. which is based on the voice coverage serving area.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology In the condition that BLER=10%. 1 11. C/I will decrease with the increase of the GPRS load. GPRS data subscriber serving area reduces to 92%. 11-18 . the GPRS 14. Compared with voice and circuit-switched data subscribers. 6 20. cs-1 cs-2 cs-3 cs-4 Figure 11-5 GPRS Various Channel Coding Schemes Coverage Graph The real GPRS network coverage planning. Figure 11-5 illustrates the coverage of various GPRS channel coding. in the GPRS performance estimation. the required C/I value has been worked out by simulating the four GPRS channel coding schemes (CS1. when the cell peripheral C/I=9dB. At present. for the 9. without FH) 10. When the GPRS load is 100%. Suppose the interference in the serving area is constant and there is no frequency hopping. it theoretically refers to the serving area when the C/I is 9dB. 8kbps and 9.

Figure 11-7 The relationship between C/I distribution and GPRS load (0 100%) Figure 11-8 illustrates the relationship between C/I and multiplexing factor. On the other hand.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Figure 11-6 The relationship between C/I and distance (GPRS load 0--100%) Figure 11-7 illustrates the relationship between C/I distribution probability and GPRS load. when the C/I is 9dB. the coverage rate falls from 90% to 86%. 11-19 . where k ranges from seven to nineteen. the more powerful it will be to support comparatively heavy GPRS load. k=7 is not the best condition for the GPRS. The curve also shows that C/I decreases with the increase of the GPRS load. The bigger the multiplexing factor is.

The classical analysis method can still be used in the study of frequency multiplexing modes. different channel coding requires different C/I. 11-20 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Figure 11-8 The relationship between noncoverage rate and K (GPRS load from 0-100%) 11. Suppose the serving cell is represented by the symmetric regular hexagon and the co-channel interference cell is calculated with the six cells at the first layer. I stands for co-channel interference. Q= (2) Where C stands for carrier. Corrections with a certain dB will be made to get the number of frequency multiplexing families required by different channel coding in the GPRS network. g stands for path radio transmission factor.3 GPRS Frequency Planning The GPRS network frequency planning should consider the network data rate. The frequency multiplexing mode is determined by the requirement for C/I. The following formula can be worked out: C I = Q 6 D R (1) = 3&N . whose value is often set to be 2~5. Just as what has been mentioned above. R stands for the cell radius. N stands for the number of the cells in a multiplexing family.2. The first formula has considered Rayleigh attenuation environment rather than the effect of the log-normal attenuation. Different channel coding schemes should be adopted for different data rates. D stands for multiplexing distance.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology 11-21 .

7 17.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Table 11-3 GPRS Frequency Multiplexing Family Channel Coding Scheme Voice CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 C/I Threshold (dB) 9 10. GPRS is a new planning subject. Compared with voice channels. Generally. has no obvious influence for CS-2/3. The unsolved problems require further study in the future. a location area can include only one routing area. the original frequency hopping parameters should not be changed. The GPRS channels which are not fixed should start choosing the frequencies from those that have longer multiplexing distance. in order to simplify the network planning work. The channels required by the GPRS data services and voice services are dynamically distributed. all the channels which are used by the GPRS services should be guaranteed to satisfy the C/I requirement in the design. 8 12. It is recommended that at the beginning only the uplink power control be adopted.4 Summary The GPRS network planning should try to guarantee the QoS of the existing voice services. The fixed GPRS channels should choose the frequencies whose multiplexing distance can meet the C/I requirement. After the GPRS service has been developed. 11-22 . which targets the improvement of the frequency efficiency and has a low requirement for error code for the voice service. the data service and the voice service will exist together. independent frequency planning should be taken for the GPRS network. 2 N 7 9 9 12 13 >19 The frequency close multiplexing technology of the current GSM network. But the data communication has a high requirement for error code. 11. and lower the CS-4 performance. Frequent change of the channel coding method should be avoided. and try to reduce the unfavorable effect on the voice services caused by the GPRS services. In order to make full use of the GPRS coding technology advantage and to reduce the effect on the voice services. It can improve the CS-1 performance. Frequency hopping has no obvious advantage for the GPRS service. the concussion effect will be present. Otherwise. 8 13. Therefore. a location area should be divided into several routing areas according to the geographic distribution condition and GPRS service distribution condition. and the downlink power control be gradually introduced. At the initial stage of the GPRS introduction. can be used in the GPRS network. At the initial stage. and the dense multiplexing technology cannot meet the data transmission requirement. they have an option mechanism.2. in order to avoid network planning complexity.

or subnetworks they respectively belong to. Its system structure is shown as in Figure 11-9: UE RAN MSC 3G CN 3G CS VLR GMSC gsmSSF EXTERNAL PSTN UTRAN SERVICE APPLICATION HLR. RAN deals with the functions related to radio access. whose design is based on the WCDMA radio technology.3. Besides. at the beginning phase of the 3G network construction.1 UMTS System Network Composition Uu Node B USIM Cu ME RNC Node B lub Node B RNC Node B SGSN GGSN INTERNET External Networks lu MSC/ VLR HLR GMSC PLMN PSTN ISDN. It includes some logic network units.3 WCDMA System Overview Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) is the third generation mobile communication system adopting the WCDMA air interface. UE and UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) have completely new protocol composition. the switching and routing with the external networks within the UMTS system.GGSN Internet Figure 11-9 The System Structure of the UMTS System From the perspective of the GPP R99 standard. data connection. CN adopts the GSM/GPRS definition. From the functional view. 11.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology 11.etc lur UE UTRAN CN Figure 11-10 UMTS Network Unit Composition 11-23 . The UMTS system uses the same structure as that of the second generation mobile communication system. SCP 3G PS SGSN. while CN deals with all the voice calls. The UMTS system is also called WCDMA communication system. network units can be divided into radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN). The two units and user equipment (UE) jointly form the whole UMTS system. Different network units can be divided into groups according to functions. which can realize the smooth transition of the network. the global roaming can be realized.

Radio Network Controller (RNC) RNC is radio network controller. It connects to UTRAN via Iu CS interface. and application layer software module. III. transmission interface unit. and radio load distribution. macro diversity combination. power control. Node B Node B is the base station of the WCDMA system (radio transceiver). CN Core Network CN is responsible for the connection to other networks and the communication and management of UE. WWW browsing. Uu interface physical layer protocol processing. baseband processing unit. The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) UTRAN can be divided into base station (Node B) and radio network controller (RNC). Node B is composed of the following logic function modules: RF transceiving amplification. handoverhandover. User Equipment (UE) UE is the subscriber terminal equipment. The UMTS Subscriber Module (USIM) is responsible for the identification of the subscriber identity II. (3) The radio resources management and control function of macro diversity combination. UE transceives data to and from network equipment via Uu interface so as to provide subscribers with circuit-switched or packet-switched services including POTS.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Figure 11-10 illustrates that the UMTS network unit includes the following part: I. It can interconnect with RNC via the standard Iub interface to accomplish the. mobile multimedia. which includes radio transceiver and baseband processing parts. and connects to SGSN via Gs interface. channel decoding. protocol stack module. radio frequency transceiving system (TRX). baseband part (BB). UE includes two parts: The Mobile Equipment (ME) provides application and services. broadband voice. mainly responsible for the connection establishment and disconnection. modulation. Its major functions include: spectrum spread. and dispread. (2) The mobility management function of handoverhandover and RNC transfer. connects to HLR/AUC via C/D interface. and base station control part. It mainly includes radio frequency processing unit. radio resources management. and other PLMN via PSTN/ISDN interface. FTP. demodulation. and Internet applications such as Email. connects to external networks such as PSTN. The detailed functions are as follows: (1) The function of system message broadcast and system access control. connects to VMSC/VLR or SMC via E interface. The major function modules are as follows: (1) VMSC/VLR VMSC/VLR is the WCDMA core network CS domain function node. and the mutual conversion between baseband signals and radio frequency signals. etc. connects to SCP via CAP interface. etc. The major function of VMSC/VLR is to 11-24 . channel coding. ISDN.

Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology provide CS domain call connection. connects to SMC via Gd interface. connects to VMSC/VLR via Gs interface. (4) GGSN GGSN is the gateway GPRS support node. It is a selectable function node. fault management. billing management. ISDN and other PLMN via PSTN/ISDN interface. From the perspective of external networks. and connects to SCP via CAP interface. It needs to exchange routing information with external networks. configuration management. connects to GGSN via Gn/Gp interface. and connects to GGSN via Gc interface. (5) HLR HLR is the home location register of the WCDMA mobile network. connects to SCP via CAP interface. GGSM functions as all the subscribers’ IP router of the addressable WCDMA mobile network. OMC OMC function entities include equipment management system and network management system. V. mobility management. and encryption. It connects to external networks such as PSTN. connects to HLR/AUC via Gr interface. The detailed functions also include performance management. The network management system can realize the unified maintenance and management for all the network elements in the network. It connects to SGSN via Gn interface and connects to external networks (Internet /Intranet) via Gi interface. and security management. The major function of HLR is to provide functions like subscriber signature information storage. configuration management. billing management. GGSN provides data packet routing and encapsulation between WCDMA mobile network and external data networks. and enhanced authentication. fault management. The major functions of SGSN is to provide PS domain functions such as routing transfer. IV. connects to CG via Ga interface. connects to HLR via C interface. (3) SGSN SGSN is the WCDMA core network PS domain function node. and connects to SGSN via Gn/Gp interface. The major function of GGSN is the interface function for the external IP packet networks. It connects to UTRAN via Iu_PS interface. It connects to VMSC/VLR or GMSC via C interface. (2) GMSC GMSC is the gateway node between WCDMA mobile network CS domain and external networks. mobility management. new service support. authentication. conversation management. connects to SGSN via Gr interface. GGSN should provide the gateway function for UE to access external packet networks. authentication and encryption. which include performance management. The equipment management system performs the independent network element maintenance and management. Its major function is to accomplish the incoming and outgoing calling routing function of the VMSC functions. The external networks The external networks can be divided into two kinds: 11-25 . and security management.

3 Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication Because the mobile subscribers are expected to be randomly moving all the time. V. Cu interface adopts standard interface.3. The multiplexing technology realizes in base band or intermediate frequency part. It makes use of the electronic wave radiated by the radio frequency to identify dynamic mobile addresses. The familiar multiple access modes include FDMA 11-26 . The difference lies in that the signal multiplexing aims at differentiating multipath. UE connects to the fixed network part of the UMTS system via Uu interface. whereas the multiple access technology realizes in radio frequency. It is the same with the signal multiplexing technology in the fixed communications.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Circuit-switched networks (CS networks) support circuit-switched connection service such as POTS service. In fact. III. For example. both of these technologies belong to the signal quadrature partitioning and designing technology. all the data of MS are transmitted from the working RNC to the candidate RNC via Iur interface. Uu Interface Uu interface is the radio interface of WCDMA. Packet-switched networks (PS networks) support connection service. Iu interface is an open standard interface. data packet 11.3. This enables the UTRAN and CN connected by Iu interface to be provided by different equipment manufacturers. Iub Interface Iub interface connects Node B and RNC. the multiple access technology which can be used to differentiate and identify dynamic subscribers’ address must be introduced in establishing the connection between them. ISDN and PSTN belong to CS networks. It is used for the mobility management of MS in the RAN. Iu Interface Iu interface between UTRAN and CN. in the soft handoverhandover between different RNCs. IV. This also enables the RNC and Node B connected by Iub interface to be provided by different equipment manufacturers. Iub interface is also an open standard interface. It can be said that Uu interface is the most important open interface in the UMTS system. while multiple access technology aims at differentiating multiple dynamic addresses. Internet belongs to PS networks. 11. II.2 System Interface Figure 2-2 shows that the WCDMA system has the following interfaces: I. Iur interface is a unique interface of the UMTS system. Iur is an open standard interface. Iur Interface Iur interface is between RNCs. It is similar to the A interface and Gb interface of the GSM system. Cu Interface Cu interface is the electric interface between USIM card and ME.

In the DS-CDMA. it is called ordinary narrowband communication system. C stands for channel capacity. frequency shift and phase shift all belong to the narrowband communication system. II. The vivid explanation of DS_CDMA is that the spectrum is spread by multiplying the positive negative binary base band data wave by the pseudo-random positive negative binary wave with code snippet rate much higher than the signal rate. The CDMA communication system is a typical broadband communication system. it should be called spectrum spread communication. it is CDMA. which is similar to the noise. In digital communication system. The Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication System Following the principle of communication and the famous Shannon formula of the information theory. frequency-limit (F).Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology and TDMA. Its major feature is the signal code bandwidth before the spread is far less than the spread code series (chip) bandwidth. all subscribers occupy the same frequency band and the same time slot. CDMA has two major types: DS-CDMA and time slot coding/frequency hopping. F stands for the bandwidth occupied for the transmission of signal spread code series. that is when F/R=10-10 6 (10-60dB). When signals are differentiated by quadrature codes. The DS-CDMA has become the most important multiple access mode in 3G. C=F*T*lg(1+) as is shown in Figure 11-11: In the formula. which is determined by three most important parameters. but by the self-correlation function of different address signal code groups. then the system is broadband communication system. Narrowband and Broadband Communication System (1) Definition: suppose R stands for the rate of the signal code element to be transmitted. F stands for the frequency-limit bandwidth. (2) The broadband communication system is realized by the narrowband communication system via spectrum spread. which is usually set to be 1 in the communication principle. To be more accurate. power-limit (S) continuous white Gaus channel. The addresses are identified not by the quadrature parameters or the time slot. T stands for time-limit time slot. It is a kind of broadband communication system. T stands for the duration of signal code element. because it is the signal spectrum bandwidth that has been spread. S stands for the power signal/noise ratio. If R*T=F*T 1. As far as energy is concerned. that is when F=R or F=2R. 11-27 . I. This formula shows a time-limit (T). The DSCDMA communication is frequency spread communication. whose capacity can be vividly represented by the volume. When F R. wave spectrum intensity is reduced to a very low level.

The spread spectrum communication is a typical example. The revelation of this dialectical relationship facilitates multiple new communication mechanism establishment. there are two kinds of equivalent definitions: code element spread multiple at the transmitting end or signal bandwidth spread multiple. The processing gain will be represented by decibel. It can be represented in the following formula: N= (S/N) OUT (S/N) IN = R PN R = NR R = F PN B = NB B where. the increase of F can reduce the receiving S/N threshold value of the receiver lg(1+). F G (dB)=10 lg(N)(dB). III. and lg(1+ S ) forms the volume C. The Major Technical indexes of DS-CDMA Compared with the traditional communication system. (3) In the mobile communications. the spread spectrum system adds spread spectrum modulation at the transmitting end and dispread at the receiving end. When C is invariant. Shannon formula indicates that S/N can be improved by sacrificing frequency band F. T. 11-28 . stand for pseudo code bandwidth and information code bandwidth. when the volume is invariant. S is the most important contradiction. The improvement of S/N can be at any cost. the three variables can be mutually changed.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Figure 11-11 Channel Capacity C These three parameters F. stand for pseudo code rate and information code rate respectively. This is the basic principle of spread spectrum communication: bartering F for S/N. The major technical indexes of the DS_CDMA system include processing gain G and interference tolerance M. (1) Processing Gain G It refers to the S/N improvement degree after the dispread by the spread system. Additionally.

The reason that the capacity of CDMA is larger than the previous cell system mainly is the lower requirement for C/I and shorter frequency multiplexing distance. the processing gain G is 10lg(3. it has little interference for other communication systems and human bodies. Digitalized subscribers can have further encryption. the stronger the antiinterference capability is. 84M/12. after spread. The Major Advantages and Disadvantages of Spread Spectrum Communication Advantages: (1) Strong anti-interference capability. the 12. (6) It is easy to realize accurate timing and distance measurement. 2kbps voice service requires the typical value of Eb/No to be 5. it has a good security performance. (4) Low power spectrum density. Therefore. IV. the physical interpretation of the antiinterference capability of the spread system: E/T P E l f(E/N 0 ) = f( N 0 $F % FT) = f(S/N % FT) It illustrates that When is in direct proportion with the power S/N and signal base FT. In the WCDMA system.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology (2) Interference Tolerance M It refer to the decibel value of the interference higher than the signal the input end of the receiver can tolerate in the normal working condition: M = G − [L S + 10 lg S/N OUT ] L S stands for the actual transmission path loss (dB). (2) For digital communication system. In the condition that the code snippet rate is 3. 84Mcps. Because the spread belongs to the broadband system. The spread system is more likely to realize diversity reception in various forms and improve the anti-interference capability. M explicitly shows the maximum interference receiving value (in decibel) allowed by the receiver of the spread spectrum system. Therefore. 2k)= 25dB. very strong interference is allowed. It is suitable for the parametric variation channel radio communication. and is invariant. (5) It is easy to realize large capacity multiple access communication. Strong anti-interference capability and low power intensity means more subscribers allowed for interference-limit systems. and the larger the G is. M=5dB-5dB=20dB. At the same time. 0dB or so for the base band demodulation. that is. Disadvantages: 11-29 . it will be similar to white noise. the lower the power spectrum intensity will be. which is far smaller than the GSM required C/I >9dB. For example. (3) It has good security. which is 1*1 multiplexing. Therefore. C/I>-20dB. communication can continue in very low S/N. S/N is in inverse proportion with FT. Therefore. it has good concealment performance. Time and frequency two-dimension address division increases the number of potential addresses. is invariant. No matter it is direct spread or frequency hopping. That is to say. when FT=10- 10 6 . the wider the frequency spectrum is.

In order to get adapted to the transmission in various rates. The code series (chip) bandwidth after spread is far wider than the information code series bandwidth before the spread. WCDMA Channel Coding Scheme The WCDMA channel coding scheme includes the following parts: correcting coding/decoding (including speed adaptation). it is difficult to realize large capacity communication due to the limitation of detecting the number of address codes. which will also be embodied in the design of the channel coder and decoder.4 Some of the Key Technologies in the WCDMA System I. and in the acquisition of service multiplexing mode so as to realize different coding and multiplexing schemes for different services and provide various kinds of service combinations in the highest efficiency. codec algorithm. interleaving/deinterleaving. Figure 11-12 illustrates that channel coding scheme is not merely a matter about correction selection. Si CRC Channel coding Speed matching and inner-frame crossing DPDCH1 Inter reuse frame crossing and physical channel mapping DPDCH2 Sj CRC Channel coding Speed matching and inner-frame crossing DPDCHL Pilot labels TPC labels Other bit control labels MUX DPCCH Figure 11-12 WCDMA Channel Coding and Service Multiplexing 11-30 . It is also involved in the communication with the high layer messages. (2) The system realization is complicated. (3) It is difficult to realize synchronization on time variation channels. in the acquisition of service quality instruction from the high layer. the channel coding scheme includes the rate adaptation function.3. 11. Besides. (4) At present. some service combinations may require certain degree of service multiplexing.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology (1) It will occupy signal frequency bandwidth. The WCDMA proposes a rate adaptation algorithm aiming at adapting various service rates to a standard rate. transmission channel mapping to/separating from physical channel. and interleaving algorithm.

The same constellation graph will be used. Tarokh from AT&T. and the common code rate is 1/3 and 1/2. and then perform demodulation. on the one hand. what determines the channel coding performance is still its error control scheme. aiming at improving radio frequency utilization ratio. Turbo code codec technology develops fast. Space-time Code With the increase of mobile subscribers. Kahn. It divides the signal source data into several sub data stream and performs coding and modulation independently. In the transmitter data from the channel coding will be divided into n directions. The above analysis shows that the convolution coding and decoding technology similar to the second generation mobile communication system is still used for low rate and low performance requirement in WCDMA. All the analysis and simulation indicates that the utilization ratio of the two space-time codes above-mentioned can reach 20-40bps/Hz. The space-time code is one of the most important solutions proposed in recent years. Therefore. The layered space-time code has the following features: (a) n antennae use the same frequency band. The convolution code follows the second generation technology. and extremely high frequency utilization ratio. The restriction length is 9. there are three kinds of forward error correction codes: convolution code. on the other hand. II. by the cascading of internal interleaver. the pursuit for the highest frequency utilization ratio has become a challenging problem for the present and in the future. frequency spectrum resources become scarce. and the mobile communication service demand tendency from ordinary voice service to multimedia service. which has nothing to do with the number of the transmitting antennae n. Turbo code codec scheme will be used. The m receiving antennae at the receiving end simultaneously receive the signals sent by the n transmitting antenna. (c) The total power of the transmission unit antennae is constant. while for high rate and high performance requirement. modulation technology. it is not based on transmission diversity. D. excellent communication quality. Turbo code. This is why the layered space-time code is not based on transmission diversity. which means they can achieve good frequency band utilization ratio. G. The layered space-time code is first proposed by Foschini. In the research of the space-time code. Da-shan Shiu. and flow to n antennae. and decoding. (1) Layered Space-time Code. 11-31 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Of course. while the receiver has m receiving antennae (m ≧n). channel estimation. Joseph M. its error correction capability can be close to Shannon limit. and service specific code. Therefore. and signal processing technology to improve the efficiency of radio frequency. (b) The signals sent by n antenna are independent. has done some innovative research on the space-time code based on the transmission diversity. Turbo code is a new technology able to provide higher service quality. and it has developed into an FEC technology branch including many kinds of codec methods. The basic structure of the layered space-time code is as follows: the transmitter has n transmitting antennae. Turbo code is a new cascading recursion system convolution code. In the WCDMA proposal. It can be anticipated that the future mobile communication system featured by the space-time code will have extremely large system capacity. The decoding is the Viterbi algorithm based on the maximum likelihood. The major advantage of Turbo code is that among the AWGN channels. It is made of two recursive system convolution (RSC) coders with the same structure. Golden and Foschini have done much work on the layered space-time (LST) code. This challenge has stirred people to develop highly efficient coding technology. based on the summary of the previous research on the transmission diversity. At present. The sign is in synchronization.

the estimation can only get an average transmitting power. and forward fast power control. Generally. The quality of the power control mainly determines the CDMA system capacity. The power control rate develops from 2 times per second. The open loop means that MS based on the received power estimates the necessary transmitting power. it is an ideal result. The ordinary diversity modes include: time diversity such as channel coding. (e) The advantage of layered space-time code is that when m ≧ n. The closed loop power control means that the base station judges the transmission quality on the backward channel. (2) The space-time code based on transmission diversity. based on the transmission delay diversity. 26 microseconds. It becomes higher and higher. RAKE Reception In the WCDMA system. 11-32 . Tarokh and other people from AT&T. equivalent to 78 meters) into useful signals. It is also far more complicated than that of GSM. The working principle of the RAKE receiver is that it demodulates several signals with different time delay respectively. interleaving. to 50 times per second. it is important for the whole system to ensure that every subscriber uses the minimum power to transmit signals. but not effective for slow attenuation. High-speed Power Control A typical problem for the CDMA network is the near and far effect. the transmitting diversity is considered to be an important technology to enhance the radio link performance. Because the attenuation feature of the forward and backward links is different. The power control of CDMA includes forward and backward. In the actual mobile communication system. and the performance is also becoming better and better. 84 Mbps. IV. and sends it to the MS to make the transmitting power adjustment. but the power control of CDMA must be based on S/I. The space-time code based on transmission diversity can be divided into Space-time block code and Space-time trellis code according to different coding modes. that is 1Chip=0. the battery energy. because RAKE receiver can combine the signals with the delay of at least 1 Chip (the data transmission rate of the WCDMA network is 3. The transmitting power of the backward channel should be determined both by the estimation result and by the adjustment of the closed loop power control. which are very effective for fast attenuation. and the asymmetry of media services. Multiple antennae receiving diversity and transmitting diversity both belong to space diversity. formally proposed the space-time code based on transmission diversity. Instead. Based on this. it can be proven that the system capacity is almost in direct proportion with the number of the transmitting antennae n. the best mode is that the base station uses multiple antennae to realize receiving diversity and transmitting diversity. The forward power control includes measurement report power control. Because all the subscribers in the cell use the same frequency. III. and then algebraically combines them to improve reception performance. because of the limitation of MS size. which are the three forward power control algorithm gradually developed. and space diversity. frequency diversity such as spread spectrum. EIB power control. to 800 times per second. diversity is one of the most important methods to provide reliable communication. The backward power control includes open loop and closed loop.The power control of GSM only considers signal strength. In mobile communication system. while MS should not be required to use multiple antennae.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology (d) The single channel with high SNR will be divided into n overlapping channels with low SNR so as to improve the frequency spectrum efficiency. (f) The channel gain between different receiving antennae has no relationship. the multi-path propagation is no longer a negative factor.

(1) Linear Multi-subscriber Detector The linear multi-subscriber detector is based on certain judgment principle. In 1986. It first restore interference signal and then takes out the useful signal. The requirement for it is that the calculation speed should be great so as to avoid bringing big time delay for weak subscribers. The rest can be conducted by analogy. the multi-subscriber detector based on neural network. Schnedier and R. S. the serial interference suppressor can be replaced by the parallel interference suppressor. and they also pointed out some research directions. Although there are many kinds of multi-subscriber detection algorithm. The nonlinear multi-subscriber detector can mainly be divided into the following kinds: judgment feedback multi-subscriber detector. 11-33 . The serial/parallel interference suppressor is developed from the traditional CDMA detector. the multi-subscriber detection has achieved great development and has formed several comparatively clear thoughts. This kind of detector mainly includes two types: decorrelation linear multi-subscriber detector and minimum mean-square error multisubscriber detector. serial/parallel interference suppressor. S. which means realizing the multi-subscriber detection without multiple access interference by making use of other subscriber’s known information to get rid of the multiple access interference. Multi-subscriber Detection Technology In the year 1979 and the year 1983. Verdu developed the multisubscriber detection theory. and the rest can be done by analogy. (2) Nonlinear Multi-subscriber Detector It is a hot problem to eliminate multiple access interference by making use of effective nonlinear multi-subscriber detector. the second subscriber’s interference signal can be restored. The advantage of this treatment is dual. That is to make the signal intensity of the first subscriber greater than that of the second subscriber. the judgment can be most accurate. and makes judgment of the output series after adding a linear factor to the adaptation filter whose subscriber number is linear. This is the earliest multi-subscriber detection document. Making use of the first subscriber’s demodulated signals. the judgment of other subscribers has already subtracted the strongest multiple access interference signals. and the information bit can be acquired after judgment. If the energy of two subscribers is similar. After that. He proposed the asynchronous CDMA best detection with adaptation filter group and Viterbi decoding. The idea is to arrange the demodulated subscriber signal into order by the signal intensity. The following part is the brief introduction to various kinds of multi-subscriber detectors. the judgment is made for the strongest signal. Secondly. Kohno respectively proposed the multi-subscriber receiver (multi-subscriber detection) idea. The interference risk device is most likely to get applied in the WCDMA system due to its simple structure. the basic idea of the algorithm is the same: trying to make use of the whole subscriber signal resource to suppress multiple access interference and to avoid near and far effect. subtracting the third subscriber’s signal by the first and second subscriber’s interference. Because it suffers least from the multiple access interference. In the same way. At first the normal demodulation method will be used to demodulate the first subscriber’s signal. First. Good performance can be achieved even without ordering subscribers. Judgment will be made after subtracting the second subscriber’s signal by the first subscriber’s interference. multi-group multi-subscriber detector. The serial interference suppressor has simple structure and it greatly improves the performance of the traditional detector.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology V. K.

11. and there is much work to do to combine the space-time code technology with intelligent antenna technology. In a cell softer handover may occur. Others Some of the key technologies in the WCDMA system have been discussed. there exists a dynamic relationship between the coverage and the capacity of the CDMA system. In the 3G phase. Code Planning In the TDMA system. VII. it can provide high-speed data service. the soft handover can bring diversity gain (in fact. There is some distance to cover for the real application of the intelligent antenna and multisubscriber detecting technology. which is determined by the macro diversity gain and the resultant interference).2kbps channel. Besides. while that of the downlink sensitivity is -117dBm.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology In recent years the integration of various technologies has attracted wide attention of researching people.5 The Receive Sensitivity of the WCDMA System I. intelligent antenna. It includes the following kinds: space-time two perspective signal processing technology. VI. Soft handover can reduce the undesirable disconnection and improve the cell peripheral service. CDMA frequency planning is simple. MSC. and CDMA can provide more service types. multi-subscriber detecting technology. Therefore. and different systems. and interference threshold. The design should take into consideration of the feature that a cell has soft capacity. Assuming there is 50% load: For 12.3. The code planning at the initial stage of the network construction is very simple. and multi-subscriber detection and power control integration technology. Soft Handover GSM only has hard handover. there is much to be improved for the systematic theoretical analysis of the space-time code. with the frequent use of repeaters. the handover from the serving cell to the adjacent cells will not cause any effect. the capacity and coverage design of CDMA system is much more difficult than that of TMDA. The soft handover of CDMA refers to the fact that a handset can connect to several base stations at the same time. multi-subscriber detection are all effective tools to improve the spectrum utilization ratio. But the CDMA frequency multiplexing coefficient is 1. but it has introduced the code planning. However. multi-subscriber detection and channel codec integration technology. noise coefficient. and equilibrium technology. Receiver Sensitivity In the WCDMA system. However. the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -121dBm. 11-34 . Compared with the current TDMA. CDMA also have hard handover like GSM between different frequency points. in the uplink. Meanwhile. Therefore. Research has indicated that space-time code. the network will become complicated and the code planning will also become quite complicated. and will be used widely in the future WCDMA mobile communications system. which means connecting to new base stations after disconnecting the original connection. the frequencies used by one cell cannot be used in the adjacent cells. VIII. in the downlink there also may be gain. sensitivity is related to many indexes such as service rate.

The Related Factors of the Receiver Sensitivity 1Receiver sensitivity is jointly determined by receiver noise level and baseband demodulation performance. The protocol regulates it should be no more than 5. the closed loop power control is functioning. The base station receiver noise is the minimum noise threshold that communication system must overcome. Because the closed loop power control speed is limited. 15. 0dB (the protocol requires it be no more than 9. (2). the noise bandwidth should be set to be 3.0dB). to the closed loop power control for the fast moving UE. and the adopted demodulation algorithm. 2kbps voice channel demodulation should be Eb/N0. while that of the downlink sensitivity is -111dBm. Considering the fact that the entire receiving channel includes baseband matching filter function. while that of the downlink sensitivity is -108dBm. the demodulation threshold of NodeB is calculated to be 4. (1) Receiver Noise Level.38 % 10 J/K) T: Kelvin temperature: 290K in normal temperature The result is: KT= -174dBm/Hz F: receiver noise coefficient. BW: receiver noise bandwidth. UE moving speed. the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -114dBm. With the channel physical realization deterioration 1. 3dB should be guaranteed within the full range of temperature. 4 clause of the Wideband CDMA for Third Generation Mobile Communications protocol. In this condition. 1 actual measurement data. 84MHz. the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -111dBm. A.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology For 144kbps channel. For 384kbps channel. the link estimation in highspeed environment can directly use the demodulation performance in with the condition that there is no power control. Receive heat noise = KTF*BW −23 K: Bridgman Constant (= 1. The Demodulation Performance under the Power Control Condition The demodulation performance regulated in the protocol is measure under the condition that there is no closed loop power control. 3dB. 1dB. Therefore. 3dB. 11-35 . B. 8dB. Basic Performances Regulated in the Protocol In the static channel condition. II. According to Huawei NodeB1. 12. Baseband Demodulation Performance The baseband demodulation performance is influenced by many factors such as transmission environment. 5dB. it does little good. In the real system. whose speed is larger than 50km/h according to the 5. diversity. the above demodulation performance cannot be used directly in the link estimation. in normal temperature the value is 2. The simulation works out that the baseband demodulation needs 2. It is to ensure the lowest signal level of the connection quality. sometimes even bad. UE receiver noise coefficient is set to be 7.

21dB. the demodulation threshold of NodeB is calculated to be 5. 71dB.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology The base station baseband demodulation performance in the condition that the power control is started is as follows: CASE 1 Channel The fixed-point simulation shows that the baseband demodulation needs 4. The baseband demodulation threshold in urban areas adopts CASE2 channel condition. the demodulation threshold of NodeB is calculated to be 4. 11-36 . 5dB. With the consideration of physical realization deterioration 0. CASE 2 Channel The fixed-point simulation shows that the baseband demodulation needs 4. 99dB. 5dB. 49dB. With the consideration of physical realization deterioration 0. The baseband demodulation threshold in suburb/rural areas adopts CASE1 channel condition.

4. Because there exists a dynamic balance relationship between coverage and capacity.4 WCDMA System Network Planning 11. On the contrary. What the CDMA network planning engineers are facing now is a similar dynamically varying network. Cells and subscribers are differentiated by scrambling and orthogonal codes. the full load factor is preset to be 60%. it will be impossible for you to hear clearly when the noise rises to a certain degree. the corresponding relationship between the transmission power and the cell capacity is in a gradual mode. the factors that affect GSM system capacity are mainly frequency resource and frequency multiplexing technology. The detailed parameters depend on various kinds of services.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology 11. The greater the system load is. there is a great difference between their planning mode in the radio network estimation phase. is only related to the maximum transmission power. Therefore. whose coverage depends not only on the maximum transmission power. Here the cell breathing effect is applied. The mathematic reasoning for the 3Gservice which has high requirement for data transmission illustrates that the probability for the serving cell to borrow load capacity from the adjacent cells increases as the data transmission quantity increases. there exists a mutual adjustment process between coverage estimation and capacity estimation: 11-37 . But the coverage of the GSM network.1 The Content of the WCDMA Network Planning The WCDMA system uses different RTT technology with the GSM system. on the condition that the frequency planning is good and there is no off-net interference. there exist obvious differences between the system design methods of the WCDMA and GSM systems. There is no relationship between coverage and capacity. If you can speak with your friend at the other side of the room at the beginning. and the WCDMA system introduces vast support for data service. it is also related to the risks the carriers want to bear. and the smaller the system coverage is. The design personnel in design should take into full consideration how to reduce the unnecessary noise. Take a vivid example first: In a party there are many guests. in the WCDMA design. Therefore. The capacity and coverage are directly influenced by the network interference. which is called soft load. and different subscribers are differentiated by frequency and time slot. Therefore. and the capacity is only related to the available service channels. in the design. the GSM system adopts TDMA technology. Many people speak together. This means the radius of the conversation area has shortened.and vice versa. Generally speaking. and carries out the control based on the QoS of services. because it is easy for a cell to get fully loaded. The WCDMA system adopts 1*1 frequency multiplexing mode. the higher the noise base rises. Network planning engineers must reduce network full load rate. For the WCDMA system. This will cause the noise in this room even greater. Of course. network capacity cannot be expanded on a large scale. In the WCDMA system. The adjacent cells can share the load mutually. The WCDMA system is a noise restrained system. In this situation you can still talk with your friend as long as you and your friend speak loudly. Due to cost consideration. but also on system load. the relationship between coverage and capacity should be taken into full consideration to ensure the necessary system performance indexes. which makes difficult to figure out what the speaker is saying.

The uplink is a typical restraint factor of the UMTS cell effective area. The capacity can be estimated according to the traffic distribution condition (real-time service: Erl/Km2. The transmission power in the uplink is provided by the handset. What is worth explaining is that the WCDMA network needs to support services with different QoS and rates. Therefore. there exists a dynamic relationship between coverage and capacity. Thus the actual effective range of a cell can only partially meet the requirement of advanced services. the network planning work will be very complicated. whereas when there are few subscribers. The traffic of the UMTS network is asymmetric. On the other hand. and the above coverage and capacity estimation process should be performed again. in the radio network planning. Because in the WCDMA system. the traffic (or interference threshold) a cell supports should also be assumed. Network planning engineers should at first work out the value in both directions. while the downlink is capacity limited. Therefore. This means the cell capacity has something to do with the actual distribution condition of subscribers. different coverage probability requirement for various kinds of services the network supports should be determined. none real-time service: kbps/Km2) in the coverage area. when a subscriber is far away from the base station. In this way. the focus of the network estimation is on the available frequency points of carriers and the frequency planning method which can determine the maximum number of carrier frequencies a cell can support. In the capacity estimation. simulation method has to be adopted to conduct a dynamic analysis on the network. The radius of the forward and backward cell is the same. the number of base stations necessary in the whole coverage area and the base station configuration can be worked out. the traffic (interference threshold) a cell supports should be assumed first. the data transmission on the uplink and the downlink of the network is different. For the GSM network. UMTS network planning engineers start from the radius of the intermediate-level services. The number of base stations necessary to meet the network capacity requirement and the base station configuration can be worked out. he has to get a large part of the transmission power so that it may cause power shortage for other subscribers. Generally. Compare the number of base stations generated by the two methods according to coverage and capacity respectively. and then combine them properly. this problem can be solved by conducting statistics on the mean value. When the subscriber density is very large. The cell coverage 11-38 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology In the coverage estimation. The ultimate result should be that the estimated number of base stations based on the links and the number of base stations based on the capacity analysis should be the same so that minimum number of base stations will be used to fully meet the coverage and capacity requirements. Based on the result. that means there exist coverage-limited or capacity-limited conditions. while the transmission power in the downlink is provided by the base station. The coverage of the base station should be worked out by making use of link estimation result and appropriate transmission model in different typical environment. that is to say. or it can be said that in a certain load condition the uplink is coverage limited. and the actual coverage of a cell is restricted by the coverage probability of the services that need to be supported. the cell load should be adjusted once again. and the cell coverage is worked out based on the cell load. If they are not the same. if the number of base stations generated by the two methods is not the same.

based on the coverage prediction. and parameter will be adjusted based on the initial result of the system simulation until the simulation result meets the design and system performance requirement. the pilot pollution is a significant factor. this kind of problem may not occur. In the WCDMA system. The main feature of pilot pollution is that there is no leading cell. At the beginning phase. The first is the well-trained professional network planning engineers. 11-39 . the purpose of both the power control and the RRM algorithm is to save network resource and reduce the transmission power of the service channels as many as possible on the premise that the quality is guaranteed. which affects the network performance. Finally. In the WCDMA system. it can be known that the WCDMA network planning cost is much higher than the current mobile communication network planning. the statistic result of the system simulation will be analyzed. which causes the activation set to renew frequently. The last is the outstanding planning software tool. To be more specific. base station configuration and location. 3. because many system parameters are closely related to each other. Inappropriate choice of the base station location and the antenna leaning angle. Bad system design. Therefore. 3G network planning is very complicated. and the system capacity can be determined so as to generate a detailed radio network planning solution. the Monte Carlo system simulation will be further used to appraise the network performance. The complexity of the WCDMA network planning requires us to possess new technologies and new knowledge at all levels. the number of base stations. they can know exactly the UMTS network expansion condition and cost. Therefore. Complicated geographic environment and lack of full consideration in design From the above analysis. which is absolutely necessary for the 3G network planning. Therefore. the height of the antenna. because the BCCH frequency points normally employ very loose multiplexing mode (such as 5*3) and they are planned carefully. the coverage and capacity estimation can be finished once. the configuration principle of cell parameters should take all these factors into consideration. The second is managers who are familiar with the business and have accurate foresight. the leaning angle of the antenna.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology change has nothing to do with the network load. Normally. At the same time. In the GSM system. the planning phase needs a simulation testing process. whereas the current mobile communication network planning calculate these parameters separately. who are good at system technology. the power resource is very limited. The pilot pollution increases network interference and causes handover algorithm not able to work efficiently. 2. it is a common problem. the transmission power of the pilot channel is too big. terminals receive pilot signals from multiple cells with the similar power. In the CDMA system. Due to the unique features and complexity of the WCDMA network. for example. and have to be calculated at the same time. There is no repetition process necessary. The reasons for pilot pollution generally include: 1.

and the number of the available carriers and the multiplexing method determine the maximum simultaneous connection number.2 WCDMA Radio Capacity Calculation The mobile communications system has three major factors: coverage. and quality.4. II. there is no direct relationship between these three factors. Interference can be controlled by network design (multiplexing method. which are influenced and controlled by each other. The difficulty of network design lies in frequency planning. etc. The coverage is determined by uplink and downlink transmission power (link balance problem) The conversation quality is determined by the interference condition. The WCDMA System The WCDMA system is self-interference system. frequency hopping. coverage. There is close relationship between capacity. One carrier contains eight time slots. Each of them can be independently analyzed and designed. 11-40 . and quality. Figure 11-13 The three Factors in Mobile Communications I. capacity. The GSM System The capacity is basically determined by hardware resources.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology 11. multiplexing distance. ) to ensure high quality. In GSM system.

WCDMA Uplink Capacity Analysis (1) Uplink Interference Composition is: I TOT = I own + I other + PN Where.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology The relationship between capacity and coverage. the capacity increases. such as by decreasing data rate via AMRC for connections with great path loss. The relationship between capacity and quality is that the system capacity can be improved by lowering part of the connection quality requirement. The relationship between coverage and quality is that the system coverage capability can be improved by lowering part of the connection quality requirement. and coverage decreases. Figure 11-14 The WCDMA is a Self-interference System III. then 11-41 . such as by decreasing target BLER value via external loop power control. -Assuming the power control is ideal.Pj refers to the interference each subscriber has to overcome.If the designed load increases. and Pj refers to the reception power of the subscriber j. interference increases. such as the cell breathing. Iown: refers to the interference from subscribers of the local cell ITOT .

84MHz -NF: receiver noise coefficient We can get the result: 10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3. antenna direction. 84MHz NF = 3dB (typical value for macro cell base station) PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF = -105dBm/3. . 65. for a directional cell with three sectors. the uplink interference gets 11-42 . WCDMA signal bandwidth 3. cell layout method. the normal temperature is 290 K -W: signal bandwidth. for an omnidirectional cell. since it relates to so many factors such as subscriber distribution. -The adjacent cell interference factor can be defined as: i= I other I own When the subscriber distribution is even. the typical value of the adjacent cell interference factor is 0.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology (Eb / No ) j = hence. PN: receiver noise base PN = 10lg(KTW) NF 10-23 J/K -K: Bridgman constant = 1. Pj: Pj I TOT W 1 ⋅ − Pj R j v j ⋅ Pj = I TOT W 1 1 1+ ⋅ ⋅ (Eb / No ) j R j v j The interference of the subscribers of the same cell is the sum of the power with which all the subscribers reach the receiver: I own = ∑ Pj 1 N Iother: refers to the interference from subscribers of adjacent cells. Adjacent cell subscriber interference is hard to analyze theoretically. 84MHz Therefore. etc. the typical value of the adjacent cell interference factor is 0. 38 -T: Kelvin temperature. 55.

55 The uplink carrier factor is defined as: ηUL = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ 1 1 N N 1 1+ 1 W 1 ⋅ ⋅ (EbvsNo) j R j v j 11-43 . and the demodulation threshold is EbvsNo = 5dB Voice activation factor vj = 0. 2kbps voice subscribers.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology I TOT = I own + I other + PN = (1 + i )∑ 1 N I TOT + PN W 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ 1+ (Eb / No ) j R j v j and I TOT = I TOT ⋅ (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j + PN 1 N We can get: I TOT = PN ⋅ 1 1 − (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j 1 N Suppose All the subscribers are 12. 67 Adjacent cell interference factor i = 0.

because AMRC reduces the voice service rate of part of subscribers so as to decrease the interference they generate. (2) Analysis The above theoretical analysis has explicitly or implicitly employed the following abbreviation: Soft handover has not been taken into consideration. when the load is 75%. 11-44 .Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Figure 11-15 The relationship between capacity and uplink interference When the carrier factor equals one. This also enables the system to support more subscribers at the cost that the conversation quality of these subscribers may decrease. Based on the above relationship. noise rises 4dB. We can also get the relationship formula between carrier factor and interference. AMRC and combined service effects have not been taken into consideration. and the capacity in this situation is called maximum capacity. the noise rises 6dB. based on which Figure 11-16 can be generated: Noise Rise = 1 ITOT = P N 1 − ( +i ) 1 ∑L 1 N = j 1 1 −η UL Figure 11-16 The relationship between noise and carrier factor It can be judged from the figure that when the load is 50%. because subscribers in soft handover state generate less interference than normal subscribers. the maximum capacity is 96 subscribers illustrated by Figure 11-15. the noise rises 3dB. In the above hypothesis. the noise increase formula is as follows. when the load is 60%. ITOT reaches infinitely great.

11-45 . For example. the designed load for macro cells normally does not exceed 75%. Although theoretically the above method can still be used for the analysis. the demodulation threshold varies in terms of time. the normal temperature 290 K -W: signal bandwidth. Suppose the subscriber distribution is balanced. If all the above factors have been taken into consideration. and the adjacent cell interference is constant. which makes the power control not ideal and decreases system capacity. Downlink Capacity Analysis (1) Downlink Interference Composition I TOT = I own + I other + PN PN: receiver noise base PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF -K: Bridgman constant = 1. network design cannot be done based on the maximum capacity. then the corresponding noise rise will be 4dB. even if it is the same service. the network will be less stable if the load is too heavy. WCDMA signal bandwidth 3. Due to the time-varying feature of mobile environment. because the maximum capacity corresponds to the maximum noise rise. Therefore. there is no mutual interference. 84MHz Iown Interference within the local cell Downlink subscribers can be differentiated by the mutually orthogonal OVSF codes. In the real system. Ideal power control hypothesis. 84MHz NF = 7dB (UE typical value) PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF = -101dBm/3. 84MHz -NF: receiver noise coefficient The result can be: 10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3. (3) Capacity Design In order to ensure the system stability. the system simulation is a more accurate method: static simulation method Monte_Carlo and dynamic simulation. IV. UE has no such powerful transmission power to overcome the noise. Finally. Besides. if the load is designed to be 60%.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Different services have different data rates and demodulation threshold. due to the time-varying feature of mobile environment. it will make the computing process much more complicated. The power control commands of the real system have some error codes. 38*10-23 J/K -T: Kelvin temperature. In static condition without multipath transmission. the greater noise rise caused by the access of new subscribers will be. the greater the carrier factor is. sometimes the noise can even break the existing connection.

k base station to subscriber j is PLk.j. PT = PCCH + ∑ Pj 1 N Adjacent Cell Interference Iother The signals transmitted by the adjacent cell base stations will cause interference for the subscribers in the local cell. I TOT = I own + I other + PN = (1 − α j )⋅ K PT 1 + PT ⋅ ∑ + PN PL j 1 PLk . Orthogonalization factor this phenomenon: (I own ) j = (1 − α j )⋅ PT PL j In this formula. PT is the total transmission power of the base station. j Therefore. these interferences are non-orthogonal. including the private channel transmission power and common channel transmission power.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology In multipath transmission. part of energy cannot be received by the Rake receiver and can be defined to describe becomes interference signals. Suppose service distribution is even. and the path loss from the No. We then can get: (I other ) j = PT ⋅ ∑ 1 K 1 PLk . we then can get: (EbvsNo ) j = And PL j W 1 ⋅ ⋅ (ITOT ) j R j v j Pj Pj = (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ Since Rj W ⋅ v j ⋅ (I TOT ) j ⋅ PL j PT = PCCH + ∑ Pj 1 N Hence. and the transmission power of all the base stations is equal. 11-46 . Because different scrambling is used. There are k adjacent cell base stations. j Assume again that power control is ideal.

j Based on the above analysis. The following are the simulation parameter table and simulation result graph 11-17. j      The value of PT can be worked out: N R   PCCH + PN ⋅ ∑ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j ⋅ PL j  W 1   PT = N Rj   1 − ∑ (1 − α j + i j )⋅ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j  W 1   Where ij is the adjacent cell interference factor of subscriber j. and can only be determined by the system simulation. (2) Analysis Different from the calculation of uplink capacity. and the corresponding capacity is maximum capacity.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology N Rj   PT = PCCH + ∑ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j ⋅ (I TOT ) j ⋅ PL j  W 1   N K  Rj    P 1 + PN  = PCCH + ∑ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j ⋅ PL j  ⋅ (1 − α j )⋅ T + PT ⋅ ∑ W PL j 1  1 PLk . which can be defined as: ij = ∑ 1 K PL j PLk . the downlink capacity is related to subscriber’s space distribution. 11-47 . j      K PL N  Rj    j = PCCH + ∑ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j  ⋅ (1 − α j )⋅ PT + PT ⋅ ∑ + PN ⋅ PL j  W 1  1 PLk . the transmission power of base stations can reach infinitely great. That is to say. the variables j and ij in the downlink capacity calculation formula are both related to the subscriber’s location. carrier factor can be defined. N R   η DL = ∑ (1 − α j + i j )⋅ (EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j  W 1   When the downlink carrier factor reaches 100%.

it can support 114 subscribers at the most.Radio Network Planning Parameter MCL macro (including antenna again) Antenna gain (including losses) Log Normal fade margin PC MODELLING #PC steps per snapshot step size PC PC error HANDOVER MODELING Handover threshold for candidate set active set Choice of cells in the active step Combining NOISE PARAMETERS noise figure noise power TX POWER Maximum BTS power Common channel power Maximum TX power speech DL value 70 dB 0 dBi 11 dBi 10 dB > 150 perfect PC 0% Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Parameter Power control range HANDLING of DOWNLINK maximum TX power Random and uniform across the network non orthogonality factor macrocell 0.1 dB USER DISTRIBUTION DL value 25 dB Maximum ratio combining 9 dB -99 dBm proposed 43 dBm 30 dBm 30 dBm Figure 11-17 Downlink Capacity Analysis Simulation Result Analysis: When the base station transmission power is 43dBm (20W). 11-48 .4 COMMON CHANNEL Orthogonal ORTHOGONALITY DEPLOYMENT SCENARIO Hexagonal with BTS Macrocell in the middle of the cell BTS type omnidirectional Cell radius macro 577 macro > 19 with wrap # of macro cells around technique) bit-rate speech 8 kbps Activity factor speech 100% Multipath environment macro Outdoor micro Eb/N0 target 6.

Typical Example Voice Video telephone Multimedia data stream Network browsing Network games Email downloading at the background II. The parameters for the typical conversational services are shown in the following table. which makes the analysis difficult.4. 11-49 . while the system capacity is restricted in the downlink. in order to ensure the stability of the system. it will cause difficulty for listening. that is 41. Therefore. the average transmission power of the base station is not allowed to be greater than 75% of the maximal transmission power. services can be divided into four types based on different QoS: Conversational Class Streaming Class Interactive Class Background The features and typical examples of these four types of services are shown in the following table: Service QOS Type Conversational Streaming Interactive Background Basic Feature Information data time relationship should be kept Conversational mode with little time delay and strict requirement for time delay jitter. Compared with the uplink capacity. Summary The capacity analysis of the WCDMA system should take more factors which are more complicated into consideration: The downlink capacity is related with subscriber space distribution. The system simulation is en effective tool for the capacity analysis of the WCDMA system.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Usually. For example. and in this condition it can support 111 subscribers. Otherwise. the capacity of WCDMA is restricted in the uplink. which is completely different from that of the IS95. V. Service Type In the WCDMA system. 11. and it cannot exceed 400ms at the most. in this condition. The Calculation Method of the Blocking Rate for Different Types of Services (1) Conversational Services Conversational services have strict requirement for point-to-point time delay.3 WCDMA Service Description and Calculation I. 7dBm. Request response mode Data completeness should be preserved Target has high tolerance for data delay. this result is much greater. Information data time relationship should be kept. it is usually required to be less than 150ms for voice services. Data completeness should be preserved. It is generally accepted that the coverage uplink of the IS95 system is restricted.

and calling queuing mechanism can be provided. round-trip time is the most important index for this kind of services. the Erlang C formula is adapted to do the blocking probability (defined as the probability of call waiting exceeding a certain period of time) calculation for this kind of subscribers. The parameters for the typical streaming services are shown in the following table. (3) Interactive Services Interactive services refer to the type of services that subscribers request data from servers. streaming services have lower requirement for point-to-point time delay. The parameters for the typical interactive services are shown in the following table 11-50 . In this situation. Streaming services are also usually carried in the CS domain. The system can process conversational services without conducting the calling queuing treatment. Therefore. (2) Streaming Services Compared with conversational services.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Conversational services are usually carried in the CS domain. It is described by the terminal subscriber request response mode. the traditional Erlang B formula or the extended Erlang B formula can be adopted to do the calculation. and it is assumed that 50% of the blocked subscribers will retry immediately. In this situation. The extended Erlang B formula is recommended here. Streaming services have high tolerance for call waiting.

The Erlang C formula is adopted to do the blocking rate calculation. which can reach up to the hour level. the corresponding needed channels should be added to ensure enough busy hour traffic. Since background services can be initiated and terminated any time by the system. The usual calculation method is to work out the background services traffic that can be supported according to the result of the maximal channel number of the system less busy hour average occupied channel number. 8. If the calculated traffic value cannot meet the design requirement. With the consideration of the signaling overhead caused by the transmission startup and temporary termination. this kind of service can terminate any time when a request with higher QoS comes in. and respond to it while it is idle. both of the above-mentioned Erlang B formula and Erlang C formula do not work. Interactive services have certain tolerance for call waiting. the worked out traffic should be multiplied by an efficiency factor such as 0. Because of so large tolerance. the system can store such requests when it is busy. 11-51 . (4) The Calculation of the Background Services Background services have the largest tolerance for time delay.Radio Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology Interactive services are usually carried in the PS domain. and the system can provide queuing mechanism. Meanwhile.

etc. mobile communications technology has developed to the extent that the border of the many related technologies have blurred: the cross infiltration of base station and base station controller. another important aspect is the good interface between the planning optimization software and OMC database. and one that denotes broader range. 1 Research on the Network Planning Technology Research on the network planning technology includes: planning methods and software implementation. The characteristics of radio system lie in the mobility of the subscribers and the cellular networking as well. For the reason hereof. As for the software implementation. Broadly speaking. Thus most of the practical project planning optimization can be done by using the platform that is based on the software to free the front-line project engineers from the repetitive handiwork to make them focus on how to improve the network quality. and good dynamic adaptability to meet users’ demands on voice and data service. the radio network quality. good capacity. or can even present new algorithm. network optimization. the ultimate purpose of network planning optimization is to establish a radio network that has good coverage. It involves participation and system-formation from all the radio products departments. research on planning optimization is the research on networking that is market-oriented and market-driven. So network planning today is not the one it used to be referred to before. simulation. brief design and participation involved in radio products. One obvious feature is that many radio personnel in big companies must receive the training on the theory of radio propagation and practical activities on network drive test and background analysis before they are to be engaged in any concrete research or project engineering. optimization methods and software implementation. secondary development of cooperation-aided core algorithm module can be used to save the cost and enhance the competitiveness. on the other hand. can accelerate the development and perfection of the product to meet the networking demands. The purpose of doing so is to strengthen their understanding on the characteristics of mobility and cellular networking. standards. as well as good management on the project.Radio Network Planning Conclusion Conclusion To date. the focus of which in on research. In addition. and expansion of the radio network services. layered net structure (including the i . and turnkey radio products marketing plan preparation. The research topics that can be derived now include: The propagation characteristics of some mobile communications frequency bands. but in the context of a technology and service. and the combination of radio side products. and experimentation of planning optimization methods. that they perceive the demands from the switch office side and analyze the potential uncertainty of the radio network. It’s not confined to a department. The purpose is to improve the radio products’ market adaptability. It also includes personnel-training mechanism as well as shift mechanism. radio products marketing strategy. In the following sections we will discuss the duties and responsibilities of network planning from four perspectives: research on network planning technology. (radio) network planning. The result of the research can be on the one hand a planning optimization method for the general mobile system. The mobility dictates that the designers have profound understanding on the complexity and connectivity of the macro radio cellular networking. good quality. or protocols.

soft handover. multiple carrier propagation. multiple users detection. It can give advices and assessment on the project establishment. the manufacturer needs to present whole set of networking plan. the overall frame must be far-sighted and scalable. voice speed. and propagation. transceiver diversity technology. the greater the ii . new radio frequency devices. base station. new technologies (air interface coding.Radio Network Planning Conclusion structure inside the system and between the system). The planning personnel need to construct the future network structure taking into account the radio side equipment and mature networking. new function development. A simple example is. the base configurations. tender cost is especially eye-catching. but also consideration of the radio cost to enhance the tender competitiveness. The essence of it is to provide a competitive networking philosophy to meet carrier and user’s demands in light of technology. frequency spectrum requirement.). For overseas TURNKEY project. The result of the networking research can directly be the algorithm of some base station controllers (channel management. evaluation on the effect of. cost. handover management. and user group. and networking are strictly related to the equipment and mature planning methods as well. power supply. multiple access. 3 Radio Products Marketing and Marketing Plan Preparation The marketing concerned here is the network marketing. On the other hand. and new version concerning the base station controller. tower. and OMC products from the perspective of networking. intelligent antenna. antenna-feeder selection. The planning personnel need to decide the appropriate networking in light of the equipment performance. frequency utilization ratio and the evolution trend of capacity. and contribution from radio network performance. including providing solution strategy according to the switch office’s requirements or even providing solution strategy for market creation for the switch office. Before the primary design of the products. spread spectrum technology. it is very necessary to take the many complex networking requirements into account. traffic module. This demands not only the future network quality and scalability. power control. This can prevent the later non-marketability of the product and inability to improve the network quality. It is especially competitive and practical if the decision-makers join the practical networking analysis when deciding the whereabouts of the product according to the market analysis. the number of base stations. Both the result and the procedure of networking research have significant guide in the product development. Radio networking directly demands a series of investment such as equipment house. etc. This is especially important when concerned with the key project expansion. and data throughput module and their effect on the network performance. the higher the frequency utilization ratio. when preparing a concrete marketing plan. especially when concerned with new carrier or new frequency band network.). former network being blank. For the sake of reaching the best balance between the network indexes and quotation (investment). 2 Participation in the Primary Design of Radio Products The purpose of networking research is to serve the product development to improve their market competitiveness. etc. A project team can be set up to co-solve the problems from online that have common features. Though the implementation of detailed functions can be carried out step by step. and traffic analysis. what is sold is solution strategy. algorithm module in the planning optimization tools. fast power control. and mature planning methods and to reduce the radio cost at the prerequisite of ensuring the later network indexes.

It is very important for the project manager to familiarize himself with the planning optimization service. and quality control. Department barriers must be broken. This is the steps that we take to nurture our personnel in the field of radio network: practical installation and test of radio equipment optimization/planning of the network participation in technical support and IPD requirement management and analysis. But it takes a lot of efforts to train successfully a professional networking researcher or a team with such spirit in mind. and to allocate the resources effectively according to the urgency in case urgent situations arise. thus reducing the total cost significantly. as the persons in charge of the network quality. perform thorough coordination and communication in light of project progress. exercise. and take part in the training. Author October 2001 iii . and planning optimization. as well as the project manager. the planning personnel. the planning personnel must prepare the next-phase expansion new construction plan according to the implementation progress and actively guide the switch office. and managerial convenience must be given to such personnel for them to participate in the whole flow and get experienced in all parts of the cycle. the planning personnel. must assist in setting up the pre-warning mechanism for the network quality. Meantime. and the fewer the number of base stations. The characteristics of radio products fully explain the importance of networking research for market survival. abundant opportunities must be available. Personnel of other radio-related departments can also take part in some of the practices to improve their understanding on networking. 4 Radio Project Implementation Project implementation is that part of the cycle that finally turns over the network to the users. It helps the project manager to consider the project implementation in all directions of networking. experience summarization. At this phase.Radio Network Planning Conclusion base station configuration. theoretical improvement output to the departments or become a professional network researcher. turnover method. In the field where the project is being implemented. report to the leader of the switch office.

Communication Principles by Fan Changxing by Wu Weiling by Li Shihe 4. Principle and Implementation of Intelligent Antenna 6. Related product technical Manuals of Huawei 3.Radio Network Planning Reference Documents Reference Documents 1. Related protocols of GSM and WCDMA 2. Data Configuration Specifications of GSM BSS&PCU Network Planning Network Planning 8. And so on Huawei i . Related special material and antenna manufacturer’s material 9. Key Technologies of WCDMA by Zhang Ping 7. Key Technologies in Mobile Communications 5.