Biodiesel - the new-age fuel

St. Stephen’s College, Delhi Quest 2007

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Alternative fuels

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•Soya bean •Sunflower •Linseed

Natural Oils

•Jatropha •Pongamia

Biodiesel
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Jatropha curcas

• Found in Tanzania, Venezuela and India. • Grown on marginal lands.

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Jatropha Oil extraction

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Jatropha Oil - Composition
Fatty acid weight %

Oleic acid

44.7

Linoleic acid

31.4

Palmitic acid

15.1

Stearic acid

7.1

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COOMe Stearic acid methyl ester COOMe Palmitic acid methyl ester COOMe Linoleic acid methyl ester COOMe Oleic acid methyl ester
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Transesterification of oils
• Chemical methods – Acid or Base catalysed • Biochemical methods – Enzyme catalysed

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Acid Catalyzed Transesterification
Commonly used acids: H2SO4/ HCl

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Base catalyzed transesterification

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Comparisons
Base catalysis is preferred: 2) 4000 times as fast. 3) Use of KOH gives useful side product. 4) Acids are corrosive.

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Limitations of chemical methods
• Require more energy. • Formation of soap inhibits transesterification. • Disposal of waste water.

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Enzyme catalysed methods

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Lipases
• Biocatalysts are biodegradable. • Consume less energy. • No soap formation. • Further purification of biodiesel not required. • Can be used for oils with high free fatty acid content.
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Interesting results!!
Parameters investigated • Oil : Methanol ratio • Reaction temperature • Reaction time

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Optimum Molar Ratio (Oil: Methanol)

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Optimum temperature

Maximum % yield at 50°C Time taken : 92 hrs.

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Summary of results
Optimum molar ratio Optimum temperature Enzyme wt. Time Conversion 1:3 50 5% w.r.t wt of oil 92h 80%

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Advantages of using Biodiesel
• • • • Biodegradable Low emission profile Low toxicity Better fuel efficiency • High lubricity

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Kuvempu University, Shimoga, Karnataka

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Bio-bus

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Algae-biodiesel

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References
• www.treehugger.com • ‘Biocatalytic preparation of Biodiesel from Jatropha oil’ – Summer research project undertaken by Ms. Sonia Muliyil in the Kinetics Laboratory, IIT Chennai. • The Hindu (online edition), Sunday, July 10 2005
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Acknowledgements
•Prof. Anju Chadha and all members, Kinetics laboratory, IIT Chennai. •Dr. Bikram Phookun, Department of Physics, St. Stephen’s College, Delhi.

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