Math mode – v. 2.

47
Herbert Voß* December 14, 2010

Abstract It is often said that TEX was designed for mathematical or technical purposes. This may be true when we remember the reasons why Donald Knuth created TEX. But nowadays there are many examples in which TEX is used for publications with no mathematical or technical background content. However, writing publications with such material is one of the important advantages of TEX. Because A it seems impossible to know all existing macros and options of (L )TEX and the several additional packages, especially of AMS math. This is the reason why I have attempted to gather all the relevant facts in this paper. An advanced version of this paper is available as a german book [26] and also as an english translation [28]. Members of DANTE e. V., the german TEX users group, may ask for a special price of the german edition (http://www.dante.de)!

Please report typos or any other comments to this documentation to hvoss@tug.org. A This file can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms of the L TEX Project Public License Distributed from CTAN archives in directory CTAN:// macros/latex/base/lppl.txt.

* Thanks for the feedback to: Hendri Adriaens; Juan Mari Alberdi; Luciano Battaia; Heiko Bauke; Neal Becker; Andrea Blomenhofer; Alexander Boronka; Walter Brown; Alexander Buchner; Wilhelm Burger; Marco Daniel; Christian Faulhammer; José Luis Gómez Dans; Zongbao Fang; Sabine Glaser; Sven Gleich; Azzam Hassam; Gernot Hassenpflug; Henning Heinze; Martin Hensel; Mathias Hoffmann; Jon Kirwan; Morten Høgholm; M. Kalidoss; Dan Lasley; Angus Leeming; Vladimir Lomov; Mico Loretan; Tim Love; Ladislav Lukas; Dan Luecking; Hendrik Maryns; Heinz Mezera; David Neuway; Luis Trucco Passadore; Joachim Punter; Carl Riehm; Will Robertson; Christoph Rumsmüller; José Carlos Santos; Arnaud Schmittbuhl; Rainer Schöpf; Jens Schwaiger; Uwe Siart; Martin Sievers; Heiko Stamer; G. Stengert; Uwe Stöhr; Guangjun Tan; Carsten Thiel; Juan Luis Varona; David Weenink; Philipp Wook; Michael Zedler; Zou Yuan-Chuan; and last but not least a special thanks to Monika Hattenbach for her excellent job of proofreading.

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Contents
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I

A Standard L TEX math mode

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Mathmode.tex v.2.47

1 Introduction 2 The Inlinemode 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fraction command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math in Chapter/Section Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equation numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Framed math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linebreak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Whitespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMS math for the inline mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
equation environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eqnarray environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Short commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equation numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Resetting a counter style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equation numbers on the left side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the equation number style . . . . . . . . . . . . . More than one equation counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Displaymath mode 3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4 3.5

Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frames

4 array environment 4.1 4.2 Cases structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arraycolsep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Matrix 6 Super/Subscript and limits 6.1 6.2 7 Roots 8 Brackets, braces . . . 8.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 8.3 Braces over several lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Middle bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

New delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems with parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Text in math mode 2

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

10 Font commands 10.1 Old-style font commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 New-style font commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Space 11.1 Math typesetting . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Additional horizontal spacing . . . . 11.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Dot versus comma . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Vertical whitespace . . . . . . . . . 11.5.1 Before/after math expressions 11.5.2 Inside math expressions . . . 12 Styles 13 Dots 14 Accents 14.1 Over- and underbrackets . . . . . 14.1.1 Use of \underbracket{...} 14.1.2 Overbracket . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Exponents and indices 16 Operators 17 Greek letters 18 Pagebreaks 19 \stackrel 20 \choose 21 Color in math expressions 22 Boldmath 22.1 Bold math titles and items 23 Multiplying numbers 24 Other macros

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II AMS math package
25 align 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 environments The default align environment alignat environment . . . . . flalign environment . . . . . xalignat environment . . . . . xxalignat environment . . . . aligned environment . . . . .
v.2.47

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Mathmode.tex

. . . 34 Labels and tags 35 Limits 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Extensible arrows 39 Frames 40 Greek letters 41 Miscellaneous commands 42 Problems with amsmath III 4 TEX and math Mathmode.4 split environment . . . . . .2 Binoms . . . . .2. 26. . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . 26.1 Multiple limits .1 gather environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Matrix environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 25. 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Operator names 37 Text in math mode 37. . 29 fraction commands 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 multline environment . 30 Roots 30. . . . . . . .1 Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Accents 32 \mod command 33 Equation numbering 33. . . . . . . . . . . . .47 . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Subequations . .2 gathered environment . . . . . . . . . .tex 71 v. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples for multline 26. . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Vertical whitespace 28 Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 cases environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 \sideset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 \text command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 49 49 49 51 52 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 62 62 62 63 64 65 65 65 66 67 68 68 69 69 26 Other environments 26.2 \intertext command . . . . . .1 Roots with \smash command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 \thickmuskip . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 \scriptspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tex v. .20 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . . . . . \delimitershortfall . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . \abovedisplayskip . . . . . . . . .5 43. . . . . . .8 43. . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 \mathclose . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 \medmuskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 \abovedisplayshortskip . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 \textstyle . . . . . . . . Mathmode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \mathchar . . . . . . . . . . .21 \skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 \scriptscriptfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . 43. . . . \mathsurround . . . . . . . . . . . .15 \nonscript . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 \mkern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 \delcode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 \predisplaysize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . \fam . . . . . . .1 44. \displaystyle . . . . . \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \belowdisplayskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \displayindent . \delimiterfactor . . . . . .1 43. . . . . . 44 Math font macros 44. . . . . . .3 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 \mathcode . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . .23 \textfont . . . \mathchardef . . . . . . .12 \mskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 \nulldelimiterspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 44. . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 \medmuskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 43 Length registers 43.5 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \belowdisplayshortskip . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 \scriptscriptstyle 44. . . . . . . . . . . \mathaccent . . . . \delimiter . . . . . . . . . . . . \displaywidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 \skewchar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 43. . . . . . . . .14 \mathord . . . . . . . . . .14 \muskipdef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 78 78 5 43. . . . . . . . . .17 \scriptfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 \muskip . . . .20 \thinmuskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \mathchoice . . . . . . . . . .6 43. . . . . . . . . .4 44. . . . . . . . . .13 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 43. . . . . . . 43. .16 \mathrel . . .15 \mathpunct . . . . 44. . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 \atopwithdelims 45. . . .6 braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 esint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 \radical . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 45 Math macros 45. . . . 45. . . . .16 nicefrac . . . . . . . . . .9 delarray . . . . .47 47 List of available math packages 47. . . . . . . .8 cool . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 \limits . . . . . . . .15 \overline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . Mathmode. . . . . 45. . .11 empheq . . . . . .1 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. .3 \atop . . . . . . . . . . .14 \over . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .8 \everymath . 47.2 \abovewithdelims 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 dotseqn . . . . . 47. . . . . . .3 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \displaywidowpenalty \postdisplaypenalty . . . . . .15 mathtools . . . . . . . .5 \displaylimits . . . . . . IV Other packages 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 87 87 88 89 89 90 91 91 92 93 93 v. . . . . . . . .1 \above . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . .3 amsopn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 \overwithdelims 45. . . . . . . . . .18 \right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . 47. . . . 47. . . . . . . . . .4 bigdel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 \nolimits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 78 79 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 82 penalties \binoppenalty . . . . . .tex . . . . . . . . . 46 Math 46. . . . 47. . .9 \left . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. \relpenalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . .6 \eqno . . . . . . . . . . .2 amscd – commutative diagrams 47. . . . . . . . \predisplaypenalty . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 eucal and euscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . .10 \leqno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 \mathinner . .17 relsize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . .7 \everydisplay . . . . . . . . . . . .1 accents . . . . . . . . .4 46. . . . . . . .14 exscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . .19 \underline . . . . .20 \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Over63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlapping braces . . . .1 Quadratic equation . . . . . . . . . .3 Matrix with comments on top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Colored cells .2. . . . . . . . . . .18 xypic . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 V Math fonts 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 48 Computer modern 49 Latin modern 50 Palatino 51 Palatino – microimp 52 cmbright 53 minion VI Special symbols 98 98 99 99 100 100 54 Integral symbols 55 Harpoons 56 Bijective mapping arrow 57 Stacked equal sign 58 Other symbols VII Examples 101 101 102 102 102 102 102 103 104 104 105 105 106 107 107 108 108 108 109 7 59 Tuning math typesetting 60 Matrix 60. . . 62. . . . . . . . . . .1 Identity matrix . . . . . . . . 62 Arrays 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. . . . . 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Cases structure 61. . v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tex . . .2 63. .3 Cases with (eqn)array environment 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. .2 Vectors and matrices . . .6 Boxed rows and columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 System of linear equations . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . 62. . . . . . .1 Cases with numbered lines . . . .47 Mathmode. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Arrays inside arrays . and underbraces Braces and roots .

. . . . 110 111 111 111 113 115 115 116 116 118 119 64 Integrals 65 Horizontal alignment 65. . . . . . . . . . . . bibliography and index 120 121 122 123 125 133 List of Figures List of Tables Bibliography Index A Filelist 8 Mathmode. . . . .2. . . . . .1 Over more than one page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 . . .2 Itemize environment . . . .1 Formulas side by side . . . 67. . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 63. . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Centered vertical dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . 66 Node connections 67 Special Placement 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Roots VIII Lists. .tex v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Special text columns . . .

a product (\prod) \int ´∞ or a limes (\lim)..2... This inline mode is possible with three different commands: n i=1 i n i=1 i n i=1 i 1 = 2 n · (n + 1) 1 = 2 n · (n + 1) 1 2 3 4 5 from the AMS math package (see section 26.47 9 . Most of them also work with special packages and some of them are redefined... \end{math} 2.\) works. \( .1 Limits In the inline mode the limits are by default only in super or subscript mode and the 1 fractions are always in the scriptstyle1 font size.. 2. To define a new operator see page 65 3 For more information about limits see section 6. 2 The Inlinemode As the name says there are always math expressions which are in a standard textline.. Mathmode. There are no limitations for the height of the math x expressions. $ 3.\) the following page)... You can change this with the command \limits. At first some important facts for typesetting math expressions..3 on \(. which is not too big for the textline.6 on page 56) = 1 2n · (n + 1) \(\sum_{i=1}^{n}i=\frac{1}{2}n\cdot(n+1)\)\\[10pt] $\sum_{i=1}^{n}i=\frac{1}{2}n\cdot(n+1)$\\[10pt] \begin{math} \sum_{i=1}^{n}i=\frac{1}{2}n\cdot(n+1) \end{math} 1.. \begin{math} . For example: 1 x2 dx = 1.1 on page 21 or section 35 on page 62. In this case \(. \end{math}. But this ∞ ´ 1 1 x2 dx = 1 ($\int\limits_{1}^. especially when there are multiline limits. also not robust In general $. \) . In this case it is better to use the \smallmatrix g h i  environment A = a b c d e f gh i or the displaymath mode (section 3 on page 12). but this does not work in environments like verbatim or alltt.3 1 2 \lim \prod \sum See section 12 on page 33.$ \begin{math} .2 THE INLINEMODE Part I A Standard L TEX math mode 1 Introduction The following sections describe all the math commands which are available without any additional package. a sum (\sum). ´b like this one: f (x) = a sin x dx... the problem is that \( is not a robust macro (see section 2. $ ...tex v..) does not look very nice in a text line when it appears between two lines. which \limits must follow a math operator2 like an integral (\int)... so that the layout may be very lousy if you insert a big matrix in an inline  a b c mode like this: A =  d e f . $.$ is the best choice.

\section. It is possible with the command \texorpdfstring to tell hyperref to use different commands. when the formula shows some important facts.. There are problems with the hyperref package when there is no text part in a title. one for the title and another one for the bookmarks: \texorpdfstring{<TeX part>}{<hyperref part>} 1 \texorpdfstring{$\int f(x)\. there is a special \dfrac macro. The whole math expression appears in the default font shape and not in bold like the other text. when a macro is part of another macro. . choose the display mode instead of the inline mode. index... There are two solutions to get a better reading: 1.toc).. set the fontstyle to \displaystyle..tex v.$ version.\mathrm{d}x$}{Integral function} 2.47 .1 on page 41 describes how the math expressions can be \texorpdfstring printed also in bold. titles like f (x) = n i=1 i− 1 2i All commands which appear in positions like contents. \section.4 a more b+1 y= 2.s.\).2..2 \frac Fraction command For inlined formulas the fractions are by default in the scriptstyle (see tabular 8 on a page 33). The latest package fixltx2e defines an macro for declaring existing commands to be robust. index.. must be robust5 which is the case for $. because the linespacing is nearly the same. but not optimal. Section 22.s..o without any restriction. .2 THE INLINEMODE 2. a. 5 4 10 Mathmode. which is good for typesetting y = b+1 . which is the better one. 2. header. robust means that the macro is not expanded before it is moved into for example the tableofcontents file (*.2 Fraction command 2.$ but not for \(. No robustness is often a problem.o.. which makes the fraction y = readable but the linespacing increases which is always a bad solution and should only be used when the first solution makes no sense. The package itself does this already for: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \MakeRobust\( \MakeRobust\) \MakeRobust\[ \MakeRobust\] \MakeRobust\makebox \MakeRobust\savebox \MakeRobust\framebox \MakeRobust\parbox \MakeRobust\rule \MakeRobust\raisebox If you do not have any contents. a. you can write the mathstuff in \chapter. \chapter.4 Equation numbering It is obvious that the numbering of inline mathstuff makes no sense! For an abbreviation see section 29 on page 58.3 a b+1 = a b+1 1 $y=\frac{a}{b+1}={\displaystyle\frac{a}{b+1}}$ Math in \part. Otherwise use \protect\( and \protect\) or the $..

. 2.) or a binary operation symbol (+.) .8 AMS math for the inline mode None of the AMS math-functions are available in inline mode. . . you can set in the preamble: \relpenalty=9999 \binoppenalty=9999 which is the extreme case of grudgingly allowing breaks in extreme cases.6 Linebreak A L TEX can break an inline formula only when a relation symbol (=. Thus $a+b+c$ can be broken across lines....) If it is not possible to have any mathsymbol. like the following one: f (x) = n i=1 Parameters are the width of \fboxsep and \fboxrule. or \relpenalty=10000 \binoppenalty=10000 for absolutely no breaks. .) exists and at least one of these symbols appears at the outer level of a formula.. .5 Framed math With the \fbox macro everything of inline math can be framed.7 Whitespace A L TEX defines the length \mathsurround with the default value of 0pt. . .+ai xi +a2 x2 +a1 x1 +a0 • The same inside a group {.ltx are: 1 2 i− 1 2i 1 \fbox{$f(x)=\prod_{i=1}^{n}\left(i-\frac{1}{2i}\right)$} \fboxsep = 3pt \fboxrule = .47 11 . . .}: f (x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + an−2 xn−2 + . .5 Framed math 2 THE INLINEMODE 2. . . 2. • The default: f (x) = an xn +an−1 xn−1 +an−2 xn−2 +. then split the inline formula in two or more pieces ($. but ${a+b+c}$ not. .2. −. 1 i− 1 2i from the color \colorbox{yellow}{$f(x)=\prod_{i=1}^{n}\left(i-\frac{1}{2i}\right)$} 2.4pt n i=1 The same is possible with the \colorbox f (x) = package. >.2. the predefined values from the file latex. <. This length is added before and after an inlined math expression (see table 1 on the next page).tex v.$ $.) .. . . + ai xi + a2 x2 + a1 x1 + a0 • Without any symbol: f (x) = an (an−1 (an−2 (. If you do not want a linebreak for the whole document. Mathmode.$). . .

.. no number \[..3. . A (b) In standard L TEX there exists no star-version of the equation environment because \[.\end{equation} n f (x) = i=1 i− 1 2i (2) \nonumber displayed. that every formula gets its own paragraph (line). .\mathrm{d}x=1 $}\rule{20pt}{\ht\ strutbox} bar \setlength{\mathsurround}{20pt} foo \fbox{$ f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\.. There are some equivalent commands for the display-math \begin{displaymath} mode: . .. \] \end{displaymath} 2. no number.tex v. 3. \] is the equivalent. \end{displaymath}. same as \[ .\]. . 3.] 2 3 \begin{equation} f(x)= [. \begin{equation}.3 DISPLAYMATH MODE foo f (x) = 1 ´∞ ´∞ 1 1 x2 1 dx = 1 bar 1 foo \fbox{$ f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\.2. 1. a sequential equation number.. With the tag \nonumber it is possible to suppress the equation number: 1 f (x) = [..47 . (a) There is only one equation number for the whole environment.1 equation environment For example: 1 n f (x) = i=1 i− 1 2i 2 (1) 3 \begin{equation} f(x)=\prod_{i=1}^{n}\left(i-\frac{1}{2i}\right) \end{equation} The delimiters \begin{equation} .\] n f (x) = i=1 i− 1 2i \begin{equation} . \end{equation} are the only difference to the inline version.. \[.\mathrm{d} x=1 $} bar foo \rule{20pt}{\ht\strutbox}\fbox{$ f(x)=\int_1^{\infty }\frac{1}{x^2}\. There are some differences in the layout to the one from the title of 2... . (see above) the short form of a displayed formula. with package AMS math it will be defined. which may be reset when starting a new chapter or section..] \nonumber \end{equation} 12 Mathmode...\mathrm{d} x=1 $} bar foo f (x) = 1 x2 dx = 1 bar 1 foo f (x) = ´∞ 1 1 x2 dx = 1 bar 2 Table 1: Meaning of \mathsurround 3 Displaymath mode This means.. . Same as 1. \end{equation} displayed. However.. \begin{displaymath}..

1 Short commands (7) 2 2 3 4 5 6 \begin{eqnarray} y & = & d\nonumber \\ y & = & cx+d\nonumber \\ y & = & bx^{2}+cx+d\nonumber \\ y & = & ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d \end{eqnarray} It is possible to define short commands for the eqnarray environment 1 2 3 \makeatletter \newcommand{\be}{% \begingroup Mathmode.3.ltx. All this can not be changed by the user without rewriting the whole environment in latex.2. means. For example: 1 y = d y = cx + d y = bx + cx + d y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d 3..tex v. \end{eqnarray} It is not possible to change the internal behaviour of the eqnarray environment without rewriting the environment.47 13 . 1 2 left middle right √ 1 n n √ = √ n = n n n 3 4 \begin{eqnarray*} \mathrm{left} & \mathrm{middle} & \mathrm{right}\\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}= & \frac{\sqrt{n}}{n}= & \frac{n }{n\sqrt{n}} \end{eqnarray*} The eqnarray environment should not be used as an array.2 eqnarray environment This is by default an array with three columns and as many rows as you like. It is \begin{eqnarray} . that four lines get four different equation numbers (for the labels see section 3.4 on page 16): 1 2 y = d y = cx + d y = bx2 + cx + d y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (3) (4) (5) (6) 3 4 5 6 \begin{eqnarray} y & = & d\label{eq:2}\\ y & = & cx+d\\ y & = & bx^{2}+cx+d\\ y & = & ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d\label{ eq:5} \end{eqnarray} Suppressing the numbering for all rows is possible with the starred version of eqnarray.2 eqnarray environment 3 DISPLAYMATH MODE 3.. 1 y = d y = cx + d y = bx + cx + d y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d 2 2 3 4 5 6 \begin{eqnarray*} y & = & d\label{eq:3}\\ y & = & cx+d\\ y & = & bx^{2}+cx+d\\ y & = & ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d\label{eq:4} \end{eqnarray*} Toggling off/on for single rows is possible with the above mentioned \nonumber tag at the end of a row (before the newline command). The numbering of eqnarray environments is always for every row. nearly the same as an array with a rcl column definition. As seen in the above example the typesetting is wrong for the middle column.2. It is always an implicit array with three columns and the horizontal alignment right-center-left (rcl) and small symbol sizes for the middle column.

1 on page 61.4 on page 54.\mathrm{d}x 3 \ee 1 2 Equation numbering For all equations which can have one or more equation numbers (for every line/row) the numbering for the whole equation can be disabled with switching from the unstarred to the star version. In this case use the \nonumber tag. In this case use the AMS math package. where the number is set above or below of a too long equation (see equation 28 on page 25).3 DISPLAYMATH MODE 3.2.47 . You can change this behaviour in different ways (see the following subsections). You can see this after section 26. • This doc is written with the article-class.1 \theequation Changing the style With the beginning of Section 25.2 Resetting a counter style \@removefromresetRemoving a given reset is possible with the remreset. This is still for the whole formula and doesn’t work for single rows.3.2 on page 45 the counting changes from “44” into the new style “II-51”. Now the equation counter is no longer reset when a new section starts.3 Equation numbering 4 5 6 7 8 9 % \setlength{\arraycolsep}{2pt} \eqnarray% \@ifstar{\nonumber}{}% } \newcommand{\ee}{\endeqnarray\endgroup} \makeatother Now you can write the whole equation as ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x (8) \be f(x) &=& \int\frac{\sin x}{x}\. The command sequence is 1 \renewcommand\theequation{\thepart-\arabic{equation}} See section 33 on page 60 for the AMS math command. which counts the equations continuously over all parts/sections. if you do not want to have a numbered equation as ˆ f (x) = 3.\mathrm{d}x 3 \ee 1 2 or.6 Write into the preamble 1 2 3 \makeatletter \@removefromreset{equation}{section} \makeatother or anywhere in the text. which may be printed with the equation one upon the other. 3.sty 14 Mathmode.tex v.3. A • In standard L TEX it is a problem with too long equations and the equation number. 6 CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/supported/carlisle/remreset. • For counting subequations see section 33.3 \nonumber sin x dx x \be* f(x) &=& \int\frac{\sin x}{x}\. 3.

3.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 %code by Heiko Oberdiek \makeatletter %Roman counter \newcounter{roem} \renewcommand{\theroem}{\roman{roem}} % save the original counter \newcommand{\c@org@eq}{} \let\c@org@eq\c@equation \newcommand{\org@theeq}{} \let\org@theeq\theequation %\setroem sets roman counting \newcommand{\setroem}{ \let\c@equation\c@roem \let\theequation\theroem} %\setarab the arabic counting \newcommand{\setarab}{ \let\c@equation\c@org@eq \let\theequation\org@theeq} \makeatother The following examples show how it works: 7 CTAN://macros/latex/unpacked/leqno. see section 33 on page 60.47 15 .5 More than one equation counter You can have more than the default equation counter.3 Equation numbers on the left side Choose package leqno7 or have a look at your document class.3.3.4 Changing the equation number style The number style can be changed with a redefinition of \def\@eqnnum{{\normalfont \normalcolor (\theequation)}} For example: if you want the numbers not in parentheses write 1 2 3 \makeatletter \def\@eqnnum{{\normalfont \normalcolor \theequation}} \makeatother For AMS math there is another macro.3.tex v.sty Mathmode. With the following code you can easily toggle between roman and arabic equation counting. 3.3.3 Equation numbering 3 DISPLAYMATH MODE 3. if such an option exists.

. like eq. There is one tricky solution. displayed equations can also be framed with the \fbox command. The package color. 12 and for the roman one eq.ii. where the \fbox{.5 Frames Similiar to the inline mode. ˆ f (x) = 1 ∞ 1 dx = 1 x2 (13) 1 2 3 4 5 \noindent\fbox{\parbox{\linewidth-2\fboxsep-2\fboxrule}{% \begin{equation}\label{eq:frame0} f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\dfrac{1}{x^2}\.9.sty must be loaded and –important – the calc package to get a correct boxwidth.\mathrm{d}x=1 \end{equation}% }} If the equation number should not be part of the frame.2. 3.47 .4 Labels 1 ˆ f (x) = ˆ g(x) = sin x dx 1 dx x (9) (10) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G(x) = ln x F (x) = − cos x (i) (ii) 10 11 12 13 14 f (x) = sin x 1 g (x) = x (11) (12) 15 16 17 18 \begin{align} f(x) &= \int\sin x\. then it is a bit complicated.\mathrm{d}x\label{eq:arab1}\\ g(x) &= \int\frac{1}{x}\.. It is nearly the same for a colored box.. they cannot include one of L TEX’s 8 command characters. like equation 13. \tag If you do not want a reference to the equation number but to a self defined name then use the AMS math command \tag. which is described in section 34 on page 62.4 Labels Every numbered equation can have a label to which a reference is possible... which puts an unnumbered equation just beside an empty numbered equation.. A • There is one restriction for the label names.\mathrm{d}x \end{align} % \setroem % \begin{align} F(x) &=-\cos x\\ G(x) &=\ln x\label{eq:rom1} \end{align} % \setarab % \begin{align} f^{\prime} (x) &= \sin x\\ g^{\prime} (x) &= \frac{1}{x}\label{eq:arab2} \end{align} There can be references to these equations in the usual way. The only difference is the fact.3 DISPLAYMATH MODE 3.}. 3. • The label names are replaced by the equation number.tex v. The \hfill is only useful for placing the equation number right 8 $_ˆ\&%{} 16 Mathmode. that the equation must be packed into a parbox or minipage..} has to be replaced with \colorbox{yellow}{.

like the equation environment or the displaymath environment.4 ARRAY ENVIRONMENT aligned.47 17 . The following four equations 14-17 are the same.tex v.2.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 \makeatletter \def\myMathBox{\@ifnextchar[{\my@MBoxi}{\my@MBoxi[black]}} \def\my@MBoxi[#1]{\@ifnextchar[{\my@MBoxii[#1]}{\my@MBoxii[#1][white]}} \def\my@MBoxii[#1][#2]#3#4{% \par\noindent% \fcolorbox{#1}{#2}{% \parbox{\linewidth-\labelwidth-2\fboxrule-2\fboxsep}{#3}% }% \parbox{\labelwidth}{% \begin{eqnarray}\label{#4}\end{eqnarray}% }% \par% } \makeatother f (x) = x2 + x f (x) = x2 + x (14) (15) f (x) = x2 + x (16) f (x) = x2 + x (17) 1 2 3 4 5 6 \begin{equation}\label{eq:frame2} f(x)=x^2 +x \end{equation} \myMathBox[red]{\[f(x)=x^2 +x\]}{eq:frame3} \myMathBox[red][yellow]{\[f(x)=x^2 +x\]}{eq:frame4} \myMathBox{\[f(x)=x^2 +x\]}{eq:frame5} If you are using the AMS math package. then try the solutions from section 39 on page 68. then it is still the one for the frame color (15).. only the second one written with the \myMathBox macro which has the border and background color as optional arguments with the defaults white for background and black for the frame. \end{array} This is simply the same as the eqnarray environment only with the possibility of variable rows and columns and the fact. that the whole formula has only one equation number and that the array environment can only be part of another math environment. which is not the default. which maybe important when using left aligned equations. If there is only one optional argument. With @{} before the first and after the last column the additional space \arraycolsep is not used. Mathmode. 4 array environment \begin{array} .

}\end{array}\right. 18 Mathmode.1 Cases structure If you do not want to use the AMS math package then write your own cases structure with the array environment: 1 \begin{equation} 2 x=\left\{ 30 \begin{array}{cl} & \textrm{if }A=\ldots\\ 4 1 & \textrm{if }B=\ldots\\ 5 x & \textrm{this runs with as much text as you like. 6 \end{equation}   0 if A = . but without an raggeright text.tex v.4 ARRAY ENVIRONMENT 4. but without an raggeright text .2. x= 1 if B = .% \begin{array}{@{}r@{\quad}ccrr@{}} \textrm{a}) & y & = & c & (constant)\\ \textrm{b}) & y & = & cx+d & (linear)\\ \textrm{c}) & y & = & bx^{2}+cx+d & (square)\\ \textrm{d}) & y & = & ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d & (cubic) \end{array}% \right\} \textrm{Polynomes} \end{equation} The horizontal alignment of the columns is the same as the one from the tabular environment. . (19) It is obvious.  x this runs with as much text as you like.1 Cases structure a) b) c) d) y y y y  = c (constant)   = cx + d (linear) Polynomes = bx2 + cx + d (square)   = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (cubic) (18) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \begin{equation} \left.9 on page 88.47 . . For arrays with delimiters see section 47. that we need a \parbox if the text is longer than the possible linewidth. . 4. .

. but with a parbox . you’ll get a formatted % 10 text like the following one . The predefined separation between two columns is the length \arraycolsep|..47 19 . Without this    command. The following equation is typeset with the default value and the second one with \arraycolsep=1.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 \bgroup \arraycolsep=1.. otherwise put it into a group or define your own environment as done in section 3. . ...1 on page 13.2 arraycolsep   x with a raggedright text.2.5\columnwidth}{this runs with as much text as you like. you’ll get a formatted text like     the following one .4pt \begin{eqnarray} f(x) & = & \int\frac{\sin x}{x}\.4pt ˆ f (x) = ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x sin x dx x If this modification should be valid for all arrays/equations. it works} 11 \end{array}% 12 \right..\mathrm{d}x \end{eqnarray} \egroup 1 2 3 4 5 \makeatletter \newcommand{\be}{% \begingroup \setlength{\arraycolsep}{1.4pt} [ .     this runs with as much text as you like. then write it into the preamble. ] Mathmode.    1 if B = . Without this % 9 \raggedright command.5\textwidth}}% 4 0 & if $A=\ldots$\tabularnewline 5 1 & if $B=\ldots$\tabularnewline 6 x & \parbox{0.4.2. but with a parbox .tex v.. . which seems to be too big....    it works because an automatic linebreak is given 4. which is set by nearly all document classes to 5pt.2 arraycolsep 1 \begin{equation} 4 ARRAY ENVIRONMENT = \left\{% \begin{array}{l>{\raggedright}p{.   (20) \arraycolsep All the foregoing math environments use the array to typeset the math expression. % 13 \end{equation} 3 2x x=   0 if A = . % 7 because an automatic linebreak is given with % 8 a raggedright text.

.tex v. TEX knows two macros and L TEX one more for typesetting a matrix: \end{matrix} 1 $\begin{matrix} \bordermatrix A B C d e f 1 2 3 A & B & C \\ d & e & f \\ 4 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 5 \end{matrix}$ 2 3 1 $\bordermatrix{% 0 1 2   0 A B C 1 d e f  2 1 2 3 & 0 & 1 & 2 \cr 0 & A & B & C \cr 4 1 & d & e & f \cr 5 2 & 1 & 2 & 3 \cr 6 }$ 2 3 The first two macros are listed here for some historical reason. Nevertheless it is possible to redefine the \bordermatrix macro to get other parentheses and a star version which takes the left top part as matrix: 1 $\bordermatrix{% 1 2   1 x1 x2 2  x3 x4  3 x5 x6 1 2   1 x1 x2 2  x3 x4  3 x5 x6 1 2   1  x1 x2  2 x3 x4   3 x5 x6  x1   x3 x5 1   x2 1  x4 2 x6 3 2  x2 1  x4 2 x6 3 2 & & 42 & 53 & 6 }$ 2 31 1 & 2 \cr x1 & x2 \cr x3 & x4 \cr x5 & x6 1 $\bordermatrix[{[]}]{% & & 42 & 53 & 6 }$ 2 31 1 & 2 \cr x1 & x2 \cr x3 & x4 \cr x5 & x6 1 $\bordermatrix[\{\}]{% & & 42 & 53 & 6 }$ 2 31 1 & 2 \cr x1 & x2 \cr x3 & x4 \cr x5 & x6 1 $\bordermatrix*{% x1 x3 4 x5 5 1 6 }$ 2 3 & & & & x2 & 1 \cr x4 & 2 \cr x6 & 3 \cr 2 1 $\bordermatrix*[{[]}]{% x1   x3 x5 1 20 x1 x3 4 x5 5 1 6 }$ 2 3 & & & & x2 & 1 \cr x4 & 2 \cr x6 & 3 \cr 2 Mathmode.5 MATRIX 5 Matrix \begin{matrix} A .47 . .2. because the array environment or especially the AMS math package offers the same or better macros/environments.

1 Multiple limits \atop For general information about limits read section 2. The problem is the different height.6 SUPER/SUBSCRIPT AND LIMITS 1 $\bordermatrix*[\{\}]{% There is now an optional argument for the parenthesis with () as the default one.tex v.\vbox{\kern\ht\@ne\box\tw@}% \endgroup } \makeatother The matrix environment macro cannot be used together with the AMS math package. 6 Super/Subscript and limits Writing amin and amax gives the same depth for the subscript. Both are predefined operators (see section 16 on page 37). The syntax is: Mathmode. but writing them in upright mode with \mbox gives a different depth: amin and amax . • $a_{\max}$: amin and amax . which can be modified in several ways • $a_{\mbox{\vphantom{i}max}}$: amin and amax . it redefines this environment (see section 26. 6.6 on page 56).\fi\right\@secondoftwo#1 $% }\null \. To get such a behaviour.47 21 . With the TEX command \atop multiple limits for a \sum or \prod are possible.2. • $a_{\mathrm{max}}$: amin and amax .75\p@\setbox\z@\vbox{% \def\cr{\crcr\noalign{\kern 2\p@\global\let\cr\endline }}% \ialign {$##$\hfil\kern 2\p@\kern\@tempdima & \thinspace % \hfil $##$\hfil && \quad\hfil $##$\hfil\crcr\omit\strut % \hfil\crcr\noalign{\kern -\baselineskip}#2\crcr\omit % \strut\cr}}% \setbox\tw@\vbox{\unvcopy\z@\global\setbox\@ne\lastbox}% \setbox\tw@\hbox{\unhbox\@ne\unskip\global\setbox\@ne\lastbox}% \setbox\tw@\hbox{% $\kern\wd\@ne\kern -\@tempdima\left\@firstoftwo#1% \if@borderstar\kern2pt\else\kern -\wd\@ne\fi% \global\setbox\@ne\vbox{\box\@ne\if@borderstar\else\kern 2\p@\fi}% \vcenter{\if@borderstar\else\kern -\ht\@ne\fi% \unvbox\z@\kern-\if@borderstar2\fi\baselineskip}% \if@borderstar\kern-2\@tempdima\kern2\p@\else\. write into the preamble: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   x1  x3   x5 1  x21  x4 2  x63 2 x1 x3 4 x5 5 1 6 }$ 2 3 & & & & x2 & 1 \cr x4 & 2 \cr x6 & 3 \cr 2 \makeatletter \newif\if@borderstar \def\bordermatrix{\@ifnextchar*{% \@borderstartrue\@bordermatrix@i}{\@borderstarfalse\@bordermatrix@i*}% } \def\@bordermatrix@i*{\@ifnextchar[{\@bordermatrix@ii}{\@bordermatrix@ii[()]}} \def\@bordermatrix@ii[#1]#2{% \begingroup \m@th\@tempdima8.1 on page 9.

But there is a problem when the general fontsize is increased. 6.2 on page 63. This can be enhanced to a\atop b\atop c and so on.. If you do not want to use AMS math.47 .2 Problems above below 1 \[ {above \atop below} \] which is nearly the same as a fraction without a rule.}. 22 Mathmode. which reserves the vertical space (without a horizontal one) of the parameter height. Equation 23a shows the effect and equation 23b the view without the boxes. \makebox knows nothing about the actual math font size. whereas equation 25 on the next page has the same \vphantom one. There is an elegant solution with AMS math.tex v. For equation 21 do the following steps: \begin{equation}\label{eq:atop} \sum_{{1\le j\le p\atop {% 3 {1\le j\le q\atop 1\le k\le r}}}% 4 }a_{ij}b_{jk}c_{ki} 5 \end{equation} 1 2 aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r (21) \shortstack which is not the best solution because the space between the lines is too big.. then use \makebox. described in subsection 35. The AMS math package provides several commands for limits (section 35 on page 62) and the \underset and \overset commands (see section 41 on page 69).2 Problems aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r (22) The equation 22 shows that the horizontal alignment is not optimal. aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r 1 2 3 4 5 6 (23a) aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r (23b) \begin{equation} \sum_{\makebox[0pt]{$% {{\scriptscriptstyle 1\le j\le p\atop {% {1\le j\le q\atop 1\le k\le r}}}}% $}}a_{ij}b_{jk}c_{ki} \end{equation} 7 Roots A The square root \sqrt is the default for L TEX and the n-th root can be inserted with \sqrt the optional parameter \sqrt[n]{. Equation 24 on the facing page has different heights for the roots. \sqrt{x} \sqrt[3]{x} √ x √ 3 x There is a different typesetting in roots. because the math expression on the right follows at the end of the limits which are a unit together with the sum symbol. . This is possible with the \vphantom command.2.7 ROOTS 6.

In some cases10 it may be useful to choose a fixed height. At first we had to admit. which shows the parentheses character. \Bigl and so on. like equation 24. that there is a difference between the characters “()[]/\ {} | ↑⇑ ↓⇓ ” and their use as an argument of the \left and \right command. \bigr. \biglX For all commands there exists a left/right version \bigl. 8 Brackets. braces and parentheses This is one of the major problems inside the math mode.tex v.2. its code for the use with one of the “big” commands and an example with the code for that. Using AMS math with the \smash command9 gives some more possibilities for the typesetting of roots (see section 30 on page 59).% \sqrt{T}\. Mathmode. which makes the use for roots possible.% 3 \sqrt{T\vphantom{k_{B_1}T^i}}\.47 23 .% 4 \sqrt{2\alpha k_{B_1}T^i} 5 \end{equation} 2 The typesetting looks much better. 10 See section 8. √ √ a T 2αkB1 T i (24) \sqrt{a}\. because there is often a need for different brackets. where \leftX A L TEX stretches the size in a way that everything between the pair of left and right \rightX parentheses is smaller than the parentheses themselves. especially when the formula has different roots in a row. braces and parentheses in different size. . BRACES .1 on page 25 for example. . \bigrX which only makes sense when writing things like: 1 \begin{align}                       \bigX \BigX \biggX \BiggX a × × b a × × b 9 (26) 2 \biggl)\times \frac{a}{b} \times\biggr( 3 \end{align} 4 \begin{align} 5 \bigg)\times \frac{a}{b} \times\bigg( (27) 6 \end{align} A The \smash command exists also in L TEX but without an optional argument.% 4 \sqrt{2\alpha k_{B_1}T^i}\label{eq:root1} 5 \end{equation} 2 3 1 \begin{equation}\label{eq:root2} a T 2αkB1 T i (25) \sqrt{a\vphantom{k_{B_1}T^i}}\. Instead of writing \leftX or \rightX one of the following commands can be chosen: default \bigX \BigX \biggX \BiggX ()[]/\{}| ↑⇑ ↓⇓     Only a few commands can be written in a short form like \big(. which is possible with the \big-series. The “X” has to be replaced with one of the following characters or commands from table 3 on the next page.1.8 1 \begin{equation} BRACKETS.

tex v.2. . BRACES . which work as the standard ones (without the addtional “m”) but add \bigmX some more horizontal space between the delimiter and the formula before and after \bigmX (see table 2). \biggm and \Biggm. \Bigm.8 BRACKETS. Table 2: Difference between the default \bigg and the \biggm command 1 3 3 4 1 3 3 4 1 $\bigg(\displaystyle\frac{1}{3}\bigg|\ frac{3}{4}\bigg)$ 1 $\bigg(\displaystyle\frac{1}{3}\biggm |\frac{3}{4}\bigg)$ Table 3: Use of the different parentheses for the “big” commands Char Code () [] /\backslash Example Code 2 () [] /\ {} | 3 a2 + bc 3 a2 + bc 3\Big( aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big) 3\Big[ aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big] 2 3 a2 + bc 3 a2 + bc 3 a2 + bc 2 3\Big/ aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big\backslash 3\Big\{ aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big\} \{\} 2 | \Vert \lfloor \rfloor 2 3\Big|aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big\Vert 3\Big\lfloor aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2} \Big\rfloor 3\Big\lceil aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2} \Big\rceil 3\Big\langle aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big\rangle 3\Big\uparrow aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2}\Big\Uparrow 3\Big\downarrow aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2} \Big\Downarrow 3\Big\updownarrow aˆ2+bˆ{cˆ2} \Big\Updownarrow 3 a2 + bc 2 \lceil\rceil 3 a2 + bc 2 \langle\rangle a2 + bc 3 2 ↑⇑ ↓⇓ \uparrow \Uparrow \downarrow \Downarrow 2  3a2 + bc \updownarrow 3 a2 + bc \Updownarrow  2  3 a2 + bc  2 24 Mathmode. In addition to the above commands there exist some more: \bigm.47 . A L TEX takes the \biggl) as a mathopen symbol. . which has by default another horizontal spacing.

\right)” they have a different size because every pair does it in its own way... Using the Bigg command changes this into a better typesetting: 1 ij 2 ∆(fij f ) =2 i<j χij (σi − σj )2 + f ij k f ij j i (∆f )+ (30) i Rjk + k fij + f ij f k [2 − k Rij ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 {\arraycolsep=2pt \begin{equation} \begin{array}{rcl} \frac{1}{2}\Delta(f_{ij}f^{ij}) & = & 2\Bigg({\displaystyle \sum_{i<j}}\chi_{ij}(\sigma_{i}-\sigma_{j})^{2}+f^{ij}% \nabla_{j}\nabla_{i}(\Delta f)+\\ & & +\nabla_{k}f_{ij}\nabla^{k}f^{ij}+f^{ij}f^{k}[2 \nabla_{i}R_{jk}-\nabla_{k}R_{ij}]\Bigg) \end{array} \end{equation} } Section 26.1 Examples 8 BRACKETS. BRACES .2. \right.1 Examples Braces over several lines The following equation in the single line mode looks like (28) and is too long for the text width and the equation number has to be placed under the equation.11 With the array environment the formula can be split in two smaller pieces: 1 ∆(fij f ij ) = 2  2  i<j χij (σi − σj )2 + f ij j i (∆f ) + k fij k ij f + f ij f k [2 i Rjk − k Rij ]   1 ij 2 ∆(fij f ) = 2 +  i<j χij (σi − σj )2 + f ij k f ij j i Rjk i (∆f )+ (29) k fij + f ij f k [2 − k Rij ] It is obvious that there is a problem with the right closing parentheses.” and “\left.tex v. .8.47 25 . Only AMS math puts it one line over (left numbers) or under (right numbers) the formula. . ∞ n=2 n m=1 µ B(r. .. φ.1.. Because of the two pairs “\left( .1 on page 52 shows another solution for getting the right size for parentheses when breaking the equation in smaller pieces.1 8. λ) = r + Re r Re r n n Jn Pn (sφ) (Cnm cos mλ + Snm sin mλ)Pnm (sφ) A In standard L TEX the equation and the number are printed one over the other for too long formulas. 8.3. 11 Mathmode.

8

BRACKETS, BRACES . . .

8.2

New delimiters

1 2 3

4 5 6

\begin{align*} B(r,\phi,\lambda) = & \,\dfrac{\mu}{r} \Bigg[\sum_{n=2}^{\infty} \Bigg( \left( \dfrac{R_e}{r} \right)^n J_nP_n(s\phi) \\ & +\sum_{m=1}^n \left( \dfrac{R_e}{r} \right) ^n (C_{nm}\cos m\lambda+S_{nm}\sin m\lambda)P_{nm}(s\phi) \Bigg)\Bigg] \end{align*}

8.1.2

Middle bar

See section 47.6 on page 85 for examples and the use of package braket.

8.2

New delimiters

The default delimiters are defined in the file fontmath.ltx which is stored in general in [TEXMF]/tex/latex/base/fontmath.ltx. If we need for example a thicker vertical symbol than the existing \vert symbol we can define in the preamble:
1 2

\DeclareMathDelimiter{\Norm} {\mathord}{largesymbols}{"3E}{largesymbols}{"3E}

The character number 3E16 (decimal 62) from the cmex10 font is the small thick vertical rule. Now the new delimiter \Norm can be used in the usual way:

      ∗BLA∗   ∗BLA∗        ∗BLU B∗    

1 2 3

$\left\Norm *BLA* \right\Norm$ $\left\Norm \dfrac{*BLA*}{*BLUB*} \right\Norm$

8.3

Problems with parentheses

\delimitershortfall \delimiterfactor It is obvious that the following equation has not the right size of the parenthesis in

the second integral, the inner one should be a bit smaller than the outer one.
1 \[

ˆ F (z)dz =
γ

ˆ

β

2 \int_\gamma

α

F (γ(t)) · γ (t)dt

3 F’\left(\gamma 4 \]

F’(z) dz =\int_\alpha^\beta (t)\right)\cdot\gamma ’(t)dt

The problem is that TEX controlls the height of the parenthesis with \delimitershortfall and \delimiterfactor, with the default values \delimitershortfall=5pt \delimiterfactor=901 \delimiterfactor/1000 is the relative size of the parenthesis for a given formula environment. They could be of \delimitershortfall too short. These values are valid at the end of the formula, the best way is to set them straight before the math environment or globally for all in the preamble.

ˆ F (z)dz =
γ

ˆ

1 {\delimitershortfall=-1pt

β

2 \[

F
α

γ(t) · γ (t)dt

3 \int_\gamma

4 F’\left(\gamma 5 \]}

F’(z) dz =\int_\alpha^\beta (t)\right)\cdot\gamma ’(t)dt

26

Mathmode.tex

v.2.47

10

FONT COMMANDS

9

Text in math mode

Standard text in math mode should be written in upright shape and not in the italic one. This shape is reserved for the variable names: I am text inside math. (see also Table 7 on page 29). There are different ways to write text inside math. \textstyle • \mathrm. It is like math mode (no spaces), but in upright mode • \textrm. Upright mode with printed spaces (real textmode) • \mbox. The font size is still the one from \textstyle (see section 12 on page 33), so that you have to place additional commands when you use \mbox in a superor subscript for limits. Inserting long text is possible with a \parbox, which can be aligned as usual to the top, bottom or center, e.g.,
\mbox \mathrm

a + b + c + d + ef

= g+h+i+j+k

this is a very long description of a formula

(31)

1 2 3 4 5 6

\begin{eqnarray} a+b+c+d+ef & = & g+h+i+j+k % \qquad\textrm{\parbox[t]{.25\linewidth}{% this is a very long description of a formula}% } \end{eqnarray}

Additional commands for text inside math are provided by AMS math (see section 37 on page 65).

10
10.1

Font commands
Old-style font commands

A Should never be used, but are still present and supported by L TEX. The default syntax for the old commands is
1

{\XX test}

Table 4 shows what has to be replaced for the XX. The major difference to the new style is that these \XX are toggling the actual math mode into the “XX” one, whereas the new commands start which, at its end, switches back to the previous mode. \bf

test

\cal

T EST

\it

test

\rm

test

\tt

test

Table 4: Old font style commands

10.2

New-style font commands
\mathrm \mathfrak \mathcal \mathsf \mathbb \mathtt \mathit \mathbf

The default syntax is
1

\mathXX{test}

Table 5 shows what has to be replaced for the XX. See section 47.13 on page 91 for additional packages.
Mathmode.tex v.2.47

27

11

SPACE

Table 5: Fonts in math mode

Command default \mathfrak \mathcala \mathsf \mathbba \mathtt \mathit \mathrm \mathbf \mathdsb
a

Test ABCDEF GHIJKLM N OP QRST U V W XY Z abcdef ghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJ KLMN OPQRST UVWX YZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Not available for lower letters. For mathcal exists a non free font for lower letters (http://www.pctex.com) b Needs package dsfont

11
11.1
\thinmuskip \medmuskip \thickmuskip

Space
Math typesetting

A L TEX defines the three math lengths12 with the following values13 :
1 2 3

\thinmuskip=3mu \medmuskip=4mu plus 2mu minus 4mu \thickmuskip=5mu plus 5mu

where mu is the abbreviation for math unit.

1mu =

1 em 18

default \thinmuskip=0mu \medmuskip=0mu \thickmuskip=0mu all set to zero

f (x) = x2 + 3x0 · sin x f (x) = x2 + 3x0 · sinx f (x) = x2 +3x0 ·sin x f (x)=x2 +3x0 ·sinx f (x)=x2 + 3x0 · sin x

Table 6: The meaning of the math spaces These lengths can have all glue and are used for the horizontal spacing in math expressions where TEX puts spaces between symbols and operators. The meaning of
12 13

For more information see: http://www.tug.org/utilities/plain/cseq.html see fontmath.ltx

28

Mathmode.tex

v.2.47

47 29 .g. Table 7 shows dt dt dt 11. For all examples a is \boxed{a} and b is \boxed{b}. b$ ($a\thickspace b$ $a\quad b$ $a\qquad b$ $a\hspace{0. \kern di di di written with a tiny space between L and looks nicer: L .5cm b$ b a b a Table 7: Spaces in math mode LaTeX defines the following short commands: \def\>{\mskip\medmuskip} \def\. In the following example the second line is wrong: & \hphantom{\rightarrow} b\\.5cm}b$ $a\kern0.11.5cm b$ $a\hphantom{xx}b$ $axxb$ a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b xx b $a\! b$ $a\negmedspace b$ $a\negthickspace b$ a b ab ab $a\hspace{-0. \thinmuskip space between ordinary and operator atoms \medmuskip space between ordinary and binary atoms in display and text styles \thickmuskip space between ordinary and relation atoms in display and text styles 11.5cm}b$ $a\kern-0. \hphantom reserves only the space of the exact width without any additional space.2 Additional horizontal spacing Negative Space \thinspace \medspace \thickspace \negthinspace \negmedspace \negthickspace Positive Space $ab$ $a b$ $a\ b$ $a\mbox{\textvisiblespace}b$ $a\.tex v.2. It does not reserve any additional space. For a better typesetting L TEX inserts different spaces between the symbols.2 Additional horizontal spacing 11 SPACE A these different horizontal skips is shown in table 6.b$ ($a\thinspace b$) $a\: b$ ($a\medspace b$) $a\.. The “space” is seen “between” the boxed a and b.3 Problems Using \hphantom in mathmode depends to on object. L a list of all commands for horizontal space which can be used in math mode. The short forms for some spaces may cause problems with other \hspace \hphantom packages. e. In this case use the long form of the commands. Mathmode.{\mskip\thickmuskip} \def\!{\mskip-\thinmuskip} In math mode there is often a need for additional tiny spaces between variables.

234.234.89 correct spacing 1 2 3 4 (32) (33) (34) %\usepackage{amsmath} 1. Compare 50 × 1012 and 50×1012 . wrong spacing}\\ 1\mathpunct{.567.14 \mathpunct \mathord 11.89 default 1.tex v.}{\mathord}{letters}{"3A} 14 15 CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/numprint/ Located in texmf/tex/latex/base/ 30 Mathmode.89 & \text{ default}\\ 1. otherwise you have to change the horizontal space to \medmuskip or \thinmuskip or to use an empty group after the \hphantom command.20 \show\rightarrow The 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: first digit represents the type: ordinary large operator binary operation relation opening closing punctuation variable family Grouping a math symbol can change the behaviour in horizontal spacing. Another possibilty is to use the numprint package. For more informations about the math objects look into fontmath.11 SPACE 11. 234.2.47 .. wrong spacing 1. l. 567.89 & \text{ vice versa. which prints out the type of the mathsymbol. e. 567. To get the same behaviour the meaning of dot and comma has to be changed: 1. the first one is typeset with $50\times10^{12}$ and the second one with $50{\times}10^{12}$.567.}89 & \text{ correct spacing} The original definitions from fontmath.}567{.234.ltx or amssymb or use the \show macro.}{\mathpunct}{letters}{"3B} \DeclareMathSymbol{.ltx15 are \DeclareMathSymbol{.567. \show\rightarrow with the output: 1 2 > \rightarrow=\mathchar"3221.4 Dot versus comma 1 \begin{align*} a→b b b b 2a 3 & \rightarrow b\\ & \hphantom{\rightarrow} b\\ 4 & \mkern\thickmuskip\hphantom{\rightarrow}\mkern\thickmuskip b\\ 5 & \mathrel{\hphantom{\rightarrow}} b 6 \end{align*} This only works when the math symbol is a mathrel one.234. 89 vice versa.g.4 Dot versus comma In difference to a decimal point and a comma as a marker of thousands a lot of countries prefer it vice versa.}234\mathpunct{.

which control the vertical whitespace of displayed formulas: \abovedisplayskip=12pt plus 3pt \abovedisplayshortskip=0pt plus \belowdisplayskip=12pt plus 3pt \belowdisplayshortskip=7pt plus minus 9pt 3pt minus 9pt 3pt minus 4pt The short skips are used if the formula starts behind the end of the foregoing last line. fleqn class op- When using the fleqn classoption for left aligned equations the math environ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 \abovedisplayshortskip=0pt \belowdisplayshortskip=0pt \abovedisplayskip=20pt \belowdisplayskip=20pt \noindent The line ends before. \begin{equation} f(x) = \int\frac{\sin x}{x}\.1 Vertical whitespace Before/after math expressions There are four predefined lengths. which gets the same spacing.. Only for demonstration the shortskips are set to 0pt in the following examples and the normal skips to 20pt without any glue: The line ends before..5.}.5 11. In the above equation 33 the comma is only set in a pair of braces {.. instead of \abovedisplayskip and \belowdisplayskip.. which is the A same as writing \mathord{. ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x (35) The line doesn’t end before the formula. 11. \] are typeset as a list. This doesn’t effect the eqnarray environment. especially \topsep.\mathrm{d}x \end{equation} \noindent And the next line starts as usual with some text . It is also possible to use the package icomma16 for a documentwide correct spacing.\mathrm{d}x \end{equation} \noindent The line doesn’t end before the formula. \begin{equation} f(x) = \int\frac{\sin x}{x}\. This is the reason why the vertical space is defined by the length registers for a list.5 Vertical whitespace 11 SPACE \mathord and \mathpunct can be changed for a documentwide other behaviour.11.tex v. ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x (36) And the next line starts as usual with some text .47 31 . .2. 16 CTAN:// macros/latex/contrib/was/ Mathmode.} because L TEX handles everything inside of parenthises as a formula.tion ments equation and \[. .

11 SPACE 11.5.2 Inside math expressions \\[<length>] This works inside the math mode in the same way as in the text mode. because changes to the length are locally. which is predefined as \renewcommand\arraystretch{1} Renewing this definition is global to all following math expressions.5 Vertical whitespace 11.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 \newenvironment{mathspace}[1]{% \setlength{\jot}{#1}% \ignorespaces% }{% \ignorespacesafterend% } \arraystretch \arraystretch The vertical space between the lines for all math expressions which contain an array environment can be changed with the command \arraystretch. \vskip Another spacing for single lines is possible with the \vskip macro: \[ \begin{pmatrix} 3 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 4 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 5 \noalign{\vskip2pt} 6 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 & \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & 1\\ 7 \noalign{\vskip2pt} 8 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 9 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 \\ 10 \end{pmatrix} 11 \] 1 2  0 1   0    1 0 32 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 √ 2 1 0  1 0   1    0 1 Mathmode. \jot \jot The vertical space between the lines for all math expressions which allow multiple lines can be changed with the length \jot.47 . y = d y = d 1 y = c +d x 1 y = b 2 + cx + d x y = d 1 +d x 1 y = b 2 + cx + d x y = c y = c y = b 1 +d x 1 + cx + d x2 Defining a new environment with a parameter makes things easier. \setlength\jot{0pt} and \setlength\jot{10pt}. so it should be used in the same way as \jot. which is predefined as \newdimen\jot \jot=3pt The following three formulas show this for the default value.tex v.

They are called “style” in difference to “size”. which can be changed to . This may cause some problems when b you want to write a displayed formula in another fontsize.47 33 . These four styles are predefined and together in a logical relationship. . which is called \displaystyle. This may be in some cases useful b b but it looks in general ugly because the line spacing is too big. 1 2 \newcommand*\Array[2][1]{\setstretch{#1}\array{#2}} \let\endArray\endarray a= b a= b a= b a= b text a = b text a= b \[ \begin{Array}[2]{cc} 3 a =&b\\ 4 a =&b\\ 5 a =&b 6 \end{Array} 7 \] 1 2 8 text $\begin{Array}{cc} =&b\\ 11 a =&b\\ 12 a =&b 13 \end{Array}$ text 9 10 a 12 Styles Inline Displayed T 2π Mode default f (t) = ´ ˆ ´ 1 sin ω t dt T f (t) = 2π f (t) = T 2π ´ ˆ ˆ 1 dt sin ω t 1 dt sin ω t dt \displaystyle T f (t) = 2π f (t) = T ´ f (t)= 2π 1 dt sin ω t 1 sin ω t \scriptstyle \scriptscriptstyle \textstyle T 2π dt T f (t)= 2π 1 sin ω t 1 dt sin ω t T ´ f (t)= 2π f (t) = T 2π ´ 1 dt sin ω t 1 sin ω t dt f (t) = T 2π ´ 1 sin ω t dt Table 8: Math styles This depends on the environment in which they are used. For example a fraction written with \Huge: \textstyle \displaystyle \scriptstyle \scripscriptstyle a a (\Huge$\frac{a}{b}$). which is smaller than the one for a display formula (see section 3). . their real fontsize belongs to the environment in which they are used. e. An inline formula has a default math fontsize called \textstyle. . Beside this predefinition there are two other special fontstyles for math. one can choose the package setspace and redefining some of the math macros.. A fraction for example is by default in scriptstyle when it is in an inline formula like this a . because they have a dynamic character.2. It is no problem to use the other styles like large.tex v. outside the math environment. \Large. \scriptstyle and \scriptscriptstyle. because it also affects the Mathmode.12 STYLES Package setspace To have all formulas with another vertical spacing.g.

. e. In section 47..\mathrm{d}x=0.. \dotsc \vdots . Table 9: Dots in math mode 14 Accents A The letter “a” is only for demonstration.14 ACCENTS interline spacing of the preceding part of the paragraph. 14..5 \end{smallequation} If you use this the other way round for huge fontsizes.. \dotsi ··· . you get problems with spacing and page breaking above the equations. when an accents is placed over these letters and the dot should disappear: ı  ($\vec{\imath}\ \dddot{\jmath}$). With package amssymb it is easy to define new accents. don’t forget to load package exscale (see section 47.g.1 Over. 13 \cdots \dots \dotsb \dotsc \dotsi \dotsm \dotso \ldots \vdots Dots In addition to the above decorations there are some more different dots which are single commands and not by default over/under a letter.14 on page 91).. Accents can be used in different ways. . It is not easy to see the differences between some of them. \dotsb \ldots ··· . strike a single character with a − horizontal line like $\mathaccent‘-A$: A or $\mathaccent\mathcode‘-A$: A. For more information see section 31 on page 60 or other possibilities at section 47..1 on page 83.5 (37) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 \makeatletter \newenvironment{smallequation}[1]{% \skip@=\baselineskip #1% \baselineskip=\skip@ \equation }{\endequation \ignorespacesafterend} \makeatother \begin{smallequation}{\tiny} \int_1^2\.tex v. . with \reflectbox{$\ddots$} . 34 Mathmode.7 on page 87 is a better solution for more than one character.2. Also see this section for diffent symbol sizes. If you end the paragraph..and underbrackets There are no \underbracket and \overbracket commands in the list of accents. They can be defined in the preamble with the following code. . The letters i and j can be substituted with the macros \imath and \jmath . Dots from lower left to upper right are possible . So it is better to declare the font size and then restore the baselines: ˆ 2 1 1 x2 dx = 0. .47 ... . \cdots \dotsm ··· ··· \ddots \dotso . The table 10 shows all in standard L TEX available accents and also the ones placed under a character.\frac{1}{x^2}\.

} command has two optional parameters: • the line thickness in any valid latex unit..} The \underbracket{.tex v.47 35 ...}: Hate Science 1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 5 → 6 → 7 → 8 → 9 → 10 Love Science low medium high 14.. which can be used in more ways than \underbrace{. a a ` a a a \breve \ddot \hat \overleftarrow \overrightarrow \underbrace \underline \widehat a ˘ a ¨ a ˆ ← − a → − a a a a a ← → a Table 10: Accents in math mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 \makeatletter \def\underbracket{% \@ifnextchar[{\@underbracket}{\@underbracket [\@bracketheight]}% } \def\@underbracket[#1]{% \@ifnextchar[{\@under@bracket[#1]}{\@under@bracket[#1][0.g.}.4em]}% } \def\@under@bracket[#1][#2]#3{%\message {Underbracket: #1...#3} \mathop{\vtop{\m@th \ialign {##\crcr $\hfil \displaystyle {#3}\hfil $% \crcr \noalign {\kern 3\p@ \nointerlineskip }\upbracketfill {#1}{#2} \crcr \noalign {\kern 3\p@ }}}}\limits} \def\upbracketfill#1#2{$\m@th \setbox \z@ \hbox {$\braceld$} \edef\@bracketheight{\the\ht\z@}\bracketend{#1}{#2} \leaders \vrule \@height #1 \@depth \z@ \hfill \leaders \vrule \@height #1 \@depth \z@ \hfill \bracketend{#1}{#2}$} \def\bracketend#1#2{\vrule height #2 width #1\relax} \makeatother 1. 1pt • the height of the edge brackets..1 Use of \underbracket{. Sometimes an underbracket is needed.2.g. \underbrace{.1 Over.1.... e.#2.. 1em Mathmode.. e...} is an often used command: x2 + 2x + 1 = f (x) (x + 1)2 (38) 2.14.and underbrackets 14 ACCENTS \acute \bar \check \dot \mathring \overleftrightarrow \tilde \underleftarrow \underrightarrow \widetilde a ´ a ¯ a ˇ a ˙ ˚ a ← → a a ˜ a ← − a → − a \bar \breve \dddot \grave \overbrace \overline \underbar \underleftrightarrow \vec a ¯ a ˘ . An example for \underbracket{.

which looks better than the \overrightarrow..g.g.} #» a #» abc #» ı #» Ax \overrightarrow{.}. $\overbracket {foo\ bar}$ $\overbracket[2pt] {foo\ bar}$ $\overbracket[2pt] [1em] {foo\ bar}$ f oo bar f oo bar f oo bar 14. $\underbracket{foo~bar}$ $\underbracket[2pt]{foo~bar}$ $\underbracket[2pt][1em] {foo~bar}$ f oo bar f oo bar f oo bar 14. 3. which can be used in more ways than \overbrace{.g.1..2 Overbracket In addition to the underbracket an overbracket is also useful.} → − a − → abc → − ı → − Ax Table 11: Vectors with package esvect (in the right column the default one from A L TEX) Look into the documentation for more details about the package esvect. e..2. 1. 2. \vv{.2 Vectors using without any parameters gives the same values for thickness and height as predefined for the \underbrace command.} command has two optional parameters: • the line thickness in any valid latex unit.. e... 1. 3.14 ACCENTS 14..tex v. 17 CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/esvect/ 36 Mathmode. e.47 . 2. For example: Hate Science 1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 5 → 6 → 7 → 8 → 9 → 10 Love Science low medium high The \overbracket{. 1pt • the height of the edge brackets.2 Vectors Especially for vectors there is the package esvect17 package. 1em using without any parameters gives the same values for thickness and height as predefined for the \overbrace command.....

ltx The difference between \intop and \int is that the first one has by default over/under limits and the second subscript/superscript limits. The following example shows this for the indices. For more predefined operator names see table 20 on page 84. Especially for multiple exponents there are several possibilities. It is easy to define a new operator with 1 2 3 \makeatletter \newcommand\foo{\mathop{\operator@font foo}\nolimits} \makeatother Mathmode. like $a_{i-1}+a_{i+1}<a_i$: ai−1 + ai+1 < ai . For more than the next character put it inside of {}.47 37 . For example: ((x2 )3 )4 = ((x2 ) ) = 1 2 3 3 4 x2 3 4 (39) ((x^2)^3)^4 = {({(x^2)}^3)}^4 = {\left({\left(x^2\right)}^3\right)}^4 For variables with both exponent and indice index the order is not important. Both can be changed with the \limits or \nolimits command.tex v. The following character will be printed as an index ($y=a_1x+a_0$: y = a1 x + a0 ) or as an exponent ($x^2+y^2=r^2$: x2 + y 2 = r 2 ). \coprod \biguplus \intop \sum \bigodot \bigsqcup \bigvee \bigcap \int \bigotimes \ointop \smallint \bigwedge \bigcup \prod \bigoplus \oint ´ ´ ¸ ∫ ¸ Table 12: The predefined operators of fontmath. It is possible to change this behaviour to get upright characters. With the AMS math package it is possible to define one’s own operators (see section 36 on page 65).16 OPERATORS 15 Exponents and indices The two active characters _ and ^ can only be used in math mode. The same behaviour happens to the \ointop and \oint Symbols. Table 12 and 13 on the A following page show a list of the predefined ones for standard L TEX.2. _1^2$ is exactly the same than $a^2_1$: a2 = a2 . 1 2 $A_{abc_{xyz}123def}^{abc123def}aa$ Aabc123def aa abcxyz 123def Aabc123def aa abcxyz 123def \makeatletter \catcode‘\_\active 5 \def_#1{\sb{\operator@font#1}} 6 \makeatother 3 4 7 8 $A_{abc_{xyz}123def}^{abc123def}aa$ 16 Operators They are written in upright font shape and are placed with some additional space before and after for a better typesetting. By default all exponents and $a 1 1 indices are set as italic characters.

g. The \mathbf{<character>} doesn’t work with lower greek character. then the default letter is used.ltx Now you can use \foo in the usual way: 1 \[ \foo_1^2 = x^2 \] foo2 1 =x 2 In this example \foo is defined with \nolimits. Table 14 shows only those upper case letters which have own macro names. If there is no difference to the roman font. 17 Greek letters The AMS math package simulates a bold font for the greek letters. e. A for the upper case of α. Not all upper case letters have own macro names. which makes it possible to print bold lower greek letters. it writes a greek character twice with a small kerning. have a look at section 36 on page 65.17 GREEK LETTERS \log \lim \sin \cos \tan \cot \csc \sup \ker \det \gcd \pmod{a} log lim sin cos tan cot csc sup ker det gcd (mod a) \lg \limsup \arcsin \arccos \arctan \coth \max \inf \dim \exp \deg lg lim sup arcsin arccos arctan coth max inf dim exp deg \ln \liminf \sinh \cosh \tanh \sec \min \arg \hom \Pr \bmod ln lim inf sinh cosh tanh sec min arg hom Pr mod Table 13: The predefined operators of latex. lower default upper \alpha α \beta β \gamma γ \Gamma \delta δ \Delta \epsilon \varepsilon ε \zeta ζ \eta η \theta θ \Theta \vartheta ϑ default \mathbf \mathit Γ ∆ Γ ∆ Γ ∆ Θ Θ Θ 38 Mathmode.47 . See section 40 on page 68 for the \pmb macro.tex v..2. Some of the lower case letters have an additional var option for an alternative. This is still possible with \limits in the definition or the equation: 2 1 foo = x 1 2 \[ \foo\limits_1^2 = x^2 \] AMS math has an own macro for a definition. means that limits are placed in superscript/subscript mode and not over under.

5 on page 85) and if they should also be upright with the package upgreek: $\bm{\upalpha}. 18 Pagebreaks \allowdisplaybreaks By default a displayed formula cannot have a pagebreak. With the command \displaybreak it is also possible to insert a pagebreak at any place. For example “=” (\stackrel{\wedge}{=}). The syntax is \stackrel Mathmode. \allowdisplaybreaks \allowdisplaybreaks enables TEX to insert pagebreaks into displayed formulas whenever a newline command appears.. \bm{\upbeta} . but sometimes it gives a better typesetting when a pagebreak is possible....tex v. 19 \stackrel \stackrel puts a character on top of another one which may be important if a used ∧ symbol is not predefined.2.19 \STACKREL lower \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega default upper default \mathbf \mathit ι κ λ µ ν ξ π ρ σ ς τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω \Lambda Λ Λ Λ \Xi \Pi Ξ Π Ξ Π Ξ Π \Sigma Σ Σ Σ \Upsilon \Phi Υ Φ Υ Φ Υ Φ \Psi \Omega Ψ Ω Ψ Ω Ψ Ω Table 14: The greek letters Bold greek letters are possible with the package bm (see section 47. β. $ α. A useful definition maybe: 1 2 3 4 \usepackage{upgreek} \makeatletter \newcommand{\bfgreek}[1]{\bm{\@nameuse{up#1}}} \makeatother Then $\bfgreek{mu}$ will allow you to type µ to obtain an upright boldface µ. This makes some sense.47 39 .

. It is often used for binomial coefficients and has the following syntax: 1 {above \choose below} The two braces are not really important but it is safe to use them.\ mathrm{d}x=1 \end{equation} If all math expressions should be printed in the same color. 20 \choose \choose \choose is like \atop with delimiters or like \frac without the fraction line and also with delimiters. In math mode together with another material it may look like x = (x1 . L TEX switches automatically in math mode. which is written without the delimiters ($.x_{n}\right)$ The fontsize of the top is one size smaller than the one from the base. . then it is better to use the everydisplay macro (section 24 on page 42)..$) for the math mode = . but it is no problem to get both the same size. . only \eqdef with a space at the end. which saves some keystrokes like the following command. m+1 n 1 = m m + n k−1 (40) {{m+1 \choose n}}={{m \choose n}}+{{m \choose k-1}}\label{eq:choose} See section 29. 21 Color in math expressions There is no difference in using colored text and colored math expressions. just increase the top or decrease the base.47 .21 COLOR IN MATH EXPRESSIONS 1 \stackrel{top}{base} Such symbols may be often needed so that a macro definition in the preamble makes some sense: 1 2 \newcommand{\eqdef}{% \ensuremath{\mathrel{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}}}} With the \ensuremath command we can use the new \eqdef command in text and in A math mode. .tex v. With \usepackage{color} in the preamble the macro \textcolor{<color>}{<text or math>} exists.2.\ldots. xn ) and as command sequence 1 def def $\vec{x}\eqdef\left(x_{1}. ∞ ˆ f (x) = 1 1 dx = 1 x2 (41) \textcolor 1 2 3 \begin{equation} \textcolor{blue}{f(x)} = \int\limits_1^{\infty}\textcolor{red}{\frac{1}{x^2}}\.2 on page 59 for the AMS math equivalents and enhancements. 40 Mathmode. .

. And z = f (x. Mathmode. aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r \boldmath \[ \sum_{% \makebox[0pt]{$% {{\scriptscriptstyle 1\le j\le p\atop {% {1\le j\le q\atop 1\le k\le r}}}}% $}% }a_{ij}b_{jk}c_{ki} \] \unboldmath The \mathversion macro defines a math style which is valid for all following math expressions. a. It is better to use package bm (see section 47. like the following example for a section and description environment: 22 Function f (x) = x2 This is y = f (x) Only a demonstration. With a redefinition of the \section and \item macros it is possible to get everything in bold font. }.47 41 . Same for the description environment. subsections. .. aij bjk cki 1≤j≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r (43) 22. y(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (42) 1 2 3 4 {\mathversion{bold}% \begin{equation} y(x) = ax^3+bx^2+cx+d \end{equation}} Single characters inside a formula can be written in bold with \mathbf. But it is no problem to put \mathversion inside a group to hold the changes locally. are printed in bold.tex v.5 on page 85).1 Bold math expressions as part of titles and items By default the titles in sections. \unboldmath. y) Another demonstration. .2. which is in general not useful as shown in equation 43.o. If you want to have all math in bold then use this macro instead of \boldmath. The problem is that a math expression in one of these environments is printed in default font shape. but only in upright mode. which itself must be written in textmode (outside the formula) or with the command {\mathversion{bold} .22 BOLDMATH 22 Boldmath \mathversion \boldmath \unboldmath Writing a whole formula in bold is possible with the command sequence \boldmath .s.

tex v.html 42 Mathmode. \everymath puts the argument before any inlined math expression. \everymath{\displaysize Using this macro doesn’t really make sense. When the comma is used as the decimal marker as in Europe. a · b.47 . Teil 1. not a half-high and centered dot (\cdot · ). e. e. \everydisplay puts the argument before any displayed math expression. y) Another demonstration. too. the preferred sign for the multiplication of numbers or values of quantities is a cross (\times × ). For more information see “Nist Guide to SI Units -More on Printing and Using Symbols and Numbers in Scientific and Technical Documents”18 or the German DIN 1304. The multiplication of quantity symbols (or numbers in parentheses or values of quantities in parentheses) may be indicated in one of the following ways: ab. the preferred sign for the multiplication of numbers is the half-high dot. And z = f (x. when one is using footnotes because the footnote number is printed as superscript in inline mathmode and an \everymath will be valid. a × b. 24 \everymath \everydisplay \underline Other macros There are some other macros which are not mentioned in the foregoing text. Here comes a not really complete list of these macros. \underline underlines a math expression and has to be used inside the math mode.g..g. \everydisplay{\color{blue}}.gov/Pubs/SP811/sec10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 \let\itemOld\item \makeatletter \renewcommand\item[1][]{% \def\@tempa{#1} \ifx\@tempa\@empty\itemOld\else\boldmath\itemOld[#1]\unboldmath\fi% } \makeatother \let\sectionOld\section \renewcommand\section[2][\empty]{% \boldmath\sectionOld[#1]{#2}\unboldmath% } 23 Multiplying numbers When the dot is used as the decimal marker as in the United States. ˆ F (x) = f (x) dx 18 http://physics..24 OTHER MACROS 22 Function f (x) = x2 This is y = f (x) Only a demonstration.2.nist.

.sty 2. even in displayed equations. if numbers are on the right (resp. lim. first) line. inf. . sumlimits nosumlimits intlimits nointlimits namelimits nonamelimits To use one of these package options.. put the option name in the optional argument. \usepackage[intlimits]{amsmath}. Opposite of namelimits.sty In general the AMS packages are at least a collection of three different ones: In the following only the first one is described in detail. (default) Opposite of intlimits. and so forth – but excluding integrals (see below). 25 align environments There are four different align environments.2. amssymb. amsfonts. This option also affects other symbols of the same type – .47 43 . ‘Top-or-bottom tags’ For a split equation.sty 3. Like sumlimits.g. but for certain ‘operator names’ such as det. (default) Place equation numbers on the right. and thus need not be repeated in the option list of the \usepackage{amsmath} statement. The AMS math has the following options: centertags tbtags (default) For a split equation. (default) Like sumlimits. described in the following subsections. place equation numbers vertically centered on the total height of the equation. amsmath. Always place the subscripts and superscripts of summation-type symbols to the side. but for integral symbols. The symbolic code for all align environments is: Mathmode. (default) Place the subscripts and superscripts of summation symbols above and below. leqno reqno fleqn Place equation numbers on the left. AMS math defines the length \mathindent and uses it when the equations have only one tabbing character (&). The AMS math also recognises the following options which are normally selected (implicitly or explicitly) through the documentclass command. in displayed equations. Their behaviour is shown in table 15. max.25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS Part II AMS math package 1. that traditionally have subscripts placed underneath when they occur in a displayed equation. Position equations at a fixed indent from the left margin rather than centered in the text column.tex v. All math environments are displayed ones. . so there is no special inline math. left). place equation numbers level with the last (resp. min. e.

where the first three can have an equation number align align = = x x x x = = x x alignat alignat = = x x x x = = x x flalign flalign = = x x x x = = x x xalignat = xalignat = x x x x = = x x xxalignat = xxalignat = x x x x = = x x A In difference to the eqnarray environment from standard L TEX (section 3.g.47 . y &= x. Writing the equations no.-symbol-expr. e.tex v. are divided by only one ampersand in two parts.1 The default align environment 1 2 3 4 \begin{<name>} <name> &= x & x &= x\\ <name> &= x & x &= x \end{<name>} Table 15: Comparison between the different align environments with the same code..1 The default align environment The eqnarray environment has a not so good spacing between the cells.25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS 25. y x y x y x 1 2 3 y &= x y =& x y ={}& x 25. 3 to 6 with the align environment gives: 44 Mathmode. In general the ampersand should be before the symbol to get the right spacing. the second one has a wrong spacing.2). the “three” parts of one equation expr. Compare the following three equations.2.

2 alignat environment \begin{align} . \end{align} >From now the counting of the equation changes. which is not important for the user.. The above last align example looks like: Mathmode. • The align environment takes the whole horizontal space if you have more than two columns: y=d y = cx + d y12 = bx + cx + d y(x) = ax + bx + cx + d The code for this example looks like 1 2 3 4 5 6 z=1 z =x+1 z =x +x+1 z = x3 + x2 + x + 1 2 2 2 (48) (49) 3 (50) \begin{align} y & =d & z & =1\\ y & =cx+d & z & =x+1\\ y_{12} & =bx^{2}+cx+d & z & =x^{2}+x+1\nonumber \\ y(x) & =ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d & z & =x^{3}+x^{2}+x+1 \end{align} 25.} horizontal alignment with a vertical column-alignment.47 45 . which doesn’t really make sense... \begin{align*} 1 & 2 & 3 3 \end{align*} 1 2 12 3 • A nonumber-version \begin{align*}. e.tex v. It is introduced with a foregoing command.25.2. • Unnumbered single rows are possible with \nonumber. Parameter is the number of the align environments.. it is only for demonstration: \renewcommand{\theequation}{\thepart-\arabic{equation}}..\end{align*} exists.. This means “align at several places” and is something like more than two align environment side by side.2 alignat environment 25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS y=d y = cx + d y12 = bx + cx + d y(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d The code looks like: 1 2 3 4 5 6 (44) (45) (46) (47) 2 \begin{align} y & =d\label{eq:IntoSection}\\ y & =cx+d\\ y_{12} & =bx^{2}+cx+d\\ y(x) & =ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d \end{align} • The align environment has an implicit {rlrl..g.

25 i12 = i21 i13 = i23 1 i21 = i11 i22 = 0.3 flalign environment y=d y = cx + d y12 = bx + cx + d 2 z=1 z =x+1 z =x +x+1 2 (II-51) (II-52) y(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d z = x3 + x2 + x + 1 The parameter was 2 and it is 3 for the following example: (II-53) i11 = 0...\end{alignat*} exists.3 flalign environment \begin{flalign} ..2.33i_{22}\quad & i_{32} & =0. 25.33i_{22} 5 \end{flalign} Mathmode.5i_{12}& i_{23} & =i_{31}\\ i_{31} & =0. It is \end{flalign} nearly the same as the xalignat environment.33i22 46 2 i_{11} 3 i_{21} (II-58) (II-59) & =0.47 .33i22 i32 = 0. This is the new replacement for the xalignat and xxalignat environments.. 1 \begin{flalign} i11 = 0. only more “out spaced” and “left aligned”.25 & i_{12} & =i_{21} & i_{13} & =i_{23}\nonumber\\ i_{21} & =\frac{1}{3}i_{11} & i_{22} & =0..rlrl} horizontal alignment with a vertical column alignment..25\nonumber \\ & =\frac{1}{3}i_{11}\\ 4 i_{31} & =0.15i_{32}\quad & i_{33} & =i_{11} \end{alignat} With the alignat environment one can easily align equations vertically at more than one marker: abc = xxx = xxxxxxxxxxxx = aaaaaaaaa = ab (II-56) (II-57) ab = yyyyyyyyyyyyyyy = yyyy 1 2 3 4 \begin{alignat}{3} abc &= xxx &&= xxxxxxxxxxxx &&= aaaaaaaaa \\ ab &= yyyyyyyyyyyyyyy &&= yyyy &&= ab \end{alignat} • The alignat environment has an implicit {rlrl.5i12 i23 = i31 3 i31 = 0.tex v.25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0.25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS 25. • Unnumbered single rows are possible with \nonumber. • A nonumber-version \begin{alignat*}.15i32 i33 = i11 For this example the code is: 1 2 3 4 5 (II-54) (II-55) \begin{alignat}{3} i_{11} & =0.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \begin{align}\label{eq:centered} f(x) & = \int\frac{1}{x^2}\.\mathrm{d}x \end{align} \begin{flalign}\label{eq:leftaligned} f(x) & = \int\frac{1}{x^2}\. ˆ f (x) = 1 dx x2 (II-62) ˆ f (x) = 1 dx x2 (II-63) Equation II-63 is left aligned in fact of the second tabbing character &. when they have only one ampersand.4 xalignat environment 25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS As seen. then the equations are really left aligned.5i_{12}& i_{23} & =i_{31}\\ i_{31} & =0.2.tex v.47 47 .15i_{32}\quad & i_{33} & =i_{11} \end{flalign} This environment can be used to mix centered and left aligned equations without using the document wide valid option fleqn. the equations are not really left aligned. see equation II-63 below.25. In this case flalign has the same behaviour as the align environment.5i12 i32 = 0.33i_{22}\quad & i_{32} & =0.15i32 i13 = i23 i23 = i31 (II-60) i33 = i11 (II-61) \begin{flalign} i_{11} & =0. This is also an easy way to get an equation with only one ampersand left aligned. When there are more than one tabbing characters (&). i11 = 0.\mathrm{d}x & \end{flalign} Another case is placing text left aligned.33i22 The code looks like: 1 2 3 4 5 i12 = i21 i22 = 0. same as 12(x − 1) + 20(y − 3) + 14(z − 2) = 0 6x + 10y + 7z = 0 1 2 3 4 \begin{flalign*} && 12(x-1)+20(y-3)+14(z-2) &= 0\\ \text{same as } && 6x+10y+7z &= 0 \end{flalign*} Mathmode. whereas the formulas should be right aligned.25 & i_{12} & =i_{21} & i_{13} & =i_{23}\nonumber\\ i_{21} & =\frac{1}{3}i_{11} & i_{22} & =0.25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0.

25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0.5 xxalignat environment \begin{xxalignat} . therefore no equation number! i11 = 0. In difference to the split environment (section 26.2.. \end{xxalignat} Same as align environment.33i22 The same code looks like: 1 2 3 4 5 i12 = i21 i22 = 0. only a little more “out spaced”..4 xalignat environment 25.25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0.4 xalignat environment \begin{xalig This is an obsolete macro but still supported by the AMS math package. Like xalignat an obsolete macro but still supported by the AMS math package.15i_{32}\quad & i_{33} & =i_{11} \end{xalignat} 25.33i_{22} & i_{32} & =0.5i_{12}& i_{23} & =i_{31}\\ i_{31} & =0. \end{xaligna alignat environment.15i_{32} & i_{33} & =i_{11} \end{xxalignat} 25.15i32 i13 = i23 i23 = i31 i33 = i11 (II-64) (II-65) \begin{xalignat}{3} i_{11} & =0..5i12 i32 = 0. Same as .15i32 i13 = i23 i23 = i31 i33 = i11 \begin{xxalignat}{3} i_{11} & =0.47 ..25 & i_{12} & =i_{21} & i_{13} & =i_{23}\nonumber\\ i_{21} & =\frac{1}{3}i_{11} & i_{22} & =0.5i12 i32 = 0.6 aligned environment \begin{aligned} .25 & i_{12} & =i_{21} & i_{13} & =i_{23}\nonumber\\ i_{21} & =\frac{1}{3}i_{11} & i_{22} & =0. i11 = 0.25 ALIGN ENVIRONMENTS 25.5i_{12}& i_{23} & =i_{31}\\ i_{31} & =0.. only extremely “out spaced”.33i22 The same code looks like: 1 2 3 4 5 i12 = i21 i22 = 0. the aligned envi\end{aligned} ronment allows more than one horizontal alignment but has also only one equation number: 2x + 3 = 7 2x + 3 − 3 = 7 − 3 2x 4 2x = 4 = 2 2 x=2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (II-66) \begin{equation} \begin{aligned} 2x+3 &= 7 & 2x+3-3 &= 7-3 \\ 2x &= 4 & \frac{2x}2 &= \frac42\\ x &= 2 \end{aligned} \end{equation} 48 Mathmode.tex v..33i_{22}\quad & i_{32} & =0.4 on page 54).

47 (II-72) 49 .. which should be equation environment.2 gathered environment \begin{gathered}[c] The gathered environment is like the aligned or alignat environment.33i_{22} \end{gather} • The gather environment has an implicit {c} horizontal alignment with no vertical column alignment.. Look at sec- 26.7 Problems 26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS The aligned environment is similar to the array environment. All rows .. \end{gather} are centered and can have an own equation number: i11 = 0.. tion 26.33i22 Mathmode.25. only so much horizontal space as the widest line needs.25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0. there exists no starred version and it has only one equation number and has to be part of another math environment.25\\ i_{21} = \frac{1}{3}i_{11}\nonumber\\ i_{31} =0..4 on page 54 for an example. In difference to the gather \end{gathered} environment it must be itself inside the math mode. • A nonumber-version \begin{gather*}. i11 = 0.1 Other environments gather environment \begin{gather} This is like a multi line environment with no special horizontal alignment.33i22 For this example the code looks like: 1 2 3 4 5 (II-70) (II-71) \begin{gather} i_{11} = 0.25 1 i21 = i11 3 i31 = 0.tex v. They use .2. otherwise you’ll get another equation number for this “empty” line: \begin{align} 2x+3 &= 7\\ 3 \end{align} 1 2 2x + 3 = 7 (II-67) (II-68) 2x + 3 = 7 (II-69) \begin{align} 2x+3 &= 7 3 \end{align} 1 2 26 26..\end{gather*} exists. It is just like an one column array/table. there should be no \\ at the end of the last line.7 Problems When using one of the align environments. 25. The advantage of aligned is the much better horizontal and vertical spacing.

33i_{22} \end{gathered} \rule{2cm}{1pt} \end{align} The optional argument can be used for setting the vertical alignment which is by default c (centered). then everything is ignored by AMS until a following closing bracket. A=a A=a A=a B=b C=c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B=b C=c (II-73) B=b C=c \begin{align} \rule{1cm}{1pt} \begin{gathered}[t] \quad A=a\\ \quad B=b\\ \quad C=c \end{gathered} % \begin{gathered}[c] \quad A=a\\ \quad B=b\\ \quad C=c \end{gathered} % \begin{gathered}[b] \quad A=a\\ \quad B=b\\ \quad C=c \end{gathered} \ \rule{1cm}{1pt} \end{align} When using a square bracket as first character inside the environment.25\\ \quad i_{21}=\frac{1}{3}i_{11}\\ \quad i_{31}=0.2 gathered environment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \begin{align} \rule{2cm}{1pt} \begin{gathered} \quad i_{11}=0.47 . because AMS takes this as an optional argument: A=a [B] B = b [C] C = c 1 2 3 4 5 (II-74) \begin{align} \begin{gathered} [A]\quad A=a\\ [B]\quad B=b\\ [C]\quad C=c 50 Mathmode.tex v.26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 26. It can also be t for top or b for bottom.2.

+\left( a^{2}+2\cdot (n-1)a\Delta x +(n-1)^{2}\left( \Delta x\right) ^{2}\right) \right)\\ = \frac{1}{3}\left( b^{3}-a^{3}\right) \end{multline} A = lim ∆x a2 + a2 + 2a∆x + (∆x)2 n→∞ + a2 + 2 · 2a∆x + 22 (∆x)2 + a2 + 2 · 3a∆x + 32 (∆x)2 + .tex v. the second and all following ones except the last one are centered and the last line is right aligned.. 19 It is no typo.47 51 . It is often used to write extremely long formulas: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \begin{multline} .. \end{multline} \begin{multline} A = \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\Delta x\left( a^{2}+\left( a^{2}+2a\Delta x +\left( \Delta x\right) ^{2}\right)\right. the name of the environment is multline.3 multline environment 26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 6 7 \end{gathered} \end{align} The [A] is completely ignored... + a2 + 2 · (n − 1)a∆x + (n − 1)2 (∆x)2 = 1 3 b − a3 3 (II-76) • A nonumber-version \begin{multline*}.2. which fixes this behaviour by default.\end{multline*} exists. • By default only the last line (for right equation numbers) or the first line (for left equation numbers) gets a number.. the others can’t. Another possibility is using the package empheq.. [A] A = a [B] B = b [C] C = c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (II-75) \begin{align} \begin{gathered}[] [A]\quad A=a\\ [B]\quad B=b\\ [C]\quad C=c \end{gathered} \end{align} 26.26.\\ +\left( a^{2}+2\cdot 2a\Delta x+2^{2}\left( \Delta x\right) ^{2}\right)\\ +\left( a^{2}+2\cdot 3a\Delta x+3^{2}\left( \Delta x\right) ^{2}\right)\\ + \ldots\\ \left.3 multline environment 19 This is also like a multi line environment with a special vertical alignment. The first row is left aligned. no missing i here! Mathmode. which can be avoided by using the optional argument [c] or at least an empty one directly after the \begin{gather}.

1 Examples for multline With the multline environment the equation 28 on page 25 looks like: 1 ∆(fij f ij ) = 2  2  i<j χij (σi − σj )2 + f ij + j i (∆f )+ k ij k fij f + f ij f k [2 i Rjk − k Rij ] (II-80) which is again a bad typesetting because of the two unequal parentheses. Each one A has a size which is correct for the line but not for the whole formula.” to get only one of the “pair”. the dot “\left.0pt (II-78) \multlinegap= 0. like a vertical rule without any thickness.tex v. 26. L TEX accepts only pairs of parentheses for one line and has an “empty” parentheses. so this one is the argument of \vphantom which has to be placed anywhere. When the first (numbers left) or last line (numbers right) has an equation number then \multlinegap is not used for these ones.” or “\right.26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 26.47 . where the length of \multlinegap is set to 0pt for the right one. which reserves the vertical space without any horizontal one. 20 52 Mathmode.20 See figure 2.0pt (II-79) Figure 2: Demonstration of \multlinegap (default is 0pt) • The alignment of a single line can be changed with the command \shoveright (figure 1) • The first line and the last line have a small gap to the text border. One of them is to use the \vphantom command. only for the line without a number. There are different solutions to get the right size of the parentheses.2.3 multline environment x x x x x x (II-77) Figure 1: multline Alignment demo (the fourth row is shifted to the right with \shoveright) \multlinegap= 10.3. The sum symbol from the first line is the biggest one and responsible for the height.

pR 6 \left( n \right) + R’\left( n \right) \right]e^{-pn}\right.+\nabla_{k}f_{ij}\nabla^{k}f^{ij}+ f^{ij}f^{k}\left[2\nabla_{i}R_{jk}\nabla_{k}R_{ij}\right]\vphantom{\sum_{i<j}}\right) \end{multline} Instead of using the \vphantom command it is also possible to use fixed-width parentheses. which runs out of the margin could be written as a multiplication to avoid the fraction line.2. A math expression with a very long fraction like the following one.26.\left.A\right] pe^{-pn}\right\} = 0 10 \end{multline} 3 2 \frac{\mathrm{d}G_\infty}{\mathrm{d}n} Mathmode.\\ \left.4 split environment 26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 1 ∆(fij f ij ) = 2  2  i<j χij (σi − σj )2 + f ij + j i (∆f )+ k fij k ij f + f ij f k [2 i Rjk − k Rij ]   (II-81) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 \begin{multline} \frac{1}{2}\Delta(f_{ij}f^{ij})= 2\left(\sum_{i<j}\chi_{ij}(\sigma_{i}\sigma_{j})^{2}+f^{ij}\nabla_{j}\nabla_{i}(\Delta f)+\right.\\ 7 . which is described in section 8 on page 23.tex v.47 53 .\left[-\frac{Q \left( n \right) e^{-pn}}{p} + 8 \frac{Q \left( 0 \right)}{p} + R \left( n \right) e^{-pn} 9 . [1 − e−pn ] [Q (n) − pR (n) + R (n)] e−pn − − Q(n)e p dG∞ = 2 dn (1 − e−pn ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 −pn + Q(0) p + R (n) e−pn − A pe−pn (II-82) =0 \begin{equation} \frac{\mathrm{d}G_\infty}{\mathrm{d}n}=\frac{\left[1-e^{-pn}\right] \left[Q\left(n\right)-pR\left(n\right)+R’\left(n\right)\right]e^{-pn} -\left[-\frac{Q \left(n\right)e^{-pn}}{p}+\frac{Q\left(0\right)}{p}+R \left(n\right)e^{-pn} .A\right] pe^{-pn}}{\left({1-e^{-pn}}\right)^2} = 0 \end{equation} With the multline environment it can then be split into two or more parts: dG∞ 1 = · dn (1 − e−pn )2 1 − e−pn Q (n) − pR (n) + R (n) e−pn = 0 (II-83) − − 1 \begin{multline} Q (n) e−pn Q (0) + + R (n) e−pn − A pe−pn p p = \frac{1}{\left( {1-e^{-pn}} \right)^2 }\cdot 4 \left\{\vphantom{\frac{Q}{p}}% >>>> to get the correct height <<<<< 5 \left[ 1-e^{-pn} \right] \left[ Q \left( n \right) .

\mathrm{d}x\right| +\left| 54 Mathmode.4 split environment From now on the counting of the equations changes. split can only be used as part of another environment.47 . Just like the array environment and in contrast to multline..26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 26. in this case more than one horizontal alignment tabs are possible... It is introduced with a foregoing command. x x x x \[ \begin{split} \framebox[0. It is important that the split environment has another behaviour when used inside A one of the “old” L TEX environments \[.4 split environment 26.95\columnwidth]{x} \end{split} \] a= x x x x The following example shows the split environment as part of the equation environment: ˆ A1 = 1 ˆ 2 (f (x) − g(x)) dx + (g(x) − h(x)) dx 0 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 2 = (x2 − 3x) dx + (x2 − 5x + 6) dx 3 5 = − x2 + − x2 + 6x 3 2 0 3 2 1 1 3 8 20 1 5 = − + − + 12 − − +6 3 2 3 2 3 2 7 14 23 7 5 = − + − = + = 2 FE 6 3 6 6 6 0 x3 1 1 x3 2 (II-84) 1 2 3 \begin{equation} \begin{split} A_{1} & = \left| \int _{0}^{1}(f(x)-g(x))\.35\columnwidth]{x}\\ &\framebox[0. \end{equation}.6 on page 48).75\columnwidth]{x}\\ \framebox[0.... it is only for demonstration: 1 2 3 \begin{split . which doesn’t really make sense. this is given by the other environment.tex v.95\columnwidth]{x} \end{split} \] \[ \begin{split} \vec{a} = {}&\framebox[0.65\columnwidth]{x}\\ &\framebox[0. \end{split} \makeatletter \@removefromreset{equation}{section} \makeatother The split environment is like the multline or array environment for equations longer than the column width. In difference to the aligned environment (section 25.\] or \begin{equation} .35\columnwidth]{x}\\ \framebox[0. split itself has no own numbering.75\columnwidth]{x}\\ &\framebox[0. the split environment don’t permit more than one horizontal alignment. Without an ampersand all lines in the split environment are right-aligned and can be aligned at a special point by using an ampersand.65\columnwidth]{x}\\ \framebox[0.2.

.5 cases environment 26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 \int _{1}^{2}(g(x)-h(x))\. In the first case it is typeset similiar to the plus character. and in the second example it is typeset without the additional space for a binary math atom. like $x=\begin{cases} 0 & \text{if A=.tex v.2..\mathrm{d}x\right| +\left| \int _{1}^{2}(x^{2}-5x+6)\.\mathrm{d}x\right| \\ & = \left| \frac{x^{3}}{3}-\frac{3}{2}x^{2}\right| _{0}^{1}+ \left| \frac{x^{3}}{3}\frac{5}{2}x^{2}+6x\right| _{1}^{2}\\ & = \left| \frac{1}{3}-\frac{3}{2}\right| +\left| \frac{8}{3}-\frac{20}{2}+12\left( \frac{1}{3}-\frac{5}{2}+6\right) \right| \\ & = \left| -\frac{7}{6}\right| +\left| \frac{14}{3}-\frac{23}{6} \right| =\frac{7}{6}+\frac{5}{6}=2\.}\\ x & \textrm{this runs with as much text as you like. 26.\mathrm{d}x\right| \\ & = \left| \int _{0}^{1}(x^{2}-3x)\. You can also choose the more than once described way to convert some text into math.26. 1 2 3 a= −b+c 4 −d+e (II-86) 5 6 7 8 a = −b + c 9 10 (II-87) 11 12 13 −d + e \begin{align} \begin{split} a = {} & -b + & -d + \end{split} \end{align} % \begin{align} \begin{split} a = {} & {-}b & {-}d \end{split} \end{align} c \\ e + c \\ + e • There exists no starred version (\begin{split*}) of the split environment. 21 22 Can be changed with \renewcommand\arraystretch{1.5} See section 12 on page 33 Mathmode...5 cases environment This gives support for an often used mathematical construct. but another vertical spacing21 and the symbols are only in scriptsize and not textsize:22 A1 = = = = = ´2 0 (f (x) − g(x)) dx + 1 (g(x) − h(x)) dx ´1 2 ´2 2 0 (x − 3x) dx + 1 (x − 5x + 6) dx 1 2 x3 x3 3 2 5 2 3 − 2 x 0 + 3 − 2 x + 6x 1 8 3 20 1 5 1 3 − 2 + 3 − 2 + 12 − 3 − 2 + 6 7 14 7 23 5 − 6 + 3 − 6 = 6 + 6 = 2 FE ´1 (II-85) Compare the following two examples for typesetting the minus sign.}\\ 1 & \text{if B=. \textrm{FE} \end{split} \end{equation} The same using the array environment with {rl}-alignment instead of split gives same horizontal alignment.47 55 .

but without an automatic linebreak.47 . it is only for demonstration: 1 \renewcommand\theequation{\arabic{equation}} 26. but without a linebreak.6 Matrix environments but without an automatic linebreak... but without an x     automatic linebreak..   In this case it is better to use a parbox for the text part with a flushleft command for a better view.2.26 OTHER ENVIRONMENTS 26.6 Matrix environments \Vmatrix a b c d a b c d \Bmatrix a b c d a b c d \matrix a b c d a b c d ab cd \vmatrix \bmatrix \pmatrix \smallmatrix Table 16: Matrix environments All matrix environments can be nested and an element may also contain any other math environment.... it runs    out of page.. it runs out of page..tex v.   x this runs with as much text as you like..} \end{cases}$ which gives equation II-88...}\\ 1 & \text{if B=.. x=  0 if A=. which doesn’t really make sense. x =  0 if A=.     1 if B=.. By default all cells have a centered alignment.}\\ x & \parbox{5cm}{% \flushleft% this runs with as much text as you like.. which is often not the best when having different 56 Mathmode.     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 \begin{equation} x=\begin{cases} 0 & \text{if A=. It is obvious what the problem is... so that very complex structures are possible....... it runs out of page.}% \end{cases} \end{equation}   as you like.. (II-88) 1 if B=. it runs out of page.. It is introduced with a foregoing command. this runs with as much text (II-89) From now on the counting of the equations changes.

.2. ...n−1 ann ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 \begin{equation} \underline{A}=\left[\begin{array}{ccccccc} a_{11} & a_{12} & 0 & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & 0\\ a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} & 0 & \ldots & \ldots & 0\\ 0 & a_{32} & a_{33} & a_{34} & 0 & \ldots & 0\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots\\ \hdotsfor{7}\cr\vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots\\ 0 & \ldots & 0 & a_{n-2... . ....tex v..n-2} & a_{n-2. .. . ...... ... .. ...... .... . The number of columns allows a continuing dotted line over more columns.. 0 qn−1. . ..n−3 an−2.. . which decreases horizontal and vertical space is typeset in scriptstyle. ..28 DOTS decimal numbers or plus/minus values. . . There is no difference to AMS math.. .. 0 an.. $\dddot{y}$: y ....    0 .......n-1} & 0\\ 23         A=         a11 a12 0 a21 a22 a23 0 a32 a33      ..... 0 a34 ... .47 57 .. .n−2 an−1.   . . 0 0 0  (90) already mentioned in section 14 Mathmode.. . ....n−2 an−2..   .. . . . .. . . Equation 90 shows the definition of a tridiagonal matrix.  . . .. .}23 and \ddddot{. .n  0 . For dots over several columns look for \hdotsfor in the following section. . Changing the alignment to right (not for the smallmatrix) is possible with 1 2 3 4 5 \makeatletter \def\env@matrix{\hskip -\arraycolsep \let\@ifnextchar\new@ifnextchar \array{*\c@MaxMatrixCols r}} \makeatother matrix vmatrix Vmatrix bmatrix Bmatrix pmatrix smallmatrix The special matrix environment smallmatrix........ 27 Vertical whitespace See section 11. ..} .. .n−1 0  0 .. 28 Dots In addition to section 13 on page 34 AMS math has two more commands for dots: \dddot{. .n-3} & a_{n-2. 0 an−2.. .5 on page 31 for the lengths which control the vertical whitespace.. $\ddddot{y}$: y Another interesting dot command is \hdotsfor with the syntax: 1 \hdotsfor[<spacing factor>]{<number of columns>} With the spacing factor the width of the dots can be stretched or shrinked. . . .. 0 . ...n−1 an−1. .... The smallmatrix environment makes some sense in the inline mode to decrease the line height.. .  ... ... ..

.1 Standard Additional to the font size problem described in subsection 2. which can be [l]eft.. √ 2+ √ 1 1 3+ 1 √ 4+ 1 ..2 on page 10 AMS math supports some more commands for fractions. (91) which looks with the default \frac command like √ 1 2+ √ 1 3+ √ 1 1 4+ . • \dfrac which takes by default the displaystyle. (92) where the mathstyle decreases for every new level in the fraction. so that fractions in display mode have the same size than in inline mode.see equation 91): 1 √ 2+ 1 √ 3+ 1 √ 4+ 1 .n-1} & a_{n-1. The \cfrac command can be called with an optional parameter which defines the placing of the nominator.2.tex v.n-2} & a_{n-1... The \frac command described in [7].47 58 .. [r]ight or [c]enter (the default . • The global fraction definition has five parameters 1 \genfrac{<left delim>}{<right denominator>} delim>}{<thickness>}{<mathstyle>}{<nominator>}{< where thickness can have any length with a valid unit like x2 +x+1 genfrac{}{}{1pt}{}{x^2+x+1}{3x-2} → 3x−2 • \cfrac (continued fraction) which is by default set in the display mathstyle and useful for fractions like 1 √ 2+ 1 √ 3+ 1 √ 4+ 1 . so that fractions in inline mode 1 have the same size than in display mode.. 2 • \tfrac (vice versa to \dfrac) which takes by default the scriptstyle..29 FRACTION COMMANDS 9 10 11 12 0 & \ldots & \ldots & 0 & q_{n-1. does no more exist in AMS math. 2 3 \tfrac{2}{3} Mathmode.n}\\ 0 & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots & 0 & a_{n.n-1} & a_{nn} \end{array}\right] \end{equation} 29 fraction commands 29.

e. Mathmode.47 59 . which may be not the best typesetting. It is possible to reduce the lowest point of the root to the baseline with the \smash command: λki − − − − − − − → λki The syntax of the \smash command25 renewed by the AMS math package is 1 with \smash √ \smash[<position>]{<argument>} The optional argument for the position can be: t keeps the bottom and annihilates the top b keeps the top and annihilates the bottom tb annihilates top and bottom (the default) 24 25 In PostScript units (bp – Big Points).29..2 Binoms 30 ROOTS 2 3 29...2 on page 10). whereas k√ n a $\sqrt[\uproot{2}k_n]{a}$ looks nicer. AMS math has \leftroot \uproot some more commands for the n-th root: 1 \sqrt[\leftroot{<number>}\uproot{<number>}<root>]{< . Command \binom{m}{n} \dbinom{m}{n} \tbinom{m}{n} Inlinemath m n \binom \dbinom \tbinom Displaymath m n m n m n m n m n Table 17: binom commands 30 Roots The typesetting for roots is sometimes not the best. Some solutions for better A typesetting are described in section 7 on page 22 for standard L TEX.1 Roots with \smash command \smash The default for a root with λki as root argument looks like λki . kn a ($\sqrt[k_n]{a}$) has a too deep exponent.tex v.2 Binoms \frac{2}{3} They are like fractions without a rule and its syntax is different to the \choose A command from standard L TEX (see section 2.g. AMS math provides three different commands for binoms just like the ones for fractions. >} <number> indicates a value for the points24 of which the root can be adjusted to the √ left and/or to the top. 30.ltx \smash is defined without an optional argument.2. In latex.

though it is often used in formulas.2. If you want a numbering like “44” then write either in the preamble or like this example anywhere in your doc: 1 \numberwithin{equation}{section} From now on the numbering looks like equation 44 on page 45. 32 \mod command A In standard L TEX the modulo command is not an operator. for example 1 \def\dotcup{$\mathaccent\cdot\cup$} · ∪ Overwriting of two symbols is also possible: In this case the second symbol has to be shifted to the left for a length of 5mu (mu: math unit). • They all insert some useful space before and behind the mod-operator. If you want to get rid of the parentheses then write in the preamble: 1 2 3 \makeatletter \def\tagform@#1{\maketag@@@{\ignorespaces#1\unskip\@@italiccorr}} \makeatother Now the following four subequation numbers have no parentheses. For the book-class you can get the same for chapters. which are listed in tabular 18.33 EQUATION NUMBERING 31 Accents With the macro \mathaccent it is easy to define new accent types.1 on page 83. AMS math provides two (three) different commands for modulo. 60 Mathmode. only one command is new to AMS math.47 . a\mod{nˆ2}=b a\pmod{nˆ2}=b a\pod{nˆ2}=b → → → a mod n2 = b a (mod n2 ) = b a (n2 ) = b Table 18: The modulo commands and their meaning 33 \numberwithin Equation numbering See section 3. It is mostly the same.tex v. 1 2 3 4 5 \def\curvearrowleftright{% \ensuremath{% \mathaccent\curvearrowright{\mkern-5mu\curvearrowleft}% }% } For other possibilities to define new accents see section 47.3 on page 14 for equation numbering.

93a 33.49\textwidth} \begin{equation}\refstepcounter{mySubCounter} #2 \end{equation} Mathmode.94-2) (33.94-4) A ref to a subequation is possible like the one to equation 33. 1 2 3 \renewcommand{\theequation}{% \theparentequation{}-\arabic{equation}% } y=d y = cx + d y = bx2 + cx + d y = ax + bx + cx + d 3 2 (33.2..93d 2 2 3 \begin{subequations} \begin{align} y & = d\\ y & = cx+d\\ y & = bx^{2}+cx+d\\ y & = ax^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d \end{align} \end{subequations} Inside of subequations only complete other environments (\begin{. the AMS math internal subfigure counter cannot be used and an own counter has to be defined: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 \newcounter{mySubCounter} \newcommand{\twocoleqn}[2]{ \setcounter{mySubCounter}{0}% \let\OldTheEquation\theequation% \renewcommand{\theequation}{\OldTheEquation\alph{mySubCounter}}% \noindent% \begin{minipage}{..93c 33...1 Subequations Amsmath supports this with the environment subequation.93b 33.33. \end{.95b) In this case.47 61 .} ..94-3) (33. It is also possible to place two equations side by side with counting as subfigures: y = f (x) (33.95a) y = f (z) (33.. For example: y=d y = cx + d y = bx + cx + d y = ax + bx + cx + d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 33.94-2.49\textwidth} \begin{equation}\refstepcounter{mySubCounter} #1 \end{equation} \end{minipage}\hfill% \addtocounter{equation}{-1}% \begin{minipage}{. The environment chooses the same counter “equation” but saves the old value into “parentequation”.}) are possible.tex v.1 Subequations 33 EQUATION NUMBERING 33.94-1) (33.

To get the same behaviour for all symbols which can have limits load the package AMS math in the preamble as 1 \usepackage[sumlimits. \end{Sp} 1 \substack{.tex v.\\. it is just the same behaviour. which supresses any annotations like parentheses for equation numbers. ctagsplit and righttag (look at the beginning of this part on page 43). f (x) = a g(x) = dx2 + cx + b h(x) = sin x 1 2 3 4 5 (linear) (quadratic) trigonometric \begin{align} f(x) & =a\tag{linear}\label{eq:linear}\\ g(x) & =\.}.47 .\\...... AMS math allows to define own single “equation numbers” with the \tag command.. L TEX changes the behaviour when a tag is detected..intlimits]{amsmath} There exist also options for the vice versa (see page 43)..1 on page 21).4 on page 16. Standard L TEX provides the \atop command for multiple limits (section 6.2.. \end{Sb} \begin{Sp} .\mathrm{d}x^{2}+cx+b\tag{quadratic}\label{eq:quadratic}\\ h(x) & =\sin x\tag*{trigonometric} \end{align} A • The \tag command is also possible for unnumbered equations... • There exists a starred version \tag{*}{.. ] \twocoleqn{y=f(x)}{y=f(z)} 34 \tag Labels and tags For the \label command see section 3...35 LIMITS 17 18 19 20 21 \end{minipage}% \let\theequation\OldTheEquation } [ . AMS math \substack has an additional command for that. 35.1 on page 9.1 Multiple limits A For general information about limits read section 2. 35 Limits By default the sum/prod has the limits above/below and the integral at the side. See also Section 41 for the additional commands \underset and \overset.} The environments described in [7] 62 Mathmode. • There exist two package options for tags. which can have several lines with the following \begin{Sb} syntax: .

\end{Sb} \begin{Sp} ...2 Problems 35 LIMITS 1 2 \begin{Sb} . \end{Sp} are obsolete and no more part of AMS math. because limits have a smaller font size. Using a \makebox also does not really solve the problem.1) Insert these limits in the following way: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 \begin{equation} \sum_{% \substack{1\le i\le p\\ 1\le j\le q\\ 1\le k\le r} }% a_{ij}b_{jk}c_{ki} \end{equation} 35.. similiar to the two macros \llap and \rlap and uses the also new defined \mathclap macro: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 \def\mathllap{\mathpalette\mathllapinternal} \def\mathllapinternal#1#2{% \llap{$\mathsurround=0pt#1{#2}$}% $ } \def\clap#1{\hbox to 0pt{\hss#1\hss}} \def\mathclap{\mathpalette\mathclapinternal} \def\mathclapinternal#1#2{% \clap{$\mathsurround=0pt#1{#2}$}% } \def\mathrlap{\mathpalette\mathrlapinternal} \def\mathrlapinternal#1#2{% \rlap{$\mathsurround=0pt#1{#2}$}% $ } Now we can write limits which have a boxwidth of 0pt and the right font size and the following math expression appears just behind the symbol: Mathmode. because \makebox is in TEX horizontal mode and knows nothing about the appropriate math font size.. For example: X= 1≤i≤j≤n 1 2 3 Xij \[ X = \sum_{1\le i\le j\le n}X_{ij} \] does not look nice because of the long limit.35. The example equation 21 on page 22 with the \substack command looks like: aij bjk cki 1≤i≤p 1≤j≤q 1≤k≤r (35.tex v. It is better to define a \mathclap macro.2.2 Problems There are still some problems with limits and the following math expression.47 63 .

4) The command \sideset has the syntax 1 \sideset{<before>}{<behind>} It can place characters on all four corners of the sum-symbol: U pperLef t LowerLef t B 1 2 3 T U pperRight LowerRight \[ \sideset{_{LowerLeft}^{UpperLeft}}{_{LowerRight}^{UpperRight}}\sum_{B}^{T} \] Now it is possible to write the equation 35.4 in a proper way with the command \sideset{}{’} before the sum symbol: nEn n<k n odd (35.2.35 LIMITS 35.j\\i>j}} \dots 4 \end{array}\right] bar 5 \end{align} 1 2 f oo ..j i>j bar (35..2) This case is not easy to handle when some other math expressions are around the braces which should be on the same baseline. because it becomes an upper limit when writing without an preceeding {}. \begin{align} foo \left[\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} 3 \displaystyle\sum_{\substack{i. nEn n<k n odd (35.47 . i.tex v.3) 35.3 \sideset X= Xij 1≤i≤j≤n 1 2 3 \[ X = \sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}}X_{ij} \] Another problem occurs when having operators with stacked limits in braces:     i.5) 64 Mathmode.3 \sideset \sideset This is a command for a very special purpose. However. For example: it is not possible to place the prime for the equation 35. to combine over/under limits with superscript/subscripts for the sum-symbol. the following may help in some cases to get better looking braces.   (35.4 near to the sum symbol.j i>j  ...

tex v. but creating a new one is very easy with: 1 \newcommand{\mysin}{\operatorname{mysin}} Now \mysin is also written in upright mode y = mysin(x) and with some additional space before and behind. it is also possible to use the text mode. For example: f (x) = x this was math . amsopn.2. like y = sin(x). Atext Atext Atext Atext text text text text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 $\boxed{f(x)=x\quad\text{this was math}}$ {\sffamily\huge $A^{\mbox{text}}_{\mbox{text}}$\quad $A^{\text{text}}_{\text{text}}$\quad $A^{\textnormal{text}}_{\textnormal{text}}$\quad $A^{\mathrm{text}}_{\mathrm{text}}$ } 26 A See section 16 on page 37. only superscript/subscript is possible. It is obvious. 37 Text in math mode If you need complex structures between formulas. that \mathrm always uses the roman font \textnormal and \text the actual one and that the font size is different when used in super.\mbox tion 9 on page 27) with the exception. Instead of using the new definition as an operator.37 TEXT IN MATH MODE 36 Operator names operatorname By default variables are written in italic and operator names in upright mode.1 \text command \text A This is the equivalent command to \mathrm or \mbox from the standard L TEX (sec. A For a real L TEX definition have a look at section 16 on page 37.and \mathrm subscript. which supports over/under limits like the one from \int or \sum. like 1B 1 \[ \sideset{_1}{}{\mathop{\mathrm{B}}} \] With this definition it is possible to use \sideset for a forgoing index.sty has an additional command \operatornamewithlimits. so that changing the style will have an effect for all operators. look also at section 65.26 This happens only for the known operator names. Mathmode. \operatornamewithli The new defined operator names cannot have limits. Package AMS math has some more (see documentation).47 65 . where all the standard L TEX known operator names are listed. which is only possible for an operator. that only those names can be defined as new operator names which are not commands in another way. But it is better to have all operators of the same type. \mathop It is also possible to use the macro \mathop to declare anything as operator. 37.

37

TEXT IN MATH MODE

37.2

\intertext command

The \text macro can be used at any place and can be in some cases a better solution as \intertext (see section 37.2).

and

12(x − 1) + 20(y − 3) + 14(z − 2) = 0 6x + 10y + 7z = 0

and
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

12(x − 1) + 20(y − 3) + 14(z − 2) = 0 6x + 10y + 7z = 0

(37.1) (37.2)

\begin{flalign*} && 12(x-1) + 20(y-3) + 14(z-2) & = 0 &&\\ \text{and} && 6x + 10y + 7z & = 0 && \end{flalign*} \begin{align} && 12(x-1) + 20(y-3) + 14(z-2) & = 0\\ \text{and} && 6x + 10y + 7z & = 0 \end{align}

37.2

\intertext command

This is useful when you want to place some text between two parts of math stuff without leaving the math mode, like the name “intertext” says. For example we write the equation II-84 on page 54 with an additional command after the second line.

A1 =

ˆ 2 (f (x) − g(x)) dx + (g(x) − h(x)) dx 0 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 2 = (x2 − 3x) dx + (x2 − 5x + 6) dx
1 0 1

ˆ

Now the limits of the integrals are used

x3 3 2 x3 5 2 = − x + − x + 6x 3 2 0 3 2 1 8 20 1 5 1 3 − + − + 12 − − +6 = 3 2 3 2 3 2 7 14 23 7 5 = − + − = + = 2 FE 6 3 6 6 6
The code looks like:
\begin{equation} \begin{split} A_{1} & = \left| \int _{0}^{1}(f(x)-g(x))\,\mathrm{d}x\right| +\left| \int _{1}^{2}(g(x)-h(x)) \,\mathrm{d}x\right| \\ & = \left| \int _{0}^{1}(x^{2}-3x)\,\mathrm{d}x\right| +\left| \int _{1}^{2}(x^{2}-5x+6) \,\mathrm{d}x\right| \\ \intertext{Now the limits of the integrals are used}

1

2

1 2 3

4

5

66

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v.2.47

38

EXTENSIBLE ARROWS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

& = \left| \frac{x^{3}}{3}-\frac{3}{2}x^{2}\right| _{0}^{1}+\left| \frac{x^{3}}{3}\frac{5}{2}x^{2}+6x\right| _{1}^{2}\\ & = \left| \frac{1}{3}-\frac{3}{2}\right| +\left| \frac{8}{3}-\frac{20}{2}+12\left( \frac{1}{3}-\frac{5}{2}+6\right) \right| \\ & = \left| -\frac{7}{6}\right| +\left| \frac{14}{3}-\frac{23}{6}\right| =\frac{7}{6}+ \frac{5}{6}=2\, \textrm{FE} \end{split} \end{equation}

Writing very long text is possible by using a parbox, see section 9 on page 27 for an example with \textrm, which behaves in the same way as \text.

38

Extensible arrows
above the arrow below

To write something like − − − − − → you can use the following macro −−−−− $\xrightarrow[\text{below}]{\text{above the arrow}}$ and the same with \xleftarrow. You can define your own extensible arrow macros if you need other than these two predefined ones. To get a doublelined extensible arrow like $\Longleftrightarrow$ (⇐⇒) but with the same behaviour as an extensible one, write in the preamble
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

\xrightarrow \xleftarrow \xmapsto

\newcommand\xLongLeftRightArrow[2][]{% \ext@arrow 0055{\LongLeftRightArrowfill@}{#1}{#2}} \def\LongLeftRightArrowfill@{% \arrowfill@\Leftarrow\Relbar\Rightarrow} \newcommand\xlongleftrightarrow[2][]{% \ext@arrow 0055{\longleftrightarrowfill@}{#1}{#2}} \def\longleftrightarrowfill@{% \arrowfill@\leftarrow\relbar\rightarrow}

The three parts \Leftarrow\Relbar\Rightarrow define left|middle|right of the arrow, where the middle part would be stretched in a way that the arrow is at least as long as the text above and/or below it. This macro has one optional and one standard parameter. The optional one is written below and the standard one above this arrow. Now we can write $\xLongLeftRightArrow[\text{below}]{\text{above the arrow}}$ $\xlongleftrightarrow[\text{below}]{\text{above the arrow}}$ to get ⇐ = = = = or ← − − − − . The “number” 0055 after \ext@arrow defines = = = =⇒ − − − −→
below below above the arrow above the arrow

the position relative to the extended arrow and is not a number but four parameters for additional space in the math unit mu.
1 2 3 4

\def\mapstofill@{% \arrowfill@{\mapstochar\relbar}\relbar\rightarrow} \newcommand*\xmapsto[2][]{% \ext@arrow <four digits>\mapstofill@{#1}{#2}}

$\ext@arrow 0000$

−−→ −− −−→ −−
under
67

over

under over

$\ext@arrow 9000$

Mathmode.tex

v.2.47

40

GREEK LETTERS

$\ext@arrow 0900$

−−→ −− −−→ −− −−→ −− −− − − −→ −− − − −→
under under over under over under over under over

over

$\ext@arrow 0009$

$\ext@arrow 0090$

$\ext@arrow 0099$

$\ext@arrow 9999$

• 1st digit: space left • 2nd digit: space right • 3rd digit: space left and right • 4th digit: space relativ to the tip of the “arrow” The two macros \xrightarrow and \xleftarrow are defined as:
1 2

\newcommand{\xrightarrow}[2][]{\ext@arrow 0359\rightarrowfill@{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\xleftarrow}[2][]{\ext@arrow 3095\leftarrowfill@{#1}{#2}}

39
\boxed

Frames

AMS math knows the macro \boxed which can be used for inline a b + c and displayed math expressions:

ˆ f (x) =
1

1 dx = 1 x2

(39.1)

1 2 3

\begin{align} \boxed{f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\,\mathrm{d}x=1} \end{align}

For coloured boxes use package empheq. For an example see section 47.11 on page 89.

40
\pmb \boldsymbol

Greek letters

The AMS math package simulates a bold font for the greek letters by writing a greek character twice with a small kerning. This is done with the macro \pmb{<letter>}. The \mathbf{<character>} doesn’t work with lower greek character. However, 68
Mathmode.tex v.2.47

\varGamma letter \pmb{letter} \boldsymbol{letter} letter italic α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ϑ ι . 42 Problems with amsmath AMS math is an excellent package with some “funny features”. Uppercase greek letters are by default in upright mode.. AMS math supports also such letters in italic mode with a preceeding var e. When using an align environment inside a gather environment. \boldsymbol can be used for a math symbol that remains unaffected by \mathbf if the current math font set includes a bold version of that symbol. α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ϑ ι .. when there is a number/tag or an additional ampersand: m2 = m2 + m2 = ⇒ m2 v2 = V − V2 + V2 v2 v2 V2 V + 2 v2 v2 Mathmode. Γ ∆ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω Γ ∆ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω 41 Miscellaneous commands \overset \underset There are several commands which can be used in math mode: Some examples are shown in table 19.. $\underset{under}{baseline}$ $\overset{over}{baseline}$ \boldsymbol{\Omega} baseline under over baseline Ω Table 19: Different mathcommands \underset is a useful macro for having limits under non-operators (see page 84). α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ϑ ι .tex v..g.47 69 .42 PROBLEMS WITH AMSMATH using the \boldsymbol macro from AMS math is the better way when the font has a bold symbol.. This is only true.. it should be centered just like the other lines.2..

The additional ampersand prevents AMS math to change the right margin.tex v. which depends to the same problem of cutting whitespace only on one side.47 . a=b c=d a=b c=d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 \bigskip\noindent\fbox{% \begin{minipage}{10cm} \begin{align*} a&=b \\ c&=d \end{align*} \end{minipage}} \noindent\fbox{% \begin{minipage}{10cm} \noindent\begin{align*} a&=b \\ c&=d \end{align*} \end{minipage}} 70 Mathmode. in fact of a missing tag or number the right whitespace is cut. which is wrong in the first example. Another kind of curiousity is the following example.2. but the left one is still there.42 PROBLEMS WITH AMSMATH m2 = m2 + m2 = V2 V + 2 v2 v2 v2 v2 ⇒ m2 v2 = V − V2 + V2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 \begin{gather*} \begin{align*} m_2 &= m_2’ + m_2’’\\ &= \frac{V_2’}{v_2’} \end{align*}\\ \Rightarrow m_2 v_2’ = V \end{gather*} \begin{gather*} \begin{align*} m_2 &= m_2’ + m_2’’\\ &= \frac{V_2’}{v_2’} \end{align*}\\ \Rightarrow m_2 v_2’ = V \end{gather*} + \frac{V_2’’}{v_2’’} V_2’’ + V_2’’\frac{v_2’}{v_2’’}\\ + \frac{V_2’’}{v_2’’} & %<<<==== V_2’’ + V_2’’\frac{v_2’}{v_2’’}\\ This effect depends to the horizontal width.

Mathmode.2. In some cases it is too short. where someone has to use one of the TEX macros or special TEX math length. With \delimiterfactor one can correct this height.\\ 5 x^3 &\textrm{if }0\le x<1. 43.5.tex v.3 \belowdisplayshortskip A length with glue.1 for an example. because the ones defined with A L TEX or with AMS math are much more useful.4 \belowdisplayskip A length with glue.5. see section 11. 2 ≤ x. that all macros work in the usual way. Nevertheless there may be situations. 0 ≤ x < 1.2 \abovedisplayskip A length with glue. The default value is 901.1 for an example. see section 11. 10 \] 1 2  2  x + 2x  3  x y=  x2 + x   3 x − x2 if if if if x < 0.1 Length registers \abovedisplayshortskip A length with glue.\\ 7 x^3-x^2 &\textrm{if }2\le x.47 71 . see section 11. The delimiterheight is < calculated height > · < #1 > /1000 where #1 is the parameter of \delimiterfactor. 43.1 for an example. 43 43. One can not expect.5.43 LENGTH REGISTERS Part III TEX and math There is in general no need to use the TEX macros. see section 11.\\ 6 x^2+x &\textrm{if }1\le x<2. On the other hand some of these basic macros or length definitions are used in the TEX way.5 \delimiterfactor The height of a delimiter is often not optimally calculated by TEX. 43.5. 1 ≤ x < 2. 43. so it might be interesting to have all declared in a short way for some information.1 for an example. \[ y = \left\{% 3 \begin{array}{ll} 4 x^2+2x &\textrm{if }x<0. a lot of them are redefined A by L TEX or AMS math. 8 \end{array}% 9 \right.

11 \] 1 2 \delimitershortfall Additionally to the forgoing \delimiterfactor one can modify the height of the delimiter with another value.\\ 7 x^2+x &\textrm{if }1\le x<2.tex v. The following formula is typeset in the usual way without modifying anything.6 if if if if x < 0. 2 ≤ x. 0 ≤ x < 1.6 \delimitershortfall      2  x + 2x    3  x y=  x2 + x   3  x − x2      43. 9 \end{array}% 10 \right.43 LENGTH REGISTERS 43. it is set to the negative \leftskip: ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x 72 Mathmode. \[ \delimiterfactor=1500 3 y = \left\{% 4 \begin{array}{ll} 5 x^2+2x &\textrm{if }x<0. x· x· x2 − y 2 − 3 x2 − y2 −3 1 2 3 4 1 $x\cdot\left(\left(x^2-y^2\right)-3\right)$\\[7pt] 2 3$ 4 \delimitershortfall-1pt 5 x\cdot\left(\left(x^2-y^2\right)-3\right)$ (((A))) (A) $\left(\left(\left(A\right)\right)\right)$\\[7pt] $\delimitershortfall-1pt \left(\left(\left(A\right)\right)\right)$ 43.\\ 6 x^3 &\textrm{if }0\le x<1. ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x • Now we write the same equation. 1 ≤ x < 2.47 . but now with modifying displayindent.7 \displayindent This is the left shift amount of a line holding displayed equation. TEX makes the delimiter larger than the values of < calculated height > · < delimiterfactor > /1000 and < calculated height > − < delimitershortfall >. By default it is 0pt but gets the value of an indented paragraph when there is an environment like the quotation one.\\ 8 x^3-x^2 &\textrm{if }2\le x. • The following formula is typeset in the usual way without modifying anything. ˆ f (x) = sin x dx x Now we start a quotation environment which sets \labelwidth to new values for a greater left margin.2. This makes it possible to always get different heights of a sequence of delimiters.

43. 43.\mathrm{d}x \] \[ \displaywidth=0. 43.11 \mkern Similiar to \kern.2. but adds a math kern item to the current math list. but adds math glue to the current math list.7).13 \muskip Assigns a length with a math unit to one of the 256 \muskip register. Mathmode.12 \mskip Similiar to \skip.9 \mathsurround Extra space added when switching in and out of the inline math mode (see section 2.tex v. Length must be a math unit.43. In the second example the formula is centered for a display width of 0.14 \muskipdef Defines a symbolic name for a \muskip register.\mathrm{d}x \] 43. 43. which is by default \linewidth.10 \medmuskip See section 11.47 73 . ˆ f (x) = ˆ f (x) = 1 2 3 4 5 sin x dx x sin x dx x \[ f(x) = \int \frac{\sin x}{x}\.15 \nonscript Ignores immediately following glue or kern in script and scriptscript styles. 43.\mathrm{d}x \] 43. which makes a redefinition of \mathchoice superfluous. 43. Length must be a math unit.5\linewidth f(x) = \int \frac{\sin x}{x}\.5\linewidth.8 \displaywidth 43 LENGTH REGISTERS 1 2 3 4 \[ \displayindent=-\leftskip f(x) = \int \frac{\sin x}{x}\.8 \displaywidth The width of the line holding a displayed equation.1 for an example.

\.1)$ -. 74 Mathmode.20 \thinmuskip The short version for positive skip is defined as \def\. 43.$[\.$P\left({1/ \sqrt n }\.\. 1) – [ 0. 43.\mathrm{d}y \quad \int\!\!\!\!\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\.\mathrm{d}y\] 3 \[\int\!\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\.\mathrm{d}y\] 5 \[\int\!\!\!\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\. e.g.1.{\mskip\thinmuskip} and the one for a negative skip as \def\!{\mskip-\thinmuskip} (see also Section 11.tex v.\.\mathrm{ d}y\] 7 \[\int\!\!\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\.\..1 Math font macros \delcode Each character has not only a \catcode and \mathcode but also a \delcode which defines for a single chracter how it should look when used as a math delimiter.\.x$\\ x}$ -. √ 2x – 2 x √ log x – log x √ √ P (1/ n) – P (1/ n ) √ [0.16 \nulldelimiterspace 43.1)$\\ 5 $x^2/2$ -. 44 44.47 .5pt 43.$\sqrt{\.17 \predisplaysize Is the effective width of the line preceeding a displayed equation. \right.1.21 \medmuskip See section 11. predefined as \scriptspace=0.0. whether \abovedisplayskip or abovedisplayshortskip is used for the vertical skip.1).19 \thickmuskip See section 11.\.\mathrm{d}y \quad 4 \int\!\!\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\.18 \scriptspace The space inserted after an exponent or index.16 \nulldelimiterspace This is the width of a null or missing delimiter. 43.\.44 MATH FONT MACROS 43.$x^2\!/2$\\ 2 $\sqrt{\log ˆ ˆ dx dy ˆˆ dx dy dx dy ˆ ˆ ˆˆ D D 1 \[\int\int_D 2 ˆˆ ˆˆ D \mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y \quad \int\!\int_D \mathrm{d}x\.\. 1) x2 /2 – x2/2 ˆ ˆ dxdy D D √ 1 $\sqrt 2 x$ -.\mathrm{d}y\] 6 dx dy D D dx dy dx dy 43.\log x}$\\ 3 $P\left({1/\sqrt n}\right)$ -.\.$\sqrt 2\. or for the left one.2.\right)$\\[8pt] 4 $[0.\.

\tdelb is the same vice versa (↓). \fam is an internal register where other macros can check which font is the actual one.2 \delimiter Every character can be declared as a delimiter. it typesets everything using one of the 16 possible families of fonts. ↑x − y↓(x + y) = x2 − y 2 ↑ ∞ 1 \def\tdela{\delimiter"4222378\relax} 2 \def\tdelb{\delimiter"5223379\relax} n=0 1 2 ↓ =4 2n 2 1   =4 2n 3 4 $\tdela 5 6 \[\tdela\sum_{n=0}^\infty 7 8 \[\left\tdela\sum_{n=0}^\infty x-y\tdelb(x+y)=x^2-y^2$ {1\over2^n}\tdelb^2 = 4\] {1\over2^n}\right\ 44. At the beginning TEX starts with \fam=-1.4 \fam When TEX switches into the math mode.5 \mathaccent Requires three parameter as one number. but TEX must know which charA acters should be used for the default and the big size.tex v. Mathmode. 44. the class. In the following example \tdela is the character 0x22 (↑) from font number 2 (csmy) and character 0x78 from font number 3 (cmex) for the big version. the font family and the character.47 75 .3 \displaystyle     ∞ tdelb^2 = 4\] n=0 See section 12 for an example. \fam=-1 \fam=0 \fam=1 \fam=2 \fam=3 \fam=4 \fam=5 1 123abcABCαβγ 123abcABCfffifl abcABCαβγ ∞∈ ABC   ABC 123abcABCfffifl 0 123abcABCfffifl 13 123abcABCfffifl 14 123abcABC↑↓' 15 123abcABCαβγ −1 abcABCαβγ  $\mathrm{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\fam) }$\\[5pt] 2 $\mathbf{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\fam) }$\\[5pt] 3 $\mathit{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\fam) }$\\[5pt] 4 $\mathtt{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\fam) }$\\[5pt] 5 $\mathsf{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\fam) }$\\[5pt] 6 $\mathnormal{123abcABC\alpha\beta\gamma (\the\ fam)}$ 44. For L TEX the macro \DeclareMathDelimiter should be used (see section 8.2.2 \delimiter 44 MATH FONT MACROS 44.44.2 on page 26).

7 \mathchar 1 {\Large 2 $a|b \quad a\mathbin| b$} Declares a math character by three integer numbers as Parameters. which can hold a single character or a subformula. \Large \def\myRule{{% 3 \color{red}% 4 \mathchoice{\rule{2pt}{20pt}}{\rule{1pt}{10pt}}% 5 {\rule{0.47 . font family 3 (math extension font) and number 58 (big sum character). a 44.9 \mathchoice Specifies specific subformula sizes for the 4 main styles: \displaystyle – \textstyle – \scriptstyle – \scriptscriptstyle.25pt}{2.10 \mathclose Assigns class 5 (closing character) to the following parameter. and font position. A: B :D C A: B :D C {\large $A:\frac{B}{C}:D$\\[5pt] 3 $A\mathopen:\frac{B}{C}\mathclose: D $} 1 2 76 Mathmode. ∞ a a √ i+1 i=1 ∞ √ i=1 \bgroup \mathchardef\sum="1358 3 $a\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty}\sqrt{i+1}$\\[5pt] 4 \egroup 1 2 5 6 i+1 $a\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty}\sqrt{i+1}$ 44.tex v. it only allows to make such definitions permanent.6 \mathbin ˘ A 44.8 ∞ i=1 b a ∞ i=1 1 {\Large b 2 $a\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty} 3 b \quad a\mathchar"1358\limits_{i=1}^{\infty} b$} \mathchardef This is in principle the same as \mathchar.5pt}}% 6 \mkern2mu}} 7 $\myRule\sum\limits_{\myRule i=1}^{\myRule\infty}% 8 \myRule\frac{\myRule\sqrt{\myRule i+1}}{\myRule i^2}$ 1 2 ∞ i=1 √ i+1 i2 44.6 \mathbin $\dA{A}$} Declares a following character as a binary symbol with another spacing before and behind such a symbol.5pt}{5pt}}{\rule{0. font family. a|b a | b 44.44 MATH FONT MACROS 1 \def\dA{\mathaccent"7015\relax} 2 {\Large 44.2. giving its class. In the following example \mathchar defines a character of class 1 (big operators).

$A_1$ \font\tenxii=cmr12 3 \scriptfont0=\tenxii 4 $A_1$ 1 2 A1 A1 44.44.11 \mathcode A math font is far different from a text font. font family and character number.16 \mathrel Assigns class 3 (relation) to the following parameter. which is 60 decimal.47 77 .tex v.4 for an example).12 \mathop Assigns class 1 (large operator) to the parameter.14 \mathord Assigns class 0 (ordinary character) to the following parameter. which can be a single character or a subformula. x1 ox2 ox3 x1 o x2 o x3 44.. which can be a single character or a subformula.2. A∞ i=1 ∞ i=1 1 2 \[ A_{i=1}^{\infty} \] \[ \mathop{A}_{i=1}^{\infty} \] A 44.13 \mathopen Vice versa to \mathclose (see section 44. which can be a single character or a subformula. 44. A lot of the characters has to be defined with \mathcode.18 \scriptscriptfont Specifies the scriptscriptstyle font for a family.10). which defines the character with its class. which can be a single character or a subformula (see section 11.17 \scriptfont {\large $x_1 o x_2 o x_3$\\[5pt] 3 $x_1\mathrel o x_2\mathrel o x_3$} 1 2 Specifies the scriptstyle font (used for super/subscript) for a family.g.11 \mathcode 44 MATH FONT MACROS 44. e.15 \mathpunct Assigns class 6 (punctuation) to the following parameter. 44. 44. y = f (x) y=f (x) {\large $y = f(x)$\\[5pt] 3 $y \mathord= f(x)$} 1 2 44. \mathcode‘\<="313C. Mathmode. It defines the character “<” as a realtion symbol (class 3) from the font family 1 and the character number 0x3C.

like in this document. ˜ i ˜ i ˜ A ˜ A \large $\tilde i$ \qquad $\tilde{A}$\\[5pt] 3 $\skew{3}{\tilde}{i}$ \qquad $\skew{7}{\tilde}{A}$ 1 2 44. the character: This is in general a single character.tex v.5pt b}$\\[8pt] $\displaystyle{a\above0pt b}$ a b 78 Mathmode.19 \scriptscriptstyle 44. 44.19 \scriptscriptstyle Selects scriptscript style for the following characters. 44.45 MATH MACROS 44.1 Math macros \above a b a b a b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 $a\above0pt b$\\[8pt] ${a\above1pt b}$\\[8pt] ${a\above2.22 \skewchar Is -1 or the character (reference symbol) used to fine-tune the positioning of math accents. but can also include itself an accent.2.20 \scriptstyle Selects script style for the following characters. 45 45. AMS math redefines the setting of double accents. 44.21 \skew Especially for italic characters double accents are often misplaced.23 \textfont Specifies the text font for a family. 44. the accent: The symbol which is placed above the character. \skew has three arguments horizontal shift: A value in math units for the additional shift of the accent. This is the reason why there are only a few cases where someone has to use \skew when the package amsmath is loaded.47 .24 \textstyle Selects the text style for the following characters.

0pt} ${a\fdelimB b}$\\[8pt] \def\fdelimC{\abovewithdelims\{.0pt} ${a\fdelimA b}$\\[8pt] \def\fdelimB{\abovewithdelims[]2. but doesn’t increase any equation counter.6 \eqno Puts an equation number at the right margin.47 79 .3 \atop a b 1 2 3 4 5 $a\atop b$\\[8pt] $({n \atop k}) = {n!\above1pt k!(n-k)!}$\\[8pt] $\displaystyle{a\atop b}$ (n) = k n! k!(n−k)! a b 45.7 \everydisplay (A12) Inserts the parameter at the start of every switch to display math mode. 1 \[ y=f(x) \eqno{(A12)} \] y = f (x) 45. ˆ f (x) = ˆ g(x) = sin x dx x sin2 x dx x2 \everydisplay{\color{red} } 3 \[ f(x) = \int \frac{\sin x}{x}\. 45.\mathrm{d} x \] 1 2 Mathmode.2 \abovewithdelims 45 MATH MACROS 45. \eqno places only the parameter.4 \atopwithdelims a b 1 2 3 4 5 $a\atopwithdelims() b$\\[8pt] ${n \atopwithdelims() k} = {n!\above1pt k!(n-k)!}$\\[8pt] $\displaystyle{a\atopwithdelims\{.0pt} b}$ a b a b a b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b 10 $\displaystyle{a\fdelimC 45. b}$ n k = n! k!(n−k)! a b 45.\mathrm{d}x \] 4 \[ g(x) = \int \frac{\sin^2 x}{x^2}\. the parameter can hold anything.5 \displaylimits Resets the conventions for using limits with operators to the standard for the used environment.tex v.2 \abovewithdelims 1 $a\abovewithdelims()0pt b$\\[8pt] \def\fdelimA{\abovewithdelims\{)1.45.2.

instead of above/below limits are placed to the right of large operators (class 1).45 MATH MACROS 45.tex v.47 .6 on the previous page). In this case you’ll get the footnotes also in red. 45. ˆ f (x) = Instead of sin x dx x sin x cos x now with : x x ˆ cos x dx g(x) = x \everymath{\color{red}% \displaystyle} 3 \[ f(x) = \int \frac{\sin x}{x}\.8 \everymath 45. see section 45. 45.10 \leqno Vice versa to \eqno (see section 45.9 \left TEX calculates the size of the following delimiter needed at the left side of a formula.\mathrm{d} x \] 4 Instead of $\frac{\sin x}{x}$ 5 now with $\frac{\cos x}{x}$: 6 \[ g(x) = \int \frac{\cos x}{x}\. In the following example the displaystyle is used (besides using color red) for every inline math expression.\mathrm{d} x \] 1 2 Pay attention for side effects on footnotes and other macros which use the math mode for superscript and other math related modes. but now for the inline mode. Requires an additional right. 45. 45.11 \limits Typesets limits above and/or below operators (see section 6 on page 21).14 \over A Is equivalent to the fraction macro of L TEX and equivalent to the \overwithdelims. m n a b m n a+b 1 2 $ {a\over b} \qquad {{m\over n}\over{a+b}} $ \[ {m\over n}\over{a+b} \] a+b 80 Mathmode.2. 45.12 \mathinner Defines the following parameter as subformula. 45.16 on the next page.8 \everymath Same as \everydisplay.13 \nolimits The opposite of \limits.

Using \vphantom in this case is a good choice.{a+b} \] 1 a+b 45.19).20 \vcenter Centers vertical material with respect to the axis.19 \underline When there is a combination of variables with and without an index.tex v. x+y =z x+A=z x+A=z $\overline{x}+\overline{y}=\overline{z}$\\ \let\ol\overline 3 $ \ol{x} + \ol{A} = \ol{z} $\\[5pt] 4 \def\yPh{\vphantom{A}} 5 $ \ol{x\yPh} + \ol{A} = \ol{z\yPh} $ 1 2 45. the underlines are typeset with a different depth.15 \overline Puts a line over the following character or subformula and has the same problems with different heights as underlines (see section 45. 1 2 $\underline{x}+\underline{y}=\underline{z}$\\ x+y =z x+y =z x1 + y2 = z3 \let\ul\underline \def\yPh{\vphantom{y}} 5 $ \ul{x\yPh} + \ul{y} = \ul{z\yPh} $\\ 3 4 6 7 $ \ul{x_1} + \ul{y_2} = \ul{z_3} $ 45.47 81 . makes TEX calculate the size of the delimiter needed at the right of a formula.45.16 \overwithdelims Is a generalized fraction command with preset fraction bar thickness.18 \right Opposite to \left.17 \radical Makes a radical atom from the delimiter (27-bit number) and the math field. 45.15 \overline 45 MATH MACROS 45.2. Mathmode. 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \def\mySqrt{\radical"0270374\relax} 11 $ \def\mySqrt{\radical"0270371\relax} $ \mySqrt{\frac{1}{7}} $\\[5pt] \def\mySqrt{\radical"0270372\relax} $ \mySqrt{\frac{1}{7}} $\\[5pt] \def\mySqrt{\radical"0270373\relax} $ \mySqrt{\frac{1}{7}} $\\[5pt] \mySqrt{\frac{1}{7}} $\\[5pt] 45. a b m n m n a+b $ {a\overwithdelims() b} \qquad {{m\over n}\overwithdelims []{a+b}} $ 2 \[ {m\over n}\overwithdelims\{.

000. 46.2.46 MATH PENALTIES 46 46.47 .1 Math penalties \binoppenalty A penalty for breaking math expressions between lines in a paragraph.2 \displaywidowpenalty The penalty which is added after the penultimate line immediately preceeding a display math formula.3 \postdisplaypenalty Is added immediately after a math display ends.5 \relpenalty The penalty for a line break after a relation symbol (if a break is possible). 82 Mathmode.4 \predisplaypenalty Is added immediately before a math display starts. 46. TeX breaks lines only when the binary symbol is not the last one and when the penalty is below 10. 46. 46.tex v.

2 amscd – commutative diagrams The amscd package is part of the AMS math bundle or available at CTAN27 and has no options for the \usepackage command.2 Math Accent Tools 2007/10/04 v 0.7 Graphic file (type veps) 47.sty exscale.dtx Mathmode.sty accents.sty pstricks.12 Emphasizing equations (MH) 1999/11/29 v2. amscd does not support diagonal arrows but 27 CTAN://macros/latex/required/amslatex/math/amscd.tex v.eps 1999/12/14 v2.01 array delimiter package (DPC) 1999/02/16 Xy-pic version 3.hv) 1994/03/14 v1.tex pst-node.47 83 .01 PSTricks package for nodes (tvz.sty empheq. 47.HV) 2003/03/07 v97 patch 15 ‘PSTricks’ (tvz) 2008/11/26 v1. there is no difference between \underline and \underbar.01 operator names 1999/07/05 v1.sty framed.sty amscd. then you can do it by \underline{$M$} \underbar{$M$} \underaccent{\bar}{M} M M M ¯ As seen.0 2000/08/06 v1.Math packages Part IV Other packages The following sections are not a replacement for the package documentation! 47 List of available math packages accents amsbsy amslatex amsppt1 amstex (Plain TeX) bitfield cases doublestroke eqnarray icomma mathematica numprint alphalph amscd amsltx11 amsproc amstext brclc comma easyeqn esvect leftidx mil3 random amsart amscls amsmath amssym (plain TeX) amsthm breqn datenumber easybmat fixmath mathdots mtbe romannum amsbook amsfonts amsppt amssymb (LaTeX) bez123 cancel diagxy easymat ftlpoint mathtools Nath TeXaide The following examples depend on the listed versions of the packages: amsopn.sty bm.1 accents If you want to write for example an underlined M.2.sty xypic.2k LaTeX wrapper for ‘PSTricks’ (RN.sty pstricks.tex delarray.0g Bold Symbol Support (DPC/FMi) 2007/12/03 v2. For some reasons it may be better to use the accent package with the \underaccents macro.95: framed or shaded text with page breaks 2004/05/06 v0.

2.3 amsopn is much easier to handle than the complex pstricks package or the xypic package.3 amsopn With the amsopn package it is very easy to declare new math operators. R×S×T −− −→ S×T −−−    proj proj R×S ←−− −−− inclusion restriction S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \[ \begin{CD} R\times S\times T @>\text{restriction}>> S\times T \\ @VprojVV @VVprojV \\ R\times S @<<\text{inclusion}< S \end{CD} \] 47. 84 Mathmode.sty 47.47 . \arccos \arg \cot \deg \exp \inf \lg \limsup \max \projlim \sinh \tanh arccos arg cot deg exp inf lg lim sup max proj lim sinh tanh \arcsin \cos \coth \det \gcd \injlim \lim \ln \min \sec \sup arcsin cos coth det gcd inj lim lim ln min sec sup \arctan \cosh \csc \dim \hom \ker \liminf \log \Pr \sin \tan arctan cosh csc dim hom ker lim inf log Pr sin tan Table 20: The predefined operators of amsopn.Math packages 47. which are written in upright mode: Res versus Res s=p s=p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \documentclass[10pt]{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{amsopn} \DeclareMathOperator{\Res}{Res} \begin{document} $\underset{s=p}{Res}\quad\underset{s=p}{\Res}$ \end{document} Table 20 shows the predefined operatornames of amsopn. On the other hand simple diagrams can be written with the array environment or look at [24]. In the following example we need additional parentheses for a different number of rows. but not as easy as with the bigdelim package.tex v.4 bigdel This is a very useful package together with the multirow package. This is also possible with the array environment.

1   . xn1 +n2 . all other rows start with second column. .2} & \dots & x_{n_1+n_2. For example: x ∈ R|0 < |x| < 5 3 Mathmode. The text is an optional argument and always typeset in text mode.tex v.. but with empty cells in all rows.g.  text   xn1 1 xn 1 2 .. . For writing a whole formula in bold have a look at section 22 on page 41.47 85 . It is possible to use all columns above and below the delimiter. which the delimiter spans.p  . .5 bm Math packages The trick is that you need one separate column for a big delimiter. xn1 p    x  xn1 +1. The syntax of \ldelim and \rdelim is: \ldelim<delimiter>{<n rows>}{<added horizontal space>}[<text>] \rdelim<delimiter>{<n rows>}{<added horizontal space>}[<text>] Any delimiter which is possible for the \left or \right command is allowed. but it should be in italic mode especially for variables y = f (x) ($\bm{y=f(x)}$). x1p x2p                    some more text     some text  \[ \begin{pmatrix} & x_{11} & x_{12} & \dots & x_{1p} & \rdelim\}{4}{3cm}[some text]\\ \ldelim[{5}{1cm}[text] & x_{21} & x_{22} & \dots & x_{2p} \\ & \vdots\\ & x_{n_1 1}& x_{n_1 2} & \dots & x_{n_1 p}\\ & x_{n_1+1. “()[]{}|”.      .sty and provides several styles for writing math expressions inside brakets.2.. 47.1}&x_{n_1+1.p n1 +1. .  .2} & \dots & x_{n_1+1.1 xn1 +n2 . .5 bm By default the math macro \mathbf writes everything in bold and in upright mode y = f (x) ($\mathbf{y=f(x)}$).2 . which is possible with the package bm.2 . xn1 +1. For the array environment there must be two more columns defined. in case of a big delimiter left and right. .. .6 braket It is available at CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/other/misc/braket.. . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  x11 x21 x12 x22 .p}\\ & \vdots \\ \end{pmatrix} \] As seen in the above listing the left big delimiter is placed in the first column.   xn1 +n2 ...   . 47. 1} & x_{n_1+n_2. p} & \rdelim\}{3}{3cm}[some more text]\\ & \vdots\\ & x_{n_1+n_2. .47. e.

x ∈ R|0 < |x| < x ∈ R|0 < |x| < 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 x∈R 0< x < x ∈ R 0 < |x| < x ∈ R 0 < |x| < 1 2 3 4 5 \[ \[ \[ \[ \[ \Bra{x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<|x|<\frac{5}{3}} \] \Ket{x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<|x|<\frac{5}{3}} \] \Braket{x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<|x|<\frac{5}{3}} \] \Braket{x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<\vert x\vert <\frac{5}{3}} \] \Set{x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<|x|<\frac{5}{3}} \] The difference between the \Set and the \Braket macro is the handling of the vertical lines. Some solution may be using \vphantom: x ∈ R 0 < |x| < 1 2 5 3 3 \[ \left\{\vphantom{\frac{5}{3}}x\in\mathbf{R} \right|\left.Math packages 47. In \Set only the first one gets the same size as the braces and in \Braket all.tex v. 0<{|x|}<\frac{5}{3}\right \} \] The package braket has the macros 1 2 3 4 \Bra{<math expression>} \Ket{<math expression>} \Braket{<math expression>} \Set{<math expression>} and the same with a leading lower letter. 86 Mathmode.6 braket 1 \[ \left\{ x\in\mathbf{R} | 0<{|x|}<\frac{5}{3}\right\} \] looks not quite right and it is not really easy to get the first vertical line in the same size as the outer braces. which are not really interesting.2.47 . φ φ 1 2 ∂2 ψ ∂t2 ∂2 |ψ ∂t2 \[\Braket{\phi | \frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} | \psi}\] \[\Set{\phi | \frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} | \psi}\] \Bra and \Ket do nothing with the inner vertical lines.

5cm] $\xcancel{3}\qquad\xcancel{1234567}$\\[0.47. for more informations look at the example file. backslash or a X. To get a horizontal line we can define an additional macro called \hcancel with an optional argument for the line color (requires package color): 1 2 \newcommand\hcancel[2][black]{\setbox0=\hbox{#2}% \rlap{\raisebox{.tex arcsin(x) arccos(x) arctan(x) csc−1 (x) sec−1 (x) cot−1 (x) v.47 87 .5cm] $\hcancel{3}\qquad\hcancel[red]{1234567}$ 47.5cm] $\bcancel{3}\qquad\bcancel{1234567}$\\[0.45\ht0}{\textcolor{#1}{\rule{\wd0}{1pt}}}}#2} It is no problem to redefine the \cancel macros to get also colored lines.8 cool The cool package defines a lot of special mathematical expressions to use them by the macro name. $ x2 + 1 $$$ (x − 1) \cancel: f (x) = $ + 1) (x − 1)(x $$$ \bcancel: 3 e \xcancel: 3 e ¡ \hcancel: 3 1 2 3 4 hhh h 1234567 hh@@ @@hh 1234567 1234567 $f(x)=\dfrac{\left(x^2+1\right)\cancel{(x-1)}}{\cancel{(x-1)}(x+1)}$\\[0. The following list shows only some of them. \Sin{x} \Cos{x} \Tan{x} \Csc{x} \Sec{x} \Cot{x} sin(x) cos(x) tan(x) csc(x) sec(x) cot(x) \Style{ArcTrig=inverse} (default) \ArcSin{x} \ArcCos{x} \ArcTan{x} sin−1 (x) cos−1 (x) tan−1 (x) \Style{ArcTrig=arc} \ArcSin{x} \ArcCos{x} \ArcTan{x} \ArcCsc{x} \ArcSec{x} \ArcCot{x} Mathmode.7 cancel This is a nice package for canceling anything in mathmode with a slash.7 cancel Math packages 47. which comes with the package.2. A horizontal line for single characters is also decribed in section 14 on page 34.

. bq 1.4}{5. in ) Γ(x) Γ(a. x) \GammaFunc{x} \IncGamma{a}{x} \GenIncGamma{a}{x}{y} \RegIncGamma{a}{x} \RegIncGammaInv{a}{x} \GenRegIncGamma{a}{x}{y} \GenRegIncGammaInv{a}{x}{y} \Pochhammer{a}{n} \LogGamma{x} \Hypergeometric{0}{0}{}{}{x} \Hypergeometric{0}{1}{}{b}{x} \RegHypergeometric{0}{0}{}{}{x} \RegHypergeometric{0}{1}{}{b}{x} \MeijerG[a. . ap b1 .8 a1 . . z) Se(a. 21. x) Γ(a. q) \MathieuCharacteristicA{r}{q} \MathieuCharisticA{r}{q} \MathieuCharacteristicB{r}{q} \MathieuCharisticB{r}{q} \MathieuCharacteristicExponent{a}{q} \MathieuCharisticExp{a}{q} 47.9 delarray Package delarray28 supports different delimiters which are defined together with the beginning of an array: 28 CTAN://macros/latex/required/tools/delarray. 24 ζ(s) ζ(s) ζ(s. x) Gm. .15. b.3. + in . 6 3. q. y) Q−1 (a. q.q G3. 12. .2. 15.9 delarray \Factorial{n} \DblFactorial{n} \Binomial{n}{k} \Multinomial{1.2. .4} n! n!! n k (i1 + . bm+1 . 2. x. q) r(a.21. . . . x) Q(a. . . . i1 . an+1 . x) 0 F 0 (. z) ar (q) ar (q) br (q) br (q) r(a. . . . x) 0 F1 (. 3. bm . .24}{x} \RiemannZeta{s} \Zeta{s} \HurwitzZeta{s}{a} \Zeta{s. .n x p.6}{3. 5. x. 9.3. y) (a)n logΓ(x) 0 F0 (. an . 6.b]{n}{p}{m}{q}{x} ˜ ˜ 0 F 1 (. . x) Q−1 (a.2.4 x 6. a) ϑ(x) Z(x) γn \MeijerG{1.47 .a} \RiemannSiegelTheta{x} \RiemannSiegelZ{x} \StieltjesGamma{n} \MathieuC{a}{q}{z} \MathieuS{a}{q}{z} Ce(a.Math packages 47. 18. . 4.9}{12. . a) ζ(s. b. x.6. .dtx 88 Mathmode. .tex v.18. . y) Q(a. .

a & b\\ c & d \end{array} \] A= a b c d which is a useful command for a cases structure without the AMS math package. . .\mathrm{d}x + C \end{eqnarray} % \begin{equation} F(x)=\int f(x)\. . . (47.tex v. .47. .g. . If you need only one (like the cases structure) then use the dot for an “empty” delimiter. Mathmode. . . ..47 89 .10 dotseqn This package29 fills the space between the math expression and the equation number with dots.\mathrm{d}x + C \end{equation} 47. eqnarray environment.. 29 30 CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/dotseqn The package is part of the mh-bundle of Morten Høgholm (CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/mh/). . . . . . . . .1) f (x) dx + C . e. It doesn’t support all the environments from standard L TEX which are not modified by AMS math.11 empheq This package30 supports different frames for math environments of the AMS math A package. .. (47. . . . .g.. Expect problems when using this package together with AMS math. which is described in the AMS math part. 47. . . defines an array with two centered columns and the delimiters “<delLeft><delRight>”. . 1 2 3 4 5 6 \[ A=\begin{array}\{{cc}.2) \begin{eqnarray} F(x) &=& \int f(x)\. .. . . . . .2.g. . . “()”. e. . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 \[ A=\begin{array}({cc}) a & b\\ c & d \end{array} \] A= a b c d The delarray package expects a pair of delimiters. e.10 dotseqn Math packages 1 2 \begin{array}<delLeft>{cc}<delRight> . . . . ˆ F (x) = ˆ F (x) = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f (x) dx + C .

3) \begin{empheq}[box=\fbox]{align} f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\.Math packages 47.tex v.25 x2 (47.12 esint With the optional argument of the empheq environment the preferred box type can be specified.\mathrm{d}x=1\\ f(x) & =\int_2^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\. The ones from the wasysym package31 are not the best.\mathrm{d}x=1 \end{empheq} A The key box can hold any possible L TEX command sequence.25 \end{empheq} \end{subequations} For more information on empheq package have a look at the documentation of the package which is available at any CTAN server.2.6) ¨ \iint : (47.5b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 \begin{subequations} \begin{empheq}[box={\fboxsep=10pt\colorbox{cyan}}]{align} f(x) & =\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\.47 .8) CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/wasysym/ CTAN://macros/latex/contrib/esint/ CTAN://fonts/ps-type1/esint/ 90 Mathmode.7) ˚ \iiintop : 31 32 (47.\mathrm{d}x=1 \end{empheq} The same is possible with the macro \colorbox: ˆ f (x) = 1 ∞ 1 dx = 1 x2 (47. esint32 supports the following symbols: ˆ \int : (47. the empheq environment works in the same way: ˆ f (x) = f (x) = ∞ ˆ1 ∞ 2 1 dx = 1 x1 1 dx = 0. Boxing subequations is also no problem. A simple one is \fbox ˆ f (x) = 1 1 2 3 ∞ 1 dx = 1 x2 (47.4) 1 2 3 \begin{empheq}[box={\fboxsep=10pt\colorbox{yellow}}]{align} f(x)=\int_1^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}\.12 esint This is a very useful package when you want nice double or triple integral or curve integral symbols.\mathrm{d}x=0. 47.5a) (47.

They support a scriptwriting of only uppercase letters: \mathscr{.2.} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Read the documentation for the interdependence to the \mathcal command.14 exscale The following formula is written with the default fontsize where everything looks more or less well: ˆ +1 −1 π f (x) √ dx ≈ 2 n 1−x n f i=1 cos 2i − 1 2n Writing the same with the fontsize \huge gives a surprising result. the \int and \sum symbols are not stretched.47. Otherwise get them from CTAN33 . because they come with the AMS math packages.47 91 .17) ffi \varointctrclockwise : \fint : (47.21) & \landdownint : (47.sty Mathmode.13 eucal and euscript These packages should be part of your local TEX installation.15)  \ointclockwise : (47..19) " \varoiint : (47. For the above example the package eucal was loaded with the option mathscr.22) 47.20) $ \landupint : (47.9) ˙ \dotsintop : (47.13) „ \sqiint : (47.12) “ \sqint : (47. This extreme fontsize is often needed for slides and not only written “just for fun”. which belongs A to the historical development of L TEX.18) (47.tex v.11) ‹ \oiint : (47.10) ˛ \ointop : (47.13 eucal and euscript Math packages ˘ \iiiintop : (47.. 33 CTAN://fonts/amsfonts/latex/euscript.16) fi \varointclockwise : (47. 47.14) ‰ \ointctrclockwise : (47.

which should be part of any local TEX installation.15 mathtools Using the exscale package34 package. which is often not the best way. all symbols get the right size. Matrices are set by default with a centered horizontal alignment.Math packages 47. which allows to typeset a formula in the following way: 1 \begin{align} x= a+b+c d+e+f +g+h i+j+k (47. Sometimes it is useful when only such equations are numbered which are referenced in the text.23) x &= \begin{lgathered}[t] 4 a + b + c \\ 5 d + e + 6 \!\begin{gathered}[t] 7 f + g + h \\ 8 i + j + k 9 \end{gathered} 10 \end{lgathered} 11 \end{align} 2 3 34 CTAN://macros/latex/base/ 92 Mathmode. The mathtools package provides a starred version of the matrix environments which allow an optional argument for the horizontal alignment:   1 −1 0  −1 1 −1    1 −1 0 −11 11 −11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 \[ \begin{pmatrix*}[r] 1 & -1 & 0 \\ -1 & 1 & -1 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 \\ -11 & 11 &-11 \\ \end{pmatrix*} \] mathtools also provides some more environments for setting equations.15 mathtools This package comes with a lot of additional features for typesetting math code. +1 √f (x) dx ≈ π n f cos  2i − 1           −1 2 n i=1 2n 1−x +1    ˆ −1 π f (x) √ dx ≈ n 1 − x2 n f i=1 cos 2i − 1 2n 47.47 . This is possible with the switch \showonlyrefs.2.tex v. Very interesting is the lgathered environment.

A B C (47. someone can use the \scalebox macro from package graphicx environment and write an own macro \Sum.g.24) D E F G This matrix was created with 35 36 H I CTAN://macros/latex/ltxmisc/ CTAN://macros/generic/diagrams/xypic/xy-3. e. 47. 47.16 nicefrac Typesetting fractions in the inline mode is often a bad choice. which is used in the same way as the \frac command. To increase the first operator size...47 93 .17 relsize Often consecutives math operators are used. n i2 i=1 As seen the sums are of the same size.16 nicefrac Math packages The \! revokes the internal horizontal space in front of the gathered environment.2}{$\displaystyle\sum$}}} \[ \Sum_{j=1}\sum_{i=1}^\infty i \] ∞ j=1 i=1 i Another solution is to use the relsize package35 together with the exscale one.37 .tex v. 1 2 \def\Sum{\ensuremath\mathop{\scalebox{1.47. The package is part of the units package bundle and can be found in the directory of units. e. The nicefrac package defines the macro \nicefrac. which is often saved in /usr/share/texmf/tex/generic Mathmode. the vertical spacing increases in fact of the fraction.7/ 37 For more information look at the package documentation or the package xy itself.g. relsize defines a useful macro \mathlarger: n 1 \[ i i=1 2 \mathlarger{\sum}\sum_{i=1}^n i^2 \] 47.2.18 xypic The \xymatrix macro is part of the xypic package36 which can be loaded with several options which are not so important here. but it typesets the fraction with a less height: 2/3 \nicefrac{2}{3}. like two sum symbols.

[dr]**\dir {-} & B & C\\ D & E\POS [].[r]**\dir {~} & F\POS [].Math packages 47.[].}.[].[d]**\dir {~}.18 xypic 1 2 3 4 5 \[ \xymatrix{ A\POS [].47 .[l]**\dir {.2.[dl]**\dir {~}\\ G & H & I} \] 94 Mathmode.tex v.

AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓGHIJKLMNOΘΩ PΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥΨZ aαbβc∂dδe εf ζξgγh ιiıjkκκl λmnηθϑoσςφϕ℘pρ qrstτ πuµνvυwω xχyψz∞ ∝ ∅∅dð Mathmode. a) = 1 ist (z. Theorem 1 (Residuum). 48 Computer modern This is the default font.lm Theorem 1 (Residuum). or to combine the free text font with another free math font. Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D\{a} analytische Funktion f definiert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Resf (z) = Resf = z=a a 1 2πi C f (z) dz .tex v. For the PDF output the Type 1 fonts cm-super and BlueSky were used.47 95 . ein entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis). e. AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓGHIJKLMNOΘΩ PΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥΨZ aαbβc∂dδe εf ζξgγh ιiıjkκκl λmnηθϑoσςφϕ℘pρ qrstτ πuµνvυwω xχyψz∞ ∝ ∅∅dð 49 Latin modern This is the new designed font which comes with an own Type 1 version. There exist a lot of free text fonts without additional math characters. Palatino (pamath) or Helvetica (hvmath). designed by Knuth.49 LATIN MODERN Part V Math fonts Typesetting text and math is far different. wobei C ⊂ D\{a} ein geschlossener Weg mit n(C. ein entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis). g. wobei C ⊂ D\{a} ein geschlossener Weg mit n(C. Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D\{a} analytische Funktion f definiert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Resf (z) = Resf = z=a a 1 2πi C f (z) dz .B. a) = 1 ist (z.B.2. This is the reason why we have to buy a commercial math font.

mathpazo Theorem 1 (Residuum). ein entgegen AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓ GHIJKLMNOΘΩ PΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥ ΨZ aαbβc∂dδe εfζξgγhħ ιiıjkκκl λmnηθϑoσςφϕ℘pρ qrstτπuµνvυwω xχyψz∞ ∝ ∅∅dð 96 Mathmode. a) = 1 ist (z.mathpazo Theorem 1 (Residuum).51 PALATINO – MICROIMP 50 Palatino There is a free package mathpazo.B. a dem Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis). AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓGHIJKLMNOΘΩ PΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥΨZ aαbβc∂dδe ε f ζξgγh¯ ιiıjkκ κ l λmnηθϑoσςφϕ℘ pρ qrstτπuµνvυwω h xχyψz∞ ∝ ∅∅dð 51 Palatino – microimp There is the package pamath for the nonfree palatino font. Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D\{a} analytische Funktion f definiert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Resf z z a Resf a 1 2πi C f z dz .B.tex v. ein entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis). C wobei C ⊂ D \{ a} ein geschlossener Weg mit n(C. Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D \{ a} analytische Funktion f definiert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Res f (z) = Res f = z= a a 1 2πi f (z) dz .47 . 1 ist (z. wobei C ⊂ D\{a} ein geschlossener Weg mit n C.2.

tex v. ein entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis).53 MINION 52 cmbright Theorem 1 (Residuum).47 97 . wobei C ⊂ D\{a} ein geschlossener Weg mit n(C.2. AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓ GHIJKLMNOΘΩ PΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥΨZ aαbβc∂dδe εf ζξgγh ιi ıjkκκl λmnηθϑoσςφϕ℘pρ qr stτ πuµνv υw ω xχy ψz∞ ∝ ∅∅dð 53 minion eorem (Residuum).B. ein entgegen dem wobei C D a ein geschlossener Weg mit n(C.B. ist (z. a) = Uhrzeigersinn durchlaufener Kreis). AΛ∆ BCDΣEFΓGHIJKLMNOΘΩΩPΦΠΞQRSTUVWXYΥΨZ aαbβc∂dδeєε fζξgγhħħιiı j kκ lℓλmnηθ oσ φ pρρqrstτπuµνvυwω xχyψz dðэ Mathmode. a) = 1 ist (z. Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D a analytische Funktion f de niert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Res f(z) = Res f = z=a a πi C ∫ f(z) dz . Für eine in einer punktierten Kreisscheibe D\{a} analytische Funktion f definiert man das Residuum im Punkt a als Resf (z) = Resf = z=a a 1 2πi C f (z) dz .

tex v.ltx 54 Integral symbols Name \dashint \ddashint \clockint \counterint Symbol ´ − ´ = ´ ´ For all new integral symbols limits can be used in the usual way: ∞ ˆ ˆ ˛ ˆ ˆ =1=−0< = 0 1 −∞ (54.ltx L TEX itself defines the following special symbols for using inside math: Name \mathparagraph \mathsection \mathdollar \mathsterling \mathunderscore \mathellipsis Meaning ¶ § $ £ . which are not part of the list of all available symbols: CTAN://info/symbols/comprehensive/symbols-a4.1) A 1 \ddashint_01=\dashint_10<\oint\limits_{-\infty}^\infty = \clockint\counterint_A Put the following definitions into the preamble to use one or all of these new integral symbols. With A fontmath.47 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% \!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.pdf. Table 21: Predefined math symbols from fontmath..54 INTEGRAL SYMBOLS Part VI Special symbols In this section only those symbols are defined.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} \def\clockint{\Xint\circlearrowright} % GOOD! \def\counterint{\Xint\rotcirclearrowleft} % Good for Computer Modern! \def\rotcirclearrowleft{\mathpalette{\RotLSymbol{-30}}\circlearrowleft} \def\RotLSymbol#1#2#3{\rotatebox[origin=c]{#1}{$#2#3$}} 98 Mathmode.2.

56 BIJECTIVE MAPPING ARROW 55 Harpoons A L TEX knows no stretchable harpoon symbols. \xrightharpoondown 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 \def\rightharpoondownfill@{% \arrowfill@\relbar\relbar\rightharpoondown} \def\rightharpoonupfill@{% \arrowfill@\relbar\relbar\rightharpoonup} \def\leftharpoondownfill@{% \arrowfill@\leftharpoondown\relbar\relbar} \def\leftharpoonupfill@{% \arrowfill@\leftharpoonup\relbar\relbar} \newcommand{\xrightharpoondown}[2][]{% \ext@arrow 0359\rightharpoondownfill@{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\xrightharpoonup}[2][]{% \ext@arrow 0359\rightharpoonupfill@{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\xleftharpoondown}[2][]{% \ext@arrow 3095\leftharpoondownfill@{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\xleftharpoonup}[2][]{% \ext@arrow 3095\leftharpoonupfill@{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\xleftrightharpoons}[2][]{\mathrel{% \raise. The following code defines several harpoon symbols.2.22ex\hbox{% $\ext@arrow 3095\leftharpoonupfill@{\phantom{#1}}{#2}$}% \setbox0=\hbox{% $\ext@arrow 0359\rightharpoondownfill@{#1}{\phantom{#2}}$}% \kern-\wd0 \lower.tex v. like \xrightarrow.22ex\box0}% } \xrightharpoonup \xleftharpoondown \xleftharpoonup \xleftrightharpoons \xrightleftharpoons \xrightharpoondown[under]{over} \xrightharpoonup[under]{over} \xleftharpoondown[under]{over} \xleftharpoonup[under]{over} \xleftrightharpoons[under]{over} \xrightleftharpoons[under]{over} −− − −− − over under over under over under over under over −− − −− − −− − −− − −− − −− − under under over 56 Bijective mapping arrow To get something like → we can define: 1 2 3 4 5 \def\bijmap{% \ensuremath{% \mathrlap{\rightarrowtail}\rightarrow% }% } Mathmode.47 99 .22ex\box0}% } \newcommand{\xrightleftharpoons}[2][]{\mathrel{% \raise.22ex\hbox{% $\ext@arrow 3095\rightharpoonupfill@{\phantom{#1}}{#2}$}% \setbox0=\hbox{% $\ext@arrow 0359\leftharpoondownfill@{#1}{\phantom{#2}}$}% \kern-\wd0 \lower.

\doteq.2.tex v.. ∼ ). ≡ . With this definition a huge symbol is also possible: {\Huge\bijmap} → .47 . But there are still some missing. \eqdef \eqexcl \eqhat def = ! = = Table 22: New symbols in combination with the equal sign 1 2 3 \newcommand{\eqdef}{\ensuremath{\mathrel{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}}}} \newcommand{\eqexcl}{\ensuremath{\mathrel{\stackrel{\mathrm{!}}{=}}}} \newcommand{\eqhat}{\ensuremath{\mathrel{\widehat{=}}}} 58 1 2 3 Other symbols 4 \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-. (=.35ex\hbox {$\sim$}}}} $\threesim ABC$ \newcommand\Let{\mathrel{\mathop:\!\!=}}% \newcommand\teL{\mathrel{=\!\!\mathop:}} $x\Let y$ $y\teL x$ Upper case L! ∼ ABC ∼ ∼ 1 2 3 x := y y =: x 100 Mathmode.2 on page 63.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-. which are shown in table 22 and the = following definitions. e.g. \equiv or \cong .58 OTHER SYMBOLS This uses the \mathrlap definition from section 35. 57 Stacked equal sign There are several symbols stacked with an equal sign.

b. . . and f a. in european countries often a centered dot. 10 1.. one should always use the \ldots command: 1. $e$. 10 1 2 $1. In such a case it is appropriate not to use the \cdots command for a ellipsis. c.. Often inline formulas contain a punctuation character like a dot. . $b$.... e. 1 2 \begin{align*} G(t) &= \underbrace{\. etc.\ldots.. \textrm{and }f$ \\[5pt] $a$. It is a general rule to write those characters outside the math mode. and f 1 2 $a. $c$.\int\cdots\!\int\!\!}_D iC (t) dt \. doesn’t look very nice. Compare a. d.6 on page 11).tex v. and $f$ Having such math as single expressions enables TEX to insert a linebreak at several places (see Section 2. e. c. d..10$\\[5pt] $1.2.\frac{\diff s}{\diff t} ˆ F (x) = v(t) = f (x) dx ds dt d2 s a(t) = 2 dt ˆ G(t) = ˆ uC (t) = ··· D \begin{align*} F(x) &= \int\!f(x)\diff x\\ 3 v(t) &= \dst\\ 4 a(t) &= \frac{\diff{}^2s}{\diff t^2} 5 \end{align*} 1 2 ˆ dx dy . . comma. For sums the \cdot command should be used instead: 1 + 2 + · · · + 10 xn = xn−1 = · · · = n0 = 1 1 2 $1+2+\cdots+10$\\[5pt] $x_n=x_{n-1}=\cdots=n_0=1$ For a multiplication it is important which character is used. .47 101 .i_C(t)\diff t 4 \end{align*} 3 Mathmode. For typesetting integrals or differential equations it makes sense to define the following short macros: 1 2 \newcommand*{\diff}{\mathop{}\!\mathrm{d}} \newcommand*\dst{\. colon. b.\diff x\diff y\ldots\\ u_C(t) &= \int\!\.. .10$ This is correct as long as on the left and right are a comma as a separator. d. b. c. . Writing an ellipses as three single dots. e.59 TUNING MATH TYPESETTING Part VII Examples 59 Tuning math typesetting Chapter 18 of the TEXbook is named „Fine Points of Mathematics Typing“ [13] and it shows on 20 pages some more or less important facts when typesetting mathematical expressions. $d$.

+ a1n xn + a2n xn . there are two 102 Mathmode. + .3 Matrix with comments on top 1 \def\rb#1{\rotatebox{90}{$\xleftarrow{#1}$}} 2 \begin{tabular}{c} ←− −− ←− −− ←− −− ←− −− text1 text1 text1 text1 3 $\begin{matrix} 4 \rb{text1}&\rb{text1}&\rb{text1}&\rb{text1}\\ 5 \end{matrix}$\\ 6 $\begin{bmatrix}   Xx Yx Zx Tx Xy Yy Zy Ty    Xz Yz Zz Tz  0 0 0 1 & Y_x & Z_x & T_x \\ _y & Y_y & Z_y & T_y \\ 8X 9 X_z & Y_z & Z_z & T_z \\ 10 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 11 \end{bmatrix}$ 12 \end{tabular} 7 X_x 61 Cases structure Sometimes it is better to use the array environment instead of amsmath’s cases environment. yn−1 = a(n−1)1 x1 + a(n−1)2 x2 + a(n−1)3 x3 + . + . = . Here is a solution with the default array environment. .47 . + a13 x3 + a23 x3 . . .tex v. + a1(n−1) xn−1 + . . + .61 CASES STRUCTURE 60 60. + a12 x2 + a22 x2 . .1 Matrix Identity matrix There are several possibilities to write this matrix. . = a11 x1 = a21 x1 . + . . .2. + . . + a(n)(n−1) xn−1 + ann xn 1 \[ 2 \begin{array}{l@{\:=\:}*{5}{l@{\:+\:}}l} 3 y_1 & a_{11}x_1 & a_{12}x_2 & a_{13}x_3 & _2 & a_{21}x_1 & a_{22}x_2 & a_{23}x_3 & 4y 5 \ \vdots &\ \vdots &\ \vdots &\ \vdots &\ 6 y_{n-1} & a_{(n-1)1}x_1 & a_{(n-1)2}x_2 & n-1} & a_{(n-1)n}x_n\\ 7 y_n & a_{n1}x_1 & a_{n2}x_2 & a_{n3}x_3 & 8 \end{array} 9 \] \dots & a_{1(n-1)}x_{n-1} & a_{1n}x_n \\ \dots & a_{2(n-1)}x_{n-1} & a_{2n}x_n \\ \vdots &\ \vdots &\ \vdots\\ a_{(n-1)3}x_3 & \dots & a_{(n-1)(n-1)}x_{ \dots & a_{(n)(n-1)}x_{n-1} & a_{nn}x_n 60. . + a2(n−1) xn−1 . . \[ \left( 3 \begin{array}{ccccc} 4 1\\ 5 & 1 & & \text{{\huge{0}}}\\ 6 & & 1\\ 7 & \text{{\huge{0}}} & & 1\\ 8 & & & & 1 9 \end{array} 10 \right) 11 \] 1 2         60. . + a(n−1)(n−1) xn−1 + a(n−1)n xn yn = an1 x1 + an2 x2 + an3 x3 + . .2 1 1 1 0 1 1         0 System of linear equations y1 y2 . . . To get optimal horizontal spacing for the conditions. + . . .

2) (61.75cm}[some text here] & $x=2\quad\text{if }y>2$ &\refstepcounter{equation}(\theequation)\\ & $x=3\quad\text{if }y\le2$&\refstepcounter{equation}(\theequation) \end{tabularx} Mathmode. The following three examples use the tabular. x = 2 if y > 2 some text here (61. To minimize the horizontal space around the variable z a 1 \addtolength{\arraycolsep}{-3pt} is a useful command.47 103 .1) The \phantom command replaces exactly that place with whitespace which the argument needs. one 3 × 1 followed by 3 × 3 matrix.tex v. there are some tricky ways to get numbered lines. \end{equation}  D +z  I(z) = δ0 D − 1 p − 2   D−z z2 p −D ≤ z ≤ −p −p ≤ z ≤ p ≤z≤ p D (61.3) x = 3 if y ≤ 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \begin{tabular}{rc} \ldelim\{{2}{2.75cm}[some text here] & \parbox{{\linewidth-3cm-4\tabcolsep}}{ \vspace*{1ex} \begin{flalign} x & = 2\quad\text{if }y >2 &\\ x & = 3\quad\text{if }y \le 2& \end{flalign}} \end{tabular} some text here x = 2 if y > 2 x = 3 if y ≤ 2 (61. However.1 Cases with numbered lines This is not possible in an easy way. the tabularx and the array environment.5) 1 2 3 4 5 \begin{tabularx}{\linewidth}{rXc} \ldelim\{{2}{2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \begin{equation} \addtolength{\arraycolsep}{-3pt} I(z)=\delta_{0}\left\{% \begin{array}{lcrcl} D+z & \quad & -D & \le z\le & -p\\ D-\frac{1}{2}\left(p-\frac{z^{2}}{p}\right)% & \quad & -p & \le z\le & \phantom{-}p\\ D-z & \quad & p & \le z\le & \phantom{-}D \end{array}\right.1 Cases with numbered lines 61 CASES STRUCTURE matrixes in series.4) (61.2.61. 61. because cases uses the array environment for typesetting which has by default no numbering.

\\ y+\left({\displaystyle \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}-c & = & \left(x+{\displaystyle% \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2} & \left|(\textrm{Scheitelpunktform})\right.7) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \[ \begin{array}{rc@{\qquad}c} \ldelim\{{2}{2.\left({\displaystyle \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}-c}\right) \end{array} \end{equation} 104 Mathmode.2.tex v.62 ARRAYS some text here x = 2 if y > 2 x = 3 if y ≤ 2 (61.1 Quadratic equation y = = = x2 + bx + c b x2 + 2 · x + c 2 b b 2 x +2· x+ 2 2 x+ b 2 − 2 2 − b 2 2 +c = y+ b 2 2 b x+ 2 x+ 2 b 2 2 +c + b 2 2 −c −c y − yS S(xS .75cm}[some text here] & x = 2\quad\text{if }y > 2 & \refstepcounter{equation}(\theequation)\\ & x = 3\quad\text{if }y \le 2& \refstepcounter{equation}(\theequation) \end{array} \] 62 Arrays There is a general rule that a lot of mathematical stuff should be divided in smaller pieces. 2 2 = |(Scheitelpunktform) 2 −c (62. yS ) b 2 2 = (x − xS )2 b b bzw.\textrm{bzw. S − .\.1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 \begin{equation} \begin{array}{rcll} y & = & x^{2}+bx+c\\ & = & x^{2}+2\cdot{\displaystyle\frac{b}{2}x+c}\\ & = & \underbrace{x^{2}+2\cdot\frac{b}{2}x+\left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^{2}}-{\displaystyle% \left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^{2}+c}\\ & & \qquad\left(x+{\displaystyle \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}\\ & = & \left(x+{\displaystyle \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}-\left({\displaystyle% \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}+c & \left|+\left({\displaystyle% \frac{b}{2}}\right)^{2}-c\right. & S\left(-{\displaystyle% \frac{b}{2}.47 .\\ y-y_{S} & = & (x-x_{S})^{2}\\ S(x_{S}.}\. But sometimes it is difficult to get a nice horizontal alignment when splitting a formula. The following ones uses the array environment to get a proper alignment.6) (61. 62.y_{S}) & \.

2 Vectors and matrices  01  a4 RS =   02 a4  a4 56 a1 55 55 82 fc 87 87 f3 c1 5a        5a 1e 47 58 58 c6 ae db db 68 3d 9e  si.   divergent q ≤ −1 n−>∞ lim qn =   1 2 3 $\lim\limits_{n->\infty}q^{n}=\left\{% \begin{array}{lc@{\kern2pt}c@{\kern2pt}r} \textrm{divergent}\ & q & \le & -1\\ 0  1   ∞ |q| < 1 q = 1 q > 1 Mathmode..j}\cdot2^{8j}\qquad i=0. S0 ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 \begin{equation} \begin{array}{rcl} \underline{RS} & = & \left(\begin{array}{cccccccc} 01 & a4 & 55 & 87 & 5a & 58 & db & 9e\\ a4 & 56 & 82 & f3 & 1e & c6 & 68 & e5\\ 02 & a1 & fc & c1 & 47 & ae & 3d & 19\\ a4 & 55 & 87 & 5a & 58 & db & 9e & 03\end{array}\right)\\ \\ \left(\begin{array}{c} s_{i.1   = RS ·     si.1. 1.2) 3 j=0 si...tex v..2    si..S_{1}.1}\\ s_{i.3 Cases with (eqn)array environment This solution is important when AMS math can’t be used.S_{k-2}. k − 1 S = (Sk−1 .. S1 . Sk−2 .47 105 .2..2}\\ s_{i.62...2 Vectors and matrices 62 ARRAYS 62..j i = 0..3} \end{array}\right) & = & \underline{RS}\cdot% \left(\begin{array}{c} m_{8i+0}\\ m_{8i+1}\\ \cdots\\ m_{8i+6}\\ m_{8i+7} \end{array}\right)\\ \\ S_{i} & = & \sum_{j=0}^{3}s_{i..3 Si =   9e e5   19  03 m8i+0 m8i+1 ··· m8i+6 m8i+7 · 28j (62.k-1\\ \\ S & = & \left(S_{k-1}..S_{0}\right) \end{array} \end{equation} 62. . .0}\\ s_{i.0    si..

tex v.62 ARRAYS 62.$ 62.4 Arrays inside arrays 4 5 6 7 0 & |q| & < & 1\\ 1 & q & = & 1\\ \infty & q & > & 1 \end{array}\right.2.47 .4 Arrays inside arrays The array environment is a powerful one because it can be nested in several ways:  a11 a12  a21 a22     0      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 0 b11 b12 b13 b21 b22 b23 b31 b32 b33 0 0 0 c11 c12 c21 c22            \[ \left( \begin{array}{c@{}c@{}c} \begin{array}{|cc|}\hline a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\\hline \end{array} & \mathbf{0} & \mathbf{0} \\ \mathbf{0} & \begin{array}{|ccc|}\hline b_{11} & b_{12} & b_{13}\\ b_{21} & b_{22} & b_{23}\\ b_{31} & b_{32} & b_{33}\\\hline \end{array} & \mathbf{0} \\ \mathbf{0} & \mathbf{0} & \begin{array}{|cc|}\hline c_{11} & c_{12} \\ c_{21} & c_{22} \\\hline \end{array} \\ \end{array} \right) \] 0 Y1 =  1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3  0 0  1 1 \[ Y^1= \begin{array}{c} \null\\[1ex]% only vor vertical alignment \left[\begin{array}{rrrr} 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ 1 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{array}\right]\\[3ex]\hline \begin{array}{rrrr} 106 Mathmode.

3.5 Colored cells In general there is no difference in coloring tabular or array cells.0}(n-2) & h_{k.4.3.1 (n − 2) hk.2.2. The following example shows how one can put colors in rows.1}(n) & h_{k.3.5} \def\zero{\multicolumn{1}{>{\columncolor{white}}c}{0}} \def\colCell#1#2{\multicolumn{1}{>{\columncolor{#1}}c}{#2}} \begin{document} \[\left[\.1}(n-2) & h_{k. \begin{array}{*{5}{>{\columncolor[gray]{0.2.1.0 (n − 2) hk.2.0 (n) hk.1.1 (n − 1) hk.1}(n-2) & h_{k.\right]_{12\times 5}\] .1}(n)} & h_{k.1.1.1}(n-1) & h_{k.1.1.4.2.0}(n-1) & h_{k.8.tex v.                          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 hk.5 Colored cells 62 ARRAYS 11 12 13 14 15 \hdotsfor{4}\\%( needs \AmSmath) instead of \\[3ex]\hline 2 & 1 &3 & 1 \end{array} \end{array} \] % 62.1 (n − 1) hk.3..2 (n) hk.1.0 (n − 1) hk.2}(n) & \zero & \zero\\ h_{k.1}(n-1) & h_{k.1 (n) hk.2}(n-2) \end{array} \.1.0}(n) & h_{k.2.4.2}(n-1) & \zero\\ \zero & h_{k.4.2}(n) & \zero & \zero\\ \zero & h_{k.2 (n − 1) hk.3.1}(n) & h_{k.1.4.1 (n) hk.1.2.4.0 (n − 1) hk.0}(n)} & \colCell{umbra}{h_{k.0.0 (n − 2) hk.3.4.2}(n-1) & \zero\\ \zero & \colCell{umbra}{h_{k.0 (n − 1) 0 0 0 0 hk.4.2 (n − 2) hk.4.3.2 (n − 1) hk.4.1}(n-1) & h_{k.0}(n-1)} & h_{k.3.1.0 (n − 2) hk.0}(n-2) & h_{k.1 (n − 2) hk.3.1 (n − 2) hk.1}(n) & h_{k.2 (n) hk. 62.2.2 (n − 2)                          12×5 .2 (n − 2) hk.1 (n − 1) hk.4.0 (n) hk.3.4..2.2.4.2}(n-1) & \zero\\ \zero & \zero & h_{k.2.2}(n-2)\\ \zero & \zero & h_{k.2.1.95}}c}} h_{k.2.1.6 Boxed rows and columns Mathmode.0}(n) & h_{k.4.3.3.0}(n) & h_{k.1.2}(n-2)\\ \zero & \zero & h_{k. columns and cells.47 107 .1.0.1}(n-2) & h_{k.0 (n − 2) 0 0 0 0 hk.1 (n) hk.2 (n) hk.0}(n-2) & h_{k.2 (n) hk.2 (n − 2) hk.3.2}(n) & \zero & \zero\\ h_{k.2.1 (n − 2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hk.2 (n − 1) hk.8.62.2}(n-1) & \zero\\ \zero & h_{k.4..3.0 (n) hk.2 (n − 1) hk.4.1.0}(n-1) & h_{k.2.1.2.3.4.3.0 (n − 1) hk.3.3.1.1}(n-1) & h_{k.4.2.2.2}(n) & \zero & \zero\\ h_{k..0 (n) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hk.0}(n-2) & h_{k.2}(n-2)\\ \zero & \zero & h_{k.1 (n) hk.1}(n-2) & h_{k.1 (n − 1) hk.2.0}(n-1) & h_{k. \usepackage{array} \usepackage{colortbl} \definecolor{umbra}{rgb}{0.

and underbraces Braces and roots To put an underbrace in a root without enlarging the root symbol is possible with the \makebox macro: z= x2 + y 2 =z 2 1 2 3 4 5 \[ z =\.AND UNDERBRACES 1 \[ 2 \overrightarrow{A}=\left[ 1 2 →  1 2 −  A =  1 2 1 2  3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4      3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \] \begin{array}{cccc} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\\hline \multicolumn{1}{|c}{1} & 2 & 3 & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{4}\\\hline 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 \end{array}\right] 1 \[ 2 \overrightarrow{A}=\left[ 1 →  1 − A =  1 1  2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3  4 4   4  4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \] \begin{array}{cc|c|c}\cline{3-3} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\\cline{3-3} \end{array}\right] 1 \[ 2 \overrightarrow{A}=\left[ 1 2 →  1 2 −  A =  1 2 1 2  3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4      3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \] \begin{array}{cc|c|c}\cline{3-3} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\\hline \multicolumn{1}{|c}{1} & 2 & 3 & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{4}\\\hline 1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\\cline{3-3} \end{array}\right] 63 63.tex v.\underbrace{% \makebox[\widthof{~$x^2+y^2$}][r]{% $\sqrt{x^2+y^2}$}}_{=z^2} \] 63.2.1 on the facing page is an example for such a construction: 108 Mathmode.47 .and overbraces like u1 u2 needs some tricky code.\. The following equation 63.2 Overlapping braces o Overlapping under. because we cannot have parts of the argument inside overbrace and also underbrace.1 Over.63 OVER.

1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 \begin{align}\label{eq:pqFormel} y &= 2x^2 -3x +5\nonumber\\ & \hphantom{= \ 2\left(x^2-\frac{3}{2}\.47 109 .x\right. Nevertheless the horizontal space around the r of the first underbrace and the last + Mathmode.2. xR yR = r Scaling · sin γ − cos γ cos γ sin γ Rotation xK yK + tx ty Translation (63.x + \left(\frac{3}{4}\right)^2}% }% \underbrace{% .tex v..\left(\frac{3}{4}\right)^2 + \frac{5}{2}}% \right)\\ &= 2\left(\qquad\textcolor{red}{\left(x-\frac{3}{4}\right)^2} \qquad + \ \frac{31}{16}\qquad\right)\nonumber\\ y\textcolor{blue}{-\frac{31}{8}} &= 2\left(x\textcolor{cyan}{-\frac{3}{4}}\right)^2\nonumber \end{align} 63.g.63.AND UNDERBRACES y = 2x2 − 3x + 5 = 2 x2 − =2 31 3 y− = 2 x− 8 4  3 x+ 2 x− 2 =0 3 4 2 2 − + 3 4 31 16 2 3 4 5 +  2  (63. then it looks better when all braces are also on the same line.3 Vertical alignment 63 OVER.% \left(\frac{3}{4}\right)^2}}^{=0}}\nonumber\\[-11pt] &= 2\left(\textcolor{red}{% \underbrace{% x^2-\frac{3}{2}\. }% \textcolor{blue}{% \overbrace{\hphantom{+\left(\frac{3}{4}\right)^2.2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \begin{equation} \binom{x_R}{y_R} = \underbrace{r\vphantom{\binom{A}{B}}}_{\text{Skaling}}\cdot% \underbrace{% \begin{pmatrix} \sin \gamma & -\cos \gamma \\ \cos \gamma & \sin \gamma \\ \end{pmatrix}% }_{\text{Rotation}} \binom{x_K}{y_K} + \underbrace{\binom{t_x}{t_y}}_{\text{Translation}} \end{equation} It is again the \vphantom macro which reserves the needed vertical space. e.3 Vertical alignment of different braces When having several braces in one formula line.

2.4 Vertical and horizontal alignment The forgoing example simply uses \hspace to decrease the horizontal width between two underbraces. . This may be okay for a single solution.2 on page 63 . This is possible with \hspace or simply \kern: xR yR =r· Skaling sin γ − cos γ cos γ sin γ Rotation xK yK + tx ty Translation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \[ \binom{x_R}{y_R} = % \kern-10pt\underbrace{r\vphantom{\binom{A}{B}}}_{\text{Skaling}}\kern-10pt% \cdot\underbrace{% \begin{pmatrix} \sin \gamma & -\cos \gamma \\ \cos \gamma & \sin \gamma \\ \end{pmatrix}% }_{\text{Rotation}} \binom{x_K}{y_K} +\kern-5pt% \underbrace{\binom{t_x}{t_y}}_{\text{Translation}} \] 63. which gives a better result. .tex v.} but it works only in text mode and this needs some more $. 300 29 19 9 8 1 1 −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ .. . .63 OVER.. It is also possible to use \makebox[0pt]{.AND UNDERBRACES 63. −→ 5069 490 321 152 135 16 1 ∆a=271 ∆a=10 = 271 29 ∆b=4579 ∆b=169= 4579 490 1 iteration 2 iterations ∆a=1 = 10 9 ∆b=17= 169 152 8 iterations ∆a=0= 1 1 ∆b=1= 17 16 8 iterations It uses the macro \mathclap defined in section 35. The following example looks simple but it needs some tricky code to get vertical and horizontal alignment.$. but in general it is better to have some code which works in any case.. −→ −→ .4 Alignment should be decreased to get a better typesetting.47 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 \def\num#1{\hphantom{#1}} \def\vsp{\vphantom{\rangle_1}} \begin{equation*} \frac{300}{5069}% \underbrace{\longmapsto\vphantom{\frac{1}{1}}}_{% \mathclap{\substack{% \Delta a=271\num9\vsp \\[2pt] \Delta b=4579\vsp\\[2pt] \text{$1$ iteration}% }}} \frac{29}{490}% \underbrace{\longmapsto \frac{19}{321}\longmapsto}_{% \mathclap{\substack{% \Delta a=10\num{9}=\langle271\rangle_{29}\num{20}\\[2pt] \Delta b=169=\langle4579\rangle_{490}\\[2pt] \text{$2$ iterations} }}} \frac{9}{152} \underbrace{\longmapsto \frac{8}{135}\longmapsto\dots\longmapsto}_{% \substack{% \Delta a=1\num{7}=\langle10\rangle_{9}\num{119}\\[2pt] \Delta b=17=\langle169\rangle_{152}\\[2pt] 110 Mathmode.

A The L TEX code for the first equation is: 1 2 3 4 5 \[ \underset{\mathcal{G}\quad}\iiint\!% \left[u\nabla^{2}v+\left(\nabla u. v) d3 V = S u ∂v 2 d A ∂n The second theorem of Green is: ˚ u G 2 ‹ v−v 2 u d V = S 3 u ∂v ∂u −v ∂n ∂n d2 A They are both written with the esint package38 . Mathmode.tex v. There is another trick to get all formulas vertical aligned. Section 37 shows the use of \intertext. which gives nice integral symbols. Let’s have the following formulas distributed over the whole page: f (x) = a f (x) − g(x) = x2 + x3 + x g(x) = x2 − 4x g(x) = x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + b 38 See section 64.\mathrm{d}^{2}A \] with the following definition in the preamble for the partial derivation: 1 \def\Q#1#2{\frac{\partial#1}{\partial #2}} which makes things easier to write.65 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 \text{$8$ iterations} }} \frac{1}{16} \underbrace{\longmapsto\dots\longmapsto\vphantom{\frac{8}{135}}}_{% \substack{% \Delta a=0=\langle1\rangle_{1}\num{76} \\[2pt] \Delta b=1=\langle17\rangle_{16} \\[2pt] \text{$8$ iterations} }} \frac{1}{1} \end{equation*} 64 Integrals ˚ u G 2 The first theorem of Green is: ‹ v + ( u.\Q{v}{n}\. 65 65.\.2.1 Horizontal alignment Over more than one page Sometimes it may be useful to have a vertical alignment over the whole page with a mix of formulas and text.\nabla v\right)\right]\mathrm{d}^{3}V% =\underset{\mathcal{S}\quad}\oiint u\.47 111 .

tex v.2.1) (65. We choose the longest left and the longest right side and take them for scaling with the \hphantom command: \hphantom{\mbox{$f(x)-g(x)$}} & \hphantom{\mbox{$= x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+b$}} This is the first (empty) line in every equation where now all other lines are aligned to this one.2) blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah f (x) − g(x) = x2 + x3 + x (65. For example: blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah f (x) = a g(x) = x − 4x 2 (65. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 \newcommand\x{blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah } \bgroup \addtolength\abovedisplayshortskip{-0. Now we want to write some text and other objects between them. but let the alignment untouched.1 Over more than one page They all have a different length of the left and right side.3) blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah g(x) = x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + b (65.47 .4) blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah The phantom line is empty but leaves the vertical space for a line. This could be corrected with decreasing the \abovedisplayshortskip length and done all inside a group.5cm} \x\x\x \begin{align} \hphantom{\mbox{$f(x)-g(x)$}} & \hphantom{\mbox{$= x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+b$}}\nonumber\\ f(x) &= a\\ g(x) &= x^2-4x \end{align} % \x\x\x \begin{align} \hphantom{\mbox{$f(x)-g(x)$}} & \hphantom{\mbox{$= x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+b$}}\nonumber\\ f(x)-g(x) &= x^2+x^3+x \end{align} \x\x\x % \begin{align} \hphantom{\mbox{$f(x)-g(x)$}} & \hphantom{\mbox{$= x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+b$}}\nonumber\\ 112 Mathmode.5cm}% decrease the skip \addtolength\abovedisplayskip{-0.65 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT 65.

2 Special text columns 65 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT 21 22 23 24 g(x) &= x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+b \end{align} \x\x\x \egroup Another case of aligning equations inside an itemize environment is the following one.5\textwidth. The example places the additional text at 0. With the \makebox macro one can have the same size on the left side of the equal sign to get a vertical alignment.65. changing this value is no problem. Mathmode. This makes only sense when you load the documentclass with the option fleqn.47 113 .2 Special text columns This one comes from Hartmut Henkel and offers a special form of placing additional text between the equation and the equation number. • first function P1 = a ∈A • but another one sin (P1 ) = blabla • or perhaps P3 + P2 − P1 = blablub 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 \newsavebox\lW \sbox\lW{$P_{3}+P_{2}-P_{1}$} \begin{itemize} \item first function \\ $\displaystyle\makebox[\wd\lW][r]{$P_1$}=\sum_a \in A$ \item but another one \\ $\makebox[\wd\lW][r]{$\sin\left(P_1\right)$}=blabla$ \item or perhaps \\ $P_{3}+P_{2}-P_{1}=blablub$ \end{itemize} 65.tex v.2.

a0 e Nsi m Z Bohrscher Radius (= 0.6) z=9 (65.2 Special text columns text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text ε= E · 4 · π · ε0 · a0 · Zi + ZSi Zi · ZSi · e2 · 1 + mi mSi 2 3 2 3 1 −2 .65 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT 65.7) text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text A This solution works only with AMS math. \end{equation} % \sbox{\myendhook}{abc} % \begin{equation} a2+b2=c2 \end{equation} % \begin{equation} z = 9 \end{equation} 114 Mathmode.53 Å) Elementarladung Anzahl der Siliziumatome pro Einheitsvolumen Atomgewicht Kernladungszahl (65. which creates the equation number..47 .4\textwidth][l]{\usebox{\myendhook}}% }% \global\sbox{\myendhook}{}% clear box content }} [ .tex v.2. ] \sbox{\myendhook}{% \begin{footnotesize}% \begin{tabular}{@{}ll} $a_0$ & Bohrscher Radius ($\mathrm{= 0{.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 \newsavebox{\myendhook} % for the tabulars \def\tagform@#1{{(\maketag@@@{\ignorespaces#1\unskip\@@italiccorr)} \makebox[0pt][r]{% after the equation number \makebox[0.\mbox{\AA}}$)\\ $e$ & Elementarladung\\ $N_{si}$ & Anzahl der Siliziumatome\\ & pro Einheitsvolumen\\ $m$ & Atomgewicht\\ $Z$ & Kernladungszahl \end{tabular} \end{footnotesize}} % \begin{equation} \varepsilon = \frac{E \cdot 4 \cdot \pi \cdot \varepsilon_{0} \cdot a_0 \cdot \left( Z_i^{\frac{2}{3}} + Z_{Si}^{\frac{2}{3}} \right)^{-\frac{1}{2}}} {Z_i \cdot Z_{Si} \cdot e2 \cdot \left( 1 + \frac{m_i}{m_{Si}} \right)}\..5) a2 + b2 = c2 abc (65. without you have to redefine the L TEX macro.}53\.

(65.65.2. 1 2 3 4 \psset{nodesep=3pt} \definecolor{lila}{rgb}{0..8) (65.0} Die Bindungsenergie im Tr\"opfchenmodell setzt sich aus Mathmode.2..0. a1 = b1 a2 = b2 . Use vlatex. .5} \definecolor{darkyellow}{rgb}{1.47 115 . b . . a .3 Centered vertical dots 66 NODE CONNECTIONS 65. \newsavebox{\eqbox} \sbox{\eqbox}{$\null=\null$} \newcommand\Vdots{\makebox[\wd\eqbox]{\vdots}} \begin{align} a_1 & = b_1 & c_1 & = d_1 \\ a_2 & = b_2 & c_2 & = d_2 \\ a & \Vdots b & & \Vdots \nonumber \\ a_n & = b_n & c_n & = d_n \end{align} 66 Node connections This is a typical application for PSTricks and it needs the package pst-node and doesn’t work with pdflatex. 2 E = av A + − af A2/3 + − ac Z(Z−1) + − as (A−2Z) + Ep A A1/3 (1) • dem Coulomb-Anteil • der Symmetrieenergie • sowie einem Paarbildungsbeitrag.9.0.9) an = bn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 cn = dn (65. c1 = d1 c2 = d2 . ps4pdf or ps2pdf. Die Bindungsenergie im Tr¨pfchenmodell setzt sich aus folgenden Teilen zuo sammen: • dem Oberflachenanteil ¨ • dem Volumenanteil.10) \usepackage{amsmath} .3 Centered vertical dots By default the vertical dots of \vdots are aligned to the left of the = symbol and not centered.6.0.tex v.

linestyle=none]{\xstrut -a_c\frac{Z(Z-1)}{A^{1/3}}}} + \rnode[t]{de}{\psframebox*[fillcolor=cyan. linestyle=none]{\xstrut -a_s\frac{(A-2Z)^2}{A}}} + \rnode[t]{ee}{\psframebox*[fillcolor=yellow.3.4) \begin{mtabular}{*{2}{m{0.1.angleB=90]{->}{a}{ae} \nccurve[angleB=45]{->}{b}{be} \nccurve[angleB=-90]{->}{c}{ce} \nccurve[angleB=-90]{->}{d}{de} \nccurve[angleB=-90]{->}{e}{ee} 67 67.a) ·B =0 b=1 ˆ 2x dx = x2 + C (67. \end{itemize} \nccurve[angleA=-90.1.\mathrm{d}x = x^2+C \end{align*} & \eqnCnt \end{mtabular} 116 Mathmode.b) (67.67 SPECIAL PLACEMENT 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 folgenden Teilen zusammen: \begin{itemize} \item dem \rnode{b}{Oberfl\"achenanteil} \item dem \rnode{a}{Volumenanteil}.b) c=1 (67. linestyle=none]{\xstrut E_p}} \end{equation}\\[0. linestyle=none]{\xstrut -a_fA^{2/3}}} + \rnode[t]{ce}{\psframebox*[fillcolor=green.\\[1cm] \def\xstrut{\vphantom{\frac{(A)^1}{(B)^1}}} \begin{equation} E = \rnode[t]{ae}{\psframebox*[fillcolor=darkyellow.a) And again a default display equation: ˆ F (x) = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ∞ 1 dx x (67.2.a) (67.15\linewidth}}} \begin{align*} \oint E ds=0 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt % & \begin{align*} \nabla\cdot B=0 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt[\label{blah}]\\ \begin{align*} a =\frac{c}{d} \end{align*} & \eqnCnt % & \begin{align*} b = 1 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt\\ \begin{align*} c =1 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt[\label{blub}] & \begin{align*} \int 2x \.1 Special placement of displayed equations Formulas side by side Sometimes it may be useful to have numbered formulas side by side like the following ones: ˛ Eds = 0 a= c d (67.2. linestyle=none]{\xstrut a_vA}} + \rnode[t]{be}{\psframebox*[fillcolor=lightgray.47 .35\linewidth}m{0.tex v.b) (67.3.25cm] \item dem \rnode{c}{Coulomb-Anteil} \item der \rnode{d}{Symmetrieenergie} \item sowie einem \rnode{e}{Paarbildungsbeitrag}.2.

a) Mathmode. At least it counts the equations. .b) (67.a) (67. then it needs some more horizontal space in the tabular column.1 Formulas side by side 67 SPECIAL PLACEMENT The new environment mtabular has two arguments.6. everything of the table contents is nonsense .3.b) c=1 ˛ Eds = 0 a= c d (67. ˛ Eds = 0 a= c d (67.8.7. one optional and one which is the same as the one from the tabular environment.1.6. \eqnCnt[<optional label>] The vertical space is controlled by the length \mtabskip. which allows a pagebreak. This macro can have an optional argument for a label.b) (67.b) (67. .b) (67.67. And the following tabular is defined as a longtable to enable pagebreaks. If the equation number is not centered to the foregoing equation. With the option long it is possible to have all the formulas in a longtable environment.5.25cm and can be modified in the usual way.47 117 . which is by default -1.b.25cm \newcommand\eqnCnt[1][]{% \refstepcounter{subequation}% \begin{align}#1\end{align}% \addtocounter{equation}{-1}} \def\mtabLong{long} \makeatletter \newenvironment{mtabular}[2][\empty]{% \def\@xarraycr{% \stepcounter{equation}% \setcounter{subequation}{0}% \@ifnextchar[\@argarraycr{\@argarraycr[\mtabskip]}} \let\theoldequation\theequation% \renewcommand\theequation{\theoldequation.a and equation 67.a) (67.9. The new macro \eqnCnt controls the counting of these equations as subequations for one tabular line.9.a) ·B =0 b=1 ˆ 2x dx = x2 + C ·B =0 b=1 (67.5.a) (67. To define all these macros write into the preamble: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 \usepackage{amsmath} \newcounter{subequation} \newlength\mtabskip\mtabskip=-1.\alph{subequation}} \edef\mtabOption{#1} \setcounter{subequation}{0}% \tabcolsep=0pt \ifx\mtabOption\mtabLong\longtable{#2}\else\tabular{#2}\fi% }{% \ifx\mtabOption\mtabLong\endlongtable\else\endtabular\fi% \let\theequation\theoldequation% \stepcounter{equation}} \makeatother As seen in equation 67.tex v.2.8.7.

a) (67.b.14.11.a) 2x dx = x2 + C ·B =0 b=1 ˆ 2x dx = x2 + C ·B =0 b=1 ˆ 2x dx = x2 + C (67.a) c=1 As seen in equation 67.2 Formulas inside an itemize enviroment Without any modification it is not possible to get a numbered equation at the same height as the symbol of the itemize environment.b) (67.\mathrm{d}x } \end{itemize} • 118 f =l (67.13.a) (67.47 .b) (67. everything is nonsense . This depends on the \abovedisplayskip.a and equation 67.b) c=1 ˛ Eds = 0 a= c d (67.13.b) (67.2 Itemize environment ˆ c=1 ˛ Eds = 0 a= c d (67..14.b) (67.tex v.125\linewidth}}} \begin{align*} \oint E ds=0 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt % & \begin{align*} \nabla\cdot B=0 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt\\ \begin{align*} a =\frac{c}{d} \end{align*} & \eqnCnt % & \begin{align*} b = 1 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt\\ \begin{align*} c =1 \end{align*} & \eqnCnt & \begin{align*} \int 2x \.a) (67. The formula has to be raised up for exactly this length.12.10.17) \begin{mtabular}[long]{*{2}{m{0.11.15. ] 67.75\linewidth}{% \begin{equation}#1\end{equation}}}} % \begin{itemize} \item \itemMath{ f = l } \item \itemMath{ g(x) = \int f(x)\.16.12..18) Mathmode..11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \def\itemMath#1{% \raisebox{-\abovedisplayshortskip}{% \parbox{0.a) (67.10. And again a default display equation: ˆ F (x) = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ∞ 1 dx x (67.375\linewidth}m{0.15.b) (67.\mathrm{d}x = x^2+C \end{align*} & \eqnCnt\\ [ ..2.16.13.b) (67.a) (67.67 SPECIAL PLACEMENT 67.

.Dependent}=\\ \sqrt{\left[a_{11}(x_{1}-y_{1})^{2}+a_{22}(x_{2}-y_{2})^{2}+ \ldots+a_{pp}(x_{p}-y_{p})^{2}\right]+} \\ \overline{\rule{0pt}{2..47 119 . Q)|Stat. + 2ap−1. + app (xp − yp )2 ] + [2a12 (x1 − y1 )(x2 − y2 ) + 2a13 (x1 − y1 )(x3 − y3 )+ .2) 8 \begin{multline} d(P.5ex} \left[2a_{12}(x_{1}-y_{1})(x_{2}-y_{2})+2a_{13} (x_{1}-y_{1})(x_{3}-y_{3}) + \right. .19) 68 Roots There exists no special symbol for roots which are longer than one line.5ex} \left. . + app (xp − yp )2 + [2a12 (x1 − y1 )(x2 − y2 ) + 2a13 (x1 − y1 )(x3 − y3 )+ . \\ \left[2a_{12}(x_{1}-y_{1})(x_{2}-y_{2})+2a_{13} (x_{1}-y_{1})(x_{3}-y_{3}) + \right.p}(x_{p-1}-y_{p-1})(x_{p}-y_{p})\right]} \end{multline} Alternative: d(P..\ldots +2a_{p-1.}\\ \overline{\rule{0pt}{2. In such √ √ √ √ √ cases the root should be split into two or more one.. .p (xp−1 − yp−1 )(xp − yp )] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1/2 (68.Q)|_{Stat.Dependent}=\\ \left\{\left[a_{11}(x_{1}-y_{1})^{2}+a_{22}(x_{2}-y_{2})^{2}+ \ldots+a_{pp}(x_{p}-y_{p})^{2}\right]+\right. ..1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 \begin{multline} d(P.\left. If nothing helps one can use \overline for following lines of the root.Dependent = a11 (x1 − y1 )2 + a22 (x2 − y2 )2 + . Q)|Stat. + 2ap−1. The following example uses the multline environment to get only one equation number: d(P. .2. .tex v.68 ROOTS ˆ • g(x) = f (x) dx (67.\ldots +2a_{p-1.p}(x_{p-1}-y_{p-1})(x_{p}-y_{p})\right]\right \}^{1/2} \end{multline} Mathmode.\\ \left.p (xp−1 − yp−1 )(xp − yp )] (68.Q)|_{Stat. like a · b · c = a · a · b · c if possible. .Dependent = [a11 (x1 − y1 )2 + a22 (x2 − y2 )2 + .

47 .tex v. bibliography and index 120 Mathmode.2.Part VIII Lists.

. . . . .2. . . . . . . . .47 121 . . . . . . . 52 Mathmode. . 52 2 Demonstration of \multlinegap (default is 0pt) . . . . . .List of Figures Figure Page 1 multline Alignment demo (the fourth row is shifted to the right with \shoveright) . . . . . .tex v. . . . . . . . . . .

The predefined operators of amsopn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vectors with package esvect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ltx . . . . . . . . . Predefined math symbols from fontmath. . . . . . . . . . . .ltx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dots in math mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accents in math mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matrix environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math styles . . . .47 . . . . . . . The predefined operators of fontmath. . . . . . Old font style commands . . . . . . . . The predefined operators of latex. . . . . . . .ltx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The meaning of the math spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Different mathcommands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New symbols in combination with the equal sign . . . . . Spaces in math mode . . . . . . . . . . . The greek letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison between the different align environments . Difference between the default \bigg and the \biggm command Use of the different parentheses for the “big” commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fonts in math mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Meaning of \mathsurround . . . . Page 12 24 24 27 28 28 29 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 44 56 59 60 69 84 98 100 122 Mathmode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tex v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . binom commands . . .sty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The modulo commands and their meaning . . . .

Web Math Formulas Using TEX. [16] Johannes Küster. 2004. http://www. More Math into L TEX.pdf. 2nd edition. Knuth. 21st edition.ams.harvard. 1992. Diversity in math fonts. Scott.fr/latex/prepDocMaths. [13] Donald E. Harvard University. Vortrag auf der ATypI-Konferenz in Prag.com/publ/20041002-atypi.2.pdf. http://tug.net/tbt/. Andreev. http://www. 2003. [6] Michael Downes. Technical Notes on the amsmath package. Short Math Guide for L TEX.typoma. [18] Richard Lawrence.47 123 . Atelier documents mathématiques. American Mathematical Society.tex. TUGboat Journal. 4th edition. Computer Science Department.edu/~knuth/papers/mathwriting. [2] Claudio Beccari. [4] David Cobac.gz. 1997. The L TEX Companion.org/ftp/tex/impatient/book. Vortrag auf der polnischen TEX-Konferenz "‘BachoTEX"’.ams.pdf. [8] Victor Eijkhout. Department of Mathematics.free. TUGboat Journal. [14] Donald E. A [11] George Grätzer. Ecrire des mathématiques avec L TEX.References [1] Paul W.html.org/tex/short-math-guide. Math into L TEX. TEX for the Impatient. 2004. http://dcobac.unb. apr 2004.html. 1999. 1998. Birkhäuser Boston.pdf.edu/computing/latex/manual/texman. [17] Johannes Küster. and Kathryn Hargreaves.typoma. 2007. [3] Thierry Bouche. Knuth.eijkhout. 24(2):165–168. and L. http://www. American Mathematical Society. Karl Berry. 1986. Addison Wesley Professional. oct 2004. 18(1):39–47. and Paul M. http://sunburn. 2000.fr/latex/Presentation4.com/publ/20040430-bachotex. Mathmode. A [10] Michel Goosens and Frank Mittelbach. A [5] David Cobac. Abrahams. An Introduction to using L TEX in the Harvard Mathematics Department. third edition. TEX by Topic. ftp://ftp. http://www. Fonts for Mathematics. 1997. [9] J.ca/web/Sample/math/. A [15] R. Anthony Fitzgerald. Designing Math Fonts. Mathematical Writing. http://abel. 2002.pdf. 2003.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/technote. Stanford University. http://www.free. Tracy Larrabee. A [7] Michael Downes. Typesetting mathematics for science and technology according to iso 31/xi. 1987. Kuhn. http://dcobac. The TEXbook.stanford. R.math. A [12] George Grätzer. Math=Typography? TUGboat Journal. 19(2):121–135. Roberts. Addison Wesley. 2004.tex v. Springer.pdf.

A [27] Herbert Voß.gov/Document/typefaces. L TEX Referenz. 2000. Cambridge. Berlin/Heidelberg.dcs. 2.47 . Farbige Mathematik. TUG. 2009. 2003. 3/04:25–32. 24(1):53–61. November 2004. Department of Computer Science. [22] Steve Seiden. Mathematik im Inline-modus. 13(2):156–180. Die TEXnische Komödie. Typefaces for Symbols in Scientific Manuscripts. TUGboat Journal. [25] Herbert Voß.[19] NIST. March 2004. http://www. Math cheat sheet.qmw. Die TEXnische Komödie. TUGboat Journal. 2004. A [21] Sebastian Rahtz and Leonor Barroca. A style option for rotated objects in L TEX.tex v. Commutative Diagrams in TEX. A [28] Herbert Voß. 2010. Heidelberg. Queen Mary and Westfield College. A [26] Herbert Voß. Typesetting Mathematics with L TEX. Mathematiksatz in L TEX. http://www. [20] Luca Padovani. [23] Carole Siegfried and Herbert Voß. LOB-media. Mathml formatting with TEX rules and TEX fonts.2.tug. Berlin. [24] Paul Taylor. 2010.ac.pdf.org/texshowcase/#math. 2/04:81–87. July 1992. 124 Mathmode. edition. http://physics. UIT.uk/~pt/diagrams/.de.nist. 2000. LOB-media.de.

87 \ArcCot. 79 \acute. 71 \bf. 71 \abovedisplayskip. 29 \[. 35 alignat. 88 \binoppenalty. 9 \).Index Symbols $. 27 \Big. 87 \ArcSin. 64 \Braket. 35 C \cal. 55 \catcode. 31 \belowdisplayshortskip. 41 \boldmath. 62 \atop. 24 \bigr. 78 \abovedisplayshortskip. 23 \Bigm. 31 \abovedisplayskip. 74 \cdot. 58 \chapter. 12. 82 \Bmatrix. 86 – Problems. 87 \ArcSec. 9 \„ 29 \:. 31 A \above. 86 \breve. 20 \bordermatrix. 17. 39 \ArcCos. 69 \bordermatrix. 71 \belowdisplayskip. 56 Bold greek letters. 79 B \bar. 34 \cdots. 87 array. 23 Bigg. 29 \. 40. 79 \atopwithdelims. 118 \abovewithdelims. 67 \atop. 68 boxed inline math. 11 Braces. 49 array. 9–11 \!. 35 \breve. 87 Cases – numbered lines. 93 \(. 24 \bigm. 87 \ArcTan. 56 \bmatrix. 35 \belowdisplayshortskip. 84. 40 \Binomial. 32 Arrows. 35 \acute. 31 \]. 31 \abovedisplayshortskip. 47 \allowdisplaybreaks. 25 \Bigg. 35 \check. 10 \check. 41 \boldsymbol. 21. 43 \cfrac. 85 \arraycolsep. 31.. 23 Binom. 20 \boxed. 35 \bar. 31. 101 centertags. 12. 23 \big. 23 \Biggm. 23 \bigl. 24 \Bigl. 87 \ArcCsc. 18. 49 aligned. 68 \boldmath. 31 \belowdisplayskip. 23 \bigg. 101 \cdots. 49 Alignment – left. 27 \cancel. 35 125 . 71. 32. 20. 19 \arraystretch. 102 \cases. 24 \biggm.

10 differential equation. 35 126 \doteq. 42 \everydisplay. 79 Equation – number. 11. 35.2. 79 displaymath. 107 \colorbox. 72 \displayindent.\choose. 113 \equiv. 88 \ddddot. 57 \dddot. 35 \ddot. 67 F \Factorial. 44. 72 description. 85 – description. 35 \dot. 95 colon. 90 \ensuremath. 10. 75. 39 displayindent. 62 – numbering. 17. 40 eqnarray. 87 \Cot. 21 – tabular. 101 Color. 58 \displaystyle. 90 \fboxrule. 80 \everymath. 33. 30. 84. 79. 35 \ddot. 20. 31 – gathered. 93 – graphicx. 34 \dotso. 26 cmr. 27 E ellipses. 31 Mathmode. 57 \dddot. 101 Display math mode. 100 \Cos. 92 – matrix. 17. 34 double stroke. 44. 34 \dotsc. 34 \dotsm. 95 \cong. 62 equation number. 100 \dotsb. 82 \displaywidth. 93 – lgathered. 41 \dfrac. 89 – equation. 26. 17 \displaystyle. 80 Exponent. 90 – eqnarray. 71 \delimitershortfall. 31 Equation number. 43 fleqn. 72 \displaylimits. 13. 12. 100 \everydisplay. 41 – displaymath. 87 ctagsplit. 27 dsfont. 62 D \DblFactorial. 13. 89 \eqno. 75 \delcode. 9 \displaybreak. 17. 73 dot. 11 fleqn. 75 \delimiterfactor. 11 \fboxsep. 107 comma. 31. 40 \clap. 18 \eqdef. 11 \columncolor. 63 cmex10. 40 Environment – array. 31.tex v. 101 Computer modern. 42 \everymath. 16. 37 Extensible arrows. 74 Delimiter. 34 decimal point. 76 \displaywidowpenalty. 40 color. 87 \Csc. 75 \fbox. 101 \dot. 30 \DeclareMathDelimiter. 30. 88 \fam. 32. 34 \dotsi. 17 – empheq. 101 empheq.47 . 26 \delimiter. 17. 26. 35 \ddots. 60 equation. 58 \dfrac.

85 \ldots. 118 – \arraycolsep. 33 Latin modern. 35 \grave. 29 \Huge. 27 Italic. 88 gather. 80 lgathered. 29 L Label. 38 greek. 88 longtable. 95 \ldelim. 117 M Macro 127 . 9. 37. 29.ltx. 39 – upright. 11 G \GammaFunc. 32 K \kern. 91 Integral. 35 Greek. 16 \label. 41 itemize. 11 – \fboxsep. 95 \LogGamma. 101 \left. 35 \hcancel. 88 \Hypergeometric. 99 \hat. 65 limits. 98 Mathmode. 38. 91 \HurwitzZeta. 88 graphicx. 9. 37. 101 Integral symbols. 26 – lm. 72 \Large. 47 Length – \abovedisplayskip. 34 \jot. 92 \lim. 9. 10.47 \intertext. 93 \genfrac. 26 – \fboxrule. 31 leqno. 87 \hdotsfor. 34 \ldots. 32 – \mathsurround. 43 \leqno. 93 \frac.Font – cmex10. 29. 93 Fraction. 58 \GenIncGamma. 88 Indentation. 65 \item. 80 lm. 35 \hat. 9 Limits. 40. 19 – \belowdisplayskip. 72 Indice. 62 \labelwidth. 58. 31.tex v. 33 \huge.2. 11 – \topsep. 37 \it. 17. 62. 66 intlimits. 49 gathered. 21. 11 – \jot. 88 \GenRegIncGamma. 37 \int. 93 \grave. 57 Helvetica. 31 – \delimitershortfall. 95 fontmath. 95 \hphantom. 88 I \imath. 33 large. 80. 43 \intop. 39 H Harpoon. 26 Fontsize. 118 J \jmath. 49 gathered. 30 \hspace. 85 Left aligned. 39 – bold. 110 \hphantom. 47. 33 \frac. 58 Framed inline math. 34 \IncGamma. 88 \GenRegIncGammaInv. 27. 23. 9 \limits.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

\ArcCos, 87 \ArcCot, 87 \ArcCsc, 87 \ArcSec, 87 \ArcSin, 87 \ArcTan, 87 \Biggm, 24 \Bigl, 23 \Bigm, 24 \Binomial, 88 \Braket, 86 \Cos, 87 \Cot, 87 \Csc, 87 \DblFactorial, 88 \DeclareMathDelimiter, 75 \Factorial, 88 \GammaFunc, 88 \GenIncGamma, 88 \GenRegIncGammaInv, 88 \GenRegIncGamma, 88 \Huge, 33 \HurwitzZeta, 88 \Hypergeometric, 88 \IncGamma, 88 \Large, 33 \LogGamma, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicA, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicB, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicExponent, 88 \MathieuCharisticA, 88 \MathieuCharisticB, 88 \MathieuCharisticExp, 88 \MathieuC, 88 \MathieuS, 88 \MeijerG, 88 \Multinomial, 88 \Pochhammer, 88 \RegHypergeometric, 88 \RegIncGammaInv, 88 \RegIncGamma, 88 \RiemannSiegelTheta, 88 \RiemannSiegelZ, 88 \RiemannZeta, 88 \Sec, 87 \Set, 86 \Sin, 87 \StieltjesGamma, 88 \Tan, 87

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

\Zeta, 88 \[, 12, 31 \], 12, 31 \acute, 35 \allowdisplaybreaks, 39 \arraystretch, 32 \atop, 21, 40 \bar, 35 \biggm, 24 \bigl, 23 \bigm, 24 \bigr, 23 \boldmath, 41 \bordermatrix, 20 \breve, 35 \cancel, 87 \catcode, 74 \cdots, 101 \cdot, 101 \chapter, 10 \check, 35 \choose, 40 \colorbox, 11 \cong, 100 \dddot, 35 \ddot, 35 \delimiterfactor, 26 \dfrac, 10 \displaybreak, 39 \displaystyle, 10, 33, 76 \doteq, 100 \dot, 35 \ensuremath, 40 \eqdef, 40 \equiv, 100 \everydisplay, 80 \fbox, 11, 16, 90 \frac, 40, 93 \grave, 35 \hat, 35 \hcancel, 87 \hphantom, 29, 30 \huge, 91 \imath, 34 \intop, 37 \int, 9, 37, 91 \item, 41 \jmath, 34 \labelwidth, 72
Mathmode.tex v.2.47

128

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

\ldelim, 85 \ldots, 101 \left, 23, 85 \limits, 9, 37, 80 \lim, 9 \makebox, 22, 113 \mathbf, 41, 85 \mathchar, 76 \mathcode, 74 \mathlarger, 93 \mathord, 31 \mathpunct, 31 \mathring, 35 \mathrlap, 100 \mathversion, 41 \mbox, 27 \medmuskip, 29, 30 \nicefrac, 93 \nolimits, 37 \nonumber, 12–14 \ointop, 37 \oint, 37 \overbrace, 35, 36 \overbracket, 34 \overleftarrow, 35 \overleftrightarrow, 35 \overline, 35 \overrightarrow, 35 \overset, 22 \parbox, 27 \part, 10 \pmb, 38 \prod, 9, 21 \rdelim, 85 \right, 23, 85 \scalebox, 93 \scriptscriptstyle, 33, 76 \scriptstyle, 33, 76 \section, 10, 41 \show, 30 \smash, 23 \sqrt, 22 \stackrel, 39 \sum, 9, 21, 91 \texorpdfstring, 10 \textstyle, 27, 33, 76 \thickmuskip, 29 \thinmuskip, 29, 30 \tilde, 35
v.2.47

– \underbar, 35 – \underbrace, 35, 36 – \underbracket, 34 – \underleftarrow, 35 – \underleftrightarrow, 35 – \underline, 35 – \underrightarrow, 35 – \underset, 22 – \vec, 35 – \vert, 26 – \vphantom, 22, 86 – \vskip, 32 – \widehat, 35 – \widetilde, 35 – \xymatrix, 93 \makebox, 22, 113 \mapstofill, 67 Math operator, 9 Math unit, 60 math unit, 28 \mathaccent, 75 \mathbb, 27 \mathbf, 27 \mathbf, 41, 85 \mathbin, 76 \mathcal, 27 \mathchar, 76 \mathchardef, 76 \mathchoice, 76 \mathclap, 63, 110 \mathclose, 76 \mathcode, 74, 77 \mathds, 27 \mathfrak, 27 Mathieu – Characteristics, 88 – Functions, 88 \MathieuC, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicA, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicB, 88 \MathieuCharacteristicExponent, 88 \MathieuCharisticA, 88 \MathieuCharisticB, 88 \MathieuCharisticExp, 88 \MathieuS, 88 \mathindent, 43 \mathinner, 80 \mathit, 27 \mathlarger, 93 129

Mathmode.tex

\mathop, 77 \mathopen, 77 mathopen symbol, 24 \mathord, 31, 77 \mathpunct, 31, 77 \mathrel, 77 \mathring, 35 \mathring, 35 \mathrlap, 100 \mathrm, 27, 65 \mathsf, 27 \mathsurround, 11, 73 \mathtt, 27 \mathversion, 41 \mathversion, 41 \matrix, 56 matrix, 21 \mbox, 65 \mbox, 27 \medmuskip, 29, 30, 73 \medspace, 29 \MeijerG, 88 \mkern, 73 \mskip, 73 \Multinomial, 88 Multiple exponents, 37 multline, 54 \multlinegap, 52 \muskip, 73 \muskipdef, 73 N namelimits, 43 \negmedspace, 29 \negthickspace, 29 \negthinspace, 29 \nicefrac, 93 nointlimits, 43 \nolimits, 37, 80 nonamelimits, 43 \nonscript, 73 \nonumber, 12–14 nosumlimits, 43 \nulldelimiterspace, 74 O \oint, 37 \ointop, 37 Operator, 37 – names, 65 130

– size, 93 \operatornamewithlimits, 65 \over, 80 \overbrace, 35, 108 \overbrace, 35, 36 \overbracket, 34 \overleftarrow, 35 \overleftarrow, 35 \overleftrightarrow, 35 \overleftrightarrow, 35 \overline, 35 \overline, 35, 81, 119 \overrightarrow, 35, 36 \overrightarrow, 35 \overset, 69 \overset, 22 \overwithdelims, 81 P Package – accent, 83 – amscd, 83 – amsmath, 78 – amsopn, 84 – amssymb, 30, 34 – bigdelim, 84 – bm, 39, 41, 85 – braket, 26, 86 – calc, 16 – color, 87 – cool, 87 – delarray, 88, 89 – empheq, 90 – esint, 111 – esvect, 36 – eucal, 91 – exscale, 34, 92, 93 – fixltx2e, 10 – hvmath, 95 – hyperref, 10 – icomma, 31 – leqno, 15 – mathpazo, 96 – mathtools, 92 – multirow, 84 – nicefrac, 93 – numprint, 30 – pamath, 95, 96 – pstricks, 84
Mathmode.tex v.2.47

47 \scriptfont. 33. 78 \textstyle. 16 \reflectbox. 93 Mathmode. 33. 74 \prod. 9. 33 Subequations. 27. 78 \skewchar. 82 reqno. 10 \phantom. 27 – \parbox. 27 Root. 84. 41 \Set. 78 \smallmatrix. 77 \scriptscriptstyle. 87 \section. 101 Q \qquad. 9 T tabular. 68 \pmb. 88 \RiemannZeta. 33 – units. 88 Style. 78 \scriptspace. 78 \Sec. 95. 38 \Pochhammer. 64. 34 \RegHypergeometric.2. 88 \right. 91 sumlimits. 58 \scriptstyle. 32 Split equation. 10. 76. 10 Text. 74 scriptstyle. 107 S \scalebox. 52 \show. 57 \smash. 9 subscript. 88 \RiemannSiegelZ. 85 Reference. 23 Spacing – vertical. 119 \rowcolor. 33. 56. 48 \sqrt. 9 \scriptstyle. 21 \substack. 23. 10. 88 \RegIncGamma. 63. 56 \pmb. 90 – xypic. 61 Subscript. 88 \RegIncGammaInv. 78 \tfrac. 81 \rdelim. 39 Palatino. 85 righttag.tex v. 9. 29 R \radical.– relsize. 14 – setspace. 77 \scriptscriptfont. 39 \StieltjesGamma. 93 – remreset. 64 \stackrel. 16 \Tan. 88 Polylogarithm. 21. 86 Set symbol. 18 \tag. 93 – upgreek. 59. 43 \texorpdfstring. 22 Stacked limits. 93 \skew. 64 \Sin. 88 \postdisplaypenalty. 64 \sum. 96 \parbox. 93 Pagebreak. 27 \part. 87 tbtags. 56 \parbox. 82 \predisplaystyle. 43 Superscript. 39 – wasysym. 43 \RiemannSiegelTheta. 30 \sideset. 87 Size – Operator. 29 \quad. 88 \relpenalty. 103 \pmatrix. 93 – xy. 27 \textfont. 62 \rm. 82 \predisplaypenalty. 76. 27 \shoveright. 22. 110 \sum. 81. 58 131 . 21 punctuation. 76.

29. 32 W \widehat. 86 \vskip. 35 Vector.2. 99 \xrightharpoondown. 35 \widetilde. 22. 35 \underbar. 74 \thickspace. 35. 36 \underbracket. 30. 56 \vphantom. 99 \xymatrix. 27 U \unboldmath. 35 \widetilde. 81 \vdots. 21 \uproot. 35 \underset. 29 \thinmuskip. 41 \underbar. 35 X 132 \xleftharpoondown. 35 \underline. 88 \Zeta. 69. 35 \widehat. 34 \underleftarrow. 35.tex v. 99 \xrightharpoonup. 32 \Vmatrix. 99 \xleftrightharpoons. 59 V \vcenter. 56 \vmatrix. 31 \tt. 74 \thinspace. 110 \vphantom. 99 \xleftharpoonup. 93 Z Zeta. 88 – Functions. 35 \underleftarrow. 88 – Riemann. 36. 35. 115 \vec. 37 upright mode. 88 – Hurwitz. 111 \underset. 35 \underrightarrow. 35 \underleftrightarrow. 35. 29.47 . 26 Vertical spacing. 81 \underrightarrow. 22 Upright letters. 108. 42 \underline. 110 \underbrace. 35 \topsep. 88 Mathmode. 35 \vec. 35 \underbrace. 35 \underleftrightarrow.\thickmuskip. 99 \xrightleftharpoons. 29 \tilde. 105 \vert. 34. 35 \tilde.

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sty 2008/07/31 v1. file: AMS symbols (a) (RS) umsb.pdf images/exscale.10 Adjusting anchors of captions (HO) babel.cfg 2005/06/01 v1.pdf images/colArray.78l Hyperref driver for pdfTeX hypcap. images/styles.2.47 135 . images/family.ind Mathmode.9a microtype config.9 At begin shipout hook (HO) hpdftex.2g AMS font definitions mt-msb.fd 2002/01/19 v2.pdf Mathmode.out Mathmode.1 Data extraction from references (HO) Mathmode.sty ts1cmr.fd 2004/09/07 scalable font definitions for TS1/fve.tex mt-cmr.fd 1999/05/25 v2.sty 2007/05/29 v2.fd 2004/09/07 scalable font definitions for T1/fvs.tex nameref.def 2008/09/29 v6.1 microtype config.3 Key value parser with default handler support (HO) atbegshi.tex v. file: Computer Modern Roman (RS) umsa.pdf images/EuScript.5h Standard LaTeX font definitions supp-pdf.pdf t1fvs.pdf images/minionpro-crop.fd ts1fve.0 microtype config.fd uesvect.1 microtype config.8l The Babel package english. t1fvm.pdf images/cmbright-crop.cfg 2006/07/31 v1.sty 2007/09/29 v1.out Mathmode.bbl Mathmode.pdf images/amsalign. file: AMS Euler Roman (RS) uesint.pdf images/cm-crop.111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 HO) kvsetkeys.sty 2008/07/06 v3.sty 2008/08/11 v3.ldf 2005/03/30 v3. file: AMS symbols (b) (RS) mt-eur.fd 2004/09/07 scalable font definitions for T1/fvm.sty 2008/09/08 v1.31 Cross-referencing by name of section refcount.3o English support from the babel system braket.cfg 2006/02/04 v1.2g AMS font definitions mt-msa.pdf images/pamath-crop.pdf images/pazo-crop.pdf images/node.cfg 2008/02/29 v1.fd 2002/01/19 v2.pdf images/lm-crop.

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