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Objects of Desire.stewart

Objects of Desire.stewart

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Published by Mohamad Abdallah

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Published by: Mohamad Abdallah on Jun 01, 2011
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nft Srlt(h hen the bodv is thr trl mary nrodcof pcr(.r!ri'[ s c a l e ,r x n 8 g e r a t j o n n ru \ r lake place in rel.rtk,I r', t h e b a l a n c eo f m ( r r \ r r . monl off€redas th( |l\l\ ertends into th€ sf.r,, t,r rmm('drntc e\Prnr'It ' But pnrndoricirllr, Ilx body ilself is n(.ces\nIll e x a 8 g c r a t e da s s ( r , n . ' , . wc hnve an im.rgf I'l tlrr bodv, an imng. sfiich is a pKrjfctn,n or obje.rjiie.lr(D of the l,,rr\

i ',rl\ !lfnlfs the possibilitv ofdeath ir ntr(,nlpts bprcsfnl.r rfnt|r 'I r,.1,,'..n.l('nce immortality, realmot thc classi(. )is is and a lh€ , i|,r, e{)triect, and thus rhe body as pottntinlcomno(lirv,,rt,,{ \ Lrhrn abstract lh€ nnd inf;nirecvcleo( c\chnn8e. i\ il'1. lhe Ll€velopmtnt cultureundcr an exchangc of cconomy, , .,.!Lh ror.ruthentic e\perience and, corrrtntj!.el)., search \ rhe for

to .hrnile, rr.,ns' ,,:,.,rLL)n, nroitimporr.rntiv, .rnLl. dcarh. rhtl r.r-r,,...r il,ii; ,"

,1,| 1., \'. the body of livrt experjcnr(,is subjtcr

rnkr th€ h.orld. Ihus the probl€msin imagininS body ar. \\Irt, thc tonratic th(' p(nn€ms in imnginingrhe srtf as place,ohj(,fr.,r;l ol agtnt at oncc.W(' h,rve seentharrher€area numberof wnvsin Nhr lt rlx b,.d\ dnd ih( t^,,rtd the (.\f( ,i(n('eJanJ th,, ,n,.,g,n"j.n,,,r,,.,tr, articulate and dclimit eachothor. Fi.sr,th€ bodjlv Erotesqu.,r,.rl nivaloffersthe possibilit] ulcorporation: imige is noi .ttr.r h,.,t of the from the body hrre, rnther,it nloveswirhin the drmocrntic 5t,r(,.,,1 carnival,that spice of the facc-klfacecommunicarion rhc nr,,, of kctplace. in the niniaturizodworld of rhc frcakshow,th. h,\t\ r., Brt taken from movrnlent into stasis. Through thr rr.rnscendenr \.r.N p | r n ro l l e r e J r l h , \ v d r r e t n f . t r { l r J L t e h eh , , d \ , \ m J J c . , r . , t , r , , b ) a r rncl n'ffelai'\ql\'. i. somerh"r $hrLh o|ler\ rt\,h t,, t\*-.,.r,{r flcnc€,whilc the freakshoh,m), sc.,m, firstglrnce,to be r .ir,1,t,,r ar ol the grotesque, distance invokesmakfs ir jnstend in\,.,,. the ir an displayof pcrfoclion. lhrough rhc freak we d.,ri!,e jmns. ,,r ilr. an

.1,.,r(!i .tnd nbstrtrcrod, lived retation the body to the phe_ rh( of ,,,,(ildsir,rlivorld is ri'ph.c{!y,g nostilgic'nyth or cont.ctatld ",\uthentic" e.f.'ri.nce. t eiomaid,itieinsjvi anrl rlrusivc , ,,,, r . l'h..d bevond the horizon 9f prcsrnr tived experience,the r.l rrr n hich thc anljquc,the pastornl, exotic, rho and orherfic ,1,,,r,'rn\.rle.trticulatcd thisprocess (tistan.ing, nlemoIn oi thc I rl,, l,{rl! rs repl.rccdby the m€mory of the obje.t, a nremory ' 1,1,,,,i oul\ide the self.rndihus pres€nrinU both a surptus dnd lack ' :L]L l,(.I\(e. The eipcri(,ncc the objocttics outsidethe body,s of i , , r(, rl 's saturalcd!tith meaninBs th:,r will never be fullv ,, Ll trj u\ Furthern\rrr', n e s e n n l r t v o t n c c h a n ' c a t m o d c s o l r', r the serinlitvof ncchanicatmodcs of

L L l l nr. ob . be / n L r' L lr r 'In l 1 1 ., , h ijrctc t h p . cro i , e . r r 1tt i-cl a l . A s e x p e r j c n c e i s i n c r r a s i n g l v cii i

I I 1 , ' , f l { , r ( i su s t o p e r . . ' i ! ( t h a t o u t s i d e d s n s i n g u l a r a n d . t ( t h r n _ , r r ,\ l o , h h i c h r h ( o b j e . t i 5 o n l y a t r . r . e . r 1 ,, , . \ . D r i 8 h t i a k e f l f g r l n s o u r m o d r l : , T h e t r u t h i s t h u s t h e . l L ' , i . , l r . r r rc ! e l , w h c r e n o t n m c m b € r j s s o b r r ; a n d b e c . r u s e v e r y e ! , , , t ' \ \ ) n o r L r e c o n r ed e t . t c h c dr h a n i t . , , q , s oc o l l a p s e s r r a i S h t s s . 1 1 , I \ . 1 i s i u s l a s m u c h a s r n t e o f t r n n s p a r e n ru n b r o k . , n c a l m . l,r 1l', ( rttireil oi ihc inovcneni, taken.s an unbrokcn quiesccnt , . , r l r , ' t N l r l . h o b t i i n s d i s r i n c r n e s sn t h c c o u r s eo f i t s p ( ) r . , s s n n d i 1" . .t\\rt( c\rsten.c, is prcserv€d in thc form of a self-recouec-

1 ] 4 O N L O N G I NC

135 oarEcl"soa D[slRf Toving from gvsnt to'rrr..neryrnd dfsirt:Liie all weddint rin8s, il is a=sduvenirof lhe ioining of lhe Lircle, the seamlessperfection ot joined asymm€trical halves- But in this caseth€re is a second displacementof that event in the proporfional joininS of disproportionate parts. The giant repres€nts€xcess; half-lady,impoverishment. the And the audienceis now witness to this spectacle culture forcing of natue into the harmonic. We mi8ht say thal this cdpdc(y 01 objects to 5erve as lrdces of I authentic experrenceis, in facl, e\emplified by the -ouvenir. fhe I souvenir distinguishes experiencesWe do not need or desire sou- ] venirs of events that are repeatable.Ratherwe need and desire sou- j venirs of events that are r€portable, events whose materiality has I escapedus, events that ther€by exist only through the invention of narrative, Through narrative the souvenir substitutes a context of perPetualconsumption for its context of ori8in. It r€presents not the lived experienceof its mak€r but the "secondhand" experience its of possessor/owner. Like the collection,it always displays the romance of contraband, for ifs scandalis its removal from its "natutal" location. Yet it is only by meansof its mat€rialrelation to that locationthat it acquircsits value. In this is the tradition of "fi$lday covers" for stampsand the disappointment we f€el in rec€ivint a postcardfrom the sende/s home rather than from the depicted sight. The souv€nir speaks to a context of oriSin through a language of longing, Ior it is notan objectarising out ofneed or use value,it is an objectarising out of the necessarily insatiabledemands of nostalgia.The souvenir genentes a narrative which reachesonly "behind," spiraiing in a continually inward movement rather than outward toward the futuie. Here we find the structureofFrcud's descriptionof the genesig the of felirh: a part of the body is substituted for th€ whole, oi an object is substituted for the part, until finally, and invers€ly, the whole body can become object, substituting for the whole. Thus we have the systematic tnnsformation of the obiect into its own impossibility, its loss and the simultaneous experienceof a difference which Fr€ud characterizes as the fetishist's both knowing and not knowint th€ anatomical distinctions b€tween the sexes. Metaphor, by the partiality of its substituting power, is, in fact, attached to metonymy here. The possession the metonymic objectis a kind of dispossesof sion in that the presence of the obiect all the more radically speaks to its status as a mere substitution and to its subsequentdistancefrom the self. This distance is not simply experienced as a loss; it is also .j exp€rienced a surplus of signification. It is experienced, is the ; as as lossof the dual relation with the moth€r, as catastrophe and ioris$r.e I simultaneously.a

tion, in which existence is self-knowledge, and self-knowledge, again, is immediate existence."rThe rending of the body of the 8od takes place in the delirium of immediate experience.In this act of distortion, dismemberment,and ultimately comPosition,the socialis constituted:w€ have only to think of the authentic con game off€red by Chaucer'sPardonerand the fantashcrestorationofthe relicsofthe crucifixionasthey servedto delineatethe West ftom whatit was not.2 It is no accident that the closing Pitch of the freak show is often manifestedby th€ souvenir. Consider this Pitch ftom the end of the giant and halflady show at Strate'sCamival, Washington, D C , in 1941.The giant, Mr. Tomainey, says: And noticethe sizeof the tDndFwatch the hand pleaseand ihe siu a of the ring I havehere,so largeyou canPass silveihalf a doUar right through the center of the ring Watchthis, a silverhalf a dollarriShtthrcughthe Siantluckyrin8, it believe or not of Rightthroughthe center the ring engraved ringshaveny nameand occuPation Now eachone of these and them out now for souvenirs, on them,and I'm Eoingto Pass this is how I do it life, hasthe I haveherea little booklet,tellsvou all aboutour married and of life story,photograPhs both of us and ten qu€stions answers pertaining our marricdlife and to Now all vou careto know aboutus two is in this booklet we Now we sellthe bookletfor 10cand for eachand evervbooklet giv€ awayone of th€seSiantlu.ky nngs souvenir the cir.us, of Now if you careto takehomean int€resting hold up your dimesand l'll be very glad to wait on you 10cis all they are.3 ) The souvenirboth offe6 a measurementfor the normal and authenti'| cates the experienc€of the viewer. The giant begins with the two i. authenticatingsitns of odgin: the $aph itself and the mark uPon the i world made by his labor. As we saw in the discussion of the bodily permits a voyeurism which is the freak show as spectacle Srotesque, and distanced. Thus a miniaturization is eF at once transcendent fected through the viewer's stanceno matter what the obtectis. Furthermore, the marriage of the freaks Fesents a ProPortionalityof extremesi the cultuml sign triumPhs over the limits of the natural. This souvenir domesticatesthe gotesque on the level of content, subsumint the sexual facts to the culturat code. But the souveni also domgqlis3t9g o!-ftrelelrlel.llc-sPera. -o!'--9:!9f!al exPeriena6is inter-

il naliAa;-lbr t;st is tak"" ho^e. r r'e gini'. ring islr,c.*ybecause rhe tr"ansferenc; oriptrnIo trace,' of tti!_:g-iy9d-!€tE'-gj-1,"irks

ocopying visible plac€sin the domesticenvironment. that which can be enveloped by the body. It is a narative which seeks of to reconcilethe disparity between interiority and exteriority. the souvenir reouces pubLrc. in which a family bitterly quanels over the disputed possessionof "a badly worn squaie of caryet upon which Genenl Lalayefteinadvertently spilled a glassofMadeira durint his visit to Boston. souvenirs arc collected by individual tourists. it i_ | comes after lhe fact and remdins both partial to and more erpansive _' I than Lhefacl. we transform the souvenir into the collection. what is being effected here is the transformation of exterior into interior.thereare the lesscommon items such as touishc dish towels and dust cloths overprinted with drawings of BetsyRoss Hous€ or Ab./ narrative discouse which aiticulates the play of desire. er for us in the wav that an archit€ct'smodel would define and delimfit a t"itai"g. but \ beyond this relation. tne tne rnlo and the tnree-drmensronal the miniatu. as Veblen suggestedwhen he wrote that anything giving evidencethat wealth has been in a family for several 8€nerations has particular vedue the leisure classes.o!ld recoup the experi1 ence. If I save the ribbon from a corsage/the souvenir is.the souvenir must remain impoverished i and parfial so lhal it cdn be supplementedb) a ndrrativediscourse. the particular occasion. this works most oflen lhroueh a reduction of dimensions. the souvenir is often attatF6tFtb lo_cationsand experiences that are not for sale. lf I purchase a plastic miniatur€ of the EiJfel Tower as a souvenir of my trip to Paris. The plastic replica of th€ Eiffel Tower does not define and delimit the Eiffel Tow. a homomaterial replica. all springs. fiinged in gold braid.6 The substitutinS powff of the souvenir operateswithin the following analogyr as experience to an imaSinedpoint of authenticity. subject . but the corsageis in turn metonymic to an increasingly abstract. quite literally bymeans ofnanative. Marquand's ^ovel The l"7te GeorgeApley-A Nooelin the Form of a Menoil. consider the plot of John P. And this incoiilpletenessworks on two levels. that which can be appropiated The souvenir is by definition always incomplete. Similarly. it is a representation in another medium. D€an Maccannell notes that while sithts and attractions are collect€d by entire societies. a sitnificance ofblood relation at the expenseof a larter view of history and causality. For example.?ical souvenirs.a .3 Whether or not such items are "spurious" is beside the point. postcards. Maccannell writes: In additionto matchbooks. but in the prestige generatedby the event. as any postcard t€lls us.and hence increasingly "lost. as object to €vent/exp€rience. Th€selatlerit€msare spurious that havecomeout of €lements t]te closet. in Eco's terms." Such a memento is a souvenir of€veryone in the family and ofno one in the family." set of referents:the gown. the dance.but are fixed insteadso they canbe hug on kitchenwalls."s Within the operation of the souvenir/ the sign functions not so much as object to ob. if it .a souv€nir does not necessaiily have to b€ a homomatedal replica. The ribbon may be metonymic to the co$age." In his work on tourism. so narrative is is to the souvenir..aham Lincoln's Birthplace. etc. is that of the owner of the heirloom. to The function of the h€irloom is to weave. The souvenir displacesthe point of authenticityas it itself becomesthe point of oridn for nanative.not in the €v€nt. the paticulai spring. we mitht note. metonymically._ Spatially. and can nevei entirely recoup. that is made to s€ryeas the cnvas for little paintings of sights like Niagara Falls. that patiatty which is the very I sourceof its power Second. lurthermore. We cannot be proud of someone els€{ssouveni unless the naffative is €xtended to include our r€lationship with the objeds owner or unless. romance.Thereis alsoa special twe of square pillow coveredwith a whit€ silklike clolh. Such a narrative cannot be generalizedio encompassthe experience anyone. ln fact. Iijr not a narrarive of tbgr+tee{i+li3 nag4tive oJ the p€S:19-Is-:9qs!g!-!Drf9!s[qriqsitv has Ltt]e ir anv value aLlachedlo ils malerialiN. or into the two-dimensional representation.Thes€aie not inlended to serve their original purposes.1 3 6 O N L O N GI N G 137 oBlEcTsoF DESTRE and obiect. But whether the souvenir is a material sample or not. the wide availability of hith-quality photogaphs of various tourist sithts does not cancel out the attraction of takint one's own pictures of public sithts or the continual production of tour books with titles such as "My Fmnce. a metonymic referenceexistint between obiect/part and object/whole in which the part is of the matenal of the ori8inal and thus a "pa ial double.First. Its possession a stat€mentof is membership. and ashhays thal carry pencils the nameand/orthe pictureof a sight. From a dilferent point of view. monumentdl. Furthermore.ect.itwould eraseits own partiality. What is this na ative of origins? lt is a narrative of interiority and authenticity. The souvenir r€plica is an alusion and not a model. the obiect is metonymic to Ihe sceneof its original appropriation in the sensethat it is a sample. as we shall seelater. ll will not fu nction wjthout the supplementarynanative I discoursethat both attachesit to its origins and createsa myth with J reFrd to those origins.T Descdbing some t. This vicarious position. it will still exist as a sample of the now-distancedexperience/an experience which the obiectcan only evoke and resonateto.it perof tains only to the possessor the obiect. the object is not a homomaterial one. signiher and sitnified. The narrative of origins Seneratedis in effect a genealoSy.

lseparahonbetw€en past and present.oThus.s€lf.the tellint of its story. ihe preseryation of an instant in time through a reduction of physicaldimensions and a corresponding increasein significancesupplied by means of narrative. it is of great worth to . are rarelv lepl sinSly.l. the souvenir moves history into private time. too alienating compared to the intimate and di. the testure of the 8/i by which the subiecr is fl l. io-discredil tfre i pres€nt. The othe/s receptionof I the postcard is the receipt. This refer. initiation. "I t't " . What lies between here and there is oblivion.. Such souveni. T€mporally.\ otherwis€ remote experience and.Yet this purchase. amid the salvage I craftssuch as quilt-makjng and embroidery.).r is oflittle materialworth. the postcard. as a mass-produced view of a culturally articulaled site.. you cannot make a copy of a scrapbook without being painfully aware that you poss€ss mere representationof the oridnal. makes the eruption of that narrative. the waterfall.mass-produc€d obiect (the materialsouvenir) into private possession (the referentbeinS "my trip to Philadelphia.ai. pretap.The souvenir of the s€cond type is intimatety mapped against the Iife history ot an individuat it tends to be found in connection with rites of passage (birth. insteadthey form a (ompendium which rs an autobiography. of Such a souvenir might mark the privatization of a public symbol (say.nt is authenticitg. Perhaps our preferencefor instant brown{oning of photo. the juxtaposition of history with a personalized present(say. all family trips become the same Fip-the formal garden.ts ll possessor. by I fpruirr. at the same time. and souvenirsof individual expenence. The acutesensa-( tron of the obiecr-its per(eprion by hand raking precedence over its I percepboJr eye-promises. In fact. That remarkablesouvenir. a void markiie. that vaudatesthe eiperil\ ence of the site.taking (onle\t of thesiteitself.is characteried by a complex processof captioning and display which rep€atsthis transformation o{ public into private.eDresentations and are purchasabte..experienceas it mitht be "directly lived. For the narration of the photognph will itselfbecomean objectof nostalgia-Without markin& all ancestors become abstractions. First.suJfusionof the um. From the child's ori8inal melonymic disDlacement'to the r' love-obiect.' gaphs. and baby booki aU serveas examples.rectexperienceof contact which Lhesouvenir has as irs referent. The nostalgia of the souvenir plays in the distancebetween the pr€sent and an imagined. within an "duthentic" appears a kind as /place private experienceas the self recovercthe obiect.Be(auseof its connection to biography and its place in ll constituting th€ notion of the individual life. thesesouvenirs absolutely deny the book's mode of mechanicalreproduction. memory quilrs. and the concomitant transformation of a generallypurchasable. the Lib€rty Bell miniatudzed). losing their proper names. the ticket stub. The oritinal a wil always supplant the copy in a wdy thar is not open ro lhe prod. unlike adults. the year 126 posited against today's dare with its concurrent pdvate "dates"). its promise of visual intimacy at the expenseof the other senses(its glossy surfacereflectint us back and refusing us penetmtion). Scrapbook. which we now can name as the site of the subject \\ himself or he. and the undifferentiated sea becofte at. which most often a. the post(ard is purchased.The photograph as solvenir is a loSicalextensionof the press€dflower. Hence the absoluteappropriateness the souv€nir as ccrefldor.i] sarian exp€ri€nce. for€xample. tributes of every country. The present is either too imperconal. The silence of the photograph. souvenir3such as those Maccannell lists.It is significantthat such souvenirsoft€n appropriate certain aspeclsof the book in teneralj we might note especially the way in which an exterior of Iittle material value envelopsd treat "interior significance. often arising. which most often are samplesand are not availdbleas teneral consumer gods. while the personalmemento .138 oN LoNcrNc within the privatized view of the individual subiect. have few souvenirs of the second type and thus must tle able to 139 OBIEC'TS DESIRE OF instantly purchasea sign of their own life histories. Distattcc anil Intitnac! The double function of the souvenir is to authenticatea past or . \ We must distinguish between souv€nirs of exte or sights.the sensualrules iuvenirs of ihis type. distressedantiques. and yet does not keep th€ promise of. too looming. it is most likely because they. inscribint the lof thandwritint of the personalbcneath the more uniform caption of rhe 'l social." and the way both souvenir and book iranscendtheir partioiar contexts. and death) as the material sign oi an tbstracl refercntr transformation of status. Here we see also the introduction of the metaDhor of I textue. uctsof mechanical reproduction. The'l '. the memenro becomesll emblematicof the worth of th. all the more poignant.Then in d testure which recapitulalesthe social'sarticulation of the self lhal is. marriate.t lifeand of the selfs capacityto gener-.1 ate worthiness. phoro albums. the picnic site. d./ positioned as place of production and rcreption of obligation-Ure I postcardis surrenderedtoa sitnificant other. and pr€faded blue jeans retatesio this .Yet at the same time. if children arc the maior consume$ of massproduced souvenirs.

in the Cornty of York 0a5l)l . whose narative could not easily be made continuous with ei I ther the remote past or the present as constructed by non-native historians. However. B€causethey are souveniB of death. Similarly. Camden's Bnfia"ria (t586) similarly was intended to supptani papal history wirh national history.were. Early in lhe ninereenrhc.d antiouities of Strrrey and Wiitshire.and Ackton. tohn Aubrey. the relic. \u tive and the inre4ection of the curse. As commerciatism and industrial. they were subjectto particular historical circumstances that varied the wavs in which th€v formulaled their values.a premonition of a later romanticism.s Briel Lixes and Misellanps a d his studies of the '..the futtiquarian and TopographicalCabinet wru be hastening to preserve the lineamentsof the most venerable remains of Antiquity which Time is increasingly whittleing away by nearly imperceptible atoms. suppressed during the reign oftames l. If '. Greit wrote in the advertisementfor the-j. for example.the function of the souvenir proper is to cr€ate a continuous and narative of the past. the Naive Amer.naturat hisr.the artifactsand architectur€| of a disintegratint rural cutture became rhe objects of middle.in (iS07-t8ll): r. th€ firsthand community.rne. we find either the nostalgic desip of romanticism or the political desire of authentication at its base.Antiquarian and TooogtaphicalC.abind. if we can forgive the anachronism. the iuncion of such souvenirsof death /personal lis to disrupt and disclaim that continuity.The Englishmanloseph Hunrer explains in the prefacero h. the transformationof materialityinto meanint.nrrhlsouftenirs and the mosl potent anrisouvenirs. a." But in the New World. the specific cont€nt of nationalism changed ov€r time and space.s Antiquarin Noticesol LuWt.They ha. a survey of British antiquities was to serve the surrogate purpose of secularizing and lo(alizing that l4l o8lEcls or DE5IRE history.ntury.. Sharlston.lrlo oN LoNc lNc fbcation of authenticity becomeswhatever is distant to the present Itime and space. collectionof antiquitieswas the supported and politjc. Cataclysmic and apocalyptic theories of history and personality refuse the continuity of experience.for in Aubrey's works antiquities are symbotic of a dyint English past rhat should be respectfuly recordedand studied.I ican. a veneration of pastoralism. decentralization. On the other hand.ss€mbted in rhe 1690. . I the villag€. and England during the Renaissance.Uy motivated. the same year thar Henry \4II declared himself head of the Church of England. B€tween the time of Camden and the time of the Victorian antiquarians. But in antiquarianism we s€e a theory of history informed by an aesthetics of the souvenir. . thesesouvenirs mark the end of sacrednarra. for example.Their suppressionduringthe lacobeanpJriod was a consequence of their danterow capacity to revive the political allegiances of chivalry as they revived a more generalized taste for the chivalric past.and ll upperdass nostalgia. JamesSrorer' and I. as lbth€r souvenirsdo.s.. YeL as was the casewith Aubrey. J The antique as souv€nrr always bedrsthe burden of nostaltia for I expenenc€impossibly distant in time: the experienceof the famiiy. and a collective "folk spinl."ro Antiquariian societies-first appearing in Britain in 1572. all . Suchcollectenerally potjticaLly fion was most commonly used to authenticatethe history of kingdoms.Containin| a Series Elegan!Vi?us of the Mosrl\tercst ol 'nB Obj?dsof Curiosityin arcat Bnr. Souvenirs of the mortal 'body are not so much a nostalgiccelebralionof the pastas they are an lerasure of lhe significan(e of history.evolution. lronically. the souvenir of the dead which is the mere material remains of what had possess€d human sigflficance. who was appointed king's antiquary in 1533.On the one hand. the hunting trophy. Sweden.By the conrinu_ anc€-ofsuch patronage.k'rhe horrible e lFanstormation of meaning into materiaiify more than they mark.antiquarianism centeredon the discoveryof a radicalcultural othei. pagan ana papist rerKssurvrvrng among the (ommon people in order to ridictrle such pmctices. dy return of sainls' relics.d rcinstated in U18-'{ontinued to be popular into the late nin€teenth century. One can better understand the antiqu€'sstakein the creationofan intimate distanceif the antique is contrastedto the physical relic. Henrv Bo. such phenom€na themselvescan later be reframed in an ensuing metonymic displacement such as th€ punk and kitsch appropriations of fascist marerial culture. the Heath. For the royal antiquariansof Norway. In the case of John Leyland. Or consider th€ enormous display of hunting tmphies staged as "The lntemational Competitive Show" by Hermann c6ring in 1937 as a _atlgtnpted _ru:gationo-f apremonition of the dealh camps dnd tI!:_ir ln contrast to the restordtionof{eredby suchgestur€sast}e l$fieaning.I ism transformed the British landscape. in the late sevenieenth and early eighteenth centuries the motivation of antiquarianismbe_ came more complicated. nationalism became romantic nationalism in Entland.s /nllrxr_ tatesVulSarcs (1725)was designed ro expose th.ries.and the scalp are al lhe salne time the most intensely pol.hence we can see the souvenir as attached to the llantiqueand the e\otic. Antiquaianism always displays a functionat ambivalence. Consider the function of such souv€nirs in the contagious and malevolent madc of voodoo. Aubrey's reverence for the past may well have come from the tl turmoil of the pres€nt's.

llln works such as Hunte/s.the piclure." William Henry Py^e's Micrt6m. Are we not of equally justified in regarding the widely and evenly dishibuted b€liefs in ghosts.. or some scenewherc lhe de€pestinterestsof a nation for aSesto su. And the impulse of su€h souvenirs is to simultdneously transform natur€ into art as they mourn the loss of "pure nature" al a point of origin. The crozier of the bishop now at rest_ All that is past w€ s€ek to treasurehere..Yetnt th€ sdme of time. to the pastoral. a iTime must be seen lloss whith can be reliev€d through the reawakeningof objeclsand. In order to awak€n the dead.a fgun to develop was the ibstract language of Bcienceand the state.j!3!!a!Lgq"J to creare an imdsined pdst which i5 "f3-ll9 avarl. and of a relition that is comparatively pure and Petfect. we retard theseas the oldestexamples humanskill. for example.advertis€ditself as "a miscellany. antiqudrian book are often billed as "portfolios" or "cabinets. thal I was born in an o/d. past.t. in this aestheric Bede. from tools to ar(hitecture to dialectto "beint" itselfin the form of " the character.o!tr1ry.severalvaluableremainsofold iimes.it tvery aspeclol peasantand rural hfe. once dtain: lhe antique is kansformed into the tableau through the prints and plates that accg!qP3!y !!!ill\Li-ot such anbquarian wo*s.ceed have been sl./rr (t882). adornedwith elecant rulptures. pubtished beiween 1775 and 1784. . AUrhat ruy m._ ' o'r-e-saa -q!g-q!s ana aulLCllglg qtle'---ai"tur1-r JGiontinuous. H. .ble lor_con5ulphon.As the Andrew Lang wrote: "Now when we find widely and evolutionist evenly distributed in the ea h's surfacethe rude flint tools of rnen. yet diminish€d. it was necessary that a distinction be made b€tvreen dialect and standard. areatinA a sense that It is 4 lq&ical-d€velopmentthe souvenir's of capacity nanative for that by 1845ihe term /oiklorehad replacedthe tetm antt4uity. Agricultui.ountly where. :-:-' 1ordl lrad'tion obvrorrslycanqot"tF*in Ihd frme seis€ mafthephysldStraRilacIian. antiquariarusmis completely bound up wilh the picture)que. Forsyth's Antiqr.becomes under antiquarianisma potential souvenir. an drrempt lo . Wadmore wroie: Thebook. .ke the pasrd thing of tife. And we wouldsve what els€in worldtysrrile MiShtperish.helmer wilh irs crest.enuously agitat€d.lrancis Crose's iournal." tlcle-isiail]s-5c5ir-s_tatue. countri. The shield. A Pitlurcque Delineationol the Arts. R. a rupture in i historicafcoriiciousinbss rnust iave ocqrsed. whi. I find some objectconnect€dwith a heanmovinS tale.and emphatically decided [Hunter's enipses].r. kelpies. or.net ol Inrdstolv lt8/ls). Indeed.-. a man whose hean beatswith moral p€rceptions and feelings. a reawakeningof narrative.s and o1." . . I love to dwell in a . the rntiquarian searches mdterial for evidence thc pdst.h of the* two $rts of ountries would a . on whichever side I tum.intended to pres€rveand illustrate. In contrast to the historian. . the anh_ quarian mu-stfirst man. For such a theory of oral traditions to exist. By the Romantics. and Manulactwes of crcat Britai in a Seties Thousand ofa Grcupsof Snatt FiSures the Embellish. with the presenthappy triumph of unf€ttered reason." a survival ofan elusiveand purer. between dec€ntralized and centralized lang.. the sword.ge to kill lhem. man of rell€ction. .thoughth€ pres€nr hold ir dear..1. t{encehis or her 6€archiq+rio4lily an aesthetir one. fairies. 113 oBIEcrs oF DEslRE printed in the Firstvolume of ThcA riquatia Masazrne Bdtograaad t. and to the origin of narrative. legends and tales were considered by antiquarians of the survlvCli scFool-as examples o( earlier stages of civilization lesiding amid the discouise of the p!es!!t. .th€ sp€d. by being enabled to contrast the deplorable state of the human mind at remote periods..*F"i F.142 0N LONCTNC There are h{o sods of counlrics lhal divide lhe face of the glob€. Thc Antiquaia'L Repeitory./. I conceive it to b€ one of the advantageswhich the forlune of my bidh . a man of taste. "Time's Footsteps. \lhereby. who looks for design and causality. the antiquarian searchesfor an internal relation between past and present which is made possible by their absolute disruption. Thu5. wild women of the forests(which are preciselythe same in Brittany as in New Caledonia)as among the oldest e&mples of the working of human fancy?"u @LFaditions werethusseen theabstrdct as to cul equrvalent material turerlty'here4s '. Accompanyingthis awakening of obiects is the obj€ctificationof the p€as:rnt classes. .rhe armourbriqhr.ry's Porfolio (1825)promised that within its pages "the philosopher w l meet with entertainment of a nobler kind. choos€ lo dwell in? .es€Ned for me."lz Thus the antiquarian seeks to both distance and appiopriate the past. the dntique is linked to the childhood of l. the nation. "as concomitant with a loss of understanding. In a poem. All on the past can shed a llood of light. In order to entertain an antiquarian sensibility. we se€repeatedLacan's formulation that the symbol manifestsitsetf firSf ofemfna mur<Gr Aflhe thini anal that this death constitutes in the-ubiect the etemdlization of his or hir deslie. was defor sitned "to pres€nt the student and the amateur with picturesque . aestheticization rural life which makesthat life the of "quaint..

a Disneyland of th€ auromobite indxstry which is erpected to draw tourisis from all parts of lhe 8loDe.F inrerEElrQ. ThF nol oflhe referent itself.€. and-lheir rcrcFntq Only the .lgi. as areduction in physical dimensionscorrespondingto an ilc{eas. with the possible exception of microtechnology (the major contemporary producer of miniatures).(t of memory consfitutes thei. is considered to have been lostat the dawn of industrial production.ature obiecr ofren speaksto the past.surviving their oridnal contexts. nouncecl that it would solve its Depressionlevel unemployment problem by creating an Auto-World." For Eliot this transition was. movement from "Old Leisure" to "amusement": "L€isure the the cuture ol tounsm.This childhood is not a chitdhood as lived. and the pack_ horses.sreasonfor In the cultivation of distance which we find in the uses of the souvenir-the distance of childhoad and the antioue_the third lacet r . Michigan. as she had written in ?41. the past is construcied fro-ma set of presently e\isting piece@ec.ancet out the desire thdt is nostaltia.ld!rld--afube-$q"/enk viglSg !g!e]:b-S. resemblance. such miniature basketsincreasein dema. in the second it has disappearedas a lool entilely.rience would"have io iake place.butterflies placed under dass).roenlby closinA it ofllqltbgplgsibility ot liv€d exF. Such obiects. of an. from use vitue inio toy.. Do not believethemi it only creJes a vacuum for eater thouthl to rush in. and history into still life iust as eighteenthrentury and Victorian souvenirs of nature (sea shells. For tne nostaltrc to r€acn his or her goal of closint the gap between resemblance and identity. r^ rhc . of the individual life history or in the larger antiquarian lheme of the childhood of the nation/race. as wel as contemporary "snow balls" (ihos€ souvenirs in which repres€ntations of localionsare pla€edalont with particlesof "snow" or glitter within water-filled plastic sphercs). it spealGnot so much to Ithe time of production as to the time of consumption.vFr and oyer ag4in in the curr€nt clPitaEa Flint. in districts far away among the lanes.-arrt]l..h^.-9lqlna_lize. such as scrapbooks. tools are tackedon the walls as if they were prints or paintints. For example. The antiquarianis nostalgic e for use value.the. /iuedexp. and rhe pedhr.Ttley deny the mgq94-.d. in the economicsystem. precision. But-wiriti rhe min. they are souvenirsof a mode of j consumption which is now extinct. Miniature objects are most often exaggerahons of the attention to d€tail. wher€ exchante is abstracted I to the level of socialrelationsand awavfrom the levelof materialsand I processes. Separation aful Restototion Th€ delicate and hermetic world of the souvenir is a world of nature idealized. And it ':jl!Ig_tgp_!S!!y!9n resenblanceand idenlity thal nostalgicdesirearises n. / Yet once the miniature becomessouvenir.a I tmditional basket-maker might make miniaturesofhis goodsto sell as toys just as he makes full-sizedbasketsfor carrying wood or eggs.fler (1861)articulatesthe beginning of a similar transition: "ln the days when the spinning wheels hummed busily in the farmhouses-and even treat ladies.Thus it is a collate made of presentsrather than a reawatening of d past. and asan in rs tone-tone where the spinning whe€ls are gone. had their toy spinnint wh€els of polished oalthere mitht be seen. that the grcat work of the steam-engine is to create leisurefor mankind. for example. nature is removed from the domain of struttle into the domesticsphereoI the individualand the interior.iibiii. perhaps. it is a childhood voluntarily r€membered. who broughi bargains to the door on sunny afternoons. by the side of the brawny countryfolk.But as the market for his full-sized basketsdecreases because chanses of . Ingenious philosop[ers tell you.I 4 4 O N L O N GI N C 145 OBIECT5 D€5IRE Or representations the sceneryof active life in Great Bdtain..nahrre into art. The soir-venir is used most often to evoke a voluntary memory of childhood.and the slow wa8gons.c!i'! 9l b-te.999! qs g Eiliatudzed e4e. leaves.re . Hence we see that popular form of restaurant d€cor in which preindustrial hand .namoredoLdistance.e sig!ficance.t". an ""p"rience wruch would. for obiects that characterized the preindustlial village ' economy.r. recently an.are seenas tracesof the way of life that once surrounded them. Nostalgiacannot be sustainedwithout loss.9l4eelh-by'rmpo5iilC." Such a of work tnnsforms labor into abstraction.the stask-of eR €t€rnald€ath €ffe6 transc€ndence to the PSSq".'r B€dt (1859). dothed in silk and thread lace. an €rasur€ of the 6ap betwe€n sign and signified.la The opening to si?rr Ma. looked like the remnantsof a disinherited race. rather. They have moved from the doI main of use value to the domain of gifl..."rt The sphning wheel has splil alont dass lines in the first cds€.F. a chitdhood manufactured fiom its materialsurvivdls.r". We see this safte transformationfrom indLrs_ thal pr ner pro. l They are no longer models. and balance that is characteristic of artisanal culture-a culture which.. As in an album of photographsor a (ollection of antiquarian relcs. ie. it encapsulates the time of produchon. certainpallid undersizedmen who.or deep in the bosom of the hills. Eliot here offeis a premonition of an entire way of life transformed fn5m-pi6-duEi6i-i6-i6i-fifipfi6fr:-the '.erience. a motif we find either in souvenirc.irol.

the exotic offers an authenticity of experiencetied up with notions of the primitive as child and the primitive as an earlier and purer stageof contemporary civilization.and corns do not diminish the bodv bv ttreir aUse. has a more antiquarian focus.{or allow the tourist to appropdate.peak to his degre€ of involvement with th€ Brobdingnagians_iis partiat yet intimate\. we employed the leiEure thus crcated in seeking out the picturesque. eveal a profound interiodti ttuouth narative. They transform the human into ihe other and yet drlow the possessor intimately know that other in parts. by means of.ic. thelrbni€. tlarrison. these souvenirs are taboo items collectedhom the bod/s refuse. W.exohcob. narrative is us€d lo invent the symtlolic.1 4 6 O N L O N G IN C '147 OBIECTS DESTRE OF is distance in space-th€ souvenir of the exotic. in the operation of the souvenfu.s ring and booklet serve to authenticate the audience s experienie. his breechesmade of mouse. bc ot the more generalcultural imperialism that is lourism."13The function of the lqu-r is the esEantemen_t of_oblects-to make wh. Cullivir. is thus p'iaced II wihtn an I intimate distance. and he suttests ihat the inditenous obiect fascinates by means of its anteriority.F-ulface..and ..sskin. ln The Tourist in Biscayand the Castilles.s Beard.. in The Touisl in Portugal.The process later'reiipituiirt. they are not only meaningless. These beard stumps.and the relation between the otject and its sitht is continued. The tourist seeks out objects and scenes.More than lne souvenirsofLilliput. like the antique.-iGFfufi. wlrnout such a narr. and all we know about them. which served for the Back. so by a similar process travel writint functions to miniaturize and interiorize those distanc€d experiences which r€main outsid€ cont€mporary lived relations. H. on the other it must be marked as arisins directlv out of L an irhmediateexperienceof iG possessor.which generally lurk.the souvenir. to have a souvenir of the exotic is to possess both a specimen and a bophy. nail parines.r" ls lamitiar.oerson_ I dl" space.s siock in Fade. from Brobdingnag . they are samplesof the body wtucn srmuthneously estrangeus from the body.and thereby "tame" the cultural other) Just as in reverie.t i."rT While Roscoe emphasizes the picturesque. a corn cut rnoma mad ol honofs toe. modem is "cold" and the antique and the exotic arc "warm" b€causecontempodry mytholo$/ places the latter obiects in a childhood remote from the abstractions of contemporaryconsumersociety. into .lsion.souvenirsin the sameway that the objeds of mdFc?l. Nor were we by any means unsuccessful in our pilgrimage.(hence rhe dire and dirty hnes) and the dissolurion of the boundary of lhat subiect.iust as time is transformedinto Interionry i.. and a iootman's tooth. and each of these would forr an interesting study for the pencil. numbers of antique houses._ "the comb I had contrived out ofthe stumps of the Kint.ce that is not ricanous but lived within an estran8edor dangerousintimacv.ordinary. the collection of needles a'nd prns.s to souvenirsof BroHingnag are not.not at all dilapidated. lne.tive..s Thumb-nail.consume. gold pieces.exterior and toreign. the souvenjrsof ttrobdngnat are partial and human. the obie(t must be markeda.. rhey speak to irs dual cipaltes of ercess and reteneration. the authentic "nature" of that radical otherness which is the possessorr's own childhood. This anteriority is characteristic both of the exotic object'E form and its mode of fabrication and links it to the analogously anterior world of childhood and its toys. These souvenirc sefte as evidence of Gullivels ex_ p€rienceand as measurements his own scale of iust as the tiant. or appropriationj rather. concluding that th€ reader has been presentedwith "a[ th€ objects we deemed wo hy of his attention. like u-nassuming characters. Jean Baudrillard writes in l" Systimedrs oDiets that the exotic obiect..his Maiesry.: they. s"tetywi in tlre mnterrof the . it is_gtinedat the expenseotiskint @rladr'flalio.and anotherof the sameMaterials.ectrepresentsdistance appropriatedjit is sy:mptoma_ . which are most often whole and animal and serve. They are "authentic. functions to lend authenticity to the abstract system of modem objects.sheep. L e aii curiosities. which we threaded in search of it.tasks fairy rates(.This interiority is that of the perE€iving subiect. . ..shair and her rings. both within and $rithout the walls. hair combinSs. on the one hand.. In spite of th€ spiit of improvement.are still found here.but fixed inaoa parint of-herMaiesty. But unlike the sou_ venirs of mortality discussed eailier. they are also exaggerations of the disposable. Consider Gullive/s souvenirsof hii adventures:from I Lillipul the_cattle. rh€ casLof rhe I antique obiect.spaceis tmnsformed into interioriiy. lust as authenticity 6nd interiority are placed in the remote past. Bayonne: "Being involuntarily detained. in quiet and out-oathe-way places. Rohrt Jennings and Company's tourist books from the 183)'s are typical of this romantic ten^fhomas Roscoe writ€s of rc.r6 Thus the authenticity of the exotic object alis€s not in the conditions authored by the primitive orlture its€lf but trom the analoty betw€en the primitive/exotic and the origin of the possessor.. Thev acquire their value only wirhin rhe (ontext of Cultive/s narraHv. somecombings from the queen.as models and representative elementsof sels. indeed articulated.the smalt co ection of rinties.. though diie was the number oI dfuty lanes and alleys. In Baudduard's terms.Such objectsallow one to be a touristof one's own life.spicture ar tull l€n8th".you musr bring me ttiree hairs in trom the dant's head") are evidence of an e\peri.thes€souvenirc function to generatenarrative.

While we se€ the exotic and the cultural other explored in forms such as pink flamingos and slumbering Mexicans. As for tourist souvenirs themselves. ways of life.applicabijityfor de€orati.ll_ rzahonor the occupantsof th€ hous€.for example.. There is always the lpossibility that reverie's signification wil! go out of control here.may reflectboth Europein precon. is to createdisplay value from the outset and to by-pass this traduai transformad.SOF DES|RE r Unlike the ancient obiecl.ed I eJ the possessols w€tl-beintlby !adersl. ed. they speakto the industri." Once the exotic experience is readily purchasable a large segmentof the tourist population. thereis theseobi(ts. exotic obiectis to some detree danterous. Thus it is necessary to rnvenrthe p?sloraland-the primitive through an illLrsion a hotistic of and rnlegrated cultural other. for €x_ ample. the of standardized mass'produced and of Iamilies. that lheseartssymtolize.ulturalism.a44i4g gdyjt. there is a turnint toward "the classis'l of th€ consumer'snative culture.euse. And these souvenir goods are often characterized by new techniques of massprcduction. In those citieswhere one finds a wide rangeof "ethnic" restaurants frequenled by those not of the same ethnicity. the sametime. in lour difficulty in subiecting it to interprelation. tion is again one of tamin& the souvenir rclains its sisniJyint caPacity Ponly in a teneraliz€d sense.(hespeds€ In most souvenirs of the exotic. that is. take place.there elc. Ihe danSer of the souvenir lies in its unfamiliarity. R. clon€duse value. native arts tend toward smaller sizes_ not simply small souveniF." or the ghost stories. there is a tendencytoward Westem ideas of natural_ lsm and realism. it must be clear that use value is s€parate&om display value. reproducebe[s or clappersused in lfd divination_bells that .is also likely to find rcstaunnts advertisint . traditional modes of styliztion were replaced bv runetf'enth<entury. even "hot. but miniatures of traditional artifacts. James. AmonB the advantaees ot minraturizedarriclesare . I' pointint to an dbstracted son Craburn. This appropriation of reverie by the obiect forms the lbasis for certain horror stories: "The Monkey's Paw. One gainsprestige association imPorls. lts othemessspeak to the possessot/s cdPacity not it is the possessor.In sqch tdlescuriosity i< 'enli. the metaphor in oP€raJ . as w€ saw in the basket-maker er.. ttascom condud€s that this work . on€. Graburn of points out that sincemake6 of souvenirsmust competewith import. wh. There is thus a direcily proportional rela_ ^ tionship between the availability of the exotic experienceand the _ availability of "exotic objects. the most common forms are. /fpast. occupantswho have become tourists of their parents. that Ithe object itself will take charge. is endowed with a frmilianty rn*" "-". sleighs. which. the souvenir. anda doll-like. Ironically."te desirefor usevalue at the same iThus such obiectssatisfylhe nostalSic time that they provide an exoticismof the s€lf..u^"i. and oxen yokes. the eroh( souvenir is a sign of sur. Wittiuri bas(om has found that in African art this tourist innuence has re_ sulled in three stylistic trends.n conventions of the picturesque.ofM.exploration.ation I In America which results in (ertain nostalgicforms of lawn a. donley carts.vi!41 outsidehis or her own but the survivalof the possessot llsurvival." a phrase which itself cannot work withlut a French deela_ zrn8.n. awakening some dormant capacity I for destruction.v ol firalenals. Prominently displayed. Jfor such objects creates a souvenir market of Soods distinct from authentic traditional crafts. all arisint out of Westem aesthetic pr|noples." has suggested: As "civilizedscieties" cometo dcpendmoremd moreupon artifacts. rne rmrd lendency is toward giganti6cation. Thes€ metonymic forms are lhe articuldtionof a6an. wellas rhe Intluence o[ G€rman Expressionism Europeanartistic on taste..1 4 8 0 N L O N Ct N C t49 OBIEC. folkloristic quality not associated witir the real artide "2r Those quatiries of rhe objeit which lint ir most crcseryto tts tunction in nahve context are emptied and reDlaced bv both display vatueand the symbolicsystemof th". which is ultimately tForotherness: llhe curiosity.Europ€. at in is the nostalgi€ input of the ftard"rdde a "plasticworld. bere is a tendenry toward an opposite extreme:the grotesque.ther they are souvenirs expensive or rith international travel. however. thouSh it arisesftom the distant " than the Present. Yet to create"tourist art. first. ceptons about the savageryorstrendh ofAfrican sculpturea. by with for the snobor statusmarket. therc must first .roThere is perhaps no betterexampleof this processthan the radrca generationai sepa. It must be ctear that the object--EfiianEed fiorn rhe context in which it will be displayed as a souvenir. and individuals disappears.yoruba (arvers.. manufactured souvenirs. econ. the importation forei8n especially to for exohc artsincrcases meetthe demand distinctiven6s.on. distinctiv€ness classs.' Separdtion is accomplrshedspatia y rather than temporaly here.anhquarianones such as wagon wheels.t. Eo! the inyrtriioD-olt!€*lgicobies!_te 9e_separation.. either more by and more exotic expedences are sought (considertravel Postersadvertising the last frontier or the last uJlspoil€d island) ot in a tyF of rcvtrse snobb-ery.ampleearlier." Removed llthe -not its own llffrom its conlerl. a cachet connectcd multi. crafts desiSned in liSht of use value.classicAmerican cuisine. the demand . sec_ ond. rlcontextof familiarity. writing on "fourlh world arts.losing its specificr€ferentdnd eventually Nelothemess that describ€sth€ possessor. they increasintly tend in both form and content to be shaped by thel exPeclahons the tourist market that will consume them.

ln contrast to the souvenir. i In the uses of the souvenir.l)revede. TllE COLLECTION. rather. its synchrony and atemporality are manipulated into a human time and order. the past is at the serviceof \ the colection. I I I Pan u. and modifed by . . Thev arc a samDleof a larger and more sublime nature. but this instrumentality always works an only partial transformation. bath) and presentation (parlor. Gigantificationallows the maker to charte more for his product. Instrumentality replaces essence here as it does in the case of all magical obiects. The rouecrion s€eksa \ form of self-enclosure whi(h is possiblebecauseof its ahistoricism.c context for the souvenir is the displacementot . WaFuS mldht say thal a[ sou'venirs fEsouvEh]i66T. the souvenir.l the fluctuating demands of that same tourist market. Wher€as the collection is either truly hidden or Plominendy displayed.g!bf! ils function is to envelop the-prese€lwilhin lhe past. for whereasthe souvenirlends duthenticityto lhe past. ancestorand heit. In the collection. eMsterated. its tragedy lies in th€ death of memory. but the attic and the cellar are tied to the temporality of the past. the reunion with the mother with no corresponding reteneration of the syrnbolic. obiecls that are oriSinaly valued by tourI ists preciselv becauseof their connectionslo a ttaditional. \ 'tne' ontf]'iop. Nature is ananted diachronically through the souvenir. a native. has as its basis the restoration of class relationships lhat might otherwise be in flux. Other rooms of a house arc tied to function (kitchen. Yel the magic of the souvenir is a kind of failed rhagic. sens€ which appears here. the traSedy of all autobiography and the simultaneous ensure of the auto&aph. 1 but the collection represenls the total aestheti.. the gap betwe€n origin/object/subject which fields desire. so the restotahonof the souvenir is a conservdtive idealization ofaE. '/ ral at o e degree of removal from the present flow of events and therebv to obiectifv them. an obiect from lhe pasl incongruously survivrnBin the present.l OT CONSUUnTN crrilahirod. d nahrre diffe.Whal il is restor€d to is not an "authenLic.2 Sfurilarly. metdphor rath€r than meronymy. its most acculturated. ironically.iaflFGllis-Eiaflor rh? purtroses of-{Fi€tenTldeologv. the collection offers example rather I 'l than sample. And thus we come again to the powerful metaphor of the unmarked grave. he collectiondoes I not displaceattention to the past. all time is mad€ simultaneousor syn-t' j chronous within the collection'sworld.rriryr.l\-_under glassbut also lo lhe broader tendency to Placeall lhints natu." thdt is. Souveiirs are mtgir€ft6ieciaE-ause of this transformation. ha[) in such a way that they exist within the temporality of ev€ryday life. yet at the F€metime may it involve lesslabo. holistic. \ the past lends aolhenticity to lhe collection. This conclusionspeaksnot only to the disPlay of Victorian seashells .And. b€cause requireslessattention to detail.pa=. with order beyond I the realm of temporality. decay and prcservation.150 ON LONCING I5l OBl€CrS DEsrR[ OF \ are nonnally 8-16 inches long and 1 inch in diameter-in versions that are 3 feet lonS and 3 inches in diameter. the other side of separation is rcstoration-here the false promise of testoration. Just as the restoration of riiihin-programs of "gentrification" in uiiainCs.l The collection is a form of art as play. by human history.-Resro'ition ran. a form involving the reframing of objectswithin a world of attention and manipulation of context.[ure which has been invented by ideology. \ The collection replaces history with ckssif. . Grabum writes that "Eskimo soaPstonesculPtorsand Cordova srrlrros calculale that far less tim€ and effort is sPent making larte. ofiei tak. I and paradisil culture are hansformed. The pressed flowers under tlass speak to the significance oI their owner in nature and not to themselvesin natur€. but it must also be restoredthrough narrativeand/or reverie. The souvenir is not simply an object app€aring out of context. rather. context-of oridn but an imasinary (ontext oi onqln whose cnlei suDlect15a proFcDonor me insatisfactory set of present (onditions. PARADI Context Deslroye.enfialed by'human expeience."is "lost" rcmoved from any context o{ origin and use value in such a way as to "surprise" and capture its viewer into reverie. and they scramble the Past into a simultaneous order which memory is invited to reanante: heaven J' and hell. time is not something to be A ' r€storedto an origin. tool and ornament.i"atjon of use valui.EGEi-asir*pqn*-E I p6iiessors an The souvenir involves the displacementof attention into th€ past. so long as it remains "uncoUect€d. The place of oritin Brrst remain unavailable in order for desire to be ginerdted: All souvenirs are souvenirs of nature. contexts away from the business and entagement of everyday life."E Thus lle t lourist aesthehcensures that lhe obied is continually exobcizedand I estranged.exp€nsivecdrvin8s lhan the morc typical small ones. : The muvenir still trears a trace of us€ value in its instrumentalitv. n. The actual locale of the souvenir is often comm€nsurate with its malerial worthlessness: the attic and lhe cellar.iphce contemporary cities. The souvenir must be removed from its context in order to serye as a trace of it. The souvenir is destined to be fortotten. yet it is nafure in its most synthetic.

.li. ils incluent dans c€ ieu une ext6riorite sociale. we-fiid that the whole dissolvesinto parts.lhe.introiection orale et la r€lention anale-puis l'accumulation s€rielled. they shall be male and female. i 6 l p < . beSSing forgiveness. to keePthem alive with you. The spatial whole of the i. to ke€p them alive. selectivityof the collector "And of every living thing ofall flesh. ortlhea."27Herein lies the dilferencebetween the collec_ tions of humans and the collectionsof pack rats.. Bul the mercanlilist is not moved by restorationj he is moved by extractionandseriality. the "animating" principle of works su€h as xavier de Maistre's yolo8e d'exPliquerclaire_ Autow deMa Chafibrc:"Mais il est aussiimPossible ment un tableau que de faire un Portrait ress€mblanl d'aPras une description. its function is not th€ restorirtionof contextof oridn but rather the creationof a new context. dn Becausel}re collection replacesorigin with classificattn. While th-e its mein-ntains integrity and boundary' Once aeskoytd. which -intentionatlyitnores proprieties of . ) r i ^ l s d e E l e n d e n t u D o n D . .aHve history and topoFaphy. dmergevers la culture .iay severedfrom its or.watches.Le-stadeinf€rieur est celui de 1'accumulationde matiCres:entass€ment vieux papierc...or at leastthe nvention of memory. His I Like other forms of arl. tools. r ^ ^ ^ : ._ fortresslike pattern arcund his nest.. places within the period of1688-1763. two of every sort $hall come in to you. ported symmetrical. _thaia California wood rat aranges nails in a . by /irtueof their combination. Bunn suggests that "in a curio cabineteach cultural remnant has a circum_ scriH allusiveness amont a collectionofothers. is simply one of rhese menra y deranged persons..elle. you shatlbring two of every sort into the atk.. knives. .Atthou8h the obiects of a hobbyist. : ^ .esthetics of antiquarianism.sIritarn.obiets identioues.l As Baudrillardhassuggested. par e. he is simply Cod's brok€r' what he rescues from oblivion is the two that is one Plus one.ld----a world whjch is both full and singular.n is movedby a nostalFa oforitin and presence. which has banishedrePetition and achjevedautho tY. Also take with you every sort of food that is eaten.rceiience the populai of imagination and of melodrama.o. of every creePing thing of the ground according to its kind.iollected.&iiind col€ctjon supersedes individuat nanarivei-iha-r the it.its e)\istencA rs dependent upon principles of d r n i . ed.hending such obiicts. tobacco."r6 The aesthericsof mercdntilism. the objectscollectedby the wood rat are intrinsic objects_ objectscompletein themselves beciuse of the sensory qualiries that have rnade. i n . the Point of the collectionis forgetting-startnt again in such a way that a finite number of elements cteate.s collectionhave significanceonly in relarionto one another and to the seriJly that such a relation implies.He removestheobiectfrom conte\t and Dlace. We mitht therefore say. the coUG?fton to is ctmpl. .Daattractive to the rat.ver les uns aux autres. William Jamesre.)4In appr. each element within the collection is repre sentative and works in combination toward the creation of a new .it necessary distineuisi betweenth Baudrillard sutgested. lunclion is to validale his iheculture oftround. to such strudures. and store it upi and it shall serve as food lor you and for th€m. rather than a contituous. Such accu4qbllgljaotviousty not connected ro the cul_ ture and-the economy il rhg wiy that the collectionproper is lgr-ne coyell.piecesof glass_nre without seriality.it c?n be semiolotically consideredas a specialcaseof eclecticism.a contextstandint in a m€taphorical. eachof which refe6 metonymicallyto a contextof drigin or acquisitioi:T6'is is lhe eiperierice ot obiects-into-nanatives that w€ saw in the animation of the toy and that becomes.ns.sthetica of Bri$sh merantilism. and of the animals accordinS to their kinds. rorganizationand . de stockate de nourriture-i mi{hemin entre l. The anriquan."6 In mntrast.152 ON LONGINC 153 oaIEcTsoa D€slR€ whole that is the cutext of the coll€ctioait5elf. ^ r categorization. f . as we seein works suchas Camden. lames H. relation to the world of everyday life. bui the obiects silver.omy.Whose labor made the rk is not the question: the question is whal is inside.tn [rrAtrcta.des telationshumaines. sansceslerde renv. matches. the monster of squalor and_mis_ anlhropy. the collection is not a The collectionPresents hermetic world: to have a representational.onrcxt of acquisition. that the archetyPal collection is Noah's Ark. or to a . the two that can 8€ner_ te seriality and infinity by the symmetrical joining of asymmetry. lam€s found the sam€ propensity for collectint intrihsic obtects among "misers" in lunatic asylums: ." The world ofthe ark is dependentupon a Prior creation:Noah has not invent€d a world. without relation to one anothe. a world which is rePresentative yet which erases its context of oritin.. hile the point of the souvenir may be rememberinS. fhe world of the ark is a world not of les-are . is necessary distinguisi between has to rhJ concept oI collection and that of accumulationr . Ifthe unintentional aesthetic accumulatingerohc goods materidlizedas a side effectof of mercantilism. it within theplay oJsignifiersthat characterize ex(hangeeco. Of the birds accordint to their kinds.La collection.^ . the minimum and the com_ collection is to have both reDresentative plete number of elements necessaryfol an autonomous wo.the miser. This difference in purpose is the reason why th€ scraPbook and the memory quilt musl properly be seen as souvenirs ralher tian as collecti. it is Possible SeneF tffiject to start atain within a context that is framed by the ate a new series. in fact.is thus in an important wav the antithesis of the-. there6 makint temporality a spatial and material phenomenon..rth-t'iAG redUnda-n nostal8iabut of anhcipation.gin. Yet unlike many forms of art. which Bun.an infinite reverie.

notes infinity and distance. To arrante the obiectsaccordprivate. like anal retentiveness.es. and thus to createa fiction of the individual life. wecannot possibly "s€e" eachofitselements. pla. arc insane.As an exampleof the first type.books. Iftside an.or internat qualitiesof the objectsthemsclves..gildedrhcrnro march the bindings! Subject ref€renceconvenience secondarv rhis and were in ananSement. and their insanity has no mor€ to do of of with the associati()n ideasthan with th€ Precession the equinox. The n€cessityof identiry at th€ e\pense of Inlorm?hon here is an eximple oLBaudrillard's suggestionthat formalr ere$r€pra€€srcatTrfer€st. who ananged and rea. €xcepl insofaras the ecrosancr diary wasconcem€d. Baudrillard as well concludes that becaus€of the col€ca tion's seriality. As an example of this obs€ssion with series.lities df th€ objects themselves..the collectionwilt be fini1e.n in norebooks varyin8size. It i5 not sufficient to say that the collection is or8anized according to time.e. We therebyalsofind at work here the play between idenriry dnd differencewhiih chara. depends uPon the creationof an individual perceiving and aPPrehendingth€ collectron .Thus the "proper" collection will always take Part in an anticiPation of redemptionr for example.. is equatly clear that the rniser's collectjon dePends upon a refusal of differentiation whil€ the hobbyjst's collection dePends upon an ac(eptance of differentiation as its very basis for €xistence.the i! same" is to simultaneouslysignify th€ir difference.this near(oll€ctorbuilr woodensrilrswherenccc\sary rnd. Ieft to right. Publicand value. Similarly. But such an aesth€tic that its valu€ (i. Here we mi8ht an lsanity is. redemption. If that principle tends toward infinity or seriesitself.rerizes the collection organized in accordancewith qu.'?e reolacementholds value is so clearlytied value replac€suse value.ingthoseunderthe shorter books. meanint and exchanSe ing to time is to juxtaPosePersonaltime with socialtim€.'' of obiects and thus meton''mically refusesthe entire political economy that servesas the foundation for that system and the only domain within which the system acquires meaning. In the co ection. of Eve.consider Pepys'slibrary: Samuel Pepys.so that the letierin8 on all could be seen").llcould be seen. exchar. It refuses the very svstc. marked by desperation. and this. yet in fact are empty.tf thal pnncipleis I bounded at the onset of the collection.In doublerows on rheshetves his to rhc larger volun€swerc placed behindthe smaller thar thc tcrtoins on so .ting to reaen. defermcnt.a "formal" interesl always replaces "real" int€r€stin to the extentthat aesthetic This collectedobiects. the eventual coining-in of obiects or the eventual acquisition of obiect status by coins themselves-But the insanecollectionis a collectionfor itsown sakeand for its own movement.l:'4 ON LONcI Nc 155 O8lECTs DfsrRE Of with eye and hand.that are ioined cardboard bindings decorated to look like matched sets of I volumes. the collectionwill b€ open-ended. had bounduniformlyso rhat irs parrsmight be kept together without disturbing library's rhe arnnSemenrSenerat Pepys'scollection must be displayed as an identical series(the stilt arrangement)and as a set of individual volumes ('. lhat this is otten th€ motivation of the bibliophne is also made clear by the buying of . similar."23Thus lames concludes that hoarders hav€ an uncontollable add that this form of inlimpulse b take and keeP. pepys. a time of the individual subiect boih transcendentto and Para el to historical time. b€tw€en disptay and hidint. While we can "see" the entire collection. others who (olled dillerentseries d'flercnrtim€siorherswhose al schcme is intellect may in many matters be cleat but his instincts. behind and beforc.M.. Thus the miniature is suitabie as an item of collection becaus€ it is sized for individual consumption at the same time that its surplus of detail con. the spatial organization oI the collection. esPecially that of ownership.use they are l. it comeslo I erist by meansof its prin(iple of ortanization.ranged library.Iina y his classihed b@ksa€cording size. ulge toward incorporationfor its Iown sake.Se) to the cultural the formalism ofthe collecsyatemls the value systemof the cultural. space. the more the objecls dr. which had b€enwritt. tion is never an "empty" formalism.or at least potentialy finite.for eachofth€se parametersis divided in a dialecticof inside and outside. to "keeP body and soti lrtosether. The colledion is not constructedby its elementsjrather. and in orderrhdrrho ropsmight bc evenwrrtrcictr olher. the more imperarive it rs that we make gesturesto distinguish them." ' betiveen the Although it is clear that there is a corresPondence it productionsof art and the Productionsof insanity in th€secases. autobiography with history. William Carew Hazlitt's suggestionsfor the coin coll€ctor hold: Thereare colleclors who makerheir choice and srandby . front to back.'Togrou? qb-iqc-tq a seriesbec.an attempt to erasethe limits ofthebodythatis atthesame jtime an att€mpt. The collection'sspacemust move b€tween the public and the private.l outsiile To ask which principles of orSanizationare us€d in articulalingthe collectionis to begin to discern what the collectionis about.

Gmy.lhe collectorrePlaces of into the landscaPe ob. Burthis filling ^ in is a matter of omamentation and presentation in which the interior :/ is both a model and a projection oI self{ashionint.just as the self is invited Loexpandl withh the con6nesofbou€eois domesri( space. we have the immedotemiiieu of the individual. simple old lin€s.bur rhey do nor go . thesewerc-Rich. The bad cl€rgy-Shy. . in which social posi to tion becomesthe natural placeof beingj to the late-seventeenth-century notion of the interior: "It is in such descriptionsof an interior seKint thal the ided of the 'milieu' (enclosingand . protector. At any rate.lt isl determined by theseboundaries. Montieso/s su8gesiion that children collect clergymen's names: "There were the 157 oBIEC'rSOF DESTRE ioloured clergy-Green. collectionsare made on a PrinciPlemore or less loose and vague.slonesdnd bulterfliesare made cultuF and coins and stamPsar€ naturalizedby the eraI al by classification. remove I' 'replaceobiects from their contexts of ori8in and Production and to is lho\e conterlswrth the conterlof the collection guite evi denl in Lheoractjce. Consider GraceVallois's€xtensiveadvicein Filst Siers in Collecting Fu itule.ect'are naturdlired t hon with consumption. This impuls€to l./ ' env onment with things. etc. sequenc€and combinarion. of coin\ or <tamps.nology. the space of the collection is a complex interplay of exposure and hidint.with lhe approximatecost. organization and the chaos of in6nity. who Possessed The moneyed cler8y. wise. or crowninS ahocity. the first stePshould be.its chr. and adom€d with the neessary adjunctsof everydaylif€. a collection which would ilustrate the infinite and r€generative seriality of languate itself. the cupboard. we aPPrehend.and Chika: Thereis to me som€thingdistinclly incongruousin seeinga larg€ Welsh dresser(never originally neant for anything but a kftchen)occupying the entire wall of a little j€rry-built twentielh century dining room. . biscuit boxes perhaps. Nichols of Nelt Yorl Ciry. ol FloYd E. etc. The haPpy clergy.ble enthusiasts: usual. it is ne(essarynol to a(t upon andl trdnsform it.\ embracinS.an ugly but convenient Suth€rland tablefor tea. Th€ vittuous clergy-Virtue. Class.. the collectorhimself Whercas the spaceof th€ souvenir is the body (talisman).ments themselvesis minimized bv the collection We seeIittle differencebetween colections of stonesor butterflies and collections Produc. cupold that once enfotded manlind has \ disappedrd. whiskey would make a mouse sPit in a cat's face.31 As an example of the second tyPe. I herelore. with miniature cat. and mdn is lefi lo rattle around in an inJrnjteuniverse.ihe the Eround. The world.the Pe- riphery (memory). Black. as dcter all but the most earn€stand indefatig. he dramatizesthe Proverb. a Tantalus and stand."ll NI.atures. or the contradiction of private display (reverie). a co €citems according to/s colector. and effectint presence. ment of the narrative of-history witn the narrative of the individuat I subj€ct-that is. amongpahs in pots. mice. . its difficulties. pattern and variation. In a suSgestiveessayon the etymotoSyof rhe terms nrtrca ) a d ambience. A. no doubt. Omar I ment d€cor.hols s practice the rePldrenarrati!e of Drodu(tion bv the narrativeof the colle(tion. i Thus he s€eks all the more lo ftll in his immediate.mi(rocosmirrelaiion between man and nature. \ /hite.onstitutes a series. The contradictions of the aestheticcanon are contradictionsof genealogyand personality: harmony and disruption. Leospitzer tracesthe notion of authentic placeas moving hom the cldssical macrocosmic. in the state of-Bliss. Rather than exhibit his many co. The collection rclies upon the boy.lected to type. Penny. etc.ic aonnecfionbetween lhe PrinciPleof or8anizationand the el. lhe cabinet. itwouldb€ quite simple. ought to be acc€PtableTo master eten thc prominenl monograPhsis a task which is sufficient to and."Y I lI this tasl of filtin8 in the immediate environment wirh things were simply one of us€ value.key bottl€. one of those three-tieredsrandsfor cak€and bRad and butte. whiskey tlass.Somehnes dresser promoted the is to the 'drawing room' so called. . and 'One drink of moonshine whi.and ultimately decorum define the boundariesof private \ spaceby emptyinS that spaceof any relevance other rhan rhai of rhe I subied.to reconn. and measurethe sPacelo be traversed. only aGoodenough.For the environmen{1 to be an extension of the self. the medieval theory of tradations. sure of labor and the erasureofcontext ofProduction. . consider C. its f. and thrusts its grand. etc. in which spaceis climate. hrs physical. the camelmounted on I the tmverse sectionof the wire passedcomPletelythrough the eye of of lhe rePlacement lhe e\emplifies I the needle. Peace.1 5 6 O N L O N G IN C in.reased facility for mis. Farthing. Joy. One may remember the vogu€ which paintin$ of the same type enjoyed in the preceding c€ntury-int€d€urs depicting the cozi nessand comfort of well-tumished human dw€Uings. but to declare its €ssentialemptin€ssby filling it. These things may be conv€nient. etc "32 Her€ we mitht also remember Walt€r Beniamin's Project of collectint quotations. Ha'Penny Money. To all theseclasses judSing within a convenientcompasswtut . Cunnint. Nichols would group objects together so that they told a ston."'and "To minia_ ture camelshe attach€da number 5 needle.y intrin. metaphysi(al. The poor clerty. I the collecrionrtseli.ellan€ols or desuttorv. "For instance. rhe serialityof shelves.filled in') is pre sented mosl (orcefully. the wire being shaPedso that when it was pulled away from the n€edle.ln d(quinng obiecls.

the economy n'ith its own principies of exchange. The collectionthereby acquiresan aura of transcendence lJ lroni(allv.over the transition by ' Lithl s{atterint 'tincere" ican porrery. To play with seriesis to play with the fire of infinity. AnEustula advises: "Don't Pieces aitrere tio closelv to periods. one says that it is not authentic.Her€in lies the ircnic nostalgiaof the collection'seconomic system: althouth dependent upon.a.was b Parasile.their finite use value when filled is played atainst the measureless emptiness lhat marks their new aestheticfunction. chain of siSnifierswhos€ ultimate referent u inlerior of the self' an room -in i"tself emptv essence-but ihi to ln ord-erto consrrucrlhis narrative of inleriority it is necessary these examPles edecticism / obliterate the object's context of oritin. whose own role in the Production of history is dePendentuPon the luxurv of the collectionof surplus value Here w€ might considerthe structural meaninq of the "flia" market as dePendentuPon the lei surc tastes and discarded fashions of the host culture: the market economy. The Ne&-r Yorl I Titnes March 15." is the confidenceof the managerialclasses. each Senerationhas added somclhinc and k'fi their impress in the old house l lite lo se lacob€an charh liv. ift"u ^"v be easilv combined with Sheratonor Eastlakeby the beLween two olacinea Minge vaseor an old French fowlinS-Piece of Mex' !."37 The term a-bric-aItrrr.thissmaller of e(onomyis self-suffi(ient ^ and self-generalinS wilh retard to its own mednings and pnncrptes o(r.salt-and-pepper shakers.signedro serve ns .r"i. it m.whitc chairt. this finitude becomesthe collecto/s obsession.r spncc with lTth cenlury Bndal .n inro account I as muchas any simpleFreudian modelwhen we notethetreat popularity of collecting obiects that are themselves containers: cruets. the self generatesa fantasy in which it becomes \ oroducer of those obiects. which we might translate as "by hook or crook. he . that system of obiects is ofren dr." or arrangint.vases. the materialbody is simply one more position within the s€rialitv and div€rsity of objects. substitution. Balzac.l has sprung.158 0N LONCTNC with the old drcsserl .and old fou Posber shdrins ooi. which is assumedto have access the "conand eiEhteenth-centuryantiques trolled varietv" of seventeenththat she "likes to see.Indeed. a s€lf caoable of transcending the a(cidents and disP€rsionsof hisbncal it . lJ pilchers. if for no other redson." implies the processof acquisitionand exchange.carried an accountof a man who was (and for probably still is) searchingfor three antique Tiffany postal scates.to a d.roducer by arrantemenl and maniPulat iion. ro my mind."Gtbdd-ttart"l"ent is not the int€nor ot the . and rePlicability :::jl1"J::*:::.i. Balzac's ori8inal title for his nov€l of 'ollectint' As CousinFons. for thecontained here is the self.one says "it is not yo!. But eclecticism the same time depends uPon the unstated 'i seriaiitv it has bounded from. The 6nite boundaries these obiectsafford are played against I the infinite possibilityof their collection. 1980."o. or soine Javawine-iars." Thus Spitz€r's model of the self as occupying the interior in conjunction with obiectsis not a completelyadequateone. analogously.catetorization allows lhe collection to be finite. _ iects.s varues/[ When one wants to dispamge the souvenir. and a mirrorint of.hould be. And this lunctionof contdinment must be tak. is dull and uninleresting. In the collection the threatofinfinity is always met with the articularionofboundary. either cannot be undenaKenhoep€nor oarodvine..joi' o. exchange.teapots.ry confidence wilh which Vallois ad' to dressesher audience.An ancestral home is nccessarilybuili uP bit by bit. Similarly.hesls. to name I a few. tt'" ralher exiraordin. uoi -"v . In rather than pure seriality is to be admired because. Not simply a consumerof the obiecls i tfrut titi tt'" d6cor. The collectionthus appearsas a mode of control and containment insofat as it is a mode of seneration and seri€s. is symptomaric the middre of crass. the larger economy surplusvalue.l/ indeed. the (ollection. tn other cases. an economy relation. If you have acquiredt few Sood of Eevptian furniture of the Shepherd King Period for your livint.lt is nol necessary to have eerylhing of th€ same rEriod. the economyof the colle<tiontrdnslalesthe monetary system into thc system of ob.rks the heierogeneousortanization of lhe s€lt. Whereas the larter economy has replaced use value through the translationof labor into exchange value.r / slay dtainst lhe frdilties of lhe very monetary system frum whi(h ir . Booth Tarkjngton's parody of colleclorsin Thz Coll(Ior's Wrrinol contains a similar essay by one "Antustula Thomas" on "pooning. Thal it as it . where everything inside and out th. we know from the anticsof that Poor of collecting is a fantastic one.Simultaneous areworkeda8ainst sets eachotherin the sameway that attention to the individual object and att€ntion to the whole are worked against€ach other.Privatespaceis marked by an exterior mat€rial boundary and an interior surplus of sienification..sI narratortells us: "Theioy of buyintbric-i-brac is a secondarydetight.' in the dve-and-take oI barter lies the joy ofjoys.when one wants to disparagethe collectedobiect.::r reSardinSpersondlity. and aPPeals me far more pcrf€ct 18th century hous€. imply that possession Eachsign is Plac€d in relatiln.which is the (false)Iabor of the collector.a seemsto sPeakof Adam 3s 159 oBlacls oa DESTRE despite its d€pendenceupon the larger economic system. thrt. and lElh century lo HeDDl.elliw.and."$ Thes€ terts.o.and boxe.nc dmicdbly with Sheratoncabinets.

R€ matter of nice discrimination.Like Noah's Ark. ln writin8s on collecting. But he soon rallied. veblen's critique of conspicr. and aS little as hims€lf care to visit the tanhouse. Althouth the library might be seen in a semiotic sense as representint the worl4 this is not lhe collecto/s view. as soon as I enter his house.ts own context." 'Ten lhousandl" and so on.e. ironically.." asked. The fiction is that a repeatedm€tonymicdisplacement tragmentfor of owns six of the nine that are said to exist and has Daid a special trio Wiliam Walsh's findint service look for the missinS of scal€s. t thank him for his politeness.rous sumption sunilarly concluded that the handmade objecys crudity was. The collectionisoften about containmenton the level ofits content and on the level of the series. and.t with this treasure.Eugenio Donato has written: The s€t of objectsthe Museum displays is sustainedonly by the fction that they somehowconstitute a coherentrepresenlational univelse. a symptom of conspicuouswaste. Although transcendent and compr€hensive in r_agard . "yes. "l am quite in my nght mind. crossingover the Chann€I. lhe libmry and the museum. . plunain8 at once ir nedias rcs. which he calls his library-"s Yet it is the museum.recountsit as happenint in New York).1 6 0 O N L O N C IN C 16l osrEcIS Of DES. I am Ieady to faint on the stainase. and the toods which exhibit thesemarks take rank as of hiShergrade lhan the corresponding machine product. it is the museum. One day h€ r€ceived c. I don't care to dispoG€of it. . via Maurice Rheims. as if he were showing a tallery of picturcs! .it oi theTooFis foreei.but it is also about containment in a more abstract sense. hencethe goods turned out by this method are rnore seryiceable for the pulpose of pecuniary reputability. t@. till at last twenty-five thousand fiancs was offered. it isn't even . I. "You hav€ such and such a book in you.qs of Therc is a story of a wealthy EnSlishcolleclorwho long b€lievedthat a was a unique. . for the collector the library is a representative collectionof books iust e15 collectioriii represen=tzp any hn6.L+&Jty . in vain he shows me fine editions. similarlyreflectedin th€ collectols D'Israeli records that Cicero wrote thus to Atticut iequddnB-nth-dtp in formint a collectionof antiquities: "In the name of our friendship suffer nothing to escape you of whatever you find curious or lare."4r Thus a measured crudity of material quafity is prcs€nted in tension with an overefinement of sitnificance.beiir6on.3elt is an accountol the replacement of content with classification. possess copy of that book.i!6jn a mode of control and confinement." give you a thousand francs for it-" '3ut it "But. and cast the book into the fire.undgd a t"uE-re pa. legitimates the collecto/s need for control and poss€ssion within a world of infinitely consumable obiects whose production and consumption are far beyond the ken of the individual subiect. Thus the ahistoricismof such knowledge makes it particularistic and consequentlJrandom.One cannot know everythint about the world.fiGaaB-f obiecBiThEsjor rh! colRctoL the maEd. an alcount of the ways a in which couection is the antithesis of qea€on. gold leaves. . a letend of colecting (Eaudrillard. which strives for authenticity and for closure of all space and temporality within the context at hand. but one can at G-ast approach closed knowledgi through the coUection.ust a 'divine madness'r properly interpreted. "Are you crazy?" oied the Parisian.Alice Van l. He learned that there was another copy in Pans. such knowledge is both ecleciic and eccenfo tric. In an essay on Bo uald and Pacuchet. I want to buy it.Th€bibliomaniac's forthe obsession wiih thE.detaining his arm..uxtaposition of the unique and sinFlar qualities of the individual object against the serialty of the collection as a whole. Etruscan bindings. The Englishman counted out twenty-five thousand-franc bills.{tnin rare book in his possession a bitter blow. I deemed it a mique. . a collector. inlii sea-rcn-fo-r ni"t* F€dErT€nBrt@r*+{.a possession unique the object is desire of ry.Oi.stooping over to rescueit. "Nay. examined the purchase caretully. the aberrant or unique objecr sitnifies the llaw in the machine iust as the machine once sitnifi€d th€ conllaws ofhandmade production. s€ek to represent experienCe{.it is a liberal education. one might say invercely that the tib€ral arts education characteristic of the leisure classesis in itsef a mode of collection. library?" he 'nve[. in its representativeness. This tension is turther exatterated by the . those geat civic collections."s The collector can gain control over repetition or series by defining a finite set (the Tiffany postal scales) or by possessing the unique ots v ject. to recountsa compatablestory: Handy-book Litcnry C!/iositr'.3l]lE@Ethlabbi ". The appreciation of those evidences of honorific crudeness to which hand-wrought Boods owe their superior worth and charm in the eyes of well-bred people is a . which must serve as the €entral m€taphor of the collection. hence the marks of hand labor come to be honorific. not the library.one constdntly finiliilisiuision oi-the colle$ion as a"modeof knowtedee. The notion of the "educational hobby'. "Hand labor i5 a more wasteful method of production. and naming them one after another. ftom a stront smell of Morocco leather. my ded si! " "l wi[ isn'l fo! salq I-" "Two lhousand!" "On my word."4 Indeed." said the EnSlishman.eerCarrick declaresin the prefaceto Collpclor's Lark thit "collecting isn't just a fad.oaiea ty OruyC. and the Pdisian gentleman finaly consented to pa."38 a This story is. The latter object has acquired a particular poitnancy since the onset of mechanical reprcduction.u. by now. smiled with satisfaction. he mad€ his way to the rival's home.

for the elements of the collection are. and docket it not only with its name. not in the Numismatist. should be placed the pretty shells you tather on the seashore.and second. but v'/hen obieds are defined bv lhe . €n_ f€Im€e dans cette matiEre.€v. Similarly.ffi."a5Thus we have directions for the homemade universe.sqlles both to give inteqritv to the selfand at the sametime to arri(le on British . in facl. faTh6mlel' as .nalytic life history or as the Points of an 'txistence"-and .Bunol" n_-'s "r. in fact. but in the Hoarder. scheme item for context. Individuals.the fetish_ ist's impulse toward accumulation and privacy. into a convex mirror which reflects a rogln full of collectedobiects.We can seethat what mustbe suppressed here is the privileging of conlextof oriFn.' €ven iI r€commendsthat "every h.nEit-h sigdne{tion. it i5 the of Linnaean system which articulatesthe identities of plants. Montiesor a 'Museum.n the nostalgiaof lhe L s"uu. a testure which rcsults in the treasuresof one culture being stored and displayed in the museums of another.is t-natma*s the colle. th€ sk€leton leaves you pick up from under the hedges.use ouSht to possess it is only one shelf in a small cupboard. the metonymic displacementof part for whole. as (nearerto our day) SamuetP€pys did.object labcl. in this casea "personal" one. lhat is to say.n the contemPorary fetishization of the body in consumer culture is dependent uPon the system of images within which the corporeal body has been transformed into another point of r€presentation. becausethey were striking or th€y were novel.s6-neaans lirgentllort n esi niia riratdrialit6."aT the hoarder the Sesturetowaiq an ingesture we saw al work comPletelgPbEelsd lllle+cl!-obiq(tFthe through the substitution ol lbe souvenir for oriSln-becomes a com_ p6E-on. and not the other way around. de substitutivit6 totale de toutes les val_ eurs grecea leur abstractiond6finitive "s I! the collectionsuch systemafrciw-.the invention of a classification time in such a way that the world is which will define space and accountedlor by the elementsof the collection. the stmnge orchids you find on the downs. .Prazseeshimselfas no bigger than a hdndfulof dust. d mus€um piece-amoig-musdlm Pieces.tion ol oDDosites which charactenze" such collections. it also overwhelms uninten_ substructureofits host. carefully dated and named.Lscan has noted. sewrng to suDsumelne environment to a scenuio-oJ the personal.because ln thought to be insecure.ftqggq!!--'"kE the-pla(es of not any .the sPatial that orderin8 understanding the of Iragmcnls.Thlre syslem we maY simultaneouslyand variously fyslem of referents----a chara-a.ond. Hazlitt !!tote.e-w-muFuke into account not only Freuds th"ory of tFe lEtifi but Marx's as we[."e For an examPleof tionally the semiological this processby which the host is overwhelmed. In SFibook on coll€cline. Cest la virtualit€.(iaPosition of and chssifyinS. tj-". The popularity of tableau sc€nes in the natural history mus€um and the zoo ftrther speaks to the dramatic-+--impulse toward simultanejty andlhe felicitous reconciljq -. the old fossils you find in the rocks. but also with the name of the place in which you found it.series obiects senes labels.." Yet ironically and by extension. has suggested that this sumlus o[ significance rirerciniitist can.<n in tensiol. laid Piecesasid€.lYith accqmulation and secrecy. The ultimate term in -meiE. . Because the fiction of such a museum. the museum of natunl hbtory allows nature to exist "all at once" in a way in which it could not otherwise exist. gazin.whiah she wraG for children. p()ducea representational can Thus there are two movements to the collection's Sestue of standing for the worldr first. results in the quantification of disire-lDelire is ordered. alu6s that the Jesire and Tbaissance from the svstematicqualiw of obie(ts rather lhan from the obiects' qrernsehrei-Ce qJi f. and m-ani-ptrEG?. like PePys. Jli meme l'equivalent capt6 d'une certaineforce (de travail) ou d'un certain pouvoir virtu€I. Learn what you can about each obiect before you put it in the museum. still to which is sonchowadequate a nonlinguistic produce rcprcscntation a beliefin th€ notion universe. and the date.-the formation of a repetition or chain of substttuling si8nifiErs-F6fowinp L€vi-Strauss'swork on totems.tion is the "self. Sucha fictionis the resultof an uncritical ju. "The formation of Collectionsof Coins oriSinated.ce. When objectsare g?G?fa*ensiohs-oTThe defined -bodv in terms of their us€ vaiueJhey inlo lhe envlonment. su(h an extenslon rs lnverled. the Pleasure of Possess_ the abject's Position in a int arybleelld€p€ldenrlPon-athers. C. already accounted for by the world. from an early stage in the history of coined money.162 ON LONGINC 163 O8I€Cr5OF D€SjRE to of can 10 of totality. culture.ody'. or secretedthem in the ground. Baudrillard concharacterizing fetishism result.bon. here. Tlie fetishized obieqlqqqt have a reference Point within the system o11treqcttange ica. for example.t.nature is nothing more or lessthan that group ofobjects which is articulatedby the classification syst€m at hand.dela(hed dnd remote is mediat€d by collectionjllq-fetishism ]i@fleq. Cest sa sAsltmaticitt. And we can consequentlys€ethe lo&c behind the blithe 8esture toward decontextualization in museum acquisitions. cla$8!g!9la!!k!!qplav As W." the drticulalionof lhe collector'sown "identity.ejlor9'Ii'. As. iioi ar:nE-i. we miSht remember the haunting picture of Mario Praz at the concl'rsion of La Casadella Vita.riz--tfe-psycho. hoarding and the secret. slltunrle the collector: "Allhough the chani€ removal of a -olen cu-ltirrat ciuteriza Gso.

ature.and enrering inro rclation bothwirhoneanother rhehuman dnd race. We might remember that of all invisible workers. prooer idbor of the consumerl It is a labor of roral qpaates-tlE€uth the manipulation of magic.One "finds" theelementsofthe collectionmuchas the prelap.l self-as-worldeven as it must us€ the symbolic. by meansof lhe alien liolr of Iabor that lhe objeciltconstituted.lf{ they are "made.of yab€ here. obj€cts abstracted from use valu€ and materiality within a de magic cycle oI self-referential exchange.We must €xtend this description a degree further in order to see the final stage of this alienation. the more. Thus. a fantastic "l4t'or wlilh abshaction rather than through concrete or matedal means. As Veblen noted in Tre ThEoryof the bisurc Class. Thus. tn its erasure of labor. it is also the most abstractof all forms of consumption. the collectionis prelap. but the collection comes to us. those who achrally make money are the least visible. theireyes.And in its translation back into the panicular rycle of exchang€ which characterizes the universe of the "collectable. We to to the souvenir. WhA i.thatassumes.Once again. Nor is it simply a scene of appropriation.!q!9r_p9{9ty4rhin e of tf . th€ narrative.. in "collection io. We "luck into" the alienation laboremerses-l!LejE!gg44q[.andlotously.The collectorconsfruclsa I narrative of luck which replaces the narrativ€ of production. in the fantastic fom of a r€lation between th'ngs. ihdefende4!of that pr6diction. rhe produ(hon ddmusem€nt inimes the seriality and abslractionof postindusrriil modii of pibduction." The sceneof origin is not a sceneof the transformationof. "The belief in luck is a sense of fofiuitous necessityin the sequenceof phenomena. This context d€strcys the context of origin.ln this belief in fortune we see a further erasure oI labor.I / sarian Adam and Eve could find the satisfaction of their needs ll wrthoul a necessary articulation of desire.rherefore. ment even further. cole-o( rheir aesthetic forms. This cycle retums us to Eliot's distinction between "old leisure" and "amusement. iust as we saw that in its oualitiesof eclecticism and transcendenceth€ collectioncan seryeastmetaphorforthe individual personality.. collectedobiecrsl of are not the resull of t}|e serial operation of labor upon the material] environment. like bluegrassmusic. it is inihe wortd So of." th€ collected object represents quite simply the ultimate sellreferentialty and seriality of money at the same time that it declaresits independencefrom "mere" money. determines its fetishisticvalu€ flr( further the olject ts_removed from use valu€.enveloped we to regions of the religious world.the mode of production is mad€ magical. we are inherilors. J their production appedrs to be seLImotivaLedand self-realized. musthaverecourse the mist.ils proper destinatio4llj And this sceneof acquisihon is rep€atedover and over through thlI serialarrangemenr obiectsin displdv space. All colected obj€cts are thereby obiets l!. not producers." it is by a pro(€ss that s€ems inventitselffor lhe/ to pleasureof the acquirer.Thu\. is dependentupon this abstraction. Thus the | " co ection is not only lar removed from contextsof mat€ial production. ThisI catlrhe Fetishism whichattaches itselfto the products labour so soonas of they areproduced commodiries. It is.rbstract lt Feaomes and tie rDoremultjvocal is ils relqletthlit]. as it might be throuth the exercise of the body upon the world. they present the seriality of an animate world. The collection says that the world is given. the presents a metaphor of "production" not as "the eamed" but as "the caDtured.r. as an imita- ilgl4q4qqglitles oJ the object or even its context of oridn.The collectionreplicates Marx/sby now familiar accountof the objectificationof commodities: It is a definite social relahon between men. the object is made magical. whichis rherefore as and inseparabte from th€ production commodities. an illusion of d relationbetweenl things takes the place of a social relation. th.which motivatesthe fetish. as a I device to arive at that reunion. and thus use value lies at the. it is too late for that.ae of In this passagewe find a description of the proc€ssby which the cyde ol e\chin€eJn abslractjonla-tticl E?Les ther^/orl of the body perceivablein terms ol its \iSnifying capdgry." Crafts arc contiguous to preindustrial modes of production. Rather. The dialecticbetween hand and eye.sl'lo=1h€14ouvenir.ommodities with the products ofmen'shands.1 6 4 O N L O N C IN C 155 OErrCrs DESTRE OF collectionrit might attach itsef to particularscenesof acquisition. one might thinl of squaredancing.ii. Yei Marx's model of the pro(essoafetishizarion tocusesupon the inversionby which the self as producer of meanints is seen a. In thatwoild the prcductions ofthe humanbrain aPpear independent as beings endowed with life.. to find an analogy. The souvenir reconstitutesthe sceneof acquisirionas a mergint 1 with the other dnd thus promises the preimaginary paradiseof the . so the collection can also serve as a m€taphor for the socr?ri relationsofan exchante €conomy. But the collection tak€s this move.| | r' sarian.lt\ .In order. This estrangementof ldbor trom rts lo(ation jn lived relationsis perceivable the operdtion in of the souvenir as the souvenir both moums and celebrates gap the betweenobjectand contextof oridn."roThe souvenir magi(ally j1 bansports to the scene oritin. in other words. in the collection. possession and tianscendence. a stagein vrhich the sellis_fonfutufed by its (onsumption of poods.but the intefity of those scenesis subsumed to the transcendentand ahistorical context of the collection itself. For examp)c. In the souvenir. but the collection magically us of is anflll seriallytransportedto lhe sceneof acquisition.

and it also p€rmits a-systematic substitution of purchasefor labor. collections of€phemera seru€to exagllerate certaindominant features of the exchangeeconomy: its seriality. "Eaming" the collectionsimply involves t roilirg. as the souvenir proper accumulates around iust that period of intense subiectivity. lo institute a nostaleiaof lhe popuiliFw-hich in fa(t m. dispersal.And by meansorby virtue ofsuch exaggeration.Within contempc rary consumer society/ tt'e cpl&elS!_tCleilhC_glac€ af crafts 4q the prevaihng form of dom€stic pastnoe. they. In the face of an apocalypse. it would be more accura@ say that the kitsch obiect to offers a saturation of materiality. throuSh their accumulation and arrantement they mitht present an aesthetictableauwhi.ects u.srYet this satumtion would be a f€atureof many valued obiects.laq to subiectify all of consumer culture.cast-offclothing. wine bottles.collectionsofwine bottles or cruets placed in a window mark the differentiation of light and space. Rather. is at work in the collection. iust as we earlier saw Crusoe decidint to take the money after all. the deepest of surfaces. they are appr€hendedon the level of collectiveidentitv. For example. so the collectionas a whole imDliesa valu€-aesthetic or otherwis€independent of the simple sum of its individual members.We must look more closelyat the type of consumedsm the collectionrepresents. Furthermore.cou$e on the cglq!4llreerqatioLof novelllwithin the exchangq ecpnomy. Suchcollectionsmisht seemto b€ anticoll€ctions th€ir denial of the in valuesof the antiou! and the classicas transcendentforms. And on the other side of this scale of values.First.Baudrillard hassuggestedin a brief passag€ kitsch in on La 9xiit' de co som aliox that kitsch reDresents saturation of the a objectwith details. adolescence. the accumulation of coins promis€s the amassint oI a cyclical world that could replace the world itself.h no singleelement could sustain. too. . Thev are souvenirs of an era and not of a self. Their value in their context of origin was most likely their contemporaneousness. Their value depends upon the lluctuations of a self-referendal collector's market. just as all collectionsdo. childhood. Yet such collectionsdo more than neSate. mighl function as "intrinsic obiectJ' like th€ nails and glass fraSments collected by the wood rat. or politicalbuttons. The serialityof kitsch objects is articulated by the constant self-peiiodizahon of popular culture. the coll€ction must be acquired in a serial manner.rather. novelty. massprooucoonano rnorvrouai 34C-Rilsaiige-5lr&biects lg.And yet it is not acceptable simply to purchase a collection ii toto. their relation to the fluctuating demands of style. enabling mode and fashion the to extend in both directions-toward the past as well as loward the Kits€h and camp obiectsoffer a simultaneouspopularizatbn of the antique and antiquation of the fad.1 6 6 O N L O N G I NG 167 OBIEC'IS DLSIRE OE tion of the organization of mechanical modes of production in its patterns of seriality.they classicize novel. -'Hence they tend to accumulate?ioirndlFiiTEiodoFrftei3e soi"rrlization. on the level of the individual autobioSraphy.Ironically. that is.Iheir collectid.ln this way. in marking out the space'ofthe omamentand the superfluous. Every coin dissolves into the infinite meaninS of face.includint both souvenirc and "classic" items for collection. the collection createsthe condjtions for a functional consumption. it"giG [i"Aof s'biect. not a value of referenceto a context of origin.Thus.We have emphasizedaestheticvalue here because value of manipulationand a positionint. Hence kitsch and camp items may be seen as forms of metafashion. but with the a4di of t!a&! co_ls!ai4t_ Ieslion. oD[vron Pasranojresenr. creatingthe pausesthat afticulatethe biogaphy of the collector. T-itsch-ob. and abstraction. lust as the system of exchangedepends upon th€ relative position ofthe commodity in the chain of signifiers. they destroy the last frontier of intrinsicality.oper is apprehended. the collection cannot be defined simply in t€rms of the worth of its elements. just as we saw that the material value of the souvenhwas an eph€m€ralonejuxtaposedwith a surplus of value in relation to the individual lile history.ec(. Furthermore. they are an ultimate form ofconsumerism. we must consider collectionsof ephemeraproper {ollections made of disposable items such as beer cans. a saturation_l{bi9h:b-Les place to such a deqree that materiality is ironic. conslitut€. such collectingcom5-mesa preinduslrial aestheticof the handmade and singular obiect with a postindustrial mode of acquisition/production: the readymade. And in . This serialityprovides a meansfordefining or classifyint the collection and the collector's life history.it defines a mode of necessity.ln presenting a form of aesthetic consumption. whercas obiects such as hand tools had an original use value.kes the pop'I"c. so the ephemeralquality of the collected obiect can be displaced by the value of relations and sheer quantity. Sold and antiques are gathered.and reintegration. the original use value of kitsch obiectsis an elusive one. Second. splil inlo contrastingvoicesl suD. Metaconsurnption: The Female ImpeEonator This ironic combination of preindustrial content and postindustrial form is ohly one in a sedes of contradictions under which the collection opelates.jnot apirehended 'is'tlie souvenir p. yet every coin also presents a point of enumeration. a ii.

The "eternal feminine" presents a notion of the classic.t\gir latllinvisihle.. they mark an antisubjectwhose emergenceironica[y has been n!@r dasseshave the ijlusion of luuitf.y at once. /\no t!19 trrIlDer [npetsonabon ol the lerTLl|ne <amFmar*s-$e--radicdl separatioD of "teminine wEEi6n This separation has arisen historically as -qlqeC$"lprnlhejgbjrct.ebqqrylEl_Iglets! ul l wilhjn the c)rdeof ex- . maUnS the diqrourseol the feminineavailable to parody. The desirefor the kitsch objectas €ith€r souveniror collecteditem marks the completedisinte8rationof mat€riality through an ironjc display of an overmateriality."to put totether sloppily. their dependenceupon novelw as the replacementof use value and craftsmanshiD." The kitsch object as coliectedobiect thus takesthe abstraction from use value a step further. Ralhelthe feminin$l_. ofwomen. If we say that the collechonin teneral marks the final erasureof labor within the abstractions late capitalism. the inauthentic. --_--r-++. firsthand. -And this parody rcveal9 the Jeminine as surface.l and campimply the imitation. We saw that the collection of handmadeobjectstranslatesthe time of manual laboi into the simultaneity ofconspicuouswaste. as element of series. The imitation as abstraition. Yet ttus eEsure forms the very possibility of the cycl€ of exchang€. Carzp is pirhaps a more complex terrn. and preolcatron nere. This imitation marks the final vresting of the market away from the place we think we know.we must concludeby of saying that kitsch and camp. as forms of metaconsumption.mpersonation fgrJns a dj!(ourse miminq the di\courseof male produ(tivilv. .hav€ arisen from the contradiction5 implicit in the operation of lhe exchante economy.as novelty and luxu.lcomes ftom the Cerman /dfscfun.'d8ifia defitala rnylh. showing the deep face of ihe ferr-injne as a purely maierial -.authoriw. for it is a conception which functionsto erasethe true labor.p€nddbitityis the expendabilityof a consumer8oods. but has come to mean "an affectation or appreciationof manners and tastescommonly thought to be outlandish. And thus this seDantion has resulted in a denudint of the feminine.chante and simultaneousl The concePs. . The kitsch object symbolizes not transcendence but emergence in the speed of fdshion. to act in an outlandish or eff€minate manner. the true prcductivity. We must mov€ beyond any intrinsicfunctjonal argument here that would saythat the subieclis prior to the feminine. an ideology which substitutes a labor of perpetual consumption for a labor of production. @pular .inine not simply because they are emblematic of the trivial. a notion of transcendence necessitated the political e(onomy: by the camp is its parody. The term kilsc.Its e). is necessarily the classicof contemporary consumer culture. at all. Fashionand tad rdle plnc€within lhe domain of the fe."53In all their uses. a result of capital's need to place subjectsheterogeneously throughout the labor market.rlgar or banal . Their sigrificance lies in their exaffierateddisplay of th€ values of consumei culture.both kils. The inside bursts its bounds and presentsa pure surfaceof outside. Thr American Hetitage Dicfio d/y (what tide better speaks to a nostalgia for standard?) tells us that the term has obscure oridns.168 0N LONCTNC 159 OBIECT5 DESIR€ OF I I I I their collapsingof the narrow time and deep spaceofthe popular into the deep time and narrow spaceof the antiques2 they selve an ideology which would iumble class relations. foman as consumer is no less fantastic or violent than its litemlization in the . \. as nature. the impersonation.

Th@ry Smioti*.p. Ctrn$. Quoted in Barkan.C.h othd's lacet. 2 320. AtA!* Ia6o: Duting the y4/. 4. p. p.pecit'icalty nan.l'dllu. 7 0 . Ir€ 7. olthotsh dM Mt tnblt. E nordi.oh6 rpof. antl 58.ar.. pp. 16. in staicisn. pp. So. s6.n.nicro.d kr rnke hom. Smith$nian Institulion. The opposit€ exrreme c represented metal and stoneadomments. considet Soulni: By the The Lodies Lit. 338-344 s7. ol 6 9 . See ajso ConBer. 1&a. Jnd hislorical contentthey mitht possess.iticism of their matenalty. pp.k ol Art.1 8 8 N O T E ST O P A C E S r 2 7 1 3 4 55. with a pi." See "Adomment. fte Tolrisr Srat'. As an example. If tsell-initatedl notian mt occurin at atintol. tureand thc B@kaf Man. 59.erand Crei6. 126.@ioryof 6o/8 (quolationon p. Batka\. p.an be put on by everytEdy.drk Calege.Ch iry SchootofMdnchester Seneral in 1838we.ans. 340). Makinga simila.tsliotu these modelwo.p. I b i d . pp. European Litetuture the LatinMidtlleA36.t. Hilliard.ther no mor! . Obje. Ior a discussion reliquish. objek €xotiques: d€paysement les le et la diff€rance latitudeequivautde toute fa(on pour l'hohm€ modehe a une de (cf. why iot in th. Folk-lore Rntd. Tohbl.. Andrew rnn8. p.les uti en b4 henLvs of the uflioi in fulflldent ol Indirniotul and Skirt! appoiahans is atsid*dbte: and. Trc 8@l of N. tt m! hedttiult Nt you to dt5. Napier.it is t1lDjected the nstuos. the uo d at."see of 189 NOIES TO P.|ay. Eliot. pp." De. 63. Sto. p. pp. 2.idan)..y b€ lound in the final.Nailral$fl.kinamachines were sld to the vGito6. . 330. [A. pp. l:tiv. 7el and ManchestqCuordion. Simnelwntes: 'TverythinErhat'adoms.h wasprintedin their pres€nce.uloped. Conget.s (252b.e to Il. Oddlj! o@ugh. wh.le on mech. Siadei. 136. 3. For a discussion. ldry aie? ' There ot ttustthrcethiiSs ore to benotice.Hi{s.Microcosfrus. H. Nsture's Wo* al A .ounts or reliquhd m. os thefouttain ol sch@ttirf re. pp.racle ofcourse. 12.m. 14.lbid. p.B. p.Seealso Etdnan. S€eMarshall.2.e.695-702. Theories Matbsns and Micrffisns. (3) the .lobart tis senten.h4an.nicCinstitureexhibitions before l85r in En8land.2A. A Blake. oayttting { wry *naAnbti -t the nhnoal prodt tions. 65. conAef. I b i d . Lotze.to@sns Micronms.ene ol thm htte..62. would like to thankAmanda I Dargan and Steve Zeitlinfor this t. p. both religiousand "sweet domesric. Theoties MoqNasflsdn1 Mitr66ns. 45. That o/e the of[springol thehdrt inciderts t. Archiveof lolk Coltue. p. iii. vol. Obj€tsfaitsmain. 505. The Leopdta.3:5. TheAntiqwry'sPortlolio. 71. iho schil$_ lsltrs Src oJInl. of 6. Anstotk. Thus he wn16 in "A fretly llpiSntmfu the EnrertainDent Those of Who HavePaidcreat Suns in the Vrnrti.a8ic. pp.haprerol cius€pF di t mpedlsl ndel on the d{line oI lhe Sicilian nobitity..s of own treatise mi. a." in Ti. al 62.110. Theories Mai@asns and Mitu Bns. Con9.is M do af ea.lok Mi.E o. f.ith. Conqet."Mr. lO of TheHistory of ldtos. 67. Ibid. chaptet 5.an.316. Thr Pheroncnalagy Mind. de touslespays c esrmorn.AFS#46994705. a matelialitywhich overides any synboli. Theoties Md. 1941. 9. Antiquorsi o d Taposnphical Cabircr. he . adverrise.ThePoetryand Prar ol Wtlltun Biate. 3u.point.osnos IIis s. encoreune fois.. bimbelorerie flon8eedansle passa le lourisne).drion.tuhih later.9.n.see Barkan. We mightnote that Blake's resirtance painrinS to miniatures camctrom .A Innrtr. Theories MauNsfls andMitfttns. 2r9-22o: Theoctuol uotd Jnicwoln'(littk uotld) a'aslist uedfu PI|L. 1. ta rc.l. Freld. . alas.99. systtne bbieb.WJshinsron.drd as ue epatute. in athd dovs. a.Nairr's Wa. lbid.e 'hiShly delight€dar beinSatlow.osnis not .&ryPoprlatDclusnE. p.@ of @lico.l. Cunius. thde is d idtutuL desie to ttke aith us copi6 of the.nkJ of this lheirlisr visir r0 as any popularerhibition.p . .She.?a7. in is. Ibid . RRording frcm Skate'sCamival. anf nn b 61.que qui fr scine ue tanrenonie q deslomes cr des mode\ de fabn.. book preenls a oncie hGroryofanriquananism the BdtishIslesto thebcSinning in oI the nineteenth century(l:v-xi).ion a un mondednreneur.428. Le ds p.and humorcls. Stanrlnd Wotk.Irc 18s1. p.Kusanitsuwrit€sr"Spccimcnprodu.nati@tiot. ir hn Physi. 16&191.s. -r I : I . The introducrionro Forsyth.whi. ol 66.eluide l'enfa. 1s8.rn ird flcmish Ooze": Nnht .1strong. p. p.105 106_ of 2.."Crcat Erhibnn)ns p b. Boasexplains "The Microcosn.lo footo htnd.nd ci|no were in of demand.ts ol Desne l.nl Al nt lhis la(the/ Suit Wltrt is hnst Crnid is nluals tfost Miflte Rrho5 thittksTables Chansai. 10. 64.lanua. l. 543p.tury tt ior al rti.and the girls ofthe Lady'sJubilc. 5.anscrip(ion.7:1s3 155and 21:150-t57.p . prefa. 64. The ro 'closest' adornmentis typicalofnature peoples: ratrooing. a @l lolue.ott4liorc is trs@la| W its talknatic touch. 17 Ros.4CE5 t3.}.s 1:i. 98. 72.h are entirelyunindividual by and . Westfall's Baskers. the drunutarion ol nni. 13 li.@ shtll rennber uith a snile atd a t.ttene rtods. pp. Pieces woventibn. p." Bauddlla:d. p6sibl! wilh both. tnto uas to becolledd grta! aninnl (meBazoo ).h.mancan be ordered alonEa scalein tems of its closeness the physicatbody. Maccann€U.ceet de sesiouets. 60. Bltk!: prophet Aiainn Enpie. 111."' Se Kusamitsu.7\. 332-336. quoted in Connq Fotk-to/e Reti.. Ibid. o. p."Et.7. 104.indiSanes. os dl|umtlpes ol{en6 in uhi.A-r49.. r2-r3.whi.vol. He is olguing in this passage abort the@use ol ttotion nt the . Atlon Bede.p. touiou^ retay€ par.Syropti. E. 6 4 . 8@t ol Natute and thEB@kal Man. r5.par extension.thelittk uo d. p. p.the thnd ol these uss flot d.:(1) the o ntul is for the fi9t tintc ullel a httNoshj (2) nn aflitul tt.ld multiplnte p'uoF.@ shallningle tq.y 31. and Cobger. D.rocosmic on philosophy.t oflc.rrcpeofl Litetutre ofi thebtih Middk 4g6. a m.sol Eatlr viurge Life.26).e-<a. Napier. 11. Tt.l Stools Glont) rt Brt Rnt'del thinks tteo.l 146 Ma.usromof leceiving souvenir l a (or purchasing one)of participation or viewingof rhespe. 8 8 . Oneofrhemost t.s pupil. 73. E rits (t. Fo6yth. In an adi. not lihited lo the freakshow.' of afld in chap.

s€eSontaS. In het book. Vallois. pp.!i. 223. Quoted in D'I8raeli. 45 Montie$r. Zty3.ssicanalysisof rhe dimens'ons c. 313-314. 13." hz ad. D. 51. po. sp<imelr the litll€ squabbl€s and argunents ov€r doub6rr ftasler.. 37. 19. . Firsl Srrps i. Canlck. Baud. Dlsiaeli. which added as a 8ift sone longed fo. 83.. Hobrv Hotsa. Eihnic ond Tounst Ans.ts. p. t9. "I ttoubt. 15.pp. ol 41. the is lhe lnenory of the Sreat$t delight which a coletion of any kind can affod '. vebten. Walsh quoles rh€ Mar''l tn nbeL" h. Mpla. 50. 163. SnciouslyWtlitted bf its ounq to inspect trcasurc. B|lm.illald. o.tres€d to childr€n a.Baudritla.n th." l6t e.. Min.n outsd%.lol Inl. Pitlciples ol Pswhotogy.Noreson oI _ 53. Baudrilard.1 9 0 N O T E S T O P A G E S1 4 6 1 6 1 18. p. rr4.d. 29. Crniosiliesol Uttatuft. when a candlslicl is 21.rrds 'r the Motnial fotkdnttute ot the fdsttn uiitpd Stat6. 42. rlE.noryh 'Natsh. Kilg. 24. 31. p.n etttnety turc 6tune qtot. t9i. dn. Tl! Iolrirr in Poftugol. and vould tule no oalueuhttftt.s. "Th€ Aesthetics of B. p.rianging'. p.l Torrisr Arls. "The Aesrhetia of BritishMercantilsm.p.pF6 to Ii its ody attuiM.ntlyto fttu* thnt hehtd pnbabrybotght it oith thephilrtthmpb intentio. Ebd*wuab&bag. p. 43. la6ea. 35. 40. Gdbrm. "Is nfl! . This niSht b€ cosideed an inri. I$k. Co\e. p.tsh. Aaudrillard. 22. .ahd Baftel.p. Voya|. the n€w ideas tlean€d in 'eadinS it uy' " (p.. 21a4. Ethnh and Ttutist Atts. o. 144-145. Hittoty ol Inkrior 35. Curiositis of Litentut . 8.z. while the pdducisof populdrora(ademi cutluree\hibit mmd vanahonover spae and majorvariarionrhroughrime.I unturcd inno/-.ntly ftdid. Montiesor. "Chandnt Afii@ Art " pp. pp.. il it k re h ftpinting. De B6lzac. the happy holidays spent in th€ brtht btthdays.2-3. fle Majltre. p. 3J:. Th. "Fatichisme 'deoloqie. We llao find the curious inverEion of nativ€ us value rcplaed by a sitnultaneou3 loln5dc u*/display value when an anc€stral figurc is miniaturizld dd m. Bunn. pp.. Sone tlobby Horser.prefac€ (n.ing it rerinted. folt matenate\hibirs maior variatron ovei space and minoi vaiidtionthroughlime. CousinPoE. 165. oisit to e w -b@n bibliotunia ltto lod just pwchasd . in a hotified tore." h.ld.t ne ntu. So(&id. 193). 20. 49. 34.hamtu. 26. \7- l9l NoTESTO PAGES 162-168 44. Spitzer.ne Hoiry Hl)'g.nce of the uie of th€ coledion s suvmn.). Coit ColLctor.79." ed l. For a cl. Rigby. 304. S€€ also Pr. 195. 15. See Cfassie. Cnn Colktor. soD." p. 32. P.95_96. pp.5r. w. Donato. Collectitg. 5. 27. 23. r47-r4a. Stork. The meory al th."The Muslm's Fuhae. 47.289. pp.ld is suftu*d with a nostalSia for the pastimes of her oM dndhood. Hazliat."ln. 146. Handy-book Litdary Qri6iti.hs. . "Milieu and Ambiane. 46. or. Itaoiag b. l8{. n.aeneml. and Elphinstone lp6€ud. t(h-rta. 39. Van Loot.itish M€nantilism. Gritar. 2t7. Basom. sinjJarly. ea e. 28. 3lZ. Miriarlrt . k Sy6lC"edesobiets. days in which it was formed. x. Th." p. Veblen. ' "Heooen fotbid!" ht ddnined. p. D.to/s Lucft. Monti€soi concluds: "For.. r3r. 190-191 33. Leisvreclass. l" Sys.t" L @isnmtiod.Uen." "ln thtt ut .. p. L. Grab! .?rudes&ias. So. "a that is quit. C'/Donnell. p. p. p.d at a htulo"e prit . 5a.s. Ha^tt. "one Wiig.ktue.. on de tu .d€ into a boltle oFner.D. Crabrn. padicularly since Montieso/s worl is ad.95. S!611rud6 obi.3-4. Harison. "hou @uld you suwose upabt olsuctrrnactofIoU? VI1E/. Baudrittard. of B@th TartinStonl Tra Collecto{sWhttnot.9. Hrndy-bek ol Utetury Cutixiti. after all. in the 6e of thc antique. Ethni. stys. pp.

tl Drllf ttriijc. Gigantic. of the theSouaenir Cttllectiorr . the SusanStewart rF a r€ .ON LONGING Narratiaes theMiniature.'-ith/ Pf.ss DLLrhnu ntd LotLL1 1q93 .

dp. p onAinally publishedbyJohns Hoptins Unive.v ..n r96i I ibru.sft.... r d ...tr. d p e r . r'ri.=a (.. l l Y For my motherand gra..=ii. cdrd.rB nB i.l" L I N L V I1 i : .. presj.r ur ( on8rc. Y" q.a d NellfuBrolun Delores Steroart../ First pap€lbackcdition O r99l Dlke Un'versity Press I n a c d n t n e L n n e d s t r $ u t A m e n ( du n d . .on Dri. i R \ . un rhe |J\t Prinred paxeof th'\ buol .d'nolhcrsAlice Slewaft.-P ..*. rubhdr.

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