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## Sections

• 1.1 Object of FEA
• 1.2 Finite element displacement method
• 1.3 Historical view
• 1.4 Stages of FEA
• DISPLACEMENT METHOD
• 2.1 Equilibrium equations
• 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility
• 2.3 Force/elongation relations
• 2.4 Boundary conditions
• 2.5 Solving for displacements
• 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method
• DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD
• 3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element
• 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates
• 3.2.1 Coordinate transformation
• 3.2.2 Force transformation
• 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
• 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix
• 3.4 Direct method
• 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements
• 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix
• 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix
• 3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations
• 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix
• 3.10 Reactions and internal forces
• 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses
• 3.12 Node numbering
• Exercises
• 4.1 Plane bar elements
• 4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium
• 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions
• 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends
• 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates
• 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends
• 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
• 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
• 4.1.8 Initial strain effects
• 4.2 Plane shaft elements
• 5.1 Finite element discretization
• 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam
• 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends
• 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix
• 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix
• 5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
• 5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces
• 5.4.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions
• 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force
• 5.5 Basic convergence requirements
• 5.6 Frame element
• 5.6.1 Axial effects
• 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates
• 5.6.3 Coordinate transformation
• 5.6.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates
• 5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix
• 5.8 Grids
• 5.9 Deep beam bending element
• 5.9.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam
• 5.9.2 Shape functions
• 5.9.3 Stiffness matrix
• 6.1 Matrix notation for loads, stresses and strains
• 6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V
• 6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface σ
• 6.3 Strain-displacement relations
• 6.4 Stress-strain relations
• 6.5 Temperature effects
• 6.6 Strain energy
• 7.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW)
• 7.1.1 Virtual displacements
• 7.1.2 Virtual work of external loads
• 7.1.3 Virtual work of internal forces
• 7.1.4 Principle of virtual displacements
• 7.1.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations
• 7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy
• 7.2.1 Strain energy
• 7.2.2 External potential energy
• 7.2.3 Total potential energy
• 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method
• 7.4 F.E.M. - a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method
• 7.4.1 F.E.M. in Structural Mechanics
• 7.4.2 Discretization
• 7.4.3 Principle of virtual displacements
• 7.4.4 Approximating functions for the element
• 7.4.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements
• 7.4.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector
• 7.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
• 7.4.8 Solution and back-substitution
• TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS
• 8.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST)
• 8.1.1 Discretization of structure
• 8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field
• 8.1.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field
• 8.1.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector
• 8.1.6 Remarks
• 8.2 Rectangular elements
• 8.2.1 The four-node rectangle (linear)
• 8.2.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic)
• 8.3 Triangular elements
• 8.3.1 Area coordinates
• 8.3.2 Linear strain triangle (LST)
• 8.4 Equilibrium, convergence and compatibility
• 8.4.1 Equilibrium vs. compatibility
• 8.4.2 Convergence and compatibility
• ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS
• 9.1.1 Natural coordinates
• 9.1.2 Shape functions
• 9.1.3 The displacement field
• 9.1.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates
• 9.1.5 Element stiffness matrix
• 9.2 Numerical integration
• 9.2.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature
• 9.2.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature
• 9.2.3 Stiffness integration
• 9.2.4 Stress calculations
• 9.3.1 Shape functions
• 9.3.2 Shape function derivatives
• 9.3.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix
• 9.3.4 Element stiffness matrix
• The element stiffness matrix is
• 9.3.5 Stress calculation
• 9.3.6 Consistent nodal forces
• 9.5 Six-node triangle
• 9.6 Jacobian positiveness
• 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff)
• 10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin)
• 10.3 Rectangular plate bending elements
• 10.3.1 ACM element (non-conforming)
• 10.3.2 BFS element (conforming)
• 10.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element
• 10.4 Triangular plate bending elements
• 10.4.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming)
• 10.4.2 Thick triangular element (conforming)
• 10.4.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT)
• References

Preface
This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă
Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents
Preface Contents 1. Introduction
1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1
1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method
2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9
9 10 11 12 12 13

3. Direct Stiffness Method
3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates
3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17
17 19
19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv
3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

4. Bars and shafts
4.1 Plane bar elements
4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47
47
47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

5. Beams, frames and grids
5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends
5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79
79 81 83
84 86 88

5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89
89 92 95

5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97
97 98

9.6.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.2.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.8 Grids 5.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.1.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.1 Virtual displacements 7. Linear elasticity 6.1 Strain energy 7.1.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Coordinate transformation 5. stresses and strain 6.9 Deep beam bending element 5.4.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.1.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.2 External potential energy 7.2 Discretization 7.2 Shape functions 5.9.CONTENTS 5.5 Stress-strain relations 6.4.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.2.1.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .9.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.1 Principle of virtual work 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.1 Matrix notation for loads.1.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.2.6. Energy methods 7.6 Temperature effects 6.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.

4.2 Rectangular elements 8.vi 7.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.1.2.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.3.3 The displacement field 9.1.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.4.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.4.1 Equilibrium vs.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .2.1 Area coordinates 8. convergence and compatibility 8. Discretization of structure 8.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.1.1.1.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.1 Natural coordinates 9.4.2.3 Triangular elements 8.4.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.4 Equilibrium. compatibility 8.1.4.4.2 Shape functions 9.3.1.3.2 Numerical integration 9.1.1.1.

4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.CONTENTS 9.2.3.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.3.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.3 Stiffness integration 9.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.4.3.3.2 Shape function derivatives 9.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.5 Six-node triangle 9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.5 Stress calculation 9.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.3.3.4.2.3.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.4.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.3.2.1 Shape functions 9.

able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. and (3) Applied Computer Science. etc. 1. (2) Numerical Analysis.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. The subdomains are called finite elements. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. solving linear sets of equations. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. encompassing elasticity. plasticity. within each element. strength of materials. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. dynamics. . eigenproblems. This requires a matrix notation. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. etc. The tools are the computers.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. involving approximation methods. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures.1. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. weighted-residual.

systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. should be easier. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. . which led to automation. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Mathematically. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. In order to match a given irregular boundary. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. difficult to handle on a routine basis. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. some of them made available as open source free software. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. even approximately. This extreme versatility. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. While the finite element method was being developed. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. Indeed. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. defined over small subdomains of the structure. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. In FEA. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. which is often difficult. which tend to have complicated expressions. integrating known polynomial functions. In turn. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems.

and (3) the solution algorithms. leaving only the magnitude to be found. (4) assemble the element properties. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. and (3) the versatility. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. a larger number of equations to be solved. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). (3) find the element properties. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. The “shapes” are polynomials. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. making curved lines straight. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. (5) solve the system of equations. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces.1. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. Finally. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. but may be trigonometric functions as well. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. hence larger computer storage space and running time. and (6) make additional computations if desired. INTRODUCTION 3 1. and curved elements flat).2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. (2) select interpolation functions.

panels. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. 1. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. ribs. so that the method was not practical then. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. stiffeners and spars. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. After the Second World War. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. stability and dynamic engineering problems.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. 1955). and Topp (1956). Clough. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. Martin. In the early 1940s. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). . The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. static. In modern times. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915).4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings.

INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. 1.by Hibbitt. (1978). L. J. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc.1.T. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. Melosh. under Martin. ADINA – developed by K. fluids. SAMCEF .by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). crashworthiness. 1970). lead by Zienkiewicz. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. and (3) postprocessing. material properties and . (1985). at Washington University. (2) processing. ABAQUS . frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. Karlsson @ Sorensen. and thermal loading. Wilson. Bathe at M. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). SAP5 and NONSAP. such as nodal coordinates. S. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. including computation of natural frequencies. and E. 1966. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. STRUDL . electromagnetics etc).-J. ALGOR etc. Inc. Archer. He was joined later by K. IDEAS-MS.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS.-J. Irons. Major contributions are due to B. the inventor of isoparametric models. static and dynamic stability. nonlinear static and dynamic response. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. directed by Clough. PATRAN. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. boundary conditions. MacNeal Schwendler. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). Since 1963. element connectivity. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964).by SAMTECH (1965). finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. and at Swansea University. (1975).I. shape functions. J. M. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. R. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970).

E.D. some input data can be imported from other F.A. Fig.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. 1. Alternatively. 1.I.2 . Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering.T. 1. programs.A. through a userfriendly interface. Italia. or reading from a data file.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. Fig. as well as element connectivity data. or C. represented with hidden line removal. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I. 1.2).

1. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. 1. Fig. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). In static analyses. 1.3 In the processing stage.3. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). Fig. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. . the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size.1.4 In dynamic analyses. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques.

Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. 1. a Fig. Fig.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. 1. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth.6. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Early programs used tabular presentations. . with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. 1.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars.6.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. Fig. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration.5 for a crankshaft. 1. 1. as in Fig.6 b Fig. Fig. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF. 1. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.

DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). Fig. and hence strains. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. geometric compatibility conditions.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. T1 . If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations.2. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. 2. Once the displacements are determined. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. F2 . T2 . the procedure is referred to as the displacement method.1 [74]. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. 2. 2. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. F4 . a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions.1 . T3 are the tensions in members and F1 .

At Node 3 (Fig. 2. 2.2.1) to (2. 2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0.1) (2. The change in length of the member is (2. At Node 2 (Fig. a b Fig. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0. (2. 2. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. 2.2.2. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . The system is statically indeterminate.3) The six equations (2. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium. b).3) have seven unknowns.4) . Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.3. a). inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. Fig. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation.2) (2.2 c 2. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ .

Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) .U1 . 2 (2.6) (2. (2. 2.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression.5) Fig. 2.8) have nine unknowns. six displacements and three elongations. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 . ( ) ( ) (2.3 Applying equation (2.8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.2.7) (2. Δl 23 = 3 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ . 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 . EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .6) to (2. Δl13 = 2 . 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l .9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns. Δl12 = .

EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2.3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2. EA 9 Fl .1) . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2. this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . (2. EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2. EA 6F l .(2.10) 2.10).6)(2. EA F1 l . Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) . l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) .4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations.

6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem..14) ..7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1. ∑ Ti sinθi = 0.. EA V3 = 4 Fl . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints.4.1)-(2. (2. (2. F5 = − F . i =1 i =1 7 7 (2. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses..11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.3) yields the tensions in the members.13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.2. EA (2. F2 = −4 F .12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . 2. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. F4 = −5 F . The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy .

. ∂X i ( i = 1..5 ) (2.5 ) (2. according to (2.14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2.16) since we are assuming no support movement.. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U . Fig.17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined.14). 2.18) .. Using Menabrea’s theorem. X 4 = T6 . ∂Fy (2.15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . X 2 = T4 . and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces.. We choose X1 = T3 .. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1.. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U . X 3 = T5 . so the framework is statically indeterminate. the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 ..

5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi .. (2.24) where the stiffness coefficients are ..7 ) (2.7 ) (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li .22) Inserting (2.23) sin θ i = 0 . a ( ) ( i = 1.. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 . the larger the number of bars. hence the number of equations (2.16).14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 . Regardless the number of concurrent bars..... Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2. sinθ i ( i = 1. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.20) Substituting (2. In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2.... The bar length is li = a . ( i = 1..2.7 ) (2...21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method.19) ( i = 1.22) into the equilibrium equations (2....7 ) (2.

219 Fy a EA .7097 Fx a .409 i =1 7 EA .16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. (2. a (2.24) gives u 8 = 0.567 EA . a Solving (2. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. EA v 8 = 0.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not. .

It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 .3. They are natural finite elements. Generally. pinconnected at the ends.) . the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. q 2 . contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix.1). Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. As elements are added to the structure. f 2 . In the following. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. . cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . with each element being placed in a preassigned location. The nodal displacements are q 1 . It has length l e . 3. linearly elastic. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. 3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. respectively. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element.

q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. (3. 3. then for q 1 = 0 .2) le Similarly. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move. ⎣ ⎦ (3. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction.1) Next. (3. q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0.3).6) . the force/elongation relations are used.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . f l q 2 = 0 .3) Combining equations (3. le (3.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 .18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.2) and (3.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3.

4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3.2. In fact. In matrix form (3. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e .3.2.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2. Fig. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.7) . 3. 3. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.

10) are calculated based on the above equations. respectively. Fig. 3.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. e e e (3. we obtain cos θ e = .2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. The entries in the matrix (3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 .3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix. From nodal coordinate data. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le .2.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. 3. denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 . 3. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 .

14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e . =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3. 3.13) Equation (3. e e T e (3.2. e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .5) into (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ .13).13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . equation (3.14) Substituting (3. Work is a scalar quantity. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.13). having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } . then equation (3. e e T e e .9) into the resulting matrix product. and comparing with (3.15) (3. (3.9) for the local displacements. .3.

with positive diagonal elements. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe .4. a) 3. And so must be its inverse.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T .10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. [ ] . singular (order 4.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric.2. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3. [ ] (3.17.2. the stiffness matrix. the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ .17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . 3.

This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } .2. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. displacements are proportional to the applied loads.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe .2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. (3. (3. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. which is [ ] . the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows).3. For linear structures.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. If this were not so.20. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy.15) into (3.4.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. 3.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. Substituting (3. [ K ]= [K ] e e T . The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. 3. a) so that which defines the symmetry. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes.4.2.

3. the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. . Moreover. 3. Fy 2 = k 41 . . (3.22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. . . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 .⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.2.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . ( ( ) ) Fig. a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . Fx 2 = k31 .4. The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. That is. Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. Fy1 = k21 .21) Fx1 = k11 . .20) is either positive or zero.17. 3. .4.4 Equation (3. . k21 + k41 = 0 . . k31 and k 41 . .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. k 21 .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ .

Fig. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. In the element stiffness matrix. Fig. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i .6. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. 3. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. already analyzed in Chapter 2. firmly located in 1.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices.5. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F. 2.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. 3. a b .3. 3. The same applies for the other columns.1. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. 3.

⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Table 3. i. The first three columns define the element connectivities.1 together with information useful for the computation.6 Element data are given in Table 3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥.e.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Element numbering can be arbitrary.1.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3. the element stiffness matrices (3. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥. 3.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. their localization within the structure.

and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. This is referred to as the direct matrix method. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. Table 3. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. For instance. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example).28) is done systematically.3. according to Table 3. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. so that if a node is common to several elements. In the global matrix. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations.2. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. as indicated by dots above. .2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3.

equation (3.23) Q e = T e { Q }.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level.5. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates. 3. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix. . can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ].23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] .

6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector.5.3. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }.24) has the size of the system matrix. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. equation (3. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.23) into (3. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. For the truss from Fig. 3.20.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ . substituting (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.

27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.26) Comparing (3. (3. .25) and (3.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e .30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3. T e T e e e e e (3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ . 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.

using for convenience the truss from Fig. For a grounded system.7. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. 3. equation (3.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations.24) is never formed.5. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. the deficiency is 3). It corresponds to the free-free system. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . Apart from external forces and support reactions. 3. Note that element equilibrium equations (3. An alternative presentation is given below. The expensive product (3. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. based on joint equilibrium equations. singular (for a plane truss.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3.5. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. are used in the following. involving forces applied by elements to nodes.3. For the truss from Fig. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. The joint equilibrium equations. they are never used in practice. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. 3. 3.

1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 .32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . e (3. 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 .29) .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. 3. 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . Fig.

Qi = 0 . For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. Q1 = a1 . the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬.15) and (3. Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. where ns is the number of supports. it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .23).29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }. e (3.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. equation (3. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3.27).24) and (3. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . where bi . [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. using equations (3.32) . of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ). [ ] 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. b j and b0 are known constants. the finite element equations (3.3.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . As Q1 is known.30) then. Another type are the multipoint constraints.

33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . The final equations (3.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. Equations (3. (3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix. For a truss supported on many supports. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . the nodal forces are unknown. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. the nodal displacements are unknown. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . and where the forces are specified.5. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. 3. respectively. Equation (3.

5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3.39) For the truss from Fig. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ .5. equations (3. the support displacements are zero. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . EA EA In general. The axial force in a truss element is . (3.3. for non-zero boundary conditions.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. 3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } . 3. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) .10 Reactions and internal forces (3.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .38) (3.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = .40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. . which in this case are the external reactions.

36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . 3. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. C. where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). Accordingly.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . Duhamel (1838). l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . 3. (3. M. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element.42) . where A is the cross-section area. where E is Young’s modulus. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F .5.

in local coordinates. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. . It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle. (3. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT . if the case). After determining the displacements produced by these forces. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or.e. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3.e.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse.42. a. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. The half-bandwidth is denoted B. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. the initial stresses produced by restraining. i. 3.8.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . due to the sparseness. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. the element elongations are determined from (3. They are also banded. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. 3. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3.44) Because of symmetry. Even so.3.

the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. 3. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B .8 b For plane trusses. 3. B = 12 .8. 3. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. For the numbering scheme of Fig.8. a . a Fig. B = 6 . . The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. In general.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix.44). the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. However. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. i. As a general rule. b. then progressing along the longer dimension. equal to the size of the original matrix. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. for the numbering from Fig.e.

Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . In this case.3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . If there are zeros at the top of a column. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. Apart from storage savings. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. For large sparse stiffness matrices. Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering.

A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following. For the solution of the finite element equations. Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) .

5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. 7 6.16 -10. 4 3.1. 3 2.6 176 62. Taking l = 1 . For the truss in Fig.3. a.3 128 127. 6 4.16 -10. a Answer. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements. E3. E3.1 -361. 3 2. and c) the support reactions.7 -339. 8 7. 7 6. Plot the deformed shape. 7 5.8 -343. A = 1 . 8 Axial stress 12 -4.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. 4 3. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location.1 -391.83 0 12 -15 . E = 1 and F = 1 . we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208. 2 1.1. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3.7 -339. 6 4.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. Fig.1.

E3. and c) the support reactions. E3. b.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . E3.2. b) the maximum stress. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. Plot the deformed shape. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. and R2 = 6 F . . Fig. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. a Answer. a) Fl . R2 = 6 .1.2.4 F . Fig. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. b E3.2.1. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. E3.2. E3. and R3 = 9 . a.

The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. Plot the deformed shape.25 F A . a.2. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . E3.3. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. Consider the truss shown in Fig. E3.6 F . Calculate c) the support reactions.3. . R2 = 3. b E3. b) the maximum stress. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. Fig.3.3.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. b. a Answer.4 F and R3 = 2. E3.3. E3. a) Fl . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.

and c) the support reactions. a. a Answer. Plot the deformed shape. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. E = 1 and F = 1 . Taking l = 1 .2095 -9. Consider the truss shown in Fig. E3.3294 2. A = 1 .0896 . The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3.4.4.3. b E3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1.4. b) the maximum stress. Fig.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. E3. E3.

Fig.0. E3. Fig. b. E3. E3.0. a . E3. 4 1.940 1. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. 4 1.1. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.4. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. 3 2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.3. Plot the deformed shape. b E3. R2 = 0.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. 3 2.940 . a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .5.335 F A .665F .335F and R4 = 0.4.335 . 4 Axial stress .329 0.5. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b) the maximum stress.5.09 F l E A .

Taking l = 1 .366 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b . The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4.46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. E3. b.538 . Fig. A = 1 and E = 1 .5. E3.5.

4.3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. using (4. (4. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .2. d x2 (4. . EA d2 u = − p (x ) . b).4) 4. (4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x .5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig.2. 4. 4.1 The internal axial force N is du .2) Fig. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. a).1) is d N + p d x = 0 . 4.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. dx or.3). The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.1) σ x = E du d x .1.

BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. a. 4.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. d u d x = const . where N1 (r ) = (4. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node.b.3. Fig. p = 0 .3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.3 4.1. 4.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. 4. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 . d 2u d x 2 = 0 .4. .

using (4.10) is more complicated. The nodal expansion (4. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. 2 2 (4. equation (4. ⎣N ⎦ In (4. where N1 (r ) = element. q 1 and q 2 . but the integration constants.6) is simpler. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 . With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 .11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . are the nodal displacements.12) Thus.11). but the integration constants. have no simple physical meaning. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . e i i i =1 2 (4.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . (4. (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. a and b.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.9) Equation (4.9) can also be written u= or. (4.5).

e T e e (4. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix. and that u varies linearly (Fig.3.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 . c). (4.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4.13) in (4.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . The transformation from x to r in equation (4.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. 4. e (4. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] .16) Substituting (4.4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation. 4. Equations (4. 2 (4.1.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2.6) and (4.

22) which is the same as equation (3.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. equation (4. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .1.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 .6). . p = const. 4. (4.23) The three integration constants.4. ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. 4. a).5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + .20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . (4. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. . a. d 2u d x 2 = const . we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . b and c. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4.52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation
T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,
where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are
(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,
e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q
e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]
e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦
B
−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]
e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is
W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u
le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦
T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56
W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }
T e

(4.33)
+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦
e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }
e

+1

l = e p 2

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l
e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l
e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1
{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have
U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }
3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or
U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

which is never done in practice. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices.1. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 .4 for truss elements. based on element connectivity. according to the connectivity Table 4. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. Table 4. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. global stiffness matrix. as in (3. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.27).

39) becomes .13). In fact. Q 1 = 0 . Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3.by deleting the first element.39) Substituting (4.1.41). as shown in section 3.4. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. (4. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) .38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . the expression (4. using the boundary condition. 4. due to fabrication errors. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. and the reduced load vector .5. this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . (4.

The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . θ l A two-node shaft finite element. le (4.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . (4. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. is shown in Fig. ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. 4. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p . ε0 = αT . stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) .8.42) After solving for nodal displacements.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx .40) It has the form (4.33).43) In the case of thermal loading. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section. 4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . (4.41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G.

47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.4.50) . θ 1 = 0. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }. (4.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .3) du N = .45) Equations (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. (4. 4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . Fig.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element. (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4. Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.

1 Consider the bar in Fig. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections.2 m . E = 200 GPa .54) Equation (4.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. and c) the support reactions.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. Analogous to equation (4.1 Solution. the same as for the axially loaded bar element. E4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. as equation (4. . E4.1 with d = 5 mm . Example 4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements.20). a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . Determine: a) the displacement of point 2.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. b) the stresses in bar. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. Fig. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t . l = 0.

81 48.47 mm 2 .62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.42 = 337.47 38.62 mm 2 .21 = 1662 .81 + 38.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.94 − 38.4 d 4 )2 = 38.28 − 38.4. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.47 38. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.81 ⎢− 9.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.47 − 38.47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 . [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.81 ⎢− 9. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.47 − 38.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.8 N .2 N .47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 Q3 = 38.81 9.42 mm .28 − 38.21 mm . Q3 = 43.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.47 76. R4 = 38.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.47 38. c) Stresses are .47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.81 Q2 = 9.47 76. the finite element equations can be written − 9. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 + 38.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E
σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2
A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,
A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
1 5

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
2 5

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,
which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are
Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

c) Internal forces are
N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,
N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3
The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦
5

As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,
so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4
A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1
1 3 2

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1
2 1

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1
2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

The second and third equation yield
E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2
Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5
A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .
Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
A1 =

π δ2
4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2
4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
1 5

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10
2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields
⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

54 mm 2 F 30316 N .4. divided into two equal length tapered elements.5 A2 141.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . For the bar of Fig. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . Q3 = F 1.6.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . Fig.4 .6.6 Solution.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. the element stiffness matrices are .41 ⋅ 105 .63 ⋅ 10 1. A1 78. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0. using two tapered bar finite elements.6 For the bar of Fig. E4. E4. E4. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 . BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1. =− = −214.

7. Example 4. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . Fig. the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 .70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ .7 Solution. 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . b) a three-node quadratic element. The element stiffness matrices are . 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. E4. E4. Comment the results.

1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. The finite element equations can be written . the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element.4. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element.

⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. c) Comments. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

8. Solution. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. This is because. form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. However. before using equation (4. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. Whenever the assumed functions. However. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . . Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. rotating at constant angular velocity .4). ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e .4.8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig.23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. E4. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. For the case p = const. a). and b) three linear elements. . via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. as it is shown in a next chapter. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . used to describe the displacement field.25). Example 4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const .25).

74 p ( x ) = p0 x . Fig. E4.8 . l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .

8. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ . c. E4. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ .37). E4. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T . E4.8. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 .8. 1] . where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig.8. d.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. The model has five degrees of freedom. equivalent to a linearly distributed load.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . E4.4. b. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . The nodal forces. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . are given by equation (4.

Q5 = . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . ε5 = . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. Q3 = . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. While the nodal displacements are exact. 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. u (l ) = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . σ2 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. σ5 = . ε4 = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. σ4 = . ε2 = . ε3 = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. u⎜ ⎟ = . u⎜ ⎟ = . σ3 = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . Q4 = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.

Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . g.4. σ⎜ ⎟= . equivalent to a load per unit length. 1 ] . The distributed loads from Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . h. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. are given by equation (4. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. E4. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2.8. E4. E4.5 p0 l . For p1 = p2 = p . the nodal forces are given by equation (4. The nodal forces. b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig.8. the finite element equations can be written .8. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig.34). ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22.36). The model has four degrees of freedom. σ⎜ ⎟= . BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ .5 p0 l . E4. f.26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T .8. σ (l ) = 0 . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. respectively. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. e. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ .8. E4.

E4. N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ . 27 A 10 p0 l . 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . in local natural coordinates. l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l . ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. Example 4. 27 A 4 p0 l . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . Q3 = . Q4 = .8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = .

that neglects transverse shear deformations. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . 5. defined as the displacement along the X axis. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i .1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. in particular. 5.1. which is constant over the element. and the Timoshenko beam theory. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. as shown in Fig. Each node has three degrees of freedom.5. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. then extend it to plane frames. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. apart from forces. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. Typically. between adjacent beam elements. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. respectively. transmit bending moments from member to member. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. and for grids. two linear displacements and a rotation. BEAMS. . In this section. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion.

5. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. The latter are expanded to the structure size. Imposing the boundary conditions. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element.1 In the following. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis.2 . then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Fig.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. Fig. 5. then in the global coordinate system. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l .

(5. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.5. and axial displacements q 1 . BEAMS. 5.3) dx . (5. 5. a. oriented along the beam. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. at a distance y from the neutral axis. Transverse shear deformations are neglected. In a local physical coordinate system.3). q 3 . f 4 . 5. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. the x axis. 5. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5.2) Forces f 2. Fig.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. 5. describe the element stretching (Fig.2.1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . Only transverse loads act upon the beam. as illustrated in Fig. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y.2. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. Alternatively. c). f 3. axial forces are ignored.2. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. f 5. q 5 . q 4 . where the nodal displacements are also shown. b) while axial forces f 1 .

The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III . . The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x .6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. dx dx 3 (5. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. two at each end.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature. dx dx4 (5.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . involving the transverse displacement and slope. σ x = E ε x = −E (5.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) . dx dx (5. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . involving the shear and bending moment.5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. and physical boundary conditions. dx4 (5.

and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . ϕ 2 .9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . the four integration constants a 1 .5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . a 2 . (5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. 5. ϕ1 .10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5. b) Fig. we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as .3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. (5. the integration constants a 1 .4): (5. at x = x 2 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. v = v1 = q2 .3. a 3 . a 3 . a) at x = x1 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.11. p = 0 and equation (5.10) For a free-free beam element. BEAMS. 5. a 4 in (5. v2 . and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . 5. a 2 .11. Integrating four times. v = v2 = q5 .

and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5. r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. (5.13) Using natural coordinates.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 . dx = le dr .17) (5.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5. { } (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials. 2 2 (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = .84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e .14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .20) . 2 (5.19) In (5. dr 2 dx equation (5. (5. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.

5. 5. 5. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. BEAMS. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5 . we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 .21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 . 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 .1. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. graphically shown in Fig. Table 5.

23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q . dr 2 d v le = q 3 . while at node 2.16) and (5.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. dr 2 5. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 . 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.24) into (5. e (5.24) On substituting (5.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5.3.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e .25) . d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .

26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5. .23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.25) with (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . (5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5. ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5. e T e B e (5.30) The curvature χ (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5.29).32) Substituting (5.29) is based on the general formula (4.30) gives the matrix (5.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . e e (5. BEAMS.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .5.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ .26) Comparing (5.

. .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . . . (5. f 3 = k 21 . Fig.36) .33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ .⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ . (5.6.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. .34) f 5 = k31 .3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. . as in Fig.6 Equation (5. 5. ⎥ . 5.35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. . (5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . .⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .3.

5.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. (5. To replace p = const .90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. p = const . the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5.42) In Fig. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. substituting (5.41) or. . 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. .6. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.18).7. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. 5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. 5. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. a b c Fig. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ .

Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . Using a single beam element.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. as expected.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 .4. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5.

5.8): at x = x1 . BEAMS.45) where the quartic shape functions are . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5.43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes.43) The five integration constants a 1 . v = v2 . at x = x3 . v = v3 . v = v1 . a5 in (5.12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . d v d x = ϕ2 . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. (5. This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . a 3 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ . a 2 . at x = x 2 . (5. 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. 5. a 4 .

.46). 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. In equations (5. we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . the element consistent load vector (5. 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .41) is .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . Fig.46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 . 5. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends. N 5 is called a “bubble function”.47) For p = const .27) and performing the integration.8 Substituting the shape functions (5.46) into equation (5. 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .

51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions. + 12 2 2 2 4 . When p = const . they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . For p = 0 . The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . BEAMS.6) and equation (5. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. (5.48) 5. the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 .7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e .50).5.3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. e [ ]{ q }.12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ . { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5.49) and (5. . 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ .50) For elements with uniformly distributed load.4. The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 .49) The shear force is given by equation (5.

9. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. b). When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. valid for p = 0 . equation (5. a). Vertical translation. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. . An element should describe rigid body modes exactly.49) and (5. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. respectively. If the nodes are given unit rotations. 5.50).96 Tp = T − pl e r.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces. b. Rotation. 5.9.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. a. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. 5. equation (5. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear .

5. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig. it is acted upon by axial forces.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 .52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . 5.9 c 2.9. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. they must have at least constant curvature. 5.5. apart from moments and shear forces. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.53) .6.6 Frame element As shown in Fig. In the case of beams. when element sizes shrink to zero. 5.l 2 = const . An element should simulate constant strain states.22) is [ ] e (5. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements.2. 1⎥ ⎦ (5. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . BEAMS. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since. 5.

10 both in the initial and deformed state. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e .55) 5. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 .56) Equations (5.29).57) . the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ . ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . For slender beams. (5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ .53) and (5. For node 1. (5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element.56) can be written in matrix form as (5. so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. 5. combining equations (5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig.6.

(5.5. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 . (5.60). FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . .58) Fig.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. (5. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. BEAMS.60) In (5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 . 5.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬.

100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.7.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.12) and (5. (5. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix. (5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e .67) . (5.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }.6.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions.63) 5. e e T e e (5. [K ].65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e . using equations (5. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.4). e (5. e e T e e (5.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector.

BEAMS. are not accurate. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams . E5.5. Example 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. E5. and hence stresses. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . and omitting the first two rows and columns. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . we obtain the finite element equations .2. Fig.2 Solution.

102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. EI v3 = Q5 = −1.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 . ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5.5 Example 5. E5. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. Solution. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ .3.29). l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .

3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 .5. Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . BEAMS. 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig.3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . E5. 96 E I The support reactions are given by .

16 3 M1 = − F l . 27 E I . 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5l − 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F. E5.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. 8 V3 = 5 F.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .4. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5l 6l − 1.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 . Fig.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 . E5.5 − 1.5 − 1.5 − 4.4 Solution.5 − 4.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. 16 Example 5.5 1.5l 1.

M3 = − Fl . E5. V3 = F .5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1.5 Solution. third and fifth rows and columns.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F .5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . Fig. 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ .5 − 1.5. M 1 = F l . E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . BEAMS. The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1. 27 9 27 9 Example 5. the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig. 16 Example 5.6 . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 . 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . 8 V3 = 7 pl . Fig. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . E5.106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. E5. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 .6. 16 V2 = 5 pl .

5l l 4. the finite element equations can be written 1.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system. 3 ⎢ 1. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0. EI Example 5. E5.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5 4.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.5 4.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 . second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13. Answer. BEAMS.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.5 − 1.084 p0 l 4 .7.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.5.1333 p l 2 ⎬ .0518 p0 l 3 .5 1.5 4. 4 ( ) .3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.5l ⎡ 1.5l 13.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .

7. b . 4 ( ) Fig. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 .7. E5. E5. a Fig.108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).

b. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0. BEAMS.531e-3 2.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.309e-3 2. c. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. E5. The diagrams of the axial force N .0699e-2 1.592e-3 -1.0698e-2 1.8.5 1. a b c d e Fig. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes.500e-7 1. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm . d.8.010 1. E5.0697e-2 1.353e-3 2.232e-2 -5. Determine the nodal displacements.8 . shear and bending moment.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0.8.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.5.700e-6 1. e. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 . shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs. Answer. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .321e-3 -8.889e-3 -1.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8.260e-3 -6. E5. E5.

9673 mm . b . a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. 13. a has fixed ends in 1. ϕ 6 = −0. A = 400 mm 2 . Answer. E5. E5. b.00623 rad .2476 mm . E5. Fig.9. 10. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape.9.9. Fig. 5.9 The planar frame shown in Fig. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . v 6 = −0. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E5.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5.9. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 .

as illustrated in Fig. describing bending and torsional effects.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. 5. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. 5. a translation and two rotations. defined as the rotation about the X axis. Typically.11 5. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . two rotations and a linear displacement. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . a. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . Each node has three degrees of freedom. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. Fig. 5.11. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. where the nodal displacements are also shown. . BEAMS. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. 5.12.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. as shown in Fig.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane.8.5.8. respectively.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q
e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f
In (5.69)
f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)
f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,
which substituted into the strain energy
Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=
kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦
r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]
te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI
e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]
e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation
It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },
e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q
e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]
e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .
e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10
The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11
The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

5.9 Deep beam bending element
Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. BEAMS. a).5. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5.9. axial forces are ignored. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . is approximated by u (x.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory. dx dx (5. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . 5.81) (5.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . Only transverse loads act upon the beam.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. Fig. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis.13. 5.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.

The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM .84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . 5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) . (5.9. 5.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT . .118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5. (5. dx (5. (5. dx (5.88) Equations (5. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 .14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .82) and (5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5. Using natural coordinates. 5.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 . The sign convention used here (Fig.13.90) (5. r = 2 x l .

becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.91) gives d4v =0.94) and (5. 5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. BEAMS.96) where β= 4E I z . FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.90) and (5. l dr d r2 (5. l l (5.5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 .93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 .95) at r = ± 1 .94) (5. G As l 2 (5.92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0.94) and (5. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. l b2 = 4 a3 .14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.95) into (5.91) which.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . d r3 (5. in the new variable r.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 . d x3 (5. The resulting displacement functions are .97) Substituting (5. (5.

2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) . (5. and defined by . 4 ) .101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . e e (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ).102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) . (5.120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 .100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . the first four functions (5. ] For β = 0 .. e e (5. ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) ..99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. (5..103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix..

⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5.111) On substituting (5.109) we get . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .99) into (5. 2 2 (5. l e B T z −1 +1 (5.5.109) On substituting (5.100) into (5.100) and (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.105) 5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx . BEAMS.106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr . 1 + 3β l (5.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = .107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .9.

114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.113) Substituting the shape functions (5. . e S T s −1 +1 (5.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.102) and (5.42) derived for a slender beam. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .

with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. 6. is shown in Fig. ∂n ∂z . like centrifugal or gravity forces. 6. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . and (d) boundary conditions. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . (b) surface forces. pv y . pv z . the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. ∂n ∂y . stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. (6. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations.6.1 Matrix notation for loads. and S σ . z coordinates. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed.1. and (c) concentrated forces. Points in the body are located by x.1) . (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. y.

6.124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.τ yz . (6.5) . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component.1) to (6. v .3). defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . (6. Fig. (6. σ y . (6.τ zx . It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices.4) where u . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . the direct stress components σ x .2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T .

LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T .2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy.7) can be written . ⎦T .6. a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. ∂x ∂y (6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. (6.6.7) Fig. equations (6. (6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T .5. a) 6. 6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations.2 In matrix form. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0.

11) Fig.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.10) 6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } .1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . 6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. (6. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .3 In (6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .8) or. τ xy l + σ y m = ps y . Sσ (6.

∂y (6. (6.15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }.12) In matrix form. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.18) . ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. (6.17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } .16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6. ∂x ∂v . x ) = ∂n = nx . equations (6.6.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ . ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6. sometimes written (6. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u . ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . 6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . y ) = = ny .

19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥. 6.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials.21) . The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .4 6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } . where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.25) .(6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . ⎪ ⎭ (6.21) and discarding rows and columns 3. and γ yz are set as zero. γ xz . τ xz .20). If strains ε z . the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.22). 5 and 6 in (6. 5 and 6 in (6. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain.6. discarding rows and columns 3. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. and τ yz are set as zero. from (6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. If stresses σ z .

2 (6.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig.29) 6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . (6. (6. 6.27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T . the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . T (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV . (6.32) .26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .24).31) Substituting (6. 6. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. T (6.1. In plane stress (6.

7. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. In the finite element method.1 Virtual displacements By definition. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). In the following. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. 7. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. as applied to elastic bodies. . the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. Unfortunately. 7. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. defined over small subdomains of the structure. virtual).1.

e. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C .4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . plates and shells. (7. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. i. i. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. (7. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations.2) . δu .g. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . 6. e. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. the displacement vector (6. Exceptions do exist.e. up to the mth order inclusive.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . For bars. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. exist and are continuous in the domain V. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. e) kinematically admissible. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n .1).

1. 7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements. because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.5) as shown in Fig. T (7. a b Fig. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV .1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. . a). the latter being arbitrary.2) and point forces (6.3). 7.1.7. 7.1. 7. c).1. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu .2 for the uniaxial case. hence independent of the force. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig.1). surface tractions (6. (7. ENERGY METHODS 133 7.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig. i T T T Sσ (7.1. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). 7. 7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } .

then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . 7. whether the material is elastic or inelastic.6. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. (7.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. it is independent of material behaviour. i.1. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. It applies only .4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. a) In (7.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible.e. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . i T T T T V Sσ (7. 7. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero.2 Again.

The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2.4.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. Δ2 .3.7. b). δΔ3 (Fig. T3 (Fig. The final state of static equilibrium. 7. producing the elongations Δ1 . 7. 7. 7. The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig.3 Solution. Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1.4. 7. d). find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4.4.4. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . An imaginary state. F2 and by internal forces T1 . which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . f). 2. 7. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. 3. 7. δΔ2 . Fig. loaded by a force F. e). Δ3 (Fig. in which the external force F. The external work is independent of the path taken.19) . δΔ 2 . produces a displacement of the joint 4.4. a). The initial state. 7.4. ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. c). T2 . The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . the applied forces remaining constant. Example 7.

8) Fig.4 Equating internal work to external work (7.21) can be written (7.7) Δ 1= T1 l .136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ . EA Δ 3= T3 l . 7. EA (7. gives (7. δΔ2 = δu 2 . the force-elongation equations (2.9) Substituting (7.7) into (7. For the three bars.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .

Substituting (7.1. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7.12) 7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 .5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .7. Equation (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . T T T V Sσ (7. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A . we could put either to zero.6. then in (7.6. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 .10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. (7.11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz . (7.7).11).8) in the finite form of (7. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 . l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .

Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. On substituting in (7. So. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. Part of the surface. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. but only in the mean. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . i.e. when using approximate functions for { u }. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . . b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . its coefficients must vanish. Sσ .138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface.6.

substituting σ = E ε and ε = du .14) For an elastic body.7. yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP . d x2 d x2 (7. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx . ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI . ENERGY METHODS 139 7.16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . For a bar in tension.2.13) 7. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . V δ U = δWI . gives d x2 (7.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . dx dx d2v (5.15) For a beam in bending. (7.4). 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } . (7.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains.

i T T T Sσ (7.20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . (7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE .21) 7.2.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x. i T T (7.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . (7.2.140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . For example.13. a) Its variation is .18) 7.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } . because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves. An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.

then it is in a stable equilibrium state. Example 7. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. (7. the total potential energy can be written . U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. the stationary value is a minimum. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy.3. Based on equation (7. 7. Reciprocally. at equilibrium. according to the compatibility relations. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems.22. it can be considered that (7.2 For the truss shown in Fig. Thus.7.22) δΠ = 0 . a) hence. the total potential energy has a stationary value. If δ 2 Π > 0 . of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields.6) it follows that (7. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. the equilibrium is stable.22. Reciprocally. rather than a result of the equilibrium. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE .

Example 7. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7.11). Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. 7. Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives .5. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending.5 Solution. Π is stationary. 7. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. l l l At equilibrium. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. Fig. For a beam segment loaded as shown.142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 .

3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. As δ v is arbitrary. and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . or δ v0 = 0 . or δ vl = 0 .7. l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . 7. or δ v′ = 0 . For a beam. ( E I v′′) l = M l . ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. or δ v′ = 0 . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . which are the boundary conditions. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) .

F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . Consider: E = 210 MPa .6 find the vertical displacement of point 2. Solution. n ) . ∂aj ( j = 1. (7.e. ∂Π =0..24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . c) The sequence of functions must be complete. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . I = 1600 mm4 . which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. 7. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . Because δa j are arbitrary. to be admissible functions.. The total potential energy is . i.. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. called admissible functions.4 For the beam shown in Fig. Example 7.23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. l = 3 m . Substituting the displacements (7. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π .. The solutions are back-substituted into (7.

27) into (7.25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ .27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . (7. where the functions (7.7. 0 2l 3 l . v′ (0) = 0 .28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7. ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. for simplicity. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 .26). 7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . Fig. 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. (7.26) In the following.6 Substituting (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 .

E I (7. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method.9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. The total potential energy (Fig. 2 Π = (7. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u .00207 q l4 .146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . 7.28). a) subjected to a load F.48 mm. Answer. the equations are linear in aj . we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. EI a2 = −0. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I .7.00257 q l4 . . 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. for F = q l 6 . b) is 1 2 ku − Fu .29) In 2. Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ . 7. the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2.7. a1 + a2 = 4. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. Substituting the functions (7.

7. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . 7.7. Fig. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . 7.34) and Fig. b.32) k =− The strain energy is (7. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . . ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π . F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . 7. equations (7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. (7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 .33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq .31) As seen in Fig.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .7.32) – (7.

Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. reaction forces. internal forces. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour. d) Tools. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. Then determine stresses. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. .E. { Fi } .a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. For this a matrix notation is used.E. 6. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } .M. 7. 7.4 F. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. c) Procedure.1 F. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). to present output data in an engineering format. { ps } .35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. b) Solution approach. etc. .148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. k↑ (7.M.4.1).36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement. which is often difficult.

7. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .4. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 . Fig. 7.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig.38) In the following.7.8) that define the mesh.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. ENERGY METHODS 149 7.4.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements. 7. only δ Π e will be considered. equation (7. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters.4. T T Sσ (7.6. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.8 7. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .

150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. 7. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. .41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions).39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming. defined by Q e remains to be found.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }.4. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. The strain virtual variation is (7.

6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . (7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. (7.4.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. e e e (7. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.44) 7.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements.7. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. ENERGY METHODS 151 7. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.4.

e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . . (7.25).48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. e (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions.50) The above procedure is never used in practice. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e T e e e T e e e or using (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.24) or (6. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }. e T (7.50). 7.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }. In the back-substitution phase.45) and (7.4.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .

8. . designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. In-plane displacement. 8. that allow closed form derivations. without the need for numerical integration. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. 8.1. a). TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. is treated separately. which is considered constant. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. 8. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. discussed in the next chapter.1. joined together at their corners (nodes).

y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. b are numbered locally as 1. (8. 2 and 3. ( x2 . a Fig. 8. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . (8. y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters.1) 8. y1 ) . y3 ) . Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. Thus. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction.1. y2 ) and ( x3 .1. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x .2) .2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig. each node has two degrees of freedom. 8. v ( x . The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 .

8. in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. a) where (8.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. A nodal approximation is preferred.4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . (8.4. . We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. ⎪ ⎭ (8. 8.6) where . only one need be considered in detail.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }.1. . ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. . ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const . (8. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ .

3 ) (8.13) .3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8.7) α i = x j yk − xk y j .11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element. { } (8. 2. Substituting (8. β i = y j − yk .156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . 2A ( i = 1.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . γ i = xk − x j (8. y3 y1 (8. a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . j . (8.12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . 2.8) and the subscripts i . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8. k permute in a natural order. The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) .12.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.6) into (8.

8. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .10) and (8.14) yields .2: N i ( xi . 3 (8. 3 ) (8. y ) = N 3 (x . 2. j = 1.14) ∑ Ni = 1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8.8. y ) = N 2 (x . a) can also be written N1 (x .12. yi ) = δ i j . and i =1 ( i . b) Fig. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.15) Combining (8. as illustrated in Fig. 2A (8.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] .12. 8. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] .

158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.16.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }.3 The displacement u (x.3.y ) =u1 N1 (x. 8. . a) Fig. as shown in Fig.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 .1. u2 and u3 .y ) + u3 N 3 (x. 8. (8.y ) + u2 N 2 (x. 8.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .17. ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8. When the surface load distribution (per unit . ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. (8. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . 8.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.25) for plane strain conditions. The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.18) where t e is the element thickness. a) where the notation is obvious. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension.1.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. Along an edge 1-2.8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7.24) for plane stress and by (6.

8. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . even in a fine mesh. Fig. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig.5.5.5 . 8.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. 8.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements.4). Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. b which however produces a larger bandwidth. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. Fig. 8. 8.19) where t e is the thickness of the element.1.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. 8.

Fig. 8. where they should be continuous. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. Taking advantage of symmetry.8. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. only one quarter of the plate is considered. 8.6 .

⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. y3 = l . The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8.162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8.1 Solution. The material stiffness matrix (6.3 Example 8.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. b) stresses in elements. and c) the support reactions. E8. a Fig. a). x2 = l . Let ν = 0 . x3 = 0 .18) is .1. the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. y2 = 0 . E8.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ . Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ .

2 2 T 1 2 . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. In general. 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. .8. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. .

∗ H4 = − F 4 .18). E8. so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . Due to symmetry.1. b). 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. x3 = −1 . Using the appropriate boundary conditions. x2 = 0 . . H5 = − F 4 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. 2E t u2 = 3F . y2 = 1 . y3 = 0 in (8.17) and performing the product (8.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress.2). ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. and c) the support reactions.8. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪.3 . The units are coherent. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. E8. b) stresses in elements. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . . with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.

the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.24).166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8.2 Solution. The input data are given below For each element.18). and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. E8. based on the nodal coordinates.17). .

835 .666 0 1.317 0.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.8.823 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0. v2 = −15.192 1.111 − 0.192 − 0.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.165 − 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.165 − 0. u2 = 6.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.712 .686 .317 ⎢ 0 0.542 . v3 = −13.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.903 0 2.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.317 0. u3 = −2. v1 = −40. .192 − 0.582 . ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.111 0.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.125 0 − 1.

which is wrong. The plate has length l = 60 mm . a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Along the edge 4-5. to allow longhand calculation. E8. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. the plate should be modeled by many more elements.3 A thin rectangular plate. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. Normally. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.3 . thickness t = 5 mm .168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. Solution. Example 8. gives only one value of σ x . a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. being a constant strain element. a).6. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. .3. width b = 40 mm . element 3. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection.1. However. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. and this leads to misleading results.

but the element numbering is omitted for clarity.8. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. b The applied nodal forces are shown. c. b. Fig. . The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. E8. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.3. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction.3. a A 55-node. E8.3. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig.3. E8. are denoted a to f. E8. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked.

E8. Fig. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. E8.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. E8. d. .3. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig.3.3.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8.

is σ xa = 15.0752 σy 0. E8. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .69 d 7.68 f 4. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa . thickness 5 mm .815 1. E8. have the following values: Point a 15.5768 0.3595 σ eq 19. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .4. fillet radius 20 mm . Example 8. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.5706 -0.4577 11.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig. averaged at points a to f.9433 7.8. in point a.78 b 11. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ .0595 0.7073 3.9228 0.5786 7.6667 0.6445 5.89 σ x .6221 0.2632 0. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. a) has length 150 mm .6821 10.3. width of the extended portion 80 mm . ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.85 e 6.763 τ xy -0.5693 5.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20.3275 8.068 7. a).7162 4.78 MPa .0178 11. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.6155 10.25 .927 0.39 c 9.174 0.8845 1.1651 0.8037 Stresses σ x . The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.

The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node.19). c for five stress intervals given in the legend. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. E8. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. The right edge has four elements. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. Taking advantage of the symmetry. a Answer. E8. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate.4. The largest equivalent stress is 604. E8. The resulting five nodal forces. b.4. only half of the plate is considered. . Fig. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . E8.7 MPa . subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. for the quarter plate. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. Fig.4.4.

0596 − 0.0596 0 − 0.7 MPa . v64 = −3.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig. E8. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .2982 − 0.3757 − 0.1216 0. u64 = 0.42 given by Singer (1962). b are given below: x60 = 92.3757 0 0.11224 . Calculate the element stresses. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622. v65 = −4.97e − 3 .3160 ⎥ .25 . Example 8.17) 0 − 0.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.35 . = 0. The matrix [ B ] is (8. v60 = −3.5 .8. c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.92e − 3 .12367 . The triangle area is A96 = 4. Solution. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig. y64 = 18 . y65 = 20. ⎥ ⎢ 0. x64 = 95 . y60 = 21.415.12247 . x65 = 95.3160 0.52 . This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1.5 .63e − 3 . E8. u65 u60 = 0.1925 mm 2 .1216 0 0. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.4.4.

63e − 3 0.72 63.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8. E8. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry. a.97e − 3 0.1333 0 ⎥ .11224 − 3. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.58 − 120. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.6.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.5333 2.1333 0. E8.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.12367 − 3. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.24) ⎡ 2.12247 − 4.92e − 3 ⎦ T . a .08⎦ T . Fig.6.174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0.

The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b. E8. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig. Fig. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. c .6. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas.6.8. E8. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. E8. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.6.6. c.

8.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. 8.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ .2. For example. y j = δ ij . y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. y1 ) = 1 . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. ( ) (8. y ) = x y . built up beams and boxes. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides.176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8. hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates .1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. 8. the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. From condition N1 ( x1 . y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . a b N4 ( x. N1 ( x .7. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . Fig.

all like powers in x and y are not present.22) (8. (8.…. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ .25) The use of the shape functions (8. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. there are eight boundary conditions.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . 1 ± s = 0 . 4 4 N1 = (8.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads.8.23) has one drawback – they are not complete. That is. b r= 2x −1. Because. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . v ( x . The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. the assumed displacement field is u (x . Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not.21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. for two displacements. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . a (8. . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1.24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. { } (8.

The 4-node element has flat sides.2. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. 8. (≥ 3) 8. . The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. In comparison. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .8.8. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .8 Figure 8. 8. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. 8.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. because the strain energy is underestimated.9. Fig. stresses are lower than the true values. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. Generally. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. Fig.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig.

N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). 8.27) so that the strains are quadratic. N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) . In the natural system of coordinates r and s. (8. v ( x . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . (8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . 8. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic.7.29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . Using the nodal approximation.9 In Fig. + N8 v8 .28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach).. 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). 4 4 (8. the old ones are presented in Fig.8. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 .. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . 8. + N8 u8 . The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates..9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . 2 4 N1 = − . Fig.

3. quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . 3. elements having linear. N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . which gives the expression of N1 in (8. i.e. as h1 h2 h3 . The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . 1 − r = 0 . The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .29).31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] . Equivalently. h2 . the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8. { } (8. a). where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1.30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements.. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . i.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.10. 8. 1 + r + s = 0 . and nondimensionalized. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] .3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. h3 from the three sides (Fig. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1. by division to the triangle heights.−1) = 1 . 8.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates.. ζ3 = .e. one has to use a large number of elements.. ζ2 = . c1 = −1 4 ..

8. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. (8. we obtain equation (8. ζ3 = A3 A . 8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .8. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . ⎪ ⎭ (8.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ .34) By inversion. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions. (8. b).10. ζ2 = A2 A .10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . Fig.

β i = y j − yk . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. 8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .3. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . 8.8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . (8. 2. { } (8. 3 ) (8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .11. 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. 8. In Fig.38) .11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . γ i = xk − x j .37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1.35) where A is given by (8.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . Fig.9) and the expressions (8. N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 .

8. The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.8). The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .44) . 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. so we must transform from x .43) The results for first. y to ζ1 .and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A . ζ 2 .9) and β i . γ i are defined by (8.41) where A is the triangle area (8.33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . However. y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . (2 + a + b ) ! (8.34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . Using (8. ζ 3 . (8. 6 (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.

N2 = r .37) is obtained. Denoting ζ 2 = r. so the element is truly isotropic. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . six for each component.12). There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. N3 = s . It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides.45) The displacement field is complete. (8. 2 (8. containing all possible products.48) . ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. the nodal approximation (8.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 .47) Fig. 8. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . (8. the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. There are twelve nodal displacements. 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 .46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . ζ 3 = s. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements. 8.

8. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. 8. (8. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . a. if the polynomial is not complete. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. i =1 9 (8.3.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side.50) where . This element is shown in Fig.8. 8. The side nodes are located at the third points. Since the function is cubic.13. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. Fig. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c .3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. treated in the next chapter.

. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . .. 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives .52) In (8. 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. x x (8. a total of 18 parameters (Fig. The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + .52) the interpolation polynomials.13. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . expressed in terms of triangular coordinates.. 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . (8. 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ).51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . b). (8. as nodal quantities. 8. are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . vc ) as the remaining parameters. 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . there are six .53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . At each corner. N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . two displacements and four first derivatives.

∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0.1 Equilibrium vs. 8. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.16) in (8.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. of the rectangular element.8.4. but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. v ( x . + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. The same interpolation functions are valid for v . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y .26) (8.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. β i are defined by (8. 8. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. one can say that: a) Within elements.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8. For example.4 Equilibrium.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . (8. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33].56) .55) Equations (8.

The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. the elements fit together. But as already shown. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. = a3 + a4 x . as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. However. = b4 = 2 = 0 . so the first equation (8. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. in general. In some cases it can give better results. b) Between elements. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . However. c) At nodes.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. 8. the edges remain straight.4. inter-element stress continuity may exist. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . Moreover. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. for any nodal displacement. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. One cannot conclude from this that. So. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. As the discretization is refined. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. For example. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST.55) is not satisfied. Happily.

we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. The computed displacements. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. However. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. i. extraneous nodal forces appear. Also. Elements must not overlap or separate. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. plate and shell elements. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement.8. strains. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. If this requirement is violated. . The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. e) The element should have no preferred directions. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. In the case of beam. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. If not. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered.e. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained.

v1 = 0 . a simple patch test is carried out as follows. u2 = 1 . u3 = 4 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. E8. the internal node must behave accordingly. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } .6. ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1. v2 = 1 .190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. E8. If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. v4 = 1 . The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . Fig.25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . u4 = 1 .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. v3 = 4 .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . .

When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. the result is an isoparametric element.1) . Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. (9. 9. 2.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. yi ) . If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. The local nodes 1. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. they are subparametric elements.1. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. Each node has two degrees of freedom. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . For isoparametric elements. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . we obtain a subparametric element. In fact. 9. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. a.9. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements.

s } plane. They are called quadrilateral coordinates.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. 1 ] . 9. taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . b. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . In the reference plane. 9. s ∈ [ − 1.1. called the reference element (or master element). a Fig.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . y } is called the isoparametric mapping.2. 9. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. 9.1.2 b . which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. a).192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 1 ] . a Fig. This is called the reference plane. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig.

2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . b) . The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2. x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9.4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.4. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . 9. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . 9. s } plane (Fig. si ) are the coordinates of node i . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . b). i =1 i =1 4 4 (9.1.9. N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 4 (9.4. The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x .3) where ( ri .23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) .2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. 4 4 (9.

where (9. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s .8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . s ) . N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. along the side 2-3 (Fig. overlaps or discontinuities . because r (or s) is constant. i. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. along each side the approximation is linear. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9. a). there are no openings. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . As mentioned in Chapter 8.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ .1.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r . This ensures interelement compatibility. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.2. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape.e. For example. 9.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation.

(9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element.10) and (9. s ) . we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.9) For example. a) has the form y = m x + c . This is done considering the function f = f ( x .9) is non-conforming. along each side the approximation is quadratic. On the contrary. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . it can also be expressed as .11) is the Jacobian matrix. y (r .4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently.1. Along 2-3. the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.4). The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. 9.1. 9. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . Also.9. s ) ] . because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. Using (9. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. The approximation (9.10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . where m is the slope of 2-3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . s } coordinates.

14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] . .13. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ .15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . a) Analogously.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. the inverse relationship is (9.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.

In a curvilinear system { r . s } . In cartesian coordinates { x . s = s ( x . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. d y = d y ⋅ j . . we need [ j ].17) It is needed because. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. determined on the reference element. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . y ) . j are base vectors. (9. . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . where d x = d x ⋅ i . and s = const . contours respectively. It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . y }. for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . Because r = r ( x . ∂f ∂f . and i .9. [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] .

9) into (7.43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A . (9.9) and shape functions (9. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.1. (9.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.17). ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. where (9.20) Using the transformation (9.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].7). ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.22) .

9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ]. along side 2-3 in Fig. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9.9.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3. the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. the above integration has to be performed numerically. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9.17).1. (9. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . If there is a distributed load having components ( px .24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. 9. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds .1.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. . as shown in the following.

. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. (9. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . + a2 n r 2 n −1 . 9. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. It is more efficient than other methods. For higher order elements.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + .. In other words.26) is exact up to the chosen order. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible.27) . + wn f (r n ) . whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points...2. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths. + wi f (ri ) + . As the order of the displacement field increases. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter.. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature..

+ wn r n n −1 ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i .3.28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi . The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα ..30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + . + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + . linear in wi and nonlinear in r i .. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . This is a set of 2 n equations.... 3 (9. + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.. + wn r n ... + wn .. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + .... + wn r n 2 n −1 ..... a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + . − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig.. 9.. n .. 2 .29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9. + wn r n + .9.. + wn r n .

Fig. (9.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . 9.3 .31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .57735 ) .3.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. e. 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing.g. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . to separate shear from extension effects. 9. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. However. equations (9. so that (Fig.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. it is employed in some selective integration schemes.

57735 . so that I = f ( r1 .1 for the first four orders. s j .774) + 0.5555 0.0 0.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.555 ⋅ f ( 0. 9.774 ) .9. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9. ri 0 wi 2.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.8888 0. ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r . s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri .1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . s2 ) . r1 = s 1 = − 0.3.2.57735 .652145 0.32) w1 = w2 = 1 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0. .2. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r .2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9. r 2 = s 2 = 0.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0. Weights. s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri . Table 9.774596 ± 0. s j . s2 ) + f ( r2 .339981 ± 0.57735 ± 0. s1 ) + f ( r1 . s1 ) + f ( r2 .0 1.861136 0 9. 9.

3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. Therefore. 2.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. 2 . 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. the elements of . The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. ri . 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 3.24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. s j Weights. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 2. In general. 2. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9. 3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. wi .2.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. 3. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1.

Fig. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. 9. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. the minimum number of integration points. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. t e . 9.4). in the present case. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties.9. From practical considerations. Therefore. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. In this case. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. This is cheaper as well. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element.33) represents the volume of the element. e (9.33). the stiffness matrix equation (9. we can write .24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point.4 However.33) The integral in (9. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. Taking the thickness. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig.

s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 .34). s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9.1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥.34) we need . s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) . s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9.s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. s j = ± 0.34) + t e [ B ( r2 . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1. Example 9. consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9.57735 .206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . 9. s2 ) ] .11) [ J ( ri . For convenience.1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. s )] ] [ B ( r . s j = ± 0. s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 .5 instead of r i . For the first term in (9. s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 .

5 0 0 0 0 1. a refined mesh should be used in these regions.5 − 1.5 − 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. 5 1.5 0 0 0 0 0. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0. 5 1. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 1.35) In practice. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 1. the Jacobian matrix (9.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . 1976).2.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 − 1. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element. 5 ⎣ 0. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points.125 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1. − 1. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1.5 1. 5 0. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.5 − 1.9.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ . However.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. . the matrix [ B ] is given by (9. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53.5 ⎢− 0. (9.5 0.5 0.5 − 1.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9.

b).27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. (9.5. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s . 9. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic.2.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme .5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. 9.2. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. even if it is supported conventionally. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. In practice. 9.5. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. For a single 8-node rectangular element. as are the stresses. Fig. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration.

Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration.9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme.3. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . . one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). due to reduced integration. 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) .37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . For an 8-node quadrilateral element. 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. It was shown that. For ease in programming. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 .29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . (9. 9. The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. For the 8-node quadratic element.

s ) y i i =1 8 (9.40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. (9. s ) x i .42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . (9.2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r .44) 9.39) for mid-side nodes.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes. when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .3. when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) . the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q .45) leads to . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r . = si 1 − r 2 .

− ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . (9.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. s ) yi . s ) x i 8 i .3. s ) yi . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.49) 9.3. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . ∂s 9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9.9. s ) xi . ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .

the stiffness matrix (9.53. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. evaluated by numerical integration.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which.53. (9.44).212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] . a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.54) the elements of the matrix (9. ij (9. (9.55) ij . (9. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ .

it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. ∂x i =1 ∂ y .55) by incorporating the relevant material constants.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j .55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . k 2 = k 3 . This method (K. Therefore. A.57) The explicit form of equation (9.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . A close inspection of equations (9. Mohraz. 9. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.3. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element.9. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.56) and then to work out equations (9. Gupta & B.

so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. 9. (9. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. However. Consider a distributed load p . since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions.3. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . element by element. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. specified in force per unit length. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. closer results to the true values are obtained. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi .

ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9. (9. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9. { f } is reversed.65) .42).60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .s ) p k k =1 8 k .63) the element.61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9. ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .

1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .2 Consider the element of Fig. Fig. For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 .2 Solution. Equation (9.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . y axes. Find the equivalent nodal forces. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly.66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a .2.61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . Example 9. E9. ⎪ ⎭ (9. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. . E9.

⎩− g ⎭ (9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9. E9. Solution. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. Find the equivalent nodal forces. b). The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4.68) Example 9.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.2.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. E9. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7.26).67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. a with gravity loading. In the above expressions. . but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .3.

the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .77) −1 −1 . (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. 16 1 (9.74) Therefore.69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9.70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b .73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes.218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s . 1 1 (9. ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W .76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 .70) can be written f yi = − (9. the force (9. L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.

6. 9. 9. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. E9. The master element is presented in Fig.6. it contains an internal node. b. Again. 9. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. a. Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. 9.3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 .6 . E9. b.9.

for three points. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. we can define generic shape functions L1 .7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes.. 9.7. s. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 .) . .1.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. 9. 9. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . Fig. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). r. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. b.78) Along the sides of the element. The shape functions are defined as follows. Considering the r axis alone. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . as shown at the bottom of Fig. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. and rs .6. The polynomial is incomplete. In general. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . which. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . 2 (9. as shown in Fig. (9. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . have the expressions ..

N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . By referring to the master element in Fig. The six node triangle (Fig. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. (9. a) is an element of order 2 (i. the degree of the polynomial is 2). one can use the serendipity elements. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . The polynomial involves six constants.9. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) . with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . 9. Alternatively. 9. 9.. L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions.9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) .9.80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . a. 9.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. 2 (9. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . as shown at the right of Fig. 9.8).6. Similarly.82) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8.6.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) .e. b. 9.

i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i . 9. 9. Because of terms ζ 2 .84) Fig.8 The isoparametric representation is (8.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . ζ 3 in the shape functions. Fig. this element is also called a quadratic triangle.9 . and x = ∑ Ni x i . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. i =1 (9.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T .222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 .

13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. where stresses may be computed. This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. can be evaluated using (9. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18.46). particularly at that corner. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. 4. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig.9. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . it is more likely to be negative at corners. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. which has to be integrated numerically. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. 9. and.24) if the (r . any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix.4. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. 39]. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element.

5 l ≤1. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0. i.5 l . 2x2 −l Fig. 9.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . l 3l < x 2 < . if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 0 .5 ) l − 2 r x2 .10 This point lies within the element (Fig. 9. For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0.e. then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element. 2x2 −l If .

1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. 10. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. In this chapter. These elements may be either triangular. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed.10. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. 10. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate.1 . For thin plates. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. .1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. For this case.

10. z ) = − z ∂w . (10. y.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x.1) where w ( x. Fig. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . a). ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0.2) a Fig. ∂x v ( x. 10.2. ∂y (10. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. ε y = = −z 2 . 10. ∂x ∂z (10.3) . = −z 2 .2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. y. z ) = − z ∂w .

4) Since σ z = 0 .3. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz .8) Fig.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. (10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥. (10. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T . 10. where (10. 10.7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . 12 (10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .10.10) .5) (10.

13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) .curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.16) .15) it can be shown that (10.14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment . From (10. (10. The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials .15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length). (10. ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 . Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.11) and (10. ⎟ ⎠ (10.

Then.10. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10.2. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed.16) into the last equation (10. A ∫ (10.15).8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy . Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z . 10. First.19) The strain energy (10. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.21) 10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . To overcome this problem. (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. b). PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid.9) (10. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory.

θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. z ) = z θ y (x . y ) . (10.29) V .28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV .26) ∂w .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. where the curvature vector is (10.24) reduces to (10. γ z x = 0 . and equation (10. ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u . y .22) where θ x . equation (10. + ∂x ∂z (10. (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.25) Substituting for the displacements from (10.230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . v (x . (10. (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10.26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . to the middle plane before deformation.27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . y . y ) .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . z ) = − zθ x (x .4).

10.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10.20). As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin.12).31) or (10. PLATE BENDING 231 or. which is not true. equation (10. If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy . on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. where { χ } is given by (10. the above expression reduces to (10.30) For isotropic materials. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − .24). ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line. If θ x = . ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.32) The strain energy (10. T S A (10. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios.

3. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . namely.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . 10.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. taken as degrees of freedom at each node. having four node points. (10. Fig.1961. Clough.21). complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. therefore. The assumed form of the displacement function. These three quantities are. for convergence. these become . one at each corner. the strain energy is given by (10. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. 10. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements.20) and the potential of the external load by (10. Hence. Also. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. Melosh . In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . 1963).4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. irrespective of the element shape.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method.33) Figure 10.

2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.η )⎦ {α } . PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .36) (10. Fig.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }. (10.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle. (10.38) (10. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w .34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ . .39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. 10.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added.36. a ∂ξ (10.10. (10.37) Differentiating (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant.5 The expression (10.

ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. (10.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .39) at ξ = ±1 .36. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. evaluating (10. e e (10. Indeed.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .36).38) and (10.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . for conciseness.234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ . η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.45) where ( ξi .40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . a) yields { } (10.42) into (10. ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming. (10. (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. (10.42) Substituting (10.

45) into (10. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. e T e e (10. 2.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. and hence the rotation θ x .η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ . The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q . Unfortunately.4) and (10. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10.47) Evaluating (10. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. 3. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . The rotation θ y is given by (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y .43) into (10. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. Substituting (10.49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10.10. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10.46) Substituting (10.

0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .η )⎦ .236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ .45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.

substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ . 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . In deriving this result.36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. (10.5). b β= b . PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . it is simpler to use the expression (10. [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] .51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] .10.54) and integrating. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . a The remaining submatrices of (10.

commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. Fox and Schmit . can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5. Unfortunately. 10. In this case.50). 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. the results are convergent. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. of the form shown in Fig.1966). It is a four-node thin plate bending element. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . 10. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative.43) but with 16 terms . this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states.4. In the limit. (10. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.57) in which ( ξi .2). as an increasing number of elements is used. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10.3. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. However. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10.21) as for uniform slender beams.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . the displacement function is of the form (10. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 .43) with ⎣N i (ξ .55) where [ B ] is defined in (10.

53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10.21).30) and the potential of the external load is (10.59).43) and (10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. 10.24) and (10. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not.26). 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ . for convergence.49) and (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10. Hence. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. . Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 .3. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. (10. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10. 10.10.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y .3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.and ydirections. the strain energy expression is (10. For a thick plate-bending element.33). The highest derivative of w . θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . w .5).59) of the first six terms in (10. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .

60) where the functions N i are defined by (9.3). In matrix form.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ].30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .1977) expands separately w .60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q .63) Substituting (10.26) and (10. (10.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . e B S (10. e T e e (10. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha . ⎪ ⎭ { } (10.24).44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements.61) These functions ensure that w . It represents the shear deformation directly. expressions (10. θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i . i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10.62) into (10.65) .65) In (10. θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i . θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes. 4 ( )( ) (10. ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10.

72) into (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.71) Substituting (10.(10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending . PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.67) (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.69) and (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ . The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .61) into (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .10.69) (10.

2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. a .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b .

52). substituting the shape functions from (10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87].77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.73) into (10. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.61) into (10.63) and (10.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Substituting (10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .

into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. Obviously.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. In very thin plates. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. e (10.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. Alternative methods. However. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. S S e (10.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements.g. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }.53). 10. .. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w .79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. However. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. This is avoided by selective integration.

2 and 3 have coordinates (0. 10.80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . (10. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node. (10. Nodes 1.81.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10.80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10.4.81) (10. The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ . the transverse displacement w .0) .10. In order to maintain symmetry.80) is incomplete. ( ) (10.82) Differentiating (10. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom.6 shows the T element (Tocher . that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . a) w = ⎣P ( x .81) gives .6 The expression (10. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. namely. (x2 .0) and (x3 . y )⎦ {α } . the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. PLATE BENDING 245 10. Fig. y3 ) .1962).

81.89) and. This element is non-conforming. e −1 (10. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x . y )⎦ Ae e e (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. e e (10. a) yields [ ] { q }. (10. of equation y = 0 .84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ .87) into (10. therefore.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .83) along the side 1-2. (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. cannot be inverted. gives . If this occurs.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } .83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } . Unfortunately.87) Substituting (10.83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10. Evaluating (10.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }.

PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } . in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10. while the tangential component θ x is not.93) ∫x A m n y dA . These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis.10. Moreover.4) and (10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. (10. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically.88) into (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . α 5 and α 8 . Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. Substituting (10.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ . Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. To alleviate this. the assumed function (10.

(10. In matrix form. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. the transverse displacement w .97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. Tocher. These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 .96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . expressions (10. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . 10. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10.4. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i .95) where wi . Nodes 1. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. namely.35).2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. They ensure that w . (10. θ X and θY are continuous between elements.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using . The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi .

101) Substituting (10.99) Substituting (10.8). −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .10. [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.96) into (10.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.100) As this matrix is constant.104) S 33 where . ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.24) and using (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.96) into (10.102) into (10.24) and using (10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥. (10.102) Substituting (10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.

⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.65). . Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969.4. 10. For pz = constant.98) into (10.-1969. Stricklin et al.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10.

The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. in which the curvatures are expressed. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k. a). The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides.24). In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig.10.7.7 b For a side i − j . as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. The shear strain energy is neglected. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. It was shown that.4. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. along a side. a Fig. To remedy this. only the bending strain energy is considered. For instance.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another.106) . The T element presented in section 10. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. of length l k . 10. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. 10.

b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j .108) . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10.8. Then. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). 10.8. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. Initially.8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. a). ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . Fig.7. b). The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. 10. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. the three parameters α 4 . One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 . ( ) (10. α 5 . 10. The parameter α k has to be eliminated.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . 10. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k . This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes.

j. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10.109) into (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. (10. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ .110) we obtain the explicit expressions of .109) The equation (10.109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.10. {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . where (10. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . k. {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T . The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. Then.

Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) .116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . as shown in Table 10.254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. 3 ⎦ (10. Table 10.1 Corner point. (10. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm .115) In (10. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm .1. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. (10.115). 2l k 2l m (10. 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 2. 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ .114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm .

2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q . PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. y1 ) . (10.10.119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. 2A { } (10.118) The curvature vector (10. in a local coordinate system [18]. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . y2 ) and (x3 .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q .112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . In (10. Equation (10.117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. (x2 . using a Hammer integration rule. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. In the following.120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . (10. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 .24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e . { } (10. y3 ) .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

A

where the material matrix [ D
Ue =

]
1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },
e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]
e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫
0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References
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238. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. vector of − beam 90. 150. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 187 Conforming elements 150.