patterns that transcend time and geography

³Whether we listen with aloof amusement to the dreamlike mumbo jumbo of some red-eyed witch doctor of the Congo, or read with cultivated rapture thin translations from the sonnets of the mystic Lao-tse; now and again crack the hard nutshell of an argument of Aquinas, or catch suddenly the shining meaning of a bizarre Eskimo fairy tale, it will be always the one, shape-shifting yet marvelously constant story that we find.´ (3) Joseph Campbell Hero With a Thousand Faces

³We all travel, if not in space in time. And since the first strolling teller-of-tales enthralled his audience at the first campfire, we have all loved travelers and travelers¶ tales. From Gilgamesh through Odysseus to Bilbo Baggins and Frodo, the epic journey and its hero continue to capture our imagination.´
Rodney Standen The Changing Face of the Hero

 Archetypal critics account for a universality in literature by pointing to recurring patterns and images that appear so deeply embedded in the human mind and culture that they strike a responsive chord in everyone. .

Archetypal Criticism also called Myth Criticism  has roots in anthropological and psychological studies  ± Late 19th and early 20th centuries .

Sir James Frazer   Cambridge anthropologist examined primitive rituals that indicated similar patterns of behavior and belief among diverse and widely separated cultures .

 The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (1922) .Frazer..12 volumes ± explanation of motives behind customs   Italian people of the shores of Lake Nemi rule of kingly succession was to pluck the bough from a sacred tree and then kill the old king in individual combat ± found this custom was similar or connection of other customs in other peoples ..

Gilbert Murray  ³Hamlet and Orestes´ in The Classic Tradition in Poetry ± found similarities in Shakespeare¶s Hamlet and the Greek Orestes    both are sons of kings killed by younger kinsmen who then marry the dead king¶s wife both are driven by supernatural forces to avenge their father¶s death both end not only by slaying the new king but also by being responsible for their mother¶s death .

 explores connection in the mythic patterns underlying the Greek Orestes saga and the Scandinavian Hamlet story.Murray.. .. ± behind both is the ³world-wide ritual story of what we may call the Golden-Bough Kings´ (Murray 228)  pattern identified by Frazer in which life is renewed through the slaying of an old monarch and succession by a new one.

G. Jung first gave prominence to the term archetype .Carl Jung     psychologist student of Freud The Basic Writing of C.

Carl Jung  Collective Unconscious ± ± Shared by all humans an unconscious ³which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inborn´ (Jung 289) .

Carl Jung  Archetypes ± ± ± contents of the collective unconscious defined as primordial or ³universal images that have existed since the remotest times´ (Jung 288) formed during the earliest stages of human development .

.Carl Jung  Although the theory may seem almost mystic. Jung found no other way to account for the appearance of nearly identical images and patterns in the mind of individuals from wholly different cultures and backgrounds.

.Jung.  Jung notes instances which suggest that ± water is a symbol of the unconscious and the action of descending to the water is a symbol of the frightening experience of confronting the depths of one¶s unconscious..   dreams of Protestant clergymen legends of African tribes .

 Jung¶s account of a patient who in 1906 related visions containing odd symbolic configurations. ± later he encountered similar symbols in a Greek papyrus first deciphered in 1910 ..Jung..

Jung  Theory of Individuation ± ± A psychological ³growing up´ A process of learning of one¶s own individuality  A process of self-recognition which is essential to becoming a well-balanced person ± Neuroses are result of person¶s failure to confront and accept archetypal components of the unconscious .

Jung«  Inherited components of the psyche ± Principles Archetypes    Animus Anima Shadow .

ANIMUS    Physical man Represents physical. brute strength of man and his animal instincts Can be the ³masculine´ designation of the female psyche .

Archetypes 26) Feminine designation in the male psyche Associated with feelings. that which lives of itself and causes life«´ ³«the archetype of life itself´ (Jung.ANIMA      The ³soul image´ The spiritual life-force The ³living thing in man. unconscious aspect of the psyche . instinctive. passions.

this archetype becomes ± ± The villain The devil . less pleasing aspect of the personality Represents ³the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personality´ (Jung. Two Essays 94) Needs to be suppressed When projected.SHADOW      The darker side of our unconscious self Inferior.

for archetypes are universal patterns from which myths derive. . The theory of archetypes would explain not only such instances as these but also the similarity of myths and rituals found by Frazer.

Joseph Campbell  Monomyth pattern .

Maud Bodkin  Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934) ± ± among first literary studies in the Jungian tradition application of psychological knowledge to works of literature .

biblical parallel .. Rime ± of the Ancient Mariner rebirth archetype ± ³night journey under the sea´  going down to the water (into depths of one¶s own being) [death] precedes a ³rebirth´ into greater wisdom and selfknowledge  Jonah .Bodkin..

Northrop Frye    Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (1957) Relies solely upon literature to draw the archetypal patterns. Calls the theory of collective unconscious an ³unnecessary hypothesis in literary criticism´ (Frye 112) .

Frye. which recurs often enough in literature to be recognized as an element of one¶s literary experience as a whole´ (Frye 365) .. usually an image.   Shifts definition of archetype from psychological to the literary Archetype is ³a symbol..

and rebirth of the mythic hero  Unifying myth ± ± .Frye..  four types of literature (narrative patterns) ± mythos analogous to seasons of year to the story of the birth.. death.

.  Mythos of SUMMER: Romance ± ± ± analogous to the birth and youthful adventures of the mythic hero suggests innocence and triumph narrative of wish-fulfillment with good character triumphing over bad    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Robin Hood old-fashioned cowboy movies .Frye..

 Mythos of AUTUMN: Tragedy ± major movement toward the death or defeat of the hero   Oedipus King Lear ..Frye..

 Mythos of WINTER: Irony or Satire ± ± hero now absent society is left without effective leadership or sense of norms/values     Swift¶s A Modest Proposal ± social norms are turned upside down for artistic purposes Conrad¶s Heart of Darkness Kafka Camus ± sense of hopelessness and bondage .Frye...

.Frye.  Mythos of SPRING: Comedy ± ± ± ± rebirth of hero renewal of life in which those elements of society who would block the hero are overcome hero and heroine take their rightful place order is restored  Shakespearian comedies ..

Frye. .. Every piece of literature adds to the myth.   Every work of literature has its place within this scheme or myth..

rather than with universal patterns Concerned with defining unique cultural patterns within literature ± ± An End to Innocence: Essays on Culture and Politics (1955) Love and Death in the American Novel (1962) .Leslie Fiedler   Begins examination with literary works themselves.

the love of the black«´ (Fiedler 146) . An End to Innocence ± sees a single. archetype:  ³the mutual love of a white man and a colored«the boy¶s homoerotic crush.. though controversial.Fiedler.   Uses insights of archetypal criticism to isolate patterns within literature of a given culture or author..

.) Ishmael and Queequeg (Moby Dick) Huck and Jim (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) ± ± Herman Melville  Mark Twain  . etc. we discover same-sex relationship ± James Fenimore Cooper  Natty Bumppo and Chingachgook (Leatherstocking novels ± The Last of the Mohicans.  Argues that where in European novels we would expect to find heterosexual passion..Fiedler. The Deerslayer.

an archetype´ (Fiedler 146) . in short. obsessive.     American pattern that may be limited historically Is a pattern that repeats itself Seems widely shared at a level beneath consciousness Is for Fiedler. ³a symbol..Fiedler. persistent..

Bibliography Bodkin. Archetypal Patterns in Poetry. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. 1949. Fiedler. Boston: Beacon. London: Oxford UP. Cleveland: World. Love and Death in the American Novel. An End to Innocence: Essays on Culture and Politics. 1955. 1934. Joseph. New York: Pantheon. --------. . Campbell. 1962. Maud. Leslie.

Ed. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Jung. 4th ed. et. . 1959. Wilfred L. The Basic Writings of C. New York: Oxford UP. Sir James George. 1999.G. Carl Gustav. al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature.Bibliography Frazer. New York: Modern. 1922. Princeton: Princeton UP. Northrop. 1940. Jung. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. 1957. Frye. Guerin. Violet Staub De Laszlo. New York: McMillan.

1987. Cambridge: Harvard UP. Gilbert.Bibliography Murray. Rodney. IL: Theosophical Publishing House. 1927. The Changing Face of the Hero. The Classical Tradition in Poetry. Standen. Wheaton. .

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