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The Divine Comedy of Dante
Translanted by H. F. Cary THE VISION OR, HELL, PURGATORY, AND PARADISE OF DANTE ALIGHIERI

TRANSLATED BY THE REV. H. F. CARY, A.M.

HELL
CANTO I
In the midway of this our mortal life, I found me in a gloomy wood, astray Gone from the path direct: and e’en to tell It were no easy task, how savage wild That forest, how robust and rough its growth, Which to remember only, my dismay Renews, in bitterness not far from death. Yet to discourse of what there good befell, All else will I relate discover’d there. How first I enter’d it I scarce can say, Such sleepy dullness in that instant weigh’d My senses down, when the true path I left, But when a mountain’s foot I reach’d, where clos’d The valley, that had pierc’d my heart with dread, I look’d aloft, and saw his shoulders broad

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Already vested with that planet’s beam, Who leads all wanderers safe through every way. Then was a little respite to the fear, That in my heart’s recesses deep had lain, All of that night, so pitifully pass’d: And as a man, with difficult short breath, Forespent with toiling, ‘scap’d from sea to shore, Turns to the perilous wide waste, and stands At gaze; e’en so my spirit, that yet fail’d Struggling with terror, turn’d to view the straits, That none hath pass’d and liv’d. My weary frame After short pause recomforted, again I journey’d on over that lonely steep, The hinder foot still firmer. Scarce the ascent Began, when, lo! a panther, nimble, light, And cover’d with a speckled skin, appear’d, Nor, when it saw me, vanish’d, rather strove To check my onward going; that ofttimes With purpose to retrace my steps I turn’d. The hour was morning’s prime, and on his way Aloft the sun ascended with those stars, That with him rose, when Love divine first mov’d Those its fair works: so that with joyous hope All things conspir’d to fill me, the gay skin Of that swift animal, the matin dawn

And the sweet season. Soon that joy was chas’d, And by new dread succeeded, when in view A lion came, ‘gainst me, as it appear’d, With his head held aloft and hunger-mad, That e’en the air was fear-struck. A she-wolf Was at his heels, who in her leanness seem’d Full of all wants, and many a land hath made Disconsolate ere now. She with such fear O’erwhelmed me, at the sight of her appall’d, That of the height all hope I lost. As one, Who with his gain elated, sees the time When all unwares is gone, he inwardly Mourns with heart-griping anguish; such was I, Haunted by that fell beast, never at peace, Who coming o’er against me, by degrees Impell’d me where the sun in silence rests. While to the lower space with backward step I fell, my ken discern’d the form one of one, Whose voice seem’d faint through long disuse of speech. When him in that great desert I espied, “Have mercy on me!” cried I out aloud, “Spirit! or living man! what e’er thou be!” He answer’d: “Now not man, man once I was, And born of Lombard parents, Mantuana both

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By country, when the power of Julius yet Was scarcely firm. At Rome my life was past Beneath the mild Augustus, in the time Of fabled deities and false. A bard Was I, and made Anchises’ upright son The subject of my song, who came from Troy, When the flames prey’d on Ilium’s haughty towers. But thou, say wherefore to such perils past Return’st thou? wherefore not this pleasant mount Ascendest, cause and source of all delight?” “And art thou then that Virgil, that well-spring, From which such copious floods of eloquence Have issued?” I with front abash’d replied. “Glory and light of all the tuneful train! May it avail me that I long with zeal Have sought thy volume, and with love immense Have conn’d it o’er. My master thou and guide! Thou he from whom alone I have deriv’d That style, which for its beauty into fame Exalts me. See the beast, from whom I fled. O save me from her, thou illustrious sage! For every vein and pulse throughout my frame She hath made tremble.” He, soon as he saw That I was weeping, answer’d, “Thou must needs Another way pursue, if thou wouldst ‘scape

From out that savage wilderness. This beast, At whom thou criest, her way will suffer none To pass, and no less hindrance makes than death: So bad and so accursed in her kind, That never sated is her ravenous will, Still after food more craving than before. To many an animal in wedlock vile She fastens, and shall yet to many more, Until that greyhound come, who shall destroy Her with sharp pain. He will not life support By earth nor its base metals, but by love, Wisdom, and virtue, and his land shall be The land ‘twixt either Feltro. In his might Shall safety to Italia’s plains arise, For whose fair realm, Camilla, virgin pure, Nisus, Euryalus, and Turnus fell. He with incessant chase through every town Shall worry, until he to hell at length Restore her, thence by envy first let loose. I for thy profit pond’ring now devise, That thou mayst follow me, and I thy guide Will lead thee hence through an eternal space, Where thou shalt hear despairing shrieks, and see Spirits of old tormented, who invoke A second death; and those next view, who dwell

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Content in fire, for that they hope to come, Whene’er the time may be, among the blest, Into whose regions if thou then desire T’ ascend, a spirit worthier then I Must lead thee, in whose charge, when I depart, Thou shalt be left: for that Almighty King, Who reigns above, a rebel to his law, Adjudges me, and therefore hath decreed, That to his city none through me should come. He in all parts hath sway; there rules, there holds His citadel and throne. O happy those, Whom there he chooses!” I to him in few: “Bard! by that God, whom thou didst not adore, I do beseech thee (that this ill and worse I may escape) to lead me, where thou saidst, That I Saint Peter’s gate may view, and those Who as thou tell’st, are in such dismal plight.” Onward he mov’d, I close his steps pursu’d.

Both of sad pity, and that perilous road, Which my unerring memory shall retrace. O Muses! O high genius! now vouchsafe Your aid! O mind! that all I saw hast kept Safe in a written record, here thy worth And eminent endowments come to proof. I thus began: “Bard! thou who art my guide, Consider well, if virtue be in me Sufficient, ere to this high enterprise Thou trust me. Thou hast told that Silvius’ sire, Yet cloth’d in corruptible flesh, among Th’ immortal tribes had entrance, and was there Sensible present. Yet if heaven’s great Lord, Almighty foe to ill, such favour shew’d, In contemplation of the high effect, Both what and who from him should issue forth, It seems in reason’s judgment well deserv’d: Sith he of Rome, and of Rome’s empire wide, In heaven’s empyreal height was chosen sire: Both which, if truth be spoken, were ordain’d And ‘stablish’d for the holy place, where sits Who to great Peter’s sacred chair succeeds. He from this journey, in thy song renown’d, Learn’d things, that to his victory gave rise And to the papal robe. In after-times

CANTO II
Now was the day departing, and the air, Imbrown’d with shadows, from their toils releas’d All animals on earth; and I alone Prepar’d myself the conflict to sustain,

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The chosen vessel also travel’d there, To bring us back assurance in that faith, Which is the entrance to salvation’s way. But I, why should I there presume? or who Permits it? not, Aeneas I nor Paul. Myself I deem not worthy, and none else Will deem me. I, if on this voyage then I venture, fear it will in folly end. Thou, who art wise, better my meaning know’st, Than I can speak.” As one, who unresolves What he hath late resolv’d, and with new thoughts Changes his purpose, from his first intent Remov’d; e’en such was I on that dun coast, Wasting in thought my enterprise, at first So eagerly embrac’d. “If right thy words I scan,” replied that shade magnanimous, “Thy soul is by vile fear assail’d, which oft So overcasts a man, that he recoils From noblest resolution, like a beast At some false semblance in the twilight gloom. That from this terror thou mayst free thyself, I will instruct thee why I came, and what I heard in that same instant, when for thee Grief touch’d me first. I was among the tribe, Who rest suspended, when a dame, so blest

And lovely, I besought her to command, Call’d me; her eyes were brighter than the star Of day; and she with gentle voice and soft Angelically tun’d her speech address’d: “O courteous shade of Mantua! thou whose fame Yet lives, and shall live long as nature lasts! A friend, not of my fortune but myself, On the wide desert in his road has met Hindrance so great, that he through fear has turn’d. Now much I dread lest he past help have stray’d, And I be ris’n too late for his relief, From what in heaven of him I heard. Speed now, And by thy eloquent persuasive tongue, And by all means for his deliverance meet, Assist him. So to me will comfort spring. I who now bid thee on this errand forth Am Beatrice; from a place I come

(Note: Beatrice. I use this word, as it is pronounced
in the Italian, as consisting of four syllables, of which the third is a long one.)

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When in my Master’s sight I stand.” She then: “Since thou so deeply wouldst inquire. her she thus bespake: “Now doth thy faithful servant need thy aid And I commend him to thee. None else. As when these words were spoken. That God’s stern judgment to her will inclines. of all cruelty the foe. Love brought me thence. and all Who well have mark’d it. I came here. why thou art not loth To leave that ample space. why no dread Hinders my entrance here. him struggling holds?” Ne’er among men did any with such speed Haste to their profit. who so much lov’d thee. Those things alone Are to be fear’d. nor flame of that fierce fire Assails me.” “When she had ended. which thee. into honour brings. whereat I felt Redoubled zeal to serve thee. To Lucia calling. as to leave For thy sake all the multitude admires? Dost thou not hear how pitiful his wail. where I abode Seated with Rachel. No need hast thou farther to speak thy will. Thus am I come: I sav’d thee from the beast. her bright beaming eyes Tearful she turn’d aside. I will instruct thee briefly. What is this comes o’er thee then? 8 . If it were done already. Mankind excels whatever is contain’d Within that heaven which hath the smallest orb. thanks to his grace! That any suff’rance of your misery Touches me not. would seem late. whence evil may proceed. Swoln mightier than a sea. that to obey.” At her word Sped Lucia. Who prompts my speech. Yet tell the reason. flee from their annoy. thy praise to him I oft will tell.” She then was silent. and I thus began: “O Lady! by whose influence alone. her of ancient days. Nor mark the death. Who thy near way across the goodly mount Prevented.Hell Revisited with joy. who mourns with such effectual grief That hindrance. which in the torrent flood. She thus address’d me: “Thou true praise of God! Beatrice! why is not thy succour lent To him. for none are terrible beside. where to return Thou burnest. And coming to the place. trusting the force Of thy pure eloquence. which I send thee to remove.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I am so fram’d by God. Down from my blessed seat. for this centre here beneath. So thy command delights me. In high heaven a blessed dame Besides. As she will’d.

Before me things create were none. Lead on: one only will is in us both. and when he had onward mov’d.” As florets. Supremest wisdom. why dost thou hang back? why in thy breast Harbour vile fear? why hast not courage there And noble daring? Since three maids so blest Thy safety plan. Various tongues. when day has blanch’d their leaves. e’en in the court of heaven. All hope abandon ye who enter here. who intellectual good Have lost.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and primeval love. Justice the founder of my fabric mov’d: To rear me was the task of power divine. Made up a tumult. that for ever whirls CANTO III “Through me you pass into the city of woe: Through me you pass into eternal pain: 9 . Through me among the people lost for aye. save things Eternal. whence I was cheer’d. Into that secret place he led me on. That I as one undaunted soon replied: “O full of pity she.” Such characters in colour dim I mark’d Over a portal’s lofty arch inscrib’d: Whereat I thus: “Master. these words import Hard meaning. That my first purpose fully is resum’d.Hell Why. and lord. Here sighs with lamentations and loud moans Resounded through the air pierc’d by no star. my master thou. Accents of anger. with pleasant looks.” He as one prepar’d replied: “Here thou must all distrust behind thee leave. And so much certain good my words forebode. I enter’d on the deep and woody way.” So spake I. voices deep and hoarse. Thou art my guide. Horrible languages. Rise all unfolded on their spiry stems. And to my heart such kindly courage ran. With hands together smote that swell’d the sounds. who undertook My succour! and thou kind who didst perform So soon her true behest! With such desire Thou hast dispos’d me to renew my voyage. Here be vile fear extinguish’d. outcries of woe.” And when his hand he had stretch’d forth To mine. We are come Where I have told thee we shall see the souls To misery doom’d. and eternal I endure. So was my fainting vigour new restor’d. That e’en I wept at entering. by the frosty air of night Bent down and clos’d.

Fearing my words offensive to his ear. Which whirling ran around so rapidly. cried: “O master! What is this I hear? What race Are these. but for themselves Were only. soon as our steps arrive Beside the woeful tide of Acheron. And by disgustful worms was gather’d there. Then looking farther onwards I beheld A throng upon the shore of a great stream: Whereat I thus: “Sir! grant me now to know Whom here we view. who to base fear Yielding. Forthwith I understood for certain this the tribe Of those ill spirits both to God displeasing And to his foes. That it no pause obtain’d: and following came Such a long train of spirits. 10 . who ne’er lived. that mix’d with tears dropp’d to their feet. From his bounds Heaven drove them forth. Nor suffers. These wretches.” And I. and sorely stung By wasps and hornets. Fame of them the world hath none. Not to impair his lustre. And lo! toward us in a bark Comes on an old man hoary white with eld. I saw And knew the shade of him.” I then: “Master! what doth aggrieve them thus. which bedew’d their cheeks With blood.” Then with eyes downward cast and fill’d with shame. I from speech Abstain’d. who seem so overcome with woe?” He thus to me: “This miserable fate Suffer the wretched souls of those. Till we had reach’d the river. as I discern Through the blear light?” He thus to me in few: “This shalt thou know. I should ne’er Have thought. that all other lots They envy. Like to the sand that in the whirlwind flies.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and whence impell’d they seem So eager to pass o’er. who nor rebellious prov’d Nor yet were true to God. who liv’d Without or praise or blame. abjur’d his high estate. lest th’ accursed tribe Should glory thence with exultation vain. and pass them by. but look. That they lament so loud?” He straight replied: “That will I tell thee briefly. I then. beheld a flag. with that ill band Of angels mix’d. Speak not of them.Hell Round through that air with solid darkness stain’d. Went on in nakedness. These of death No hope may entertain: and their blind life So meanly passes. When some of these I recogniz’d. mercy and justice scorn them both. who straightway look’d. with error yet encompass’d. that death so many had despoil’d. nor the depth Of Hell receives them.

“Those. and each. that yet with clammy dews Fear chills my brow. collects them all. on this side another throng Still gathers. Then all together sorely wailing drew To the curs’d strand. That. that fear Is turn’d into desire. Now mayst thou know the import of his words. Into eternal darkness. Each at a beck. demoniac form. and I Down dropp’d. Thus go they over through the umber’d wave. As fall off the light autumnal leaves. shot forth a vermilion flame. Which all my senses conquer’d quite.” Then to him thus spake my guide: “Charon! thyself torment not: so ‘t is will’d. till the bough Strews all its honours on the earth beneath. E’en in like manner Adam’s evil brood Cast themselves one by one down from the shore. and seed That did engender them and give them birth. One still another following. God and their parents they blasphem’d. Around whose eyes glar’d wheeling flames. faint and naked. Not by this passage. Where will and power are one: ask thou no more. Charon. Beck’ning. with his oar Strikes. as one with sudden slumber seiz’d. “By other haven shalt thou come to shore. the gloomy region trembling shook So terribly. “Son. All here together come from every clime. thee a nimbler boat Must carry. Hence ne’er hath past Good spirit. The human kind. soon as the cruel words They heard. there to dwell In fierce heat and in ice. color chang’d. Meanwhile Those spirits. 11 . And thou. And gnash’d their teeth. live spirit! get thee hence.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” said he.” This said. The sad earth gave a blast. the time. that every man must pass Who fears not God. And to o’erpass the river are not loth: For so heaven’s justice goads them on.” Straightway in silence fell the shaggy cheeks Of him the boatman o’er the livid lake.” But soon as he beheld I left them not. that lingers.Hell Crying. who there Standest. “By other way. lightening. “Woe to you wicked spirits! hope not Ever to see the sky again. the place. who die subject to the wrath of God.” thus spake the courteous guide. I come To take you to the other shore across. as falcon at his call. And ever they on the opposing bank Be landed. With eyes of burning coal. and leave These who are dead. If of thee Charon complain.

Who still art wont to comfort me in doubt?” He then: “The anguish of that race below With pity stains my cheek. The portal to thy faith. that I shook myself. that we live Desiring without hope.” Onward. mine eye in vain Explor’d its bottom. this said.” the bard began all pale of look: “I go the first. My rested eyes I mov’d around. I would thou know. Wherein I stood. “Now let us to the blind world there beneath Descend. that made th’ eternal air Tremble. For these defects. that these of sin Were blameless. which thou beholdest? Ere thou pass Farther. no plaint was heard Except of sighs. And for no other evil. And ent’ring led me with him on the bounds Of the first circle. Our length of way Urges to haste. and thou shalt follow next. and infants. The dread abyss. he mov’d. Then to me The gentle guide: “Inquir’st thou not what spirits Are these. And thick with clouds o’erspread. that surrounds th’ abyss. Of men. that joins a thund’rous sound Of plaints innumerable. Let us on. It profits not.” So grief assail’d My heart at hearing this. Dark and deep. nor could aught discern. as mine ear could note. “say. since baptism was not theirs. Come forth from thence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Only so far afflicted. Risen upright. if thou yieldest to dread. but from grief Felt by those multitudes. did e’er Any. not caus’d by tortures. Which vanquishes all error. If they before The Gospel liv’d. women. for well I knew Suspended in that Limbo many a soul Of mighty worth. And among such am I. or through his own or other’s merit. As one by main force rous’d. “O tell me. and search’d With fixed ken to know what place it was. For certain on the brink I found me of the lamentable vale. sire rever’d! Tell me. thus: “How may I speed. we are lost. they serv’d not God aright. which thou for fear Mistakest. many and vast.” Then I his alter’d hue perceiving. 12 . and if aught they merited. my master!” I began through wish Of full assurance in that holy faith.Hell CANTO IV Broke the deep slumber in my brain a crash Of heavy thunder. whom afterward was blest?” Piercing the secret purport of my speech. Here.

He forth the shade of our first parent drew. of all bards supreme: Flaccus the next in satire’s vein excelling. Yet we a little space Were distant. at the which my master smil’d: Nor was this all.” So I beheld united the bright school Of him the monarch of sublimest song. who every art And science valu’st! who are these. And others many more. Israel with his sire and with his sons. with victorious trophy crown’d. Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad.The Divine Comedy of Dante . separate from all the rest?” He answer’d: “The renown of their great names That echoes through your world above. while he spake. than I beheld Four mighty spirits toward us bend their steps.Hell He answer’d: “I was new to that estate. with salutation kind Beck’ning me. The third is Naso. Honouring they greet me thus. Before these. when I kenn’d A flame.” Meantime a voice I heard: “Honour the bard Sublime! his shade returns that left us late!” No sooner ceas’d the sound. that a tribe in honour high That place possess’d. for so I name Those spirits thick beset. When they together short discourse had held. Because they all that appellation own. not so far but I in part Discover’d. They turn’d to me. We were not far On this side from the summit. whom he to bliss Exalted. Of Moses lawgiver for faith approv’d. ceas’d not our onward road. and well they judge. Nor without Rachel whom so hard he won. acquires Favour in heaven. No spirit of human kind was ever sav’d. Who in his right hand bears that falchion keen. That o’er the others like an eagle soars. but greater honour still They gave me.” We. as their lord. And I was sixth amid so learn’d a band. and Noah righteous man. Of patriarch Abraham. With which the voice singly accosted me. that o’er the darken’d hemisphere Prevailing shin’d. “O thou. and David king. for they made me of their tribe. which holds them thus advanc’d. Far as the luminous beacon on we pass’d 13 . This is that Homer. be thou assur’d. that boast Such honour. The other three preceding. Abel his child. Lucan is the last. When I beheld a puissant one arrive Amongst us. Still passing through the wood. When thus my master kind began: “Mark him.

Lucretia. Incontinent There on the green enamel of the plain Were shown me the great spirits. On the other side Old King Latinus. and Thales sage. and with hawk’s eye Caesar all arm’d. Who sets the world at chance. Zeno. then befitting well To speak.Hell Speaking of matters. who slow their eyes around Majestically mov’d. There dwelt a race. among whom Hector I knew. all pay him rev’rence due. Electra there I saw accompanied By many. into a place Open and bright and lofty. they spake Seldom. And sole apart retir’d. Who Tarquin chas’d. Next through seven gates I with those sages enter’d. And Anaxagoras. Seated amid the philosophic train. We to one side retir’d. Democritus. 14 . Tully and moral Seneca. Hippocrates. that ofttimes My words fall short of what bechanc’d. O’er this As o’er dry land we pass’d. Him all admire. Into a climate ever vex’d with storms: And to a part I come where no light shines. Of all to speak at full were vain attempt. and him who made That commentary vast. With Heraclitus. by whose sight I am exalted in my own esteem. now fitter left untold. In two The six associates part. For my wide theme so urges. Galenus. Nearest to him in rank. and we came Into a mead with lively verdure fresh. but all their words were tuneful sweet. Cato’s wife Marcia. seated by his child Lavinia. and that Brutus I beheld. Euclid and Ptolemy. Averroes. There Socrates and Plato both I mark’d. the Soldan fierce. Diogenes. from that air serene. with Julia and Cornelia there. and round Defended by a pleasant stream. and Empedocles. and by Camilla there Penthesilea. Seven times with lofty walls begirt. I spied the master of the sapient throng. At foot Of a magnificent castle we arriv’d. Anchises’ pious son. Avicen. and in their port Bore eminent authority. and Dioscorides well read In nature’s secret lore.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Then when a little more I rais’d my brow. Orpheus I mark’d And Linus. Another way My sage guide leads me. whence each one Stood manifest to view.

considering what place in hell Suits the transgression. 15 . The stormy blast of hell With restless fury drives the spirits on Whirl’d round and dash’d amain with sore annoy. nor e’en of milder pang. moans. I understood that to this torment sad The carnal sinners are condemn’d. Now am I come where many a plaining voice Smites on mine ear. in whom Reason by lust is sway’d. As cranes. strict examining the crimes. as degrees beneath He dooms it to descend.” Now ‘gin the rueful wailings to be heard. there lamentations. Before him stand Always a num’rous throng. According as he foldeth him around: For when before him comes th’ ill fated soul. And blasphemies ‘gainst the good Power in heaven. On this side and on that. and that judge severe Of sins. It drives them: hope of rest to solace them Is none. “O thou! who to this residence of woe Approachest?” when he saw me coming.Hell CANTO V From the first circle I descended thus Down to the second. and dismisses them beneath.” To him my guide: “Wherefore exclaimest? Hinder not his way By destiny appointed. There. It all confesses. Minos stands Grinning with ghastly feature: he. speaks. cried Minos. Chanting their dol’rous notes. relinquishing his dread employ. when winter reigns. below. which. thence downward to his dwelling hurl’d. beware in whom Thou place thy trust. The starlings on their wings are borne abroad. Gives sentence. with his tail so oft Himself encircles. As in large troops And multitudinous. above. traverse the sky. let not the entrance broad Deceive thee to thy harm. and hears His fate. There shrieks are heard. of all Who enter. Bellowing there groan’d A noise as of a sea in tempest torn By warring winds. So bears the tyrannous gust those evil souls.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so much more of grief contains Provoking bitter moans. so ‘tis will’d Where will and power are one. Ask thou no more. When they arrive before the ruinous sweep. Into a place I came Where light was silent all. “Look how thou enter here. and in his turn Each one to judgment passing. a lesser space Embracing.

of whom thou question’st. The land. there the great Achilles. “O gracious creature and benign! who go’st Visiting. lustful queen. by the black air so scourg’d?”—” The first ‘Mong those. wafted by their will along. And held the land. and by name Pointed them out. whom love bereav’d of life.” As doves By fond desire invited. Entreat. Us. through this element obscure. Is situate on the coast. Our pray’r to him should for thy peace arise. If whatsoe’er to hear or to discourse It pleases thee. O’er many tongues was empress. When I had heard my sage instructor name Those dames and knights of antique days. That she succeeded Ninus her espous’d. This is Semiramis. that gave me birth. who with love fought to the end. The next in amorous fury slew herself. and they will come.” he replied.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I thus fram’d my speech: “O wearied spirits! come. They through the ill air speeding. Since thou hast pity on our evil plight. to their sweet nest returning home. for whose sake so long The time was fraught with evil. where Dido ranks. To clear the blame she had herself incurr’d. who came loud wailing. and beside A thousand more he show’d me. and Tristan.” Soon as the wind Sway’d them toward us. is mute. hurried on By their dire doom. Which seem so light before the wind. And to Sicheus’ ashes broke her faith: Then follows Cleopatra.Hell Stretch’d out in long array: so I beheld Spirits. Thus issu’d from that troop.” He thus: “Note thou. and hold discourse With us. and I began: “Bard! willingly I would address those two together coming. with such force My cry prevail’d by strong affection urg’d. of that Freely with thee discourse. while e’er the wind. which now the Soldan rules.” There mark’d I Helen. that she made Liking be lawful by promulg’d decree. if by none else restrain’d. on wide wings And firm. She in vice Of luxury was so shameless. o’erpower’d By pity. where Po descends 16 . well-nigh in amaze my mind Was lost. Then I: “Instructor! who Are these. that will we hear. who the world with bloody stain imbru’d. As now. If for a friend the King of all we own’d. of whom ‘tis writ. Cleave the air. when nearer they to us approach. Then by that love which carries them along. Paris I saw.

and no Suspicion near us. seem’d not far From death. that the bard cried: “What art thou pond’ring?” I in answer thus: “Alas! by what sweet thoughts. who spilt our life. whence grief O’ercame me wholly. But tell me. who ne’er From me shall separate. By what. and like a corpse fell to the ground. as thou see’st. Alone we were. Entangled him by that fair form. I to them my speech address’d. Ofttimes by that reading Our eyes were drawn together. straight around I see New torments. The wished smile. what fond desire Must they at length to that ill pass have reach’d!” Then turning.” Such were their words.” While thus one spirit spake. he yet deserts me not. When of that smile we read. who weeps and tells his tale. that denial takes from none belov’d. that erewhile had droop’d With pity for the kindred shades. that in gentle heart is quickly learnt. How him love thrall’d. From whence our love gat being. then he. At hearing which downward I bent my looks. of show’rs 17 . I will do. that heartstruck I through compassion fainting. rapturously kiss’d By one so deep in love. and how love granted. But at one point Alone we fell. at once my lips All trembling kiss’d. that ye knew Your yet uncertain wishes?” She replied: “No greater grief than to remember days Of joy. One day For our delight we read of Lancelot. new tormented souls. Caught me with pleasing him so passing well. That. And thus began: “Francesca! your sad fate Even to tears my grief and pity moves. in the time of your sweet sighs. In the third circle I arrive. The book and writer both Were love’s purveyors.Hell To rest in ocean with his sequent streams. The other wail’d so sorely. CANTO VI My sense reviving. In its leaves that day We read no more. or bend my sight. or turn. which way Soe’er I move. as grieves me still: Love.The Divine Comedy of Dante . from me Ta’en in such cruel sort. As one. Yet so eagerly If thou art bent to know the primal root. when mis’ry is at hand! That kens Thy learn’d instructor. And held them there so long. and the hue Fled from our alter’d cheek. “Love. Love brought us to one death: Caina waits The soul.

cruel monster. who thund’ring stuns The spirits. godless crew. Cerberus. savage Cerberus. that although Other be greater. that they for deafness wish in vain. bent alone with eager haste To swallow it. accursed. They all along the earth extended lay Save one. that it seems As if I saw thee never.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Held me in brighter days. Large hail. Nor I sole spirit in this woe: all these Have by like crime incurr’d like punishment. Then my guide. For the sin Of glutt’ny. “who through the infernal shades art led. and cold. Howling there spread. Ye citizens Were wont to name me Ciacco. more disgustful none Can be imagin’d. that sudden rais’d himself to sit. when the morsel comes. When that great worm Descried us. lets fall His fury. We. thence filled with earth Rais’d them.” He in answer thus: “Thy city heap’d with envy to the brim. Own. if again thou know’st me. But inform Me who thou art.Hell Ceaseless. that substance seem’d. Thou wast fram’d Or ere my frame was broken. discolour’d water. he op’d His jaws. A wretched. E’en as thou see’st. damned vice. and their limbs Piecemeal disparts. with one side The other screening. o’er the shades thrown prostrate by the brunt Of the heavy tempest passing. with which He tears the spirits. sleety flaw Through the dun midnight air stream’d down amain: Stank all the land whereon that tempest fell. that in a place so sad Art set. so dropp’d the loathsome cheeks Of demon Cerberus. and in such torment. “O thou!” He cried. His belly large. beneath this rain. His eyes glare crimson. Under the rainy deluge. I with fatigue am worn. unchang’d For ever. his palms Expanding on the ground. Soon as that way he saw us pass. E’en as a dog. black his unctuous beard. heavy. as curs.” I replied: “The anguish thou endur’st perchance so takes Thy form from my remembrance.” 18 . that yelling bays for food His keeper. Through his wide threefold throat barks as a dog Over the multitude immers’d beneath. and claw’d the hands. flays them. and the fangs show’d us. and cast it in his ravenous maw. fierce and strange. not a limb Of him but trembled. both in kind and in degree. set our feet Upon their emptiness. Ay that the measure overflows its bounds. oft they roll them round.

meanwhile Touching. 19 . answer thee no more.” He answer’d straight: “These are yet blacker spirits. Av’rice. Mosca. But they neglected. No more I tell thee. and the wild party from the woods Will chase the other with much injury forth. be increas’d. Each one forthwith to his sad tomb repair. Of me make mention. farther parley still entreat. If heaven’s sweet cup or poisonous drug of hell Be to their lip assign’d. Sir! When the great sentence passes. And I continu’d thus: “Still would I learn More from thee. Resume his fleshly vesture and his form. Arrigo. of Giacopo. They who so well deserv’d. envy. within Three solar circles. Even to tears. who bent Their minds on working good. with tardy steps. When thus my guide: “No more his bed he leaves. And hear the eternal doom re-echoing rend The vault. Whence jarring discord hath assail’d it thus?” He then: “After long striving they will come To blood. though slightly. What shall at length befall the citizens Of the divided city. If thou so far descendest. pride. And grieving sore. indignant at the load.” So pass’d we through that mixture foul Of spirits and rain. Ere the last angel-trumpet blow. who under shore Now rests. there. The just are two in number. Three fatal sparks. that this must fall. whether any just one Inhabit there: and tell me of the cause. thou mayst see them. his fixed eyes he turn’d askance. and I my speech resum’d: “Ciacco! thy dire affliction grieves me much. It shall a long space hold aloof Its forehead. if thou know’st.” Here ceas’d the lamentable sound. and to their knowledge let me come.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Hell No more he said. on the life to come. Oh! tell me where They bide. and the other rise By borrow’d force of one.” This said. then bent down his head. The Power Adverse to these shall then in glory come. And ‘midst his blind companions with it fell. Then it behoves. and the rest. I entreat thee. have set the hearts of all On fire. But tell me. But to the pleasant world when thou return’st. keeping under heavy weight The other oppress’d. Various crimes Have sunk them deeper in the dark abyss. A little ey’d me. Of Farinata and Tegghiaio say. For thus I question’d: “Shall these tortures. For I am press’d with keen desire to hear.

Exclaiming these. From one side and the other. on Charybdis rising. It feels more sensibly both good and pain. we found. new troubles. turning again.” Compassing that path Circuitous we journeyed. “Curs’d wolf! thy fury inward on thyself Prey. and discourse Much more than I relate between us pass’d: Till at the point.The Divine Comedy of Dante . there Plutus.Hell Or mitigated. be sure. there where the great Archangel pour’d 20 . Though ne’er to true perfection may arrive This race accurs’d. Arriv’d. Against encounter’d billow dashing breaks. and consume thee! Through the dark profound Not without cause he passes. yet nearer then than now They shall approach it. whom no event surpris’d. that all the woe Hems in of all the universe. At sight whereof CANTO VII “Ah me! O Satan! Satan!” loud exclaim’d Plutus. and each one forthwith Roll’d them back voluble. To comfort me thus spake: “Let not thy fear Harm thee. as I here beheld! Wherefore doth fault of ours bring us to this? E’en as a billow. So ‘t is will’d On high. Whom more than elsewhere numerous here I found. Such is the dance this wretched race must lead.” Then to that sworn lip turning. is none To hinder down this rock thy safe descent. Gain’d on the dismal shore. the great foe. if the mast split. They to the opposite point on either hand Travers’d the horrid circle: then arriv’d. with loud voice. that decides That as each thing to more perfection grows. and through the middle space Conflicting met again. or as now severe?” He then: “Consult thy knowledge. So to the ground down dropp’d the cruel fiend. Heav’n’s vengeance on the first adulterer proud. in accent hoarse of wild alarm: And the kind sage. Ah me! Almighty Justice! in what store thou heap’st New pains. where the steps led below. “And why castest thou away?” So still repeating their despiteful song. Thus we.” As sails full spread and bellying with the wind Drop suddenly collaps’d. descending to the fourth steep ledge. for power in him. Both roll’d on weights by main forge of their breasts. Both turn’d them round. “Why holdest thou so fast?” Those answering. “Peace!” he cried. Then smote together.

that with no hairy cowls Are crown’d. e’en as her will Decrees. thus spake: “O say. as in the grass 21 . That ill they gave. both Popes and Cardinals. Which made them vile before. whose heads are shorn. from us conceal’d.” I then: “Mid such as these some needs must be. from one to other’s blood. The heavens creating. Their light in equal distribution pour’d. This clearly from their words collect. which needs No labour’d phrase of mine to set if off. that is beneath the moon. That ignoble life. By similar appointment he ordain’d Over the world’s bright images to rule. which at due time May change the empty vantages of life From race to race. He. o’er whom Av’rice dominion absolute maintains. And to all knowledge indiscernible. that with the blot Of these foul sins were stain’d. Superintendence of a guiding hand And general minister. my guide! What race is this? Were these. Those with close-shaven locks. gave them ruling powers To guide them. And ill they kept. so that each part shines to each. On our left hand. at each extremity Arriving of the circle.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that thou speak’st of. what it is. Forever they shall meet in this rude shock: These from the tomb with clenched grasp shall rise. where their crime Contrary’ in kind disparts them.Hell I. Another languishes. my son! how brief.” He answering thus: “Vain thought conceiv’st thou. stung with grief. that they made. of these toil-worn souls Might purchase rest for one. Whose talons grasp the blessings of the world?” He thus: “O beings blind! what ignorance Besets you? Now my judgment hear and mark. Now may’st thou see. Which they howl forth. For which the human race keep such a coil! Not all the gold. No use. now makes them dark. This fortune. whose transcendent wisdom passes all. and set them at this strife. According to due measure. Beyond prevention of man’s wisest care: Wherefore one nation rises into sway.” I thus rejoin’d: “My guide! of thee this also would I learn. Or ever hath been. hath of the beauteous world Depriv’d. Whom I shall recognize. The goods committed into fortune’s hands. how vain. To the church Were separate those. all sep’rate to the church?” He straight replied: “In their first life these all In mind were so distorted. of their wealth.

Nor stopp’d. to heavier woe Descending: for each star is falling now. till to a tower’s low base we came. and in the marish sunk descried A miry tribe. Intent I stood To gaze. that underneath The water dwells a multitude. Her changes know Nore intermission: by necessity She is made swift. whose sighs Into these bubbles make the surface heave. whose debt To her is rather praise. Into a lake.” Such dolorous strain they gurgle in their throats.” Our route Thus compass’d we. son! The souls of those. She with foresight plans. This is she. though by a different track. The good instructor spake. Against her nought avails Your utmost wisdom. turning meanwhile our eyes Downward on those who gulp’d its muddy lees. journeying by their side. Fix’d in the slime they say: “Sad once were we In the sweet air made gladsome by the sun. Far murkier was the wave Than sablest grain: and we in company Of the’ inky waters. and with looks Betok’ning rage. they wrongfully With blame requite her. Cutting each other piecemeal with their fangs. That mounted at our entrance. expands The dismal stream. They with their hands alone Struck not. As thine eye tells thee wheresoe’er it turn. But she is blessed. whom anger overcame. Enter’d. and the core Of the loath’d pool. so frequent come who claim Succession in her favours. That boiling pours itself down to a foss Sluic’d from its source. and forbids Too long our tarrying. the Stygian nam’d. but with the head. and in her bliss exults. a segment widely stretch’d Between the dry embankment. “Now seest thou. when it hath reach’d the foot Of the grey wither’d cliffs. as theirs The other powers divine. and carries on her reign.The Divine Comedy of Dante . This too for certain know. Judges. the breast.Hell The serpent train. But word distinct can utter none. Carrying a foul and lazy mist within: Now in these murky settlings are we sad. Now on our way pass we. all naked.” We the circle cross’d To the next steep. and for that recks not: Amidst the other primal beings glad Rolls on her sphere. So execrated e’en by those. the feet. beneath. arriving at a well. 22 . and with evil word.

to his memory No virtue lends its lustre. E’en thus in filth disguis’d. our eyes Its height ascended.” Never was arrow from the cord dismiss’d. But who art thou. whereat Inly he pines. with his arms my neck Encircling.” he replied.” As one who hears Of some great wrong he hath sustain’d. My guide descending stepp’d Into the skiff. even so 23 . so Phlegyas inly pin’d In his fierce ire. As a small bark. Cutting the waves. under the sole sway Of one that ferried it. Phlegyas.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and said. One drench’d in mire before me came. More deeply than with others it is wont. and spake: “O soul Justly disdainful! blest was she in whom Thou was conceiv’d! He in the world was one For arrogance noted. I know thee well. If the marsh-gender’d fog conceal it not. While we our course o’er the dead channel held. that through the waves I spied Toward us coming.” my lord replied. fell spirit?”—”Phlegyas. “Who art thou. as thou seest. who cried aloud: “Art thou arriv’d.” Then stretch’d he forth Hands to the bark. and from afar another light Return the signal. that scarce The eye could catch its beam. thus inquir’d: “Say what this means? and what that other light In answer set? what agency doth this?” “There on the filthy waters. nor till my entrance seem’d The vessel freighted.Hell CANTO VIII My theme pursuing. that art become so foul?” “One. That ran its way so nimbly through the air. “No longer shalt thou have us. goes on the ancient prow. I relate that ere We reach’d the lofty turret’s base. Curs’d spirit! tarry thou. so remote. I tarry not. whereof my teacher sage Aware. and bade me enter next Close at his side. where two cressets hung We mark’d. who mourn: “ he straight replied. kiss’d my cheek. that thou comest ere thine hour?” I answer’d: “Though I come. I turning round To the deep source of knowledge. but while o’er The slimy pool we pass. Soon as both embark’d. This time thou criest in vain. To which I thus: “ In mourning and in woe. thrusting him back: “Away! down there To the’ other dogs!” then. “E’en now what next awaits us mayst thou see.

Leaving behind them horrible dispraise!” I then: “Master! him fain would I behold Whelm’d in these dregs. goes through The regions of the dead?” My sapient guide Made sign that he for secret parley wish’d. when I saw the miry tribes Set on him with such violence. “O my lov’d guide! who more than seven times Security hast render’d me.” I thus: “The minarets already.” He replied: “Eternal fire.” We came within the fosses deep. That inward burns.” He thus: “Or ever to thy view the shore Be offer’d. For thee. If well he know it.The Divine Comedy of Dante . With its grave denizens. satisfied shall be that wish. Gleaming vermilion. a mighty throng. shows them with ruddy flame Illum’d. We had made Wide circuit.Hell Here is his shadow furious. that of Dis is nam’d. With ireful gestures. as if they from fire Had issu’d. And thus the good instructor: “Now. my son! Draws near the city. where loud The mariner cried vehement: “Go forth! The’ entrance is here!” Upon the gates I spied More than a thousand. that moat This region comfortless. Him here we left. as in this nether hell thou seest. Which well deserves completion. before we quit the lake. Nor speak I of him more. thus They spake: “Come thou alone. There above How many now hold themselves mighty kings Who here like swine shall wallow in the mire. and let him go Who hath so hardily enter’d this realm.” They cried. “Who is this. 24 . Here shalt thou tarry. The walls appear’d As they were fram’d of iron. I did believe I never should return. whereto I stood expos’d. reader! What cheer was mine at sound of those curs’d words. who through clime so dark Hast been his escort. But on mine ear Sudden a sound of lamentation smote. Whereat mine eye unbarr’d I sent abroad.” Scarce his words Were ended. Whereat their angry scorn abating. and drawn From peril deep. that yet For that render I thanks to God and praise “To Filippo Argenti:” cried they all: And on himself the moody Florentine Turn’d his avenging fangs. Alone return he by his witless way. who of old from heaven Were hurl’d. let him prove. “that without death first felt.” Now bethink thee. ere a place we reach’d. Sir! There certes in the valley I descry.

Erewhile at gate less secret they display’d. Together trace we back our steps with speed. And the thick-gath’ring cloud. by such high Authority permitted. “It yet behooves We win this fight”—thus he began—” if not— Such aid to us is offer’d. I could not hear what terms he offer’d them. unescorted. than that he held. who thither had conducted me. not new.” My liege. while thus with sighs he spake: “Who hath denied me these abodes of woe?” Then thus to me: “That I am anger’d.” CANTO IX The hue. which coward dread on my pale cheeks Imprinted. But they conferr’d not long. meanwhile thy wearied spirit Comfort. —Oh. Clos’d were the gates By those our adversaries on the breast Of my liege lord: excluded he return’d To me with tardy steps. as one Who listens.” This said. how the sequel of his words Clok’d their beginning. how long Me seems it. down the steep. comes One whose strong might can open us this land. Upon the ground His eyes were bent.” I cried. Which still is without bolt.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Hesitating I remain At war ‘twixt will and will not in my thoughts. for all at once To trial fled within. But do thou Expect me here. “in this extreme. for the last he spake Agreed not with the first. assur’d I will not leave thee in this lower world. And quits me. 25 . He. But not the less My fear was at his saying. Passing the circles. upon its arch Thou saw’st the deadly scroll: and even now On this side of its entrance.Hell Desert me not. This their insolence. Replied: “Fear not: for of our passage none Hath power to disappoint us. use what arts they may within For hindrance. sith I drew To import worse perchance. ere the promis’d help arrive!” I noted. think No ground of terror: in this trial I Shall vanquish. when I saw my guide turn back. stood attentive: for his eye Not far could lead him through the sable air. And if our onward going be denied. And inwardly restrain’d it. departs the sire benevolent. and feed with kindly hope. Chas’d that from his which newly they had worn. and from his brow eras’d All confidence.

out of the first degree. whose pain Is deprivation merely of sweet hope?” Thus I inquiring. to its burning top. on the right hand she.” This said. and such shrill clamour rais’d. themselves Smote with their palms. Lowest place Is that of all. Ye of intellect Sound and entire. “Rarely. adders and cerastes crept Instead of hair. “It chances. sorceress. and their fierce temples bound. For that mine eye toward the lofty tower Had drawn me wholly. but with his own He also hid me. thus spake: “Mark thou each dire Erinnys.” he replied. Around them greenest hydras twisting roll’d Their volumes. round The city’ of grief encompasses. Alecto.” This said. to draw forth a spirit From out of Judas’ circle. and keep Thy count’nance hid. No long space my flesh Was naked of me. when within these walls She made me enter. who compell’d the shades Back to their bodies. Where in an instant I beheld uprisen At once three hellish furies stain’d with blood: In limb and motion feminine they seem’d. That to the bard I clung. which now We may not enter without rage. Erewhile ‘tis true Once came I here beneath.Hell His mutilated speech. Nor trusted he my hands. the noisome stench exhaling. “Doth ever any Into this rueful concave’s extreme depth Descend. conjur’d by fell Erictho. That lake. The road Full well I know: thou therefore rest secure. obscurest. we took No ill revenge.” “Turn thyself round. in silence he remain’d Their breast they each one clawing tore. He knowing well the miserable hags Who tend the queen of endless woe.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To the left This is Megaera. Who wails.” all looking down exclaim’d. “Hasten Medusa: so to adamant Him shall we change. and remov’d Farthest from heav’n’s all-circling orb. for if the Gorgon dire Be shown. Himself my gentle master turn’d me round. and thou shouldst view it. “E’en when by Theseus’ might assail’d. suspicion-bound. that among us any makes This journey. mark well the lore conceal’d Under close texture of the mystic strain! And now there came o’er the perturbed waves 26 . and Tisiphone I’ th’ midst. thy return Upwards would be for ever lost.” Yet more He added: but I hold it not in mind. which I wend.

a sound that made Either shore tremble. I perceiv’d That he was sent from heav’n. terrible. then onward passing proudly sweeps Its whirlwind rage. his throat and maw. Oft his left hand forth stretch’d. And see on every part wide-stretching space Replete with bitter pain and torment ill. And syllable to us spake none. till at the ground each one Lies on a heap. and keenly press’d. That closes Italy and laves her bounds. from his face removing the gross air. That ‘gainst some forest driving all its might. save what in horror here 27 . hence Bears still. and spake: “And now direct Thy visual nerve along that ancient foam. thickest where the smoke ascends. Then we our steps Toward that territory mov’d. who signal made that I should stand Quiet. We unoppos’d There enter’d. I soon as enter’d throw mine eye around. if ye remember. so saw I fleeing before one Who pass’d with unwet feet the Stygian sound. from conflicting vapours sprung. and my mind eager to learn What state a fortress like to that might hold. through the wave Ply swiftly all. than thought of him Who in his presence stands. he turn’d back o’er the filthy way. Mine eyes he loos’d. but wore The semblance of a man by other care Beset. “Outcasts of heav’n! O abject race and scorn’d!” Began he on the horrid grunsel standing. So was it here. and bend to him. He. beats them down and hurls Afar.” This said. and which so oft Hath laid on you enforcement of your pangs? What profits at the fays to but the horn? Your Cerberus. and with his wand touch’d it. as if of a wind Impetuous. and to my guide Turn’d me. more than a thousand spirits Destroy’d. The place is all thick spread with sepulchres. whereat Open without impediment it flew.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and seem’d alone By that annoyance wearied. peel’d of their hair. near Quarnaro’s gulf. secure After the hallow’d words.” As frogs Before their foe the serpent. As where Rhone stagnates on the plains of Arles. Plucks off the branches. Or as at Pola. Ah me! how full Of noble anger seem’d he! To the gate He came. There. “Whence doth this wild excess of insolence Lodge in you? wherefore kick you ‘gainst that will Ne’er frustrate of its end.Hell Loud-crashing. while beasts and shepherds fly.

And the tormented souls: my master first.Hell Excell’d: for ‘midst the graves were scattered flames. “This said. He to the right hand turning. accompanied By every sect their followers. and much more. and none O’er them keeps watch. Speak thou.” “O Tuscan! thou who through the city of fire Alive art passing. I close behind his steps.” Sudden that sound Forth issu’d from a vault. but to shun vain length of words. Such as the sad and tortur’d well might raise. Here therefore satisfaction shall be soon Both to the question ask’d. on we pass’d Betwixt the afflicted and the ramparts high. so discreet of speech! Here please thee stay awhile. Who lie within these sepulchres. Which thou conceal’st in silence. whereat in fear I somewhat closer to my leader’s side Approaching. even as thou will’st. Between the walls. That iron for no craft there hotter needs. The cemetery on this part obtain With Epicurus all his followers. with which perchance I too severely dealt. I thus: “Master! say who are these. Their lids all hung suspended. what-time they here From Josaphat return’d shall come. and bring Their bodies. Who with the body make the spirit die. he thus spake: “What dost thou? Turn. Wherewith intensely all throughout they burn’d.” I replied: “I keep not. and satisfy my wish.The Divine Comedy of Dante . tombs are freighted: like With like is buried. 28 . guide belov’d! from thee my heart Secreted. which above they now have left. “Virtue supreme!” I thus began. “who through these ample orbs In circuit lead’st me. and to the wish.” He thus in answer spake “They shall be closed all. A lesson erewhile taught me by thyself. of whom distinct we hear The dolorous sighs?” He answer thus return’d: “The arch-heretics are here. and beneath From them forth issu’d lamentable moans. be seen? Already all the lids are rais’d. Than thou believest. Thy utterance Declares the place of thy nativity To be that noble land. CANTO X Now by a secret pathway we proceed. May those. that hem the region round. and the monuments Are different in degrees of heat. interr’d Within these vaults.

his brow Somewhat uplifting.” answer’d I. an art Which yours have shown. there! who hath himself Uplifted: from his girdle upwards all Expos’d behold him. peering forth from the unclosed jaw.Hell Lo. upon its knees uprais’d. great of soul. Whence I so fully answer’d. “return’d. whom perchance Guido thy son Had in contempt. “And if. Rose from his side a shade. nor bent his ribbed side. So to the pleasant world mayst thou return. with tears Thus spake: “If thou through this blind prison go’st. straight reveal’d The whole. nor kept back aught: whence he. not after forth appear’d he more. up starting. By him. methought.” On his face was mine Already fix’d. cried: “Fiercely were they Adverse to me. what ancestors were thine?” I. Led by thy lofty genius and profound. Leaning. through this clime Conducted.” Already had his words And mode of punishment read me his name. That doth torment me more e’en than this bed.The Divine Comedy of Dante . yet they each time From all parts.” he cried. chang’d not count’nance stern. down fell Supine. who reigns here Queen of this realm. his breast and forehead there Erecting. who there expects me. high as the chin. “They in this art. seem’d as in high scorn he held E’en hell. “How! said’st thou he had? No longer lives he? Strikes not on his eye The blessed daylight?” Then of some delay I made ere my reply aware. and the blood From whence I sprang: twice therefore I abroad Scatter’d them. then in disdainful mood Address’d me: “Say. they are not skill’d to learn. but perceiving That fond imagination quench’d. my party. Meanwhile the other. Nor mov’d the neck. Between the sepulchres to him My guide thrust me with fearless hands and prompt.” “Though driv’n out. as eager to explore If there were other with me. Where is my son? and wherefore not with thee?” I straight replied: “Not of myself I come. It look’d around. Farinata. This warning added: “See thy words be clear!” He. soon as there I stood at the tomb’s foot. Ey’d me a space. “small skill have shown. willing to obey him. 29 .” Then.” continuing the first discourse. Ere thou shalt know the full weight of that art. But not yet fifty times shall be relum’d Her aspect. He at once Exclaim’d. near whom I yet was station’d.

as one who hath an evil sight. then thus resum’d: “In that affray I stood not singly. And the Lord Cardinal. this said.” But now my master summoning me back I heard. that all Our knowledge in that instant shall expire. which thy help hath solv’d. objects far remote: So much of his large spendour yet imparts The’ Almighty Ruler. of the present uninform’d. from sight withdrew.” Sighing he shook The head. And thus in going question’d: “Whence the’ amaze That holds thy senses wrapt?” I satisfied The’ inquiry. who with him Partook his lot.” I replied. He answer thus return’d: “More than a thousand with me here are laid Within is Frederick. why in all their laws. Ye seem to view beforehand. That if from answer silent I abstain’d. The one who openly forbad the deed.” He answer’d. ruminated on the words Betokening me such ill. If right I hear. “plainly.” “We view.” I thus adjur’d him. and of the rest I speak not. our intellect Then wholly fails. and bid him know. Florence had to the ground been raz’d.Hell As thou shalt tell me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that his offspring still Is to the living join’d. I added thus: “Now shalt thou say To him there fallen. that which time Leads with him. “That colour’d Arbia’s flood with crimson stain— To these impute.” 30 . Which now involves my mind. But I my steps towards the ancient bard Reverting. Onward he mov’d. ’Twas that my thought was occupied intent Upon that error. second of that name. But singly there I stood. Against my kin this people is so fell?” “The slaughter and great havoc. and note thou this. and the sage enjoin’d me straight: “Let thy safe memory store what thou hast heard To thee importing harm. nor of your human state Except what others bring us know we aught. but when they approach Or actually exist.” He. “as thou solve this knot. nor without just cause Assuredly should with the rest have stirr’d. When on futurity the portals close. that in our hallow’d dome Such orisons ascend.” Then conscious of my fault.” “So may thy lineage find at last repose. when by consent Of all. and with more eager haste besought The spirit to inform me. Hence therefore mayst thou understand. and by remorse Smitten.

By craggy rocks environ’d round. Each one is full Of spirits accurs’d. Whose bright eye all surveys. and painful wounds Upon his neighbour he inflicts. because of man peculiar evil. by man Force may be offer’d. and each one that smites CANTO XI Upon the utmost verge of a high bank. and the flames. and all such end Either by force or fraud works other’s woe But fraud. to whom Answering I spake: “Some compensation find 31 . violent death. and wastes By devastation. but that the sight alone Hereafter may suffice thee.Hell With his rais’d finger bidding me take heed.” Forthwith he to the left hand turn’d his feet: We left the wall. Which e’en thus high exhal’d its noisome steam. and himself.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Where woes beneath more cruel yet were stow’d: And here to shun the horrible excess Of fetid exhalation. That the time past not wholly lost. The end is injury. pillage. His substance. whom Photinus drew From the right path.” he thus began. afterward Regard it not. his neighbour. we came. “Of all malicious act abhorr’d in heaven. upward cast From the profound abyss. As these which now thou leav’st.” He then: “Lo! how my thoughts e’en to thy wishes tend! My son! within these rocks. to himself I say And his possessions. To God is more displeasing. The violent occupy All the first circle. and beneath The fraudulent are therefore doom’d to’ endure Severer pang. behind the lid Of a great monument we stood retir’d. To the dire breath accustom’d. she of thy life The future tenour will to thee unfold. “Are three close circles in gradation plac’d. “When thou shalt stand before her gracious beam. and because to force Three persons are obnoxious. Death.” My master thus. and tow’rds the middle space Went by a path. listen how And for what cause in durance they abide.—Ere our descent behooves We make delay. Whereon this scroll I mark’d: “I have in charge Pope Anastasius. that to a valley strikes. that somewhat first the sense. To God. Slayers. in three rounds Hach within other sep’rate is it fram’d. as thou soon shalt hear At full.

The Divine Comedy of Dante . wherein thy ethic page describes Three dispositions adverse to Heav’n’s will. or set their honesty at pawn. dread seat of Dis. Seems as the latter way Broke but the bond of love which Nature makes. Not so accustom’d? or what other thoughts Possess it? Dwell not in thy memory The words. hence The torment undergo of the first round In different herds. flatteries.” I thus: “Instructor. and mad brutishness. And thence the inmost round marks with its seal Sodom and Cahors. falsehood. Without these walls to vain repentance doom’d. and all robbers. and remember who they are. or on another who withholds Strict confidence. Whence in the second circle have their nest Dissimulation. Wherefore within the city fire-illum’d Are not these punish’d.Hell In malice. 32 . Man can do violence To himself and his own blessings: and for this He in the second round must aye deplore With unavailing penitence his crime. and all such as speak Contemptuously’ of the Godhead in their hearts. malice. Theft. But tell me this: they of the dull. And nature with her kindly law contemning. simony. whose trust He wins. witchcraft. With such vile scum as these. And sorrows there where he should dwell in joy. The other way Forgets both Nature’s general love. May be by man employ’d on one. And how incontinence the least offends God. Whence in the lesser circle. distinguishing the hideous chasm And its inhabitants with skill exact. clearly thy discourse Proceeds. Whom the rain beats. or whom the tempest drives. wherefore in such guise Are they condemned?” He answer thus return’d: “Wherefore in dotage wanders thus thy mind. Or who with tongues so fierce conflicting meet. all who seduce To lust. To God may force be offer’d. Incont’nence. fat pool. Whoe’er deprives himself of life and light. that in every conscience leaves a sting. The traitor is eternally consum’d. plund’rers. “Fraud. and that Which thereto added afterwards gives birth To special faith. if God’s wrath be on them? And if it be not. and least guilt incurs? If well thou note This judgment. Point of the universe. in the heart Denying and blaspheming his high power. In reckless lavishment his talent wastes.

But follow now My steps on forward journey bent. so the headlong rock Is shiver’d. Clearly points out. that some passage it might give To him who from above would pass. How imitative nature takes her course From the celestial mind and from its art: And where her laws the Stagyrite unfolds.Hell Thou shalt discern why they apart are plac’d From these fell spirits. For from the mountain’s summit. when thou solv’st my doubt.” I in these words Continu’d. if thou recall to mind Creation’s holy book. that usury Offends celestial Goodness. as the learner treads In his instructor’s step. from the beginning Were the right source of life and excellence To human kind. and less wreakful pours Justice divine on them its vengeance down. 33 . and this knot Perplex’d unravel. and the Wain lies all O’er the north-west.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” “O Sun! who healest all imperfect sight. to an attentive ear. As is that ruin.” CANTO XII The place where to descend the precipice We came. “where thou saidst. for now The Pisces play with undulating glance Along the’ horizon. was rough as Alp. and Nature in herself And in her follower thus he sets at nought. Not many leaves scann’d o’er. whence it mov’d To the low level. so that your art Deserves the name of second in descent From God. That ignorance not less than knowledge charms. as every eye would shun. and on its verge Such object lay. that your art on her Obsequious follows. Yet somewhat turn thee back.” He thus made reply: “Philosophy. should’ring the wave. e’en such Into the chasm was that descent: and there At point of the disparted ridge lay stretch’d The infamy of Crete. Thou so content’st me. But in another path The usurer walks. and onward there a space Is our steep passage down the rocky height. which Adice’s stream On this side Trento struck. Or loos’d by earthquake or for lack of prop. observing well Thou shalt discover. not in one part alone. Placing elsewhere his hope. detested brood Of the feign’d heifer: and at sight of us It gnaw’d itself. as one with rage distract. These two.

Who carried off from Dis the mighty spoil Of the highest circle. Who have by violence injur’d. whereat the sage exclaim’d: “Run to the passage! while he storms.” Thus down our road we took Through those dilapidated crags. But fix thine eyes beneath: the river of blood Approaches. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. and in the eternal then Thus miserably o’erwhelm us. that with impetuous spring Darts. in the which all those are steep’d. that when I erst Hither descended to the nether hell. three sped with bows And missile weapons chosen first. Ill was thy mind.The Divine Comedy of Dante . thus ever quick and rash. that in a bow was bent. who.” Like to a bull. ‘t is well That thou descend. At seeing us descend they each one stood. which I Have vanquish’d now. Between it and the rampart’s base On trail ran Centaurs. the world hath oft Been into chaos turn’d: and in that point. Monster! avaunt! He comes not tutor’d by thy sister’s art. Whereby. that old rock toppled down. I pond’ring went. Know then.” To whom my guide: “Our answer shall be made To Chiron. Who for the fair Deianira died. or else the bow I draw. and thus he spake: “Perhaps thy thoughts are of this ruin’d steep. As circling all the plain.” O blind lust! O foolish wrath! who so dost goad us on In the brief life. there. when nearer him we come. As to the chase they on the earth were wont.Hell To him my guide exclaim’d: “Perchance thou deem’st The King of Athens here. so saw I plunge The Minotaur. in the world Above. thy death contriv’d. But past doubt (If well I mark) not long ere He arrived. who down this steep have journied? Speak From whence ye stand.” Then me he touch’d. 34 . This rock was not yet fallen. there are who deem. and spake: “Nessus is this. then through all its bounds Such trembling seiz’d the deep concave and foul. of whom One cried from far: “Say to what pain ye come Condemn’d. But to behold your torments is he come. and elsewhere. to weight like theirs Unus’d. I beheld An ample foss. And issuing from the troop. Here. with keen arrows arm’d. Guarded by the brute violence. for so my guide Had told. I thought the universe was thrill’d with love. that oft Mov’d underneath my feet.

I pray. which empowers my step To treat so wild a path. along The border of the crimson-seething flood. He is no robber. Some there I mark’d.Hell And wrought himself revenge for his own fate. That brow Whereon the hair so jetty clust’ring hangs. who now Stood near his breast. that on his breast looks down. then his great mouth to view Exposing.” Onward we mov’d.” My trusty guide. Chiron thus To Nessus spake: “Return. grant us. and thus he spake. who many a year Of woe wrought for fair Sicily. But by that virtue. aiming shafts At whatsoever spirit dares emerge From out the blood. that he who comes behind Moves what he touches? The feet of the dead Are not so wont. of whom the mighty Centaur thus: “These are the souls of tyrants. that rapid strode along.” Then farther on a space 35 . And Dionysius fell. prone to wrath. whom we may trust secure. who were given To blood and rapine. that with flaxen locks Obizzo’ of Este. The faithful escort by our side. We to those beasts. and convey Across. Command them keep aloof. more than his guilt allows.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” To the bard rever’d I turned me round. Thus made reply: “He is indeed alive. me but next To him in rank. And with the notch push’d back his shaggy beard To the cheek-bone. not by delight. to his fellows thus exclaim’d: “Are ye aware. Here they wail aloud Their merciless wrongs. That other Pholus. as high as to their brow Immers’d. Is the great Chiron who Achilles nurs’d. for he Is not a spirit that may walk the air. And solitary so must needs by me Be shown the gloomy vale. and be their guide. And if ye chance to cross another troop. when Chiron took an arrow forth. Drew near. Who to the ford may lead us.” Around The foss these go by thousands. in the world destroy’d By his foul step-son. where the two natures join. thereto induc’d By strict necessity. He in the midst.” Then on his right breast turning. Whence from those steep’d within loud shrieks arose. him mounted on his back. Is Azzolino. no dark spirit I. Here Alexander dwells. “Let him Be to thee now first leader. Who this new office to my care consign’d. She left her joyful harpings in the sky. One of thy band.

be thou well assur’d. and such things thou shalt behold. Where ‘t is the lot of tyranny to mourn. the same Who from the Strophades the Trojan band Drove with dire boding of their future woe. but of dusky hue. “As ever on this side the boiling wave Thou seest diminishing. 36 . So that at last it but imbru’d the feet. Exclaim’d: “He in God’s bosom smote the heart.” the Centaur said.Hell The Centaur paus’d.” This said. Less intricate the brakes. alone repass’d the ford. Till in that part it reuniting join. Here the brute Harpies make their nest. We enter’d on a forest. wherein abide Those animals. Betwixt Corneto and Cecina’s stream. but thorns Instead. And quitting us. but with knares deform’d And matted thick: fruits there were none. know thou art now I’ th’ second round. There Heav’n’s stern justice lays chastising hand On Attila. Thus shallow more and more the blood became.” A race I next espied. who held the head. Pazzo the other nam’d. Not verdant there The foliage. and on Pyrrhus. that hate the cultur’d fields. And even all the bust above the stream. arm’d with talons keen The feet. he turn’d. till thou come Upon the horrid sand: look therefore well Around thee. On Sextus. Broad are their pennons. with venom fill’d. who was the scourge of earth. Which yet is honour’d on the bank of Thames. and shalt be. who fill’d the ways With violence and war. and extracts Tears ever by the seething flood unlock’d From the Rinieri. not light The boughs and tapering. Less sharp than these. of the human form Their neck and count’nance. “So on the other.The Divine Comedy of Dante . of Corneto this. And there our passage lay athwart the foss. CANTO XIII Ere Nessus yet had reach’d the other bank. ‘Midst these I many a face remember’d well. The kind instructor in these words began: “Ere farther thou proceed. where no track Of steps had worn a way. It lower still and lower sinks its bed. and showing us A spirit by itself apart retir’d. and the huge belly fledge with wings These sit and wail on the drear mystic wood. who at the throat Were extant from the wave. near some.

Hell As would my speech discredit. who held Both keys to Frederick’s heart. The harlot. into his inmost breast Scarce any other could admittance find. remain’d as one Assail’d by terror. because the thing surpass’d belief. for this wrong to do thee some amends. And to Augustus they so spread the flame. But tell me. as it seem’d.” Thereat a little stretching forth my hand. who thou wast. in the snare detain’d. Forth from the broken splinter words and blood. From a great wilding gather’d I a branch. That my glad honours chang’d to bitter woes. O injur’d spirit! could have believ’d What he hath seen but in my verse describ’d. That burning at one end from the’ other sends A groaning sound. These words it added: “Wherefore tear’st me thus? Is there no touch of mercy in thy breast? Men once were we. wherein if I indulge A little longer. 37 . so burst at once.” the trunk replied “Hath so inveigled me. That besides me. common vice and pest Of courts. And thus his speech resum’d: “If thou lop off A single twig from one of those ill plants. I. Prompted him to this deed. He.” On all sides I heard sad plainings breathe.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But I. In the upper world (for thither to return Is granted him) thy fame he may revive. The faith I bore to my high charge was such. and hisses with the wind That forces out its way. and the sage replied: “If he.” “That pleasant word of thine. and none could see From whom they might have issu’d. And straight the trunk exclaim’d: “Why pluck’st thou me?” Then as the dark blood trickled down its side. letting fall the bough. that I from speech Cannot refrain. Count it not grievous. He never against thee had stretch’d his hand. Opening and shutting. That I had thought so many voices came From some amid those thickets close conceal’d. ‘gainst me inflam’d the minds of all.” As a brand yet green. It cost me the life-blood that warm’d my veins. which even now Myself I rue. Thy hand might well have spar’d us. had we been The souls of serpents. believ’d. That. that now are rooted here. I it was. In amaze Fast bound I stood. The thought thou hast conceiv’d shall vanish quite. with a skill so sweet. and turn’d the wards. who ne’er turn’d her gloating eyes From Caesar’s household.

Each on the wild thorn of his wretched shade. imprison’d Spirit! to declare. And whether any ever from such frame Be loosen’d. “Haste now. That they before them broke each fan o’ th’ wood. who of the beasts and boughs Loud rustling round him hears. torn with briers. Here we perforce shall drag them. when us A noise surpris’d. and the wind soon Chang’d into sounds articulate like these.” Attentive yet to listen to the trunk We stood. in headlong flight. No place assign’d. We. that also tell. If more thou wish to learn. Just as I was.” the foremost cried. By the new roots. That never faith I broke to my liege lord. if thou canst. yet not so that with them We may again be clad.” Thereat the trunk breath’d hard. for no power Have I to ask.” Whence I replied: “Question thou him again of whatsoe’er Will. cause both pain and for the pain A vent to grief. It rises to a sapling.” He thus resum’d. which fix this stem.Hell My soul. When departs The fierce soul from the body. “now haste thee death!” 38 . as thou yet Be pleas’d. that lies Yet prostrate under envy’s cruel blow. as a grain of spelt. such pity’ is at my heart. Briefly ye shall be answer’d. but wheresoever chance Hurls it. shall come For our own spoils. by itself Thence torn asunder. as thou think’st. And lo! there came Two naked. content me. Clear he from wrong my memory. sought Refuge in death from scorn. for what a man Takes from himself it is not just he have. there sprouting. The Harpies. on its leaves Then feeding. growing thence A savage plant. till the mournful words Were ended. unjust toward myself. If any to the world indeed return. How in these gnarled joints the soul is tied. I swear. to the seventh gulf By Minos doom’d. “So may he do for thee Freely what thou entreatest. disdainful and disgusted. and of you. as when a man perceives The wild boar and the hunt approach his place Of station’d watch. into the wood it falls. expecting farther speech. Who merited such honour. as the rest.” First somewhat pausing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . then to me the bard began: “Lose not the time. and throughout The dismal glade our bodies shall be hung. and I became. but speak and of him ask.

It was an area wide Of arid sand and thick. and where of justice is display’d Contrivance horrible. in the lists of Toppo’s field. impatient of delay Exclaiming. for that perchance no longer breath Suffic’d him. my master spake: “Say who wast thou. Things then first seen Clearlier to manifest. “that of me thou hast made thy screen? For thy ill life what blame on me recoils?” When o’er it he had paus’d. “Lano! not so bent for speed Thy sinews. that at so many points Breath’st out with blood thy lamentable speech?” He answer’d: “Oh. I the scatter’d leaves Collected. And at the foot of their sad parent-tree Carefully lay them. 39 . and to him restor’d. of himself and of a bush One group he made.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As greyhounds that have newly slipp’d the leash. that from me My leaves hath sever’d thus. who squatted down. The mournful wood waves round Its garland on all sides. And led me to the thicket. Those citizens. that from its sterile bed Each plant repell’d. I slung the fatal noose from my own roof. they stuck their fangs. resembling most The soil that erst by Cato’s foot was trod. There. gather them up. ye spirits: arriv’d in time To spy the shameful havoc.” And then. My guide then seiz’d my hand. Behind them was the wood Full of black female mastiffs. I tell how next A plain we reach’d. which in vain Mourn’d through its bleeding wounds: “O Giacomo Of Sant’ Andrea! what avails it thee. And having rent him piecemeal bore away The tortur’d limbs.” It cried. Our steps we stay’d. who now Was hoarse with utt’rance. Whence he for this shall cease not with his art To work her woe: and if there still remain’d not On Arno’s passage some faint glimpse of him. gaunt and fleet. as round the wood Spreads the sad foss. To the limit thence We came.” CANTO XIV Soon as the charity of native land Wrought in my bosom.Hell The’ other. who rear’d once more her walls Upon the ashes left by Attila. On him. In that city’ I dwelt. on the very edge. which from the third the second round Divides. as seem’d. Had labour’d without profit of their toil. Who for the Baptist her first patron chang’d.

solid flames. Were to thy fury pain proportion’d full. I thus began: “Instructor! thou who all things overcom’st. So fell the eternal fiery flood. the son Of Ammon saw upon his warrior band Descending. from whom in ire He snatch’d the lightnings. 40 . now that way glancing. those fewer who beneath The torment lay. as seems. As by the sultry tempest immatur’d?” Straight he himself. dead such now I am. who read what here my eyes beheld! Of naked spirits many a flock I saw. exclaim’d: “Such as I was When living. wherewith The marble glow’d underneath. for easier thus The vapour was extinguish’d. good Mulciber!” as erst he cried In the Phlegraean warfare. heeds not The burning. still falling fresh. in that this thy pride Lives yet unquench’d: no torrent. who was aware I ask’d My guide of him. Some crouching close were seated. Now this. and the bolts Launch he full aim’d at me with all his might. while he cries aloud. as under stove The viands. that rush’d forth To stop our entrance at the gate. to shake off The heat. that at my last day Transfix’d me. in accent higher rais’d Than I before had heard him: “Capaneus! Thou art more punish’d. the latter tribe. He never should enjoy a sweet revenge. “Help. O’er all the sand fell slowly wafting down Dilated flakes of fire.Hell Vengeance of Heav’n! Oh! how shouldst thou be fear’d By all. If Jove Weary his workman out. when the wind is hush’d. help. but louder in their grief. that. save thy rage. Except the hardy demons. if the rest be weary out At their black smithy labouring by turns In Mongibello. others pac’d Incessantly around. doubly to augment the pain. say who Is yon huge spirit. More numerous. while alone.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to different laws Subjected: for on the’ earth some lay supine. but lies writhen in proud scorn. Unceasing was the play of wretched hands. that to the ground Came down: whence he bethought him with his troop To trample on the soil.” Next turning round to me with milder lip He spake: “This of the seven kings was one. as flakes of snow On Alpine summit. As in the torrid Indian clime.” Then thus my guide. All weeping piteously.

A mountain rises there. Whereon I straight perceiv’d our passage lay. and held. Within the mount.” forthwith he began. But. Of finest gold His head is shap’d. Each part except the gold. whose crimson’d wave yet lifts My hair with horror. that runs From Bulicame.Hell Who girt the Theban walls with siege. e’en to the lowest depth of all. nought else so worthy of regard.” Silently on we pass’d To where there gushes from the forest’s bound A little brook. Deserted now like a forbidden thing. Follow me now. O’er which the flaming volley all is quench’d. As still he seems to hold. Then by this straiten’d channel passing hence Beneath. They in their course Thus far precipitated down the rock Form Acheron. has thine eye discern’d. “A desolate country lies. as I told him. “In midst of ocean. Call’d Ida. and at Rome As in his mirror looks. that turns His shoulders towards Damiata. Chose for the secret cradle of her son. its bottom and each bank Stone-built. As is this river. to be portion’d out Among the sinful women. on which Than on the other more erect he stands. Form there Cocytus. God in disdain. and either margin at its side. Under whose monarch in old times the world Liv’d pure and chaste. whose threshold is to none Denied. drown’d in shouts His infant cries.” So spake my guide. which join’d Penetrate to that cave.The Divine Comedy of Dante . since that gate We enter’d first. And from the fissure tears distil. his despiteful mood Is ornament well suits the breast that wears it. which Crete is nam’d. “Of all that I have shown thee. As the rill. so ran this Down through the sand. Saturn’s spouse. It was the spot which Rhea. thence to the middle is of brass. pure silver are the breast And arms. of whose lake (thyself 41 . And downward all beneath well-temper’d steel. joyous once with leaves and streams. And better to conceal him. and Phlegethon. is rent throughout. That having giv’n me appetite to know. upright An ancient form there stands and huge. The food he too would give. And sets his high omnipotence at nought. and Styx. Save the right foot of potter’s clay. and I him thence besought. and look thou set not yet Thy foot in the hot sand. that hunger crav’d. but to the wood Keep ever close.

As the Flemings rear Their mound. It needs not bring up wonder in thy looks. hovers o’er. But not within this hollow. Lethe thou shalt see. in the place. I was agniz’d of one. to chase back The ocean. Yet the red seething wave might have resolv’d One thou proposest. Wherefore if aught of new to us appear. thou know’st. unimpeded by the flames. is form’d. We from the wood Were not so far remov’d. wherefore to us but now Appears it at this edge?” He straight replied: “The place. whosoe’er He was. as at eventide One eyes another under a new moon. such were the mounds. by the master. Whose blame hath been by penitence remov’d. For over them all vapour is extinct. And toward us sharpen’d their sight as keen. that from the stream Arising. who came beside the pier. that rais’d them here. ‘twixt Ghent and Bruges. and though great part Thou have already pass’d. that turning round I might not have discern’d it. to defend their towns And castles. or the Paduans theirs Along the Brenta. fearing his tumultuous tide That drives toward them.” He answer thus return’d: “Doubtless thy questions all well pleas’d I hear. Thus narrowly explor’d by all the tribe. Thou say’st. not yet Hast thou the circuit made of the whole orb.” CANTO XV One of the solid margins bears us now Envelop’d in the mist. As an old tailor at his needle’s eye. when we met A troop of spirits. and the other of that shower. They each one ey’d us. is round. and saves from fire Both piers and water. So fram’d. still to the left Descending to the nethermost. who by the skirt 42 . though not in height or bulk to these Made equal. ere the genial warmth be felt On Chiarentana’s top.” Then I again inquir’d: “Where flow the streams Of Phlegethon and Lethe? for of one Thou tell’st not.” Then I to him: “If from our world this sluice Be thus deriv’d. Whither to lave themselves the spirits go.” He added: “Time is now we quit the wood.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Look thou my steps pursue: the margins give Safe passage.Hell Shall see it) I here give thee no account.

but held my head Bent down. But yester-morn I left it: then once more Into that vale returning. Nor wonder. him I met. Pass thou therefore on.” “O son!” said he. Covetous. proud. answer’d: “Sir! Brunetto! And art thou here?” He thus to me: “My son! Oh let it not displease thee.” I dar’d not from the path descend to tread On equal ground with him. and cried.” I answer’d. And if my fate so early had not chanc’d. Who in old times came down from Fesole. But that ungrateful and malignant race. lies then a hundred years. I thereto pray thee. Ay and still smack of their rough mountain-flint. For thee Thy fortune hath such honour in reserve. Will for thy good deeds shew thee enmity. and if thou be willing. they hinder’d not But I remember’d him. who go mourning their endless doom. and then rejoin My troop. with whom I journey. Thou canst not miss at last a glorious haven: Unless in fairer days my judgment err’d.” thus be began. I wander’d in a valley lost. when the fire Smites sorest. Look to it well: Take heed thou cleanse thee of their ways. I close Will at thy garments walk. Old fame reports them in the world for blind. and towards his face My hand inclining. That thou by either party shalt be crav’d With hunger keen: but be the fresh herb far 43 . “in the life Serene. envious. Before mine age had to its fullness reach’d. “Ere the last day conducts thee here below? And who is this. “What chance or destiny. “whoever of this throng One instant stops. first obtain’d. “What wonder have we here!” And I. His leave. Intently fix’d my ken on his parch’d looks. when he to me outstretch’d his arm. and leave his fellows to proceed. That although smirch’d with fire. that shows to thee the way?” “There up aloft.” “If thou.” he answer’d. I Had gladly giv’n thee comfort in thy work. That I here seat me with thee. if Brunetto Latini but a little space with thee Turn back.Hell Caught me. for amongst ill-savour’d crabs It suits not the sweet fig-tree lay her fruit. No fan to ventilate him. Seeing the heav’ns thus bounteous to thee.” I thus to him replied: “Much as I can.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And by this path homeward he leads me back. I consent. “follow but thy star. as one who walks in reverent guise.

In brief I tell thee. then look’d at me and spake: “He listens to good purpose who takes note. who still there remain’d. it behooves. “To know of some is well. and now strikes full upon my heart The dear. If any such yet spring on their rank bed. him thou also might’st have seen. By one same sin polluted in the world. and inquire Who are most known and chief among his tribe. all things have their course. and Accorso’s son Francesco herds among that wretched throng: And. long as life endures. What of my fate thou tell’st. Time would not serve us for report so long. if the wish of so impure a blotch Possess’d thee. “Thou from the confines of man’s nature yet Hadst not been driven forth. I commend my treasure to thee. when so lately thou didst teach me The way for man to win eternity. that all these were clerks. paternal image. transmitted From those true Romans. Who by the servants’ servant was transferr’d From Arno’s seat to Bacchiglione. Wherein I yet survive. In which the holy seed revives.” I not the less still on my way proceed. The herd of Fesole May of themselves make litter. my sole request. not touch the plant. When it was made the nest of so much ill. Men of great learning and no less renown.” 44 . Not new or strange such earnest to mine ear. such As thine was. I stand prepar’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . With them is Priscian. I more would add. But must from farther speech and onward way Alike desist. if I to her arrive. benign. Who will know all.” thus he replied. for yonder I behold A mist new-risen on the sandy plain. And how I priz’d the lesson. my tongue should speak. This only would I have thee clearly note: That so my conscience have no plea against me.Hell From the goat’s tooth. That. for in my mind Is fix’d. Speed fortune then her wheel. the celestial dame. The clown his mattock. Discoursing with Brunetto. Do fortune as she list. Approaches.” I straight replied.” “Were all my wish fulfill’d. as likes her best.” Thereat my sapient guide upon his right Turn’d himself back. “But of the rest silence may best beseem. where His ill-strain’d nerves he left. that write I down: And with another text to comment on For her I keep it. with whom I may not sort. A company.

And each one cried aloud.” Ah me! what wounds I mark’d upon their limbs. “Oh do thou stay! Whom by the fashion of thy garb we deem To be some inmate of our evil land.” Thus one began.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Is Aldobrandi. was of more high estate Than thou believest. so that opposite The neck mov’d ever to the twinkling feet. smear’d with slippery oil. They towards us came. and seem’d as one of those. and myself CANTO XVI Now came I where the water’s din was heard. Are wont intent to watch their place of hold And vantage. running swift. As down it fell into the other round. And turn’d to me his visage. naked though he be And reft of all. do call forth scorn on us And our entreaties. all the three Whirl’d round together in one restless wheel. That dost imprint with living feet unharm’d The soil of Hell. I should have said. when we stopp’d. Not he who loses but who gains the prize. “Wait now! our courtesy these merit well: And were ‘t not for the nature of the place. They. next to me that beats the sand. name deserving well. his countenance At me directed. resum’d their ancient wail. ere in closer strife they meet. as he wheel’d. Recent and old. him they Guidoguerra call’d. That haste had better suited thee than them. both by his wisdom and his sword. He. and of them he seem’d. “If misery of this drear wilderness. Three spirits. Resounding like the hum of swarming bees: When forth together issu’d from a troop. Who in his lifetime many a noble act Achiev’d. of honour. Who o’er Verona’s champain try their speed For the green mantle. As naked champions. And soon as they had reach’d us. “added to our sad cheer And destitute.Hell This said he turn’d. inflicted by the flames! E’en the remembrance of them grieves me yet. let our great renown Incline thee to inform us who thou art. That pass’d beneath the fierce tormenting storm. Thus each one. In the’ upper world. and then spake.’’ 45 . Whence glide the fiery darts. Attentive to their cry my teacher paus’d. The other. grandchild of the chaste Gualdrada. in whose track thou see’st My steps pursuing.

46 . Such as long time alone can cure.” This said. when thou art gone. See that of us thou speak among mankind. so apt to speak thy thought! Wherefore if thou escape this darksome clime. as ye are. Which made me eager of their wish’d embrace. your doom Fix’d deep within me. and so swift Fled. that we had scarce Heard one another’s speech for the loud din. whom. Leaving the gall For the sweet fruit I go. so that now in tears thou mourn’st!” Thus cried I with my face uprais’d. or have vanish’d clean? For one amidst us late condemn’d to wail. and they All three. Grieves us no little by the news he brings. when the water’s sound Was now so near at hand. they broke the circle. down amidst them straight I then had cast me. “and so thy fame Shine bright. but that fear Of the dire burning vanquish’d the desire. I deem. I follow’d. Dwell in our city. but grief much more.”so easily Satisfy those. soon as this my lord Spake words. and have heard Your deeds and names renown’d.Hell Who in this torment do partake with them. Am Rusticucci.The Divine Comedy of Dante . my wife Of savage temper.” as they had vanish’d. Pride and excess. I then began: “Not scorn. Gifted with words.” “An upstart multitude and sudden gains. as men look when truth Comes to their ear. But behooves. yonder walking with his peers. and small space Had we pass’d onward.” If from the fire I had been shelter’d. more than aught beside Hath to this evil brought. as they wont. happy thou. nor my guide. If courtesy and valour.” “So may long space thy spirit guide thy limbs. Would have restrain’d my going. Not in so short a time might one have said “Amen. as thou shalt tell.” He answer straight return’d. who for an answer took my words. past doubt. Straight my guide Pursu’d his track. whose tenour taught me to expect That such a race. was at hand. “If thou at other times. Borsiere.” They all at once rejoin’d. that far As to the centre first I downward tend. that as pinions seem’d their nimble feet. When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past. who still Affectionate have utter’d. I am a countryman of yours. O Florence! have in thee Engender’d. Returning to behold the radiant stars. that a sure guide Hath promis’d to me. who question. Look’d at each other.

47 .” Ah! what caution must men use With those who look not at the deed alone. cast it down Into the deep abyss. This when I had all Unloosen’d from me (so my master bade) I gather’d up. if possible. So may they favour find to latest times! That through the gross and murky air I spied A shape come swimming up.The Divine Comedy of Dante . toward The east. roaring loud. “And somewhat strange. and with his filth Taints all the world!” Thus me my guide address’d. ere it descend into the vale. reader! I swear to thee. So that the ear its clamour soon had stunn’d. that might have quell’d The stoutest heart with wonder. “what I expect. Rebellows o’er Saint Benedict. “signal so strange Betokens. Thus downward from a craggy steep we found.” Thus to myself I spake. in such guise As one returns. Thine eye discover quickly. roll’d on From the’ Alpine summit down a precipice. he incurs reproach. Who upward springing close draws in his feet. I had a cord that brac’d my girdle round. which Acquacheta higher up They call. Wherewith I erst had thought fast bound to take The painted leopard.” Ever to that truth. But silence here were vain. But spy into the thoughts with subtle skill! “Quickly shall come. that he should come to shore. Where space enough to lodge a thousand spreads. breaks through fenced walls And firm embattled spears.Hell E’en as the river. Near to the stony causeway’s utmost edge. from the mount of Vesulo. and stretch’d it forth to him. Then to the right he turn’d. and from the brink Standing few paces distant. that whereof Thy thought is dreaming. Which but the semblance of a falsehood wears. CANTO XVII “Lo! the fell monster with the deadly sting! Who passes mountains. should bar his lip. At Forli by that name no longer known. A man. that holds on its course Unmingled. On the left side of Apennine. Since. and by these notes Which now I sing. although blameless. which my guide with earnest eye Thus follows.” he said. That this dark wave resounded. And beckon’d him. Or to aught else that in the salt wave lies. who hath been down to loose An anchor grappled fast against some rock.

Forthwith my master spake: “That to the full thy knowledge may extend Of all this round contains. His face the semblance of a just man’s wore. Till thou returnest. but perceiv’d. Thus use the dogs in summer still to ply Their jaws and feet by turns. But laid not on the shore his bestial train. were painted o’er with nodes And orbits. go now. Nor spread Arachne o’er her curious loom. that fenc’d the sand with rock. and mark The mien these wear: but hold not long discourse. Sat perch’d the fiend of evil. Or. So kind and gracious was its outward cheer.” Thus alone Yet forward on the’ extremity I pac’d Of that seventh circle. his tail upturn’d its venomous fork. Against the vapours and the torrid soil Alternately their shifting hands they plied. part upon the land. who lay Beneath the pelting of that dolorous fire. With sting like scorpion’s arm’d. On which it seem’d as if their eye did feed. that to us he may vouchsafe The aid of his strong shoulders.The Divine Comedy of Dante . So on the rim. where the mournful tribe Were seated. In the void Glancing. seated on the sand Near the wide chasm. One of them all I knew not. Soon as we to him arrive. A little further on mine eye beholds A tribe of spirits. I with him meantime Will parley. Then thus my guide: “Now need our way must turn few steps apart. As ofttimes a light skiff. And either side. Noting the visages of some. ten paces on the verge Proceeded. 48 . And when amongst them looking round I came. when bitten sore By gnats. as where dwells the greedy German boor. better to escape the flame And burning marle. At the eyes forth gush’d their pangs. Far as to that ill beast. who couches there. and.” Thereat toward the right our downward course We shap’d. That pendent from his neck each bore a pouch With colours and with emblems various mark’d. Stands part in water.Hell Forthwith that image vile of fraud appear’d. or gadflies swarming round. moor’d to the shore. The beaver settles watching for his prey. and the back and breast. or flies. His head and upper part expos’d on land. Colours variegated more Nor Turks nor Tartars e’er on cloth of state With interchangeable embroidery wove. The rest was serpent all: two shaggy claws Reach’d to the armpits.

Hell A yellow purse I saw with azure wrought.” As a small vessel. be bold. Nor when ill-fated Icarus perceiv’d. and he Quivers all o’er. A Paduan with these Florentines am I. whence high heaven. Embracing. and thus He me encourag’d. his forked tail. By liquefaction of the scalded wax. like an eel. so thence the monster loos’d. My guide already seated on the haunch Of the fierce animal I found. Then still my sight pursuing its career. like an ox That licks his nostrils. Another I beheld. Soon as I mounted. Since yet thou livest. was wrapt in flames. if he but eye the shade. outstretch’d at length he steer’d. That wore a lion’s countenance and port. I. Think on th’ unusual burden thou sustain’st. exclaiming “O haste that noble knight! he who the pouch With the three beaks will bring!” This said. And when he felt himself at large. who hath an ague fit so near. And one. Backward my steps from those sad spirits turn’d. Thus. addressed me thus: “What dost thou in this deep? Go now and know. who bade me stay not long. 49 . who bore a fat and azure swine Pictur’d on his white scrip. lest longer stay He ill might brook.” As one. Her station quits.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Be thou stout. who makes The servant bold in presence of his lord. turn’d round There where the breast had been. in his arms aloft. and loll’d the tongue out. and thus he spake: “Geryon! now move thee! be thy wheeling gyres Of ample circuit. Down such a steep flight must we now descend! Mount thou before: for that no power the tail May have to harm thee. but that the words to aid My purpose came not. But shame soon interpos’d her threat. And would have said. than blood more red. “Look thou clasp me firm!” But he whose succour then not first I prov’d. I will be i’ th’ midst. Ofttimes they thunder in mine ears. Such was my cheer at hearing of his words. Not greater was the dread when Phaeton The reins let drop at random. easy thy descent. that my neighbour here Vitaliano on my left shall sit. he writh’d The mouth. back’ning out from land. Gath’ring the air up with retractile claws. I settled me upon those shoulders huge. His nails already are turn’d blue. held me up. Whereof signs yet appear. A goose display of whiter wing than curd.

and other object none Save the fell beast. then lighting sits At distance from his lord in angry mood. And then distinguish’d. that remains. Now on our right I heard the cataract beneath us leap With hideous crash. whence bending down to’ explore. in its hollow bottom sunk. By the dread torments that on every side Drew nearer. Breathes on me from below. unobserv’d of me. and wailings smote mine ear: So that all trembling close I crouch’d my limbs. of his burden there discharg’d. sure defence Affording to the space within. arising to my face. As where to guard the walls. He slowly sailing. But that the wind. Such was the place. all of rock dark-stain’d With hue ferruginous. successive forms Ten trenches. how our downward course we wound. between the gulf and base Of the high craggy banks. But lure nor bird hath seen. That in one bound collected cuts them off. The circle. New terror I conceiv’d at the steep plunge: For flames I saw. CANTO XVIII There is a place within the depths of hell Call’d Malebolge. Throughout its round. unperceiv’d before. forthwith Sprang forward. that ‘cross the moles And dikes. while in despair The falconer cries. And. and swiftly down the sky In many an orbit wheels.Hell The trusted pennons loosen’d from his loins. wheels His downward motion. so here Were model’d these. “Ill way thou keep’st!” Than was my dread. and as like fortresses E’en from their threshold to the brink without. “Ah me! thou stoop’st to earth!” Wearied descends. from the rock’s low base Thus flinty paths advanc’d. As falcon. struck onward far as to the gulf. whereof the frame Due time shall tell. yawns A spacious gulf profound. The bard to left 50 . e’en as the steep That round it circling winds. wherein we found ourselves From Geryon’s back dislodg’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . So Geryon lighting places us on foot Low down at base of the deep-furrow’d rock. His sire exclaiming loud. when round me on each part The air I view’d. Right in the midst Of that abominable region. like an arrow from the string. Are flank’d with bridges. full many a foss Begirds some stately castle. that hath long been on the wing.

with lashes huge. Know then ’twas I who led fair Ghisola To do the Marquis’ will. that on one side All front toward the castle. Who thought to hide him. their means devise For such as pass the bridge. Unless thy features do belie thee much. to the right Upon its splinter turning. Straight the teacher kind Paus’d with me.” Forthwith I join’d My escort. To answer Sipa in their country’s phrase. “Of him. one met my sight Whom soon as view’d. when the year returns Of Jubilee. That easily ascended. Meantime as on I pass’d. and the tormented spirit. And if of that securer proof thou need. with better speed to rid The thronging multitudes. and consented I should walk Backward a space. But what brings thee Into this bitter seas’ning?” He replied: “Unwillingly I answer to thy words. “Away! corrupter! here Women are none for sale. new executioners of wrath. for I exclaim’d: “Thou who dost cast thy eye upon the ground. constrains me. and approach Saint Peter’s fane. On our right hand new misery I saw. bent his visage down. New pains. and I behind him mov’d. “not yet Mine eye hath had his fill. and exclaim’d. Each divers way along the grisly rock. Betwixt the Reno and Savena’s stream. That swarming peopled the first chasm.Hell Held on his way.” Him speaking thus. Venedico art thou. Nor alone Bologna hither sendeth me to mourn Rather with us the place is so o’erthrong’d That not so many tongues this day are taught. Ah! how they made them bound at the first stripe! None for the second waited nor the third. Horn’d demons I beheld. Remember but our craving thirst for gold. that to my mind recalls The world I once inhabited. With us beyond but with a larger stride. we depart 51 . Below Were naked sinners. But thy clear speech. Meeting our faces from the middle point.” cried I. however fame The shameful tale have bruited. Hitherward they came.The Divine Comedy of Dante . on th’ other towards the mount. a demon with his thong Struck. and few paces thence we came To where a rock forth issued from the bank. That on their back unmercifully smote.” With fixed gaze I therefore scann’d him. But it avail’d him nought. E’en thus the Romans.

By me unquestion’d. within the foss below.” the teacher said. Who first had all the rest herself beguil’d. How yet the regal aspect he retains! Jason is he. There he with tokens and fair witching words Hypsipyle beguil’d. With wide-stretch’d nostrils snort. And thus much to know Of the first vale suffice thee. crossing the next pier. “And let these others miserable. “I heretofore have seen thee with dry locks. Where underneath the gaping arch lets pass The scourged souls: “Pause here. For that together they with us have walk’d. When arriv’d. faces not yet beheld.” From the old bridge we ey’d the pack. Hence in the second chasm we heard the ghosts.” 52 . and on themselves Smite with their palms. when those bold And pitiless women had slain all their males. whose skill and prowess won The ram from Colchos.” Now had we come Where. If he were clerk or layman. My gentle guide. that appear’d Draff of the human body. who came From th’ other side towards us. Such is the guilt condemns him to this pain. and of those Whom its keen torments urge. who this way tends. thy ken?” “Because if true my mem’ry. I mark’d One with his head so grim’d. who like deceit To his have practis’d. Excoriate from the lash. All bear him company. a virgin young. There beneath Searching with eye inquisitive. like the rest. Upon the banks a scurf From the foul steam condens’d. ‘t were hard to deem. And thence I saw.” I replied. To the Lemnian isle His passage thither led him.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the straighten’d path Bestrides its shoulders to another arch. A crowd immers’d in ordure. Than on these other filthy ones. now Strike on thy ken. Could I distinguish aught. Save on the summit of the rocky span. thus his speech resum’d: “Behold that lofty shade. Loud he cried: “Why greedily thus bendest more on me. encrusting hung. Thus far we came. And thou Alessio art of Lucca sprung. that from no part. Who jibber in low melancholy sounds. That held sharp combat with the sight and smell. And seems too woe-begone to drop a tear. Impregnated he left her there forlorn.Hell From those eternal barriers. So hollow is the depth. Here too Medea’s inj’ries are avenged. Therefore than all the rest I scan thee more.

sluttish courtezan. “Master! say who is he. emerg’d a sinner’s feet And of the legs high upward as the calf The rest beneath was hid. how just a meed Allotting by thy virtue unto all! I saw the livid stone. Upon the following vault We now had mounted. scarcely touching where it moves. in earth. them. One of the which I brake. CANTO XIX Woe to thee. Now crouching down.” Which thou dost manifest in heaven. the harlot. than all the rest Glancing in fiercer agony. some few years past. His wretched followers! who the things of God.Hell Then beating on his brain these words he spake: “Me thus low down my flatteries have sunk. Simon Magus! woe to you.The Divine Comedy of Dante . On either foot The soles were burning. As flame. now risen on her feet. Feeding on unctuous matter. that thou the visage well mayst note Of that besotted. Wisdom Supreme!how wonderful the art. do prostitute For gold and silver in adultery! Now must the trumpet sound for you. ‘Thankest me much!’—’Say rather wondrously. on whom A ruddier flame doth prey?” I thus inquir’d.” My leader thus: “A little further stretch Thy face. From out the mouth Of every one. To save a whelming infant. All equal in their width. Who there doth rend her with defiled nails. And in the evil world. Nor ample less nor larger they appear’d Than in Saint John’s fair dome of me belov’d Those fram’d to hold the pure baptismal streams. 53 . throughout the sides And in its bottom full of apertures. where the rock impends Directly o’er the centre of the foss. as had snapt Asunder cords or twisted withs. So here. whose false lip Answer’d her doting paramour that ask’d. Wherewith I ne’er enough could glut my tongue. glides along The surface.’ And seeing this here satiate be our view. whence the flexile joints Glanc’d with such violent motion. Which should be wedded unto goodness. and be this A seal to undeceive whoever doubts The motive of my deed. glided the flames. and circular each. Thais is this. from heel to point. since yours Is the third chasm. Rapacious as ye are.

that thou Hast therefore down the bank descended. Calleth him back. since my souls kindled. nor know what to reply. stand as if expos’d In mockery. who e’en when fix’d. not he. And sighing next in woeful accent spake: “What then of me requirest?” If to know So much imports thee. Sad spirit! thus revers’d. where least the slope bank falls. Under my head are dragg’d The rest. He shouted: “Ha! already standest there? Already standest there. when so hastily I question’d. whence death awhile delays. who I am. So early dost thou surfeit with the wealth. For which thou fearedst not in guile to take The lovely lady. And on our left descended to the depth. And here myself. that there My having in my purse above I stow’d. Stretch’d at their length they lie Along an opening in the rock.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and then mangle her?” I felt as those who. I am not he. “If thou be able. straight replied.Hell “If thou be willing.” And I. “that I Carry thee down. He of himself shall tell thee and his wrongs. we turn’d. whom thou believ’st. utter forth thy voice. “Whoe’er thou art.” There stood I like the friar. When Virgil thus admonish’d: “Tell him quick. the spirit all did wrench his feet. than is his doom to stand Planted with fiery feet. soon as he comes.” he replied. Thou art my lord.” Thereat on the fourth pier we came. as was enjoin’d me. One yet of deeds more ugly shall arrive. and know’st that ne’er I quit Thy will: what silence hides that knowest thou. O Boniface! By many a year the writing play’d me false. learn That in the mighty mantle I was rob’d. But already longer time Hath pass’d. For after him. ‘Midst them I also low shall fall. 54 . and I thus Upturn’d have stood.” I then: “As pleases thee to me is best. whose limb Quiv’ring express’d his pang. my predecessors in the guilt Of simony. that doth shrive A wretch for murder doom’d. So eager to advance my whelps. and as a stake Driv’n in the soil!” I in these words began. For whom I took thee. Nor from his side my leader set me down. Till to his orifice he brought. And of a she-bear was indeed the son. A narrow strait and perforated close. piercing not the drift Of answer made them. That heard.

Thy punishment of right is merited: And look thou well to that ill-gotten coin. Till to the summit of the rock we came. under foot Treading the good. Shall be of France’s monarch shown to him. a hundred ye? Ah. I yet Severer speech might use. If reverence of the keys restrain’d me not. and raising bad men up. violent upsprang Spinning on either sole. Which against Charles thy hardihood inspir’d. th’ Evangelist Was ware. whether wrath Or conscience smote him. Of shepherds. like to you.” I know not if I here too far presum’d. as thus I sung. His cherish’d burden there gently he plac’d Upon the rugged rock and steep. What treasures from St. Your avarice O’ercasts the world with mourning. But he that worships one. a path Not easy for the clamb’ring goat to mount. Long as her spouse in virtue took delight. Follow me! Nor Peter nor the rest Or gold or silver of Matthias took. Which the first wealthy Father gain’d from thee!” Meanwhile. Of gold and silver ye have made your god. when her. Our passage from the fourth to the fifth pier.Hell From forth the west. Thence to my view another vale appear’d 55 . He a new Jason shall be call’d. And from ten horns her proof of glory drew. when he put the keys Into his charge? Surely he ask’d no more But. but that plenteous dower. and to his bosom lifting me Upward retrac’d the way of his descent. In both arms He caught. a shepherd without law. of whom In Maccabees we read. Not thy conversion. Which thou in happier time didst hold. Constantine! to how much ill gave birth. She who with seven heads tower’d at her birth. he. I do believe My teacher well was pleas’d. Diff’ring wherein from the idolater. with so compos’d A lip. Nor weary of his weight he press’d me close. When lots were cast upon the forfeit place Of the condemned soul. With kings in filthy whoredom he beheld. he listen’d ever to the sound Of the true words I utter’d. But in this strain I answer’d: “Tell me now. Peter at the first Our Lord demanded. who sits upon the waves. Fated to cover both his form and mine. and favour such As to that priest his king indulgent show’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Abide thou then.

But I ne’er saw it nor believe it so. might shoot again. Fit argument of this the twentieth strain Of the first song. that came along the hollow vale. ‘Amphiaraus. comes. Thus one perhaps Hath been by force of palsy clean transpos’d. That mark’d the better sex. they were compell’d To’ advance with backward gait. A cavern was his dwelling. now backward looks. Before whose eyes earth gap’d in Thebes. In silence weeping: such their step as walk Quires chanting solemn litanies on earth. when woman he became Of male. so that the countenance Was from the reins averted: and because None might before him look. when all Cried out. Lo! how he makes The breast his shoulders. As on them more direct mine eye descends. and art thou too witless as the rest? Here pity most doth show herself alive.Hell CANTO XX And now the verse proceeds to torments new. Each wondrously seem’d to be revers’d At the neck-bone. through every limb transform’d. who wons beneath. and see the man. and who once too far Before him wish’d to see.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Aruns. 56 . Where delves Carrara’s hind. ere the plumes. so God Fruit of thy reading give thee! how I long Could keep my visage dry. Now. That on the hinder parts fall’n from the face The tears down-streaming roll’d. with rere his belly facing. When she is dead. that open’d to my view. and then Once more behov’d him with his rod to strike The two entwining serpents. Whose grapple none eludes. raise up. when I beheld Near me our form distorted in such guise. Moisten’d with tears of anguish. Against a rock I leant and wept. What guilt exceedeth his. reader! think within thyself. and beheld A tribe. whose awful theme records The spirits whelm’d in woe. And treads reverse his path. so that my guide exclaim’d: “What. On Luni’s mountains ‘midst the marbles white. whence the stars And main-sea wide in boundless view he held. whither rushest? ‘Why leavest thou the war?’ He not the less Fell ruining far as to Minos down. Who with Heaven’s judgment in his passion strives? Raise up thy head. Who semblance chang’d. Tiresias note. Earnest I look’d Into the depth.

When her sire From life departed. where he who bears Of Trento’s flock the past’ral staff.The Divine Comedy of Dante . here she with her slaves Plying her arts remain’d. Ere Casalodi’s madness by deceit Was wrong’d of Pinamonte. which overstretchmg as a marsh It covers. she who search’d Through many regions. Methinks. the savage maiden saw ‘Midst of the fen a territory waste And naked of inhabitants. and in servitude The city dedicate to Bacchus mourn’d. That o’er the Tyrol locks Germania in. and winds a river flood beneath Through the green pastures. whatsoev’er Benacus’ bosom holds not. There is a spot At midway of that lake. when a wide flat It finds. and more. Wherein more numerous the people dwelt. Long time she went a wand’rer through the world. Thenceforth the tribes. Not far his course hath run. water between the vale Camonica and Garda and the height Of Apennine remote. whence the shore More slope each way descends. A garrison of goodly site and strong Peschiera stands. Calling it Mantua. at foot of that proud Alp. tumbling o’er Down falls. with him Of Brescia. Benacus then no more They call the name. whose loosen’d tresses overspread Her bosom.Hell “The next. and liv’d. and at length her seat Fix’d in my native land. and the Veronese. Soon as in his course The steam makes head. Nor ask’d another omen for the name. which thou seest not (for each hair On that side grows) was Manto. whence a short space My words detain thy audience. might each Passing that way his benediction give. who first chose the spot. To shun All human converse. Its name Benacus. till at last Reaching Governo into Po he falls. 57 . which a thousand rills. for her sake. and left Her body tenantless. gath’ring to that place Assembled. There. Hence journeying. I forewarn thee now. pestilent in summer oft. to awe with front oppos’d The Bergamese and Brescian. Who round were scatter’d. On those dead bones They rear’d themselves a city. for its strength was great. Aloft in Italy’s delightful land A lake there lies. enclos’d On all parts by the fen. If thou hear Henceforth another origin assign’d Of that my country. but Mincius.

what time Graecia was emptied of her males. I conclude thy words So certain. other bootless pangs. The shuttle and the spindle. Pass’d on. round the loins So slender of his shape. with other talk. The mizen one repairs and main-sail rent So not by force of fire but art divine 58 . that scarce The cradles were supplied. was Michael Scot. Practis’d in ev’ry slight of magic wile. Who here proceed. and in that while His bark one builds anew.” I answer’d: “Teacher. touching the wave Beneath the towers of Seville. Thou mayst remember well: For she good service did thee in the gloom Of the deep wood. That other. But onward now: For now doth Cain with fork of thorns confine On either hemisphere. instruct me. For thereon is my mind alone intent. another stops The ribs of his.Hell That falsehood none beguile thee of the truth.” He straight replied: “That spirit. if thou see Any that merit more especial note. Marvelous darkness shadow’d o’er the place. This shapeth oars. the seer was he In Aulis. But now of these. that other cables twirls. one at the poop.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and to the summit reaching. stood To view another gap. “See next the wretches. both onward mov’d.” This said. from whose cheek The beard sweeps o’er his shoulders brown. In which majestic measure well thou know’st. who with Calchas gave the sign When first to cut the cable. and too late repents. and became Diviners: baneful witcheries they wrought With images and herbs. Who know’st it all. One hammers at the prow. The which my drama cares not to rehearse. to smear Their unsound vessels. CANTO XXI Thus we from bridge to bridge. he had tended still The thread and cordwain. Him they nam’d Eurypilus: so sings my tragic strain. that all else shall be to me As embers lacking life. within the round Of Malebolge. In the Venetians’ arsenal as boils Through wintry months tenacious pitch. Yesternight The moon was round. “Guido Bonatti see: Asdente mark. Who now were willing. that hath made many a voyage. for th’ inclement time Sea-faring men restrains. who the needle left.

I that beheld. that it float not on the top. or insult. That land hath store of such.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with wings Buoyant outstretch’d and feet of nimblest tread! His shoulder proudly eminent and sharp Was with a sinner charg’d. up advanc’d along the rock. I turn’d myself as one. They grappled him with more than hundred hooks. That running. drew me towards him from the place. Me then my guide bespake: “Lest they descry. whom sudden fear unmans. and whate’er of force Be offer’d me. if thou canst.Hell Boil’d here a glutinous thick mass. who suddenly 59 . shrouded by the bridge. the foot’s sinew griping fast. Rais’d by the boiling. with his grooms. barterers: of ‘no’ For lucre there an ‘aye’ is quickly made. in one mighty swell Heave.” Him dashing down. All men are there. But those dark demons. that round Lim’d all the shore beneath. who have been erst In the like fray.” This said. save the surge. That other sank And forthwith writing to the surface rose. by either haunch He held him. Ah!what fierce cruelty his look bespake! In act how bitter did he seem. Take heed thou mount not o’er the pitch. Wherein I stood. “keen-talon’d fiends! Lo! one of Santa Zita’s elders! Him Whelm ye beneath. With storm and fury. Cried “Here the hallow’d visage saves not: here Is other swimming than in Serchio’s wave. While there I fix’d my ken below. fear thou not: For I am well advis’d. and reaching the sixth pier.” Beyond the bridge’s head Therewith he pass’d. But therein nought distinguish’d.” E’en thus the cook bestirs him. in secret mayst thou filch. To thrust the flesh into the caldron down With flesh-hooks. Behov’d him then a forehead terror-proof. as when dogs rush forth Upon the poor man’s back. That thou art here. while I return for more. o’er the rough rock he turn’d. Nor ever after thief a mastiff loos’d Sped with like eager haste. behind a craggy rock Bend low and screen thee. Except Bonturo. That he his flight delays not for the view. Impatient to behold that which beheld He needs must shun. So. And shouted: “Cover’d thou must sport thee here. “Ye of our bridge!” he cried. Behind me I discern’d a devil black. and by turns subsiding and fall. “Mark! mark!” my guide Exclaiming. Wherefore if thou desire we rend thee not.

Turn’d rapid round. But would you still proceed. come forth from amongst you one. nor miss thy aim. He aloud: “Be none of you outrageous: ere your time Dare seize me. The others standing firm. decide he then If he shall tear these limbs. Yesterday.” They shouted loud. And to the rest exclaim’d: “We have no power To strike him. They their hooks Protruding. Who having heard my words. safely now to me return. so close he hemm’d them round. Twelve hundred threescore years and six had fill’d The circuit of their course.” Forthwith so fell his pride. and towards him moved with speed: the fiends Meantime all forward drew: me terror seiz’d Lest they should break the compact they had made.” Then to me my guide: “O thou! Who on the bridge among the crags dost sit Low crouching. so rush’d Those from beneath the arch. shiver’d to the base Of the sixth arch. Scarmiglione!” Then to us He added: “Further footing to your step This rock affords not. one the other thus bespake: “Wilt thou I touch him on the hip?” To whom Was answer’d: “Even so. Another rock will yield you passage safe. who was in conf’rence with my guide. 60 .” But he. and against him Their weapons all they pointed. Malacoda! I had come Thus far from all your skirmishing secure. Thus issuing from Caprona. “What may this turn avail him?” he exclaim’d. stay thee. Thitherward I straight dispatch Certain of these my scouts. “Believ’st thou. and as he came. that I should lead Another through this savage wilderness. mine eyes With fixt and motionless observance bent On their unkindly visage.Hell From whence he standeth makes his suit. later by five hours than now.” I rose. lest his covenant The foe should break. and thus the demon spake: “Stay. I to my leader’s side adher’d. that he let drop The instrument of torture at his feet. who shall espy If any on the surface bask. “Go. With them Go ye: for ye shall find them nothing fell.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” My teacher answered. Up by this cavern go: not distant far. once I saw Th’ infantry dreading. since here the way Was broken. Malacoda!” Whereat one advanc’d. “without will divine And destiny propitious? Pass we then For so Heaven’s pleasure is.

” with that he cried. in sign To mariners. In evolution moving. heave high their arched backs. but each Had first between his teeth prest close the tongue. And with inventions multiform. And clashing tournaments. “And Calcabrina. if thou know the way. and tilting jousts. or signals made from castled heights. Light-armed squadrons and fleet foragers Scouring thy plains. horse nor foot. now of bells. Fang’d Ciriatto. Search ye around the bubbling tar. journey we alone.” To leftward o’er the pier they turn’d. With the ten demons on our way we went. Now with the sound of trumpets. As dolphins. Or introduc’d from foreign land. as they will.Hell Come Alichino forth. with gluttons at the tavern’s mess. I covet not. Tabors. Which. that. Gnarl on: ‘t is but in token of their spite Against the souls. For these. and mad Rubicant. That thence forewarn’d they may advise to save 61 . Nor ship. and those Who burn’d within. Ah fearful company! but in the church With saints. Grafflacane fierce. Or in retreat sometimes outstretch’d for flight. and Cagnazzo thou! The troop of ten let Barbariccia lead. who mourn in torment steep’d. With Libicocco Draghinazzo haste. our own.” I then: “O master! what a sight is there! Ah! without escort. or in muster rang’d. and their scowl Threatens us present tortures?” He replied: “I charge thee fear not: let them. In safety lead them. that tack’d by sign from land or star. Still earnest on the pitch I gaz’d. To onset sallying. Arezzo! have I seen.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to mark All things whate’er the chasm contain’d. Unless thy prudence fail thee. And Farfarello. Toward their leader for a signal looking. Which he with sound obscene triumphant gave. but ne’er To such a strange recorder I beheld. CANTO XXII It hath been heretofore my chance to see Horsemen with martial order shifting camp. where the other crag Uninterrupted traverses the dens. dost not mark How they do gnarl upon us.

” My leader to his side Approach’d. Then. so they Drew back under the wave. at intervals. Him Draghinazzo by his thighs beneath 62 . “O Rubicant! See that his hide thou with thy talons flay. That he appear’d to me an otter. darting forth a prong. who sojourn’d not far thence. with the jaws only out. Ere he again be rent. turning to my guide his face. as from a boar. For she had borne me to a losel vile. I observ’d. I saw.” he replied. master! if thou may. and whence he came inquir’d. Thus on each part the sinners stood. Then I: “Inform thee. Who of the fiends was nearest. and mark’d How one the other call’d.Hell Their threaten’d vessels. and yet My heart doth stagger. Whereof I give account in this dire heat. if more thou wish to learn. Ript him with one of these. ‘Twixt evil claws The mouse had fall’n: but Barbariccia cried. and dragg’d him sprawling up.” Straight Ciriatto. What wretched soul is this. To peculating here my thoughts were turn’d. seiz’d on his arm.” Libicocco cried. one. Seizing him with both arms: “Stand thou apart.”— “Too long we suffer. but soon As Barbariccia was at hand.” Shouted together all the cursed crew. so. While the next springs away: and Graffiacan. that of a wat’ry moat Stand at the brink. The good king Thibault after that I serv’d.” My leader thus: “Then tell us of the partners in thy guilt. Each Already by their names I knew. grappling seiz’d His clotted locks.” Then added. from whose mouth a tusk Issued on either side. that waited thus. So were I under shelter now with him! Nor hook nor talon then should scare me more. on whom their hand His foes have laid. to whom Was answer’d thus: “Born in Navarre’s domain My mother plac’d me in a lord’s retinue. so well When they were chosen. E’en as the frogs. “But now from one.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And mangled bore away the sinewy part. A spendthrift of his substance and himself. “Inquire of him. To ease the pain his back some sinner show’d. Their feet and of the trunk all else concealed. As it befalls that oft one frog remains. Then hid more nimbly than the lightning glance. While I do fix him on my prong transpierc’d. Knowest thou any sprung of Latian land Under the tar?”—”I parted.

whence angrily their chief. Rebuk’d him thus: “Off! cursed bird! Avaunt!”— “If ye desire to see or hear. Out! alas! behold That other.” he thus Quaking with dread resum’d. So he reports: and in each other charge Committed to his keeping. Turning on all sides round. Of him. But tremble lest he mean to maul me sore.” he rejoin’d. remaining in this self-same place.Hell Would next have caught. “or Tuscan spirits Or Lombard. “ Mischief forsooth extreme. Michel Zanche. The spirit of Navarre chose well his time. Money he took. “He of Gallura. but above the pitch will beat My plumes. Meant only to procure myself more woe!” No longer Alichino then refrain’d.” Cagnazzo at that word deriding grinn’d. from whom by evil hap Parting. of new sport expect to hear! They each one turn’d his eyes to the’ other shore. My teacher thus without delay inquir’d: “Who was the spirit. make sev’n appear. and let The bank be as a shield. Planted his feet on land. to plunge him down. But thus. Who roll’d his moony eyes in act to strike. He first. that we may see If singly thou prevail against us all. and at one leap 63 . for so Our custom is to call each other up. the rest gainsaying. who fail’d not in rich store Of nice-wove toils. When my shrill whistle shall be heard. Mischievous as he is. Sardinia is a theme.” Their captain then to Farfarello turning. whereof their tongue Is never weary. When their strife a little ceas’d. and them at large dismiss’d. how he grins! More would I say. who was the hardest to persuade. Who had his master’s enemies in hand. as thou has told. vessel of all guile. play’d the part Of barterer to the height: with him doth herd The chief of Logodoro.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Now.” Whereto he thus. him bespake: “If thou do cast thee down. I will cause them to appear. with threat’ning brow Restrain’d them. And us’d them so that they commend him well. And I. who yet was gazing on his wound. thou cam’st to shore?”— “It was the friar Gomita. reader. Quit we the vantage ground. Will for myself but one. I not on foot Will chase thee. So that no vengeance they may fear from them. Then wagg’d the head and spake: “Hear his device. Meantime let these ill talons bate their fury.

For language hath not sounds more like in sense. with desire of strife inflam’d. And in the boiling lake both fell. Barbariccia. CANTO XXIII In silence and in solitude we went. That mockery In Calcabrina fury stirr’d. to their post on each side speedily Descending. and look’d eager back. than the savage hound Snatches the leveret.” But little it avail’d: terror outstripp’d His following flight: the other plung’d beneath. but him the most. for the barterer had ‘scap’d. As needs must sting them sore. O’er the dyke In grapple close they join’d. stretch’d their hooks toward the fiends. For thus I reason’d: “These through us have been So foil’d. the other following his steps. And. with all their weapons arm’d. with loss and mock’ry so complete. The present fray had turn’d my thoughts to muse Upon old Aesop’s fable. And as one thought bursts from another forth. Than are these chances. four in flight dispatch’d From the’ other coast.” I thus began.” Already I perceiv’d my hair stand all On end with terror. so fast were glued Their pennons. more fell They shall pursue us. as the rest. So afterward from that another sprang. inly burning from their scars: And we departing left them to that broil.Hell Escaping disappointed their resolve. Who flounder’d. in pursuit He therefore sped. As minor friars journeying on their road. They. If anger then Be to their evil will conjoin’d. exclaiming. That chance lamenting. panting ‘twixt his jaws. while he Enrag’d and spent retires. Who was the cause of failure. And he with upward pinion rais’d his breast: E’en thus the water-fowl. where he told What fate unto the mouse and frog befell. but in vain To lift themselves they strove. “Teacher. Which added doubly to my former fear. if the origin And end of each be heedfully compar’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but the’ other prov’d A goshawk able to rend well his foe. dives instant down. when she perceives The falcon near. One first. so turn’d His talons on his comrade. “Thou art caught. The heat Was umpire soon between them. Them quick resentment stung. who flew After him. “if speedily 64 .

Suddenly my guide Caught me. on their dismal moan intent. ev’n as a mother that from sleep Is by the noise arous’d. I should not sooner draw unto myself Thy outward image. Oh. and wept. Which closes on one part the other chasm. But leaden all within.Hell Thyself and me thou hide not. so that from both I one design have fram’d. much I dread Those evil talons. careful more of him Than of herself. Even now behind They urge us: quick imagination works So forcibly. When I from far beheld them with spread wings Approach to take us. to that pendent rock. But by the weight oppress’d. Scarcely had his feet Reach’d to the lowest of the bed beneath.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who snatches up her babe And flies ne’er pausing. Never ran water with such hurrying pace Adown the tube to turn a landmill’s wheel. everlasting wearisome attire! We yet once more with them together turn’d To leftward. for that high Providence. we shall escape Secure from this imagined pursuit. As then along that edge my master ran. that but a single vest Clings round her limbs. so slowly came The fainting people. with similar act And count’nance similar. that we may thence descend Into the other chasm. Not a companion.” He had not spoke his purpose to the end. This moment came thy thoughts Presented before mine. There in the depth we saw a painted tribe. and of such weight. Caps had they on. Which plac’d them ministers of the fifth foss. Their outside Was overlaid with gold. that I already feel them. Carrying me in his bosom. If the right coast Incline so much. and near her sees The climbing fires. Who pac’d with tardy steps around. that fell low down Before their eyes. That Frederick’s compar’d to these were straw. as a child. dazzling to view. Down from the jutting beach Supine he cast him. Faint in appearance and o’ercome with toil.’’ He answer’d: “Were I form’d of leaded glass. When over us the steep they reach’d. than I now imprint That from within. in fashion like to those Worn by the monks in Cologne. that our company 65 . When nearest it approaches to the spokes. but fear In him was none. Power of departing thence took from them all. with hoods.

me bespake: “Pause. Perchance from me thou shalt obtain thy wish. Soon as arriv’d. be they dead. He Loderingo nam’d. whose name may by his deeds be known. when he saw me. Cried after us aloud: “Hold in your feet.” I staid. courseth down your cheeks? What torment breaks forth in this bitter woe?” “Our bonnets gleaming bright with orange hue. as men used to take A single and indifferent arbiter. but spake not: then turning each To other thus conferring said: “This one Seems.” I thus replied. And to that end look round thee as thou go’st. who thereof was ‘ware. but who are ye. that it were fitting for one man To suffer for the people. “are so leaden gross. by the action of his throat. Gardingo’s vicinage can best declare. And Catalano. what privilege allows They walk unmantled by the cumbrous stole?” Then thus to me: “Tuscan. Whence I my guide address’d: “See that thou find Some spirit. but the load they bare And narrow path retarded their approach. Fix’d to a cross with three stakes on the ground: He. but him first 66 . and by thy land Together taken. and then onward at their pace proceed. and saw two Spirits in whose look Impatient eagerness of mind was mark’d To overtake me.” Whereat my leader. To reconcile their strifes. writh’d himself.” “O friars!” I began. Ye who so swiftly speed through the dusk air. alive. Catalano I. And wear the body I have ever worn. nor any passes. was he who gave the Pharisees Counsel. who understood the Tuscan voice. turning. “your miseries—” But there brake off. for one had caught my eye. That with their weight they make the balances To crack beneath them. Thus spake: “That pierced spirit. whom intent Thou view’st. As now I witness. they with an eye askance Perus’d me. ruffling with deep sighs his beard. “In the great city I was bred and grew. who visitest The college of the mourning hypocrites.” “By Arno’s pleasant stream. And. Joyous friars we were. from whom such mighty grief. Disdain not to instruct us who thou art. How there we sped. He doth lie Transverse. throughout Distorted.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Hell Was chang’d at every movement of the step.” Then one.” One of them answer’d. Bologna’s natives.

and feels new hope Spring in his bosom. In straits like this along the foss are plac’d The father of his consort. there is a rock From the next circle moving. and the rest Partakers in that council. when the sun Tempers his tresses in Aquarius’ urn. My leader with large strides proceeded on. When as the rime upon the earth puts on Her dazzling sister’s image. that compell’d they come To lead us from this depth. finding e’en thus soon The world hath chang’d its count’nance. then spake: “He warn’d us ill. How Virgil gaz’d with wonder upon him. grasps his crook. but not long Her milder sway endures. wailing his lot. And following.” He thus replied: “Nearer than thou dost hope. And forth to pasture drives his little flock: So me my guide dishearten’d when I saw 67 . If so be lawful. Among the rest was said. his beloved footsteps mark’d. then riseth up The village hind. and to his hut returning in. whereby We both may issue hence. I therefore left the spirits heavy laden.Hell Behoves make feeling trial how each weighs. There paces to and fro. seed of ill And sorrow to the Jews. whom fails his wintry store. save that here his cope Is shatter’d.” To whom the friar: At Bologna erst I many vices of the devil heard.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” I noted then. Somewhat disturb’d with anger in his look. By the ruin ye may mount: For on the side it slants. CANTO XXIV In the year’s early nonage. As a discomfited and helpless man. whether on our right Lies any opening in the rock. To the friar He next his words address’d: “We pray ye tell. whence impatiently he smites His thighs. Thus abjectly extended on the cross In banishment eternal. which o’ersteps Each vale of horror. Who yonder hangs the sinners on his hook. And looking out beholds the plain around All whiten’d. without constraint On the dark angels. ‘He is a liar.” With head bent down awhile My leader stood. And the father of lies!’” When he had spoke. Then comes he forth again. and most the height Rises below. And now towards equal day the nights recede.

As smoke in air or foam upon the wave.” so spake my guide: “For not on downy plumes. At length the point of our descent we reach’d From the last flag: soon as to that arriv’d.” Said he. though onward push’d from crag to crag. “Grapple that. so lifting me Up to the summit of one peak. From talk I ceas’d not.” Up the rock Our way we held. and some counsel first maintain’d With his own thought. fame is won. the other fall. that he seems Still to foresee the’ effect. as that I first beheld At the steep mountain’s foot. “For I am stout and fearless. So was the breath exhausted from my lungs. Regarding well The ruin. for utt’rance suited ill.Hell His troubled forehead. “Now needs thy best of man. if it be such As will sustain thee. Could mount. as we journey’d. But Malebolge all toward the mouth Inclining of the nethermost abyss.” I straightway rose. The site of every valley hence requires. if she suffer not the weight Of her corporeal frame to crush her down. but who spake 68 . Narrower and steeper far to climb. I could no further. whereat a voice from the other foss Did issue forth. Without which whosoe’er consumes his days Leaveth such vestige of himself on earth. If well thou note me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . he fix’d His eye upon another. Thou therefore rise: vanish thy weariness By the mind’s effort. though light. but my strength had surely fail’d. who. From these to have escap’d sufficeth not. As one. What were the words I knew not. He turn’d him back. “but first make proof. while he works. profit by my words. And I. in each struggle form’d To vanquish. That one side upward slope. and show’d myself less spent Than I in truth did feel me. more rugged than before. And if the precinct of this coast Were not less ample than the last. but did seat me there. for at the fallen bridge Arriving. towards me with a look as sweet. Though on the arch that crosses there I stood. Scarcely he. for him I know not. he open’d wide his arm And took me up. so to seem Least faint. nor under shade Of canopy reposing.”I cried.” For one capp’d with lead This were no journey. and so speedily That ill was cur’d. Computes his labour’s issue. A longer ladder yet remains to scale. “On.

Of her sands Let Lybia vaunt no more: if Jaculus. he kindled. Teacher. where To the eighth mound it joins. and whate’er Above the Erythraean sea is spawn’d. the dust again Uproll’d spontaneous. bend thy steps. burn’d. risen from his trance. but tears of frankincense alone And odorous amomum: swaths of nard And myrrh his funeral shroud. dies. Not with all Ethiopia. Bewilder’d with the monstrous agony He hath endur’d. so I see Beneath. and then the chasm Opening to view.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” We from the bridge’s head descended. and wildly staring sighs. when five hundred years Have well nigh circled. Transpierc’d him. and the self-same form Instant resumed.” Said he. wherefore thus I spake: “To the next circle. darted an adder up. He knows not how. Cenchris and Amphisboena. and springs forthwith Renascent. Which through their reins infix’d the tail and head Twisted in folds before. Who. The’ Arabian Phoenix. Or heliotrope to charm them out of view. And. or through obstruction fettering up In chains invisible the powers of man. Amid this dread exuberance of woe Ran naked spirits wing’d with horrid fear. But my quick eye might reach not to the depth For shrouding darkness. So stood aghast the sinner when he rose. Blade nor herb throughout his life He tastes. plagues so dire Or in such numbers swarming ne’er she shew’d. As one that falls. When there dissolv’d he lay. Far more quickly than e’er pen Wrote O or I. And lo! on one Near to our side. that deals out 69 . To fair request Silent performance maketh best return. that remembrance in my veins Yet shrinks the vital current. so strange of shape And hideous.”—”I answer not. gazeth around. for as hence I hear and understand not. Down I stoop’d to look. And from the wall dismount we. and chang’d To ashes. where the neck is on the shoulders tied. Oh! how severe God’s judgment. “but by the deed. I saw a crowd within Of serpents terrible. by force demoniac dragg’d To earth. Pareas and Chelyder be her brood. all pour’d out upon the earth. So mighty sages tell. and naught discern.Hell Seem’d mov’d in anger. With serpents were their hands behind them bound. Nor hope had they of crevice where to hide.

And with the guilt another falsely charged. but towards me His mind directing and his face. So as thou e’er shalt ‘scape this darksome realm Open thine ears and hear what I forebode. thus he spake: “It grieves me more to have been caught by thee In this sad plight. Pistoia! Ah Pistoia! why dost doubt To turn thee into ashes. Who in Pistoia found my worthy den.” CANTO XXV When he had spoke. Not long since rained down from Tuscany To this dire gullet. I have no power permitted to deny What thou inquirest. riveting itself So close.” The sinner heard and feign’d not. 70 . and thus in few He answer’d: “Vanni Fucci am I call’d. and cried: “Take them.” I am doom’d thus low To dwell. that grief may rend thy heart. and strike Each helpless Bianco prostrate to the ground. “Be silent. tied them. And sharp and eager driveth on the storm With arrowy hurtling o’er Piceno’s field. tongue!” Another to his arms Upgliding. Through all the gloomy circles of the’ abyss. which thou beholdest.The Divine Comedy of Dante . From Valdimagra. the sinner rais’d his hands Pointed in mockery. wrapt in turbid mists. cumb’ring earth No longer. since in evil act so far Thou hast outdone thy seed? I did not mark.” I then to Virgil: “Bid him stir not hence. Spirit. Reft of the Neri first Pistoia pines. than When I was taken from the other life. This have I told. wherein Was dismal shame depictur’d. that swell’d so proudly ‘gainst his God. Me the beastial life And not the human pleas’d. But that thou mayst not joy to see me thus. A vapour rises. for round his neck One of then rolling twisted. God! I level them at thee!” From that day forth The serpents were my friends. it took from them the power to move. Whence suddenly the cloud shall burst. as it said. And ask what crime did thrust him hither: once A man I knew him choleric and bloody. Then Florence changeth citizens and laws. for that the sacristy by me Was rifled of its goodly ornaments. mule that I was. drawn by wrathful Mars.Hell Such blows in stormy vengeance! Who he was My teacher next inquir’d.

If. and fastens full upon him: His midmost grasp’d the belly. who headlong fell from Thebes. plac’d against my lips The finger lifted. beneath the mace Of stout Alcides. But. I knew them not. lo! a serpent with six feet Springs forth on one. that perchance laid on A hundred blows. whence found His felon deeds their end. as it chanceth oft. O reader! now Thou be not apt to credit what I tell. a forefoot Seiz’d on each arm (while deep in either cheek He flesh’d his fangs). And the clean white expires. mingling hues. Behind his head upon the shoulders lay. With open wings. That which was either now was seen no more. as round the other’s limbs The hideous monster intertwin’d his own. that near him stall’d. “Say who are ye?” We then brake off discourse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who underneath the rock Of Aventine spread oft a lake of blood. No marvel. “Doth Cianfa lurk?” I. He. Of the four lengths 71 . not turning yet to black. Thus up the shrinking paper. Then. here must tread A different journey. Each melted into other. the centaur sped away: And under us three spirits came. where both were lost. and not the tenth was felt. a dragon breathing fire On whomsoe’er he met. for myself do scarce allow The witness of mine eyes. and after him there came A centaur full of fury. He fled. of whom Nor I nor he was ware. as on his haunch They swarm’d. from his brethren parted.Hell Not him. and two figures blended in one form Appear’d. The other two Look’d on exclaiming: “Ah. “Where. that one Had need to name another. Ivy ne’er clasp’d A dodder’d oak. for a sign my guide Should stand attentive. to where the human face begins. as they both had been of burning wax. But as I looked Toward them. till they exclaim’d. Nor only one. shouting. ere it burns.” While yet he spake.” said he.” The two heads now became One. ‘twixt which the tail inserted curl’d Upon the reins behind. Intent on these alone. Agnello! See! Thou art nor double now. Nor utter’d more. befell. for his fraudful theft Of the great herd. “Where Where is the caitiff?” On Maremma’s marsh Swarm not the serpent tribe. A brown tint glides. To me my guide: “Cacus is this. the hinder on the thighs Were spread. how dost thou change.

then down before him fell Stretch’d out. and her into a fountain clear. The pierced spirit look’d on him But spake not. They in mutual guise So answer’d. Of former shape All trace was vanish’d. whose two shorter feet So lengthen’d. Not yet their glaring and malignant lamps Were shifted. Lucan in mute attention now may hear. its skin Soft’ning. and the serpent him. Nasidius! Ovid now be mute. So toward th’ entrails of the other two Approaching seem’d. Wherein both shapes were ready to assume The other’s substance. and the pierc’d spirit Drew close his steps together. Shifting from brake to brake. As never eye hath seen. I envy not. The shoulders next I mark’d. As the dark pepper-grain.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which in the wretch Was cleft in twain. the mounting face 72 .Hell Two arms were made: the belly and the chest The thighs and legs into such members chang’d. his indurated to a rind. and generates Th’ excrescent pile on one. the lizard seems A flash of lightning. Two yet neither seem’d That image miscreate. legs and thighs Compacted. livid and swart. that ent’ring join’d The monster’s arm-pits. Sabellus! tell. Nor thy disastrous fate. whose vap’ry columns join’d. In that part. that lays bare the fields. peeling it off From th’ other body. Of him who stood erect. What if in warbling fiction he record Cadmus and Arethusa. and prone the other fell. an adder all on fire. yea stood motionless and yawn’d. The feet behind then twisting up became That part that man conceals. if he thwart the road. for never face to face Two natures thus transmuted did he sing. As underneath the scourge Of the fierce dog-star. Nor shine. the other from the mouth Breath’d a thick smoke. He ey’d the serpent. As if by sleep or fev’rous fit assail’d. as the other’s dwindling shrunk. whence our life is nourish’d first. that the serpent split his train Divided to a fork. One he transpierc’d. that no sign of juncture soon Was visible: the tail disparted took The figure which the spirit lost. and so pass’d on With tardy steps. One from the wound. lo! upon his feet One upright rose. though each feature chang’d beneath. While both the shadowy smoke With a new colour veils. to a snake Him chang’d.

if it befell thee now. but well I mark’d Sciancato: he alone it was Of the three first that came. The other’s fate. who chang’d not: thou. transform’d into the brute. when dreaming near the dawn. whence shame to me thy son. events So strange may be its warrant. the rest. and on my thoughts amaze. Of its excess did shape the nose. and what there Superfluous matter came. and the other’s fork Closing unites. Are of the truth presageful. CANTO XXVI Florence exult! for thou so mightily Hast thriven. and draws down the ears Into the head. since it must needs befall! For as time wears me. and drew me up the steep. Would so it were. speed Buoso now!” So saw I fluctuate in successive change Th’ unsteady ballast of the seventh hold: And here if aught my tongue have swerv’d. The soul.Hell Retreated towards the temples. And no proud honour to thyself redounds. That done the smoke was laid. Pursuing thus our solitary way Among the crags and splinters of the rock. 73 . as doth the slug his horns. that o’er land and sea thy wings Thou beatest. Gaville. which e’en now revives. and after him The other talking sputters. and my guide Remounting scal’d the flinty steps. still dost rue. and that chance Were in good time. Sped not our feet without the help of hands. not backward dragg’d. and thy name spreads over hell! Among the plund’rers such the three I found Thy citizens. glides off. but soon turn’d His new-grown shoulders on him.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I shall grieve the more. and swell’d Into due size protuberant the lips. His tongue continuous before and apt For utt’rance. (not to say the rest) Would fain might come upon thee. O’er mine eyes Confusion hung. on the earth who lay. We from the depth departed. He. thou ere long Shalt feel what Prato. Yet ‘scap’d they not so covertly. As my thought turns again to what I saw. Hissing along the vale. severs. and in few Thus to another spake: “Along this path Crawling. which late We downward trac’d. meanwhile extends His sharpen’d visage. shot out in ears From the smooth cheeks. But if our minds. as I have done. Then sorrow seiz’d me.

“hath assur’d me. Vineyard or tilth. that if aught of good My gentle star.Hell And. or something better gave me. each Swath’d in confining fire. E’en thus along the gulf moves every flame. what time the fly Gives way to the shrill gnat. I envy not myself the precious boon. Upon the bridge I forward bent to look. as erewhile to wrath. that Troy Of her Palladium spoil’d. already wish’d To ask thee. where his day-labour lies: With flames so numberless throughout its space Shone the eighth chasm. nor less the guile Lament they. his eyes meanwhile. thy word. And grasp’d a flinty mass. who mark’d How I did gaze attentive. Straining pursu’d them.”—”If they have power Of utt’rance from within these sparks. As he. Though push’d not from the height.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As in that season.” said I. thus began: “Within these ardours are the spirits. apparent.”—”Master. at its departure saw Elijah’s chariot. that thou vouchsafe To pause. the peasant then Upon some cliff reclin’d. lest they run Where Virtue guides not. whence of her Achilles ‘reft Deidamia yet in death complains. yet I deem’d Already of the truth. I rein and curb The powers of nature in me. till here the horned flame arrive. The guide. thus to vengeance now Together hasting. or else had fall’n. when the depth Was to my view expos’d. That none exhibits token of the theft.” I answer’d. Which sow’d imperial Rome. when the sun least veils His face that lightens all. These in the flame with ceaseless groans deplore The ambush of the horse. A sinner so enfolded close in each. that open’d wide A portal for that goodly seed to pass. when the steeds erect Rais’d their steep flight for heav’n. And there is rued the stratagem. who is in yon fire. where lay The Theban brothers?” He replied: “Within Ulysses there and Diomede endure Their penal tortures. “O master! think my prayer a thousand fold In repetition urg’d. beneath him sees Fire-flies innumerous spangling o’er the vale. as it seem’d Ascending from that funeral pile. that comes So parted at the summit. whose wrongs The bears aveng’d. more than I am wont. till the flame alone Upsoaring like a misty speck he kenn’d. 74 .

when we came To the strait pass. and spake: “When I escap’d From Circe. Far as Morocco either shore I saw. then to and fro Wagging the top. who dwell two spirits in one fire! If living I of you did merit aught. refuse not proof Of the unpeopled world.” Of the old flame forthwith the greater horn Began to roll. “who to the west Through perils without number now have reach’d. For I divine thy wish: and they perchance. following the track Of Phoebus. And the Sardinian and each isle beside Which round that ocean bathes. “O brothers!” I began. and search the ways of life. That should have crown’d Penelope with joy. where time and place Seem’d fitting to my guide. As Iberia far. nor return of love. Call to mind from whence we sprang: Ye were not form’d to live the life of brutes But virtue to pursue and knowledge high. Tardy with age Were I and my companions. Move ye not on.” He thus: “Thy prayer is worthy of much praise. And I accept it therefore: but do thou Thy tongue refrain: to question them be mine. that yet Our senses have to wake.” When there the flame had come. Threw out its voice. and the small faithful band That yet cleav’d to me. by her charms. Could overcome in me the zeal I had T’ explore the world. murmuring. With but one bark. he thus began: “O ye. nor reverence Of my old father. The walls of Seville to my right I left. With these few words I sharpen’d for the voyage The mind of my associates. Forth I sail’d Into the deep illimitable main. how toward it with desire I bend. who beyond a circling year Had held me near Caieta. as a tongue uttering sounds. Nor fondness for my son. might shun discourse with thee. On the’ other hand already Ceuta past. To the dawn 75 .Hell See. where Hercules ordain’d The bound’ries not to be o’erstepp’d by man. When in the world my lofty strain I pour’d. Man’s evil and his virtue. To this the short remaining watch.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Ere thus Aeneas yet had nam’d the shore. as a fire That labours with the wind. For they were Greeks. that I then Could scarcely have withheld them. Whate’er the measure were of that desert. till one of you unfold In what clime death o’ertook him self-destroy’d.

Into its language turn’d the dismal words: But soon as they had won their passage forth. Tell me if those. As the Sicilian bull. And with me parley: lo! it irks not me And yet I burn. Forth issuing. that rightfully His cries first echoed. that the brazen monster seem’d Pierc’d through with pain. from that pleasant land Of Latium. which vibrating obey’d Their motion at the tongue. these sounds we heard: “O thou! to whom I now direct my voice! That lately didst exclaim in Lombard phrase. and sank the prow: so fate decreed: And over us the booming billow clos’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and I spake without delay: CANTO XXVII Now upward rose the flame. the leader thus: “Speak thou: he is a Latian. Up from the point.” My reply Was ready. from whose top a sound confus’d. Each star of the’ other pole night now beheld. I solicit thee no more. Depart thou. Joy seiz’d us straight. that from the ocean-floor It rose not. Five times re-illum’d. who had shap’d its mould. Have peace or war. For of the mountains there Was I.” Did so rebellow. and for the witless flight Made our oars wings. and at her foremost side Did strike the vessel. 76 . loftiest methought Of all I e’er beheld. as oft Vanish’d the light from underneath the moon Since the deep way we enter’d. And ours so low. But soon to mourning changed. thus while no way they found Nor avenue immediate through the flame. the fourth time lifted up The poop. Thrice it whirl’d her round With all the waves. with the voice of him Tormented. drew our eyes that way to look. when from far Appear’d a mountain dim. and now pass’d on with leave From the mild poet gain’d.” Leaning I listen’d yet with heedful ear. betwixt Urbino and the height. as he touch’d my side. Whence Tyber first unlocks his mighty flood. and still’d its light To speak no more.’ Though somewhat tardy I perchance arrive Let it not irk thee here to pause awhile. still gaining on the left. When. From the new land A whirlwind sprung.Hell Our poop we turn’d. when following came Another. whence I draw my sum of guilt. who in Romagna dwell. If but e’en now thou fall into this blind world.

” Then roar’d awhile the fire. Ravenna hath maintain’d this many a year. less my deeds bespake The nature of the lion than the fox. Who ever could return unto the world. but that he. and thus breath’d at last: “If I did think. Soon as to that part Of life I found me come. But since ne’er. And pil’d in bloody heap the host of France. And she. whose flank is wash’d of Savio’s wave. Where they are wont. As ‘twixt the level and the steep she lies. The’ high priest again seduc’d me into sin. I entreat thee. nor is now: But open war there left I none. Is steadfast. The green talons grasp The land. That tore Montagna in their wrath. And in his broad circumference of plume O’ershadows Cervia. an augre of their fangs. hoping so T’ have made amends. Long as this spirit mov’d the bones and pulp My mother gave me. I answer thee. And with such art conducted. “The’ old mastiff of Verruchio and the young. any from this depth Has found his upward way. The state. Nor fear lest infamy record the words. “Lamone’s city and Santerno’s range Under the lion of the snowy lair. its sharpen’d point On either side wav’d. that stood erewhile the proof so long. when each behoves To lower sails and gather in the lines. Waging his warfare near the Lateran. Inconstant partisan! that changeth sides. Or ever summer yields to winter’s frost. who art thou? Be not more hard than others. whom curses light on. Lives so ‘twixt tyrant power and liberty. 77 . So may thy name still rear its forehead high. that the sound Reach’d the world’s limit. Wretch that I was! and well it had bested me! The chief of the new Pharisees meantime.Hell “O spirit! who art hidden here below! Never was thy Romagna without war In her proud tyrants’ bosoms. And how and wherefore listen while I tell. my answer were to one. And certainly my hope Had fail’d not. There Polenta’s eagle broods. I cloth’d me then In good Saint Francis’ girdle.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “A man of arms at first. That which before had pleased me then I rued. In the world. If true be told me. “Now tell us. And to repentance and confession turn’d. still make. All ways of winding subtlety I knew. This flame should rest unshaken.

nor against Acre one Had fought. and cried. who cried: “‘Wrong me not. as thou knowest. And writhing its sharp horn. he spake: “This is a guilty soul. beating to and fro. “Thou haply thought’st me not A disputant in logic so exact. nor in me that cord. As in Socrate. nor traffic’d in the Soldan’s land).” When he had thus fulfill’d his words. In return. For the deceitful counsel which he gave. yielding to the forceful arguments. Large promise with performance scant. but a cherub dark He met. We onward went. And answer’d: “Father! since thou washest me Clear of that guilt wherein I now must fall. Teach me my purpose so to execute. that overhangs The foss. I have power to shut And open: and the keys are therefore twain. wherein the penalty is paid Of those. No power can the impenitent absolve. then came Saint Francis for me. So me to cure the fever of his pride This man besought: my counsel to that end He ask’d: and I was silent: for his words Seem’d drunken: but forthwith he thus resum’d: “From thy heart banish fear: of all offence I hitherto absolve thee. I and my leader. Constantine besought To cure his leprosy Sylvester’s aid.” Then. Shall make thee triumph in thy lofty seat.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And must below to join the wretched crew. That Penestrino cumber earth no more.’ Hence perdition-doom’d I rove A prey to rankling sorrow in this garb.Hell Not with the Saracens or Jews (his foes All Christians were.” Oh mis’ry! how I shook myself.” To Minos down he bore me. hov’ring at his hair. By contradiction absolute forbid. rev’renc’d. Heav’n. Of silence as more perilous I deem’d. Which biting with excess of rage. he is mine. He his great charge nor sacred ministry In himself. The which my predecessor meanly priz’d.” “When I was number’d with the dead. Which us’d to mark with leanness whom it girded. up along the rock. who load them with committed sin. E’er since I watch’d him. be sure. Far as another arch. Nor to repent and will at once consist. the flame In dolour parted. and the judge Twin’d eight times round his callous back the tail. that in the fire Must vanish. 78 . when he Seiz’d me.

with his hands laid his breast bare. He ey’d me. whose bones are gather’d yet At Ceperano. another his Clean lopt away. the midriff lay Open to view. stood the people all. And cried. and therefore thus are rent. but.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” My guide rejoin’d. “hath overta’en. as Rome’s historian writes Who errs not. gapes not so wide. for first our gashes close Ere we repass before him. might at full Tell of the wounds and blood that now I saw. 79 . while they liv’d. speech and thought Both impotent alike. and the others all Whom here thou seest. there where treachery Branded th’ Apulian name. A fiend is here behind. Whilst eagerly I fix on him my gaze. and wretched ventricle. or where beyond Thy walls. that felt The grinding force of Guiscard’s Norman steel. And those the rest. I who am dead Must through the depths of hell. and in that long war When of the rings the measur’d booty made A pile so high.Hell CANTO XXVIII Who. to the’ hideous sight Of the ninth chasm. when we have compast round The dismal way. O Tagliacozzo. That turns th’ englutted aliment to dross. that hath lost Its middle or side stave. Slain by the Trojans. with the multitude. that standest musing on the rock. Though he repeated oft the tale? No tongue So vast a theme could equal. who e’er Pour’d on Apulia’s happy soil their blood. nor sin Conducts to torment. A rundlet. from the chin his face Cleft to the forelock. slivering again Each of this ream. without arms The old Alardo conquer’d. torn from the chin throughout Down to the hinder passage: ‘twixt the legs Dangling his entrails hung. e’en in words unfetter’d. and his limbs One were to show transpierc’d. a spectacle like this Were but a thing of nought. did sow Scandal and schism. As one I mark’d. Haply so lingering to delay the pain Sentenc’d upon thy crimes?”—”Him death not yet. If in one band Collected. that he may make Full trial of your state. from orb to orb. who with his sword Hacks us thus cruelly. But say who Art thou. “Now mark how I do rip me! lo! How is Mohammed mangled! before me Walks Ali weeping.

on the ground Then fix’d it to depart. That they shall need not ‘gainst Focara’s wind Offer up vow nor pray’r. for they are true.Hell Conduct him.” With foot uprais’d For stepping. And there instruct the twain. through perfidy Of a fell tyrant.” More than a hundred spirits. whom Fano boasts Her worthiest sons. if he wish not Here soon to follow me. thou behold’st the pleasant land That from Vercelli slopes to Mercabo. and one ear Lopt off. ‘Twixt the Cyprian isle And Balearic. that with good store Of food he arm him. if again Returning. who is he. his nostrils mutilate E’en from beneath the eyebrows. No easy conquest else. “whom sin Condemns not. He speaks not for himself: the outcast this Who overwhelm’d the doubt in Caesar’s mind. “O thou!” said ‘he. lest impris’ning snows Yield him a victim to Novara’s power. and whelm’d under the waves Near to Cattolica. from whose throat was cut 80 . call thou to mind Piero of Medicina. Pierc’d in the throat. before the rest advanc’d. who with the rest through wonder stood Gazing. as thou dost wish that I above May carry tidings of thee.” I answering thus: “Declare. Affirming that delay to men prepar’d Was ever harmful. cried: “Lo! this is he I wot of.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and his jaws Expanding. Another shade. when that they heard. and whom erst (unless too near Resemblance do deceive me) I aloft Have seen on Latian ground. by pirates done Or Argive crew of old. they out of life’s tenement Shall be cast forth. spake Mohammed. Guido and Angelo. through amazed. this warning thou Bear to Dolcino: bid him. his fellow-spirit. Stood in the foss to mark me. and bar’d His wind-pipe. “Oh how terrified Methought was Curio. who perchance Shalt shortly view the sun. then so shape his end. That one-ey’d traitor (Whose realm there is a spirit here were fain His eye had still lack’d sight of) them shall bring To conf’rence with him. Trust my words. ne’er hath Neptune seen An injury so foul. “Thou. Forgetful of their pangs. that without was all o’ersmear’d With crimson stain. That if ‘t is giv’n us here to scan aright The future. In whom that sight doth wake such sad remembrance?” Forthwith he laid his hand on the cheek-bone Of one.

and one in two. alas! I carry from its source. behold if any else Be terrible as this. When at the bridge’s foot direct he stood. and saw Things. which spake that hardy word. How that may be he knows who ordereth so.” I added: “Ay. that even as the rest Of the sad flock pac’d onward.” Whence heaping woe on woe he hurried off. that nearer we might hear The words. who her strong breast-plate Buckles on him. too. which thus it utter’d: “Now behold This grievous torment. who gave King John The counsel mischievous. And that on earth Thou mayst bear tidings of me. A headless trunk.Hell The tongue.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As one grief stung to madness. Thus the law Of retribution fiercely works in me. who breathing go’st To spy the dead. but that conscience makes me firm. he of Born. know that I Am Bertrand. For parting those so closely knit. such as I may fear without more proof To tell of. and cried: “‘Remember thee Of Mosca. lantern-wise Pendent in hand. which look’d at us and said. For Absalom And David more did not Ahitophel. But I there Still linger’d to behold the troop. ‘The deed once done there is an end. The boon companion. Then one Maim’d of each hand.’ that prov’d A seed of sorrow to the Tuscan race. That in this trunk inhabits. thrusting the head Full in our view. His arm aloft he rear’d. “Woe’s me!” The spirit lighted thus himself. my brain Parted. And two there were in one. But Virgil rous’d me: “What yet gazest on? Wherefore doth fasten yet thy sight below Among the maim’d and miserable shades? 81 . Father and son I set at mutual war. uplifted in the gloom The bleeding stumps. I who. whom various wounds Disfigur’d. that they with gory spots Sullied his face. Spurring them on maliciously to strife. that they long’d to stay and weep. and death to thine own tribe.” CANTO XXIX So were mine eyes inebriate with view Of the vast multitude. Without doubt I saw. that feels no guilt within And bids him on and fear not. alas! exclaim’d. and yet it seems to pass before me. thou. By the hair It bore the sever’d member.

dooms to punishment The forgers noted on her dread record. if each lazar-house Of Valdichiana. All-searching Justice.”—”O guide belov’d! His violent death yet unaveng’d.” So we discours’d to where the rock first show’d The other valley. who once rul’d The towers of Hautefort. then many a dart Of sore lament assail’d me.” Then spake my master: “Let thy soul no more Afflict itself for him. one of my blood. and more not seen remains to see. as issuing steams from fester’d limbs. who are partners in his shame. the while I follow’d. Made him contemptuous: therefore. He pass’d me speechless by. and heard him by the others nam’d Geri of Bello.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and leave him. Soon as we came O’er the last cloister in the dismal rounds Of Malebolge. 82 . headed all With points of thrilling pity. such was here the torment: dire The stench.Hell Thou hast not shewn in any chasm beside This weakness. that thou lookedst not That way. We on the utmost shore of the long rock Descended still to leftward. if thou wouldst number them That two and twenty miles the valley winds Its circuit. Whereon so fixedly I held my ken.” My leader part pursu’d His way. Had heap’d their maladies all in one foss Together. answering him. Direct elsewhere Its thought. Thou so wholly then Wert busied with his spirit. E’en to the lowest depth. that I clos’d Both ears against the volley with mine hands. and the brotherhood Were to our view expos’d. had more light been there. with the isle Sardinia and Maremma’s pestilent fen. At the bridge’s foot I mark’d how he did point with menacing look At thee. in the sultry time ‘Twixt July and September.” I straight replied.” “If thou. wherein The minister of the most mighty Lord. As were the torment.” said I. “By any. There is a spirit dwells. and already is the moon Beneath our feet: the time permitted now Is short. “hadst weigh’d the cause For which I look’d. as I think. Know. Then my sight Was livelier to explore the depth. ere he was gone. And adding thus: “Within that cave I deem. thou hadst perchance excus’d The tarrying still. Wailing the crime that costs him now so dear. and doing so Hath made me more compassionate his fate.

And of what race ye come. but that. To me my liege Address’d him: “Speak to them whate’er thou list. One o’er the belly. what time Each living thing. who strove in vain To lift their forms. who with thy fingers rendest off Thy coat of proof. o’er the shoulders one Roll’d of another. “Whom tortur’d thus thou seest: but who art thou That hast inquir’d of us?” To whom my guide: “One that descend with this man.” Then started they asunder. Tell me if any born of Latian land Be among these within: so may thy nails Serve thee for everlasting to this toil. The crust Came drawn from underneath in flakes. Step by step We journey’d on. Your punishment. who yet lives. Then two I mark’d. e’en to the little worm.” answer’d one.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that languish’d through the murky vale Up-pil’d on many a stack. like scales Scrap’d from the bream or fish of broader mail. “And me Albero of Sienna brought To die by fire. All fell. as ye tell me. “O thou. that sat Propp’d ‘gainst each other. as bards of yore have told.” “Both are of Latium.” “Arezzo was my dwelling. A tetter bark’d them round. for whom his lord Impatient waited. Deter you not from opening thus much to me. who ye are. “And sometimes makest tearing pincers of them. and show him hell’s abyss. Nor saw I e’er Groom currying so fast.Hell More rueful was it not methinks to see The nation in Aegina droop. with the rest.” weeping he replied.” thus spake my guide to one. as two brazen pans Set to retain the heat. whose ear Those words redounding struck. sideling crawl’d a third Along the dismal pathway. but after many suns Survive it. for which I died. From head to foot. Confus’d they lay. and each turn’d Trembling toward us. or himself perchance Tir’d with long watching. so full of malice was the air (And afterward. Unseemly and disgustful in its kind. in silence looking round And list’ning those diseas’d. From rock to rock. 83 . through furiousness Of ne’er abated pruriency.” And I therewith began: “So may no time Filch your remembrance from the thoughts of men In th’ upper world. The ancient people were restor’d anew From seed of emmets) than was here to see The spirits. as of these each one Plied quickly his keen nails.

True is in sport I told him. One helpless innocent. and if I scan thee right. Him no subterfuge eludes. Whom swinging down he dash’d upon a rock. will’d me to declare to him The secret of mine art: and only hence. So shalt thou see I am Capocchio’s ghost. Because I made him not a Daedalus. as he was void Of wisdom. That thou mayst know Who seconds thee against the Siennese Thus gladly. And thus return’d: “Be Stricca from this charge Exempted. bend this way thy sharpen’d sight. And with her other burden self-destroy’d The hapless mother plung’d: and when the pride Of all-presuming Troy fell from its height. For that I practis’d alchemy on earth.” Then to the bard I spake: “Was ever race Light as Sienna’s? Sure not France herself Can show a tribe so frivolous and vain.” CANTO XXX What time resentment burn’d in Juno’s breast For Semele against the Theban blood. Thus needs must well remember how I aped Creative nature by my subtle art. Who forg’d transmuted metals by the power Of alchemy. But Minos to this chasm last of the ten.Hell Leads me not here. And his rare wisdom Abbagliato show’d A spectacle for all. grasping one. “The meshes. That I had learn’d to wing my flight in air. where such seed Roots deepest in the soil: and be that troop Exempted. with whom Caccia of Asciano Lavish’d his vineyards and wide-spreading woods. that I take the lioness And the young lions at the pass: “then forth Stretch’d he his merciless talons.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As more than once in dire mischance was rued. Learchus nam’d. and the old king 84 . he who knew so temp’rately To lay out fortune’s gifts. That well my face may answer to thy ken. “Spread out. Such fatal frenzy seiz’d on Athamas. Has doom’d me. and Niccolo Who first the spice’s costly luxury Discover’d in that garden. Prevail’d on one suppos’d his sire to burn me.” The other leprous spirit heard my words.” he cried. And he admiring much. That he his spouse beholding with a babe Laden on either arm. By fortune overwhelm’d.

full supply Ne’er lack’d me of what most I coveted. spake. when she saw Polyxena first slaughter’d. One I saw In fashion like a lute. Be patient to inform us.”—” That is the ancient soul Of wretched Myrrha. 85 . who it is. The other shape. Such mighty power had grief to wrench her soul. Her Polydorus.” To whom I answ’ring: “Oh! as thou dost hope. that the paunch Suits not the visage. One towards the chin. For his own share. I turn’d it back to view The other cursed spirits. that glitter down the grassy slopes Of Casentino. dar’d to counterfeit Donati’s features. “O ye. who in this world of misery. in like mood Of random mischief vent he still his spite.Hell With his realm perish’d. there left trembling. that o’er the solid pavement rubb’d His belly stretch’d out prone. Bet ne’er the Furies or of Thebes or Troy With such fell cruelty were seen. where it meets the forked part. to feign’d testament The seal affixing. One drop of water now. e’en as the other there. their goads Infixing in the limbs of man or beast. When living. had but the groin Been sever’d. that himself might gain. That onward passes.” Thus he began. alas! I crave. A wretch forlorn and captive. making fresh and soft The banks whereby they glide to Arno’s stream.” When vanish’d the two furious shades. open’d wide his lips Gasping as in the hectic man for drought. so perform’d The deed of sin. The rills. on whom Mine eye was held. then reft of sense Did she run barking even as a dog. on the wild sea-beach Next met the mourner’s view. Wherefore I know not. the lady of the herd. “attentively regard Adamo’s woe. “That sprite of air is Schicchi. are exempt from pain. As now two pale and naked ghost I saw That gnarling wildly scamper’d. “who burn’d With most unholy flame for her own sire.” he replied. and her son. then did Hecuba. Dragg’d him. like the swine Excluded from his stye. And a false shape assuming. Ere it speed hence. the other upward curl’d. The other may not flesh its jaws on thee. Swoln dropsy. And in the neck-joint sticking deep his fangs. One reach’d Capocchio. disproportioning the limbs With ill-converted moisture. He of Arezzo.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

” To whom Was answer’d: “When thou wentest to the fire. I had set forth already on this path. But if I here might see the sorrowing soul Of Guido. “here I found them.” He answer’d. That like a drum resounded: but forthwith Adamo smote him on the face. nor ever shall. For which on earth I left my body burnt. That I each hundred years might move one inch. Where I transgress’d. When thou wast question’d of the truth. One.Hell Stand ever in my view. that false Greek from Troy.” When that he heard. There is Romena.” said he.” “Who are that abject pair. which makes the flesh Desert these shrivel’d cheeks. They brought me down Among this tribe. where I falsified The metal with the Baptist’s form imprest. Seeking him out amidst the shapeless crew. One is e’en now within. Were I but so light. induc’d by them I stamp’d The florens with three carats of alloy. One is that dame The false accuser of the Hebrew youth. For Branda’s limpid spring I would not change The welcome sight. Alessandro. In such a cloud upsteam’d. at Troy. “That closely bounding thee upon thy right Lie smoking. now speak’st thou true. “I have an arm At liberty for such employ.” “If I spake false. stern justice urging me. that round Are wand’ring.” Said Sinon.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But there thou gav’st not such true testimony. thou falsely stamp’dst the coin. Much more than the disease. Sharp fever drains the reeky moistness out. Sinon the other. the blow Returning with his arm. For more the pictur’d semblance dries me up.” I next inquir’d. Till time hath run his course. With clench’d hand smote him on the braced paunch. I ween. that seem’d as hard. “I am here but for one fault. since that hour They have not turn’d. “Though my o’erweighty limbs have ta’en from me The power to move. or their brother. like a band in winter steep’d In the chill stream?”—”When to this gulf I dropt. 86 . Although eleven miles it wind. If truly the mad spirits tell. Then readier when it coin’d th’ impostor gold. So from the place. But wherein besteads me that? My limbs are fetter’d. Thou hadst it not so ready at command.” And thus the dropsied: “Ay. and not in vain. gall’d perchance to be so darkly nam’d. Takes means to quicken more my lab’ring sighs. not more Than half of one across.

when that dismal rout O’erthrew the host of Charlemagne.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To hear Such wrangling is a joy for vulgar minds. Rear’d by thy belly up before thine eyes. who wanting power to speak Wish’d to excuse myself. and all the while Excus’d me. that either cheek was stain’d.” return’d the Greek. Me if thirst assails.” To whom the coiner thus: “Thy mouth gapes wide as ever to let pass Its evil saying. and if again Chance bring thee. that far long the gloom Mine eye advanc’d not: but I heard a horn Sounded aloud. Following its course The adverse way. Pains rack thy head. So have I heard. less shame. And that which is. Thou art parch’d. There Was twilight dim. Turning our back upon the vale of woe. and quench’d His saintly warfare. Now minister’d my cure. as remember’d yet Confounds me. “More grievous fault than thine has been. So terrible a blast Orlando blew not. dreaming wishes it a dream. that did teem with death. “O perjur’d one. And I do quarrel with thee.Hell And thou for more than any imp beside. As a man that dreams of harm Befall’n him. The horse remember. Yet I am stuff’d with moisture. “might expiate. Thitherward not long 87 . The peal it blew had made The thunder feeble. desires as if it were not.” I was all fix’d to listen. Such then was I.” CANTO XXXI The very tongue. Achilles and his father’s javelin caus’d Pain first.” “To thine. “witness the thirst Whence thy tongue cracks. and towards him turn’d With shame so poignant. and then the boon of health restor’d. And all the world be witness to thy guilt. We cross’d th’ encircled mound in silence. where like conference is held. Therefore cast All sorrow from thy soul. though unweeting that I did.” “Remember. my strained eyes were bent On that one spot. witness the fluid mound.” I perceiv’d How angrily he spake.” My master cried. whose keen reproof before Had wounded me. when my guide Admonish’d: “Now beware: a little more.” he replied. A mass corrupt. no urging would’st thou need To make thee lap Narcissus’ mirror up. Think I am ever at thy side.

taking from mad War Such slaves to do his bidding. which sweeter hymns Became not.Hell My head was rais’d. Shoulders. Was turreted with giants. As with circling round Of turrets. “Yet know. that tops Saint Peter’s Roman fane.” So shouted his fierce lips. Full thirty ample palms was he expos’d Downward from whence a man his garments loops.” said he. as more and more We near’d toward the brink. when her plastic hand Left framing of these monsters. E’en thus the shore. And fear came o’er me. these are not towers. for when brute force And evil will are back’d with subtlety. Our vision traces what the mist involves Condens’d in air. All-teeming nature. and th’ other bones Of like proportion. But giants. His visage seem’d In length and bulk. how distance can delude The sense.” said I. Search thy neck. so that from above The bank. as doth the pine. half their length Uprearing. and of the belly huge Great part. which girdled him below. Of one already I descried the face. Who ponders well confesses her therein Wiser and more discreet. Resistance none avails. such height Arose his stature. “Master.” As when a fog disperseth gradually. and both arms down along his ribs. whom Jove from heav’n Yet threatens. “Raphel bai ameth sabi almi. did display Past doubt her wisdom. Each from his navel downward. That it less strange may seem. when many lofty towers Methought I spied. “ere farther we advance. encompassing th’ abyss. 88 . “what land Is this?” He answer’d straight: “Too long a space Of intervening darkness has thine eye To traverse: thou hast therefore widely err’d In thy imagining. horrible. Montereggion crowns his walls. and if she Repent her not of th’ elephant and whale. and my guide address’d him thus: “O senseless spirit! let thy horn for thee Interpret: therewith vent thy rage. so piercing through the gross And gloomy atmosphere. mine error fled. A little therefore urge thee on. Thither arriv’d Thou well shalt see. that three Friezelanders Had striv’n in vain to reach but to his hair.The Divine Comedy of Dante . round the bank. when his mutt’ring thunder rolls. and breast. if rage Or other passion wring thee.” Then tenderly he caught me by the hand. In the pit they stand immers’d.

The Divine Comedy of Dante - Hell

There shalt thou find the belt that binds it on. Wild spirit! lo, upon thy mighty breast Where hangs the baldrick!” Then to me he spake: “He doth accuse himself. Nimrod is this, Through whose ill counsel in the world no more One tongue prevails. But pass we on, nor waste Our words; for so each language is to him, As his to others, understood by none.” Then to the leftward turning sped we forth, And at a sling’s throw found another shade Far fiercer and more huge. I cannot say What master hand had girt him; but he held Behind the right arm fetter’d, and before The other with a chain, that fasten’d him From the neck down, and five times round his form Apparent met the wreathed links. “This proud one Would of his strength against almighty Jove Make trial,” said my guide; “whence he is thus Requited: Ephialtes him they call. Great was his prowess, when the giants brought Fear on the gods: those arms, which then he piled, Now moves he never.” Forthwith I return’d: “Fain would I, if ‘t were possible, mine eyes Of Briareus immeasurable gain’d Experience next.” He answer’d: “Thou shalt see

Not far from hence Antaeus, who both speaks And is unfetter’d, who shall place us there Where guilt is at its depth. Far onward stands Whom thou wouldst fain behold, in chains, and made Like to this spirit, save that in his looks More fell he seems.” By violent earthquake rock’d Ne’er shook a tow’r, so reeling to its base, As Ephialtes. More than ever then I dreaded death, nor than the terror more Had needed, if I had not seen the cords That held him fast. We, straightway journeying on, Came to Antaeus, who five ells complete Without the head, forth issued from the cave. “O thou, who in the fortunate vale, that made Great Scipio heir of glory, when his sword Drove back the troop of Hannibal in flight, Who thence of old didst carry for thy spoil An hundred lions; and if thou hadst fought In the high conflict on thy brethren’s side, Seems as men yet believ’d, that through thine arm The sons of earth had conquer’d, now vouchsafe To place us down beneath, where numbing cold Locks up Cocytus. Force not that we crave Or Tityus’ help or Typhon’s. Here is one Can give what in this realm ye covet. Stoop

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Therefore, nor scornfully distort thy lip. He in the upper world can yet bestow Renown on thee, for he doth live, and looks For life yet longer, if before the time Grace call him not unto herself.” Thus spake The teacher. He in haste forth stretch’d his hands, And caught my guide. Alcides whilom felt That grapple straighten’d score. Soon as my guide Had felt it, he bespake me thus: “This way That I may clasp thee;” then so caught me up, That we were both one burden. As appears The tower of Carisenda, from beneath Where it doth lean, if chance a passing cloud So sail across, that opposite it hangs, Such then Antaeus seem’d, as at mine ease I mark’d him stooping. I were fain at times T’ have pass’d another way. Yet in th’ abyss, That Lucifer with Judas low ingulfs, I,ightly he plac’d us; nor there leaning stay’d, But rose as in a bark the stately mast.

His firm abutment rears, then might the vein Of fancy rise full springing: but not mine Such measures, and with falt’ring awe I touch The mighty theme; for to describe the depth Of all the universe, is no emprize To jest with, and demands a tongue not us’d To infant babbling. But let them assist My song, the tuneful maidens, by whose aid Amphion wall’d in Thebes, so with the truth My speech shall best accord. Oh ill-starr’d folk, Beyond all others wretched! who abide In such a mansion, as scarce thought finds words To speak of, better had ye here on earth Been flocks or mountain goats. As down we stood In the dark pit beneath the giants’ feet, But lower far than they, and I did gaze Still on the lofty battlement, a voice Bespoke me thus: “Look how thou walkest. Take Good heed, thy soles do tread not on the heads Of thy poor brethren.” Thereupon I turn’d, And saw before and underneath my feet A lake, whose frozen surface liker seem’d To glass than water. Not so thick a veil In winter e’er hath Austrian Danube spread O’er his still course, nor Tanais far remote

CANTO XXXII
Could I command rough rhimes and hoarse, to suit That hole of sorrow, o’er which ev’ry rock

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Under the chilling sky. Roll’d o’er that mass Had Tabernich or Pietrapana fall’n, Not e’en its rim had creak’d. As peeps the frog Croaking above the wave, what time in dreams The village gleaner oft pursues her toil, So, to where modest shame appears, thus low Blue pinch’d and shrin’d in ice the spirits stood, Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork. His face each downward held; their mouth the cold, Their eyes express’d the dolour of their heart. A space I look’d around, then at my feet Saw two so strictly join’d, that of their head The very hairs were mingled. “Tell me ye, Whose bosoms thus together press,” said I, “Who are ye?” At that sound their necks they bent, And when their looks were lifted up to me, Straightway their eyes, before all moist within, Distill’d upon their lips, and the frost bound The tears betwixt those orbs and held them there. Plank unto plank hath never cramp clos’d up So stoutly. Whence like two enraged goats They clash’d together; them such fury seiz’d. And one, from whom the cold both ears had reft, Exclaim’d, still looking downward: “Why on us Dost speculate so long? If thou wouldst know

Who are these two, the valley, whence his wave Bisenzio slopes, did for its master own Their sire Alberto, and next him themselves. They from one body issued; and throughout Caina thou mayst search, nor find a shade More worthy in congealment to be fix’d, Not him, whose breast and shadow Arthur’s land At that one blow dissever’d, not Focaccia, No not this spirit, whose o’erjutting head Obstructs my onward view: he bore the name Of Mascheroni: Tuscan if thou be, Well knowest who he was: and to cut short All further question, in my form behold What once was Camiccione. I await Carlino here my kinsman, whose deep guilt Shall wash out mine.” A thousand visages Then mark’d I, which the keen and eager cold Had shap’d into a doggish grin; whence creeps A shiv’ring horror o’er me, at the thought Of those frore shallows. While we journey’d on Toward the middle, at whose point unites All heavy substance, and I trembling went Through that eternal chillness, I know not If will it were or destiny, or chance, But, passing ‘midst the heads, my foot did strike

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With violent blow against the face of one. “Wherefore dost bruise me?” weeping, he exclaim’d, “Unless thy errand be some fresh revenge For Montaperto, wherefore troublest me?” I thus: “Instructor, now await me here, That I through him may rid me of my doubt. Thenceforth what haste thou wilt.” The teacher paus’d, And to that shade I spake, who bitterly Still curs’d me in his wrath. “What art thou, speak, That railest thus on others?” He replied: “Now who art thou, that smiting others’ cheeks Through Antenora roamest, with such force As were past suff’rance, wert thou living still?” “And I am living, to thy joy perchance,” Was my reply, “if fame be dear to thee, That with the rest I may thy name enrol.” “The contrary of what I covet most,” Said he, “thou tender’st: hence; nor vex me more. Ill knowest thou to flatter in this vale.” Then seizing on his hinder scalp, I cried: “Name thee, or not a hair shall tarry here.” “Rend all away,” he answer’d, “yet for that I will not tell nor show thee who I am, Though at my head thou pluck a thousand times.” Now I had grasp’d his tresses, and stript off

More than one tuft, he barking, with his eyes Drawn in and downward, when another cried, “What ails thee, Bocca? Sound not loud enough Thy chatt’ring teeth, but thou must bark outright? What devil wrings thee?”—” Now,” said I, “be dumb, Accursed traitor! to thy shame of thee True tidings will I bear.”—” Off,” he replied, “Tell what thou list; but as thou escape from hence To speak of him whose tongue hath been so glib, Forget not: here he wails the Frenchman’s gold. ‘Him of Duera,’ thou canst say, ‘I mark’d, Where the starv’d sinners pine.’ If thou be ask’d What other shade was with them, at thy side Is Beccaria, whose red gorge distain’d The biting axe of Florence. Farther on, If I misdeem not, Soldanieri bides, With Ganellon, and Tribaldello, him Who op’d Faenza when the people slept.” We now had left him, passing on our way, When I beheld two spirits by the ice Pent in one hollow, that the head of one Was cowl unto the other; and as bread Is raven’d up through hunger, th’ uppermost Did so apply his fangs to th’ other’s brain, Where the spine joins it. Not more furiously

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On Menalippus’ temples Tydeus gnaw’d, Than on that skull and on its garbage he. “O thou who show’st so beastly sign of hate ‘Gainst him thou prey’st on, let me hear,” said I “The cause, on such condition, that if right Warrant thy grievance, knowing who ye are, And what the colour of his sinning was, I may repay thee in the world above, If that, wherewith I speak be moist so long.”

Count Ugolino, and th’ Archbishop he Ruggieri. Why I neighbour him so close, Now list. That through effect of his ill thoughts In him my trust reposing, I was ta’en And after murder’d, need is not I tell. What therefore thou canst not have heard, that is, How cruel was the murder, shalt thou hear, And know if he have wrong’d me. A small grate Within that mew, which for my sake the name Of famine bears, where others yet must pine, Already through its opening sev’ral moons Had shown me, when I slept the evil sleep, That from the future tore the curtain off. This one, methought, as master of the sport, Rode forth to chase the gaunt wolf and his whelps Unto the mountain, which forbids the sight Of Lucca to the Pisan. With lean brachs Inquisitive and keen, before him rang’d Lanfranchi with Sismondi and Gualandi. After short course the father and the sons Seem’d tir’d and lagging, and methought I saw The sharp tusks gore their sides. When I awoke Before the dawn, amid their sleep I heard My sons (for they were with me) weep and ask For bread. Right cruel art thou, if no pang

CANTO XXXIII
His jaws uplifting from their fell repast, That sinner wip’d them on the hairs o’ th’ head, Which he behind had mangled, then began: “Thy will obeying, I call up afresh Sorrow past cure, which but to think of wrings My heart, or ere I tell on’t. But if words, That I may utter, shall prove seed to bear Fruit of eternal infamy to him, The traitor whom I gnaw at, thou at once Shalt see me speak and weep. Who thou mayst be I know not, nor how here below art come: But Florentine thou seemest of a truth, When I do hear thee. Know I was on earth

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Thou feel at thinking what my heart foretold; And if not now, why use thy tears to flow? Now had they waken’d; and the hour drew near When they were wont to bring us food; the mind Of each misgave him through his dream, and I Heard, at its outlet underneath lock’d up The’ horrible tower: whence uttering not a word I look’d upon the visage of my sons. I wept not: so all stone I felt within. They wept: and one, my little Anslem, cried: “Thou lookest so! Father what ails thee?” Yet I shed no tear, nor answer’d all that day Nor the next night, until another sun Came out upon the world. When a faint beam Had to our doleful prison made its way, And in four countenances I descry’d The image of my own, on either hand Through agony I bit, and they who thought I did it through desire of feeding, rose O’ th’ sudden, and cried, ‘Father, we should grieve Far less, if thou wouldst eat of us: thou gav’st These weeds of miserable flesh we wear, And do thou strip them off from us again.’ Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down My spirit in stillness. That day and the next

We all were silent. Ah, obdurate earth! Why open’dst not upon us? When we came To the fourth day, then Geddo at my feet Outstretch’d did fling him, crying, ‘Hast no help For me, my father!’ “There he died, and e’en Plainly as thou seest me, saw I the three Fall one by one ‘twixt the fifth day and sixth: Whence I betook me now grown blind to grope Over them all, and for three days aloud Call’d on them who were dead. Then fasting got The mastery of grief.” Thus having spoke, Once more upon the wretched skull his teeth He fasten’d, like a mastiff’s ‘gainst the bone Firm and unyielding. Oh thou Pisa! shame Of all the people, who their dwelling make In that fair region, where th’ Italian voice Is heard, since that thy neighbours are so slack To punish, from their deep foundations rise Capraia and Gorgona, and dam up The mouth of Arno, that each soul in thee May perish in the waters! What if fame Reported that thy castles were betray’d By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou To stretch his children on the rack. For them, Brigata, Ugaccione, and the pair

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Of gentle ones, of whom my song hath told, Their tender years, thou modern Thebes! did make Uncapable of guilt. Onward we pass’d, Where others skarf’d in rugged folds of ice Not on their feet were turn’d, but each revers’d There very weeping suffers not to weep; For at their eyes grief seeking passage finds Impediment, and rolling inward turns For increase of sharp anguish: the first tears Hang cluster’d, and like crystal vizors show, Under the socket brimming all the cup. Now though the cold had from my face dislodg’d Each feeling, as ‘t were callous, yet me seem’d Some breath of wind I felt. “Whence cometh this,” Said I, “my master? Is not here below All vapour quench’d?”—”’Thou shalt be speedily,” He answer’d, “where thine eye shall tell thee whence The cause descrying of this airy shower.” Then cried out one in the chill crust who mourn’d: “O souls so cruel! that the farthest post Hath been assign’d you, from this face remove The harden’d veil, that I may vent the grief Impregnate at my heart, some little space Ere it congeal again!” I thus replied: “Say who thou wast, if thou wouldst have mine aid;

And if I extricate thee not, far down As to the lowest ice may I descend!” “The friar Alberigo,” answered he, “Am I, who from the evil garden pluck’d Its fruitage, and am here repaid, the date More luscious for my fig.”—”Hah!” I exclaim’d, “Art thou too dead!”—”How in the world aloft It fareth with my body,” answer’d he, “I am right ignorant. Such privilege Hath Ptolomea, that ofttimes the soul Drops hither, ere by Atropos divorc’d. And that thou mayst wipe out more willingly The glazed tear-drops that o’erlay mine eyes, Know that the soul, that moment she betrays, As I did, yields her body to a fiend Who after moves and governs it at will, Till all its time be rounded; headlong she Falls to this cistern. And perchance above Doth yet appear the body of a ghost, Who here behind me winters. Him thou know’st, If thou but newly art arriv’d below. The years are many that have pass’d away, Since to this fastness Branca Doria came.” “Now,” answer’d I, “methinks thou mockest me, For Branca Doria never yet hath died,

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and yet doth seem In body still alive upon the earth. than the giants are in his arms. Now came I (and with fear I bid my strain Record the marvel) where the souls were all Whelm’d underneath. had Michael Zanche reach’d. Who with him treachery wrought. reader! for I write it not. why from the earth Are ye not cancel’d? Such an one of yours I with Romagna’s darkest spirit found. and I in stature am more like A giant. Where thou hast need to arm thy heart with strength. When this one left a demon in his stead In his own body. a third with face to feet Arch’d like a bow. That emperor. at mid breast from th’ ice Stood forth. and ope mine eyes. transparent.” so spake my guide. He from before me stepp’d and made me pause. “Lo!” he exclaim’d. or when the shades of night Fall on our hemisphere. “If thou discern him. Ask me not. Others stood upright. when breathes a cloud Heavy and dense. Think thyself If quick conception work in thee at all. I was not dead nor living. As for his doings even now in soul Is in Cocytus plung’d. Ill manners were best courtesy to him. Eats. Such was the fabric then methought I saw.” As. “lo Dis! and lo the place. which the blast stirs briskly round. How I did feel. drinks. But now put forth Thy hand. therefore look. A windmill. and of one his kin. Whereat my guide was pleas’d that I should see The creature eminent in beauty once. seems view’d from far 96 . this upon the soles. Ah Genoese! men perverse in every way. With every foulness stain’d. That on his head. To shield me from the wind.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When to the point we came. Since words would fail to tell thee of my state.Hell But doth all natural functions of a man. Some prone were laid. and sleeps. as through glass Pellucid the frail stem.” How frozen and how faint I then became. CANTO XXXIV “The banners of Hell’s Monarch do come forth Towards us. forthwith I drew Behind my guide: no covert else was there. who sways The realm of sorrow. and putteth raiment on.” I op’d them not.” He thus: “Not yet unto that upper foss By th’ evil talons guarded. where the pitch Tenacious boils.

he that hath his head within And plies the feet without. and yet did dare To scowl upon his Maker. “That upper spirit. such as come from whence old Nile Stoops to the lowlands. panting like a man forespent. that appears So large of limb. But were in texture like a bat. And plac’d me on a brink to sit.” Then at a rocky opening issued forth. Soon as he reach’d the point. well from him May all our mis’ry flow. But far more Than from that gnawing. Sails never such I saw Outstretch’d on the wide sea. “Is Judas. At every mouth his teeth a sinner champ’d Bruis’d as with pond’rous engine. is Brutus: lo! how he doth writhe And speaks not! Th’ other Cassius. My leader there with pain and struggling hard Turn’d round his head. No plumes had they. At six eyes he wept: the tears Adown three chins distill’d with bloody foam. “Expect that by such stairs as these. And grappled at the fell. whereat the thigh Upon the swelling of the haunches turns. that from him issued still Three winds. next join’d 97 . Under each shot forth Two mighty wings. was the foremost pang’d By the fierce rending. whence ofttimes the back Was stript of all its skin. caught fast the shaggy sides. But night now re-ascends. he.Hell Mark now how great that whole must be. from the murky jaw Who hangs. Whose heads are under.” so spake my guide. And it is time for parting. as one who mounts. enormous as became A bird so vast. when the wings Enough were op’d. If he were beautiful As he is hideous now. That into hell methought we turn’d again. All is seen. th’ other two with this Midway each shoulder join’d and at the crest. The right ‘twixt wan and yellow seem’d: the left To look on. which suits With such a part.” thus spake The teacher. Of th’ other two.The Divine Comedy of Dante . for so he bade. Who hath worse punishment. And down from pile to pile descending stepp’d Between the thick fell and the jagged ice. where his feet stood before. when I did spy Upon his head three faces: one in front Of hue vermilion. Oh what a sight! How passing strange it seem’d. And noting time and place. so that three Were in this guise tormented. wherewith Cocytus to its depth Was frozen.” I clipp’d him round the neck. and these He flapp’d i’ th’ air. “We must depart from evil so extreme.

” There is a place beneath. “Ere from th’ abyss I sep’rate. that boreth through the world. thou didst o’erpass That point. I following his steps.” It was no palace-hall Lofty and luminous wherein we stood. Thou art now arriv’d Under the hemisphere opposed to that. to which from ev’ry part is dragg’d All heavy substance. “The way is long. Morn Here rises. Believing that I Lucifer should see Where he was lately left.” my master cried. and much uncouth the road. that was born sinless. But by the sound of brooklet. yet standeth fix’d. By that hidden way My guide and I did enter. “upon thy feet. Through fear of him did veil her with the sea. to return To the fair world: and heedless of repose We climbed. From Belzebub as distant. when there evening sets: and he. Whose shaggy pile was scal’d. he first. and so liv’d. That sprang aloof. discover’d not by sight. that descends This way along the hollow of a rock. “My guide! vouchsafe few words to set me free From error’s thralldom. Whose other aspect is Judecca. The wave hath eaten.” thus when risen I began. Which. Perchance To shun him was the vacant space left here By what of firm land on this side appears. Who see not what the point was I had pass’d. “Arise. where I grasp’d Th’ abhorred worm. And now within one hour and half of noon The sun returns. and th’ earth.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Bethink them if sore toil oppress’d me then.Hell With wary step my side. Thy feet are planted on the smallest sphere. And underneath whose canopy expir’d The Man. Which the great continent doth overspread. so long as I Descended. 98 . Thou wast on th’ other side. as extends The vaulted tomb. And to our hemisphere retir’d. But natural dungeon where ill footing was And scant supply of light. but saw him now With legs held upward. Where is now the ice? How standeth he in posture thus revers’d? And how from eve to morn in space so brief Hath the sun made his transit?” He in few Thus answering spake: “Thou deemest thou art still On th’ other side the centre. I rais’d mine eyes. here prominent before. when I turn’d. as it winds with no precipitous course. As at the first. Let the grosser sort. On this part he fell down From heav’n.

A panther. NOTES TO HELL CANTO I Verse 1. O mind. iv 522. Humilemque videmus Italiam. v.] It is to be remembered. Aen lib. 45.] Pleasure or luxury. will appear more plainly in Canto XXI. 130.] Hence Milton appears to have taken his idea in the Samson Agonistes: The sun to me is dark And silent as the moon. iv.] The sun was in Aries.] The gate of Purgatory. 103.] A compendium of Virgil’s description Aen. 29. which the Poet feigns to be guarded by an angel placed on that station by St. 522.] This is explained by the commentators to mean “Although it was rather late with respect to my birth before Julius Caesar assumed the supreme authority.] The spirits in Purgatory. v. In the midway. through a circular opening in the cave: Thus issuing we again beheld the stars. lib. 8. the country of Can della Scala. iii. in which sign he supposes it to have begun its course at the creation. lib iii. 115. 118. v. v. 29. v. Canto V. 744.] Pride or ambition. And in the tresorie it set 99 . 30. v. 65.] This passage is intended as an eulogium on the liberal spirit of his Veronese patron Can Grande della Scala. v. that in ascending a hill the weight of the body rests on the hinder foot. 1. When the power of Julius. Nox erat. v. 16. Compare Apollonius Rhodius. 1058 v. v. Italia’s plains. Now was the day. &c The same metaphor will recur. and lib. v. The hinder foot. With those stars. ‘Twizt either Feltro.D. A. Content in fire. That planet’s beam.] That the era of the Poem is intended by these words to be fixed to the thirty fifth year of the poet’s age.” from Virgil.] Verona. A spirit worthier. A she wolf. CANTO II v. who conducts the Poet through Paradise. Into a place I came Where light was silent all.] Avarice. That greyhound. 36. v. where that date is explicitly marked.Hell Till on our view the beautiful lights of heav’n Dawn.” v.] O thought that write all that I met. 98.] “Umile Italia. Peter. Where the sun in silence rests. and made himself perpetual dictator.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. v. is situated between Feltro. &c. A lion. a city in the Marca Trivigiana. a city in the territory of Urbino.] The sun. v. 102. 56. 1300. 43. Saint Peter’s gate.] Beatrice. and Monte Feltro.

for he is a chosen vessel unto me.] This simile is well translated by Chaucer— But right as floures through the cold of night Iclosed. Lucia. b. but myself. 64.] Se non fortunae sed hominibus solere esse amicum. v. and Beatrice. Acts. condemned to the same punishment with themselves. So Berni. i. “But the Lord said unto him. 30. Orl. c.]Every other thing comprised within the lunar heaven. c.] The divine mercy. iii. st. Iib.ii. xii. lib. 93. Adone. c. 50. Lest th’ accursed tribe. v. 14. Silvius’sire.]The spirits in Limbo.” v. 35. So in Berni. 5.] Aeneas. 127.] Lest the rebellious angels should exult at seeing those who were neutral and therefore less guilty.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. v. CANTO III v. It has been imitated by many others.] Lasciate ogni speranza voi ch’entrate. 40. 86. and b. Se l’alma avete offesa da viltate. 15. A flag. stoupen in her stalkes lowe. 29. 61. Troilus and Creseide.]The three persons of the blessed Trinity. P. and primeval love. Cornelii Nepotis Attici Vitae. now shall men see If any virtue in thee be. st. c. “Donna vestita di nero. Like to the sand. which. Milton. 78. Marino. i. has the smallest circle. v. being the lowest of all. Whatever is contain’d. c. Thy soul. Who rest suspended. and Sor. st. 8. The chosen vessel. ii. neither admitted to a state of glory nor doomed to punishment. A friend not of my fortune. Go thy way.Paul. 53.Hell Of my braine. st. Three maids. Orl. b. 908. 6 c. 53. b. 9. 124. v. As florets. Lucia. v.Inn.] Unnumber’d as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene’s torrid soil Levied to side with warring winds. among whom see Berni. xii. Comus. 63. &c. c. ix. Redressen hem agen the sunne bright. Chaucer. v. 100 . c. 46. 34. v. v.] St. and poise Their lighter wings.] The enlightening grace of heaven.] L’anima tua e da viltate offesa. ii.” and Spenser’s Faery Queen. A blessed dame. 1. all hope abandoned. ix.lib. L. And speden in her kinde course by rowe.18 v.4.] The divine mercy. Temple of Fame. st. Lascia pur della vita ogni speranza. Power divine Supremest wisdom. Orl Inn. ii. st. v.] All the grisly legions that troop Under the sooty flag of Acheron Milton. xvii. v. v. Inn. 97. v.

xviii. v. 320 Totius ut Lacus putidaeque paludis Lividissima.] Imitated. Canz.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Aen. Honour the bard Sublime. L.Q. stant lumina flamma.] This is commonly understood of Celestine the Fifth. and loud lament.] Vada livida. maximeque est profunda vorago. 70.] Quam multa in silvis autumul frigore primo Lapsa cadunt folia. 12. as Mr. 309 Compare Apoll. vi.] Our Saviour. Venturi mentions a work written by Innocenzio Barcellini. Spenser. Eroiche. As fall off the light of autumnal leaves. 50. Catullus. In fierce heat and in ice. lib.] She nas to sober ne to glad. 56. L. Qual fioco lume.] Lo fioco lume So Filicaja. 75. and furious rage. An old man. 32. Aen. Iib. In which an attempt is made to put a different interpretation on this passage. v. Iib. iii. through the blear light. b. 77. Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad. Aen. a. Onorando l’altissimo poeta.Hell v. Who to base fear Yielding. 102. Virg. 242. 104. v. 600. His looks were dreadful. 8. 101 . 92. canz. 82. Measure for Measure. and his fiery eyes Like two great beacons glared bright and wide. who abdicated the papal power in 1294. v. A thund’rous sound. vi. vi. So Chiabrera.] Onorate l’altissimo poeta. b. Compare Milton. 7. v. by Milton. of the Celestine order. 42 CANTO IV v. a puissant one. viii.1. 79. cui plurima mento Canities inculta jacet. other. Virg. 214. lib. Shakesp. and printed in Milan in 1701. Virg. 2. ii. P. st. F. But long ere our approaching heard Noise. Thyer has remarked. P. With eyes of burning coal.] The delighted spirit To bathe in fiery floods or to reside In thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice.] v. c. 10.s. iv. than the sound of dance or song Torment.] Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat Terribili squalore Charon. The livid lake. v. vii. abjur’d his high estate.st. v. vi. b. Chaucer’s Dream. vi. Rhod. v.

57 to 73 and the Life of Saladin. See Triumph of Fame. the rival of Richard coeur de lion. and the other scholastic writers. ii v. before the Jews had made their translation: and that we had for a long time no other text of Aristotle. and wife of Pompey. 1. by whom they were held in horror and detestation.” &c. Aristotle—Petrarch assigns the first place to Plato.] Homer. says. p. See Virg. translated and commented the works of Aristotle.” Gli. nata magni nombris regis Atlantis. Orient.Hell v. Ch’a dire e brutto ed a tacerlo e bello And Bembo. and Knolles’s Hist. which was made from this Arabic version of this great philosopher (Averroes).] Maestro di color che sanno. Asol. c.who maintained the world to have been formed by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. 100.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ii. 132. who afterwards added to it a very ample commentary. ut de ambobus testimonium reddit poeta noster in octavoubi Aeneas ad Avandrum sic ait “Dardanus Iliacae. which might be expected from one who did not know a syllable of Greek. 140. v. ii. Ruccellai. called by the Arabians Roschd. Orient.] Averroes. La vide in parte che’l tacere e bello. 4. 117. 1. che il favellarne. b. v. Pulci here again imitates our poet: Avicenna quel che il sentimento Intese di Aristotile e i segreti. viii. with a Latin translation. v. 102 . c. Him who made That commentary vast. 90. The critic quotes some passages from Petrarch (Senil. of the Turks p.] The daughter of Julius Caesar. Morg. Electra. 1143) to show how strongly such sentiments prevailed in the time of that poet. “Electra. 1. that this fanatic admirer of Aristotle translated his writings with that felicity. 134. t. scilicet. v. ii.] Democritus. c. lib. informs us. 140. and who was therefore compelled to avail himself of the unfaithful Arabic versions. iii.] Tu se’il maestro di color che sanno. iii. that “Averroes was the first who translated Aristotle from Greek into Arabic.] The daughter of Atlas. ep. ii. “Vie pui bello e il tacerle. The master of the sapient throng. Ital. v. v. xviii. See D’Herbelot. availed themselves. Averrois che fece il gran comento. he died in 1198: but Tiraboschi places that event about 1206. v. Bibl. sect. 126. Le Api. as referred to by Dante in treatise “De Monarchia. c. So our Poet. v. c. The Soldan fierce. He is introduced by Petrarch in the Triumph of Fame. Che’l tacere e bello. xxv. except that of the Latin translation. of which Thomas Aquinas. The Monarch of sublimest song. on the other hand. v. by Bohao’edin Ebn Shedad. Averroes. Julia. 128. and mother of Dardanus the founder of Troy. Avicen.) he was the source of modern philosophical impiety. Oper.” According to D’Herbelot.] See D’Herbelot Bibl. He died in 1050. article Sina. D’Herbelot. He adds. before the Greek originals of Aristotle and his commentators were known to us in Europe. et. Fitter left untold. in his Morgante Maggiore. published by Albert Schultens. Pulci. 789. Mag. Democritus Who sets the world at chance. v. in Canzone 14. 125. According to Tiraboschi (storia della Lett.] Saladin or Salaheddin.” lib. Aen.

] Hence Milton: Death Grinn’d horrible a ghastly smile. 251. 105. that denial takes from none belov’d.] Francesca. Marking the tracts of air. v. 3. 113. Grinning with ghastly feature. 118. the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch’d neck his rank maintains In marshal’d order through th’ ethereal void. iii. c. A line taken by Marino. ch’ a null’ amato amar perdona. 46. 103 . they were both put to death by the enraged Lanciotto. Francesca. but deformed in his person. st. 102.Hell CANTO V v.] This simile is imitated by Lorenzo de Medici. p. The land. 845. i. first published by Mr. that in gentle heart is quickly learnt. 100 And by Fortiguerra: Rimembrare il ben perduto Fa piu meschino lo presente stato. Adone. and being taken in adultery. 96. 264. lord of Rimini. Virgil. daughter of Guido da Polenta. c. iii. His brother Paolo. See Notes to Canto XXVII. Il. lord of Ravenna. c. v. ii. xi. Adone. Canto XXIV. v. a poem. Le Api. engaged her affections. So Boccacio. v. And Pulci. P. 1 x. 5. was given by her father in marriage to Lanciotto. and Dante’s Purgatory. 942. Indeed many of the Italian poets have repeated this verse. xiv. v.] Amor. As cranes. st. v. 4to edit.] Amor. L. who unhappily possessed those graces which the husband of Francesca wanted. No greater grief than to remember days Of joy. 63. son of Malatesta. in his Ambra.1. Caina. v.xwhen mis’ry is at hand!] Imitated by Marino: Che non ha doglia il misero maggiore Che ricordar la giola entro il dolore. 83. b.The Divine Comedy of Dante . iv. Roscoe. in his Filocopo. 43 The whole of this passage is alluded to by Petrarch.] The place to which murderers are doomed. Aeneid. Compare Homer. v. st. 257. Ricciardetto. cxli. l. a man of extraordinary courage. Ch’ al cor gentil ratto s’apprende. in his Triumph of Love c. and Ruccellai. 99 Love. Roscoe. v. c. v. Amore mal non perdono l’amore a nullo amato. in the Morgante Maggiore.] Ravenna. c. in the Appendix to his Life of Lorenzo. Che non sia al fin sempre amato chi ama. E perche amor mal volontier perdona. Love.

who under shore Now rests. 80. and Notes.] Of Arrigo. 69. iii. v. st. E che di lui come a lei par dispone.] So in Canto XXXIV Lucifer is called “Th’ abhorred worm. 67.] The Bianchi. in the Paradise.] The city of Florence. signifying a pig. or Guinever. This must fall. c. Lancelot. v. c. He is introduced in Boccaccio’s Decameron. “In omni adversitate fortunae infelicissimum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem et non esse. ix. that boreth through the world. The divided city. Ciacco. come corpo morto cade.] Charles of Valois.” Ariosto has imitated Dante: 104 . who is said by the commentators to have been of the noble family of the Fifanti.] One of the Knights of the Round Table. celebrated in romance. v. c. che sol mi vinse. 81. 3. and Notes. less happily. i. At one point. pr. E cadde come morto in terra cade. Mosca. viii. l. Giacopo. The real name of this glutton has not been transmitted to us. v. a. v.] We are referred to the following passage v. Giorn. in his Orl. 52. at the head of which was Corso Donati.] Giacopo Rusticucci.] Questo quel punto fu. and the lover of Ginevra.Hell The original perhaps was in Boetius de Consol. che si chiuse Dinanzi alla pieta de’ duo cognati. That great worm. 128. because it was headed by Veri de’ Cerchi. 65. Fur. 8. st. 66. My sense reviving. v. xlvi. Consult thy knowledge. Tasso. Berni has made a sportive application of these lines. The other. Morgante Maggoire. Inn. v. 21. xxii v. Il Torrismondo. whose family had lately come into the city from Acone. Canto XVI. Philosoph. 4 v. and the woody country of the Val di Nievole. 61.] So called from his inordinate appetite: Ciacco.] Who these two were. and Canto XVI.” 1. 124. The wild party from the woods. by whose means the Neri were replaced. Mosca degli Uberti is introduced in Canto XXVIII. no mention afterwards occurs.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 1. 76. Of one. Of Farinata and Tegghiaio. in Italian. Arrigo. The incident alluded to seems to have made a strong impression on the imagination of Dante. And like a corpse fell to the ground] E caddi. the commentators are not agreed. v. CANTO VI v. and Notes.] Al tornar della mente. 73. 79. So Pulci: v. 136. 2. Ch’ al gran verme infernal mette la briglia. 1.] So called. 108. v. v. Nov. v. See Canto XVI.] The opposite parts of the Neri. divided into the Bianchi and Neri factions. who introduces it again. Orl.] See Canto X. s. The just are two in number.

Worse did she in the court of Rome.] This sentiment called forth the reprehension of Cecco d’Ascoli. I recollected what Dante said. ix. CANTO VIII v. 1.] So Ariosto. 66. c. st. 12. and dashing on all sides. The city.] Boccaccio tells us. who was so incensed against Apollo for having violated his daughter Coronis. v.Q. v. and Giotto the painter. 59. F. when he with his master Virgil entered the gates of hell: for Dante. That filleth all the sea with foam. See the Life of Benvenuto Cellini. that of Dis is nam’d. aleppe. in his Acerba. In cio peccasti. 105 . l. 32. 1. 32. didst thou err Laying it down that fortune’s largesses Are fated to their goal. &c. 8. “—At the resurrection of the flesh. and I have often been surprised that it was never understood in that sense. both the happiness of the good and the torments of the wicked will be increased. 22. each aback rebounds With roaring rage. Herein. for there She had slain Popes and Cardinals. Satan! allez. Orl. O bard of Florence. Minos. by whose vengeance he was cast into Tartarus. v. Pape is said by the commentators to be the same as the Latin word papae! “strange!” Of aleppe they do not give a more satisfactory account. Ah me! O Satan! Satan!] Pape Satan. c. v. E’en as a billow.Hell in St. b. that he set fire to the temple of that deity. we shall have the number. Spenser. Filippo Argenti.The Divine Comedy of Dante . made use of that expression. having personified Avarice as a strange and hideous monster. Phlegyas and Filippo Argenti.” Decam. Fur. See Virg. Nugent. O Fiorentin poeta. i. CANTO VII v.] As when two billows in the Irish sowndes Forcibly driven with contrarie tides Do meet together. Pape Satan. p 113.] The commentators. g.] Ariosto.” v. 48. Mark thou. were together in France. ii. and visited Paris with particular attention. xxvi. perplex themselves with the inquiry what seven perils these were from which Dante had been delivered by Virgil. and adding Charon. iii c. says Venturi. 42. Fortune is none. Fur. v. vii. 18. b. as so many others. where the court of justice may be considered as hell. Augustin:—”Cum fiet resurrectio carnis. Cerberus. That reason cannot conquer. Aen. iv. and the extreme waywardness and irascibility of his temper. Dante. Phlegyas. Hence it is that Dante. where he mentions “having heard the words Paix. By necessity. divides The doubtful current into divers waves.] Phlegyas. Reckoning the beasts in the first Canto as one of them. c. st. If any argument may gainsay this.” Orl. Seven times. we may suppose a determinate to have been put for an indeterminate number. “he was a man remarkable for the large proportions and extraordinary vigor of his bodily frame. 1. c. 91.] Satan. 94. v. The first adulterer proud. 618. Popes and cardinals. who was likewise perfect master of the French. et bonorum gaudia et malorum tormenta majora erunt. paix! in the court of justice at Paris. v. st. xl. n. vi. translated by Dr. says of her— Peggio facea nella Romana corte Che v’avea uccisi Cardinali e Papi. paix. and if this be not satisfactory. Plutus. l.

719. 233. ii. Orl. They attempted to prevent him from entering at the gate. l. And dipsas.Hell v. —spinaque vagi torquente cerastae … et torrida dipsas Et gravis in geminum vergens eaput amphisbaena. Q. 96. Fur. What profits at the fays to but the horn. l. 83. A wind. Lucan. a. b. F. 2 Dante appears to have fallen into a strange anachronism. 122. st. c. 25. Measure for Measure.] She with her rod did softly smite the raile Which straight flew ope. v. he still bears the marks. xxxix.] In Provence.] Imitated by Berni. 23. Pharsal. x. of which. The hue. Cerastes horn’d. 67.The Divine Comedy of Dante . So Milton: Scorpion and asp. l. vi. by whose aid we shall overcome this opposition. st. and gain admittance into the city. Spenser. Inn. son of Pompey the Great. Your Cerberus. to conjure up a spirit. according to Lucan. So Boccaccio.] Cerberus is feigned to have been dragged by Hercules. e. Adders and cerastes. l. iii.] “Of what avail can it be to offer violence to impassive beings?” v. who should inform him of the issue of the civil wars between his father and Caesar. Aen. not new. At war ‘twixt will and will not. Ovid. 42. See Ariosto. 6. hydrus and elops drear. over which Dante had read the fatal inscription. 1. 72 CANTO IX v. l.] Virgil.] Quae corpus complexa animae tam fortis inane.] Che si. 1. ii.] Erictho. 106 . With his wand. b. 111. P. “an angel has just passed. restrained those outward tokens of displeasure which his own countenance had betrayed. Fiesol. The plains of Arles. st. 46. s. L. Met. perceiving that Dante was pale with fear. xiii f.” v. that these evil spirits had formerly shown the same insolence when our Savior descended into hell. v. Orl. are Shakespeare’s. and amphisbaena dire. This their insolence.] Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. “That gate which. v. 97. 109. No long space my flesh/Was naked of me. Virg.] Virgil assures our poet. Virgil’s death did not happen till long after this period. 281. ix. was employed by Sextus. 524. a Thessalian sorceress. st. v. bound with a three fold chain. The words I have adopted as a translation. says the angel. e no nel capo mi tenzona. v. v. iv. Pharsal. vi.” says the Roman poet. v. Il si e il no nel capo gli contende. Ninf. Erictho. 1. c.

v. 90.” And Dino Compagni terms him “a young and noble knight. Atossa: Xerxes astonish’d. the shade of Darius is represented as inquiring with similar anxiety after the fate of his son Xerxes. l. v. 9 l. of Flor.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which could serve only (the people of that city beingvGuelfi) to enable the party attached to the church to recover its strength. Script t. and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat. much addicted to solitude and study. v. with so great a slaughter. and parted my land. He died. Saidst thou he had?] In Aeschylus. predecessor and namesake Guido Guinicelli. Macchiavelli calls him “a man of exalted soul.” Hist. the difficulty of returning from banishment to thy native city. being more given to philosophy than poetry. della Volg. which city they considered as lost to them.] This appears to allude to certain prayers which were offered up in the churches of Florence. a noble Florentine.Hell v. “he whom I call the first of my friends.” according to G.” Joel. Crescimbeni Ist. pause not. “of a philosophical and elegant mind. December 1300. iii. that those who escaped from that defeat took refuge not in Florence. who openly and without reserve forbade the measure. Potter’s Translation. either in exile at Serrazana. My son. situated near the gulf of Quarnaro. as well as among many Christians. except Farinata degli Uberti. v. for deliverance from the hostile attempts of the Uberti.] Guido. Some poetical compositions by Guido are. but of a lofty scornful spirit. in order to maintain the ascendancy of the Ghibelline party in Tuscany. 12. Canto XI. whom they have scattered among the nations. Ital. the son of Cavalcante Cavalcanti. and his reputation for skill in the art was such as to eclipse that of his 107 . l. Such orisons. Farinata. that.] A city of Istria. by woeful experience. during the spring of which year the action of this poem is supposed to be passing. of the Guelph party. a noble Florentine. however. His “Canzone sopra il Terreno Amore” was thought worthy of being illustrated by numerous and ample commentaries. but in Lucca. iii. 112. Notes to Ep. if he had not been too delicate and fastidious. or Jehoshaphat: “I will also gather all nations. v. Rer. brave and courteous. For a playful sonnet which Dante addressed to him. of Flor. passed upon so noble a city. From the character given of him by contemporary writers his temper was well formed to assimilate with that of our poet. it was necessary to destroy Florence. At Pola. The slaughter. and great military talents. in the Adriatic sea. affirming CANTO X v. where the commencement of their friendship is related. This cruel sentence. met with no opposition from any of its citizens or friends.]Guido Cavalcanti. alone— Ghost of Dar: How will this end? Nay. 41. was the leader of the Ghibelline faction.” Muratori. still extant. Is he safe? The Persians. v. 1. Guido thy son Had in contempt. Hist. see Hayley’s Essay on Epic Poetry. viii. v. and for my heritage Israel. v. 481.] Guido Novello assembled a council of the Ghibellini at Empoli where it was agreed by all.] “Not fifty months shall be passed. 32. ii. 77. or soon after his return to Florence.] Farinata degli Uberti. 52.” says Dante in his Vita Nuova.” v. “He was. Not yet fifty times. near the river Arbia. Poes. Singly there I stood. b 2. desolate. Josaphat. p. as we shall see in the Purgatory. and will plead with them there for my people.] The spirit of Cavalcante Cavalcanti. the Guelfi were conquered by the army of King Manfredi. 66. v.” Macchiavelli. A shade. when they obtained a signal victory over the Guelfi at Montaperto. 59. Villani. and a spirited translation of it.] “By means of Farinata degli Uberti. that the general judgment will be held in the valley of Josaphat. near the river Arbia.83. 62. c.] It seems to have been a common opinion among the Jews. 2. 86. was perhaps no great admirer of Virgil. b. before thou shalt learn.

The Lord Cardinal. v. iv.” —See the Coltivazione of Alamanni. v. 111.] Our Saviour. CANTO XII v. v. the sister of the Minotaur. Her laws.] The constellation Bootes.] The remainder of the present Canto may be considered as a syllabus of the whole of this part of the poem. he had lost his for the Ghibellini. See Canto IV.] This fine moral. let it be defined. l. 17. a Florentine. 15. Pope Anastasius. viii. iii. that respecting morals there are three sorts of things to be avoided. who died in 1250. F. v. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. jealous of the integrity of the papal faith. and deceased about 1273. 48. He arriv’d. “Art imitates nature. On account of his great influence. made Cardinal in 1245. v. 83.] He refers to Aristotle’s Ethics.] Dante felt remorse for not having returned an immediate answer to the inquiry of Cavalcante.] Aristotle’s Physics. at the stroke Springs forth and falls.] The Emperor Frederick the Second. “In the next place. 132. i. And sorrows. 9. out of the first circle. on another division of the subject. 104.” v. By some he is supposed to have been Anastasius the Second. See Notes to Canto XIII. is well expressed in Spenser.] Beatrice. he was generally known by the appellation of “the Cardinal. with no other view than that of being able to pass his days in his own country. v.Hell that he had endured so many hardships. the Fourth of that name. who. My fault. carried with him the souls of the patriarchs. Macchiavelli. by others. much frequented by usurers v. 108 . Cowper’s Translation. who is here mentioned as a follower of the heretical Photinus. 21. Her gracious beam. 19. 17. &c.” It is reported of him that he declared. xvii 522 As when some vig’rous youth with sharpen’d axe A pastur’d bullock smites behind the horns And hews the muscle through. who was enabled. Q. when he ascended from hell. malice. c. incontinence.] Theseus.] Genesis. 121. b. he. For he whose daies in wilful woe are worne The grace of his Creator doth despise. that not to enjoy our being is to be ungrateful to the Author of it. c. b. The king of Athens. —I’arte umana. 2. Hist. 119. to destroy that monster. Cahors. 103.] A city in Guienne. The wain. if there were any such thing as a human soul.” v.] Ottaviano Ubaldini. 120.] The commentators are not agreed concerning the identity of the person. and brutishness. My son. 36. v. Frederick. according to Dante. v. by the instructions of Ariadne. and encountered so many dangers. Like to a bull. 53. contend that our poet has confounded him with Anastasius 1. v. of Flor.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Creation’s holy book. while a third set. That will not use his gifts for thankless nigardise. or Charles’s wain. CANTO XI v. Thy ethic page. entering.] Homer Il. and other just men. v. from which delay he was led to believe that his son Guido was no longer living. st. v. Emperor of the East.

56. 10. See also the Paradise. That pleasant word of thine. 210. v. l. st. raised himself by his eloquence and legal knowledge to the office of Chancellor to the Emperor Frederick II. The latter was of the noble family of Pazzi in Florence. l ii c. In my verse described. He died in 1293 according to Gibbon.] “Henrie.] “Since you have inveigled me to speak my holding forth so gratifying an expectation. iii. Obizzo’ of Este. v. c. ii. On Sextus and on Pyrrhus. the son of Simon de Montfort. Fur. and wild boars. 119. Nessus. See also Giov. Broad are their pennons. to make Frederick believe that he held a secret and traitorous intercourse with the Pope. so as to be somewhat prolix in my answer. I. Ezzolino. v.” A. v. st 11. Aen. was murdered by his own son (whom. c. Vicenza. The murther was committed afore the high altar.] See Virg. st. ix. xxv. l. Corneto. Verona. Evenus’ stream Deep flowing. 1272. iii. from a low condition. 48. Holinshed’s chronicles p 275.Hell v. 137. as the same Henrie kneeled there to hear divine service. and Tassoni Secchia Rapita.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 111. Orl. 4to. Ariosto. Lord of Padua. Sextus Claudius Nero. and Brescia.] The commentators explain this. where he had been with Prince Edward.” v. the brother of this Edmund.] From Virg.] Marquis of Ferrara and of the Marca d’Ancona. the contemporary of Dante. Works. Metam. whose confidence in him was such. Orl. He. or Azzolino di Romano. “If he could have believed. c. of England) as he returned from Affrike. he would not have stretched forth his hand against thee. who. by the following line in Ovid. a native of Capua. abounding in deer. in revenge of the same Simon’s death. Inn. c.] Pietro delle Vigne.] Sextus either the son of Tarquin the Proud. Canto IX. was slain at Viterbo in Italy (whither he was come about business which he had to do with the Pope) by the hand of Guy de Montfort. st 32. iii. and Pyrrhus king of Epirus. that of which he hath now had ocular proof. Betwixt Corneto and Cecina’s stream. a small city on the same coast in the patrimony of the church. 135. Cecina is a river not far to the south of Leghorn. called Eccerinis. Earl of Leicester.] Two noted marauders. brother of Henry III. 60. 40. by Albertino Mussato. iii.] Ezzolino.570 He in his arms. v. of the House of Brunswick. and son to the foresaid king of Almaine (Richard. 12. 110. See Ariosto. bore the passenger for hire Without or sail or billow cleaving oar. who was then at enmity with the Emperor. for the most unnatural act Dante calls his step-son). And Ovid’s authority was Sophocles.] A wild and woody tract of country. by means of forged letters. that his influence in the empire became unbounded. in consequence of my assurances alone. Berni Orl. 33. Posth. v. vii. v. viii. of Padua. v. His atrocities form the subject of a Latin tragedy.] Our poet was probably induced. Pazzo the other named. The Strophades. or of Pompey the Great: or as Vellutelli conjectures. who says of this Centaur— Trach. Fur. I it was. Villani Hist. and the most elegant writer of Latin verse of that age. The Rinieri. The courtiers. envious of his exalted situation. 96. goats. Ant. l. 50. let it not displease you if I am as it were detained in the snare you have spread for me. a most cruel tyrant in the Marca Trivigiana. 14. Aen.D.” But I am of opinion that Dante makes Virgil allude to his own story of Polydorus in the third book of the Aeneid. v. by whose depredations the public ways in Italy were infested. contrived. of Corneto this. for the sake of the treasures which his rapacity had amassed. 216. to assign to Nessus the task of conducting them over the ford: Nessus edit membrisque valens scitusque vadorum. In consequence of this supposed crime he was cruelly condemned by his 109 . v. CANTO XIII v. who died in 1260.

was carried away by a flood. in the year 1337.] Compare Aesch. c. 61. Orl. that city which changed her first patron Mars for St. st. Villani. Dilated flakes of fire. 7. O Giocomo Of Sant’ Andrea!] Jacopo da Sant’ Andrea. v. v. See G. and thus the citizens. Bulicame. with less probability. 133. Phoen. cxix. F. in the torrid Indian clime.] More hot than Aetn’ or flaming Mongibell. ix. 1179 and Statius. By Cato’s foot.Hell too credulous sovereign to lose his eyes. who. v. in the year 1245. but without the ill effects that were apprehended from the loss of their fancied Palladium. 53. being driven to despair by his unmerited calamity and disgrace. 416. 44. CANTO XIV v.” Envie is lavender to the court alway. Seven Chiefs. in the engagement which took place at Toppo near Arezzo. a Paduan. v.] A warm medicinal spring near Viterbo. v. Q. L. v. killed himself in despair. Venturi. being reduced by prodigality to a state of extreme want. st. The relic of antiquity to which the superstition of Florence attached so high an importance. l. Aurora’s fan. c. c. v. 29. In that City. Each fan o’ th’ wood. John the Baptist. a Siennese. thus saith Dant. x. Lano. Canto XVI. It would be endless to refer to parallel passages in the Greek writers. 9. 110 . This of the seven kings was one. that it was the scene of much licentious merriment among those who frequented its baths. 28. ii. Chaucer alludes to this in the “Prologue to the Legende of Good women.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Compare Tasso. v.] Hence perhaps Milton: Leaves and fuming rills. passed by a place of ill fame. 122. Phars.] Lano.] Landino refers to Albertus Magnus for the circumstance here alluded to. and. to assist the Florentine against the Aretini. she would have been already leveled to the ground.” See Paradise. See Virg. v. Spenser. For she ne parteth neither night ne day Out of the house of Cesar. 152. Euripides. x. conjectures that Dante would imply. who raised her again from the ashes to which Attila had reduced her. took that opportunity of exposing himself to certain death. c. if some remains of his status were not still visible on the bridge over the Arno. Hist.] “I was an inhabitant of Florence. having wasted his property in the most wanton acts of profusion. that destroyed the bridge on which it stood. b. 76. st. xvi. and. Theb. I slung the fatal noose.] See Lucan. i. As. 15. he put an end to his life by dashing out his brains against the walls of a church. 1. b. who. l. would have laboured in vain. Both Frederick and Pietro delle Vigne composed verses in the Sicilian dialect which are yet extant. L. Inn 1. having been sent by his countrymen on a military expedition. v. 119. and Berni. l.] We are not informed who this suicide was. The harlot. as Landino and Vellutelli affirm. 144. 21. v. viii. the waters of which. for which reason the vengeance of the deity thus slighted will never be appeased: and. 64. 26. G. found his existence no longer supportable. In Mongibello. 821. Aen. 67.] Envy. v. 425. P. 6.

and bridges. under the protection of a banner. and Desire. forests. Here Brunetto sees also Courtesy. His head. For an interesting memoir relating to this work. As it is perhaps but little known. hath left us a work so little read. Here the narrative breaks off. v. It is the habitation of Virtue and her daughters. and wanders into a wood. E. It is in the French spoken in the reign of St. and sages. Brunetto. v. the four Cardinal Virtues. c. and Macchiavelli Hist. on Cosmogony and Theology. After this he wanders into a desert.] On the other side of Purgatory. Sir R. ii. with which Nature had furnished him. Louis. Juv. the secretary or chancellor of the city. Brit. b. He died in 1295. 28. Fear. p. It is divided into four books. Villani Hist. that his pupil. 10. 102. however largely he had stolen from it. and Dante’s preceptor. vol. and contains a species of philosophical course of lectures divided into theory and practice. Bounty. with an illuminated portrait of Brunetto in his study prefixed. On the plain of Roncesvalles he meets a scholar on a bay mule. tom. It has been observed. from the Tesoretto of his master. where are assembled many emperors. that both the subject of it and the language of it have been mistaken. he loses his road. or Cupid. 62.] See G. Loyalty. till on the third day he finds himself in a large pleasant champaign. but which was continually shifting its appearance from a round figure to a square.] “Ser Brunetto. This is the region of Pleasure. and then returns to the forest of visions: and ascending a mountain. The poem ends. i. a Florentine. ii. l. I know not whether it has been remarked. Who in old times came down from Fesole. Tesor. In one part of it he meets with Ovid. who tells him that the Guelfi are driven out of the city with great loss. or.] A part of the Alps where the Brenta rises. could not have much enriched himself. MSS. Here Nature. addressed to Brunetto. the first. 133. is mentioned in the Tesoretto with great horror. “un enchaussement des choses divines et humaines. Love. kings. iv. Hope. the second. and the richest in the world. and Prowess. 17. and hears the instructions they give to a knight. Mus. on Rhetoric. a venerable old man. 104. and is instructed by him how to conquer the passion of love. vii. appears. Chiarentana. one of the earliest productions of Italian poetry. Leaving this territory. as he expresses it. he meets with Ptolemy. that Dante derived the idea of opening his poem by describing himself as lost in a wood. on which he had been sent by the Guelph party from Florence. see Hist. de l’Acad. which occupy about a fourth part of the poem.Hell v. as it began. vi. 91. of Flor. CANTO XV v. 5. ch. ch. Dante’s twenty-fifth sonnet is a jocose one. Brunetto describes himself as returning from an embassy to the King of Spain. There is a fine manuscript of it in the British Museum. woods. des Inscriptions. ii. a translation of Aristotle’s Ethics. 32. and from populousness to solitude. till he arrives in a beautiful valley covered with flowers on all sides.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. 1. though Bembo remarks. I will here add a slight sketch of it. His Tesoretto. The Tresor has never been printed in the original language.] Daniel. 111 . Clayton’s Translation of Tenhove’s Memoirs of the Medici. from obscurity to light. but at length proceeds on his way. the fourth. After his escape he makes his confession to a friar. v. on whom he lavishes every sort of praise. and musing with his head bent downwards. not unlike the writings of Chaucer in style and numbers. he passes over valleys. the third on Virtues and Vices. and discloses to him the secrets of her operations. which river is much swoln as soon as the snow begins to dissolve on the mountains. Under whose monarch. who is accompanied by four ladies. whose figure is described with sublimity. is a curious work. and to escape from that place.under the title of Tresor. that the crime of usury is branded by both these poets as offensive to God and Nature: or that the sin for which Brunetto is condemned by his pupil.] Credo pudicitiam Saturno rege moratam In terris. 296. mountains. 33. Whither. with anaddress to Rustico di Filippo. Struck with grief at these mournful tidings. Satir.” &c.

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v. 89. With another text.] He refers to the prediction of Farinata, in Canto X. v. 110. Priscian.] There is no reason to believe, as the commentators observe that the grammarian of this name was stained with the vice imputed to him; and we must therefore suppose that Dante puts the individual for the species, and implies the frequency of the crime among those who abused the opportunities which the education of youth afforded them, to so abominable a purpose. v. 111. Francesco.] Son of Accorso, a Florentine, celebrated for his skill in jurisprudence, and commonly known by the name of Accursius. v. 113. Him.] Andrea de’ Mozzi, who, that his scandalous life might be less exposed to observation, was translated either by Nicholas III, or Boniface VIII from the see of Florence to that of Vicenza, through which passes the river Baccchiglione. At the latter of these places he died. v. 114. The servants’ servant.] Servo de’ servi. So Ariosto, Sat. 3. Degli servi Io sia il gran servo. v. 124. I commend my Treasure to thee.] Brunetto’s great work, the Tresor. Sieti raccomandato ‘l mio Tesoro. So Giusto de’ Conti, in his Bella Mano, Son. “Occhi:” Siavi raccommandato il mio Tesoro. his Majesty’s pleasure, would make her admit the honour of his salute. On overhearing this, she arose from her seat, and blushing, in an animated tone of voice, desired her father that he would not be so liberal in his offers, for that no man should ever be allowed that freedom, except him who should be her lawful husband. The Emperor was not less delighted by her resolute modesty than he had before been by the loveliness of her person, and calling to him Guido, one of his barons, gave her to him in marriage, at the same time raising him to the rank of a count, and bestowing on her the whole of Casentino, and a part of the territory of Romagna, as her portion. Two sons were the offspring of this union, Guglielmo and Ruggieri, the latter of whom was father of Guidoguerra, a man of great military skill and prowess who, at the head of four hundred Florentines of the Guelph party, was signally instrumental to the victory obtained at Benevento by Charles of Anjou, over Manfredi, King of Naples, in 1265. One of the consequences of this victory was the expulsion of the Ghibellini, and the re-establishment of the Guelfi at Florence. v. 39. Many a noble act.] Compare Tasso, G. L. c. i. st. 1. v. 42. Aldobrandiu] Tegghiaio Aldobrandi was of the noble family of Adimari, and much esteemed for his military talents. He endeavored to dissuade the Florentines from the attack, which they meditated against the Siennese, and the rejection of his counsel occasioned the memorable defeat, which the former sustained at Montaperto, and the consequent banishment of the Guelfi from Florence. v. 45. Rusticucci.] Giacopo Rusticucci, a Florentine, remarkable for his opulence and the generosity of his spirit. v. 70. Borsiere.] Guglielmo Borsiere, another Florentine, whom Boccaccio, in a story which he relates of him, terms “a man of courteous and elegant manners, and of great readiness in conversation.” Dec. Giorn. i. Nov. 8. v. 84. When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past.] Quando ti giovera dicere io fui.

CANTO XVI
v. 38. Gualdrada.] Gualdrada was the daughter of Bellincione Berti, of whom mention is made in the Paradise, Canto XV, and XVI. He was of the family of Ravignani, a branch of the Adimari. The Emperor Otho IV. being at a festival in Florence, where Gualdrada was present, was struck with her beauty; and inquiring who she was, was answered by Bellincione, that she was the daughter of one who, if it was

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So Tasso, G. L. c. xv. st. 38. Quando mi giovera narrar altrui Le novita vedute, e dire; io fui. v. 121. Ever to that truth.] This memorable apophthegm is repeated by Luigi Pulci and Trissino. Sempre a quel ver, ch’ ha faccia di menzogna E piu senno tacer la lingua cheta Che spesso senza colpa fa vergogna. Morgante. Magg. c. xxiv. La verita, che par mensogna Si dovrebbe tacer dall’ uom ch’e saggio. Italia. Lib. C. xvi. v. 69. That noble knight.] Giovanni Bujamonti, a Florentine usurer, the most infamous of his time.

CANTO XVIII
v. 28. With us beyond.] Beyond the middle point they tended the same way with us, but their pace was quicker than ours. v. 29. E’en thus the Romans.] In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII., to remedy the inconvenience occasioned by the press of people who were passing over the bridge of St. Angelo during the time of the Jubilee, caused it to be divided length wise by a partition, and ordered, that all those who were going to St. Peter’s should keep one side, and those returning the other. v. 50. Venedico.] Venedico Caccianimico, a Bolognese, who prevailed on his sister Ghisola to prostitute herself to Obizzo da Este, Marquis of Ferrara, whom we have seen among the tyrants, Canto XII. v. 62. To answer Sipa.] He denotes Bologna by its situation between the rivers Savena to the east, and Reno to the west of that city; and by a peculiarity of dialect, the use of the affirmative sipa instead of si. v. 90. Hypsipyle.] See Appolonius Rhodius, l. i. and Valerius Flaccus l.ii. Hypsipyle deceived the other women by concealing her father Thoas, when they had agreed to put all their males to death. v. 120. Alessio.] Alessio, of an ancient and considerable family in Lucca, called the Interminei. v. 130. Thais.] He alludes to that passage in the Eunuchus of Terence where Thraso asks if Thais was obliged to him for the present he had sent her, and Gnatho replies, that she had expressed her obligation in the most forcible terms. T. Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi? G. Ingentes.

CANTO XVII
v. 1. The fell monster.] Fraud. v. 53. A pouch.] A purse, whereon the armorial bearings of each were emblazoned. According to Landino, our poet implies that the usurer can pretend to no other honour, than such as he derives from his purse and his family. v. 57. A yellow purse.] The arms of the Gianfigliazzi of Florence. v. 60. Another.] Those of the Ubbriachi, another Florentine family of high distinction. v. 62. A fat and azure swine.] The arms of the Scrovigni a noble family of Padua. v. 66. Vitaliano.] Vitaliano del Dente, a Paduan.

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Eun. a. iii. s. i. v. 109. Th’ Evangelist.] Rev. c. xvii. 1, 2, 3. Compare Petrarch. Opera fol. ed. Basil. 1551. Epist. sine titulo liber. ep. xvi. p. 729. v. 118. Ah, Constantine.] He alludes to the pretended gift of the Lateran by Constantine to Silvester, of which Dante himself seems to imply a doubt, in his treatise “De Monarchia.”—”Ergo scindere Imperium, Imperatori non licet. Si ergo aliquae, dignitates per Constantinum essent alienatae, (ut dicunt) ab Imperio,” &c. l. iii. The gift is by Ariosto very humorously placed in the moon, among the things lost or abused on earth. Di varj fiori, &c. O. F. c. xxxiv. st. 80. Milton has translated both this passage and that in the text. Prose works, vol. i. p. 11. ed. 1753.

CANTO XIX
v. 18. Saint John’s fair dome.] The apertures in the rock were of the same dimensions as the fonts of St. John the Baptist at Florence, one of which, Dante says he had broken, to rescue a child that was playing near and fell in. He intimates that the motive of his breaking the font had been maliciously represented by his enemies. v. 55. O Boniface!] The spirit mistakes Dante for Boniface VIII. who was then alive, and who he did not expect would have arrived so soon, in consequence, as it should seem, of a prophecy, which predicted the death of that Pope at a later period. Boniface died in 1303. v. 58. In guile.] “Thou didst presume to arrive by fraudulent means at the papal power, and afterwards to abuse it.” v. 71. In the mighty mantle I was rob’d.] Nicholas III, of the Orsini family, whom the poet therefore calls “figliuol dell’ orsa,” “son of the she-bear.” He died in 1281. v. 86. From forth the west, a shepherd without law.] Bertrand de Got Archbishop of Bordeaux, who succeeded to the pontificate in 1305, and assumed the title of Clement V. He transferred the holy see to Avignon in 1308 (where it remained till 1376), and died in 1314. v. 88. A new Jason.] See Maccabees, b. ii. c. iv. 7,8. v. 97. Nor Peter.] Acts of the Apostles, c.i. 26. v. 100. The condemned soul.] Judas. v. 103. Against Charles.] Nicholas III. was enraged against Charles I, King of Sicily, because he rejected with scorn a proposition made by that Pope for an alliance between their families. See G. Villani, Hist. l. vii. c. liv.

CANTO XX
v. 11. Revers’d.] Compare Spenser, F. Q. b. i. c. viii. st. 31 v. 30. Before whose eyes.] Amphiaraus, one of the seven kings who besieged Thebes. He is said to have been swallowed up by an opening of the earth. See Lidgate’s Storie of Thebes, Part III where it is told how the “Bishop Amphiaraus” fell down to hell. And thus the devil for his outrages, Like his desert payed him his wages. A different reason for his being doomed thus to perish is assigned by Pindar. Nem ix. For thee, Amphiaraus, earth, By Jove’s all-riving thunder cleft Her mighty bosom open’d wide,

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Thee and thy plunging steeds to hide, Or ever on thy back the spear Of Periclymenus impress’d A wound to shame thy warlike breast For struck with panic fear The gods’ own children flee. v. 37. Tiresias.] Duo magnorum viridi coeuntia sylva Corpora serpentum baculi violaverat ictu, &c. Ovid. Met. iii. v. 43. Aruns.] Aruns is said to have dwelt in the mountains of Luni (from whence that territory is still called Lunigiana), above Carrara, celebrated for its marble. Lucan. Phars. l. i. 575. So Boccaccio in the Fiammetta, l. iii. “Quale Arunte,” &c. “Like Aruns, who amidst the white marbles of Luni, contemplated the celestial bodies and their motions.” v. 50. Manto.] The daughter of Tiresias of Thebes, a city dedicated to Bacchus. From Manto Mantua, the country of Virgil derives its name. The Poet proceeds to describe the situation of that place. v. 61. Between the vale.] The lake Benacus, now called the Lago di Garda, though here said to lie between Garda, Val Camonica, and the Apennine, is, however, very distant from the latter two. v. 63. There is a spot.] Prato di Fame, where the dioceses of Trento, Verona, and Brescia met. v. 69. Peschiera.] A garrison situated to the south of the lake, where it empties itself and forms the Mincius. nobles, who were obnoxious to them. No sooner was this done, than Pinamonte put himself at the head of the populace, drove out Casalodi and his adherents, and obtained the sovereignty for himself. v. 111. So sings my tragic strain.] Suspensi Eurypilum scitatum oracula Phoebi Mittimus. Virg. Aeneid. ii. 14. v. 115. Michael Scot.] Sir Michael Scott, of Balwearie, astrologer to the Emperor Frederick II. lived in the thirteenth century. For further particulars relating to this singular man, see Warton’s History of English Poetry, vol. i. diss. ii. and sect. ix. p 292, and the Notes to Mr. Scott’s “Lay of the Last Minstrel,” a poem in which a happy use is made of the traditions that are still current in North Britain concerning him. He is mentioned by G. Villani. Hist. l. x. c. cv. and cxli. and l. xii. c. xviii. and by Boccaccio, Dec. Giorn. viii. Nov. 9. v. 116. Guido Bonatti.] An astrologer of Forli, on whose skill Guido da Montefeltro, lord of that place, so much relied, that he is reported never to have gone into battle, except in the hour recommended to him as fortunate by Bonatti. Landino and Vellutello, speak of a book, which he composed on the subject of his art. v. 116. Asdente.] A shoemaker at Parma, who deserted his business to practice the arts of divination. v. 123. Cain with fork of thorns.] By Cain and the thorns, or what is still vulgarly called the Man in the Moon, the Poet denotes that luminary. The same superstition is alluded to in the Paradise, Canto II. 52. The curious reader may consult Brand on Popular Antiquities, 4to. 1813. vol. ii. p. 476.

v. 94. Casalodi’s madness.] Alberto da Casalodi, who had got possession of Mantua, was persuaded by Pinamonte Buonacossi, that he might ingratiate himself with the people by banishing to their own castles the

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CANTO XXI
v. 7. In the Venetians’ arsenal.] Compare Ruccellai, Le Api, 165, and Dryden’s Annus Mirabilis, st. 146, &c. v. 37. One of Santa Zita’s elders.] The elders or chief magistrates of Lucca, where Santa Zita was held in especial veneration. The name of this sinner is supposed to have been Martino Botaio.

CANTO XXII
v. 16. In the church.] This proverb is repeated by Pulci, Morg. Magg. c. xvii. v. 47. Born in Navarre’s domain.] The name of this peculator is said to have been Ciampolo. v. 51. The good king Thibault.] “Thibault I. king of Navarre, died on the 8th of June, 1233, as much to be commended for the desire he showed of aiding the war in the Holy Land, as reprehensible and faulty for his design of oppressing the rights and privileges of the church, on which account it is said that the whole kingdom was under an interdict for the space of three entire years. Thibault undoubtedly merits praise, as for his other endowments, so especially for his cultivation of the liberal arts, his exercise and knowledge of music and poetry in which he much excelled, that he was accustomed to compose verses and sing them to the viol, and to exhibit his poetical compositions publicly in his palace, that they might be criticized by all.” Mariana, History of Spain, b. xiii. c. 9. An account of Thibault, and two of his songs, with what were probably the original melodies, may be seen in Dr. Burney’s History of Music, v. ii. c. iv. His poems, which are in the French language, were edited by M. l’Eveque de la Ravalliere. Paris. 1742. 2 vol. 12mo. Dante twice quotes one of his verses in the Treatise de Vulg. Eloq. l. i. c. ix. and l. ii. c. v. and refers to him again, l. ii. c. vi. From “the good king Thibault” are descended the good, but more unfortunate monarch, Louis XVI. of France, and consequently the present legitimate sovereign of that realm. See Henault, Abrege Chron. 1252, 2, 4. v. 80. The friar Gomita.] He was entrusted by Nino de’ Visconti with the government of Gallura, one of the four jurisdictions into which Sardinia was divided. Having his master’s enemies in his power, he took a bribe from them, and allowed them to escape. Mention of Nino will recur in the Notes to Canto XXXIII. and in the Purgatory, Canto VIII. v. 88. Michel Zanche.] The president of Logodoro, another of the four Sardinian jurisdictions. See Canto XXXIII.

v. 40. Except Bonturo, barterers.] This is said ironically of Bonturo de’ Dati. By barterers are meant peculators, of every description; all who traffic the interests of the public for their own private advantage. v. 48. Is other swimming than in Serchio’s wave.] Qui si nuota altrimenti che nel Serchio. Serchio is the river that flows by Lucca. So Pulci, Morg. Mag. c. xxiv. Qui si nuota nel sangue, e non nel Serchio. v. 92. From Caprona.] The surrender of the castle of Caprona to the combined forces of Florence and Lucca, on condition that the garrison should march out in safety, to which event Dante was a witness, took place in 1290. See G. Villani, Hist. l. vii. c. 136. v. 109. Yesterday.] This passage fixes the era of Dante’s descent at Good Friday, in the year 1300 (34 years from our blessed Lord’s incarnation being added to 1266), and at the thirty-fifth year of our poet’s age. See Canto I. v. 1. The awful event alluded to, the Evangelists inform us, happened “at the ninth hour,” that is, our sixth, when “the rocks were rent,” and the convulsion, according to Dante, was felt even in the depths in Hell. See Canto XII. 38.

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CANTO XXIII
v. 5. Aesop’s fable.] The fable of the frog, who offered to carry the mouse across a ditch, with the intention of drowning him when both were carried off by a kite. It is not among those Greek Fables which go under the name of Aesop. v. 63. Monks in Cologne.] They wore their cowls unusually large. v. 66. Frederick’s.] The Emperor Frederick II. is said to have punished those who were guilty of high treason, by wrapping them up in lead, and casting them into a furnace. v. 101. Our bonnets gleaming bright with orange hue.] It is observed by Venturi, that the word “rance” does not here signify “rancid or disgustful,” as it is explained by the old commentators, but “orangecoloured,” in which sense it occurs in the Purgatory, Canto II. 9. v. 104. Joyous friars.] “Those who ruled the city of Florence on the part of the Ghibillines, perceiving this discontent and murmuring, which they were fearful might produce a rebellion against themselves, in order to satisfy the people, made choice of two knights, Frati Godenti (joyous friars) of Bologna, on whom they conferred the chief power in Florence. One named M. Catalano de’ Malavolti, the other M. Loderingo di Liandolo; one an adherent of the Guelph, the other of the Ghibelline party. It is to be remarked, that the Joyous Friars were called Knights of St. Mary, and became knights on taking that habit: their robes were white, the mantle sable, and the arms a white field and red cross with two stars. Their office was to defend widows and orphans; they were to act as mediators; they had internal regulations like other religious bodies. The above-mentioned M. Loderingo was the founder of that order. But it was not long before they too well deserved the appellation given them, and were found to be more bent on enjoying themselves than on any other subject. These two friars were called in by the Florentines, and had a residence assigned them in the palace belonging to the people over against the Abbey. Such was the dependence placed on the character of their order that it was expected they would be impartial, and would save the commonwealth any unnecessary expense; instead of which,

though inclined to opposite parties, they secretly and hypocritically concurred in promoting their own advantage rather than the public good.” G. Villani, b. vii. c.13. This happened in 1266. v. 110. Gardingo’s vicinage.] The name of that part of the city which was inhabited by the powerful Ghibelline family of Uberti, and destroyed under the partial and iniquitous administration of Catalano and Loderingo. v. 117. That pierced spirit.] Caiaphas. v. 124. The father of his consort.] Annas, father-in-law to Caiaphas. v. 146. He is a liar.] John, c. viii. 44. Dante had perhaps heard this text from one of the pulpits in Bologna.

CANTO XXIV
v. 1. In the year’s early nonage.] “At the latter part of January, when the sun enters into Aquarius, and the equinox is drawing near, when the hoar-frosts in the morning often wear the appearance of snow but are melted by the rising sun.” v. 51. Vanquish thy weariness.] Quin corpus onustum Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, Atque affigit humi divinae particulam aurae. Hor. Sat. ii. l. ii. 78. v. 82. Of her sands.] Compare Lucan, Phars. l. ix. 703. v. 92. Heliotrope.] The occult properties of this stone are described by Solinus, c. xl, and by Boccaccio, in his humorous tale of Calandrino. Decam. G. viii. N. 3. In Chiabrera’s Ruggiero, Scaltrimento begs of Sofia, who is sending him on a perilous errand, to lend him the heliotrope. In mia man fida

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L’elitropia, per cui possa involarmi Secondo il mio talento agli occhi altrui. c. vi. Trust to my hand the heliotrope, by which I may at will from others’ eyes conceal me Compare Ariosto, II Negromante, a. 3. s. 3. Pulci, Morg. Magg. c xxv. and Fortiguerra, Ricciardetto, c. x. st. 17. Gower in his Confessio Amantis, lib. vii, enumerates it among the jewels in the diadem of the sun. Jaspis and helitropius. v. 104. The Arabian phoenix.] This is translated from Ovid, Metam. l. xv. Una est quae reparat, seque ipsa reseminat ales, &c. See also Petrarch, Canzone: “Qual piu,” &c. v. 120. Vanni Fucci.] He is said to have been an illegitimate offspring of the family of Lazari in Pistoia, and, having robbed the sacristy of the church of St. James in that city, to have charged Vanni della Nona with the sacrilege, in consequence of which accusation the latter suffered death. v. 142. Pistoia.] “In May 1301, the Bianchi party, of Pistoia, with the assistance and favor of the Bianchi who ruled Florence, drove out the Neri party from the former place, destroying their houses, Palaces and farms.” Giov. Villani, Hist. l. viii. e xliv. v. 144. From Valdimagra.] The commentators explain this prophetical threat to allude to the victory obtained by the Marquis Marcello Malaspina of Valdimagra (a tract of country now called the Lunigiana) who put himself at the head of the Neri and defeated their opponents the Bianchi, in the Campo Piceno near Pistoia, soon after the occurrence related in the preceding note. Of this engagement I find no mention in Villani. Currado Malaspina is introduced in the eighth Canto of Purgatory; where it appears that, although on the present occaision they espoused contrary sides, some important favours were nevertheless conferred by that family on our poet at a subsequent perid of his exile in 1307.

Canto XXV
v.1. The sinner ] So Trissino Poi facea con le man le fiche al cielo Dicendo: Togli, Iddio; che puoi piu farmi? L’ital. Lib. c. xii v. 12. Thy seed] Thy ancestry. v. 15. Not him] Capanaeus. Canto XIV. v. 18. On Marenna’s marsh.] An extensive tract near the sea-shore in Tuscany. v. 24. Cacus.] Virgil, Aen. l. viii. 193. v. 31. A hundred blows.] Less than ten blows, out of the hundred Hercules gave him, deprived him of feeling. v. 39. Cianfa] He is said to have been of the family of Donati at Florence.

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As if by sleep or fev’rous fit assail’d. 121. and v. v.] Phars.] —All my bowels crumble up to dust. 766 and 793.] Francesco Guercio Cavalcante was killed at Gaville. v. as he. Ovid. P. and all thy body fev’ry. I am a scribbled form. Villani. v. 81. L. v. 9. K. v.] The navel. 131. 87. v. as if conscious of the enmity that actuated them while living. 138. v. v. Sciancato. near Florence. v. Venturi says. c. 119 .] Metam. 35. Somnia quo cerni tempore vera solent. b. whatever they may be. xix The same poetical superstition is alluded to in the Purgatory. are said to be the fall of a wooden bridge over the Arno. ii. has conferred on me. s. John. v. and a conflagration that in the following month destroyed more than seventeen hundred houses. Buoso. and XXVII. which Nature. Hist. Prato. where a large multitude were assembled to witness a representation of hell and the infernal torments.] The flame is said to have divided on the funeral pile which consumed tile bodies of Eteocles and Polynices. ascending from that funeral pile. and to whom indigence and exile might have offerred strong temptations to deviate from that line of conduct which a strict sense of duty prescribed. c. 85. But if our minds.” It is probable that this declaration was the result of real feeling Textd have given great weight to any opinion or party he had espoused.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Shall feel what Prato. many of them sumptuous buildings. ix. His sharpen’d visage. v. b.] O Rome! thy head Is drown’d in sleep. 140. 1304. Agnello. he has not been able to discover. See G.] Namque sub Auroram.] Compare Milton. l. CANTO XXVI v. Lucan. iv. 7. Thus up the shrinking paper. Epist. In that part. l. Cant. whose wrongs. 61. Shakespeare. would wish her. in consequence of which accident many lives were lost. The calamities more particularly pointed at. in May. 54.] He is said to have been of the Donati family. 70 and 71.Hell v. jam dormitante lucerna. and which he says.] Agnello Brunelleschi v. or rather Providence. 511 &c. Ovid. ii. 22. v. viii. v.] Kings. a noted robber. x. and against this fire Do I shrink up.] “When I reflect on the punishment allotted to those who do not give sincere and upright advice to others I am more anxious than ever not to abuse to so bad a purpose those talents. More than I am wont. a. and in revenge of his death several inhabitants of that district were put to death. l. IX. Gaville. 7. Ben Jonson’s Catiline. whose familly. even her nearest neighbor.] Puccio Sciancato. drawn up with a pen Upon a parchment. 57.] The poet prognosticates the calamities which were soon to befal his native city. 77.

Theb. or Ardelaffi.] Virgil. Magg. L.] The mountain of Purgatorg CANTO XXVII. See G. that caused Aeneas to quit the city of Troy and seek his fortune in Italy. In 1322 he was deprived of his sovereignty. 6. 13. vii. since his government is here represented (in 1300) as not having suffered any material disturbance for many years. the mastiffs of Verruchio. and made himself master of Ravenna. Ne timor di fatica o di periglio. that it is now in the possession of Sinibaldo Ordolaffi. A mountain dim. 43. who then governed it. 60. Of the mountains there.l The territory of Forli. for the tyrant Phalaris. v. a lion vert. And Tasso Ibid. hy the strategem of Guido da Montefeltro. where his descendants founded the Roman empire. &c. v. xv. who bore an eagle for his coat of arms. ii. vii. l. Ostendens confectas flamma. The poet informs Guido. L. Nor fondness for my son] Imitated hp Tasso. 1. The old mastiff of Verucchio and the young. Ne vaghezza del regno. 106. Villani. Polenta’s eagle. Lucan.” v. Made our oars wings. v. when he was driven from that city in 1295. viii. v. Pharsal. Che per veder nell’ altro mondo gisse. iii. si degno affetto Intiepedir nel generoso petto. about fifteen miles to the south of Ravenna. G. from their ferocity. respecting the duration of Guido’s absence from Ravenna. E sopratutto commendava Ulisse. v. c. The strait pass. Cervia is a small maritime city. v. v. Caieta. Ital. by the arms of Pietro. which was the name of their castle. by the historian of Italian literature. 41.] The straits of Gibraltar. and died at Bologna in the year following. c.] Malatesta and Malatestino his son. 145. The land. The name of Polenta was derived from a castle so called in the neighbourhood of Brittonoro. 120 . xxv And by Tasso. its former ruler. 122.Hell Ecce iterum fratris. l.l So Chiabrera. the inhabitants of which. This imagined voyage of Ulysses into the Atlantic is alluded to by Pulci. to defeat with great slaughter the French army by which it had been besieged. Tiraboschi. in 1265. It must evidently have been very short. c. Storia della Lett. This last and most munificent patron of Dante is himself enumerated. &c. v. 1. Eroiche. v. The ambush of the horse. 25. 26. t. ne pietade Del vecchio genitor. 81. mere enabled. whom he designates by his coat of arms. c. G. xii. v.] “The ambush of the wooden horse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . lords of Rimini. The passnge in the text might have removed the uncertainty which Tiraboschi expressed. v. The Sicilian Bull. 38. Cant. Aeneid. 26. among the poets of his time. Morg. l. archbishop of Monreale. 128. in 1282. l. Statius. called. xiii Faro de’remi un volo. 93. c.] Montefeltro. 91. 1. Guido was the son of Ostasio da Polenta.] Guido Novello da Polenta.] The engine of torture invented by Perillus.

A more probable account represents them not to have exceeded one modius. And those the rest. See G. 46. a noble knight. See G. who conquered the kingdom of Naples. l. 23. vii. The nature of the lion than the fox. vii. v. situated at the foot of a mountain.] Guido da Montefeltro. and washed by the river Savio. where he is called Machinardo da Susinana.Hell v. Penestrino. v. Whose flank is wash’d of SSavio’s wave. he commanded the golden rings to be poured out in the senate house. Canto III. Guido’s advice was. c. A. l. v.] He alludes to tile victory which Charles gained over Conradino. by the sage advice of the Sieur de Valeri. CANTO XXVIII. v. 72.] So in Dante’s treatise De Monarchia: “Dicunt quidam adhue.] Celestine V.] Boniface VIII. through the treachery of the Apulian troops. Villani passim. See the Purgatory. v. 121 . as some relate. iv. He is introduced in the Paradise.John d’Acre. G. murdered by Malatestino. Villani. As in Soracte Constantine besought. 44. in 1208. l. The regret expressed by the Florentine annalist G.] Robert Guiscard. v.] Boniface VIII. which made so large a heap. Hist. In that long war. 1298. cum multis allis imperii dignitatibus. quod Constantinus Imperator. Villani.D. the last possession of the Christians in the Iloly Land. that. Villani. 47. 144. mundatus a lepra intercessione Syvestri. The lion of the snowy lair. c. vii. Canto XVIII. wns overcome by Charles of Anjou in 1205. 122. c. v. 9.] Cesena.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “When Mago brought news of his victories to Carthage. l. and fell in such numbers that the bones of the slain were still gathered near Ceperano. v. tunc summni pontificis imperii sedem. The high priest. Montagna.] Non furon leonine ma di volpe. The chief of the new Pharisee. Canto XIV. v. for the loss of this valuable fortress. 18. Morg. v.iii. as well as for that which he was then tempting him to commit. that kind words and fair promises nonld put his enemies into his power. 50. 13. and they accordingly soon aftermards fell into the snare laid for them. 10.” Livy. c. Lamone’s city and Santerno’s. G. 84.] Montagna de’Parcitati. and died in 1110. and leader of the Ghibelline party at Rimini.8. Villani.] He alludes to the renegade Christians.. 89. whose arms were a lion azure on a field argent. that often descends with a swoln and rapid stream from the Appenine. A man of arms. 68. 81. in order to make his successes more easily credited. O Tagliocozzo. 101. 1291. G. whose enmity to the family of Colonna prompted him to destroy their houses near the Lateran. c. E furon le sua opre e le sue colpe Non creder leonine ma di volpe. v. Villani.” Lib. mentioned again in the Purgatory. Magg. 27.] Lamone is the river at Faenza. which. offering him at the same time absolution for his past sins. c. See Notes to Canto III. viii. 64. 12. xix.] Machinardo Pagano. donavit ecclesiae. in Apri. Wishing to obtain possession of their other seat.] The war of Hannibal in Italy. Guiscard’s Norman steel. l. v.] The army of Manfredi. they filled three modii and a half. My predecessor. were assisted to recover St. and Santerno at Imola. scilicet Romam. v. v. he consulted with Guido da Montefeltro how he might accomplish his purpose. So Pulci. Nor against Acre one/Had fought. by whom the Saracens. is well worthy of observation.

v.] Guido dal Cassero and Angiolello da Cagnano. Medicina. Ali. near Perigueux in Guienne. i. with many other such heretical doctrines.” says G. 2. He blamed the pope. VI. for not observing their duty. Mosca. contrived to raise in Novarra. 32.” l. See the Paradise. and. and affirmed that he ought to be pope. from which a wind blows that is peculiarly dangerous to the navigators of that coast. v. iii. v. declaring himself to be a true apostle of Christ. exclaiming to them “the thing once done. Tolle moras: semper nocuit differre paratis Pharsal. He is quoted in Dante. l. 102. a. according to instructions given by him. Dolcino. 427. 2 Hen. many being struck with compunction at the dissolute life they led. nor leading the angelic life. Hist. 160. and that both he and Margarita endured their fate with a firmness worthy of a better cause. v. and the severity of the snows.” G. The pleasant land. 111. he was taken by the people of Novarra. Piero fomented dissensions among the inhabitants of that city. there is an end. ix. “De Vulg.] A kinsman of the Poet’s. The twain. Ital. The boon companion. Mosca degli Uberti persuaded them to resolve on the assassination of Buondelmonte. and burnt. 210. and promulgating a community of property and of wives. 38.] Buondelmonte was engaged to marry a lady of the Amidei family. c. to consider of the best means of revenging the insult. Bertrand holds a distinguished place among the Provencal poets. This was so much resented by the former. and among the leaders of the neighbouring states. CANTO XXIX. a friar. 53.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Landino observes. v. two of the worthiest and most distinguished citizens of Fano. l.” The counsel and its effects were the source of many terrible calamities to the state of Florence. ii. 69. v. 139. I believe. in Lombardy. between Rimini and Fano. whose speech (according to Lucan) determined Julius Caesar to proceed when he had arrived at Rimini (the ancient Ariminum). Litteraire des Troubadors t. 281. This lasted for two years till. like beasts. Henry II. were invited by Malatestino da Rimini to an entertainment on pretence that he had some important business to transact with them: and. He was followed by more than three thousand men and women.Hell v. 84. who belonged to no regular order. they mere drowned in their passage near Catolica. For a further account of him.] What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted? Shakespeare.] The disciple of Mohammed. that he was possessed of singular eloquence. see Millot.] Focara is a mountain. and through failure of food. who lived promiscuously on the mountains together. and doubted whether he should prosecute the civil war. his sect was much diminished. not to be relied on. 70. 94. p. who incited John to rebel against his father. but broke his promise and united himself to one of the Donati. who was murdered by 122 . viii. Vicomte de Hautefort. Eloq. t.” It happened in 1215. Canto XVI. of England. Script.] “In 1305. p. “This murder. 85.] Curio. v. called Dolcino. Focara’s wind.] A place in the territory of Bologna. The doubt in Caesar’s mind. Bertrand. cardinals.] Lombardy. i. “was the cause and beginning of the accursed Guelph and Ghibelline parties in Florence. but the historical parts of that work are. with Margarita his companion and many other men and women whom his errors had seduced. 2. when they wanted provisions. v. a large company of the meaner sort of people. Villanni. c. 26. Villani.] Bertrand de Born. s. and other prelates of the holy church. v. v. 72. Geri of Bello. For the translation of some extracts from his poems. l. v. c. supplied themselves by depredation and rapine. see Muratori Rer. that a meeting of themselves and their kinsmen was held.

21. 18. 44. coonterfeited the coin of Florence. xiii. 104. Montepulciano. His being placed here. b. all maladies. vii. v. In the heat of autumn it was formerly rendered unwholesome by the stagnation of the water. Met. Caccia of Asciano. Purg. v.] Romena is a part of Casentino.] Adamo of Breschia. Villani relates. v. noisome. Casentino. L. dark. CANTO XXX.] See Euripedes. and because be did not keep his promise. sad. and their brother Aghinulfo.] The valley through which passes the river Chiana. &c. 88. &c. Was ever race/Light as Sienna’s?] The same imputation is again cast on the Siennese. 1. Stricca. 141. The Chiana is mentioned as a remarkably sluggish stream. possessed such a faculty of moulding his features to the resemblance of others. Metam. Metnm. 1. v. an aera of great prosperity in the 123 . bounded by Arezzo. x. in the Paradise. Myrrha. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. who was of the family of Cavalcanti. Maremma’s pestilent fen.] Sienna. Albero prevailed on his father to have him burnt for a necromancer. Adamo’s woe.] A fountain in Sienna. 39. and to make a will. v. 16. here called “the lady of the herd.] He alludes to the fable of the ants changed into Myrmidons. then recently deceased. v. for which service he was renumerated with a mare of extraordinary value. 33. iv. at the instigation of Cuido Alessandro. Hecuba. son of the Bishop of Sienna. that he would teach him the art of flying. v. A lasar-house it seem’d.] See Ovid. P.] See Note to Canto XXV. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseas’d. Cappocchio’s ghost.] Capocchio of Sienna. As were the torment. 477. 47. Hecuba. and Chiusi. xi. 134.Hell one of the Sacchetti family. Arezzo was my dwelling. Ovid. v. not very well understood by the commentators.] It is very probable that these lines gave Milton the idea of his celebrated description: Immediately a place Before their eyes appear’d. Cortona. Canto XIII. Valdichiana. 117. l. 121. In Aegina. Stricca. called the “brigata godereccia. 4. leaving Simon his heir.] From Ovid. and Abbagliato. who is said to have been a fellow-student of Dante’s in natural philosophy. v. Canto XIII. belonged to a company of prodigal and luxurious young men in Sienna.] This is said ironically. and which was termed the “costuma ricca. that it was first used at Florence in 1253. Metam. Protinos Aelides.] Gianni Schicci. 64.” v. The florens with three carats of alloy. that in his time the peasants still pointed out a pile of stones near Romena as the place of his execution.” Niccolo was the inventor of a new manner of using cloves in cookery. v. Schicchi. In that garden. v. Athamas. or Meo de Folcacchieri. lords of Romena. v. 58. Niccolo Salimbeni. and Ovid. v.] The floren was a coin that ought to have had tmenty-four carats of pure gold. 60. that he was employed by Simon Donati to personate Buoso Donati. v. l.” v. may be considered as a proof that Dante was more impartial in the allotment of his punishments than has generally been supposed. 45. Branda’s limpid spring. but has since been drained by the Emperor Leopold II. for which crime he was burnt. who promised Albero.] Grifolino of Arezzo. Landino says. 125. 77.

] “As high as to the face. che chiami mamma. Hist.” speaking of words not admissble in the loftier.] The leaning tower at Bologna At Fontarabia Milton. v. l. Hist. A tongue not us’d/To infant babbling. ii. 128. 590. The tower of Carisenda. 8. v. l. according to the singular superstition of those times.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 36.] A castle near Sienna. Dante has kept the latter of these writers in his eye throughout all this passage. a. The fortunate vale. The very tongue.) but that he might have been indebted for it to some of the early romances. sect. “This is the horn which Orlando won from the giant Jatmund. Montereggnon.Hell annals of the republic. as a proof of the judgment of God displayed in the duel. (Hist. v. See Warton’s Hist. the other in that tract of country called the Garfagnana. ii. Ovid.] The country near Carthage. The false accuser. or as he calls it. 132. v. Poetry. not far from Lucca. was endued with magical power. p. sec. But it is not impossible. L.] The combat between Hercules Antaeus is adduced by the Poet in his treatise “De Monarchia. o babbo. Amor. That could so piercen through every thing. For he couth with it both heale and dere. v. Henry VI. Eloq. v. Poetrg. CANTO XXXII. i. Whose smile and frown like to Achilles’ spear Is able with the change to kill and cure.” l. x. 1.] Potiphar’s wife. and might be heard at the distance of twenty miles. p. says— “In quorum numero nec puerilia propter suam simplicitatem ut Mamma et Babbo. Canto XVIII. and which as Turpin and the Islandic bards report. xxx. tragic style of poetry. In Chaucer’s Squier’s Tale. Alcides. c. s. of Eng. ii. c. of Engl.] Ne da lingua. Phars. 14.” Charlemain and Orlando are introduced in the Paradise. a Provencal poet in the middle of the twelfth century: and Millot observes. 5. Orlando. And of Achillcs for his queint spere. b. 1. v. vii. The same allusion was made by Bernard de Ventadour. i.” v. v. vi. ii. See Liv. 54. 33. P. 123. and Lucan. vol. v. So Shakspeare. 98. as Warton remarks. CANTO XXXI.l When Charlemain with all his peerage fell 124 . before which time their most valuable coinage was of silver. 586. To where modest shame appears. iii. Rem. 29. Dante in his treatise “De Vulg. Tabernich or Pietrapana. that it was a singular instance of erudition in a Troubadour. p 215. 105. l.] The one a mountain in Sclavonia. v. a sword of similar quality is introduced: And other folk have wondred on the sweard.] Vulnus in Herculeo quae quondam fecerat hoste Vulneris auxilium Pellas hasta fuit. iv. And fell in speech of Telephus the king.” l. 47.

D.] Mettendo i denti in nota di cicogna.] Abbot of Vallombrosa.Hell v. son of King Arthur. l. (the Pistoian family) whose atrocious act of revenge against his uncle is said to have given rise to the parties of the Bianchi and Neri. ii. They were proprietors of the valley of Falterona. A. v. 60. v. G. roi de Navarre O new Scariot. He betrayed the Castel di Piano Travigne. 118. cut off the hand of Giacopo del Vacca de’Pazzi. 119. 63. Hist. v. Thibaut. with the defence of which he had been entrusted by the Ghibellines. 113. l. See G. c14. Mascheroni. v. to leave a pass between Piedmont and Parma. vii. sons of Alberto Alberti. 1282. and his own ruin.” v. 80. in the summer of 1302. mentioned by Archbishop Turpin. “Nonne’s Prieste’s Tale” And in the “Monke’s Tale. Villani. O false dissembler. 37. 125 . D. viii. n. occasioned by the treachery of Bocca degli Abbati.] One of the same family.] Camiccione de’ Pazzi of Valdarno. 53. Soldanieri. G. 1265. l. who was the Pope’s Legate at Florence. l. Pis valent que Guenelon.] Buoso of Cremona. Who are these two. 4. 119. in Valdarno. c.] Tribaldello de’Manfredi. v. viii. “put himself at the head of the people. of the family of Duera. Beccaria. Ganellon. l. who was bribed to betray the city of Faonza. 118. a Florentiue.] The betrayer of Charlemain. Tribaldello. l. not aware that the result would be mischief to the Ghibelline party. Trop son fol e mal pensant.] “Gianni Soldanieri. Montaperto. Villani. who was bribed by Guy de Montfort. G. v. He is a common instance of treachery with the poets of the middle ages.] Focaccia of Cancellieri. in the hopes of rising into power. l. v. 35. l. in the year 1300. Chaucer. c. By Landino he is reported to have been from Parma. c. who. and Notes to Canto X. 7. viii. by Vellutello from Pavia. nor do the commentators say to what pope he was legate. 52 and Dino Compagni. Villani. This event happened in 1260. where his intrigues in favour of the Ghibellines being discovered. Camiccione. G.] Mordrec. Foccaccia.] Sassol Mascheroni.D. and new Ganilion. 66. vii. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” says Villani. 1266. ii. at which the people of Cremona were so enraged. bearer of the Florentine standard. Villani. v. v. Hist. that they extirpated the whole family. by whom his kinsman Ubertino was treacherously pnt to death. I do not find the occurrence in Vallini. c. Not him. after the refugees of the Bianca and Ghibelline party had defended it against a siege for twentynine days. “Lo scolar cattivello quasi cicogna divenuto si forte batteva i denti. So Boccaccio. vii. where the Bisenzio has its source. who has headed the populace in Florence. open to the army of Charles of Anjou. Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork. during the engagement. he was beheaded. &c. v. Villani. vi. See G. a river that falls into the Arno about six miles from Florence. The account of the latter writer differs much from that given by Landino in his Commentary. Him of Duera.” Peter of Spaine. A. who also murdered his uncle.] Alessandro and Napoleone. c.” A. 59. who murdered each other. Carlino. Hist.] The defeat of the Guelfi at Montaperto. to the Florentines. and Macchiavelli. 67. 80. an event which seems ever to have befallen him. 81.

c. being headed by the Judge Nino di Gallura de’Visconti. one party. of his son the Count Guelfo. retired to Calci. but the Count first with loud cries declared his penitence. 8. c. Nino hearing this. composed of certain of the Guelphi. i. 79. Gualandi. against the Pisans. v. united with the Archbishop and his party.Hell v. he returned to Pisa with great rejoicing and festivity. 59. Eloq. and so shall ever be. on account of the envy and fear excited in his mind by the high esteem in which the gracious manners of Anselmo were held by the Pisans. me vestisti e tu mi spoglia: Ben puoi’l Regno me tor tu che me’l desti. It pleased the Almighty that a total reverse of fortune should ensue. with their two sons also. Thou gav’st. whom he had exasperated. and not seeing any means of defending himself. Signor. his sister’s son. All the five. iii. “In the following march. were conveyed to prison. by the Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi. vii. Unto the mountain. Di questa imperial caduca spoglia Tu. But his greatness was not of long continuauce. were dragged out of the prison.” Hugeline of Pise. the key thrown into the Arno. and the third by the Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini. the Pisans. v. and having betrayed Nino. and was elevated to the supreme power with every demonstration of triumph and honour. Pisa was much divided by competitors for the sovereignty. dove’l si suona. in his treatise De Vulg.” G. as a punishment for his acts of treachery and guilt: for he was said to have poisoned the Count Anselmo da Capraia.] The mountain S. 29.] See Statius. and two of his sons. qua sinus Adriatici maris incipit et Siciliam. who had imprisoned the Count Uglino.” CANTO XXXIII. and given up their castles to the citizens of Florence and of Lucca.] “In the year 1288.” Ibid. And by Maffei. and repaired to a manor of his called Settimo. in the Merope: Tu disciogleste Queste misere membra e tu le annodi. with the Lanfranchi. “Qui autem Si dicunt a praedictis finibus. as soon as he was informed of Nino’s departure. his castle. c. by telling them that Ugolino had betrayed Pisa. Tydeus. between Pisa and Lucca. another. e tu le spoglia. and formed an alliance with the Florentines and people of Lucca. 128. when dead.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 120. In that fair region. Villani l.] Tu ne vestisti Queste misere carni. In a few days they died of hunger. The Count Ugolino. l. the Archbishop devised means to betray the Count Uglino and caused him to be suddenly attacked in his palace by the fury of the people. caused the tower to be locked. his sister’s son. Giuliano. with two of his sons and two of his grandchildren. Italy as explained by Dante himself. in a tower on the Piazza of the Anzania. Theb. videlicet usque ad promontorium illud Italiae. quitted Pisa. and from thence forward the tower was called the tower of famine. in the month of July. when everything was settled for his expulsion. whence.] Del bel paese la. The Count. Chancer has briefly told Ugolino’s story. his bastard son and his grandson fell in the assault. in order to cover his treachery. the offspring 126 . The power of the Guelphi being so much diminished. 14. or their persons seized. and yet neither priest nor friar was allowed to shrive him. 127. and other Ghibelline houses. Canz. v. Sismondi. He was immediately compelled to surrender. Count Ugolino. and all food to be withheld from them.to effect his purpose. they contrived that he and his followers should either be driven out of Pisa. (Januensiem) Oreintalem (Meridionalis Europae partem) tenent. See “Monke’s Tale. Imitated by Filicaja. v. l. before Nino was gone. consisting of others of the same faction. viii. ad finem. and meanly interred.

s.” Che il troppo pianto a me pianger non lassa. Branca is said to have murdered his father-in-law. There very weeping suffers not to weep. Thus Pulci. v. Q. 126. by whom Simon and his sons were murdered. v. ii. 162 Romagna’s darkest spirit. 123. at the conclusion of which he called for the fruit. II.” v. ch xvi. 2. 94. 44. Each passion dimm’d his face Thrice chang’d with pale. Hence. under pretence of wishing to be reconciled. the second. Le frutte amare di frate Alberico. xxv. adds Landino. Joyons Friars who having quarrelled with some of his brotherhood. Sails.] It can scarcely be doubted but that Milton derived his description of Satan in those lines. The friar Albigero. v. a signal for the assassins to rush in and dispatch those whom he had marked for destruction. 136. L.] —His sail-broad vans He spreads for flight. xi. avarice. who is called Typhurgo.] The friar Alberigo. s. v. v. and despair. at a great banquet he had made for them. iv. 82. denoted by the black. a. b. c. of Faenza. So Giusto de’Conti. coupled with the remark of Vellutello upon it: “The first of these sins is anger which he signifies by the red face. and averse from all joy and tranquillity. 6. A wind-mill. P. Ptolomea. Branca Doria. in the notes to that tale. v. Three faces. introduced in Canto XXII.] The description of an imaginary being. 3. envy.] This circle is named Ptolomea from Ptolemy. that it is more than probable that Don Quixote’s mistake of the wind-mills for giants was suggested to Cervantes by this simile. the son of Abubus. v. is a melancholy humour that causes a man’s thoughts to be dark and evil. L. 116. 2. 927. Milton. that he has had some of the friar Alberigo’s fruit. glazed with blinding tears. Canto XXXIV. one of the Frati Godenti. Compare Spenser. in the Zodiacus Vitae. 7.] Small islands near the mouth of the Arno. P. and the third. See Maccabees.] The author of the Caliph Vathek. represented by that between pale and yellow is envy and not.] —sorrow’s eye. Shakspeare. Rich. a. Morg. 37.Hell v. 127 . and Fletcher’s Prophetess. v. as others have said. Bella Mano. Michel Zanche. Magg. Like a bat. it is said proverbially of one who has been stabbed. invited them to a banquet. st. 2. ire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . has some touches very like this of Dante’s Lucifer.] Alberigo de’Manfredi.] Lo pianto stesso li pianger non lascia. “Quanto il ciel. c. b. justly observes. b. 10. i. from this passage.] The family of Doria was possessed of great influence in Genoa. Son. Ben Jonson’s “Every Man out of his humour. The glazed tear-drops. F.” v. 114. Capraia and Gorgona. 46. v.

Yet if Caesar was such. l. 89. that in his escort came. quales vespertilionum Membranis contextae amplis— Nudus erat longis sed opertus corpora villis. the conspirators might be regarded as deserving of their doom. The vaulted tomb. and for ascent to Heaven prepares. And of that second region will I sing.] “La tomba. In which the human spirit from sinful blot Is purg’d. * * * * * * PURGATORY CANTO I O’er better waves to speed her rapid course The light bark of my genius lifts the sail. v.Purgatory Ingentem vidi regem ingentique sedentem In solio. v. according to which the third hour answers to our twelve o’clock at noon. By what of firm land on this side appears. Well pleas’d to leave so cruel sea behind. Palingenii. Plac’d hie on lofty chaire. to extricate Brutus from the unworthy lot which is here assigned him. 61. to mine eyes Unwonted joy renew’d. and veil’d beneath The Pisces’ light. He maintains. Googe’s Translation v. Large wings on him did grow Framde like the wings of flinder mice. Within one hour and half of noon. ix. 120. Made all the orient laugh. Nor let Calliope refuse to sound A somewhat higher song. The radiant planet. Brutus. M. Which when the wretched birds of chattering note Had heard. A mighty king I might discerne. That had mine eyes and bosom fill’d with grief. but I fear in vain.] The mountain of Purgatory. soon as I ‘scap’d Forth from the atmosphere of deadly gloom. that to love invites. crines flammanti stemmate cinctum —utrinque patentes Alae humeris magnae. High up as the first circle. Sweet hue of eastern sapphire. but any who put a lawful monarch to death. Here.] The poet uses the Hebrew manner of computing the day.123. that by Brutus and Cassius are not meant the individuals known by those names. they of forgiveness lost all hope. of that loud tone. O ye hallow’d Nine! for in your train I follow.] Landino struggles. Zod.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Vit. &c.” This word is used to express the whole depth of the infernal region. that was spread O’er the serene aspect of the pure air. His haire with fyry garland deckt Puft up in fiendish wise. here the deadened strain revive. v. 128 .

The beams Of those four luminaries on his face So brightly shone. like his locks. a Dame from heaven Descending. ye to my caves approach?” My guide. I saw an old man standing by my side Alone. then thus to him replied. In the search Of liberty he journeys: that how dear 129 . that little space was left to turn. as before I told. “Not of myself I come. From high descends the virtue. This mortal ne’er hath seen the farthest gloom. “Say who are ye. or in high heaven new laws ordain’d. by whose aid I to thy sight and hearing him have led. Heaven of their rays Seem’d joyous. that I beheld him as the sun. “Who hath conducted. and widow’d. that more Our true condition I unfold at large. straight Turning a little tow’rds the other pole. Mine is not to deny thee thy request. O thou northern site. Now may our coming please thee. by words And intimations given with hand and head. Then. Forth from th’ eternal prison-house have fled?” He spoke and moved those venerable plumes. which parting fell Upon his breast in double fold. That makes the infernal valley ever black? Are the firm statutes of the dread abyss Broken. That under thy command are purg’d from sin. and fix’d my mind On the’ other pole attentive. But erring by his folly had approach’d So near. or with lantern sure Lights you emerging from the depth of night. Low down his beard and mix’d with hoary white Descended. But since thy will implies. And purpose now those spirits to display. How I have brought him would be long to say. I was dispatch’d To work his rescue. I have display’d Before him all the regions of the bad. had besought me in my charge To bring. Made my bent knees and eye submissive pay Due reverence. since of these depriv’d! As from this view I had desisted.Purgatory To the right hand I turn’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and with such radiance clear Deck’d it. and no way remain’d Save this which I have ta’en. That thus. then laying hold on me. that stemming the blind stream. bereft Indeed. That ne’er from son to father more was ow’d. where I saw Four stars ne’er seen before save by the ken Of our first parents. condemn’d. There from whence now the wain had disappear’d. so worthy of rev’rence in his look.

there far beneath. so that from afar I spy’d the trembling of the ocean stream. Where the wave beats it. and to my guide retiring close. Abiding in that circle where the eyes Of thy chaste Marcia beam.” He then to him rejoin’d. not bending to the water’s sway. for which best thanks I for thy favour will to her return. till all sordid stain thou wipe from thence. and I am free of Minos’ power.The Divine Comedy of Dante . For not with eye. She may no longer move me.Purgatory They know.” The dawn had chas’d the matin hour of prime. If mention there below thou not disdain. He thus began. No other plant. For us the’ eternal edicts are unmov’d: He breathes. and his face Lave. when I issued thence. who for her sake have life refus’d. Enough for me that in her name thou ask. “while I was there. then no flattery needs. Not so. and I myself uprais’d Speechless. We must retreat to rearward. where thou didst leave those weeds. let us pass Through thy sev’n regions. “My son! observant thou my steps pursue. but the sun Will show you. When we had come. by that law. Go therefore now: and with a slender reed See that thou duly gird him. This islet all around. Who stands the foremost minister in heaven. Toward him turn’d mine eyes. and in a place. O hallow’d spirit! to own her shine. Which was ordain’d me. There lives. that now rises.” He disappear’d. Thou knowest. by any cloud obscur’d. That all she ask’d me I was fain to grant.” “Marcia so pleasing in my sight was found. where to take The mountain in its easiest ascent. Would it be seemly before him to come. wander’d from his track. on the oozy bed Produces store of reeds. That in the last great day will shine so bright. for that way The champain to its low extreme declines. Which deaf before it. as one Who. thinks every step Trodden in vain till he regain the path. Now that beyond the’ accursed stream she dwells. this way return not. as thou sayst. where yet the tender dew Strove with the sun. After. We travers’d the deserted plain. where fresh 130 . or harden’d in its stalk. Then by her love we’ implore thee. who still in look Prays thee. Cover’d with leaves. if Dame from heaven. Moves and directs thee. to whom death for her was sweet In Utica.

Both hands extended on the watery grass My master plac’d. A light so swiftly coming through the sea. Open’d the form of wings: then when he knew The pilot. That covers. in graceful act and kind. while the brightness. musing on their road. and O. So seem’d. Wherever one was pluck’d. From which when for a space I had withdrawn Thine eyes. with the most exalted point Of its meridian circle. 131 . while motionless the body rests. in thought Journey. Salem’s walls. down. while it slowly dried. He girt me in such manner as had pleas’d Him who instructed. Through the thick vapours Mars with fiery beam Glares down in west. that from her hands are dropp’d When she reigns highest: so that where I was. that could after measure back his course. but what I knew not of bright hue. from the stream of Ganges issued forth. Then on the solitary shore arriv’d. And by degrees from underneath it came Another. And night. Again I look’d and saw it grown in size And brightness: thou on either side appear’d Something. Aurora’s white and vermeil-tinctur’d cheek To orange turn’d as she in age increas’d. straightway in its place arose. over the ocean floor. that opposite to him her orb Sounds. which the dun shades of hell conceal’d. When lo! as near upon the hour of dawn. bend low Thy knees. behold God’s angel: fold thy hands: Now shalt thou see true Ministers indeed. Whence I of his intent before appriz’d. Stretch’d out to him my cheeks suffus’d with tears. No winged course might equal its career. Holding the scales. That never sailing on its waters saw Man. Like men. There to my visage he anew restor’d That hue. Lo how all human means he sets at naught! So that nor oar he needs. what once again I hope to view. cried aloud. Meanwhile we linger’d by the water’s brink. another there Resembling. strange to tell! As he selected every humble plant.Purgatory The wind breath’d o’er it. My preceptor silent yet Stood.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Down. who. to make inquiry of my guide. that we first discern’d. nor other sail CANTO II Now had the sun to that horizon reach’d.

but with voice Of sweetness it enjoin’d me to desist. with what In the remainder of that hymn is writ. There left. that now The’ ascent will seem to us as play. Then one I saw darting before the rest With such fond ardour to embrace me. Surprise I needs must think was painted in my looks. as yourselves. We. I To do the like was mov’d. and in their haste Tread one another down.” Them Virgil answer’d. they at once leap’d out on land. and pray’d of it. Gazing around as one who sees new sights. The heav’nly steersman at the prow was seen. “In Exitu Israel de Aegypto. Where cleans’d from sin. Then who it was I knew. more bright Appear’d the bird of God. appear’d astounded with the place. Who from my breathing had perceiv’d I liv’d. And with his arrowy radiance from mid heav’n Had chas’d the Capricorn. they as oft return’d Empty into my breast again. Then soon as with the sign of holy cross He bless’d them. Lo how straight up to heaven he holds them rear’d. it might be made all fair. each one Forgetful of its errand. between such distant shores. that in its course no wave it drank. e’en so at sight Of me those happy spirits were fix’d. Not long erst We came. Winnowing the air with those eternal plumes.Purgatory Except his wings. when that strange tribe Lifting their eyes towards us: If ye know. By other road so rough and hard.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To hear what news he brings. O shadows vain Except in outward semblance! thrice my hands I clasp’d behind it. From every side the sun darted his beams. Within a hundred spirits and more there sat. The crew. nor could the eye Endure his splendor near: I mine bent down. He drove ashore in a small bark so swift And light. sent with olive branch. to depart. Declare what path will Lead us to the mount. To follow it I hasten’d. Grew pale with wonder. For that the shadow smil’d and backward drew. The swiftly as he came return’d. are strangers. “Ye suppose perchance Us well acquainted with this place: but here. That not like mortal hairs fall off or change!” As more and more toward us came. As the multitude Flock round a herald. Visibly written blessed in his looks. before you but a little space. 132 .” The spirits.” All with one voice together sang.

If aught alarm them. that within The sweetness thrills me yet. of pain is overcome. since of just will His will he makes. assail’d by more important care. That from your eyes the sight of God conceal. with free leave Hath taken. Turn’d tow’rds the mountain. whose chose to enter. “but how of thee Hath so much time been lost?” He answer’d straight: “No outrage hath been done to me.Purgatory To talk with me. My gentle guide And all who came with him.” As a wild flock of pigeons. but why walkest thou here?” “Not without purpose once more to return. tow’rd which His wings are pointed. hasten to the mountain’s side. Travelling so far.” “Love that discourses in my thoughts. if he Who when and whom he chooses takes. CANTO III Them sudden flight had scatter’d over the plain. As one who goes yet where he tends knows not. ye tardy spirits? What negligence detains you loit’ring here? Run to the mountain to cast off those scales. Fast fix’d in mute attention to his notes We stood. where I am Journeying this way. So I that new-come troop beheld. And therefore pause. so loos’d forth it I love thee still.” Then I: “If new laws have not quite destroy’d Memory and use of that sweet song of love. me oft This passage hath denied. of him gain’d kind Admittance. He. without their pride Accustom’d. Please thee with it a little to console My spirit. at that river’s mouth.” I said. Nor with less hurried step did we depart. It answered: “Thee as in my mortal frame I lov’d. when lo! that old man venerable Exclaiming. That while all my cares had power to ‘swage. my Casella. suddenly desert Their meal. that incumber’d with its frame. “How is this. and in still and quiet sort. the song Deserting. whence I wand’ring by the shore Where Tyber’s wave grows salt.The Divine Comedy of Dante . blade or tares. That seem’d naught else might in their thoughts have room.” He then Began in such soft accents. so well were pleas’d. to their food Collected. it would a little pause. These three months past indeed. Thou find’st me. for there always throng All such as not to Archeron descend. whither reason’s voice 133 .

Purgatory Drives us. and in troubled mood Broke off his speech. as with joy restor’d: And full against the steep ascent I set My face. More than that in the sky element One ray obstructs not other. and there the rock Found of so steep ascent. which how it works Wills not to us should be reveal’d. where highest to heav’n its top o’erflows. To endure Torments of heat and cold extreme. And others many more. race of human kind. that flar’d behind. The sun. when I beheld Only before myself the ground obscur’d. with ruddy beam Before my form was broken. remov’d To Naples from Brundusium’s wall. Bespake me kindly: “Why distrustest thou? Believ’st not I am with thee. I to my faithful company Adhering. To whose desires repose would have been giv’n. The most remote Most wild untrodden path. Nor thou Marvel. or who beside Would o’er the mountainous tract have led my steps He with the bitter pang of self-remorse Seem’d smitten. I turn’d aside With fear of being left. Meanwhile we had arriv’d Far as the mountain’s foot. in which I cast a shade. Moreover ye Have seen such men desiring fruitlessly. that nimblest steps To climb it had been vain. That now but serve them for eternal grief. “Who knows on which hand now the steep declines?” 134 . Seek not the wherefore.” And then he bent Downwards his forehead. Insane Who hopes. turning him around. When thus my solace.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that in itself before was wrapt. if before me no shadow fall. and the Stagyrite. no need had been For Mary to bring forth. like frames That virtue hath dispos’d. in all the tract ‘Twixt Lerice and Turbia were to this A ladder easy’ and open of access. where buried lies The body. I speak of Plato. Which holds three persons in one substance knit. From haste. our reason may that space explore. Could ye have seen the whole. thy sure guide? It now is evening there. For how of him Depriv’d. My mind. O clear conscience and upright How doth a little fling wound thee sore! Soon as his feet desisted (slack’ning pace). might I have sped. Its thoughts expanded. that mars all decency of act. left it not. for in me His rays resistance met.

And I gaz’d upward round the stony height.?” And while with looks directed to the ground The meaning of the pathway he explor’d. “O spirits perfect! O already chosen!” Virgil to them began. if she stops. When all drew backward on the messy crags Of the steep bank. that do The others. So that attempt to mount it be not vain. I thus my guide address’d: “Upraise thine eyes. and firmly stood unmov’d As one who walks in doubt might stand to look. 135 . Who journey’st thus this way. “by that blest peace.” So them bespake My master. who journeys without aid of wine. yet freely I confess. Simple and quiet.” Now was that people distant far in space A thousand paces behind ours. And thou be firm in hope. “Whoe’er thou art. and with free speech replied: “Let us tend thither: they but softly come. Yet moving seem’d not. “Turn. meanwhile the rest Stand fearfully. as much As at a throw the nervous arm could fling. Then of them one began. bending the eye and nose To ground. Who follow’d. “so that he may Ascend. Which. that step from forth their fold. When they before me had beheld the light From my right side fall broken on the ground. Of modest mien and graceful in their gait. nor the cause discern. Instruct us where the mountain low declines. by one. Marvel not: but believe. as I deem. thy visage turn. they stopp’d And somewhat back retir’d: the same did all. that not without Virtue deriv’d from Heaven. Or pairs. or three at once.” As sheep. and before you there the entrance lies. So saw I moving to advance the first. Who of that fortunate crew were at the head. So that the shadow reach’d the cave. and that virtuous tribe rejoin’d.Purgatory My master said and paus’d. is for you all prepar’d. This is a human body which ye see. they so slow approach’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . gath’ring round her. that toward us mov’d their steps. though unweeting of the cause “Unask’d of you. if of thyself thou find’st it not!” Straightway he look’d. For who knows most. That the sun’s light is broken on the ground.” Making a signal to us with bent hands. we to climb Over this wall aspire. Lo that way some. my son belov’d. Of spirits. him loss of time most grieves. of whom thou may’st obtain Counsel. and what the foremost does.

with lights Extinguish’d. how Thou hast beheld me. Yet at the bridge’s head my bones had lain. Who then by Clement on my hunt was set. To my fair daughter go. That firmly keeps the soul toward it turn’d. he remov’d them from their bed. And thus the error is disprov’d which holds The soul not singly lighted in the breast. but so wide arms Hath goodness infinite. for here By means of those below much profit comes. Yet by their curse we are not so destroy’d. “I am Manfredi. Near Benevento. And therefore when as aught is heard or seen.Purgatory Think if me elsewhere thou hast ever seen.” I tow’rds him turn’d. But that the eternal love may turn.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who of free will forgives. it seems She is intent upon that power alone. Far as the stream of Verde. Revealing to my good Costanza. if such decree Be not by prayers of good men shorter made Look therefore if thou canst advance my bliss. while hope Retains her verdant blossoms. Entire the soul collects herself. and beside the terms Laid on me of that interdict. And of the truth inform her. and fair. When by two mortal blows My frame was shatter’d. but the rain now drenches them. True it is. but on one brow a gash was mark’d. He seem’d. and gentle of aspect.” CANTO IV When by sensations of delight or pain. My sins were horrible. That such one as in contumacy dies Against the holy church. When humbly I disclaim’d to have beheld Him ever: “Now behold!” he said. and show’d High on his breast a wound: then smiling spake. if of me Aught else be told. out of the kingdom’s bounds. the parent glad Of Aragonia and Sicilia’s pride. though he repent. grandson to the Queen Costanza: whence I pray thee. that it receives All who turn to it. Comely. That any of our faculties hath seiz’d. I betook myself Weeping to him. 136 . and with fix’d eye beheld. where. by the heavy mole Protected. Had this text divine Been of Cosenza’s shepherd better scann’d. when return’d. Must wander thirty-fold for all the time In his presumption past. And the wind drives.

His words so spurr’d me on. where ‘twixt us and the north Its course it enter’d. Whence he thus to me: 137 . “and to a track Pointed. Soon perceiv’d That Poet sage how at the car of light Amaz’d I stood.Purgatory Time passes. hearing that spirit And wond’ring. Conducted by his aid.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When we arriv’d where all with one accord The spirits shouted. is one power. Or mounts Bismantua’s height. or to Noli low descends. On Sanleo’s road Who journeys. If thou stay not. And with light furnish’d to direct my way. that. That I behind him clamb’ring. “O master! say which way can we proceed?” He answer’d. must use his feet.” A larger aperture ofttimes is stopp’d With forked stake of thorn by villager. When we arriv’d Near on the highest ridge of the steep bank. I wearied thus began: “Parent belov’d! Turn. who gave me hope. when that troop Departing left us. Another that. Then rais’d them to the sun. which the whole spirit hash. And the side proudly rising. while that is free. When the ripe grape imbrowns. Behind me gain the mountain. We through the broken rock ascended.” That eminence Was lofty that no eye might reach its point. whereby he hearken. whence was our ascent: and oft Many beside have with delight look’d back. I mean With the swift wing and plumes of high desire. and I behind him close. “Here is what ye ask. This is as it were bound. “Let no step of thine recede. There both together seated. turn’d we round To eastward.”—” My son!” He straight reply’d. and wond’ring mark’d That from the left it smote us. Ascended solitary. This found I true by proof. on this side projecting. forc’d myself. for full fifty steps aloft The sun had measur’d unobserv’d of me. By which my guide. and a man perceives it not. than was the path. But here a man had need to fly. close Pent on each side. “Thus far put forth thy strength. and behold how I remain alone. round Circles the hill. For that. more than line From the mid quadrant to the centre drawn. Where the plain level open’d I exclaim’d. till to us Some practis’d guide appear. Till my feet press’d the circuit plain beneath. First on the nether shores I turn’d my eyes. while underneath the ground Ask’d help of hands and feet.

But. thou might’st behold The ruddy zodiac nearer to the bears Wheel. from hence toward the north Departs.” “Of truth. kind teacher!” I exclaim’d. within Pond’ring.” At sound thereof each turn’d. when those who in the Hebrew land Inhabit. imagine Sion with this mount Plac’d on the earth. As in a vessel to go down the tide. that high up and low Imparts his light beneath. near to us A voice there sounded: “Yet ye first perchance May to repose you by constraint be led. Among them one.” He thus to me: “Such is this steep ascent. sat him down. Holding his face between them downward bent. if its ancient course it not forsook. And with his arms did fold his knees about. and remains Ever between the sun and winter) for the cause Thou hast assign’d. of which nor I Nor he before was ware. that the mid orb Of the supernal motion (which in terms Of art is called the Equator. so that to both be one Horizon.Purgatory “Were Leda’s offspring now in company Of that broad mirror. That it is ever difficult at first. How that may be if thou would’st think. There hope to rest thee from thy toil. who shows Himself more idle. as a man Thru’ idleness might stand.” As he his words had spoken. who in the shady place Behind the rock were standing. than this sight of mine can mount. as I now discern Where seem’d my ken to fail. “behold that man. 138 . so much That upward going shall be easy to thee. than if laziness Were sister to him. and on the left A huge stone we beheld. When pleasant it shall seem to thee. while by that on the’ other side. Then of this path thou wilt have reach’d the end.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who seem’d to me much wearied. No more I answer. more a man proceeds. see it tow’rds the warmer part. “so clear Aught saw I never. less evil grows. “Sweet Sir!” I cry’d. But if it please thee. find there were some. I would gladly know. Thither we drew.” Straight he turn’d to us. If with clear view shine intellect attend. How far we have to journey: for the hill Mounts higher. and thus far for certain know. Where lies the path that Phaeton ill knew To guide his erring chariot: thou wilt see How of necessity by this on one He passes. and two hemispheres apart.

and he. That riseth up from heart which lives in grace. in that the one Sicklies and wastes to nought the other’s strength. by turns. And when I came to him. When to my suffering would not let me pass The bird of God. o’er the thigh lifting his face. what thing is whisper’d here? Come after me.” Mine eyes I at that sound reverting. when I began: “Belacqua.” Straight who it was I knew. as in life it bore. saw them gaze Through wonder first at me. of what use to mount. seems to be led on.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Purgatory And. that. firmly set. and to their babblings leave The crowd. How from the left the sun his chariot leads. Then in these accents spake: “Up then. not heard in heaven?”’ Before me now the Poet up the mount Ascending. Shakes not its top for any blast that blows! He.” His lazy acts and broken words my lips To laughter somewhat mov’d. who at the portal sits? Behooves so long that heav’n first bear me round Without its limits. Still of his aim is wide. But tell. he scarce his head Uplifted. when beheld Pointing the finger at me one exclaim’d: “See how it seems as if the light not shone From the left hand of him beneath. “that thou hast slack’d thy pace? or how Imports it thee. and the night Now covers with her foot Marocco’s shore. As living. proceed Thou valiant one. Be as a tower. why thou art seated upright there? Waitest thou escort to conduct thee hence? Or blame I only shine accustom’d ways?” Then he: “My brother. in whose bosom thought on thought shoots out. now for thee I grieve no more. Because I to the end repentant Sighs Delay’d. cried: “Haste thee. Nor could the pain I felt (for want of breath Still somewhat urg’d me) hinder my approach.” What other could I answer save “I come?” I said it. and then at me And the light broken underneath. for see the sun Has touch’d the point meridian. observ’d. and pursued The steps of my Conductor. What other kind avails.” CANTO V Now had I left those spirits. if prayer do not aid me first. somewhat with that colour ting’d 139 . “Why are thy thoughts thus riveted?” my guide Exclaim’d. saying “Well hast thou discern’d.

and listen as thou go’st.” Ne’er saw I fiery vapours with such speed Cut through the serene air at fall of night. we Did issue out of life at peace with God. who throng Around us: to petition thee they come. That upward these did not in shorter space Return. “Many. their song Straight to a long and hoarse exclaim they chang’d. as I deem. Meanwhile traverse along the hill there came. by that peace.” In answer he began: “None here distrusts Thy kindness. that for me 140 . enough is answer’d them.” “O spirit! who go’st on to blessedness With the same limbs. “are these. But if aught. that tidings of him there Thou mayst report. A little way before us. though not promis’d with an oath. Ran on to meet us. Whence I. who sole before the others speak. repenting and forgiving. And two of them. that of thy courtesy thou pray Those who inhabit Fano.” Shouting they came. and to our latest hour Were sinners. and I will perform it.” Then I: “The visages of all I scan Yet none of ye remember. if thou ever see that land. Him let them honour. Look if thou any one amongst our tribe Hast e’er beheld. and bear Tidings to them who sent you. wherefore go’st thou on? Ah wherefore tarriest thou not? We all By violence died. “a little rest thy step. So as the will fail not for want of power. Which lies between Romagna and the realm Of Charles. but then warn’d by light from heav’n. and. Who with desire to see him fills our heart. “Ye may return. they may prize him well. So that. there arriving. may please you.” exclaim’d the bard. Nor August’s clouds athwart the setting sun. Entreat thee. Go therefore on.” To them my guide. some who sang The “Miserere” in responsive Strains.Purgatory Which ofttimes pardon meriteth for man. If. When they perceiv’d that through my body I Gave way not for the rays to pass. in guise of messengers. that clad thee at thy birth. as with loose rein a troop. that his frame Is real flesh. Which on the steps of guide so excellent Following from world to world intent I seek.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with the rest Wheel back on us. That I can do. to view His shade they paus’d. and inquiring ask’d: Of your condition we would gladly learn. Ah. gentle spirits! Speak.

Upon my bosom in Antenor’s land Were made. fleeing away on foot. nam’d Archiano.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who. other rule I make. By which I may purge off my grievous sins.” “Thou knowest how in the atmosphere collects That vapour dank. and beheld my life-blood float the plain. When overta’en at Oriaco. soon As day was spent. Had I towards Mira fled.Purgatory Their adorations duly be put up. E’en where its name is cancel’d. and. Of Montefeltro I.” I thus: “From Campaldino’s field what force or chance Drew thee. came. As thou shalt graciously give aid to mine. he cover’d o’er with cloud From Pratomagno to the mountain range. and finishing with Mary’s name I fell. Me God’s angel took. Fell the rain. I will report the truth. Soon as it mounts where cold condenses it. Thence the valley. be fulfill’d. But to the marsh I sped. with his wrath Pursued me. And to the fosses came all that the land Contain’d not. Buonconte I: Giovanna nor none else have care for me. still Might I have breath’d. which in his intellect Still follows evil. as mightiest streams are wont. and tenantless my flesh remain’d. That takes thee o’er the mountain. Pierc’d in the heart. To the great river with such headlong sweep 141 . Whilst he of hell exclaim’d: “O thou from heav’n! Say wherefore hast thou robb’d me? Thou of him Th’ eternal portion bear’st with thee away For one poor tear that he deprives me of. And bloodying the plain. “at Casentino’s foot A stream there courseth. that ne’er thy sepulture was known?” “Oh!” answer’d he. The author of the deed was Este’s prince. where to be more secure I thought. Whence issued out the blood wherein I dwelt. which thou again0 Tell to the living. returning into water. there came I. Here sight and speech Fail’d me. From thence I came. And in the mire and rushes tangled there Fell. so that the air Impregnate chang’d to water. more than right could warrant. And stretch’d the sky above. sprung In Apennine above the Hermit’s seat. by virtue of the power Given by his nature. But of the other.” Then said another: “Ah! so may the wish. That evil will. Sorrowing with these I therefore go. and rais’d the wind And smoky mist. But the deep passages.

well knows he bids him stand aside. My stiffen’d frame Laid at his mouth the fell Archiano found. my luminary! It seems expressly in thy text denied. Along the banks and bottom of his course. Or is thy saying not to me reveal’d?” CANTO VI When from their game of dice men separate. remains in sadness fix’d. what luckless throws He cast: but meanwhile all the company Go with the other. E’en such was I in that close-crowding throng. from my breast Loos’ning the cross. as it said. That heaven’s supreme decree can never bend To supplication. with his hand Stretch’d forth. to whom his hand Is stretch’d. And rested after thy long road. And turning so my face around to all. who fell By Ghino’s cruel arm. That he knows. and him beside. one Fast by his side bids him remember him. who hath lost. And one behind his mantle twitches. “then remember me. Sienna gave me life. Who in his chase was swallow’d by the stream. Revolving in his mind. one before him runs. While she yet lives. that nought stay’d its course. Then in his muddy spoils encircling wrapt. but for no crime: I speak of Peter de la Brosse. Here of Arezzo him I saw. He stops not. that of myself I made When overcome with pain. And from its frame a soul dismiss’d for spite And envy. And promising. and each one. Who put the good Marzuco to such proof Of constancy. Maremma took it from me. Straight I began: “O thou. Here Frederic Novello. lest for so false a deed She herd with worse than these.” “Ah! when thou to the world shalt be return’d. that Lady of Brabant Let her beware. and of Pisa he. He. When I was freed From all those spirits. And dash’d it into Arno. I ‘scap’d from it with pains. I once was Pia.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Count Orso I beheld. Can then their hope be vain.Purgatory Rush’d. entreated. 142 . and here. He hurl’d me on.” so spake Next the third spirit.” And thus he from the press defends himself. who pray’d for others’ prayers To hasten on their state of blessedness. Who me with jewell’d ring had first espous’d. yet with this design Do these entreat.

The Divine Comedy of Dante . in right should satisfy. It answer to his question none return’d. Vessel without a pilot in loud storm. and toward us looks: It will instruct us in the speediest way. Ah slavish Italy! thou inn of grief. When my courteous guide began.” the solitary shadow quick Rose towards us from the place in which it stood. that the sacred height Of judgment doth not stoop. And cry’d. if well Thy mind consider. which he Who sojourns here. for now I tire not as before. Because the pray’r had none access to God. while now thy living ones In thee abide not without war. I know not if thou take me right. But of our country and our kind of life Demanded. Her thou shalt behold above. Upon this mountain’s crown. in high abstracted mood. And these deceiv’d not in their hope. when I this point concluded thus. Lady no longer of fair provinces. Besides.Purgatory He thus to me: “Both what I write is plain. and one Malicious gnaws another.” Each the other then embrac’d. Eyeing us as a lion on his watch. “Mantuan! I am thy countryman Sordello. fair seat of joy. I3ut Virgil with entreaty mild advanc’d. ay of those 143 . For there Thou canst not be.” He answer’d thus: “Our progress with this day shall be as much As we may now dispatch. but let us onward pass. that as erst his beam Thou dost not break. By praying no defect could be supplied. But brothel-house impure! this gentle spirit. Ev’n from the Pleasant sound of his dear land Was prompt to greet a fellow citizen With such glad cheer. because love’s flame In a short moment all fulfils. But lo! a spirit there Stands solitary. I mean Beatrice. Scarce moving with slow dignity thine eyes! It spoke not aught. Who betwixt truth and mind infuses light.” Then I: “Sir! let us mend our speed. O thou Lombard spirit! How didst thou stand. and lo! the hill Stretches its shadow far. “Mantua. Yet in this deep suspicion rest thou not Contented unless she assure thee so. but otherwise Than thou supposest is the truth. Requesting it to show the best ascent. who behind the steep Is now so hidden.” We soon approach’d it. ere thou once more behold Him back returning.

if thy saddle be unpress’d? Nought doth he now but aggravate thy shame. That is grown savage and unmanageable. And in the saddle let thy Caesar sit. The garden of the empire to run waste. Who wast in earth for our sakes crucified! Are thy just eyes turn’d elsewhere? or is this A preparation in the wond’rous depth Of thy sage counsel made. Desolate widow! day and night with moans: “My Caesar. The Philippeschi and Monaldi! man Who car’st for nought! those sunk in grief. wretched one! around thy sea-coasts wide. If well thou marked’st that which God commands Look how that beast to felness hath relaps’d From having lost correction of the spur. What safety Santafiore can supply. and mark If any part of the sweet peace enjoy. O German Albert! who abandon’st her. If it be lawful. When thou should’st clasp her flanks with forked heels. Entirely from our reach of thought cut off? So are the’ Italian cities all o’erthrong’d With tyrants. My Florence! thou mayst well remain unmov’d At this digression. What boots it. Ah people! thou obedient still shouldst live. O Almighty Power. that thy reins Justinian’s hand Befitted. Seek. Just judgment from the stars fall on thy blood! And be it strange and manifest to all! Such as may strike thy successor with dread! For that thy sire and thou have suffer’d thus. And mark their injuries: and thou mayst see. Then homeward to thy bosom turn. why dost thou desert my side?” Come and behold what love among thy people: And if no pity touches thee for us. that long Waiteth for counsel to direct the bow. Come and blush for thine own report. Come and behold thy Rome.Purgatory Whom the same wall and the same moat contains. who calls on thee. Through greediness of yonder realms detain’d. which affects not thee: Thanks to thy people.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Come. Since to the bridle thou hast set thine hand. and these With dire suspicion rack’d. and a great Marcellus made Of every petty factious villager. For me. for some good end. Or ere it dart unto its aim: but shine 144 . Many have justice in their heart. Come see the Capulets and Montagues. cruel one! Come and behold the’ oppression of the nobles. who so wisely speed.

“Who are ye?” “Before this mount 145 .Purgatory Have it on their lip’s edge. and cry. by heav’nly influence led And with such aid I come. say if from below thou com’st And from what cloister’s pale?”—”Through every orb Of that sad region. where of mean estate might clasp His lord. who aught before him suddenly Beholding. and coins. who usest such nice subtlety. Thou wealthy! thou at peace! thou wisdom-fraught! Facts best witness if I speak the truth. CANTO VII After their courteous greetings joyfully Sev’n times exchang’d. Customs. Caught him. what favour rather undeserv’d. Such he appear’d. How many times. Many refuse To bear the common burdens: readier thine Answer uneall’d. That to the middle of November scarce Reaches the thread thou in October weav’st.” he reply’d. and people chang’d! If thou remember’st well and can’st see clear. Made little progress in improving life Tow’rds thee. whence his wonder riseth. cries “It is yet is not. for thou hast reason now. “Glory of Latium!” he exclaim’d. for civil arts renown’d. But by dun shades alone. By spirits worthy of ascent to God Was sought. but breathes in sighs. There I with little innocents abide. Shows thee to me? If I to hear that voice Am worthy. then downward bent his eyes. and laws. Athens and Lacedaemon. within thy memory. Thou wilt perceive thyself like a sick wretch. Sordello backward drew Exclaiming. for no sin Depriv’d of heav’n. Who finds no rest upon her down. except for lack of faith. hut oft Shifting her side. “Behold I stoop!” Make thyself glad. There is a place There underneath. where mourning’s voice Sounds not of anguish sharp. “In whom our tongue its utmost power display’d! Boast of my honor’d birth-place! what desert Of mine. short respite seeks from pain. And drawing near with reverential step. not made by torments sad. I am Virgil. “thus far Am I arriv’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” wav’ring in belief. who of old Enacted laws. and offices Have been by thee renew’d.” So answer’d him in few my gentle guide. As one. my bones had by Octavius’ care Been buried.

With them thou haply mightst return beneath. Ev’n as large valleys hollow’d out on earth. Direct us. That. by the herbs and flowers Plac’d in that fair recess. I join thee for thy guide.Purgatory Who by death’s fangs were bitten. If thou Consentest.” A little space we were remov’d from thence. “we go. in color all Had been surpass’d. But of the sweetness of a thousand smells A rare and undistinguish’d fragrance made. along the ground Trailing his finger. “who so wish’d To ascend by night. as wond’ring at his speech. Indian wood Of lucid dye serene. soon as the sun Hath disappear’d. Who the three holy virtues put not on. But understood the rest. “That way.” Betwixt the steep and plain a crooked path Led us traverse into the ridge’s side. fresh emeralds But newly broken. And scarlet grain and ceruse. where thou sayst. we may enjoy delight. But thou beholdest now how day declines: And upwards to proceed by night.The Divine Comedy of Dante . while day is in the horizon shut. Nor nature only there lavish’d her hues. and silver thrice refin’d. spoke: “Only this line Thou shalt not overpass.” the’ escorting spirit cried. Exclaim’d: “Then lead us quickly. Where Purgatory its true beginning takes. or through his own weakness fail?” The good Sordello then. I to these will lead thy steps: And thou wilt know them. how we soonest may arrive. These with the wont of power perplex the will. our power Excels: therefore it may be well to choose A place of pleasant sojourn. while we stay. save the shades of night. not that aught else impedes Thy going upwards. not without delight. But if thou know’st and canst. Where in a bosom the high bank recedes: And thou await renewal of the day. There I with those abide. and without blame Follow’d them all. Far as I can. as great surpasses less. To the right Some spirits sit apart retir’d. Refulgent gold. ere exempt From human taint. would he be thence debarr’d By other. 146 .” My master straight.” He answer’d thus: “We have no certain place Assign’d us: upwards I may go or round.” “How chances this?” was answer’d. When I perceiv’d the mountain hollow’d out. Where more than half the sloping edge expires. Or to and fro around the mountain’s side Wander.

They are the father and the father-in-law Of Gallia’s bane: his vicious life they know And foul. with’ring the lily’s flower. And to the others’ song moves not his lip. Look there how he doth knock against his breast! The other ye behold. Rarely into the branches of the tree Doth human worth mount up. “‘Mid those desires not that I lead ye on. “He. Which Pouille and Provence now with grief confess. that as his free gift It may be call’d. With ev’ry virtue bore his girdle brac’d. The Emperor Rodolph call. And if that stripling who behinds him sits. He. and seems To have neglected that he should have done. King after him had liv’d. a bearded man. and Elbe Rolls to the ocean: Ottocar his name: Who in his swaddling clothes was of more worth Than Winceslaus his son. who might have heal’d The wounds whereof fair Italy hath died. “Before the west’ring sun sink to his bed. thence comes the grief that rends them thus. with frequent sighs. Sway’d in that country. Pamper’d with rank luxuriousness and ease. So that by others she revives but slowly. Than in the nether vale among them mix’d. who with kindly visage comforts him. where the water springs. 147 . So much that plant degenerates from its seed. and so ordains He who bestows it. Which may not of the other heirs be said. “Behold the king of simple life and plain. And that one with the nose depress. Neither the better heritage obtains. with him of feature prominent. To Charles my words apply No less than to his brother in the song.” on the grass and flowers Here chanting I beheld those spirits sit Who not beyond the valley could be seen. who close In counsel seems with him of gentle look. For from this eminence ye shall discern Better the acts and visages of all. who measure keeps In song.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Purgatory “Salve Regina. Flying expir’d. He. so robust of limb. who sits high above the rest. By James and Frederick his realms are held. who for his cheek Makes of one hand a couch. who our steps had turn’d.” Began the Mantuan. That Moldaw’s river to the Elbe. his virtue then From vessel to like vessel had been pour’d. As more than Beatrice and Margaret Costanza still boasts of her valorous spouse.

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Harry of England, sitting there alone: He through his branches better issue spreads. “That one, who on the ground beneath the rest Sits lowest, yet his gaze directs aloft, Us William, that brave Marquis, for whose cause The deed of Alexandria and his war Makes Conferrat and Canavese weep.”

And the rest after, softly and devout, Follow’d through all the hymn, with upward gaze Directed to the bright supernal wheels. Here, reader! for the truth makes thine eyes keen: For of so subtle texture is this veil, That thou with ease mayst pass it through unmark’d. I saw that gentle band silently next Look up, as if in expectation held, Pale and in lowly guise; and from on high I saw forth issuing descend beneath Two angels with two flame-illumin’d swords, Broken and mutilated at their points. Green as the tender leaves but newly born, Their vesture was, the which by wings as green Beaten, they drew behind them, fann’d in air. A little over us one took his stand, The other lighted on the’ Opposing hill, So that the troop were in the midst contain’d. Well I descried the whiteness on their heads; But in their visages the dazzled eye Was lost, as faculty that by too much Is overpower’d. “From Mary’s bosom both Are come,” exclaim’d Sordello, “as a guard Over the vale, ganst him, who hither tends, The serpent.” Whence, not knowing by which path

CANTO VIII
Now was the hour that wakens fond desire In men at sea, and melts their thoughtful heart, Who in the morn have bid sweet friends farewell, And pilgrim newly on his road with love Thrills, if he hear the vesper bell from far, That seems to mourn for the expiring day: When I, no longer taking heed to hear Began, with wonder, from those spirits to mark One risen from its seat, which with its hand Audience implor’d. Both palms it join’d and rais’d, Fixing its steadfast gaze towards the east, As telling God, “I care for naught beside.” “Te Lucis Ante,” so devoutly then Came from its lip, and in so soft a strain, That all my sense in ravishment was lost.

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He came, I turn’d me round, and closely press’d, All frozen, to my leader’s trusted side. Sordello paus’d not: “To the valley now (For it is time) let us descend; and hold Converse with those great shadows: haply much Their sight may please ye.” Only three steps down Methinks I measur’d, ere I was beneath, And noted one who look’d as with desire To know me. Time was now that air arrow dim; Yet not so dim, that ‘twixt his eyes and mine It clear’d not up what was conceal’d before. Mutually tow’rds each other we advanc’d. Nino, thou courteous judge! what joy I felt, When I perceiv’d thou wert not with the bad! No salutation kind on either part Was left unsaid. He then inquir’d: “How long Since thou arrived’st at the mountain’s foot, Over the distant waves?”—”O!” answer’d I, “Through the sad seats of woe this morn I came, And still in my first life, thus journeying on, The other strive to gain.” Soon as they heard My words, he and Sordello backward drew, As suddenly amaz’d. To Virgil one, The other to a spirit turn’d, who near Was seated, crying: “Conrad! up with speed:

Come, see what of his grace high God hath will’d.” Then turning round to me: “By that rare mark Of honour which thou ow’st to him, who hides So deeply his first cause, it hath no ford, When thou shalt he beyond the vast of waves. Tell my Giovanna, that for me she call There, where reply to innocence is made. Her mother, I believe, loves me no more; Since she has chang’d the white and wimpled folds, Which she is doom’d once more with grief to wish. By her it easily may be perceiv’d, How long in women lasts the flame of love, If sight and touch do not relume it oft. For her so fair a burial will not make The viper which calls Milan to the field, As had been made by shrill Gallura’s bird.” He spoke, and in his visage took the stamp Of that right seal, which with due temperature Glows in the bosom. My insatiate eyes Meanwhile to heav’n had travel’d, even there Where the bright stars are slowest, as a wheel Nearest the axle; when my guide inquir’d: “What there aloft, my son, has caught thy gaze?” I answer’d: “The three torches, with which here The pole is all on fire. “He then to me:

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“The four resplendent stars, thou saw’st this morn Are there beneath, and these ris’n in their stead.” While yet he spoke. Sordello to himself Drew him, and cry’d: “Lo there our enemy!” And with his hand pointed that way to look. Along the side, where barrier none arose Around the little vale, a serpent lay, Such haply as gave Eve the bitter food. Between the grass and flowers, the evil snake Came on, reverting oft his lifted head; And, as a beast that smoothes its polish’d coat, Licking his hack. I saw not, nor can tell, How those celestial falcons from their seat Mov’d, but in motion each one well descried, Hearing the air cut by their verdant plumes. The serpent fled; and to their stations back The angels up return’d with equal flight. The Spirit (who to Nino, when he call’d, Had come), from viewing me with fixed ken, Through all that conflict, loosen’d not his sight. “So may the lamp, which leads thee up on high, Find, in thy destin’d lot, of wax so much, As may suffice thee to the enamel’s height.” It thus began: “If any certain news Of Valdimagra and the neighbour part

Thou know’st, tell me, who once was mighty there They call’d me Conrad Malaspina, not That old one, but from him I sprang. The love I bore my people is now here refin’d.” “In your dominions,” I answer’d, “ne’er was I. But through all Europe where do those men dwell, To whom their glory is not manifest? The fame, that honours your illustrious house, Proclaims the nobles and proclaims the land; So that he knows it who was never there. I swear to you, so may my upward route Prosper! your honour’d nation not impairs The value of her coffer and her sword. Nature and use give her such privilege, That while the world is twisted from his course By a bad head, she only walks aright, And has the evil way in scorn.” He then: “Now pass thee on: sev’n times the tired sun Revisits not the couch, which with four feet The forked Aries covers, ere that kind Opinion shall be nail’d into thy brain With stronger nails than other’s speech can drive, If the sure course of judgment be not stay’d.”

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CANTO IX
Now the fair consort of Tithonus old, Arisen from her mate’s beloved arms, Look’d palely o’er the eastern cliff: her brow, Lucent with jewels, glitter’d, set in sign Of that chill animal, who with his train Smites fearful nations: and where then we were, Two steps of her ascent the night had past, And now the third was closing up its wing, When I, who had so much of Adam with me, Sank down upon the grass, o’ercome with sleep, There where all five were seated. In that hour, When near the dawn the swallow her sad lay, Rememb’ring haply ancient grief, renews, And with our minds more wand’rers from the flesh, And less by thought restrain’d are, as ‘t were, full Of holy divination in their dreams, Then in a vision did I seem to view A golden-feather’d eagle in the sky, With open wings, and hov’ring for descent, And I was in that place, methought, from whence Young Ganymede, from his associates ‘reft, Was snatch’d aloft to the high consistory.

“Perhaps,” thought I within me, “here alone He strikes his quarry, and elsewhere disdains To pounce upon the prey.” Therewith, it seem’d, A little wheeling in his airy tour Terrible as the lightning rush’d he down, And snatch’d me upward even to the fire. There both, I thought, the eagle and myself Did burn; and so intense th’ imagin’d flames, That needs my sleep was broken off. As erst Achilles shook himself, and round him roll’d His waken’d eyeballs wond’ring where he was, Whenas his mother had from Chiron fled To Scyros, with him sleeping in her arms; E’en thus I shook me, soon as from my face The slumber parted, turning deadly pale, Like one ice-struck with dread. Solo at my side My comfort stood: and the bright sun was now More than two hours aloft: and to the sea My looks were turn’d. “Fear not,” my master cried, “Assur’d we are at happy point. Thy strength Shrink not, but rise dilated. Thou art come To Purgatory now. Lo! there the cliff That circling bounds it! Lo! the entrance there, Where it doth seem disparted! Ere the dawn Usher’d the daylight, when thy wearied soul

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Slept in thee, o’er the flowery vale beneath A lady came, and thus bespake me: “I Am Lucia. Suffer me to take this man, Who slumbers. Easier so his way shall speed.” Sordello and the other gentle shapes Tarrying, she bare thee up: and, as day shone, This summit reach’d: and I pursued her steps. Here did she place thee. First her lovely eyes That open entrance show’d me; then at once She vanish’d with thy sleep.” Like one, whose doubts Are chas’d by certainty, and terror turn’d To comfort on discovery of the truth, Such was the change in me: and as my guide Beheld me fearless, up along the cliff He mov’d, and I behind him, towards the height. Reader! thou markest how my theme doth rise, Nor wonder therefore, if more artfully I prop the structure! Nearer now we drew, Arriv’d’ whence in that part, where first a breach As of a wall appear’d, I could descry A portal, and three steps beneath, that led For inlet there, of different colour each, And one who watch’d, but spake not yet a word. As more and more mine eye did stretch its view, I mark’d him seated on the highest step,

In visage such, as past my power to bear. Grasp’d in his hand a naked sword, glanc’d back The rays so toward me, that I oft in vain My sight directed. “Speak from whence ye stand:” He cried: “What would ye? Where is your escort? Take heed your coming upward harm ye not.” “A heavenly dame, not skilless of these things,” Replied the’ instructor, “told us, even now, ‘Pass that way: here the gate is.”—”And may she Befriending prosper your ascent,” resum’d The courteous keeper of the gate: “Come then Before our steps.” We straightway thither came. The lowest stair was marble white so smooth And polish’d, that therein my mirror’d form Distinct I saw. The next of hue more dark Than sablest grain, a rough and singed block, Crack’d lengthwise and across. The third, that lay Massy above, seem’d porphyry, that flam’d Red as the life-blood spouting from a vein. On this God’s angel either foot sustain’d, Upon the threshold seated, which appear’d A rock of diamond. Up the trinal steps My leader cheerily drew me. “Ask,” said he, “With humble heart, that he unbar the bolt.” Piously at his holy feet devolv’d

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I cast me, praying him for pity’s sake That he would open to me: but first fell Thrice on my bosom prostrate. Seven times0 The letter, that denotes the inward stain, He on my forehead with the blunted point Of his drawn sword inscrib’d. And “Look,” he cried, “When enter’d, that thou wash these scars away.” Ashes, or earth ta’en dry out of the ground, Were of one colour with the robe he wore. From underneath that vestment forth he drew Two keys of metal twain: the one was gold, Its fellow silver. With the pallid first, And next the burnish’d, he so ply’d the gate, As to content me well. “Whenever one Faileth of these, that in the keyhole straight It turn not, to this alley then expect Access in vain.” Such were the words he spake. “One is more precious: but the other needs Skill and sagacity, large share of each, Ere its good task to disengage the knot Be worthily perform’d. From Peter these I hold, of him instructed, that I err Rather in opening than in keeping fast; So but the suppliant at my feet implore.” Then of that hallow’d gate he thrust the door,

Exclaiming, “Enter, but this warning hear: He forth again departs who looks behind.” As in the hinges of that sacred ward The swivels turn’d, sonorous metal strong, Harsh was the grating; nor so surlily Roar’d the Tarpeian, when by force bereft Of good Metellus, thenceforth from his loss To leanness doom’d. Attentively I turn’d, List’ning the thunder, that first issued forth; And “We praise thee, O God,” methought I heard In accents blended with sweet melody. The strains came o’er mine ear, e’en as the sound Of choral voices, that in solemn chant With organ mingle, and, now high and clear, Come swelling, now float indistinct away.

CANTO X
When we had passed the threshold of the gate (Which the soul’s ill affection doth disuse, Making the crooked seem the straighter path), I heard its closing sound. Had mine eyes turn’d, For that offence what plea might have avail’d? We mounted up the riven rock, that wound On either side alternate, as the wave

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Flies and advances. “Here some little art Behooves us,” said my leader, “that our steps Observe the varying flexure of the path.” Thus we so slowly sped, that with cleft orb The moon once more o’erhangs her wat’ry couch, Ere we that strait have threaded. But when free We came and open, where the mount above One solid mass retires, I spent, with toil, And both, uncertain of the way, we stood, Upon a plain more lonesome, than the roads That traverse desert wilds. From whence the brink Borders upon vacuity, to foot Of the steep bank, that rises still, the space Had measur’d thrice the stature of a man: And, distant as mine eye could wing its flight, To leftward now and now to right dispatch’d, That cornice equal in extent appear’d. Not yet our feet had on that summit mov’d, When I discover’d that the bank around, Whose proud uprising all ascent denied, Was marble white, and so exactly wrought With quaintest sculpture, that not there alone Had Polycletus, but e’en nature’s self Been sham’d. The angel who came down to earth With tidings of the peace so many years

Wept for in vain, that op’d the heavenly gates From their long interdict) before us seem’d, In a sweet act, so sculptur’d to the life, He look’d no silent image. One had sworn He had said, “Hail!” for she was imag’d there, By whom the key did open to God’s love, And in her act as sensibly impress That word, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord,” As figure seal’d on wax. “Fix not thy mind On one place only,” said the guide belov’d, Who had me near him on that part where lies The heart of man. My sight forthwith I turn’d And mark’d, behind the virgin mother’s form, Upon that side, where he, that mov’d me, stood, Another story graven on the rock. I passed athwart the bard, and drew me near, That it might stand more aptly for my view. There in the self-same marble were engrav’d The cart and kine, drawing the sacred ark, That from unbidden office awes mankind. Before it came much people; and the whole Parted in seven quires. One sense cried, “Nay,” Another, “Yes, they sing.” Like doubt arose Betwixt the eye and smell, from the curl’d fume Of incense breathing up the well-wrought toil.

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as one Made hasty by her grief. girt in humble guise. But look intently thither. struggling with the wind.” I began. who then is. if thou Dost not return?”—”Where I am. Reader! I would not that amaz’d thou miss Of thy good purpose.” He answering thus: “So courb’d to earth. To behold the tablet next.” the poet whisper’d. were not slow to turn. Think that at worst beyond the mighty doom It cannot pass. Trajan th’ Emperor. The wretch appear’d amid all these to say: “Grant vengeance.” At length he answers. a multitude advance. new to us and strange The like not found on earth. 155 . May right thee.Purgatory Preceding the blest vessel. attir’d In tears and mourning. from the lattice forth Look’d Michol.” Mine eyes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . hearing how just God Decrees our debts be cancel’d. whose ken nothing new surveys. onward came With light dance leaping. woe beshrew this heart My son is murder’d.”—” What to thee is other’s good. Round about them troop’d Full throng of knights. Ponder not The form of suff’ring. I mov’d me. “It beseemeth well My duty be perform’d. If thou neglect thy own?”—”Now comfort thee. like a lady full of scorn And sorrow.” And she. Think on what succeeds. “Instructor.” He. sire! for. Opposite. These to the lofty steps shall guide us on.” He replying seem’d. nor of aught beside That my foil’d sight can guess. though bent on view of novel sights Their lov’d allurement. “O sire. A widow at his bridle stood. Which at the hack of Michol whitely shone. Shapes yet more precious for their artist’s sake. An disentangle with thy lab’ring view. At a great palace. When “Lo. “Wait now till I return. and pity bids me stay. beneath their heavy teems Of torment stoop they. Whose mighty worth mov’d Gregory to earn His mighty conquest. Sweet Israel’s harper: in that hap he seem’d Less and yet more than kingly. Fondly I gaz’d Upon those patterns of meek humbleness. There was storied on the rock The’ exalted glory of the Roman prince. bears no trace Of human semblance. that mine eye at first Struggled as thine. and overhead in gold The eagles floated. “What I see hither tending. produc’d That visible speaking. “where this way (But slack their pace). ere I move hence: So justice wills.

came indeed Or more or less contract. without which he roams Through this rough desert retrograde. For corbel is a figure sometimes seen. to support incumbent floor or roof. circling thy throne With loud hosannas. when I noted well their guise.” CANTO XI O thou Almighty Father. This last petition. ‘Gainst the old adversary prove thou not Our virtue easily subdu’d. but free From his incitements and defeat his wiles.” Christians and proud! O poor and wretched ones! That feeble in the mind’s eye. as his back was laden. for we.The Divine Comedy of Dante . unless it come. As we to each Pardon the evil done us. But that with love intenser there thou view’st Thy primal effluence. With the feign’d posture stirring ruth unfeign’d In the beholder’s fancy. but it appear’d As he. May thy kingdom’s peace Come unto us. Grant us this day Our daily manna. pardon thou Benign.Purgatory What underneath those stones approacheth: now. and of our merit take no count. As of their will the angels unto thee Tender meet sacrifice. who dost make The heavens thy dwelling. Wailing exclaim’d: “I can endure no more. imp’d with angel plumes That to heaven’s justice unobstructed soars? Why buoy ye up aloft your unfleg’d souls? Abortive then and shapeless ye remain. With all our striving thither tend in vain. yet made at last to form The winged insect. for worthy humblest thanks and praise Is thy blest Spirit. mayst thou discern the pangs of each. That crumples up its knees unto its breast. not in bounds confin’d. Like the untimely embryon of a worm! As. lean your trust Upon unstaid perverseness! Know ye not That we are worms. dearest Lord! is made 156 . who show’d most patience in his look. so of theirs be done By saintly men on earth. E’en now. Each. hallow’d be thy name: Join each created being to extol Thy might. so I saw These fashion’d. who most Toils to advance his steps.

I know not if ye e’er have heard. and to such excess.” From whom the answer came unto these words. who yet lives. Which my guide spake. which e’en to your desire Shall lift you. Those spirits went beneath a weight like that We sometimes feel in dreams. that ye have power To stretch your wing. For this man who comes with me. as ye show us on which hand Toward the ladder leads the shortest way. wearied all. purging as they go. since that were needless now. till I appease God’s angry justice. him. but my kindred all involv’d In mischief with her. Despite his better will but slowly mounts.” 157 . all. that I fell. what can here For them be vow’d and done by such. whose wills Have root of goodness in them? Well beseems That we should help them wash away the stains They carried hence. Instruct us of that easiest to ascend. wherewith This arrogant neck is tam’d. appear’d not. Wax’d in my scorn of all men. whence needs I stoop My visage to the ground. “Ah! so may mercy-temper’d justice rid Your burdens speedily. But for their sakes who after us remain. sore beset. Each child in Campagnatico.” Thus for themselves and us good speed imploring. And if there be more passages than one. but ’twas said “Along the bank to rightward come with us. that I clean forgot The common mother. And ye shall find a pass that mocks not toil Of living man to climb: and were it not That I am hinder’d by the rock.Purgatory Not for ourselves. and bears yet The charge of fleshly raiment Adam left him. They may spring upward to the starry spheres. Whose name thou speak’st not him I fain would view. I was of Latiun. But with unequal anguish. not me only pride Hath injur’d. by what fate Sienna’s sons. since I did it not Amongst the living. I am Omberto. To mark if e’er I knew him? and to crave His pity for the fardel that I bear. Here my lot ordains Under this weight to groan. Fell therefore. can tell. Round the first circuit. of a Tuscan horn A mighty one: Aldobranlesco’s name My sire’s. My old blood and forefathers’ gallant deeds Made me so haughty. here amongst the dead. The world’s gross darkness off: In our behalf If there vows still be offer’d. that so made pure and light.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

In truth I had not been thus courteous to him. whose hue doth come and go. if. The noise Of worldly fame is but a blast of wind. if thy flesh Part shrivel’d from thee. “Art thou not Oderigi. glory of that art Which they of Paris call the limmer’s skill?” “Brother!” said he. That blows from divers points.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and his name eclips’d. and shifts its name Shifting the point it blows from. 158 . able still To sin. I had not turn’d me unto God. Bolognian Franco’s pencil lines the leaves. mine borrow’d light. Who shall drive either from their nest. through eagerness of zeal For that pre-eminence my heart was bent on. if an age Less bright succeed not! Cimabue thought To lord it over painting’s field. a space. than if thou hadst died. The whilst I liv’d. Holding his eyes With difficulty fix’d Intent upon me. far and wide Through Tuscany resounded once. when destruction caught The madd’ning rage of Florence.Purgatory List’ning I bent my visage down: and one (Not he who spake) twisted beneath the weight That urg’d him. and allay What tumours rankle there. Before the coral and the pap were left. Thus hath one Guido from the other snatch’d The letter’d prize: and he perhaps is born. Shalt thou more Live in the mouths of mankind. Here of such pride the forfeiture is paid. “O!” I exclaim’d. and call’d.” I thus to him: “True are thy sayings: to my heart they breathe The kindly spirit of meekness. stooping as I went Companion of their way. Nor were I even here. He there who treads So leisurely before me. nipp’d E’en in its height of verdure. O powers of man! how vain your glory. by whom it sprang Crude from the lap of earth. to eternity compar’d. Your renown Is as the herb. knew me straight. Briefer than is the twinkling of an eye To the heaven’s slowest orb. and now The cry is Giotto’s. But who is he Of whom thou spak’st but now?”—”This. art not thou Agobbio’s glory. Or ere some thousand years have passed? and that Is. in that day Proud as she now is loathsome. saw me. And his might withers it. His all the honour now. and now Is in Sienna scarce with whispers nam’d: There was he sov’reign. “with tints that gayer smile.” he replied.

He is here.” Long as the mild instructor suffer’d me. But when he bade me quit him. How chanc’d admittance was vouchsaf’d to him?” “When at his glory’s topmost height. This is the work. Thus goeth never-resting. More I will not say. The Thymbraean god CANTO XII With equal pace as oxen in the yoke. Such is th’ acquittance render’d back of him. as best he may. but thy neighbours soon Shall help thee to a comment on the text. And each had shown how light we far’d along When thus he warn’d me: “Bend thine eyesight down: For thou to ease the way shall find it good To ruminate the bed beneath thy feet. Who. whate’er of space From forth the mountain stretches. above all creatures erst Created noblest. my words are.” As in memorial of the buried. still in thought submissive bow’d. Nor hither mount. I with that laden spirit journey’d on 159 . beyond measure. “Respect of dignity all cast aside. I rais’d My body. Nor for his sake refus’d through every vein To tremble. So saw I there. with grasp presumptuous. drawn Upon earth-level tombs. the sculptur’d form Of what was once. I now my leader’s track not loth pursued.” said he. push on his bark”). Upright. dar’d on earth. that from these limits freed him. and proceed (For “here. Whose sacred stings the piteous only feel). as one dispos’d for speed.” I then: “If soul that to the verge of life delays Repentance. but with more curious skill Of portraiture o’erwrought. Freely He fix’d him on Sienna’s plain. at the sway Of all Sienna. Thus he still hath gone. and dark. A suitor to redeem his suff’ring friend.Purgatory “Is Provenzano. linger in that lower space. appears (at sight whereof Tears often stream forth by remembrance wak’d. On one part Him I beheld. because He reach’d. I know. since he died. unless good prayers befriend.” said he. Who languish’d in the prison-house of Charles. light’ning fall from heaven: On th’ other side with bolt celestial pierc’d Briareus: cumb’ring earth he lay through dint Of mortal ice-stroke.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “behooves with sail and oars Each man.

Wear thou in look And gesture seemly grace of reverent awe. from that hour Ne’er visited with rain from heav’n or dew! O fond Arachne! thee I also saw Half spider now in anguish crawling up Th’ unfinish’d web thou weaved’st to thy bane! O Rehoboam! here thy shape doth seem Louring no more defiance! but fear-smote With none to chase him in his chariot whirl’d. upon that highway drawn. The living seem’d alive.Purgatory With Mars. when she cried: “Blood thou didst thirst for. I saw. Troy I mark’d In ashes and in caverns. Than mine what I did tread on. was thy semblance there! What master of the pencil or the style Had trac’d the shades and lines.The Divine Comedy of Dante . O Niobe! in what a trance of woe Thee I beheld. Was shown beside upon the solid floor How dear Alcmaeon forc’d his mother rate That ornament in evil hour receiv’d: How in the temple on Sennacherib fell His sons. take thy fill of blood!” Was shown how routed in the battle fled Th’ Assyrians. ye sons of Eve! veil not your looks. 160 . Oh! how fall’n. Sev’n sons on either side thee slain! O Saul! How ghastly didst thou look! on thine own sword Expiring in Gilboa. Was shown the scath and cruel mangling made By Tomyris on Cyrus. Holofernes slain. Behold That way an angel hasting towards us! Lo Where duly the sixth handmaid doth return From service on the day. Arm’d still. Ilion. while I went Low bending. Now swell out. and how a corpse they left him there. and Pallas. and e’en The relics of the carnage. and with stiff necks Pass on. Lest they descry the evil of your path! I noted not (so busied was my thought) How much we now had circled of the mount. who with still wakeful caution went. Admonish’d: “Raise thou up thy head: for know Time is not now for slow suspense. that might have made The subtlest workman wonder? Dead the dead. Nimrod I saw: At foot of the stupendous work he stood. with clearer view His eye beheld not who beheld the truth. How abject. And of his course yet more the sun had spent. and gazing on the giant’s limbs Strewn o’er th’ ethereal field. As if bewilder’d. When he. looking on the crowd Leagued in his proud attempt on Sennaar’s plain. round their sire.

And well performs such office as the eye Wants power to execute: so stretching forth The fingers of my right hand. as one is. searches.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whence thus I spake: “Say.Purgatory That gladly he may forward us aloft. then his wings. but delight much more Shall wait them urg’d along their upward way. The goodly shape approach’d us. which here Precipitous from the other circuit falls: But on each hand the tall cliff presses close. in strain Ineffable. behold! are near. upon whose head is plac’d Somewhat he deems not of but from the becks Of others as they pass him by. and spake: “Onward: the steps. snowy white In vesture. they not alone shall feel No sense of labour.” Then like to one. Thus is th’ acclivity reliev’d. I could not miss the scope at which he aim’d. all clean razed out. finds.” Ah how far unlike to these The straits of hell. looking lordly down On the well-guided city. then promis’d I should fare In safety on my way. why suffer ye a wind So slight to baffle ye? He led us on Where the rock parted. O ye race of men Though born to soar. upon whose brow the chapel stands (O’er Rubaconte. here against my front Did beat his wings.) up the right Th’ impetuous rise is broken by the steps Carv’d in that old and simple age. hasten. that scarce aught the sense of toil Affects me journeying?” He in few replied: “When sin’s broad characters. and now Th’ ascent is without difficulty gain’d. sang: “Blessed are the poor In spirit. There shrieks of woe! We climb the holy stairs: And lighter to myself by far I seem’d Than on the plain before. did I find 161 . master. Consider that this day ne’er dawns again. who when they hear Such tidings. Shall be. and with visage casting streams Of tremulous lustre like the matin star. here songs to usher us. though well nigh effac’d. As ent’ring there we turn’d. that yet remain Upon thy temples. Then shall thy feet by heartiness of will Be so o’ercome. his hand Lends therefore help to’ assure him. of what heavy thing have I Been lighten’d. when still The registry and label rested safe. His arms he open’d. As to ascend That steep.” A scanty few are they.” Time’s loss he had so often warn’d me ‘gainst. voices.

made his right the central point From whence to move. “They have no wine. when another came Crying.” 162 . “Oh father!” I exclaim’d. The curb Is of a harsher sound. “I am Orestes. The leader.Purgatory Six only of the letters. A cornice there. “knots the scourge For envy. “I fear Our choice may haply meet too long delay.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” “This circuit. I heard CANTO XIII We reach’d the summit of the scale. call’d forth aloud. each Along the shelving grot. In brief space had we journey’d. and saw Shadows with garments dark as was the rock. who courteously Unto love’s table bade the welcome guest. Like to the former. my confidence and hope. and towards us flying. Conduct us thou. nor yet lost In the faint distance. as is measur’d for a mile on earth.” he cried. If no other cause Forbid.” and alike Wing’d its fleet way.” Then more than erst I op’d my eyes. ere thou reach the pass. Save that its arch with sweep less ample bends. “O pleasant light. as he mark’d mine action. which his sword Who bare the keys had trac’d upon my brow. And when we pass’d a little forth. leading to the bourn We seek. and the cords are therefore drawn By charity’s correcting hand. Those sounds reiterating. “What tongues are these?” and as I question’d. before me view’d. smil’d. Where pardon sets them free. that first? flew by. girdles round the hill.“ so on behind us past. Far. and thou shalt see A multitude before thee seated. The voice. Where now I venture. all smooth The rampart and the path. such prompt will Impell’d. lo! A third exclaiming. “on this new way. “If here we wait For some to question. reflecting nought But the rock’s sullen hue.” said the bard.” Then fixedly upon the sun his eyes He fastn’d. The universal world to thee Owes warmth and lustre. as thou shalt hear (If I deem rightly). and stood Upon the second buttress of that mount Which healeth him who climbs. now were heard Spirits invisible. thy beams should ever be our guide.” said my teacher. Shadow nor image there is seen. But fix thine eyes Intently through the air. “Love ye those have wrong’d you. and turn’d the left aside.

to pass and look On others. Any thou wouldst say. A spirit I noted. and perchance That soul may profit. leaning. that their semblances Came clearly to my view. “Blessed Mary! pray for us. in whose look was mark’d Expectance. as appeal’d. sole object of your wish. So may heaven’s grace clear whatsoe’er of foam Floats turbid on the conscience. He knew the meaning of the mute appeal. It were a wrong. but said: “Speak. and be brief. And as never beam Of noonday visiteth the eyeless man. their cheeks Bathing devout with penitential tears. we are each one citizens Of one true city. Stand. impiercing. That through the dread impalement forc’d a way. Nor waited for my questioning. E’en so was heav’n a niggard unto these Of his fair light. through the orbs of all.” On that part of the cornice. to crave an alms. Ask ye how? The chin was rais’d As in one reft of sight.Purgatory A crying. be subtle in thy words. A thread of wire.” said I. when now I stood so near them. As ye declare (for so shall ye impart A boon I dearly prize) if any soul Of Latium dwell among ye. To my sage counsel therefore did I turn. but that.” So heard I answering. knits them up. which moves not less. each his head upon his fellow’s sunk. Who lived a stranger in Italia’s land. methought. Of sackcloth vile Their cov’ring seem’d. Near the confessionals.” “My brother. whence no rim Engarlands its steep fall.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The sight of mis’ry. that thenceforth The stream of mind roll limpid from its source. Mine eyes a load of sorrow teemed. and all lean’d Against the cliff. 163 . a voice That onward came some space from whence I stood. On the’ other side me were the spirits. if I learn so much. not by sound Of words alone. and “O shades!” said I. E’en thus the blind and poor. that he hath not yearn’d With pity at the sight that next I saw. for. As for the taming of a haggard hawk. So most to stir compassion. yet myself the while unseen. “Assur’d that to your eyes unveil’d shall shine The lofty light. I turn’d me to them. “Spirit. Michael and Peter! all ye saintly host!” I do not think there walks on earth this day Man so remorseless. did Virgil come. and on his shoulder one Did stay another.

if thou weenest to return?” “He. it is great sign That God doth love thee.” said I. that I may know thee. That nether load already weighs me down. And I pray’d God to grant what He had will’d. Them shalt thou behold With that vain multitude. more shall when the fancied stream They sought of Dian call’d: but they who lead 164 . And like the merlin cheated by a gleam. “who standeth mute beside me. Vouchsafe him to us. nor repentance had supplied What I did lack of duty. Therefore with thy prayer Sometime assist me: and by that I crave.”—”Oh!” she replied. there to fail Confounded. “May yet be here ta’en from me. disclose thyself. “It is over. I mark’d the hunt. Cried. But who art thou that question’st of our state. Hear. That thou mayst own I now deceive thee not. Who go’st to my belief. There were they vanquish’d. thou save my fame Amongst my kindred.” She thus: “Who then amongst us here aloft Hath brought thee. In his devout orisons thought on me. When now my years slop’d waning down the arch. And breathest in thy talk?”—”Mine eyes. Soliciting with tears that He. If thou desire I yonder yet should move For thee my mortal feet. I live: of me ask therefore. chosen spirit. that if thy feet E’er tread on Tuscan soil. “of Sienna: here I cleanse away with these the evil life. Heav’n! I fear thee not. Though Sapia nam’d In sapience I excell’d not. my fellow citizens Near Colle met their enemies in the field. who is. who set their hope On Telamone’s haven. But the woe beneath Urges my soul with more exceeding dread.” Upon my verge of life I wish’d for peace With God.” it answer’d. touch’d with charity. lifted up my shameless brow. It so bechanc’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but not long. than of the good befell me. For they have not offended grievously With envious glances. and waxing out of bounds In gladness.) or by place Or name.Purgatory “Who for thy rise are tutoring (if thou be That which didst answer to me.” answer’d I. with lids unclos’d. and betook themselves Unto the bitter passages of flight. Which most thou covetest. gladder far Of others’ hurt.” “I was. were it not The hermit Piero. “This is so strange a thing. if my folly were not as I speak it.

” “If well I do incorp’rate with my thought The meaning of thy speech. “thou dost speak of Arno’s wave. From his banks bring. Or ever death has prun’d his wing for flight. I this frame. we pray thee’ comfort us.” To whom the other: “Why hath he conceal’d The title of that river. Do thou ask of him. whose well-head Springs up in Falterona. That opes his eyes and covers them at will?” “I know not who he is. talk’d of me. ‘Midst brute swine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I straight began: “a brooklet.Purgatory Their navies. Nature is so transform’d. with his race Not satisfied. That custom goads to evil: whence in those. Throughout the space is virtue worried down. then both Addressing me. Or through disastrous influence on the place. tendest towards the sky! For charity.” Thus on the right two Spirits bending each Toward the other. Or else distortion of misguided wills. so that he may speak. for from the source Where teems so plenteously the Alpine steep Maim’d of Pelorus.” “There stretches through the midst of Tuscany. for mortal foe. Worthier of acorns than of other food CANTO XIV “Say who is he around our mountain winds. For thou art nearer to him. by all.” said he. but know thus much He comes not singly. it seems as they Had shar’d of Circe’s feeding.) even to the point Whereunto ocean is restor’d. who Thereof was question’d. who yet Pent in the body. (that doth scarcely pass Beyond that limit. And thus the one began: “O soul.” To tell you who I am were words misspent: For yet my name scarce sounds on rumour’s lip. 165 . Recounting whence thou com’st. The dwellers in that miserable vale. who first Addrest me. as a man Doth of some horrible thing?” The spirit. more than ruin’d hopes shall mourn. when he some hundred miles Hath measur’d. did acquit him thus: “I know not: but ‘tis fitting well the name Should perish of that vale. As ‘twere a snake. and take heed Accost him gently. their faces backward lean’d. what heaven Drains from th’ exhaustless store for all earth’s streams. as at a thing that ne’er hath been. and who thou art: For thou dost make us at the favour shown thee Marvel.

Purgatory Created for man’s use. finds Curs. who tidings hears of woe to come. thou hadst mark’d A livid paleness overspread my cheek. himself of worth And goodly estimation. Descending still Through yet more hollow eddies. e’en so much it finds Dogs turning into wolves. sloping onward. O man. the mount. Leaving such havoc. so beheld I change That spirit. that hath been stript (‘twixt Po. 166 . Envy so parch’d my blood. he shapeth first His obscure way.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” As one. Nor his the only blood. that had I seen A fellow man made joyous. this the boast And honour of the house of Calboli. The shade. if he keep in memory What from no erring Spirit I reveal. and the shore. who late addrest me. But since God’s will is that so largely shine His grace in thee. that in thousand years It spreads not to prime lustihood again. His visage and the other’s speech did raise Desire in me to know the names of both. Many of life he reaves. They do not fear that skill can master it. It shall be well For this man. then. snarlers more in spite than power. next he meets A race of foxes. Changes his looks perturb’d.) Of all that truth or fancy asks for bliss. struck With sadness. from whom He turns with scorn aside: still journeying down. thus resum’d: “Thy wish imports that I vouchsafe to do For thy sake what thou wilt not do for mine. Such harvest reap I of the seed I sow’d. upon the shore Of the fierce stream. Where of his worth no heritage remains. why place thy heart where there doth need Exclusion of participants in good? This is Rinieri’s spirit. whereof with meek entreaty I inquir’d. Then like an aged beast to slaughter dooms. Guido of Duca know then that I am. Nor will I cease because my words are heard By other ears than thine. Smear’d with gore Mark how he issues from the rueful wood. from whate’er part The peril grasp him. and cows them all with dread: Their flesh yet living sets he up to sale. Lo! I behold thy grandson. I will be liberal too. the Reno. that becomes A hunter of those wolves. By how much more the curst and luckless foss Swells out to largeness. who had turn’d to listen. so replete with craft. soon as he had caught the word.

Bagnacavallo. Tignoso and his troop. With Traversaro’s house and Anastagio s. warping from thy stock. Behold the other with a crash as loud As the quick-following thunder: “Mark in me Aglauros turn’d to rock. since none is look’d for after thee To cloud its lustre. Since forth of thee thy family hath gone. as the bolt Lanc’d sudden from a downward-rushing cloud. Wonder not. if thou see me weep. join’d their steps? Well doeth he. Now in mute stillness rested all the air: And thus he spake: “There was the galling bit. O Hugolin! Thou sprung of Fantolini’s line! thy name Is safe. who care to propagate A race of Counties from such blood as theirs.” We knew those gentle spirits at parting heard Our steps. howe’er. O Brettinoro! wherefore tarriest still. (Each race disherited) and beside these.” then fled from us. And Conio worse. 167 . Soon as we had quitted them. Castracaro ill. And many. Well shall ye also do. That witch’d us into love and courtesy. Tuscan.” I at the sound Retreating drew more closely to my guide. Traversalo.Purgatory But in those limits such a growth has sprung Of rank and venom’d roots. When I recall to mind those once lov’d names. A gentle cyon from ignoble stem. When it had giv’n short truce unto our hearing. Their silence therefore of our way Assur’d us. But your old enemy so baits his hook. Met us. for now I take Far more delight in weeping than in words. that henceforth there remain True proof of what ye were. Tuscan. Where is good Lizio? where Manardi. and shouted. then When from amongst you tries your demon child. And in Faenza yon Bernardin sprouts. the toils and ease. Advancing onward. The ladies and the knights. Such pity for your sakes hath wrung my heart. when it rives the air. lo! a voice that seem’d Like vollied light’ning. as long would mock Slow culture’s toil. But. Where now such malice reigns in recreant hearts.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Pagani. and Carpigna? O bastard slips of old Romagna’s line! When in Bologna the low artisan. that bids his lineage cease. go thy ways. “Whosoever finds Will slay me. Guido of Prata. Not so. and of Azzo him That dwelt with you. hating evil.

As thy perception is by nature wrought Up to their pitch. and both hands against my brow Lifting. than before. e’en as it fell. and here the noon of night.” Striking On water or the surface clear Of mirror. if the family of heav’n. Evening was there. that toward the sun-set now Direct we journey’d: when I felt a weight Of more exceeding splendour. and as we went. The cause unknown. shall impart to thee delight. Ascending at a glance. nor reclaiming call. so our path Had led us. whence in sudden haste My sight recoil’d. Thus with refracted light before me seemed The ground there smitten.” He answer’d. Not grievous. leaps unto the opposite part. 168 . Such sights ere long. “yet with dazzling radiance dim Thy sense it is a messenger who comes. that ever whirls As restless as an infant in his play. Inviting man’s ascent. Some profit from his words I hop’d to win. Therefore He smites you who discerneth all. circling. “Blessed the merciful. (And so much differs from the stone.” Lonely each.” We forthwith Ascending. That of its gorgeous superflux of light Clipp’d the diminish’d orb. hail’d us with glad voice: “Here enter on a ladder far less steep Than ye have yet encounter’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Heav’n calls And round about you wheeling courts your gaze With everlasting beauties. As when the ray. I interpos’d them. “and which towards us moving seems?” “Marvel not.” and “happy thou! That conquer’st. Yet your eye Turns with fond doting still upon the earth. heard behind us chanted sweet.Purgatory He drags you eager to him. as practice skill hath shown. So much appear’d remaining to the sun Of his slope journey towards the western goal. and full upon our forehead smote the beams. as a screen. Hence nor curb Avails you. my guide and I Pursued our upward way.” The blessed angel. Appeareth of heav’n’s sphere. CANTO XV As much as ‘twixt the third hour’s close and dawn. For round the mountain. sire belov’d! ‘Gainst which I strive to shield the sight in vain?” Cried I. Press on my front. “What is this. amaze Possess’d me. that falls Through equal space. soon As we had reach’d him.

And in a temple saw. A female next 169 . So that the more aspirants to that bliss Are multiplied. Provide but thou That from thy temples may be soon eras’d. There suddenly I seem’d By an ecstatic vision wrapt away. makes more rich. and heighten’d charity Wraps that fair cloister in a brighter flame. Where. more good is there to love. No fear of that might touch ye.” when I saw The other round was gain’d. If these my words avail not to allay Thy thirsting. and of all else thou hast. those five scars. So much propriety of each in good Increases more. that reflect.” I had said. “content’st me. And doubt more gathers on my lab’ring thought. fram’d my speech: “What meant Romagna’s spirit. wherever charity extends. Strikes darkness from true light. by communion of possessors.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose sweet demeanour did express A mother’s love. doth so speed To love. ineffable.Purgatory And thus of him inquiring.” “Thou. and at th’ entrance stood A dame. and so held her peace. envy bloweth up the sighs of men. How can it chance. The many. that they less may mourn. when he spake Of bliss exclusive with no partner shar’d?” He straight replied: “No wonder. Than if ‘t were shar’d by few?” He answering thus: “Thy mind. methought. What sorrow waits on his own worst defect. propagated light. The highest good Unlimited.” said I. Giving as much of ardour as it finds. then kindliest heal. Beatrice thou shalt see. and wond’ring eyes Did keep me mute. part Is lessen’d. Who of this want. Shall rid thee to the full. a crowd Of many persons. And more is lov’d. “Child! why hast thou Dealt with us thus? Behold thy sire and I Sorrowing have sought thee”. by how much more they call it ours. If he chide others. as mirrors. For there. reverting still to things of earth. “Than if thou hadst been silent at the first. E’en as the two already. That when they pain thee worst. And straight the vision fled. who said. that possess it.” “Now lack I satisfaction more. Each unto other. The sempiternal effluence streams abroad Spreading. if the love Of higher sphere exalted your desire. as beam to lucid body darts. since he knows. that good distributed. Because ye point your wishes at a mark.

that grief forces out from one By deep resentment stung. be lord indeed Over this city.” said I. in fury burning. Benign and meek. yet made His eyes. with visage undisturb’d. I not ask’d. unfolded upward.” He thus: “Not if thy Countenance were mask’d With hundred vizards. I will tell thee what appear’d Before me. down whose visage cours’d Those waters. when their hour of watch returns. To give fresh vigour to thy foot. As one. Who wish us evil. meseem’d. Avenge thee of those arms. slay With stones a stripling youth. Praying forgiveness of th’ Almighty Sire. that flow diffus’d From their eternal fountain. could a thought of thine How small soe’er. who struggles to shake off his sleep. and whence each science sparkles. a fog made tow’rds us. Exclaim’d: “What ails thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 170 . as our eyes With level view could stretch against the bright Vespertine ray: and lo! by slow degrees Gath’ring. who bow’d Heavy with death unto the ground. sought again the things. Her sovran spake: “How shall we those requite. Pisistratus. Amidst that cruel conflict.” So on we journey’d through the evening sky Gazing intent. if we thus condemn The man that loves us?” After that I saw A multitude. Soon as my spirit. “To listen. When spiritless the body lies. destroy“: and him I saw. I observ’d How she had rov’d to no unreal scenes Meanwhile the leader. that With compassion to their aim. “and to fuel. whose bold embrace Hath clasp’d our daughter. far onward. nam’d with such debate Of adverse gods. on his foes. but ask’d. What ails thee? for such cause as he doth. when so fail’d my sinking steps. that freely thou mightst ope thy heart To the waters of peace. from her airy flight Returning. With looks. that they be found Not wanting. who seem’d to say: “If thou. who might see I mov’d. but more than half a league Hast travel’d with clos’d eyes and tott’ring gait.Purgatory Appear’d before me. What thou saw’st Was shown. who Looks only with that eye which sees no more. Like to a man by wine or sleep o’ercharg’d?” “Beloved father! so thou deign. Such goads The slow and loit’ring need. whose truth Depends not on her shaping. dark as night. elude me. gates to heav’n. and shout amain “Destroy. that thou canst not hold Thy footing firm.

both of sight and the pure air. From me conceal not who thou wast. Still list’ning to my escort’s warning voice. or night unlustrous. He wills me to behold his kingly state. And ask.Purgatory There was no room for ‘scaping.” Thus I. and he: “Thou aim’st aright: these loose the bonds of wrath. I journey’d through that bitter air and foul. Ent’ring its shade.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I ascend To higher regions. As the blind man behind his leader walks. One voice. Mine eye endured not with unclosed lids. hearing in its stead Shall keep us join’d. and each one seem’d to pray for peace. and pall’d in clouds. and that mist Bereft us.” Straight I heard Voices. Spirits. if so largely God hath doled his grace. as thou thyself e’en yet Dividest time by calends?” So one voice Bespake me. and since the cloudy smoke Forbids the seeing. “Are these I hear 171 . or stumble unawares On what might harm him. whence my master said: “Reply. if upward hence the passage lead. Offering me his shoulder for a stay. Did never spread before the sight a veil In thickness like that fog.” “O being! who dost make thee pure. nor to the sense So palpable and gross.” I then forthwith began “Yet in my mortal swathing. And. thy words CANTO XVI Hell’s dunnest gloom. one measure ran. Their prelude still Was “Agnus Dei. Which marking. shall my steps Follow on thine. dark. near me drew the faithful guide. and am hither come Through the fearful agony of hell. ere death Had loos’d thee. to the Lamb of God That taketh sins away. Of every planes ‘reft. That. “Look that from me thou part not. whereto the spirit answering spake: “Long as ‘t is lawful for me. that through our smoke dost cleave? And speak’st of us. O master?” I exclaim’d. but instruct me: and instruct If rightly to the pass I tend. or perhaps destroy. Lest he should err.” and through all the choir.” “Now who art thou. And for compassion. to stand Beautiful once more in thy Maker’s sight! Along with me: and thou shalt hear and wonder. that perfect seem’d The concord of their song. clean beside all modern precedent.

not constrain’d by that. If this were so. woe for ill. who charm’d beholds Her image ere she yet exist. if I solve it not. Of some slight good The flavour soon she tastes. And unto others show it: for in heaven One places it. That wrings me sorely. doubled now By thine opinion.Purgatory The way directing as a safe escort. And of the will free power. Singly before it urg’d me. who live. and find it there. and one on earth below. point The cause out to me. if it stand Firm and unwearied in Heav’n’s first assay. Save that her Maker being one who dwells With gladness ever.” “I was of Lombardy. Conquers at last. E’en as its motion of necessity Drew with it all that moves. Yet one doubt remains. Yet. Free choice in you were none. beseech thee. nor justice would There should be joy for virtue. from which all have turn’d The nerveless bow aside. 172 . Herein thou shalt confess me no false spy. When thou shalt come aloft. If then the present race of mankind err. that wantons sportively Weeping and laughing in its wayward moods. and Marco call’d: Not inexperienc’d of the world. Do so each cause refer to heav’n above. “the world is blind. when I couple that With one elsewhere declar’d. Ye. what then ensues? Light have ye still to follow evil or good. To better nature subject. To mightier force. snar’d by that. replying thus. that myself may see. As artless and as ignorant of aught.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thy course tends right Unto the summit:” and. And thou in truth com’st from it. Seek in yourselves the cause. the soul Comes like a babe. each strength’ning other. Triumphant over all. that worth I still affected. which. Not all. “I beseech thee pray for me. The world indeed is even so forlorn Of all good as thou speak’st it and so swarms With every evil. so it be cherish’d well. yet said I all. willingly she turns To whate’er yields her joy. “Brother!” he thus began. Your movements have their primal bent from heaven.” And I to him: “Accept my faith for pledge I will perform What thou requirest.” Then heaving forth a deep and audible sigh. which forms in you The reasoning mind uninfluenc’d of the stars. and. “Forth from his plastic hand. ye abide Free. He added.

On this at last conclude. the shepherd of the flock.” “O Marco!” I replied. of Palazzo he Conrad. Laws indeed there are: But who is he observes them? None. was once the residence Of courtesy and velour. who see their guide Strike at the very good they covet most. Hath miss’d her footing. now secure may pass Those limits. that turn’d it unto good. the law should be a curb. whose piercing view Might mark at least the fortress and main tower Of the true city. shine arguments Convince me: and the cause I now discern Why of the heritage no portion came To Levi’s offspring. whose several beams Cast light on either way. That frown’d on Frederick. that as thou sayst Is left a sample of the perish’d race. Who goes before. Therefore the multitude. The church of Rome. The sole addition that. Mixing two governments that ill assort. One since hath quench’d the other. Feed there and look no further. that thou. Who chews the cud but doth not cleave the hoof. To talk with good men. But resolve me this Who that Gherardo is. nam’d In Gallic phrase more fitly the plain Lombard. not he. Hence it behov’d.Purgatory With fondness she pursues it. speaking Tuscan. And for rebuke to this untoward age?” “Either thy words. or come near their haunts. and the sword Is grafted on the crook. Rome. And there herself and burden much defil’d. in whom The old time chides the new: these deem it long Ere God restore them to a better world: The good Gherardo. Three aged ones are still found there. whosoe’er hath left. the world’s and God’s. That land. if no guide Recall. and so conjoin’d Each must perforce decline to worse. or else Are meant to try me. If thou doubt me. through which Adice and the Po Their waters roll. mark The blade: each herb is judg’d of by its seed. A sovereign hence behov’d. ere the day. Thus the cause Is not corrupted nature in yourselves. Unless I borrow’d from his daughter Gaia 173 . Appear’st not to have heard of good Gherado. fall’n into the mire. no rein direct her wand’ring course.” said he. and Guido of Castello.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that hath turn’d the world To evil. “deceive. unaw’d By fear of other. Was wont to boast two suns. by which I know him. for shame. But ill-conducting.

Esther his bride.” He said. Next shower’d into my fantasy a shape As of one crucified. if suddenly New radiance strike upon the closed lids. then. that bedward now his couch o’erhung. God be with you. spontaneous. “O queen! O mother! wherefore has intemperate ire Driv’n thee to loath thy being? Not to lose Lavinia. self-inform’d. like a bubble. on a mountain top. Which the water fails That fed it. we take no mark Though round about us thousand trumpets clang! What moves thee. Whose form was chang’d into the bird. been ta’en by cloud. O quick and forgetive power! that sometimes dost So rob us of ourselves. when now expir’d The parting beams from off the nether shores. and cried. Behold The dawn with white ray glimm’ring through the mist. CANTO XVII Call to remembrance. As of itself That unsubstantial coinage of the brain Burst. and would not hear me more. I bear you company no more. reader. if the senses stir not? Light 174 . it gave no place To aught that ask’d admittance from without. Or likelier gliding down with swift illapse By will divine. Blameless in word and deed. desp’rate thou hast slain thyself. if thou e’er Hast. how faintly the sun’s sphere Seem’d wading through them.Purgatory Another name to grace him. Kindled in heav’n. Portray’d before me came The traces of her dire impiety. than the mole Doth through opacous membrane.The Divine Comedy of Dante . a mother’s timeless end. that most Delights itself in song: and here my mind Was inwardly so wrapt. and Mordecai the just. And round him Ahasuerus the great king. whose visage spake Fell rancour. so thy nimble thought May image. how at first I re-beheld The sun. I am she. in my vision straight uprose A damsel weeping loud. ere I fall. Thus with my leader’s feet still equaling pace From forth that cloud I came. malice deep. I must away—the angel comes—ere he Appear. whose tears Mourn. whene’er The wat’ry vapours dense began to melt Into thin air. Now hast thou lost me. wherein he died.” E’en as a sleep breaks off. Through which thou saw’st no better.

O my strength?” So with myself I commun’d.” He thus to me: “The love of good. Till morn again return.” So spake my guide. sets himself prepar’d For blunt denial. from this delay. Thou hast not that to learn. and were fix’d like to a bark Arriv’d at land. “was without love. no need thy speech should pause. but the other swerves.. And to one ladder both address’d our steps. Before it darken: for we may not then. Or natural. and veils his form In light transcendent. yet sees need Of his prompt aidance. The natural still Is without error. I perceiv’d Near me as ‘twere the waving of a wing. or the free spirit’s growth. Give ear unto my words. As ‘fore the sun. But that thou mayst yet clearlier understand. I could not choose but gaze.” Now to such height above our heads were rais’d The last beams. that other purpose left me none. whate’er Wanted of just proportion. And in his own light shrouds him. My son.Purgatory The broken slumber quivering ere it dies. outshining far our earthly beam. nor created being. For whoso waits imploring. unsought. As round I turn’d me to survey what place I had arriv’d at. that loiter’d ill. That fann’d my face and whisper’d: “Blessed they The peacemakers: they know not evil wrath. “This is Spirit from above. “Creator. Then to my guide I turn’d. That weighs our vision down. And the first stair approaching.” he thus began. ere the suit be made. follow’d close by hooded night. We had reach’d The summit. thus my virtue fail’d Unequal. Save will so eager to behold who spake. and said: “Lov’d sire! Declare what guilt is on this circle purg’d. for I felt My o’ertoil’d sinews slacken. Who marshals us our upward way. and thou shalt cull Some fruit may please thee well. And waiting a short space. Refuse we not to lend a ready foot At such inviting: haste we to ascend. so now is done for us. As a man Doth for himself. ne’er. “Why partest from me. If our feet rest. Thus from before me sunk that imagery Vanishing. That many a star on all sides through the gloom Shone out. Here plies afresh the oar. If aught should meet mine ear in that new round. “Here ye mount.” exclaim’d A voice. here fulfils. soon as on my face there struck The light.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 175 .

Of th’ other sort Be now instructed. and to that wished bourn All therefore strive to tend. that which follows good But with disorder’d and irregular course. the thing created then Works ‘gainst its Maker. Or with more ardour than behooves. There is who hopes (his neighbour’s worth deprest. “All indistinctly apprehend a bliss On which the soul may rest. There is who so much fears the loss of power. Pursue the good. or with measure due Th’ inferior. that merits pain. fitter for thine own research. Hence thou must infer That love is germin of each virtue in ye. or less. and so sickens at the thought. is mourn’d. glory (should his fellow mount Above him). not that blest Essence. favour. While e’er it seeks The primal blessings. Here beneath This threefold love is mourn’d. and coverts hence For his own greatness that another fall. “Grant the distinction just.) Preeminence himself. CANTO XVIII The teacher ended. a bar Of equal force restrains from hating that. The love too lavishly bestow’d on this. He loves their opposite: and there is he. Three ways such love is gender’d in your clay. or defect. Along three circles over us. This cornice after just repenting lays Its penal torment on ye. no delight. But let it warp to evil. the hearts of all Yearn after it. or through excess Of vigour. but love intend The welfare mainly of the thing it loves. and his high discourse 176 . that flows from it. Partakes of ill. Now since it may not be. Whom wrong or insult seems to gall and shame That he doth thirst for vengeance. and since No being can be thought t’ exist apart And independent of the first. If ye behold Or seek it with a love remiss and lax. and such needs Must doat on other’s evil. and it remains The’ evil must be another’s. of every good the branch and root. And of each act no less. Other good There is.Purgatory If on ill object bent. Fame. which is lov’d. Account of that division tripartite Expect not. where man finds not his happiness: It is not true fruition. All from self-hatred are secure.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

soon as she is wak’d By pleasure into act. created apt To love. incline toward it. that ne’er rests Before enjoyment of the thing it loves. O guide! And my own docile mind. from which as from their source thou bring’st All good deeds and their opposite. Spirit. For from without if love Be offer’d to us. “thy words. thus drawn.” He answering thus: “What reason here discovers I have power To show thee: that which lies beyond. Is no desert of hers. substantial form. hath in itself Specific virtue of that union born. and the spirit knows No other footing. true father. and mounting seeks His birth-place and his lasting seat. was mute. my Sight Gathers so lively virtue from thy beams. Wherefore I pray thee. and speaking. reveal. who make themselves The guides of men. mark’d the secret wish By diffidence restrain’d. how the truth from those Is hidden. The soul. e’en thus Enters the captive soul into desire. distinct is seen. faith not reason’s task. and thou plainly shalt behold How much those blind have err’d. That all. yet inwardly I said: “Perchance my too much questioning offends But he. as vegetable life 177 . thy words convey.” “What love is. Of substance true Your apprehension forms its counterfeit. Which is not felt except it work.” He then: “To what I now disclose be thy clear ken Directed. earnest in my looks inquir’d If I appear’d content. whom this heart Holds dearest! thou wouldst deign by proof t’ unfold That love. with matter join’d Not in confusion mix’d. If she. Mute outwardly. expect From Beatrice. whom still Unsated thirst to hear him urg’d. and I. Then as the fire points up. who aver all love a thing Praise-worthy in itself: although perhaps Its substance seem still good. father. love is that inclining. And in you the ideal shape presenting Attracts the soul’s regard. Yet if the wax Be good.” I return’d. moves versatile which way soe’er Aught pleasing prompts her. tend she right or wrong. Enough to show thee. gave Me boldness thus to speak: “Master. it follows not th’ impression must.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Yet thence New doubts have sprung. And a new nature knit by pleasure in ye. Which is a spiritual motion. nor prov’d But through effect.Purgatory Concluding.

that from necessity arise All love that glows within you. Was lighten’d by the aid of that clear spirit. whose just voice Uttereth counsel. the pow’r is in yourselves. made the stars Appear to wink and fade. or his appetites Their first affections. at the first.” 178 . When they of Rome behold him at his set. well nigh To midnight hour belated. in her style. and whose word should keep The threshold of assent. and her broad disk Seem’d like a crag on fire. And flew to Spain. Or severs. stood as one Musing in dreary slumber.” The moon. Here is the source.The Divine Comedy of Dante . from behind. as zeal In bees to gather honey. meriting nor blame nor praise. curving each his rapid step. and were thence induc’d To leave their moral teaching to the world. Man therefore knows not. as up the vault That course she journey’d. With fury and like random rout. “Blessed Mary sought with haste The hilly region. darted in Marseilles his sting. for his Thebes If Bacchus’ help were needed. I therefore. And now the weight. Those men Who reas’ning went to depth profoundest. Caesar to subdue Ilerda. Whence cause of merit in you is deriv’d. As echoing on their shores at midnight heard Ismenus and Asopus. Grant then. such in you. so came these Tumultuous. for suddenly a multitude. By eagerness impell’d of holy love. when my questions had obtain’d Solution plain and ample. winnow’d as the chaff. Denominates free choice by eminence The noble virtue. which the sun then warms. E’en as the affections good or ill she takes. with such swiftness mov’d The mighty crowd. From whence his intellect Deduced its primal notices of things.”—”Oh tarry not: away. if in talk with thee She touch upon that theme. Soon they o’ertook us. Two spirits at their head Cried weeping. Rush’d on. Volition. that hung upon my thought. That as she list are summon’d to her bar. but not long Slumber’d.Purgatory By the green leaf. to dismiss Or harbour it. mark’d That innate freedom. Beatrice. Who raiseth Andes above Mantua’s name. Remember. Ye have that virtue in you. The steep already turning. But o’er each lower faculty supreme. Betwixt Sardinia and the Corsic isle.

And pleasur’d with the fleeting train. or ever Jordan saw his heirs: And they.” “O ye. ne’er utter’d without tears in Milan. who yet lives. Slow or neglectful. for their portion chose Life without glory. Vouchsafe us then Thy pardon. Of body ill compact. Who for that monastery ere long shall weep. when the hand Of Barbarossa grasp’d Imperial sway. So morning rise to light us. who with Aeneas to the end Endur’d not suffering. to whom the sea Open’d. We may not linger: such resistless will Speeds our unwearied course. CANTO XIX It was the hour.” Soon as they had fled Past reach of sight. Lo! two with sharp remorse Chiding their sin!” In rear of all the troop These shouted: “First they died. Therefore say Which hand leads nearest to the rifted rock?” So spake my guide. in whom intenser fervency Haply supplies. and the geomancer sees His Greater Fortune up the east ascend. Where gray dawn checkers first the shadowy cone. or planetary sway Of Saturn. “let not time be lost Through slackness of affection. Yet thus much I heard. and in rememb’rance treasur’d it. And born in evil.” Whether more he spake. though strange) desires t’ ascend. if our duty seem to thee Discourteous rudeness. And there is he. I know not: he had sped E’en now so far beyond us. “Hither turn. 179 . That name. O’erpower’d by earth. and meditation chang’d to dream. (Credit my tale. Or here was mute. he hath set in place Of its true pastor. who never fail’d me at my need. and each unlike Its fellow: till led on from thought to thought. Ruing his power misus’d: for that his son.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Hearty zeal To serve reanimates celestial grace. Cried. mine eye Was clos’d. new thought within me rose By others follow’d fast. hath one foot in his grave. and thou shalt find the cleft. to absolve your part Of good and virtuous. this man.Purgatory The others shouted. where lukewarm erst ye fail’d. He then. In Verona I Was abbot of San Zeno. and worse in mind. when of diurnal heat No reliques chafe the cold beams of the moon. to whom a shade return’d: “Come after us.

“Come. she. Who thus had spoken marshal’d us along. and his heart Contented knows no void. With swan-like wings dispread and pointing up. Distorted feet. whence a smell. and colour pale. while th’ angelic shape A little over us his station took.” in tone so soft and mild. That midway spans the flood. o’ercharg’d with thought. “I am the Siren. as a man. And. could scarce have held Attention from the song. “hath rais’d in me Surmisings strange and anxious doubts. “New vision.” I replied. Whoe’er frequents me once Parts seldom. Recov’ring speech She forthwith warbling such a strain began. Round I turn’d Mine eyes. when thus I heard. Now day. Exhaling loathsome. affirm’d that those. that still thou look’st to earth?” Began my leader. next in brief space her form Decrepit rais’d erect. Who bends him to the likeness of an arch. I follow’d. As never met the ear on mortal strand. eyes aslant. with lips that stammer’d. stooping low My forehead. as we journey’d. who mourn. And fanning us. “What aileth thee. I from his course Ulysses by my lay Enchanted drew. I look’d upon her. wak’d me. and as sunshine cheers Limbs numb’d by nightly cold. e’en thus my look Unloos’d her tongue. he approach’d. Are blessed. how loth soe’er. who is this?” Which hearing. With stern voice She utter’d. to shame her at her side appear’d A dame of semblance holy. And. Let us the opening find where thou mayst pass. O Virgil. then mov’d his plumes. whom mariners On the wide sea are wilder’d when they hear: Such fulness of delight the list’ner feels. and faded face With love’s own hue illum’d. “Say. “I. on our shoulder smote The early ray. whereon My soul intent allows no other thought 180 . walls retir’d.” thus she sang.” I straightway rose. And show’d the belly to me. Fill’d all the circuits of the sacred mount. and thus the teacher: “At the least Three times my voice hath call’d thee. Rise. pour’d down from high. hands maim’d.” Or ere her mouth Was clos’d. Where each side of the solid masonry The sloping. That I. enter here. her robes tearing. with eyes still bent Toward that goodly presence: th’ other seiz’d her. open’d her before. begone.The Divine Comedy of Dante . for that comfort shall be theirs.Purgatory When ‘fore me in my dream a woman’s shape There came. so I charm him.

far as the dividing rock Gave way. Say who thou wast. in answer came. Why thus ye grovel on your bellies prone. On the fifth circle when I stood at large. Prostration—and would urge your course with speed. That’ twixt Chiaveri and Siestri draws His limpid waters through the lowly glen. and thy rais’d ken Fix on the lure. “Spirit!” I said.” As on his feet The falcon first looks down. A race appear’d before me. And if in aught ye wish my service there. “My soul hath cleaved to the dust. they well nigh choak’d the words. on the ground All downward lying prone and weeping sore. So onward. With what a weight that robe of sov’reignty Upon his shoulder rests. See that ye still to rightward keep the brink. whose words I late had mark’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “O ye elect of God. And he. Whence living I am come.” said he. Beckon’d his glad assent. Free then to act. her. and the name And title of my lineage from that stream. whose penal woes Both hope and justice mitigate. then to the sky Turns.” “If ye approach secure from this our doom.” He answering spake “The cause why Heav’n our back toward his cope Reverses. I drew near. Late. I noted what remain’d yet hidden from them: Thence to my liege’s eyes mine eyes I bent. Beyond us some short space. As pleas’d me. who from the mire Would guard it: that each other fardel seems But feathers in the balance.—”Hast thou seen. which heav’n’s eternal King Whirls in the rolling spheres. shalt thou know: but me know first The successor of Peter. That woos him thither.” I heard With sighs so deep. I journey’d. for a while suspend For me that mightier care. whose wiles alone The spirits o’er us weep for? Hast thou seen How man may free him of her bonds? Enough. A month and little more by proof I learnt. Let thy heels spurn the earth. “That old enchantress. and took my stand O‘er that shade. till the plain was reach’d. when thou with God Shalt find acceptance.” So them the bard besought. and forth stretches eager for the food. and such the words.Purgatory Or room or entrance. And. “in whom repentant tears Mature that blessed hour. forthwith interpreting their suit. so the call I heard. direct Tow’rds the steep rising our uncertain way. alas! Was my conversion: but when I became 181 .

and would have spoke.” said he. Who led me. hand and foot Chain’d down and bound. and yet no prouder height Lur’d on the climber: wherefore. here punish’d for my doting. If thou hast ever mark’d those holy sounds Of gospel truth. “Hath bow’d thee thus!”—” Compunction. of that life No more enamour’d. coasting still. as a man Walks near the battlements on narrow wall. without which is no working.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thy tarrying is a let unto the tears. so ill Example of our house corrupt her not: And she is all remaineth of me there. ‘nor shall be given ill marriage. saw that the heart Rested not there. thus Here justice holds us prison’d. Such cleansing from the taint of avarice Do spirits converted need. So long to tarry motionless outstretch’d. by his ear perceiv’d I did him reverence. I drew the sponge yet thirsty from the wave. worthy in herself. and linger here no more. As avarice quench’d our love Of good.” “Up.” he exclaim’d. ‘gainst will more wise that strives His pleasure therefore to mine own preferr’d. in my bosom love Of purer being kindled. This mount inflicts No direr penalty.” My knees I stoop’d. E’en as our eyes Fasten’d below.” CANTO XX Ill strives the will. wherever place Along the rock was vacant. (Thine and all others’) of one Sovran Power. For those on th’ other part. nor e’er to loftier clime Were lifted. alienate From God. With which I hasten that whereof thou spak’st. thus hath justice level’d us Here on the earth. who drop by drop 182 .’ Thou mayst discern the reasons of my speech. while heaven’s just Lord shall please.Purgatory Rome’s pastor. Go thy ways now. “And inward awe of your high dignity. and “What cause. I discern’d at once the dream And cozenage of life. Ere my beginning. For till then I was a soul in misery.” I rejoin’d. but he. her name Alagia. Onward I mov’d: he also onward mov’d. “brother! upon thy feet Arise: err not: thy fellow servant I. Now. and covetous of all earthly things. as thou seest. I have on earth a kinswoman.

whose shade such poison sheds O’er all the Christian land. Had Ghent and Douay. And vengeance I of heav’n’s great Judge implore. Lille and Bruges power. before great wealth with vice. Still speeding to its close on restless wing. before thy time Of mortal dissolution. born of one. Vengeance soon should come. yet is not fill’d! So bottomless thy maw!—Ye spheres of heaven! To whom there are. one before us heard Cry out “O blessed Virgin!” as a dame In the sharp pangs of childbed. which on the maidens he Bounteous bestow’d. for whom fate reserves To chase her hence?—With wary steps and slow We pass’d. And.” I said. Than every beast beside. and “How poor Thou wast. Yet it spake the gift Of Nicholas. Too closely press the verge. from whose bones th’ anointed race begins. “Spirit! who dost speak of deeds So worthy. When the race Of ancient kings had vanish’d (all save one Wrapt up in sable weeds) within my gripe I found the reins of empire. and such powers Of new acquirement.” answer’d he. Which thence I look for. ‘midst the wailing. who attribute All change in mortal state. of whom France Newly is govern’d. with full store of friends.Purgatory Wring out their all-infecting malady. to save their youthful prime Unblemish’d. “will tell thee.” The words so pleas’d me. That soon the widow’d circlet of the crown Was girt upon the temples of my son. 183 . Did draw me onward. I was root Of that ill plant.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that desire to know The spirit. Accurst be thou! Inveterate wolf! whose gorge ingluts more prey. but that in thyself Grace so exceeding shines. if I return To finish the Short pilgrimage of life. not for hell. O good Fabricius! thou didst virtue choose With poverty.” “I. and I attentive to the shades. Whom piteously I heard lament and wail. that seldom thence Good fruit is gather’d. “And why thou dost with single voice renew Memorial of such praise. He. tell me who thou was. from whose lip they seem’d to come. That boon vouchsaf’d Haply shall meet reward. Hugh Capet was I high: from me descend The Philips and the Louis.” it added. “witness that low roof Where thou didst lay thy sacred burden down. as seems. when is the day Of his appearing. who ply’d The slaughterer’s trade at Paris.

who hast subdued our blood So wholly to thyself. whom his gluttonous thirst of gold Made traitor. I see the other. parricide: the woes Of Midas. Which the arch-traitor tilted with. how he stole the prey. for amends. sole spouse Of the Great Spirit. is the general theme Of all our prayers: but when it darkens. With no degree to sanction. that yet obscur’d our lowly blood. of whose cruelty Such violence cannot fill the measure up. after. who a prisoner late Had steps on shore. and for amends Young Conradine an innocent victim slew. robber. which thy wrath well-pleas’d In secret silence broods?—While daylight lasts.Purgatory Till the great dower of Provence had remov’d The stains. as do The Corsairs for their slaves. No increase Of territory hence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . then A different strain we utter. with force and lies. To Italy came Charles. That yet he seems by Joshua’s ire pursued. lo! the flower-de-luce Enters Alagna! in his Vicar Christ Himself a captive. O avarice! What canst thou more. and that He carries with so home a thrust. 184 . saving with that lance. which his greedy wish ensued. whom he bargains for. So long what thou didst hear of her. and so much the more As he more lightly deems of such foul wrong. they feel no care Of their own flesh? To hide with direr guilt Past ill and future. pushes on Into the temple his yet eager sails! “O sovran Master! when shall I rejoice To see the vengeance. And sent th’ angelic teacher back to heav’n. and his mockery Acted again! Lo! to his holy lip The vinegar and gall once more applied! And he ‘twixt living robbers doom’d to bleed! Lo! the new Pilate. but sin and shame Shall be his guerdon. Navarre and Gascony. Unarm’d he issues. Still for amends. Mark’d for derision to all future times: And the fond Achan. I see the time at hand. and on which thou turn’dst To me for comment. but howe’er It wrought no evil: there. That forth from France invites another Charles To make himself and kindred better known. Began its rapine. then record Pygmalion. Its sway indeed was narrow. as rives The bowels of poor Florence. Poitou it seiz’d. exposing to the mart His daughter.

Therefore. Excited: haste along the cumber’d path. Is led through many a pitch. that suddenly my guide Drew near. The mountain tremble. Whereof the woman of Samaria crav’d. Contemplating the crowd beneath its feet. and after us approach’d.Purgatory Sapphira with her husband next.” The voice of each Now high now low. when Latona there Couch’d to bring forth the twin-born eyes of heaven. Eying the prostrate shadows. O Crassus! for thou know’st. I erewhile rehears’d That blessedness we tell of in the day: But near me none beside his accent rais’d. 185 . impell’d. All the mountain round Rings with the infamy of Thracia’s king. When I did feel. nor myself could aught discern. And praise the forefeet. Forthwith from every side a shout arose So vehement. When lo! even as Luke relates. We were not ware of it. CANTO XXI The natural thirst. while I conduct thee. if my memory do not err. and essay’d With utmost efforts to surmount the way. to us A shade appear’d. The flavour of thy gold. that with furious ramp Spurn’d Heliodorus. that Christ Appear’d unto the two upon their way. though just. New-risen from his vaulted grave. who near me swell’d the sounds) “Glory in the highest be to God. like to those. As in that moment. So shook not Delos. The shepherds. acute or grave. who renew’d Their custom’d mourning. and pity mov’d My bosom for the ‘vengeful deed. and cried: “Doubt not. nor through haste dar’d I To question. who first heard in Bethlehem’s field That song: till ceas’d the trembling. as each his impulse prompts. After my guide. as on one to death convey’d. and the song Was ended: then our hallow’d path resum’d.” “Glory!” all shouted (such the sounds mine ear Gather’d from those. whence an icy chill Seiz’d on me.” We stood Immovably suspended. So on I far’d in thoughtfulness and dread. as nodding to its fall. so first it spake. ne’er quench’d but from the well. not singly.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” From him we now had parted. Who slew his Phrygian charge: and last a shout Ascends: “Declare. Never in my breast Did ignorance so struggle with desire Of knowledge. we blame.

‘Tis plain that in the kingdom of the just He needs must share. hail or snow. to lead him. I know not how. no influence Can reach us. He forthwith replied. His soul. which. when any spirit feels itself So purified. which heaven in itself Doth of itself receive. Lower perchance. the mount erewhile Thus shook and trembled: wherefore all at once Seem’d shouting. even from his wave-wash’d foot. that free to change society 186 . on the fatal distaff pil’d. As fitted that kind greeting. Tempest none. here from every change exempt. which this man Trac’d by the finger of the angel bears. whereon Peter’s vicegerent stands. or by punctual rule Unsanction’d. for not like ours Her ken: whence I. through wind in earth’s deep hollow pent. trembles the soil: But here. and will lead Far as my lore avails. or move For rising. who up the height Has been thus far your guide?” To whom the bard: “If thou observe the tokens. Not of herself could mount.Purgatory Saying. if thou know. nor from his speed mean while Desisting. Clotho apportions to each wight that breathes. Other than that. But sithence she. which me To everlasting banishment exiles!” “How!” he exclaim’d. higher falls Than that brief scale of threefold steps: thick clouds Nor scudding rack are ever seen: swift glance Ne’er lightens. that sister is to mine and thine.” That questioning so tallied with my wish. But. With various motion rock’d. Instruct us for what cause.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “If that ye be spirits. nor Thaumantian Iris gleams. gave. That yonder often shift on each side heav’n. Purification by the will alone Is prov’d. whose wheel Spins day and night. whom God Vouchsafes not room above. “In its devotion nought irregular This mount can witness. Vapour adust doth never mount above The highest of the trinal stairs. and cried: “Peace in the blessed council be thy lot Awarded by that righteous court. for him not yet had drawn That yarn. “God give you peace. that it may rise. my brethren!” then Sudden we turn’d: and Virgil such salute. from forth the ample gulf Of hell was ta’en. Hoar frost or dewy moistness. yet never trembled: then Trembles. The thirst did feel abatement of its edge E’en from expectance. and such loud acclaim ensues. shower.

when he heard him. from whom my veins Drank inspiration: whose authority Was ever sacred with me.” Thus he spake: and since the draught Is grateful ever as the thirst is keen. When the good Titus. Of my flame Those sparkles were the seeds.” the shade reply’d. But strong propension hinders. turn’d to me. from Tolosa. And I who in this punishment had lain Five hundred years and more. 187 . “Not yet with faith endued. Therefore thou felt’st The mountain tremble. whence the blood By Judas sold did issue. Bears not supreme control: laughter and tears Follow so closely on the passion prompts them. “I see the net That takes ye here. over all his limits. So passing sweet My vocal Spirit. To have liv’d Coeval with the Mantuan. but now have felt Free wish for happier clime.” The Mantuan. Why rocks the mountain and why ye rejoice.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as erewhile to sin. and how the toils are loos’d.Purgatory Seizes the soul rejoicing in her will. And next of great Achilles: but i’ th’ way Fell with the second burthen. And holding silence: by his countenance Enjoin’d me silence but the power which wills.” said the instructor sage. utter praise To that liege Lord. Who on the earth thou wast. whom I entreat their joy To hasten. and the spirits devout Heard’st. and wherefore here So many an age wert prostrate. the song I mean Which sounds Aeneas’ wand’rings: that the breast I hung at. with Heav’n’s King to help. I would bide The revolution of another sun Beyond my stated years in banishment. Rome To herself drew me. with the name Most lasting and most honour’d there was I Abundantly renown’d. No words may speak my fullness of content. which I deriv’d From the bright fountain of celestial fire That feeds unnumber’d lamps. I did but smile. Vouchsafe. Of Thebes I sang. Aveng’d those piteous gashes. where I merited A myrtle garland to inwreathe my brow. Propension now as eager to fulfil Th’ allotted torment. Statius they name me still. “Now. to that wish By the just ordinance of heav’n oppos’d. Desire of bliss is present from the first. that the nurse.”—”In that time. They wait not for the motions of the will In natures most sincere. that from thy lips I next may learn.

thou spak’st of him.” Whereon I thus: “Perchance.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and the sigh is heard. Whose wishes tend to justice. O ancient spirit! Thou marvel’st at my smiling. More nimble than along the other straits. shouted forth: “Blessed!” and ended with. Came down the spirit of Aquinum’s hard. why across thy visage beam’d. He who guides my ken On high. and love can never fail To warm another’s bosom so the light Shine manifestly forth. and thereupon the shade Broke off. without the sense of toil. and believe Those words. my good will Hath been for thee of quality as strong As ever link’d itself to one not seen. he is that Mantuan. Th’ other to silence binds me: whence a sigh I utter.” He rising answer’d thus: “Now hast thou prov’d The force and ardour of the love I bear thee. I follow’d upward the swift-footed shades. If other cause thou deem’dst for which I smil’d. When Virgil thus began: “Let its pure flame From virtue flow. and speak now as with a friend: 188 . “Say.” Now down he bent t’ embrace my teacher’s feet. and behold’st a shade. The lightning of a smile!” On either part Now am I straiten’d. When I forget we are but things of air. And as a substance treat an empty shade. “So to good event Mayst thou conduct such great emprize. “ The teacher cried.” CANTO XXII Now we had left the angel. One gash from off my forehead raz’d: while they. There is room For yet more wonder. as a friend Forgive me. “and do not fear to speak. When ‘mongst us in the purlieus of the deep.Purgatory As one who winks. and peer’d into mine eyes. “I thirst:” and I. but now. But he forbade him: “Brother! do it not: Thou art a shadow. But tell me: and if too secure I loose The rein with a friend’s license. Therefore these stairs will now seem short to me. But tell him what so earnestly he asks. Who told of thine affection. led by whom Thou didst presume of men arid gods to sing. who had turn’d To the sixth circle our ascending step. indeed the cause. So journey’d. where best Our looks interpret. that. Leave it as not the true one.” he cried. “Speak on. one conjures me speak. Hence from that hour.

perhaps Because thou found’st me in that circle plac’d. such hath been my lot. and quaff’d Of the clear spring. where the fisherman had led?” He answering thus: “By thee conducted first. that profits not himself. what sun Rose on thee. or what candle pierc’d the dark That thou didst after see to hoist the sail. thou believ’st I was on earth a covetous man. when thou exclaimedst. illumin’d first by thee Open’d mine eyes to God. And follow. who living. as thy zeal had treasur’d there?” First somewhat mov’d to laughter by his words. ‘midst such ample store Of wisdom. aye And at life’s last extreme. as one. Things oft appear That minister false matters to our doubts. hears a light Behind. I enter’d the Parnassian grots. Then was I ware that with too ample wing The hands may haste to lavishment. journeying through the darkness. to cleanse me. Therefore if I have been with those. How many from their grave Shall with shorn locks arise. thou cursed thirst Of gold! dost not with juster measure guide The appetite of mortals?’ I had met The fierce encounter of the voluble rock. And if so. here With that Wastes its green rankness on one common heap. but makes His followers wise. so from this In penitence. thousands of moons Have wax’d and wan’d upon my sufferings. did not repent. And know.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” To whom the sovran of the pastoral song: “While thou didst sing that cruel warfare wag’d By the twin sorrow of Jocasta’s womb. Know then I was too wide of avarice: And e’en for that excess. Who. who wail Their avarice. ‘Lo! A renovated world! Justice return’d! 189 . of this offence. From thy discourse with Clio there. When their true causes are remov’d from sight. Through ignorance. through reverse Of their transgression.Purgatory How chanc’d it covetous desire could find Place in that bosom. it seems As faith had not been shine: without the which Good deeds suffice not. Statius replied: “Each syllable of thine Is a dear pledge of love. ‘Why. As from my other evil. Thou didst. and turn’d. Thy question doth assure me. And were it not that I with heedful care Noted where thou exclaim’st as if in ire With human nature. The fault which lies direct from any sin In level opposition.

Soon o’er all the world. Agatho. on whose top For aye our nurses live. and the bride Sea-born of Peleus. Domitian’s rage Pursuing them. are with that Greek. and that word of thine Accordant.” said my guide.Purgatory Times of primeval innocence restor’d! And a new race descended from above!’ Poet and Christian both to thee I owed. and the fifth Was at the chariot-beam. I mix’d my tears with theirs. to the new instructors chim’d. Plautus. round them cast Inquiring eyes. T for that lukewarmness was fain to pace Round the fourth circle. when thus my guide: “Methinks. Of thy train Antigone is there. Varro: if condemn’d They dwell. which did hide such blessing from me. and conform’d long time To Pagan rites.” “These. the most cherish’d by the Nine. and no longer by th’ ascent Or the steep walls obstructed. Say. Thou then. that. Of mortals. but secretly. and in what province of the deep. Before I led the Greeks In tuneful fiction. and soon their sanctity So won upon me. still succour’d them. Induc’d by which agreement. where our old Terence bides. Five centuries and more. while on earth I stay’d. Argia. to the streams of Thebes. And. Simonides. By messengers from heav’n. “with Persius and myself. Whilst much of this ascent is yet to climb. and as sorrowful as erst Ismene. and who show’d Langia’s wave: Deidamia with her sisters there. if thou know. I was baptiz’d. My hand shall stretch forth to inform the lines With livelier colouring. 190 . There ofttimes We of that mount hold converse. Remain’d a Christian.” Either poet now Was silent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . In the first ward of darkness. That thou mayst mark more clearly what I trace. Four handmaids of the day Had finish’d now their office. And blind Tiresias’ daughter. directing still Its balmy point aloof. Deiphile. And their most righteous customs made me scorn All sects besides. and many a Grecian else Ingarlanded with laurel. who hast rais’d The covering. We have the bard Of Pella. Caecilius. it well behooves us to the brink Bend the right shoulder’ circuiting the mount. I was wont Resort to them. through fear. the true belief Teem’d now prolific. and the Teian. And others many more.

approaching from behind With speedier motion.” So custom there Was usher to the road. Linger not: away. Methinks. “who as they go. and felt no toil: and lo! A sound of weeping and a song: “My lips. with goodly fruitage hung. a liquid crystal fell From the steep rock.Purgatory As we have ever us’d. Their debt of duty pay.” CANTO XXIII On the green leaf mine eyes were fix’d. But stay not. List’ning their speech. as that worthy shade complied. aloft may climb. The primal age Was beautiful as gold. With associate step the bards Drew near the plant.” As on their road The thoughtful pilgrims. The women of old Rome were satisfied With water for their beverage.” And after added: “Mary took more thought For joy and honour of the nuptial feast. That clos’d our path. 191 . Than for herself who answers now for you. like his Who throws away his days in idle chase Of the diminutive. and wisdom gain’d. They on before me went. thirst each rivulet Run nectar. the which we chose Less doubtful.” said he. which the’ Evangelist records. when thus I heard The more than father warn me: “Son! our time Asks thriftier using. and that eminence of glory reach’d And greatness. “Spirits. belov’d! Say what is this I hear?” Thus I inquir’d. and look.” Thereat my face and steps at once I turn’d Toward the sages. as they pass’d. “O Sire. Whereon the Baptist in the wilderness Fed. turn to them. it gave birth To pleasure and to pain. And pleasant to the smell: and as a fir Upward from bough to bough less ample spreads. eyed us. O Lord!” and these so mingled.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But soon they ceas’d. and from amidst the leaves A voice was heard: “Ye shall be chary of me. Upon the side. for midway of the road A tree we found. perchance. by whose converse cheer’d I journey’d on. So downward this less ample spread. and through the sprays above Stream’d showering. Honey and locusts were the food. I sole pursued. and hunger then Made acorns tasteful. that none. thus. Daniel fed On pulse. that to my thoughts convey’d Mysterious lessons of sweet poesy. overtaking some Not known unto them.

“which dead I once bewail’d. by Heav’n.” thus he Suppliant implor’d. who lost Jerusalem. and fasten’d then On me. joyful when he paid 192 . “Ah! respect This wan and leprous wither’d skin. “the race. Say then. when I see It thus transform’d. silent and devout. The odour. and I agniz’d The visage of Forese. And spray.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ask not Speech from me: unapt Is he to speak. I do not think Thus dry and meagre Erisicthon show’d.” I answer’d him. by which Christ was led To call Elias. what blasts ye thus? The whilst I wonder. Virtue possesses. Who reads the name Of man upon his forehead. there the M Had trac’d most plainly. Speak to me truly of thyself. the bones Stood staring thro’ the skin. When pinc’ed by sharp-set famine to the quick.” “That face of thine. which the fruit. He thus: “The water and tee plant we pass’d. Nor once alone encompassing our route We come to add fresh fuel to the pain: Pain. And who Are those twain spirits. From which the gems were drops. and so lean withal. “this macerated flesh.Purgatory A crowd of spirits. whom other will employs. the which so pines me.” The sockets seem’d as rings. Inflames us with desire to feed and drink. Whose song bewails his gluttony indulg’d Too grossly. then cried with vehemence aloud: “What grace is this vouchsaf’d me?” By his looks I ne’er had recogniz’d him: but the voice Brought to my knowledge what his cheer conceal’d. that showers upon the verdure. said I? solace rather: for that will To the tree leads us. here in hunger and in thirst Is purified. that escort thee there? Be it not said thou Scorn’st to talk with me. Remembrance of his alter’d lineaments Was kindled from that spark. disposes me not less For weeping. “Lo!” to myself I mus’d. The eyes of each were dark and hollow: pale Their visage. Not knowing how it wrought? While now I stood Wond’ring what thus could waste them (for the cause Of their gaunt hollowness and scaly rind Appear’d not) lo! a spirit turn’d his eyes In their deep-sunken cell. that scent Of water and an apple. when Mary with dire beak Prey’d on her child. by th’ eternal will Infus’d. Who would deem. Every spirit. breathe. could have prov’d Powerful to generate such pining want.

in which the world For better life thou changedst. even yet Remembrance of those days may grieve thee sore. She whom I lov’d so fondly. Hath dames more chaste and modester by far Than that wherein I left her. who through profoundest night Of he true dead has brought me. there. ere thou knew’st That kindly grief. If the power of sinning more Were first concluded in thee. “Tis he. for whom there needed scourge Of spiritual or other discipline. that Heav’n Wafts on swift wing toward them. not five years Have circled. where oft Expectance lingers. the shameless ones. When she was round. who shines with sister lamp To his. From that gloom the aid 193 . The tract most barb’rous of Sardinia’s isle. Her sighs have drawn me from the coast.Purgatory Our ransom from his vein. to which this hour Shall not be counted of an ancient date. that follows. That I forsook that life. how hither art thou come so soon? I thought to find thee lower. where time Is recompense for time.” and I show’d The sun. while I speak. lest they bare Unkerchief’d bosoms to the common gaze. my brother.” Whence I replied: “If thou recall to mind What we were once together. Ah! now. What savage women hath the world e’er seen. To force them walk with cov’ring on their limbs! But did they see. When from the pulpit shall be loudly warn’d Th’ unblushing dames of Florence. and have set me free From th’ other circles. hide thyself no more.” He straight replied: “To drink up the sweet wormwood of affliction I have been brought thus early by the tears Stream’d down my Nella’s cheeks. In the sight of God So much the dearer is my widow priz’d. Their mouths were op’d for howling: they shall taste Of Borrow (unless foresight cheat me here) Or ere the cheek of him be cloth’d with down Who is now rock’d with lullaby asleep. that glisters yonder. was due to him Who there precedes me. as she ranks More singly eminent for virtuous deeds. some few evenings past. O sweet brother! What wouldst thou have me say? A time to come Stands full within my view. Her prayers devout. which re-espouses us To God.” I answering thus: “Forese! from that day. where thou veil’st the intercepted sun. What Saracens. with this flesh As true.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thou seest how not I alone but all Gaze.

like a ship When the wind sits astern. He added: “Since spare diet hath so worn Our semblance out. he Of Lucca: and that face beyond him. and thus spake. “Is Buonaggiuna. That seem’d things dead and dead again. and I my words Continued.” Any of mark. singles out one. And purges by wan abstinence away Bolsena’s eels and cups of muscadel. I saw through hunger Ubaldino grind His teeth on emptiness.” and I pointed to him. among this multitude. I saw the Marquis.Purgatory Of his sure comfort drew me on to climb. like him. I howe’er. And climbing wind along this mountain-steep. And all.—Buonaggiuna. yet so Was one ne’er sated. But tell me. “He journeys up Perhaps more tardily then else he would. Who eye me thus. Nor yet our talk by journeying. ‘t is lawful here to name Each one. “The other is that shade. This. That wav’d the crozier o’er a num’rous flock. and Boniface. exulting shook Through every pendent cliff and rocky bound. And triumphs in Olympus. Had keeping of the church: he was of Tours. seem’d well content. And urg’d our travel stoutly. Perceiving I had life. Where is Piccarda? Tell me. That gazing ‘midst a crowd. one by one.” Saying this. Which rectifies in you whate’er the world Made crooked and deprav’d I have his word. For no dark gesture I discern’d in any. Who thus hath promis’d. pierc’d Unto a leaner fineness than the rest. if thou know’st. as he arose. who tad time erewhile To swill at Forli with less drought. Still we spake.” He show’d me many others. ‘Twixt beautiful and good I cannot say Which name was fitter ) wears e’en now her crown. That he will bear me company as far As till I come where Beatrice dwells: But there must leave me. For others’ sake. for whom so late Your realm. So singled him of Lucca. as they were nam’d. drew in At their deep-delved orbs rare wonder of me. The shadowy forms. for methought CANTO XXIV Our journey was not slacken’d by our talk. Virgil is that spirit. if I see 194 .”—”My sister (she for whom.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” and his finger then he rais’d.

Ours did not. Where justice.” “Go now. no question. day by day. Like as the bird. Then stretch themselves in file for speedier flight. Take up my pen. as th’ inditer guides them.The Divine Comedy of Dante . how soon soever I return.Purgatory Was none amongst them took such note of me. and murmur’d there. And dismal ruin seems to threaten it. Toward the vale. Is. straight began: “Woman is born. Short of that new and sweeter style I hear. He that seeks a grace beyond. Go then with this forewarning. blame it as they may. th’ event shall tell But say. that so strips them. I see how ye your plumes Stretch. Where guilt hath no redemption. if of a truth I see the man Of that new lay th’ inventor. “it seems as thou wouldst fain Speak with me. E’en so Forese let that holy crew Proceed. which let us both indulge. “I know not. Somewhat I heard him whisper of Gentucca: The sound was indistinct. whose guilt is most. that winter near the Nile. This know. If aught false My whisper too implied. that leaveth him 195 . “the hind’rance which once held The notary with Guittone and myself. on it speeds. Sithence the place. ye that con the lore of love’. Till his o’erbreathed lungs keep temperate time. as he dictates. Mutual wish To converse prompts. write. Whose brow no wimple shades yet. that. Let me hear thee. dragg’d at heels Of an infuriate beast. Thus all the tribe of spirits. and stays behind his company. here he held his peace. And as a man. as they turn’d Their visage.” said I. My wishes will before me have arriv’d. nimble alike Through leanness and desire. Sees not the distance parts one style from other. answ’ring.” And. Passes before my vision. Is now disclos’d. And saying: “When shall I again behold thee?” “How long my life may last. which begins With ‘Ladies. which. where I am set to live. fix’d her sting. “Spirit!” said I.” He. faster deaf. Slacks pace.” To whom I thus: “Count of me but as one Who am the scribe of love. Each step increasing swiftness on the last. In squared regiment direct their course. Until a blow it strikes.” “Brother!” said he.” he cried: “lo! he. more scoop’d of all its good. as contented. when he breathes. behind them lingering at my side. that shall make My city please thee. and. Tir’d With the motion of a trotting steed.

the mighty tree. and from it was ta’en ‘this plant. like greedy and fond brats. Whereof Eve tasted. that rais’d Their hands. who vows and tears Sue to in vain. Pricks forth at gallop. When he beyond us had so fled mine eyes No nearer reach’d him. “Remember. full thousand paces on We travel’d. Then rais’d my head to look from whence it came. Once more at large.” As from a troop of well-rank’d chivalry One knight. Whence I. as doth a scar’d and paltry beast. or metal seen So bright and glowing red.” next We heard. eager to display His prowess in the first encounter prov’d So parted he from us with lengthen’d strides. thus measuring my pace with shine. “Why pensive journey thus ye three alone?” Thus suddenly a voice exclaim’d: whereat I shook. Beneath it were a multitude. pass’d forth beyond. thick hung. I quit thee: time is precious here: I lose Too much. still we heard The sins of gluttony. glass. Of whom they beg. The branches of another fruit. No long space Those wheels have yet to roll” (therewith his eyes Look’d up to heav’n) “ere thou shalt plainly see That which my words may not more plainly tell. appear’d. and shouted forth I know not What Unto the boughs.” Thus near one border coasting. whence Gideon’s ranks were thinn’d. And come not near. And left me on the way with those twain spirits. Then along the lonely path. Stands higher up the wood. with either bard.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as was the shape 196 .”Such sounds from midst the thickets came. And blooming fresh. but more to draw them on. That beg. than my thought his words. “those noblest creatures of the clouds.Purgatory A corse most vilely shatter’d. as undeceiv’d they went their way: And we approach the tree. how effeminate they stoop’d To ease their thirst. and answer none obtain from him. not far off it rose to view. close to the side That rose. each contemplative and mute. How they their twofold bosoms overgorg’d Oppos’d in fight to Theseus: call to mind The Hebrews. Was ne’er. At length. and hides it not. E’en as our steps Turn’d thither. As he to Midian march’d adown the hills. more enterprising than the rest. “Pass on. in furnace. Who were such mighty marshals of the world. with woe erewhile Reguerdon’d. He at arm’s length the object of their wish Above them holds aloft.

that marks A man prepar’d for speech. But that thy will In certainty may find its full repose. but presses on his road. How Meleager with the wasting brand Wasted alike. whom grace Doth so illume. As one That makes no pause. but thus spake the sire belov’d: Fear not to speed the shaft. and pray That he would now be healer of thy wound. none That steep and narrow scale admits to climb.” Encourag’d thus I straight began: “How there can leanness come. “If ye desire to mount.” he answer’d. and fell. that on thy lip Stands trembling for its flight. but singly. to harbinger the dawn. Whate’er betide him. 197 . This way he goes. Who goes in quest of peace. had appear’d no harder than the pulp Of summer fruit mature. and the moving of a wing Perceiv’d. Still hung’ring as the rule of temperance wills. when he who climbs. for.” One before other. by equal fires consm’d. yet ventures not to quit The nest. had need To walk uncrippled: for the sun had now To Taurus the meridian circle left. that moving shed ambrosial smell. as sound directs. and breathes Of fragrance. if some urgent need Impel: so enter’d we upon our way. that appetite in them Exhaleth no inordinate desire.Purgatory I now beheld. “hadst remember’d thee.” He cried. like one who walks. As when. E’en as the young stork lifteth up his wing Through wish to fly. what now seems Hard. “here must ye turn. all impregn’d with herb and flowers. And to the Scorpion left the night. Him all our haste Restrain’d not. so in me desire Of questioning my guide arose. And then a voice: “Blessed are they.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Where is no want of nourishment to feed?” “If thou. How in the mirror your reflected form With mimic motion vibrates. This would not trouble thee: and hadst thou thought. E’en such a wind I felt upon my front Blow gently.” “If in thy presence I unfold to him CANTO XXV It was an hour. and to my guides I fac’d Backward. springs up On freshen’d wing the air of May. Lo Statius here! on him I call.” His countenance Had dazzled me. and drops it. Arriving even to the act.

to exculpate me. and in thy mind Receive them: so shall they be light to clear The doubt thou offer’st. son! at which the virtue. With animation now indued. And that thou less mayst marvel at the word.Purgatory The secrets of heaven’s vengeance. and forthwith began: “Attend my words. because he saw No organ for the latter’s use assign’d. Know soon as in the embryo. than that this is on the way And at its limit that) continues yet To operate. Then vivifies what its own substance caus’d To bear. O son. Than thou hast err’d. Which by the thirsty veins is ne’er imbib’d. And forms an individual soul. Articulation is complete. through meet frame Of its recipient mould: that being reach’d.” So Statius answer’d. That from the generating heart proceeds. Is pliant and expansive. ‘This is the period. that lives. and imbreathes New spirit replete with virtue. Which passes through the veins itself to make them. As sea sponge clinging to the rock: and there Assumes th’ organic powers its seed convey’d. where shame Forbids to mention: and from thence distils In natural vessel on another’s blood. Blood. coagulating first. one dispos’d T’ endure. Mix’d with the moisture filter’d through the vine. and feels. how that to wine doth change. that what here Active it finds. At this point. The active virtue (differing from a plant No further.The Divine Comedy of Dante . concocted well. 198 . remains For thy consid’ring. for each limb Is in the heart by forgeful nature plann’d. to act the other. “When Lachesis hath spun the thread. let me plead Thine own injunction. Then each unite together. making the soul disjoin’d From passive intellect. then turns The primal Mover with a smile of joy On such great work of nature. that informs The several human limbs. in the heart Derives effectual virtue. to its own substance draws. “Open thy bosom to the truth that comes. Yet more concocted it descends. How babe of animal becomes. to be ta’en From the replenish’d table. to the brain. It ‘gins to work. And feels. the soul Takes with her both the human and divine. more wise. as being that. and bends reflective on itself. Mark the sun’s heat. that now it moves. And rests as food superfluous.

The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Then in low voice again took up the strain. At the hymn’s close They shouted loud. With each sense even to the sight endued: Hence speech is ours. Behoov’d us. along the side. A little swerving and the way is lost. in act Far keener than before.Purgatory Memory. stung With Cytherea’s poison:” then return’d Unto their song. and the bands Of wedded love. And this the cause of what thou marvel’st at. Who liv’d in virtue chastely. and drave forth Callisto. thither follows. intelligence. And to the right hand turning. That border’d on the void. decks itself With many a hue. “O God of mercy!” heard I sung. I ween. then marry a pair extoll’d. Surcease they. Here learns her destin’d path. Distinct as in the living limbs before: And as the air. Nor from that task. Which once more ended. and like the flame. and I Fear’d on one hand the fire. and from the rim A blast upblown. No pause allow’d. I Between their footsteps and mine own was fain To share by turns my view.” they cried. when saturate with showers. In wond’rous sort self-moving. so here the ambient air Weareth that form. Soon as the place Receives her. Of such skill appliance needs 199 . other care Awaits us. which influence of the soul Imprints on it. and sighs Which thou mayst oft have witness’d on the mount Th’ obedient shadow fails not to present Whatever varying passion moves within us. so henceforth The new form on the spirit follows still: Hence hath it semblance. and will. and felt No less desire to turn.” Now the last flexure of our way we reach’d. with forcible rebuff Driveth them back. she falls. and is shadow call’d. And when I saw Spirits along the flame proceeding. Here the rocky precipice Hurls forth redundant flames. tears. “Ran Dian.” Then from the bosom of the burning mass. to one strand Of those. one by one. on th’ other fear’d Headlong to fall: when thus th’ instructor warn’d: “Strict rein must in this place direct the eyes. that where The fire moves. the other powers Inactive all and mute. The casual beam refracting. to pass. round the plastic virtue beams. whilesoe’er the scorching fire Enclasps them. sequester’d from its bound. “To the wood. where the departed roam. hence laughter. “I do not know a man.

At so strange a sight I mark’d That many a spirit marvel’d on his way. Oft the good master warn’d me: “Look thou well. careful not to overpass The burning pale. E’en so the emmets. Avail it that I caution thee. and I had straight Declar’d me. and then away. and their looks Mark’d eagerness to listen. Peer closely one at other.Purgatory To medicine the wound. who burn In thirst and fire: nor I alone. that healeth last.” The sun Now all the western clime irradiate chang’d From azure tinct to white. Again drew near my side the very same. and. a crowd. But mov’d by rev’rence. I. these to avoid The ice.” Then as cranes. Hadst enter’d?” Thus spake one. That friendly greeting parted. My passing shadow made the umber’d flame Burn ruddier. ‘mid their dusky troops. advances th’ other. answer me. as thou not yet Into th’ inextricable toils of death 200 . and resume Their first song weeping.” said they. there came. That part towards the Riphaean mountains fly. from either tribe Loud clamour rises: those. ere dispatch Of the first onward step. Shout Sodom and Gomorrah!” these. on whom Earnestly gazing. Tell us. This bred occasion first to speak of me. Who had erewhile besought me. “no insubstantial frame:” Then to obtain what certainty they might. who newly come. Meeting these. how is it that thou mak’st thyself A wall against the sun. so hasteth off One crowd. and how they thrive. but these All for thine answer do more thirst.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “O thou. and those the sun. to spy out Their mutual road perchance. Stretch’d towards me. who twice Their will had noted. that the beast she woo’d Might rush unto her luxury. CANTO XXVI While singly thus along the rim we walk’d. from each part I view The shadows all press forward. if attention had not turn’d To new appearance. as I pass’d. “The cow Pasiphae enter’d. Part towards the Lybic sands. spake: “O spirits secure. who followest The others. Midway the burning path. than doth Indian or Aethiop for the cooling stream. sev’rally Each snatch a hasty kiss. and their several shout. “He seems. haply not more slow than they.

That I no more May live in blindness. Following like beasts our vile concupiscence. Hence their cry Of ‘Sodom. as ye tell (upon my page Henceforth to stand recorded) who ye are. Already cleanse me. When my eyes were fed By looking on him. who have ever us’d the sweet And pleasant rhymes of love. So nought I heard Nor spake. who before had question’d. in thy bark! Their crime. as he did triumph. Fullest of love. Approach’d not nearer. and of most ample space. thus resum’d: “O blessed. Caesar heard The snout of ‘queen. such my joy (Save that I more represt it) when I heard From his own lips the name of him pronounc’d. with such solemn pledge. Our sinning was Hermaphrodite: but we. who wind for us This grace. round him stares agape. Who was a father to me. Receive you. (Not long the inmate of a noble heart) He. Rugged and clownish. Have I left yonder: here they bear me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who. Confounded and struck dumb. fed With blood. Who having truly sorrow’d ere my last. Now our deeds Thou know’st. for death preparing. Hence parting from them. and to those My betters. mountain-bred. that at your backs Have past behind us. e’en such appear’d Each spirit.” With such pious joy. and. Guinicelli I. For which. to our own disgrace Record the name of her.Purgatory Whene’er the time may be. As the two sons upon their mother gaz’d From sad Lycurgus rescu’d. by whom the beast In bestial tire was acted. nor in mature old age. time permits not now To tell so much. and how we sinn’d. that the orb of heaven. nor crude. tak’st Experience of our limits. and sinew-strung.” As one. but long time thoughtfully I went.’ as they parted. and aid the burning by their shame. Of myself Learn what thou wishest.’ to taunt him. was that. Because the law of human kind we broke. of peaceful end! My limbs. hence I tend aloft. But may your utmost wish soon meet Such full fruition. 201 . There is a dame on high. to rebuke Themselves. And what this multitude. by which my mortal through your realm I bear. If thou by name Wouldst haply know us. Gazing on him. only for the fire. nor can I. But when rid of that amaze. if some city’s walls He chance to enter. who not with us proceed.

Sorely lamenting for my folly past.Purgatory As forces credence. and pointed at a shade Before him. But as now thy oath Has seal’d the truth. the waves Of Lethe shall not wash it off. say to him One paternoster for me. He vanish’d through the fire. CANTO XXVII Now was the sun so station’d. 202 . I pray ye by the worth that guides ye up Unto the summit of the scale. who think the songster of Limoges O’ertops him.” With such words He disappear’d in the refining flame. and with songs.” “Brother!” he cried. “there is one. when that was said. to the spirit he had shown me. He frankly thus began: “Thy courtesy So wins on me. In reply He thus bespake me: “What from thee I hear Is grav’d so deeply on my mind. For which my heart.” I answer’d. I said. as long As of our tongue the beauty does not fade. as through the wave A fish. where power to sin No longer tempts us. Rumour and the popular voice They look to more than truth. declare what cause impels That love. kept gracious room. smiling in my view. nor make A whit less lively. in time Remember ye my suff’rings. I am Arnault. far as needs For dwellers in this world. I. whereof Christ Is Abbot of the college. drew A little onward. Thorough this ford of fire I wade. I have nor power nor will To hide me. that glances diving to the deep. I hope for. Shall make us love the very ink that trac’d them.” “Those dulcet lays. as when first His early radiance quivers on the heights. whose mother speech Doth owe to him a fairer ornament. that follow’d next. which both thy looks and speech bewray. I devoted me Unto his service wholly. ere by art or reason taught. He in love ditties and the tales of prose Without a rival stands. and besought his name. If thou own So ample privilege. and lets the fools Talk on. giving him the prize. Thus many of the elder time cried up Guittone. and see The day. “which.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and so confirm Opinion. till truth By strength of numbers vanquish’d.” Haply to make way For one. as to have gain’d Free entrance to the cloister.

” I. my son. While vermeil dyed the mulberry.Purgatory Where stream’d his Maker’s blood. And Statius. though conscience urg’d’ no step advanc’d. who erewhile no little space Had parted us. he pray’d to come behind. whose lively clearness far Surpass’d our human. Th’ escorting spirits turn’d with gentle looks Toward me. but canst not death. from Beatrice thou art by this wall Divided. when the’ angel of God Appear’d before us. He shook his forehead. relenting. When still he saw me fix’d and obstinate. Approach. “How long. and list Attentive to the song ye hear from thence. Somewhat disturb’d he cried: “Mark now. and new fires Meridian flash on Ganges’ yellow tide.” I still. I would have cast me into molten glass To cool me. Lay now all fear. “Blessed are the pure In heart. Into the fire before me then he walk’d. on the fire I look’d. and come onward undismay’d.” he said. remember thee. if I Safe e’en on Geryon brought thee: now I come More near to God. so intense Rag’d the conflagrant mass. “Go ye not further. and with thy hands thy vesture’s hem Stretch forth. Remember thee. and the Mantuan spake: “My son.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” he Sang: then near him as we came. “Ere the fire pierce you: enter in. The sire belov’d. when I heard The name. Here torment thou mayst feel. wilt thou not trust me now? Of this be sure: though in its womb that flame A thousand years contain’d thee. thus I turn’d To my sage guide. still 203 . that springs forever in my breast. Forth of the flame he stood upon the brink. was as one Laid in the grave. If thou doubt my truth. holy spirits!” he cried. And with a voice. “Linger we now?” then smil’d. To comfort me. And upward stretching. while Libra hangs Above Hesperian Ebro. Joy was in his mien. So day was sinking. when I enter’d. and took one parting glance. My hands together clasp’d. as one would smile Upon a child.” As at Thisbe’s name the eye Of Pyramus was open’d (when life ebb’d Fast from his veins). and for thyself confirm belief. O lay all fear aside. And busy fancy conjur’d up the forms Erewhile beheld alive consum’d in flames. when I heard his saying. from thy head No hair should perish. as he proceeded. Turn hither. that eyes the fruit and yields. and.

and leaning watches them: And as the swain. but power.” saith he. Delay not: ere the western sky is hung With blackness. Nor many stairs were overpass. Sleep overcame me. blessed of my Father. by the nature of that mount Forbidden further travel. and. “Come. A little glimpse of sky was seen above. A lady young and beautiful. I dream’d. and the goatherd leans Upon his staff. she whose orb Seems always glowing with the fire of love. While noonday rages. that from before my steps The beams were shrouded of the sinking sun. About the hour. did guide us. As I believe. Gazing on them. lest beast of prey Disperse them. as she came. There where the path led upward. “hastes: and evening comes. and the night her lot Held individual.Purgatory Of Beatrice talk’d. and fac’d Such part of heav’n. with heedful ear. that sang. Methought I saw her ever and anon Bending to cull the flowers.” From the other side A voice. I as a goat and as the shepherds they. that bringeth oft Tidings of future hap. “The sun. when Venus from the east First lighten’d on the mountain.” it added. when now By fading of the shadow we perceiv’d The sun behind us couch’d: and ere one face Of darkness o’er its measureless expanse Involv’d th’ horizon. whoever of my name would ask. That hail’d us from within a light. That I am Leah: for my brow to weave 204 . and the voice Following. strive ye for the pass. As the goats. which shone So radiant. ere they had ta’en Their supper on the herb. Was passing o’er a lea.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Such the sounds. that lodges out all night In quiet by his flock.” Our way Upright within the rock arose. “Come. each of us had made A stair his pallet: not that will. “Her eyes. “E’en now I seem to view. Close pent on either side by shelving rock. Yet by that little I beheld the stars In magnitude and rustle shining forth With more than wonted glory.” we heard. and thus she sang: “Know ye. As I lay. I could not endure the view. sleep. That late have skipp’d and wanton’d rapidly Upon the craggy cliffs. even so all three abode. and in that fit of musing. Had fail’d us. now silent lie And ruminate beneath the umbrage brown. we issued forth.

Lo! the sun. thou mayst or seat thee down. made me haste To succour thee. “That delicious fruit. Her joy In contemplation. The arboreta and flowers. as in labour mine. I with skill and art Thus far have drawn thee. eager now to roam. my son. on me the Mantuan fix’d His eyes. When we had run O’er all the ladder to its topmost round. To distrust thy sense Were henceforth error. Discreet.” And now as glimm’ring dawn appear’d. Expect no more Sanction of warning voice or sign from me. shall this day Appease thy hunger. Free of thy own arbitrement to choose. Thenceforward at each step I felt the wings Increasing for my flight. sovereign o’er thyself. that on all sides 205 . and thus he spake: “Both fires. And art arriv’d.” CANTO XXVIII Through that celestial forest. judicious. which. But my sister Rachel. Within me straight Desire so grew upon desire to mount. whose thick shade With lively greenness the new-springing day Attemper’d. Darkness from all sides fled. where of itself my ken No further reaches. thou hast seen. here I deck me. Or wander where thou wilt. she Before her glass abides the livelong day. and never greeting heard So pleasant as the sounds.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and search Its limits round. which of itself This land pours forth profuse! Till those bright eyes With gladness come. Thou hast o’ercome the steeper way. The temporal and eternal. Now thy pleasure take For guide. To please me at the crystal mirror. and with it fled My slumber. these fair hands unwearied ply. as he Sojourns less distant on his homeward way. O’ercome the straighter. Which through so many a branch the zealous care Of mortals roams in quest of. whence I rose and saw my guide Already risen. that darts His beam upon thy forehead! lo! the herb. o’er the ground. As there we stood. weeping. charm’d no less. that breaks More welcome to the pilgrim still.Purgatory A garland. Her radiant eyes beholding. Along the champain leisurely my way Pursuing. forthwith I left the bank. Than I with this delightful task. I invest thee then With crown and mitre.” Such the words I heard From Virgil’s lip.

yet darkly on it roll’d. never veer’d.” As when a lady.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in that season. which to the left With little rippling waters bent the grass.Purgatory Delicious odour breath’d. and she the bloomy spring. Over the yellow and vermilion flowers 206 . I beheld A lady all alone. Transpicuous. Darkly beneath perpetual gloom. who. clear. In prodigal variety: and there. Are worthy of our trust). and advances scarce One step before the other to the ground. methinks. gently. That issued from its brink. when her child The mother lost. but that still Upon their top the feather’d quiristers Applied their wonted art. I call to mind where wander’d and how look’d Proserpine. On earth no wave How clean soe’er. I could not ken the place Where I had enter’d.” thus to her my speech I fram’d: “Ah! please thee hither towards the streamlet bend Thy steps so near. Obedient all. That from our bosom every thought beside With the rare marvel chases. Already had my steps. who (if looks. wherewith her way Was all o’er painted. and with full joy Welcom’d those hours of prime. As object. with love’s own beam Dost warm thee. My feet advanc’d not. but my wond’ring eyes Pass’d onward. rolls the gath’ring melody. Though slow. “Lady beautiful! Thou. turning in the dance. And culling flower from flower. singing. Yet were not so disorder’d. compar’d with this. that use to speak the heart. when behold! my path Was bounded by a rill. so far into that ancient wood Transported me. A pleasant air. that to their jocund lays inept tenor. that I may list thy song. flush’d through many a hue. went. which ne’er Admits or sun or moon light there to shine. to survey The tender May-bloom. Along the piney forests on the shore Of Chiassi. o’er the streamlet. that would not seem to have Some mixture in itself. Beholding thee and this fair place. When Eolus hath from his cavern loos’d The dripping south. That intermitted never. as a wind Of softest influence: at which the sprays. even as from branch to branch. rising suddenly to view. Doth foot it featly. lean’d trembling to that part Where first the holy mountain casts his shade. Smote on my temples. and warbled shrill Amid the leaves.

Upon the opposite bank she stood and smil’d through her graceful fingers shifted still The intermingling dyes. Or from the waters (which. By the stream Three paces only were we sunder’d: yet The Hellespont. with inhospitable wave ‘Twixt Sestus and Abydos. Lord! hast made me glad. where Xerxes pass’d it o’er.” She spake. Say if aught else thou wish to hear: for I Came prompt to answer every doubt of thine. That I distinctly caught the dulcet sound. The First Good. and came so near. Arriving where the limped waters now Lav’d the green sward. whence that proceeds.’ will give ye light. (A curb for ever to the pride of man) Was by Leander not more hateful held For floating. because it gave no passage thence. chang’d Laughter unblam’d and ever-new delight. And thou. Which may uncloud your minds. That cradled human nature in its birth. where the gate his limit bars. Which makes thee wonder.” She answering thus: “I will unfold the cause. and didst make thy suit to me. wherever heat Attracts them. Favour’d thus highly. as I ween Ne’er glanced from Cytherea’s. exhal’d from earth beneath. her eyes she deign’d to raise. most maiden-like. ye not without suspicion view My smiles: but that sweet strain of psalmody. created man For happiness. nor fears the rage 0f elements contending. Valing her sober eyes. follow). might ascend thus far To vex man’s peaceful state. who stand’st The foremost. whose joy Is only in himself. And. ‘Thou. which without seed That lofty land unbosoms. when her son Had sped his keenest weapon to her heart. Wond’ring. for the bitterness of sorrow.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and so purge the cloud That hath enwraps thee. and here made short sojourn. this mountain rose So high toward the heav’n. “Strangers ye come. he fell. and haply in this place. That vapours none. through his own defect He fell. His pledge and earnest of eternal peace. That shot such splendour on me. Because the circumambient air throughout 207 . and I replied: “l know not how To reconcile this wave and rustling sound Of forest leaves. than by me That flood. from that part Exempted.Purgatory Thus turn’d she at my suit. and gave this goodly place. with what I late have heard Of opposite report.

of this place Perhaps had dream’d. on that to bring Remembrance back of every good deed done. full supply Feeds whatsoe’er On either side it pours. And by the will omnific.The Divine Comedy of Dante . undecaying. sure. On this devolv’d with power to take away Remembrance of offence. Upon the summit. and in itself Bears fruit that ne’er was pluck’d on other soil. And further learn. and makes Beneath its sway th’ umbrageous wood resound: And in the shaken plant such power resides. if I here break off. as if enamour’d. Albeit thy thirst may now Be well contented. When she had ceas’d. which on every side To visitation of th’ impassive air Is open. “The water. that intermittently repairs And spends his pulse of life. unless Aught interpose to cheek or thwart its course.” Turning to the bards. and this The far-fam’d nectar. whose verse of yore The golden age recorded and its bliss. On th’ other Eunoe: both of which must first Be tasted ere it work. solid. and th’ other land Receiving (as ‘t is worthy in itself. Here was man guiltless. the last exceeding All flavours else. springs not from vein. here Perpetual spring and every fruit. From whence its name of Lethe on this part.Purgatory With its first impulse circles still. That it impregnates with its efficacy The voyaging breeze. doth conceive. then my face Again directed to the lovely dame. The marvel ceases. This holy plain is fill’d. that warms it). if in yonder earth Some plant without apparent seed be found To fix its fibrous stem. They. but issues forth From fountain. I noted in their looks A smile at her conclusion. doth that motion strike. That with prolific foison of all seeds. if they somewhat pass The stretch of promise. No more revealing: yet a corollary I freely give beside: nor deem my words Less grateful to thee. This when thou hast heard. she resum’d 208 . And from its womb produces many a tree Of various virtue. CANTO XXIX Singing. Or in the clime. As stream. upon whose subtle plume That wafted flies abroad. thou behold’st. On the Parnassian mountain.

and this during still And waxing still in splendor.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The intervening distance to mine eye Falsely presented. that no lineament was lost Of those. against the current. That doth unfold it. what seem’d seven trees of gold. Woman. the creature of an hour. their beauteous garniture 209 . ineffable as these. for a song. made me question What it might be: and a sweet melody Ran through the luminous air. While through that wilderness of primy sweets That never fade. plays on the misdeeming sense. Had from the first. and yet Expectant of beatitude more high. up The verdant rivage. Onward a space. one Eager to view and one to ‘scape the sun. for that there were earth Stood in obedience to the heav’ns. and Urania with her choir Arise to aid me: while the verse unfolds Things that do almost mock the grasp of thought. The bank. been mine. but when I was come So near them. Between us not an hundred paces trod. Distinct the sound of melody was heard. she only. So mov’d she on. seen Remotely. the air Under the green boughs glow’d. Before us. Gave me to face the orient. that tripp’d Singly across the sylvan shadows. that ministers Discourse to reason. I. when to me at once She turn’d.” Like the wood-nymphs then.” And lo! a sudden lustre ran across Through the great forest on all parts. and. so bright I doubted whether lightning were abroad. joys. Then did I chide With warrantable zeal the hardihood Of our first parent. and it th’ singing trace the sound “Hosanna. on each side bending equally. with which a doubtful object. Then did the faculty.” Above. But that expiring ever in the spleen. with “Blessed they whose sins Are cover’d. these for tapers of gold Distinguish. like a blazing fire. Now through my breast let Helicon his stream Pour copious. cold and watching. and cried: “My brother! look and hearken. endur’d not Restraint of any veil: which had she borne Devoutly. with as tardy step pursued. and long time since. O ye thrice holy virgins! for your sakes If e’er I suffer’d hunger.Purgatory And clos’d the song. Nor our way Far onward brought us. her mincing step Observing. Occasion calls on me to crave your bounty. suspense I walk’d.

came after them Four animals. These streaming gonfalons did flow beyond My vision. as light In heav’n doth second light. each crown’d with verdurous leaf. and Cynthia her zone. that the distance of the stream Alone did separate me. And dost not look on that which follows them?” I straightway mark’d a tribe behind them walk.Purgatory Flam’d with more ample lustre. lights. Reader. as on earth Was never. leaving. As if attendant on their leaders. Parted the outermost. and ten paces. that in this I may not give my bounty room. The lady called aloud: “Why thus yet burns Affection in thee for these living.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And the fresh herblets. All sang one song: “Blessed be thou among The daughters of Adam! and thy loveliness Blessed for ever!” After that the flowers. that the bride Would have outstript them on her bridal day. my left side portray’d. and th’ eyes of Argus would be such. From him departing. save as to the pennons. and even such As thou shalt find them character’d by him. Beneath a sky So beautiful. the wat’ry gleam Borrow’d. I turn’d me full of wonder to my guide. on the opposite brink. than the moon Through cloudless sky at midnight in her full. Were free from that elected race. Here were they. cloth’d With raiment of such whiteness. But read Ezekiel. With six wings each was plum’d. In whirlwind. By two and two. The air behind them painted as with trail Of liveliest pencils! so distinct were mark’d All those sev’n listed colours. for he paints them. when there I look’d. and gave me back. cloud and fire. the plumage full Of eyes. there. from the north How he beheld them come by Chebar’s flood. On my left. 210 . Were they endued with life. As in a mirror. which came So slowly moving towards us. whence the sun Maketh his bow. When I had chosen on the river’s edge Such station. came foul and-twenty elders. more rhymes Will not waste in shadowing forth their form: For other need no straitens. and beheld The flames go onward. And he did answer with a countenance Charg’d with no less amazement: whence my view Reverted to those lofty things. as I guess. John accords with me. as they went. with flower-de-luces crown’d. there I stay’d My steps for clearer prospect.

At th’ other wheel. E’en as I view’d it with the flood between. made they solemn halt. one. surrounded by the four. Two old men I beheld. behind them all. Advanc’d with festal step. for there. Next four others I beheld. of whom the one Did show himself some favour’d counsellor Of the great Coan. Whenas the car was o’er against me. The members. With a shrewd visage. Three nymphs . that her form had scarce Been known within a furnace of clear flame: The next did look. came circling in smooth dance. And from her song who led. Was heard a thund’ring. sleeping. With the first ensigns. as of them one The rest conducted. And out of sight they rose. straight. So that the wings did cleave or injure none. that chariot of the sun Erroneous. whose glitterance and keen edge. One single old man. In rear of all this group. but little distant. upon whose front Three eyes were seen. enclos’d A car triumphal: on two wheels it came Drawn at a Gryphon’s neck. might have sworn. Now seem’d the white to lead. ‘tween the midst And the three listed hues. Rather with roses and each vermeil flower. 211 . were golden.k the right wheel. each in purple clad. on each side three. That they were all on fire above their brow. A band quaternion. His fellow mark’d an opposite intent. Solid and mainly grave. Or Africanus’: e’en the sun’s itself Were poor to this. the ruddy now. and he above Stretch’d either wing uplifted. So beautiful A car in Rome ne’er grac’d Augustus pomp.The Divine Comedy of Dante . dissimilar In raiment. as he came. A sight. each Like the first troop were habited. hut wore No braid of lilies on their temples wreath’d. swift or slow. white the rest With vermeil intervein’d. Bearing a sword. And these seven. far As he was bird. Of humble seeming: and. whom nature made To serve the costliest creature of her tribe. by the just doom Mysterious of all-seeing Jove. at whose voice it seem’d The chosen multitude were stay’d. the others took Their treasure. but in port and gesture like. as if the flesh and bones Were emerald: snow new-fallen seem’d the third. which in blazing ruin fell At Tellus’ pray’r devout. Appall’d me. him. The one so ruddy.Purgatory The space.

at whose touch awak’d. fair ornament Of the first heav’n. so saying.” they cried. Forthwith the saintly tribe. as that lower doth The steersman to his port. at the voice Authoritative of that elder. and with mists Attemper’d at lids rising. The eastern clime all roseate. “from full hands scatter ye Unwith’ring lilies. thrill’d me. spouse. as if commission’d from above. as to their rest: And one. in white veil with olive wreath’d. yet there mov’d from her A hidden virtue. A virgin in my view appear’d. at break of day. “Blessed thou! who com’st!” And. like a babe. As.Purgatory CANTO XXX Soon as the polar light. and e’en In childhood. The power of ancient love was strong within me. one deep and beautiful serene.” and. In holy chant thrice shorted forth aloud: “Come. to duty each one there Safely convoying. sprang A hundred ministers and messengers Of life eternal. nor the shadowy veil Of other cloud than sin. That doth not quiver in me. Fell showering. beneath Green mantle. rob’d in hue of living flame: And o’er my Spirit. That flees for refuge to his mother’s breast. Mine eyes no more Had knowledge of her. from Libanus!” and all the rest Took up the song—At the last audit so The blest shall rise. which never knows Setting nor rising. And the sun’s face so shaded. And down. If aught have terrified or work’d him woe: And would have cried: “There is no dram of blood. which years past. on the sacred litter. “O. smote The heav’nly influence. within and outside of the car. cast Flowers over head and round them on all sides. panting. that the eye Long while endur’d the sight: thus in a cloud Of flowers. from forth his cavern each Uplifting lightly his new-vested flesh. stood firmly fix’d. who in the van Between the Gryphon and its radiance came. Did turn them to the car. I have beheld. No sooner on my vision streaming. ere now. No shudd’ring terror crept. and the sky Oppos’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that in former days Within her presence had abode so long. that from those hands angelic rose. than towards Virgil I Turn’d me to leftward. The old flame Throws out clear tokens of reviving fire:” 212 .

and sought the greensward: such a weight Of shame was on my forehead. When ‘mid the sail-yards all hands ply aloof. as one. that lies Amidst the living rafters on the back Of Italy congeal’d when drifted high And closely pil’d by rough Sclavonian blasts. my hope hath been:” But went no farther than. more than could the words “Virgin. Virgil.Purgatory But Virgil had bereav’d us of himself. And straightway melting it distils away. across the stream. Though from her brow the veil descending. and suddenly the angels sang: “In thee. Like a fire-wasted taper: thus was I.The Divine Comedy of Dante . still insulting o’er her thrall. 213 . Still in their warbling chime: but when the strain Of dulcet symphony. why so consum’st him?” then the ice. that Virgil leaves thee: nay. I am Beatrice. With a mien Of that stern majesty. “Thou Lord. “Dante. She look’d. a flavour of such bitterness Was mingled in her pity. or ever these Did sing. who speaking keepeth back The bitterest saying. Virgil. Breathe but the land whereon no shadow falls. inspiriting his crew. weep not. she bent her eyes. I am. that with the chiming of heav’n’s sphere. Weep thou not yet: behooves thee feel the edge Of other sword. Thus on the left side of the car I saw. Added.” As snow. Towards me. which doth surround mother’s presence to her awe-struck child. he To whom I gave me up for safety: nor. some admiral Paces the deck. (Turning me at the sound of mine own name. Without a sigh or tear. then with act Full royal.” As to the prow or stern. myself espying. who before appeared Veil’d in that festive shower angelical. but there. in sooth. There her words Brake off. and thou shalt weep for that. my best-lov’d father. All. our prime mother lost. express’d for me Their soft compassion. Which here I am compell’d to register) The virgin station’d. hast set My feet in ample room. O gracious Lord. to conclude the speech: “Observe me well. O man! Thy happiness is whole?” Down fell mine eyes On the clear fount. suffer’d not That I beheld her clearly. avail’d to save My undew’d cheeks from blur of soiling tears. What! and hast thou deign’d at last Approach the mountain? knewest not. bound With foliage of Minerva. Recoil’d.

that in him All better habits wond’rously had thriv’d. Who there stands weeping. Receiv’d my supplications urg’d with weeping. So much doth evil seed and lack of culture Mar it the more. turn’d itself To spirit and water.Purgatory Congeal’d about my bosom. Such depth he fell. and chang’d My mortal for immortal. as mocks our vision. Conveys from you a single step in all The goings on of life: thence with more heed I shape mine answer.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with close stealth. Nor avail’d me aught To sue for inspirations. who hath conducted him thus high. that make No promise perfect. If Lethe should be past. but through benign Largess of heav’nly graces. When from flesh To spirit I had risen. Did call him back. and with anguish forth Gush’d through the lips and eyelids from the heart. then he left me. and make it run to wildness. save that he should view The children of perdition. Upon the chariot’s right edge still she stood. and otherwise. such. To this end I visited the purlieus of the dead: And one. both in dreams of night. I was less dear to him. The more of kindly strength is in the soil. Immovable. this man Was in the freshness of his being. that all device was short Of his preserving. So that nor night nor slumber. with the which. of them so little reck’d him. and thus address’d her words To those bright semblances with pity touch’d: “Ye in th’ eternal day your vigils keep. I. And gave himself to others. Not alone Through operation of the mighty orbs. which rain down From such a height. That mark each seed to some predestin’d aim. So gifted virtually. and valued less. and such food tasted Without the cost of some repentant tear. that the sorrow now May equal the transgression. and led him by their light In upright walking. It were a breaking of God’s high decree. for I show’d My youthful eyes. His steps were turn’d into deceitful ways. and increase Of beauty and of virtue circled me. Soon as I had reach’d The threshold of my second age. As with aspect or fortunate or ill The constellations meet. Following false images of good. for his ear intended.” 214 . These looks sometime upheld him.

ere its organs gave it birth. But whene’er the sinner’s cheek Breaks forth into the precious-streaming tears Of self-accusing.Purgatory CANTO XXXI “O Thou!” her words she thus without delay Resuming. and that henceforth more strength May arm thee. wailing: “Thy fair looks with drawn. What bar of thwarting foss or linked chain Did meet thee. when thou hear’st the Siren-voice. a cross-bow bent Beyond its pitch. from my lips Did such a “Yea” produce. that thou elsewhere should’st rather wait?” A bitter sigh I drew.” On my faculty Such strange amazement hung. Thou hadst not hid thy sin the more: such eye Observes it.” A mingled sense Of fear and of confusion. Thus. Never didst thou spy In art or nature aught so passing sweet. tears and sighs forth gushing. As when breaks In act to be discharg’d. turn’d their point on me. which sets a bound to our aspirings. with deceitful pleasures. then she spake: “What dost thou muse on? Answer me. who stand’st beyond the holy stream. A charge so grievous needs Thine own avowal. or denied what thou avow’st. And lend attentive ear. as needed help Of vision to interpret. If this be true. did I burst Beneath the heavy load. Lay thou aside the motive to this grief. ‘Say thou. and thus my voice Was slacken’d on its way. The wave On thy remembrances of evil yet Hath done no injury. that thou so should’st quit the hope Of further progress. A little space refraining. the voice expir’d Imperfect.” She answering spake: “Hadst thou Been silent. while I unfold How opposite a way my buried flesh Should have impell’d thee. Things present. both nerve and bow o’erstretch’d. Howe’er that thou may’st profit by thy shame For errors past. She straight began: “When my desire invited thee to love The good. The flagging weapon feebly hits the mark. then scarce found voice To answer. or what bait of ease Or promise of allurement led thee on Elsewhere. that in their beauteous frame 215 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . to whom They but with lateral edge seem’d harsh before. hardly to these sounds my lips Gave utterance. turn’d My steps aside. As were the limbs. in our court the wheel Of justice doth run counter to the edge.

whom alone I first had seen. that blows From off the pole. that flow’d Between. list’ning. she turn’d. Towards the animal. Than downward sunk that vision I beheld Of goodly creatures vanish. even under shadow of her veil. and mine eyes Yet unassur’d and wavering. The new and inexperienc’d bird awaits. I found above me. or from Iarbas’ land. bent their light On Beatrice. Raise thou thy beard.” and lo! had dragg’d me high As to my neck into the stream.Purgatory Enclos’d me. the fowler’s aim. and lo! what sight shall do!” With less reluctance yields a sturdy holm. And parted by the verdant rill. whose plumes are full. and never stoop’d again To ‘bide a second blow for a slight girl. I mark’d the secret sting her words convey’d. The lady. returning outward from the heart. but to hear thus pains thee. And she resum’d: “If. When now my strength Flow’d back. But in the sight of one.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Each thing else. Still as she drew me after. swept along. On my heart so keenly smote The bitter consciousness. afterward.” that I 216 . “Tu asperges me. the arrow wing’d. as children silent and asham’d Stand. She knows who was the cause. Who joins two natures in one form. as on earth All others she surpass’d. while she. Twice it may be. with their eyes upon the earth. Swift as a shuttle. in my departing For better realms. now the more I Was loathsome. and are scatter’d now in dust. of mortal should thy wish Have tempted? When thou first hadst felt the dart Of perishable things. the more Its love had late beguil’d me. or thrice. “Loose me not. No sooner lifted I mine aspect up. What. thy wing thou should’st have prun’d To follow me.” she cried: “Loose not thy hold. If sweetest thing thus fail’d thee with my death. in loveliness appear’d as much Her former self surpassing. Than I at her behest my visage rais’d: And thus the face denoting by the beard. Or other gaud as transient and as vain. that on the ground O’erpower’d I fell: and what my state was then. And. The blessed shore approaching then was heard So sweetly. Acknowledging their fault and self-condemn’d.” I stood. bounding o’er the wave. Rent from its fibers by a blast. In vain the net is spread. Remorseful goads Shot sudden through me.

and with their arm They each did cover me. Full of amaze. Yet in its imag’d semblance mutable. now conceal’d. Who to behold thee many a wearisome pace Hath measur’d. that stood Still fix’d toward the Gryphon motionless.Purgatory May not remember. well to scan. Thy sight shall quicken. clasp’d My temples. For ever varying. Or ever earth Was visited of Beatrice. When under cope of the still-chiming heaven Thou gav’st to open air thy charms reveal’d. whereof still desire Grows with satiety.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Turn. in one figure now Reflected. Or with that fount so lavishly imbued. where ‘t was fit The wave should drench me: and thence raising up. “Spare not thy vision. turn’d toward us. We have stationed thee Before the emeralds. her arms expanding. “Here are we nymphs. but the light Of gladness that is in them. We to her eyes will lead thee. even thus Within those orbs the twofold being. the other three With gesture. we Appointed for her handmaids. Beatrice!” was their song: “O turn Thy saintly sight on this thy faithful one. while my soul Fed on the viand. shone. “As they spake. And in the heav’n are stars. whence love erewhile Hath drawn his weapons on thee. Whose spirit should not fail him in th’ essay To represent thee such as thou didst seem. Advanc’d: to their own carol on they came Dancing in festive ring angelical. of deeper ken than ours. and immerg’d me. The beauteous dame. now in other. much less tell the sound. And then they led me to the Gryphon’s breast. albeit steadfast in itself.” Thus began their song. While. 217 . and joyous. As the sun strikes a mirror. that declar’d a loftier line. tended on her. Reader! muse How wond’rous in my sight it seem’d to mark A thing.” O splendour! O sacred light eternal! who is he So pale with musing in Pierian shades. A thousand fervent wishes riveted Mine eyes upon her beaming eyes. Beatrice stood. Within the fourfold dance of lovely nymphs Presented me so lav’d. Gracious at our pray’r vouchsafe Unveil to him thy cheeks: that he may mark Thy second beauty. Those yonder three.

Were such. pursued the wheel. for from their lips I heard the warning sounds: “Too fix’d a gaze!” Awhile my vision labor’d. to foot 218 . as ‘midst their forest wilds for height The Indians might have gaz’d at. With one voice All murmur’d “Adam. No other sense was waking: and e’en they Were fenc’d on either side from heed of aught. So tangled in its custom’d toils that smile Of saintly brightness drew me to itself. as the view Was now recover’d (lesser in respect To that excess of sensible. ere the whole can change their ground: E’en thus the goodly regiment of heav’n Proceeding. as when late Upon the’ o’erstrained eyes the sun hath smote: But soon to lesser object. Its tresses. Attendant at the wheels The damsels turn’d. Through the high wood. Against the sun and sev’nfold lights. as far Perchance as arrow at three several flights Full wing’d had sped. No feather on him trembled. Were bent to rid them of their ten years’ thirst. their bucklers for protection rais’d. Wheel circling. ere the car Had slop’d his beam. all did pass us. companied By Statius and myself. As when.” And turning to the chariot-pole. with a pace so smooth. Onward had we mov’d. and turn. when from her station down Descended Beatrice. and on the Gryphon mov’d The sacred burden. rolling. whose beak hath never pluck’d that tree Pleasant to taste: for hence the appetite Was warp’d to evil. mark’d a lesser arch. A well-rang’d troop. their front.Purgatory CANTO XXXII Mine eyes with such an eager coveting.” Round the stately trunk Thus shouted forth the rest. The fair dame Who through the wave had drawn me. spreading more as more they rose. “Blessed thou! Gryphon.” circling next a plant Despoil’d of flowers and leaf on every bough. now void (the more her blame. Whose orbit. to whom return’d The animal twice-gender’d: “Yea: for so The generation of the just are sav’d. with portly banners curl’d. Who by the serpent was beguil’d) I past With step in cadence to the harmony Angelic.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When forcibly toward the left my sight The sacred virgins turn’d. whence late I had perforce been sunder’d) on their right I mark’d that glorious army wheel.

219 .” all doubting. and each wears anew His wonted colours. was renew’d The plant. which I beheld Bound to the twyform beast. ere the sun have yok’d Beneath another star his flamy steeds. admitted to behold The blossoming of that fair tree. “Beneath the fresh leaf seated on its root. when Syrinx warbled. Upon the Gryphon tend. by whom all other thoughts Were barr’d admittance. but mine eyes had now Ta’en view of her. over me beheld I stand The piteous one. I understood it not. and bound There left unto the stock whereon it grew.Purgatory He drew it of the widow’d branch. And deeper than the violet. Thus putting forth a hue. erewhile in all its branches bare. who cross the stream had brought My steps. to themselves Returning at the word. “Is Beatrice?”—”See her. with that radiance mingled. with a melody more sweet And more profound.” If there her words Were clos’d. Our plants then burgeon. and doth make Perpetual feast in heaven. I might design The manner of my falling into sleep. whence deeper sleeps Were broken. I know not. Behold th’ associate choir that circles her. On Tabor’s mount. I pass it by to when I wak’d. and one cries out: “Arise. which ascends Next after setting of the scaly sign. journeying to higher realms. And in their hands upheld those lights secure From blast septentrion and the gusty south. and chang’d The stole their master wore: thus to myself Returning. (eyes that paid So dearly for their watching. As when large floods of radiance from above Stream. The others. But feign who will the slumber cunningly. which then arose. nor to the end Endur’d the harmony. I exclaim’d. how clos’d th’ unpitying eyes Slumb’ring. The seven nymphs Did make themselves a cloister round about her. what dost thou?” As the chosen three. more faint than rose. Both Moses and Elias gone. that they their tribe diminish’d saw.” she replied.The Divine Comedy of Dante .) then like painter. “And where. That with a model paints. Had I the skill To pencil forth. On the very ground Alone she sat. Unearthly was the hymn. and tell How suddenly a flash of splendour rent The curtain of my sleep. whose fruit Is coveted of angels. as she had there been left A guard upon the wain.

Never fire. forth a stormy cloud Leap’d downward from the welkin’s farthest bound. and one On every side. O’er it methought there sat. fast as his hide-bound corpse Would bear him. from whence before he came. Like monster sight hath never seen. wherein Christ dwells a Roman To profit the misguided world. And like a wasp that draggeth back the sting. What remain’d. As I beheld the bird of Jove descending Pounce on the tree. through its several parts. by the vaulting waves. with hunger seeming pin’d Of all good food. o’ercome.The Divine Comedy of Dante . like that which issues forth From heart with sorrow riv’d. so did clothe itself with plumes. And now to larboard. buds much more And leaflets. But with a single horn upon their front The four. So drawing forth his baleful train. Disparting crush beneath him. he dragg’d Part of the bottom forth. Next springing up into the chariot’s womb A fox I saw. And I beheld a dragon issue thence. and the beam. it reel’d. But. as she bade. staggering like a ship. the rind. at her behest. returning to that place. Thus transform’d. the first like oxen horn’d. 220 . At random driv’n. did issue forth From heav’n. Whose ken rov’d loosely round her. three on the beam. to starboard now. “O poor bark of mine!” it cried. directed. Of that true Rome. Did put forth heads. The holy structure. And then a voice. “How badly art thou freighted!” Then. it seem’d. I saw the eagle dart into the hull O’ th’ car. as he rush’d. That through the chariot fix’d his forked train. Next. and went his way Exulting. With so swift motion.Purgatory “A little while thou shalt be forester here: And citizen shalt be forever with me. I. Take heed thou write. On the car with all his might He struck. and what thou seest. and. and leave it with his feathers lin’d. keep now Thine eyes upon the car. At her side. Both one and other. so quickly A sigh were not breath’d sooner. a shameless whore. secure as rock On mountain’s lofty top. Which haply had with purpose chaste and kind Been offer’d. for his ugly sins The saintly maid rebuking him. my thought and eyes.” Thus Beatrice: at whose feet inclin’d Devout. whence. away Scamp’ring he turn’d. and therewith were cloth’d the wheels. as lively turf With green herb. That the earth open’d between either wheel. and.

so far across The forest. Lord! are come!”responsive thus. thou mayst still be aptly plac’d To hear them. and.” She answering thus: “Of fearfulness and shame. I saw A giant stand. their sweet psalmody began. and now the virgin band Quaternion. Her tenth step to the ground. But when they gave her place To speak. my beloved sisters. and dragg’d on. to the song’. the dame. Was and is not: let him. Again a little while.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thus far be taught of me: The vessel. in such a mood. as she stood beside the cross. he. and fierce with rage.” she cried. As thus we walk together?” Like to those Who. her lustful eyes Chancing on me to wander. and ye Shall see me not. draw not forth the voice Alive unto their lips. I ween. with visage mild. and ever. to follow her. that thou know’st. And what will suit my need. risen upright on her feet. that from me its shades alone Shielded the harlot and the new-form’d brute. So on she pass’d. Was scarce more chang’d. As one who dreams. then. befell me shell That I in sounds imperfect thus began: “Lady! what I have need of.” Soon as duly to her side I now had hasten’d: “Brother!” she began. Weeping. that fell minion Scourg’d her from head to foot all o’er. “that if my words Address thee. I will. And that remaining sage. who left the chariot plum’d. which thou saw’st the serpent break. and. and ye shall see me. and Beatrice listen’d. that thou Henceforth do rid thee: that thou speak no more.Purgatory As ‘t were that none might bear her off. sad And sighing. That Mary. who hath the blame. speaking with too reverent an awe Before their betters. with a colour glowing bright as fire. then full Of jealousy.” Before her then she marshall’d all the seven. when with mine eyes Her eyes encounter’d. But. “Why mak’st thou no attempt at questioning. “So mend thy pace. Hope not to scare God’s vengeance with a sop. The trinal now. unloos’d The monster. She. Did answer: “Yet a little while. beck’ning only motion’d me. and had not set. Without an heir for ever shall not be That eagle. CANTO XXXIII “The heathen. 221 . and anon They mingled kisses. And.

Without due cause: and were not vainer thoughts. five. (Five hundred. Take heed. brings on A season. its learning halts: And mayst behold your art. who for his use alone Creating hallow’d it. That thou hast follow’d. if it deem this height And summit thus inverted of the plant. The giant. and as these words By me are utter’d. This whoso plucks. and how far behind. the first soul did yearn for him. one sent from God. Fail to persuade thee. as the disagreement is 222 . And if perchance My saying. in the which. that loses it the more. “the school. from the divine As distant. But since I mark thee In understanding harden’d into stone. Who punish’d in himself the fatal gust. In pain and in desire. (since like them it foils The intellect with blindness) yet ere long Events shall be the Naiads.Purgatory Which monster made it first and next a prey. keep in mind Not to conceal how thou hast seen the plant. Plainly I view. to thy soul. “I thus: “As wax by seal. whose conjunction.” she answer’d straight. and therefore speak. thou hadst seen. dark as Themis or as Sphinx. So that thine eye is dazzled at my word. that will solve This knotty riddle.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When following my discourse. and no damage light On flock or field. the stars E’en now approaching. And their fond pleasures had not dyed it dark As Pyramus the mulberry. with blasphemy of deed Sins against God. For taste of this. In such momentous circumstance alone. As Elsa’s numbing waters. The more it strains to reach it?”—”To the end That thou mayst know. God’s equal justice morally implied In the forbidden tree. And. and th’ accomplice of her guilt. now is stamp’d my brain by thee. But wherefore soars thy wish’d-for speech so high Beyond my sight. teach them even so To those who live that life. “Thy reason slumbers. and ten. do mark him out) That foul one. This whoso robs. yet at least Painted thou take it in thee. that changeth not Its impress. if not written. That twice hath now been spoil’d. spotted too and stain’d. for the cause. both shall slay. I will. to that hardness. five thousand years And upward. that. That one brings home his staff inwreath’d with palm. free From all impediment and bar. which is a race To death: and when thou writ’st them.

and. when she had ta’en me. Tigris and Euphrates both beheld. oft To overbrow a bleak and alpine cliff. That beverage. that varies still As th’ aspect varies of each several clime. who clears himself of blame Imputed. but as soon As he hath token of another’s will. Linger at parting. and I am safe That Lethe’s water hath not hid it from him. since all the leaves are full. nor for such fault Doth conscience chide me. mine art 223 . But. like friends. Forth from one fountain issue. which from one source deriv’d Itself removes to distance from itself?” To such entreaty answer thus was made: “Entreat Matilda. And. might I sing. where they stood.” And here. arriving at the verge Of a dun umbrage hoar.” I replied. revive His fainting virtue. Appointed for this second strain.” More sparkling now. though but in part.Purgatory ‘Twixt earth and heaven’s most high and rapturous orb. Reader. and. call to mind How lately thou hast drunk of Lethe’s wave. with whose sweetness I had ne’er Been sated. In that forgetfulness itself conclude Blame from thy alienated will incurr’d. “that e’er I was estrang’d from thee. not remember. if perchance he spy Vestige of somewhat strange and rare: so paus’d The sev’nfold band. and call’d To Statius with an air most lady-like: “Come thou with him.” And Beatrice: “Some more pressing care That oft the memory ‘reeves. that she teach thee this. perchance hath made His mind’s eye dark. as one. as thou art wont.” Were further space allow’d. Beneath green leaves and gloomy branches.The Divine Comedy of Dante . sent in vaward of a troop For escort. such as is seen. as it seem’d. Then. But lo! where Eunoe cows! Lead thither. “O enlight’ning beam! O glory of our kind! beseech thee say What water this. as one.” As a courteous spirit. sure as smoke doth indicate a flame.” Smiling she return’d: “If thou canst. Makes it his own. When. That proffers no excuses.” “I not remember. From henceforth verily my words shall be As naked as will suit them to appear In thy unpractis’d view. And with retarded course the sun possess’d The circle of mid-day. the fair dame return’d: “Of me He this and more hath learnt. And. thus The lovely maiden mov’d her on. before them. pauses.

17. in the Sofonisba. s. and Temperance. 135. 35. 11. v. laugheth of the sight. —visto il tremolar della marine. Now the down/Of softness is exchang’d for Da fredera prisci Illibata tori: da tantum nomen inane Connubil: liceat tumulo scripsisse.] Berni.] Cato. Rleelardetto. a. Prudence Justice.] Venus. Orl. That mark’d the better sex. c. viii. Primo avulso non deficit alter CANTO II v. Phars. Catonis Martia Lucan.] E resta in tremolar l’onda marina And Fortiguerra. vi. v.] The same metaphor has occurred in Hell Canto XX. c. 92. Planet. Trissino.] Connubil il tremolar della marina.] Hence Chaucer.” v. 4. The wain. or Bootes. The farthest gloom. It is used by Ford in the Lady’s Trial.] “When Israel came out of Egypt.] For the fable of the daughters of Pierus. v. canz. “Knight’s Tale”: “And all the orisont Fortitude.] NOTES TO PURGATORY CANTO I Verse 1. Ma trattar l’acre coll’ eterne plume v. 80 Filicaja. Oroando Furioso c. An old man. 5.” It is sometimes read “orient.] From Virg. L 2.] Trattando l’acre con l’eterne penne. Inn. 19. 6. Four stars. 105. who challenged the muses to sing. Now had the sun. ii. 31. v. cxiv. xxxiv st. another.] L’ultima sera. Birds of chattering note. Pure and made apt for mounting to the stars. See Canto XXXI v. 1.] The constellation Libra. to him it was rising. 110. In exitu. v. st. v. v. O’er better waves. i. 224 . fab. 41: —the plumes. 79. Winnowing the air. I spy’d the trembling of the ocean stream. v. 2. Marcia. st. v. v. The scales. Al Sonno. If ‘en as new plants renew’d with foliage new. 59: Che non hen visto ancor l’ultima sera.] Dante was now antipodal to Jerusalem. v. regenerate.” Ps. 45. 1. 1. L’ultima sera. 20. 1. Per correr maggior acqua alza le vele.Purgatory With warning bridle checks me. Met. 11. ix. And Filicaja. see Ovid. 143. Venerable plumes. 24. v.] Charles’s wain. v. 30. and were by them changed into magpies. ix. c. 344. 58.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Symbolical of the four cardinal virtues. Ariosto. Made all the orient laugh. I return’d From the most holy wave. so that while the sun was setting with respect to that place which he supposes to be the middle of the inhabited earth. O debil navicella del mio ingegno. Aen. v. plumes of age.

] Virgil died at Brundusium. p. v.” G. 75. excommunicated. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the Bishop of Cosenza took up his body and sent it out of the kingdom. But some ave said. Nice and Manoca. which he again cites in his Treatise de Vulg. vii.] See H. sect. 49. G. These three months past. v. music.] Ostia. 205. is the village of Torbia. He.] See Paradise Canto III. L. that mars all decency of act. because it was the land of the church. Costanza. ‘Twixt Lerice and Turbia. ii. 170. xlvii.] Casella had been dead some years but was only just arrived.] Ter conatus ibi eollo dare brachia eircum.”] “Amor che nella mente mi ragiona. and the natural son of Frederick II. on the borders of the kingdom and of Carapagna. I. Manfredi. Par levibus ventis voluerique simillima sommo.] (Ch’era al cor picciol fallo amaro morso. 322. vi. King of Naples and Sicily. v. c. 91. but he was interred near the bridge of Benevento. 794. in his motions. Villani. we do not affirm. 38. by command of the Pope. 878. were supposed to pass over to Purgatory as soon as they pleased. c. Haste. Ediz. Od. Ter frustra eomprensa manus effugit imago. Electra. 111. v. iv. 351. Burney’s History of Music. ii. “Dante often recreated his spirits wearied by severe studies. i. “Dying. As sheep. v. 59. v. Matthias’s Tiraboschi. 90. My Casella. the latter on the west. 39. 13. of Hell. for a different purpose. To Naples. 2d edit. this. 78. A very ingenious writer has had occasion. Virg. and Mr. c. and that it was buried by the river Verde. t. v. 1. between the two little cities. v. vol. Thrice my hands. and on his grave there was cast a stone by every one of the army whence there was formed a great mound of stones.” that he is “quick 225 .” See Dr. He was lively end agreeable in his manners. st. alluded to in Canto XXVIII. King Charles did allow of his being buried in sacred ground. He fell in the battle with Charles of Anjou in 1265. 26. 110.] A Florentine. 94. 121. l. Villani l. Aristotle in his Physiog iii. c.] Since the time of the Jubilee. x. Tasso. v. 38.” says Landine. and delighted in poetry. p. v.” Compare Sophoeles. v. “in whose company. See G. c. 9. Compare Homer. p. from whence his body is said to have been removed to Naples. Ven.] The imitative nature of these animals supplies our Poet with another comparison in his Convito Opere. But he was luxurious and ambitious. Aen. the former on the east. How doth a little failing wound thee sore. 88. however. 9. The shore. Hist. ii. vi. p 34. reekons it among the “the signs of an impudent man. and dancing. v. 1793. 11. Hath so much time been lost. “Love that discourses in my thoughts. CANTO III v.] At that time the two extremities of the Genoese republic. to mention one of these places as remarkably secluded by its mountainous situation “On an eminence among the mountains. xl.Purgatory v. Eloq. and in his philosophy an Epicurean. that afterwards. Milton has a fine allusion to this meeting in his sonnet to Henry Lawes. celebrated for his skill in music. x. a name formed from the Greek Mitford on the Harmony of Language. 96.” The first verse of a eanzone or song in the Convito of Dante. v. v. Void of religion. Desiring fruitlessly. Canto IV.] The eonducting angel. during which all spirits not condemned to eternal punishment. v.

is not easy to decide. st. c.] A river near Ascoli. are three distinct things. —infin che verde e fior di speme. by whom she was mother to Frederick. Be as a tower.] In the Genoese territory. s. and most with him.] Imitated by Tasso. v. venistis in orbem. L. you will perceive that the sun must rise on opposite sides of the respective eminences. Inn. and likewise from the substance of the soul itself. Tasso. 36.] It must be owned the beginning of this Canto is somewhat obscure. 53. From the left. 130. b. Orl. v. 558: v. Clement. 23. Belacqua. 248 v. G.] A steep mountain in the territory of Reggio. (or whether the soul be one individual substance) but only receiving these several denominations rom the several respects arising from the several actions exerted immediately by itself upon several objects. Umbras mirati nemornm non ire sinistras.] Mentre che la speranza ha fior del verde.” Vol. King of Sicily and James. 1. Bismantua.] “If you consider that this mountain of Purgatory and that of Sion are antipodal to each other. 1. 69 Thou wilt see. King of Arragon. affirm the former. 127. iii. iv. When. 62: Tal suol fendendo liquido sereno Stella cader della gran madre in seno. L. st. and wife of Peter III. to the reasoning of Statius in the twenty-fifth canto. v. Villani. xvi. Sanleo. v. both in being distinguished from one another. the daughter of Manfredi. judgement memory. Arabes. I say whether of these it is. 48: In quei due piedi sta fermo il gigante Com’ una torre in mezzo d’un castello. viii. Serm. iv. My fair daughter. P. in which I have ventured to supply the words between crotchets that seemed to be wanting to complete the sense. Noli.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Ne’er saw I fiery vapours. L. CANTO IV v. or several qualities of the same object.] Pope Clement IV.] A fortress on the summit of Montefeltro. for an elucidation of it. considered without any such faculties. CANTO V v. King of Arragon With the latter of these she was at Rome 1296. and notes to Canto VII. 591.] Vellutello observes an imitation of Lucan in this passage: Ignotum vobis. . L. c. 122. 14. P. that falls into he Toronto. i. Now whether these three.] Sta ome torre ferma Berni. c. xix. the commentators afford no information. v.] Concerning this man. 119. 18. between Finale and Savona. and invention. and Scotus with his followers the latter. The stream of Verde.” v. 25. v. 55. Perhaps some illustration may be derived from the following. 24.Purgatory v. Hope. and it is well that it is not necessary Aquinas. b.] Costanza. xix t. 1. The “xtinguished lights “ formed part of the ceremony t the interment of one excommunicated. v. 1. And by Milton. passage in South’s Sermons. 1. See G. And Milton. G. c. Stood like a tower. Phars. Bellutello refers. 1. 112.

that he was afterwards invited to Rome. for his robberies in Maremma. 2.] Buonconte (son of Guido da Montefeltro. secretly made away with by her husband.Purgatory Swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. Of Pisa he. that he even kissed the hands of the slayer of his son. Giacopo.] That is. 14. if he had fled towards Mira. N. but (as the commentators inform us) obtained so high a reputation by the liberality with which he was accustomed to dispense the fruits of his plunder. CANTO VI v. 115. v. while he was in pursuit of certain of his enemies. 76. of the same city.The Divine Comedy of Dante . between Bibbiena and Poppi. by 227 .] She is said to have been a Siennese lady. or kinswoman. Peter de la Brosse. higher up on that river. was murdered by Ghino. v. v. Of Arezzo him. x. The hermit’s seat.] Either the wife. v.] Secretary of Philip III of France. Louis. who had entered the order of the Frati Minori. Him beside. 20. from whence. v. was by his orders put to death. 18.] From Pratomagno now called Prato Vecchio (which divides the Valdarno from Casentino) as far as to the Apennine. having condemned to death Turrino da Turrita brother of Ghino di Tacco. as he was following the funeral. Antenor’s land. v.] Benincasa of Arezzo. prevailed on Mary of Brabant to charge him falsely with an attempt upon her person for which supposed crime he suffered death. Marquis of Ferrara. Henault represents the matter very differently: “Pierre de la Brosse. From thence I came. his uncle. v. whom we have had in the twenty-seventh Canto of Hell) fell in the battle of Campaldino (1289). Where its name is cancel’d. instead of making for the marsh on the sea shore. eminent for his skill in jurisprudence. v.] Giacopo del Cassero. 87. v. His father Marzuco. v. afterwards the favorite of Philip. A story is told of him by Boccaccio. Nello della Pietra. Pia. He is said to have been carried by his horse into the Arno. Count 0rso. v. in Maremma. Giovanna. and treated those who fell into his hands with so much courtesy. fearing the too great attachment of the king for his wife Mary. So say the Italian commentators. From Pratomagno to the mountain range. of Buonconte. envying the high place which he held in the king’s favour.] Farinata de’ Scornigiani of Pisa. exhorted his kinsmen to reconciliation. the kingdom of Charles of Anjou. fighting on the side of the Aretini. where he had some possessions. The courtiers. Ghino was not only suffered to escape in safety. eldest son of Philip. slain by Alberto da Mangona. v. 67. accuses this princess of having poisoned Louis.] The city of Padua. between Romagna and Apulia. Of Montefeltro I. and there drowned. a citizen of Fano who having spoken ill of Azzo da Este. 17. and slain by one of the family of Bostoli. so entirely overcame the feelings of resentment. 131. G. 23. he might have escaped. where the Archiano falls into the Arno. and knighted by Boniface VIII. 91. 15. Frederic Novello. 95. formerly barber to St.] Son of Napoleone da Cerbaia. said to be founded by Antenor. who. 75. when vapours fir’d Impress the air. and. in the presence of many witnesses.] Ciacco de’ Tariatti of Arezzo. v. of the family of Tolommei.] Son of the Conte Guido da Battifolle. v.] The hermitage of Camaldoli. That land. in an apartment of his own house.] The Marca d’Ancona. was overtaken by the assassins at Oriaco a place near the Brenta. 88.

2. st. v. 1. “the garden of the empire. Thou inn of grief. and died about the middle of the succeeding century. Eloq. What he alludes to is so doubtful. may be pointed at. Aen. 98. Philippeschi and Monaldi.] Thou most beauteous inn Why should hard-favour’d grief be lodg’d in thee? Shakespeare. 94.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Tiraboschi has taken much pains to sift all the notices he could collect relating to him. vi. v. if thou art no longer under the control of his successors in the empire?” v. 5. If he.] Our ears are so familiarized to the names of these rival families in the language of Shakespeare. L. v. 89.” Abrege Chron. La Brosse is hung. That which God commands. a. In thy text. 66. Richard II a. semper quaesita: quod illi 114 v. c. What safety. and reformed thy laws. 101.] The successor of Albert was Henry of Luxembourg. succeeded Adolphus in 1298. s. G. 76. Honourable mention of his name is made by our Poet in the Treatise de Vulg. 228 .]The history of Sordello’s life is wrapt in the obscurity of romance. 275. c. t. Justinian’s hand. v. 107. too intent on increasing his power in Germany to give much of his thoughts to Italy. That he distinguished himself by his skill in Provencal poetry is certain. Repeated by Alamanni in his Coltivazione.] He refers to Virgil.] A guisa di Leon quando si posa.Purgatory his first marriage.] Un Marcel diventa Ogni villan che parteggiando viene. i. v. x. 127. 1. O German Albert!] The Emperor Albert I.] The Emperor Rodolph. 108. 1. 56. s. v. Ceu lectum peragrat membris languentibus aeger In latus alterne faevum dextrumque recumbens Nec javat: inde oculos tollit resupinus in altum: Nusquam inventa quies. Thy successor. by whose interposition in the affairs of Italy our Poet hoped to have been reinstated in his native city. ii. Santafiore can supply. 51. 103. It is probable that he was born towards the end of the twelfth. Thy sire. Canto XI. i.] He alludes to the precept-”Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s. which is the top of judgment. 113. 76. 376. that I have used them instead of the “Montecchi” and “Cappelletti. Marcellus.] A place between Pisa and Sienna. 1052. Sordello. 58.” v. See Par Canto XIX v. and was murdered in 1308.] Imitated by the Cardinal de Polignac in his AntiLucretius. Shakespeare.] Two other rival families in Orvieto.] “What avails it that Justinian delivered thee from the Goths. v. This calumny is discovered by a nun of Nivelle in Flanders. &c. v. 37.” v. Eyeing us as a lion on his watch. Capulets and Montagues. 15. 30. The sacred height Of judgment. Measure for Measure. Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando.” v. A line taken by Tasso. 1.” Perhaps the event related in the note to v. i. 1. that it is not certain whether we should not read “come si cura”—” How Santafiore is governed. I sick wretch.

94. Full well can the wise poet of Florence That hight Dante. c. xiv. Lonis. and hyacinth with rich inlay Broider’d the ground. c. v. st. Justice. F. at the age of 27. Ottocar. 102. whom Dante calls “mal di Francia”—” Gallia’s bane. His son. The two former succeeded him in the kingdom of Arragon. died in 1305. and prowess. v. 111. F. 123. Fresh emeralds. Frederick and Peter. v. b. speaken in this sentence CANTO VII v. iii. t. 14. v. P. King of Naples.” Charles I. 102. and brother of St. according to Venturi. xxiv. father of Jane married to Philip IV of France.who succeeded him in the kingdom of Bohemia. or. Hope and Charity.] Faith. 95. The Emperor Rodolph.” v. 9. Peter the youngest son. find many of his actions severely reprobated in the twentieth Canto. 49. James. more colour’d than with stone Of costliest emblem. Count of Anjou. 19 E l’abbracciaro. ] Philip III of France.] The beginning of a prayer to the Virgin. 104. c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Villani. who died in 1285.] Prudence. King of Arragon. 72. and Temperance. L.] Under foot the violet.] Either (as the old commentators suppose) Alonzo III King of Arragon. 101. Villani. or in the loftiness of his understanding. 97. 229 . xxxiv. 110. Milton. who died in 1285. The former was a young prince of virtue sufficient to have justified the eulogium and the hopes of Dante. v. xiv. 150. since the time of Charlemagne. We shall. 91. v.Purgatory Primum in deliciis fuerat. and Frederick in that of Sicily.” G.] Henry of Naverre. Him of gentle look. st. the eldest son of Peter III who died in 1291. was killed in the battle of Marchfield. v.] King of Bohemia. Where one of mean estate might clasp his lord. Fortitude. 32. leaving four sons. v. 793 Compare Ariosto. Crocus. It is sufficient here to observe. v. Orl. however. The annalist of Florence remarks. August 26. as it may seem best to suit the purpose of the verse. 1. He so robust of limb. and Mariana.] Ariosto Orl. vii. v.] Peter III called the Great. Rarely.] “Dal maschio naso”—with the masculine nose. fought with Rodolph. That one with the nose deprest. The three holy virtues. in his retreat from Arragon. See Mariana. See G. v. Salve Regina. 1. 113. v. that in similar instances I shall either preserve the original Latin words or translate them. He died in 1291. 79. He died in 1284. that “there had been no sovereign of the house of France. 119.] Bohemia. vii. p. He is enumerated among the Provencal poets by Millot. mox torquet et angit: Nec morburm sanat. I. iv. The red. c. He is again taxed with luxury in the Paradise Canto XIX. c. That country. Des Troubadours. 1278. Litt. ove il maggior s’abbraccia Col capo nudo e col ginocchio chino. Hist. at Perpignan.] See the last Canto. nec fallit taedia morbi. c. 14. 31.] v. That stripling. 1. Alonzo. by whom Charles was surpassed either in military renown. Winceslaus II. Him of feature prominent.

is no less inferior to his father Charles I. Louis of France. ii.] The arms of Galeazzo and the ensign of the Milanese. 80.Purgatory Lo! in such manner rime is Dantes tale. Dazzled and spent. The white and wimpled folds. Conrad. Electra.] The weeds of widowhood. v.] The cock was the ensign of Gallura. 53. See G.] My earthly by his heav’nly overpower’d **** As with an object. b. Canto Vl. That seems to mourn for the expiring day.] Currado Malaspina. v. in his visit to England. 135. and betrayed by him. Compare Homer. 6. Shrill Gallura’s bird. 81. 13. Her mother. c. that men may hurt and maime. xi. 74. See Notes to Hell Canto XXXIII. Marquis of Monferrat. that brave Marquis. Pindar.] The beginning of one of the evening hymns. 135. v.] The curfew tolls the 230 . 65. CANTO VIII v.] Widow of Peter III She has been already mentioned in the third Canto. of whose glory our Poet was perhaps a witness. v. Dante therefore considers Peter as the most illustrious of the three monarchs. and Notes. 144. 133. Milton. Sev’n times the tired sun. Nem. Better issue. 122. vii. v. v. 1. 129.] Beatrice.”—”Charles II King of Naples.” v. Canto XXII. 115. 369. and ended his life in prison. Nino’s province in Sardinia. 127. Full selde upriseth by his branches smale Prowesse of man for God of his goodnesse Woll that we claim of him our gentlenesse: For of our elders may we nothing claime But temporal thing. By Beatrice and Margaret are probably meant two of the daughters of Raymond Berenger. Peter III. Villani. Count of Provence. at Alessandria. 457. v. Canto XXIV. 1290. A. 73. viii. and wife of Riccardo da Cammino of Trevigi. v. v. 71 My Giovanna. v. To Charles. than James and Frederick to theirs.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Gray’s Elegy.] See Hell. thou courteous judge. As faculty. A war ensued between the people of Alessandria and those of Monferrat and the Canavese. the former married to St. v. See Paradise. and Notes. L. Hell.] Edward l.] Nino di Gallura de’ Visconti nephew to Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi. that excels the sense. v.] William. 133. Nino. Wife of Bathe’s Tale. was treacherously seized by his own subjects. and after his death married to Galeazzo de’ Visconti of Milan.] Henry III. P. 48 and Euripides. in Lombardy. before thou shalt have still knell of parting day.] “The sun shall not enter into the constellation of Aries seven times more. Chaucer. Harry of England. v. Od. marchioness of Este wife of Nino.] The daughter of Nino.D. 130. b. Costanza. v. v. 80. v. William. 112. Valdimagra. Te Lucis Ante. the latter to his brother Charles of Anjou.] “Al Nasuto. v. The viper. 276. 36.

A golden-feathered eagle. 1307. Cosi da imo della roccia scogli Moven.] The enIightening. 14. So Tassoni. Canto XVIII. Canto II. v. La puttanella del canuto amante. One is more precious. 128. ] Chaucer.] Protinus.] By the white step is meant the distinctness with which the conscience of the penitent reflects his offences. Hence. 231 . his contrition on. v. v. L. Of that chill animal. That Wound. &c. 127. represents himself carried up by the “grim pawes” of a golden eagle. sound Th’ infernal doors. CANTO IX v. 157. Our minds.] Venturi justly observes. 5. Harsh was the grating.” Dante was hospitably received by the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. Lucia.Purgatory better cause for the good opinion thou expresses” of Valdimagra. viii. 100. iii. Milton describing “the gate of heaven.] On a sudden open fly With impetuous recoil and jarring. v.] The golden key denotes the divine authority by which the priest absolves the sinners the silver expresses the learning and judgment requisite for the due discharge of that office. The lowest stair. The Turpeian. Each stair mysteriously was meant. P. iii. —dabat ascensum tendentibus ultra Scissa tremensque silex. grace of heaven Hell. to denote the seven sins (Peccata) of which he was to be cleansed in his passage through purgatory. no doubt. Lucan.” P. 18. Secchia Rapita. b.] Seven P’s. v. 1. their account. 516. v. v. Now the fair consort of Tithonus old. Tunc rupes Tarpeia sonat: magnoque reclusas Testatur stridore fores: tune conditus imo Eruitur tempo multis intactus ab annnis Romani census populi. in the house of Fame at the conclusion of the first book and beginning of the second. 85. tenuique erratica motu. Much of his description is closely imitated from Dante. A. during his banishment.] La concubina di Titone antico. 6. abducto patuerunt temple Metello. b.] The scorpion. The verb “muover”’ is used in the same signification in the Inferno.] Compare Hell. Ph. 97. 15. by the burnt and cracked one. Canto XXVI. 115. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder Milton. 21. ii 882 v. the fervour with which he resolves on the future pursuit of piety and virtue. and by that of porphyry.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. 7. 1. that the Padre d’Aquino has misrepresented the sense of this passage in his translation. CANTO X v. L. in the kind reception thou shalt there meet with. Seven times. c. 50.D. st.

in the territory of Sienna His arrogance provoked his countrymen to such a pitch of fury against him. in 1240.’ has again versified the Lord’s prayer. v. 1. The passage in the text I find to be nearly a translation from that work. are now publishing at Florence” Esprit des Journaux.] The first four lines are borrowed by Pulci. the restorer of painting. As to support. That from unbidden. a monk and chronicler. whom he calls “Heunando.] Giovanni Cimabue. of a noble family in Bologna. Gregory’s prayers are said to have delivered Trajan from hell. For this story.” of France. Guinicelli died in 1276. 4.” of England. 8. 83. One Guido from the other. 69. by whom he means Elinand. 1813. and enjoyed the society and friendship of Dante. Many of Cavalcanti’s writings. ‘then reign no longer’ he turned about. (see Hell. by whom is meant John of Salisbury. at first he answered her. or miniature painter.] Guido Cavalcanti. Gregory. The passage in the text is an illusion to his epitaph: Credidit ut Cimabos picturae castra tenere. Preceding.] Franco of Bologna. &c. Dante. 79. 232 . Morg. v. Sic tenuit vivens: nunc tenet astra poli. 1. 97. The original appears to be in Dio Cassius.] The illuminator. whose likeness he has transmitted to posterity. in the twelfth century. 0 thou Mighty Father. Bolognian Franco. 54. 14.] Seo 2 Sam.Purgatory —from the rock’s low base Thus flinty paths advanc’d. Landino refers to two writers. v. which seem in great buildings to labour under the weight they bear. v. lib.vi. Eloq. Canto X. Oderigi. v.] Ibid. ‘I have no leisure. 119. with much probability. 68. 58. v. In neither place is actual motion intended to be expressed. speaks of “those crouching anticks. See Paradise. while he was tending sheep for his father in the neighbourhood of Florence. When a woman appeared to him with a suit. of a noble family.] St. Trajan the Emperor. I was of Latinum. and he was afterwards patronized by Pope Benedict XI and Robert King of Naples. He died in 1336. The cry is Giotto’s.] Some imagine. c. v.” v.] Omberto. 52.” And Lord Shaftesbury has a similar illustration in his Essay on Wit and Humour. whom we shall meet with in the twenty-sixth Canto and of whom frequent mention is made by our Poet in his Treatise de Vulg. at the age of 60. But Petrarch was CANTO XI v. I xix. G. office awes mankind. p. and heard her cause. s. in his ‘Credo. hitherto in MS.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in the reign of Philip Augustus. ch. v. Canto XX. and died in 1300. 59.] In Giotto we have a proof at how early a period the fine arts were encouraged in Italy. Jan. 3. the friend of our Poet. that he was murdered by them at Campagnatico. who is said to have been a pupil of Oderigi’s. Cimabue. as he was on a journey. was born at Florence. where it is told of the Emperor Hadrian. v 58. Magg. 96. and “Polycrato. Count of Santafiore. 93. 95.] Chillingworth.’ but she crying out to him. c. author of the Polycraticus de Curialium Nugis.) had eclipsed the literary fame of Guido Guinicelli. 40. His talents were discovered by Cimabue. He perhaps is born. that Dante here augurs the greatness of his own poetical reputation. Others have fancied that he prophesies the glory of Petrarch. v. a friend of Giotto and Dante v. the son of Guglielino Aldobrandeseo. v. vi.

v. Mars. See G.] In allusion to certain in stances of fraud committed with respect to the public accounts and measures See Paradise Canto XVI. 103. v. The Thymbraen god. 3. ii. living in exile at Colle. v.Purgatory not yet born. 46. 325. 58. vi.] Matt. 1. v. pater est Thymbraeus Apollo. 48. v. The registry. The well-guided city] This is said ironically of Florence. C. of Milan chief magistrate of Florence. v. c. As a curb and restraint on this vice.] “For here we have no continuing city. Villani. charity. v. s. 26. 44.The Divine Comedy of Dante . These words of the Virgin are referred to as an instance of charity. which is near at hand. 29. Aen. 96. and Homer.” By model. what it is to solicit favours of others and ‘tremble through every vein. 37. 233 . What master of the pencil or the style. 33.” Heb. v. CANTO XII v. 3. v. They have no wine. but we seek to come. who. v. 87. xii. L. 37.] “The chastisement of envy consists in hearing examples of the opposite virtue. suitor. xi.] 2 Kings. 101. as personally to supplicate the people of Sienna to contribute the sum required by the king for his ransom: and this act of self-abasement atoned for his general ambition and pride. v. 136. Sapia. was so overjoyed at a defeat which her countrymen sustained near that place that she declared nothing more was wanting to make her die contented.] A lady of Sienna. v. 14. c. Georg.] The church of San Miniato in Florence situated on a height that over looks the Arno. iv. 26.] Virg. a. 42. l. c. those of threatening and punishment. O Rehoboam. where it is crossed by the bridge Rubaconte.] —nimitable on earth CANTO XIII v. The giants that attempted to scale heaven When they lay dead on the Phlegren plain Mars did appear to Jove. 445. Beaumont and Fletcher. xix. A1cmaeon. Citizens Of one true city. iii. 99. vi. so called from Messer Rubaconte da Mandelia. 509.] 1 Kings.] With such a grace. Virg.] John. P. Love ye those have wrong’d you. 18. b. v.] “Thou wilt know in the time of thy banishment. you will presently hear very different sounds. or by shading pencil drawn. Orestes] Alluding to his friendship with Pylades. 2. by whom the bridge was founded in 1237. Od. who was detained in captivity by Charles I of Sicily. Thy neighbours soon. v. quem perhibes. 32.’ lest they should be refused thee. The Prophetess.] Apollo Si modo. The chapel stands. 27. Sennacherib. 94. 323.] Provenzano salvani humbled himself so far for the sake of one of his friends. xiii. The scourge. v.” v. 140. c. Milton.

N. a seaport on the confines of the Maremma. who is here speaking. O Brettinoro. “Agi” is understood by the commentators whom I have consulted. The merlin. from his treachery. 108. who governed at Faenza. 45. Aen.Purgatory v. 34. Villani. i. 55. in the fable so admira bly paraphrased from Boccaccio. and the shore. The ladies. Traversaro. &c.] The Florentines. 121. viii c. Baynacavallo. or as some say. 234 . Of Azzo him. v.] The Pisans v. the mount. 99. Prata. Yon Bernardin. v. Lizio.] Piero Pettinagno. 117.] The Arno leaves Arezzo about four miles to the left. 141.1 Arrigo Manardi of Faenza. 114. the hospitable residence of Guido del Duca. v. See G. L. 95. Pagani. Thy grandson. iii. —a hill Torn from Pelorus Milton P.] Ugolino of the Ubaldini family in Tuscany He is recounted among the poets by Crescimbeni and Tiraboschi. Curs.] The people of Casentino. v. and Guido di Carpigna of Montefeltro. was of the former: her lover and the specter were of the Anastagi family.] The Pagani were lords of Faenza and Imola.] A beautifully situated castle in Romagna.] Both in Romagna. v. and Carpigna. Venturi says he leaves it to the antiquaries of Sienna to conjecture.] The boundaries of Romagna. grandson of Rinieri de’ Calboli. v.] A castle between Imola and Ravenna v. v. She to whom Dryden has given the name of Honoria. Maim’d of Pelorus. 53.] These two lines express the true spirit of chivalry. 118. G. Manardi. v. 1. lord of Ravenna. Traversaro’s house and Anastagio’s. 414. the Reno. 49. ‘Midst brute swine. a holy hermit of Florence. 107. v. v. v. Tignoso. The hermit Piero. Foxes. 1. 59 v. v. v. 109.” But surely it signifies the alter nation of ease with labour. a man of low origin but great talents. That vain multitude.] Bernardin di Fosco. v. 119. v.] The story of the merlin is that having been induced by a gleam of fine weather in the winter to escape from his master. v. who is here spoken to. ‘Twixt Po. Castracaro ill And Conio worse. See Hell. 100.] Fulcieri de’ Calboli.] One who had been a mechanic named Lambertaccio.] Virg. In Bologna the low artisan. v.] The Siennese. 118. CANTO XIV v.” Why they gave the appellation of Diana to the imagined stream.] Federigo Tignoso of Rimini. Canto XXIX.] Two noble families of Ravenna. “Their acquisition of Telamone. 4. Wolves. of Brettinoro. Pier Traversaro. was named the Demon. introduced into Boccaccio’s Decameron. 111. One of them Machinardo.to mean “the ease procured for others by the exertions of knight-errantry. 103. b. The atrocities predicted came to pass in 1302. arrived at almost supreme power in Bologna. 102. 61.The Divine Comedy of Dante . he was soon oppressed by the rigour of the season. has led them to conceive hopes of becom ing a naval power: but this scheme will prove as chimerical as their former plan for the discovery of a subterraneous stream under their city.] A place between Faenza and Ravenna. v.] Lizio da Valbona. See Hell. 114. 232 v. 107.

Whosoever finds Will slay me. 1. 7. 136.] Mr. yet ye are still left in the possession of liberty.] It wanted three hours of sunset. ii. 14.] The answer of Pisistratus the tyrant to his wife. 12. ii. 145. The story is told by Valerius Maximus. 94.] The protomartyr Stephen. as the commentators explain it. &c CANTO XV v. I was of Lombardy. 14. 1. As much. 124. “Lombardo” both was his surname and denoted the country to which he belonged. 16. and Apol. 755.” v.] Lucretius. A dame. terms him “a wise and worthy courtier.] Guido del Duea. fate. 70. 142. 99. Like a babe that wantons sportively.” v. 143. Hugolin. Compare Origen in Genesim. &c. 1. CANTO XVI v. 1. 46. from her a kiss in public. 1. iii. There was the galling bit. v. The fortress. 35. Crowe in his Lewesdon Hill has expressed similar sentiments with much energy. Rhod. 235 . e`en to the power of the great Creator himself. 47. 1783. 8vo. Romagna’s spirit. v. inflamed with love for his daughter. on account of his age probably. 43. Blessed the merciful. i. had snatched v. 20. v. v. 215. was not likely to leave any offspring behind him.viii. He is enumerated among the poets by Crescimbeni.Purgatory Canto XXVII. iv. I. 79. 87. vii. 105. Wirer burgi. Ascending at a glance. v. Where freedom is not.] Luke.] He refers to what Guido del Duca had said in the thirteenth Canto. As when the ray. Mr.] Referring to what had been before said. concerning the degeneracy of his countrymen. v. v. p. vol. To mightier force. Patrum Graecorum. Villani. 38. 1.v. Aglauros.] “If thou wert still living.] A Venetian gentleman. c. and Tiraboschi.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 22.] “Though ye are subject to a higher power than that of the heavenly constellations. c. A stripling youth. v. vol.] Justice. when she urged him to inflict the punishment of death on a young man. 18 v. Aen. v. 101. 58. 88. If this were so. Of this be sure. Elsewhere. e. c. Matthias’s edit. who. Canto XIII. 1.] This reminds one of the Emperor Hadrian’s verses to his departing soul: Animula vagula blandula. xi.] The motion of light being quicker than that of a stone through an equal space.” v. Matt. a noble and virtuous person in Faenza. Met. of Brettinoro whom we have seen in the preceding Canto. v. How shall we those requite. As thou. the most necessary virtue in the chief magistrate. Gen. and Note. and Marco call’d. v. v. v. 120. v. iv.] Compare Virg.] Ugolino Ubaldini.] Ovid. Differs from the stone. 19. G. there no virtue is. who.] The words of Cain.

34. c.” Opere di Dante. 595. s. 1.] Venturi suggests that this bold and unusual metaphor may have been formed on that in Virgil. 9. Matthias’s edition. 137. See the book of Esther. Al sentir dilettose. v. Non mal si stanca d’ iterar le note O gioconde o dogliose. v. Dante probably alludes to the story of Philomela. Guido of Castello.] I cannot think with Vellutello. Two sons. Villani. “She intended to slay the son of her husband’s brother Amphion. or to hate the First Cause of all.] Matt. 94. in 1248. 127. and for her punishment was transformed by Jupiter into a nightingale. t. p. he is unclean unto you.] “A defect in our love towards God.] “It is impossible for any being.] Gherardo di Camino of Trevigi. v.] Of Reggio.” v. v. See Mr.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. t. A damsel. Ere the day. et dono divun gratissima serpit. 103. One crucified. as it is found in Homer’s Odyssey.] Lombardy. v. on account of the union of the temporal with the spiritual power in his person. c. xi. 81. 102. incited to it. when he says. 1. The broken slumber quivering ere it dies.] The Emperor and the Bishop of Rome.] Lavinia. CANTO XVII v. Who. and the excellency of her talents. vii. the beauty of her person. i. delightful to the ear. Ibid. because he cheweth the cud. His daughter Gaia. p. Aen.] A lady equally admired for her modesty. That land. a. may perhaps lay claim to the praise of having been the first among the Italian ladies. l. We can therefore only her own son Itylus. 8vo. Aen. The love. And Tiraboschi supposes him to have been the same Gherardo with whom the Provencal poets were used to meet with hospitable reception. 518 rather than as later poets have told it. that most Delights itself in song. c. Chiabrera appears to have come nearest the truth. 127. c. to an unclean beast in the levitical law. 119. The peace-makers. 4. 1. xix. b. 26. or lukewarmness in piety.” Levit. Jocund or sad. v.] He compares the Pope. 21. who had six children. but through mistake slew 236 . 126. Unwearied still reiterates her lays. 95. but divideth not the hoof.] Haman. v. says Tiraboschi. that the swallow is here meant. v. p. G. who. All the Italians were called Lombards by the French. Gaia. impelled by grief and indignation for the supposed death of Turnus. that while some have considered its song as a melancholy. 173 Venez.] Before the Emperor Frederick II was defeated before Parma. v. 117. Tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus aegris Incipit. 144. by whom the vernacular poetry was cultivated. 43. “The camel. 1. v.” Cowper’s note on the passage. is here removed. Now. 1793. ii. 68. a gentleman of Brescia. v. v. 35. v. The primal blessings. while herself had only two. 137. The bird. and others as a cheerful one. in the Alcippo. In speaking of the nightingale. either to hate itself. He is honourably mentioned in our Poet’s “Convito.Purgatory v. destroyed herself. mourning for her mother Amata. by the envy of his wife. vi. let me observe. v. Th’ inferior. xii.] Temporal good. by which it exists. 268. 110.] Spiritual good. Conrad. i.] Currado da Palazzo. The good Gherardo.

1. at Ilerda (Lerida) in Spain. v. inasmuch as. The former leaves to the latter to discover for itself the three carnal sins. The angel ended. Up the vault. There is he. scheggion.] The great moral philosophers among the heathens.] The envious. edit. avarice. v.] The moon passed with a motion opposite to that of the heavens. now Pietola. as Venturi has observed. v. I. The teacher ended. 123. 47.] I have preferred the reading of Landino. b. The hour. lord of Verona. Protagoras. Apoll. “Your apprehensive faculty derives intention from a thing really existing. 121. v. 118. Ismenus and Asopus. and iv. 1. 135. 23. from the Greek word.] Rivers near Thebes v. v. CANTO XVIII v. which the commentators say might give the appear ance of increased magnitude to the moon.] Alberto della Scala. 84. who. which the Italians call accidia.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] The resentful. v. envy. and indifference. v. The same cause. and Milton. 117. L. 1.” The commentators labour in explaining this. v. made more famous than Mantua near which it is situated. Phars. by whom Milan was besieged and reduced to ashes. pride. though united with the body. Three men. abbot. 135. Reason is represented under the person of Virgil.] According to the allegorical commentators. and hastened on to the attack of Afranius and Petreius. Bip.] The human soul. 114.] Alberto. viii. v. CANTO XIX v.] The Israelites. “crag. when Frederick I was emperor. “bucket. v. be re solved into the words of the translation in the text. I think. 237 . 99.] Near the dawn. might also make her seem broken at her rise.” which is the common reading. Along Three circles. v. 111. died before reaching the promised land. it has a separate existence of its own. Spirit. v. 133. Rhod. 1. in which the sun is. through the constellation of the scorpion. the vapours. 65. 92. i. gluttony and libidinousness. and displays the intention within you. v.Purgatory rejoice in the evil which befalls others. and what ever sense they have elicited may. p.” v. I. on account of their disobedience. v. the generals of Pompey. Caesar left Brutus to complete the siege of Marseilles. Your apprehension. having already declared the nature of the spiritual sins. 78. c i. v. so that it makes the soul turn to it. 40 v. There is he. when to those who are in Rome he appears to set between the isles of Corsica and Sardinia. and Caesar de Bello Civiii. iii. There is.] Luke. There is. 513. and Sense under that of Dante. or lukewarmness in piety. P. who had made his natural son abbot of San Zeno.] Andes. i. 98. Caesar. A crag. &c. And they. 39. 78. by having been the birthplace of Virgil. 1.” conceiving it to be more poetical than secchion. abbot of San Zeno in Verona. which differs from that of brutes. iii.] It is literally. v. First they died. Andes.] Compare Plato.] Virg Aen.] The proud. anger. Mary.] See Lucan.

Had Ghent and Douay. one of the poet’s protectors during his exile. One of these they called “the greater fortune. P.] Matt. love’s proper hue. 49. That stream. v. The slaughter’s trade.] The geomancers. Tr. 16.] This reflection on the birth of his ancestor induced Francis I to forbid the reading of Dante in his dominions Hugh Capet. Lille and Bruges power. he threw in at the window of their house three bags of money. with the title of Adrian V. of the family of Fieschi Counts of Lavagna. The successor of Peter Ottobuono. on account of the melancholy temper of his mind. 51. This allegory reminds us of the “Choice of Hercules. See Canto VIII. All save one. with the exception of Charles of Lorraine who is said. Of his appearing.” v. v. I am no longer the spouse of the church. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in 1276. Fabricius. which happened in 1302. Root. named from so many stars which constitute the end of Aquarius and the begin ning of Pisces. 25. to have always clothed himself in black. that an angel having revealed to him that the father of a family was so impoverished as to resolve on expos ing the chastity of his three daughters to sale. was however the grandson of Robert. Canto I. v. flammasque rubentes Ignus habere solet. 98. 97. 135.Purgatory v.] Avarice. “Since in this state we neither marry nor are given in marriage.] Compare Petrarch. who came to the throne of France in 987. b. 133. 140.] Psalm cxix. in the battle of Courtrai. 72. 30. v.] The river Lavagna.] Worldly happiness. See Hell. 4. c. v. 7. My soul. nor shall be giv’n in marriage. 46. viii. v. v. &c. containing a sufficient portion for each of them. 4. Who mourn. 26.] Hugh Capet. Milton. died thirty-nine days after he became Pope. 1. 3.] “I did not persevere in my inquiries from the spirit though still anxious to learn more.] He is thought to allude to Can Grande della Scala. Love’s own hue. 98. Un Curio ed un Fabricio. c. had failed. L. v. c. ancestor of Philip IV. Palingenii Zodiacus Vitae. 5 v. 52. says Landino. 1. the second race of French monarchs. xxii. v. A woman’s shape. The spirit is made to imitate the ap proaching defeat of the French army by the Flemings. v. Venturi suggest that Dante may have 238 . 619 —facies pulcherrima tune est Quum porphyriaco variatur candida rubro Quid color hic roseus sibi vult? designat amorem: Quippe amor est igni similis. The geomancer. and therefore no longer retain my former dignity. v. A dame.” v. in the Genoese territory.] The story of Nicholas is. 14.” v. CANTO XX v.] Matt. 30. 11. I drew the sponge.] The posterity of Charlemagne. A kinswoman. v. della Fama. drew a figure consist ing of sixteen marks.] Philosophy. who was the brother of Eudes. when they divined. Wolf. v. xii. Nicholas.] Alagia is said to have been the wife of the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. 42.] A smile that glow’d Celestial rosy red.] These cities had lately been seized by Philip IV. King of France in 888.

Landino has “Potti. v. 1. For amends. vii. See G. the admiral of Peter of Arragon. 71. and Note. says Henault.” and he is probably right for Poitou was annexed to the French crown by Philip IV.” v. 1. June. 59.D. 94.] Marcus Crassus. v. engaged with Ruggier de Lauria. married his daughter to Azzo VI11. Philip IV summoned Edward I. v. 4. Normandy and Gascogny. &c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ix. Aen. 63. 63. A. ibid. Thracia’s king. Villani. 114.] con la lancia Con la qual giostro Guida. took the title of King of Navarre: and the subjugation of Navarre is also alluded to in the Paradise. We shall find him in the Paradise.] Hugh Capet caused his son Robert to be crowned at Orleans. v. l283. who wished to ingratiate himself with Charles of Anjou. contrary to the directions of his father. our poet and his friend.] Charles of Anjou put Conradine to death in 1268. Canto XIX. c. v. c. in the year 1303. Crassus. Canto XXX. Canto XXVIII. c. Into the temple. Pygmalion. 135. See Appian. G. Villani. iii. 111.] I venture to read Potti e Navarra prese e Guascogna. v. Poitou it seiz’d. My son.] Joshua. 103. by order of Philip IV. 140. but the latter appears more probable. Canto VI.] Virg. and he ran fiercely and smote at Heliodorus with his forefeet. 66. 1284. with a terrible rider upon him. 67. 19.] It is uncertain whether our Poet alludes still to the event mentioned in the preceding Note. brother of Philip IV.Purgatory confounded him with Childeric III the last of the Merosvingian. -with that lance Which the arch-traitor tilted with. in one of the old romances. Heliodorus. and his brother Charles of Anjou. Abrege Chron. i. Judas is represented tilting with our Saviour. In conse quence of the measures he adopted for that pur pose. G. v.] Thomas Aquinas. The Great dower of Provence. was made prisoner and carried into Sicily. but Philip IV. I.] This is ironical v. which he had conceived the design of seizing. were condemned to exile and death..] 2 Maccabees. 107. Th’ angelic teacher. Hell. married two of the four daughters of Raymond Berenger Count of Provence. 85. v. c. 239 . “For there appeared unto them a horse. 348. and became King of Naples. who was deposed and made a monk in 751.] Louis IX. See Henault. the eldest son of Charles of Anjou. viii. was sent by Pope Boniface VIII to settle the disturbed state of Florence. and soon after died of grief. 57. 64. or to the destruction of the order of the Templars in 1310. race. Young Conradine. instead of Ponti e Normandia prese e Guascogna Seiz’d Ponthieu. 112. c. King of Naples. Navarre and Gascony. Marquis of Ferrara.] Polymnestor. He afterwards. He was reported to have been poisoned by a physician. who fell miser ably in the Parthian war. If I remember right.. In 1293. 69. v.] Charles.] Boniface VIII was seized at Alagna in Campagna. Normandy had been united to it long before by Philip Augustus. Villani. Canto X. The other. 25. The flower-de-luce. or first. Parthica. 16. a circumstance of which it is diffi cult to imagine that Dante should have been igno rant. v. v. See Par. in consideration of a large sum of money.] Charles of Valois. having. v. v. 218. l. Another Charles. to do him homage for the duchy of Gascogny. v. See Hell. Achan. and adorned with a very fair cover ing. 78. the murderer of Polydorus. viii.

Aen. Eteocles and Polynices CANTO XXII v. 26.] Quid non mortalia pecaora cogis Anri sacra fames? Virg. iii. v. the daughter of Tiresias. Bip.] In this habit Met I my father with his bleeding rings Their 240 . 5.] Statius lived to write only a small part of the Achilleid. Virg. 41. v. fol. 1. v. Thaumantian.] Juvenal had celebrated his contemporary Statius. Aen.” v. c. 58. Rings. 71. who was a Nea politan. 801 v. c. 5 v. 1.] “The blessed virgin. With shorn locks. A renovated world.] Matt.] Compare Ovid.] Venturi. 1611. 57 Venturi supposes that Dante might have mistaken the meaning of the word sacra. 20. The fierce encounter. ‘they have no wine. yet. v. that height Stace.] See Hell. ] Of those celebrated in thy Poem. v. 1. 94. v.] Psalm ii. Aquinum’s bard. The twin sorrow of Jocasta’s womb. b.] v.] Dante appears to have forgotten that he had placed Manto. The Tholason. Tiresias’ daughter.Purgatory CANTO XXI v. iii. Theaet. b. Blessed. p. and Spenser. I think rightly interprets this to be light. though some critics imagine that there is a secret derision couched under his praise. 100. v. The shocking story is well told v. who was of Tolosa.] Ibid. 76. 139. rather awkwardly. 5. Sat. 66. by observing. 43. when she said to Jesus. Fell. v. 25. at the marriage in Cana of Galilee. v. Lombardi excuses our author better. Faery Queen. 85. that although she was placed there as a sinner. Temple of Fame. c.” instead of “cursed. See Hell Canto XX.’ regarded not the gratification of her own taste. When Mary.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. v. viii. ii. Why. st. v. iv. by observing that Tiresias had a daughter named Daphne. 954 Ed Genev.] The name of Poet. Of thy train. i. Vellutello endeavours. 142 The women of old Rome. 28. See Diodorus Siculus. The name. From Tolosa. v. My lips.] Josephus. De Bello Jud. but the honour of the nuptial banquet. xxi. Ecl. 1. Thus Chaucer. 49. 14.” But I see no necessity for having recourse to so improbable a conjecture. Metam. Canto VII. p. 112. one of the three fates. who answers for yon now in heaven.] Homer v. 26. which heaven in itself Doth of itself receive. —that. 26. 15. edit. ix.” v. 9. among the sorcerers. Mary took more thought.] See Valerius Maximus. with a rhetorician of the same name. or Thoulouse. 1.] Virg. vii. 107. 46. ii. 27. as one of famous memory. 6. 57. 3. and construed it “holy. v. iv. She.] Dante. vii. confounds Statius the poet. That Greek. to recon cile the inconsistency.] Lachesis. 89. she had also a place among the worthies in Limbo. The eyes. v. 82. CANTO XXIII v. as many others have done..] Figlia di Taumante Compare Plato.

44. a Genoese. 87. (p 169. Crescimbeni may be consulted. a note. The Marquis.] Simon of Tours became Pope. My Nella. in the Florentine territory. of Forli. V.] The wife of Forese.The first verse of a canzone in our author’s Vita Nuova. and the eyes the two O’s placed within each side of it. v. 51. Blame it as they may. v. as through that fickleness.” Tiraboschi. 80. Boniface. Canto XXI. as they changed soon after. 115. v. 39.] One of the brothers of Piccarda.] “This word.” v. of Lucca.] “Who has not yet assumed the dress of a woman.] See Hell. v. 30. 1805. and intro duced in the Paradise. 20. Shakespeare.] Of this lady it is thought that our Poet became enamoured during his exile. The’ unblushing domes of Florence.) but towards the end of the thirteenth cen tury. other poems by Buonaggiunta. insomuch that they wore collars up to the chin. no doubt.) from which we collect that he lived not about 1230. 8vo. 241 . as Quadrio supposes. v. ii. so have I hopes they will change again. v. 76. 209. 38. in some libraries.” v. vol. p. He was of Tours. “In those days. the Florentine ladies exposed the neck and bosom.] “If thou didst delay thy repentance to the last. who pretends to distinguish the letters which form OMO in the fea tures of the human face. Who reads the name. i.] The Barbagia is part of Sardinia.land a sonnet to Guido Guinicelli in that made by Corbinelli. a. See Canto II.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Ubaldino degli Ubaldini. 29. ye that con the lore of love. and forehead are supposed to repre sent this letter. a dress. which per vades every action of their lives. the son of the above. 5. 91.Purgatory precious stones new lost. 159. with the title of Martin IV in 1281 and died in 1285. The tract most barb’rous of Sardinia’s isle. v.] The Marchese de’ Rigogliosi.]Donne ch’ avete intelletto d’amore. who are said to have gone nearly na ked. to all nations (except the Jew’s) who did not profess Christianity. when thou hadst lost the power of sinning.] In the Ante-Purgatory. He even goes beyond the acrimony of the original. 46. But. by Vellutello. Ubaldino. v. Mr. p. v. to which that name was given. Buonaggiunta. By Venturi he is called Bonifazio de Fieschi. Saracens. in short. Lower. covering the whole of the neck and throat. (p. CANTO XXIV v. (t. how happens it thou art arrived here so early?” v. more suitable to a harlot than a matron. 3 v. 97. during the middle ages. Matthias’s ed. of Pila. v. 45.] Archbishop of Ravenna. v. Forese. she who is again spoken of in the next Canto. “There is a canzone by this poet. Concerning. Whose brow no wimple shades yet. Lond. that are preserved in MS. 32. Lear.” says the commentator.).” Mr. Ellis’s specimens of Early English Metrical Romances.] Buonaggiunta Urbiciani. mentioned Ubaldini and by Laudino Francioso. If the power. printed in the collection made by the Giunti. not indeed so much from motives of decency. a Frenchman. on account of the uncivilized state of its inhabitants. v. 23. 72. s.” The temples. “might easily have traced out the M on their emaciated countenances. nose. gentucca. Canto III. page 196. was indiscriminately applied to Pagans and Mahometans.] Landino’s note exhibits a curious instance of the changeableness of his countrywomen. Ladies.] “He. i. “no less than in ours. 28.

Met. was overtaken and slain. he has left a collection of letters. p. Rer. The Hebrews. 129. Muratori. which afford the earliest specimen of that kind of writing in the language. 1. V. ii. See Tiraboschi. See “Sennuccio mio” v. he says. without mentioning the writer’s name.” G. a native of Arezzo. Guittone. Canto XXIII. but it is in reality taken from a passage in Cicero “de Senectute. Poes p. He was probably an Apulian: for Dante. a poet of these times.] Fra Guittone. i. The character of Corso is forcibly drawn by another of his contempo raries Dino Compagni.] The fetus is in this stage is zoophyte. 1495. and died in the following year. and 1. ii. 1. 63. He was also the first who gave to the sonnet its regular and legitimate form. fab. ix.] The Centaurs. blames him for preferring the plebeian to the mor courtly style. 10.] Hell. 36. and Son. Villani. 72. CANTO XXV v. the most renowned and enterprising. printed in Allacci’s Collection. p. The birds. i. v.” where. Venturi refers to his commentary on Aristotle.. vii. 1. c. They were published at Rome in 1743. he fled away on horseback. The contemporary annalist. of Arezzo. v. vol. 34.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 119. . To escape the fury of his fellow citizens. primo est peracerba gustatu. forty in number. Met. in Florence. have since so much delighted. after relating at length the circumstances of his fate. I. 4 v. Callisto. 1308. c. Euripides. He. iii. -More wise Than thou.] Judges. 56. 126. 123. Ital. Helena. (De Vulg. and in his time had formed many conspira cies in Florence and entered into many scandalous practices. the most expert statesman. iv. c. called the Colliget. called the Notary. Matthias’s ed. a species of composition in which not only his own countrymen.Purgatory v. terms him one of “the illustrious Apulians. Dante. v. 6. with learned illustra tions by Giovanni Bottari. Creatures of the clouds. to show that the whimsical compositions called “Ariette “ are not of modern invention. Ibid. 1. 523. iii. As sea-sponge. “ quae. v. for the sake of attaining state and lord ship. 1400. 13. adds. i. for the opinion that there is only one universal intellect or mind pervading every individual of the human race. He was of the order of the “ Frati Godenti. as besides his poems printed in the collection of the Giunti. Guittone. 58. Della Volg. p. but very worldly. he founded a monastery of the order of Camaldoli. in the Trea tise de Vulg. In the year 1293. Ovid.D. man of his age in Italy. ii.” of which an account may be seen in the Notes to Hell. Ven. Crescimbeni (1. 5. but failing. Triumph of Love. but many of the best poets in all the cultivated languages of modern Europe. f. viii. “that he was one of the wisest and most valorous knights the best speaker. Theb. and Petrarch twice places him in the company of our Poet. a comely knight and of graceful carriage. 79. t. has erred.) have considered this an anticipation of a profound discovery of Galileo’s in natural philosophy. deinde maturata dulcescit.] Luke. speaking of the grape. Eloq. ed.] See Ovid. c 12. De Anim 1.] Averroes is said to be here meant. A. i. holds a distinguished place in Italian literature. Script. v. I do. Tiraboschi. 5. 66.] Corso Donati was suspected of aiming at the sovereignty of Florence. i. and Statius. Mr. 123.] Jucopo da Lentino. fab. 81. Canto V. Lib. 4to. was the son of Viva di Michele. 1698) gives an extract from one of his poems. ii.. fol. 46. cap. v.” v. Par. c. The Notary.” praefulgentes Apuli. 96. 1. Eloq.) quot ing a verse which belongs to a canzone of his pub lished by the Giunti. Much of the knowledge displayed by our Poet in the present Canto appears to have been derived from the medical work o+ Averroes.] Redi and Tiraboschi (Mr. v. c. not know a man. 137. et succo terrae et calore solis augescens. p. 56. Mark the sun’s heat. 12. Matthias’s edit. 1. c.

on account of its facility and agreeableness. In all that remains of Europe. a castle in Limoges. which may be severally distinguished by the use of the affirmatives. oil. This is the Greek. 96. 113. and that he did not live to see so late a period. the next by the French. But I suspect that there is some error in this date. That he was born of poor but noble parents. Guinicelli. p.. there is a third idiom subdivided into three dialects. The second are in a manner northern with respect to these for they have the Germans to the east and north. De Vulg. is the amount of Millot’s information concerning him (t. v. 1698. Julius Caesar. 70. and by the ocean. 1. x. ii. to prose narration. 118.] Giraud de Borneil.) characterizes Hypsipile. 1. 23. 1. much admired and caressed in his day. 111. 56. “Each of these three. c. 8. Hungarian. Navarre. to the western limits of England. and the criticism on them must go for little better than nothing.” Ibid. in his Triumph of Love. the son of Lycurgus. see Suetonius. when she went to show the Argive army the river of Langia: and. and is bounded by the limits of the French and Italians. and v. 87. where it was destroyed by a serpent. lycurgus. as herWho show’d Langia’s wave.] See Cano XXIV. Hist. Our Poet frequently cities him in the work De Vulgari Eloquentia. Eloq. 83.] See Note to Canto XI. and Arragon He is quoted by Dante. e. of Sideuil.) the Provencal was one language with the Spanish. 1. (Della Volg. that is. places Arnault Daniel at the head of the Provencal poets. the joy her own children felt at the sight of her was such as our Poet felt on beholding his predecessor Guinicelli. 1. The songster of Limoges. 1 and 23. 479). at the castle of Ribeyrae in Perigord. Poes.] Arnault is here made to speak in his own tongue. and appears to have been in favour with the mon archs of Castile. Thy courtesy.] Statius. p. The third occupy the eastern part from the said limits. Far as needs. Litt. v.] For the opprobrium east on Caesar’s effeminacy. It is to be regretted that we have not an opportunity of judging for ourselves of his “love ditties and his tales of prose “ Versi d’amore e prose di romanzi. Hypsipile had left her infant charge. Caesar.) He died in 1189. (De Vulg. ed.Purgatory CANTO XXVI v. Guittone. and the third by the Latins (or Italians). 132. begin ning from the limits of the Genoese. v. v. where the Adriatic sea begins. “One of these extends from the mouths of the Danube. He first makes three great divisions of the European languages. sive inventum 243 . and on the south by the people of Provence and the declivity of the Apennine. He was a troubadour. iv. 49. c. t. as the promontory of Italy. The first occupy the western part of southern Europe. (quicquid redactum. Eloq. and si. c. and many of his poems are still remaining in MS. and of Petrarch. Leon. 110. for he again (Canto XXII. One idiom obtained over the whole of this space: but was afterwards subdivided into. the Sclavonian. According to Nostradamus he died in 1278. v. p. oc. ii. v. The incidents are beautifully described in Statius. Ac cording to Crescimbeni.] The united testimony of Dante. the first spoken by the Spaniards. that the reader will perhaps not be displeased it I give an abstract of it.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Teutonic. Saxon. 123.] See Canto XI. and the vernacular tongues of several other people. on her escaping the effects of Lycurgus’s resentment. 7. has a second idiom which reaches still further than the end of Europe into Asia. The account there given of his writings is not much more satis factory.” he observes. and the mountains of Arragon. v. the Provencal. Theb. on a bank. that they use the affirmative io. He. According to Dante. on the west they are bounded by the English sea.) The whole of Europe. “has its own claims to distinction The excellency of the French language consists in its being best adapted. What he says on this subject is so curious. Millot. English. (our English ay. and that he was at the English court. iv. beginning from the Hungarian limits and stretching towards the east. and to Sicily. des Troub. and seem to have made an impression on Dante. one sign remaining to all. or the lake of Maeotis. as far.

da Pistoia and his friend. P. v. that its writers seem to adhere to. who endowed the holy see with the estates called the Patrimony of St.” v. and the boughs trembling. Milton. certain general rules of gram mar. Blessed. e. Villani. 20 But it seems more probable that she should be intended for an allegorical personage.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the vernacular poetry: among whom are Pierre d’Auvergne.] By Leah is understood the active life. v. 102. as it were keeping tenor to their notes. A pleasant air. 34. Thou. The Span ish (or Provencal) may boast of its having produced such as first cultivated in this as in a more perfect and sweet language. c. v. 146. O.] This is the wood where the scene of Boccaccio’s sublimest story is laid. In Vasari’s Life of Giotto. “Odi i queruli uccelli. 4 v. v. that by this lady. Chiassi. The divinity is the mirror in which the latter looks. 57. c. The sun. Come.] Compare Ariosto.] Matt. 14. 11.” &c. 76. 1. Michel Angelo has made these allegorical personages the subject of two statues on the monument of Julius II.] Matt.] At Jerusalem it was dawn. —”Hear the querulous birds plaining with sweet songs.] For an explanation of the allegorical meaning of this mysterious procession. —a bow Conspicuous with three listed colours gay. as Rachel figures the contemplative. in the number of whom are Cino. Pietro in Vincolo. Lord hast made me glad. Venturi refers those “who would see in the dark” to the commentaries of Landino. 41. v. xxxiv. I am Leah. in the church of S. 10. See Dec. who in the last Canto is called Matilda.] Most of the commentators suppose. Those bright eyes. Vellutello. b. 865. 80. st. xi. and in India noonday. See G. The feather’d quiristers] Imitated by Boccaccio. CANTO XXVIII v. 7. in Spain midnight. and in so doing give it. we learn that Dante recommended that book to his friend. &c. A lady.Purgatory est ad vulgare prosaicum suum est). and. Persius Prol. 1. as affording fit subjects for his pencil. CANTO XXVII v. and died in 1115. CANTO XXIX v. and others more ancient. v. F. See Mr. v.] Di sette liste tutte in quel colori. Listed colours. The privileges of the Latin. 8.] The eyes of Beatrice. Fiammetta. c. and he instances the books compiled on the gests of the Trojans and Romans and the delightful adventures of King Arthur. On the Parnassian mountain. L. 8. n. Duppa’s Life of Michel Angelo. 50. Peter. v.] In bicipiti somniasse Parnasso. xxv. Sculpture viii. moved by a gentle wind. with many other histories and works of instruction.] Psalm xcii. And x. and oth ers: and adds that it is evident the Poet has accom modated to his own fancy many sacred images in the Apocalypse. in the opinion of the intelligent. is to be understood the Countess Matilda. a very weighty pretension to preference. iv. v. 5.” iv.] The west. 1. To that part. while it was sunset in Purgatory v. and the next. or Italian are two: first that it may reckon for its own those writers who have adopted a more sweet and subtle style of poetry. and Dryden’s Theodore and Honoria Our Poet perhaps wandered in it daring his abode with Guido Novello da Polenta. 135. 79. 244 . g. Ten paces. and p 247.

the son of our Poet. I.” says Venturi. 138. the forepart of which is an eagle. v. Giusto de’ Conti. The old flame.] They sang the thirty-first Psalm. this old man is said to be Moses. Faith may be produced by charity. where. 116. Peter.] “When the wind blows. v.] The seven candlesticks. accompanies the original of this work. Four. 884. an imaginary creature. v. The polar light. Conosco i segni dell’ antico fuoco. 1. c.] Matt. But.] The three evangelical virtues: the first Charity. at the time of the equinox.] The four moral or cardinal virtues. 96. iv. Met. or. when the wind is south. v. 1. v. 115. The living rafters. who was behind them all. One single old man. c.” v. James. ‘Three nymphs.] Hippocrates. Gryphon. The car is the church.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Ezekiel. v. but the inducements to hope must arise either from one or other of these. to the end of the eighth verse.] Saint Luke. or charity by faith. Tellus’ prayer. Aen. MSS. the next Hope. but I should rather take them to be four principal doctors of the church. bodies being under the equator cast little or no shadow.” v. St. in the British Museum. and the hinder a lion. and the third Faith. from off Africa. xxi. under his character of the author of the Apocalypse. 90. 23. into one of his Italian poems.] Milton has transferred this conceit. Blessed. A band quaternion.] The four evangelists. ii. ch’ era dietro a tutti loro Fu Moyse. And the old man. characterized as the writer of the Arts of the Apostles and Saint Paul. v. v. 4. 1. 85.” Yet both Landino and Vellutello expressly call them the authors of the epistles. I. CANTO XXX v. John. “whom nature made for the benefit of her favourite creature.] “Not all the beauties of the terrestrial Paradise.] Agnosco veteris vestigia flammae Virg.” v. The ice. From full hands. Two old men.Purgatory v. c. 133. 101. v. 125. Come. is shadowed forth the union of the divine and human nature in Jesus Christ.] Virg. See No. were sufficient to allay my grief. John. vi. Aen 1. of whom Prudence directs the others. 279. v. though scarcely worth the pains of removing. 245 .] “The commentators. 104.] Song of Solomon.] Under the Gryphon. The land whereon no shadow falls. 8. 20. 140. 12. iv. v. John and Jude.] As some say.] Chap. Of the great Coan.] Rev. which in some MSS. Four others. Nor. 3459 of the Harl. E’l vecchio. v. 129. 61. Was Moses. 89. in which I was. v. 98. “suppose these four to be the four evangelists. son. 19. 97. La Bella Mano. v. 87. and is descriptive of its plan. v. 9. v. 8. v. But in the poem attributed to Giacopo.] The leafless woods on the Apennine. man.] Ovid. in other words.

v. Their ten years’ thirst. 122. i. v. v.” v.] By the seven heads.] Heaven. Dante had thought sufficiently harsh. instead of telling me to lift up my head. iv. 69. 51. when not addressed directly to himself. That true Rome.] Probably Mahomet. appears to be typical of the persecutions which the church sustained from the Roman Emperors.] The donations before mentioned. v. 39. c. Counter to the edge.] The words of Beatrice. 71. “The understanding is sometimes so intently engaged in contemplating the light of divine truth in the scriptures.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 4. 58. With lateral edge.] “I perceived. The Indians. 3. Two fix’d a gaze. Bird. With his feathers lin’d. v. The blossoming of that fair tree. The emeralds. 142. b. 689. 97. anger. v.] Our Saviour’s transfiguration. the constellation next to that of the Fish.] “The weapons of divine justice are blunted by the confession and sorrow of the offender. An allusion to the donations made by the Roman Emperors to the church. L. c.]. And in the heaven are stars. 74. 110. 39. Georg. conveys so useful a lesson. 1102.] The tapers of gold. Virg. and is made less capable of attaining such knowledge.] This. that it deserves our notice. 63. 17 v.” v. The bird of Jove. by the three with two horns. pride. it is supposed with sufficient probability. Milton. A fox. moderation” v. but speaking to the angel of hell. ix. which is imitated from Ezekiel. v. 24. v. 1. that when she desired me to raise my beard. than if it had sought after it with greater 246 . v. xvii. From Iarbas’ land. 130. 1.] By the fox perhaps is represented the treachery of the heretics.] Quos oceano proprior gerit India lucos.] The south. a severe reflection was implied on my want of that wisdom which should accompany the age of manhood. 2. Met. v. Its tresses. v.] A prayer repeated by the priest at sprinkling the holy water. that it becomes dazzled. v. P.] Daniel. v. 106. The beard. Heads. With plumes. &c. injurious both to man himself and CANTO XXXII v. c. 124. are meant the seven capital sins. and avarice. v. 98. Such as at this day to Indians known. 10. i. v.] The allegorical interpretation of Vellutello whether it be considered as justly terrible from the text or not. v. 3. When large floods of radiance. Th’ unpitying eyes.] When the sun enters into Aries. 9. v. 136. 101. 116. 118. 41.] Beatrice had been dead ten years. A dragon.Purgatory CANTO XXXI v.] Prov. Those lights. Tu asperges me.] The eyes of Beatrice. ii.] See Canto I.] See Ovid.

38. however that this name has been given to such sort of staves. v. v. chiefly to him who is guilty of them. Should the reader blame me for not departing from the error of the original (if error it be). edit. I believe. performed by a murderer at Florence. or rather superstitious.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 36. upon the grave of the person murdered.] “For the same cause that the pilgrim. vii. as Lombardi supposes. v. du Cange p. appointed the leader of the Ghibelline forces. gluttony. hope to appease the anger of the Deity by any outward acts of religious. because pilgrims usually travel and perform their pilgrimages on foot. who imagined himself secure from vengeance. within the space of nine days. Elsa’s numbing waters. and envy. It is unnecessary to point out the imitation of the Apocalypse in the manner of this prophecy. 50. is said to possess a petrifying quality. in our poet’s time. Dragg’d on. ceremony. 146. instead of Carmina Laiades. or bourdon. bound with palm. Che si reca ‘I bordon di palma cinto. it is not easy to guess. if he ate a sop of bread in wine.] The harlot is thought to represent the state of the church under Boniface VIII and the giant to figure Philip IV of France. and foretells the coming of Henry VII Duke of Luxembourg signified by the numerical figures DVX. v. Lombardi refers to Pansanias. &c. 155. Dissertation xv. 67. why it has been applied to a pilgrim’s staff. lukewarmness. That one brings home his staff inwreath’d with palm. 4to.” v. which flows into the Arno about twenty miles below Florence. such as was that. hurtful. 1. returning from Palestine. of Can Grande della Scala. “In regard to the word bourdon.” Mr. brings home his staff. The word is thrice used by Chaucer in the Romaunt of the Rose. 152. it is observed. v. by M. Hope not to scare God’s vengeance with a sop.] He prognosticates that the Emperor of Germany will not always continue to submit to the usurpations of the Pope. a little stream. or. at least in their primary effects. CANTO XXXIII v. to show where he has been.” that is. 78. 1. The Naiads. concupiscence.] The Elsa.] “Let not him who hath occasioned the de-struction of the church. O’er it. as it has been since corrected. then called bourdons and burdones.] The removal of the Pope’s residence from Rome to Avignon is pointed at. shall be the Oedipus will solve.Purgatory to his neighbor: by the four with one horn. he may substitute Events 247 . by writers in the middle ages. where he foundCarmina Naiades non intellecta priorum. &c.] Psalm lxxix. that vessel which the serpent brake. The Heathen. I.] Dante. v. That eagle. Johnes’s Translation of Joinville’s Memoirs. where “the Nymphs” are spoken of as expounders of oracles for a vindication of the poet’s accuracy. has been led into a mistake by a corruption in the text of Ovid’s Metam. their staves serving them instead of horses or mules. 75.

For that. Thus far hath one of steep Parnassus’ brows Suffic’d me. Through diver passages. PARADISE CANTO I His glory. That memory cannot follow. As thy own laurel claims of me belov’d. and there breathe So. Blackness the other part. And make me such a vessel of thy worth.Paradise Forth from his limbs unsheath’d. That in my thoughts I of that sacred realm Could store. and in happiest constellation set He comes. Thou shalt behold me of thy favour’d tree Come to the foot. mighty Sire! To grace his triumph gathers thence a wreath Caesar or bard (more shame for human wills Deprav’d) joy to the Delphic god must spring From the Pierian foliage. and my high theme Will fit me. In heav’n. and to the worldly wax best gives Its temper and impression. and gain From the Cirrhaean city answer kind. as when Marsyas by thy hand was dragg’d That of that happy realm the shadow’d form Trac’d in my thoughts I may set forth to view. Nathless all. in best Course. henceforth there is need of both For my remaining enterprise do thou Enter into my bosom. If but seldom. so near approaching its desire Our intellect is to such depth absorb’d. and in one part Sheds more resplendence. For to that honour thou. O power divine! If thou to me of shine impart so much. when to the left 248 . when one breast Is with such thirst inspir’d. by whose might all things are mov’d. shall now be matter of my song. Here eve was by almost such passage made. And whiteness had o’erspread that hemisphere. Morning there. Witness of things. was I.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but through that which joins Four circles with the threefold cross. Benign Apollo! this last labour aid. and crown myself with leaves. elsewhere less. That largeliest of his light partakes. Pierces the universe. the world’s bright lamp Rises to mortals. From a small spark Great flame hath risen: after me perchance Others with better voice may pray. which to relate again Surpasseth power of him who comes from thence.

Yet in new doubt was I entangled more. charm’d mine ear. Her eyes fast fix’d on the eternal wheels. Which thou hadst seen. accompanied with smiles. inflam’d me with desire. That made him peer among the ocean gods. as thou hast hither now return’d. and on the sun Gazing. so that thou seest not the thing.” Although divested of my first-rais’d doubt. Keener than e’er was felt. from upward gaze remov’d At her aspect. before I ask’d. clearly as myself. Beatrice stood unmov’d. Thou art not on the earth as thou believ’st. that through the eyesight pass’d Into my fancy. Then seem’d to me so much of heav’n to blaze With the sun’s flame. mine was form’d. thanks to the place Made for the dwelling of the human kind I suffer’d it not long. Thou know’st. Desired Spirit! with its harmony Temper’d of thee and measur’d. Open’d her lips. Words may not tell of that transhuman change: And therefore let the example serve. had that been shaken off. though weak. And suddenly upon the day appear’d A day new-ris’n. to know their cause. And that great light. who by thy light didst bear me up. As from the first a second beam is wont To issue. By those brief words. Much is allowed us there. as he. That here exceeds our pow’r. So of her act. I rest 249 . For light’ning scap’d from its own proper place Ne’er ran. And said: “Already satisfied. and reflected upwards rise. To calm my troubled mind. Whence she who saw me. and I with ken Fix’d upon her. Had with another sun bedeck’d the sky.The Divine Comedy of Dante . such inwardly became As Glaucus. E’en as a pilgrim bent on his return. and gracious thus began: “With false imagination thou thyself Mak’st dull.Paradise I saw Beatrice turn’d. For those whom grace hath better proof in store If I were only what thou didst create. I fix’d mine eyes Upon the sun. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. who hath the power. Love! by whom the heav’n is rul’d. Beyond our mortal wont. Whenas the wheel which thou dost ever guide. and yet so long That I beheld it bick’ring sparks around. as never eagle fix’d his ken. Then newly. when he tasted of the herb. and straight. that rain or flood ne’er made A lake so broad. The newness of the sound.

There would in thee for wonder be more cause. like fire unmoving on the earth. after utt’rance of a piteous sigh.Paradise From admiration deep. With her own light makes ever calm the heaven. directed thus. From its original impulse warp’d. Yet is it true. Thus they to different havens are mov’d on Through the vast sea of being. That have intelligence and love. and from hence the form. Then thus began: “Among themselves all things Have order. She tow’rds me bent her eyes. some more. In which the substance. that hath greatest speed. hut even those. on the advent’rous track Of my proud keel. as to our seat Predestin’d. who so well orders all. that singing cuts its way. Eager to listen. All natures lean. By vicious fondness. In this The higher creatures see the printed steps Of that eternal worth. Some less approaching to their primal source. free of hind’rance. This prompts the hearts of mortal animals. which makes The universe resemble God. That Providence. but now admire How I above those lighter bodies rise. This to the lunar sphere directs the fire. with such a look.) than lapse Of torrent downwards from a mountain’s height. who Hath power. thou hadst fix’d thyself Below.” So said. are pierc’d. and each one With instinct giv’n. This the brute earth together knits. and binds.” Whence. But at fair aim and glad. (if I rightly deem. CANTO II All ye. That as ofttimes but ill accords the form To the design of art. Thou no more admire Thy soaring. that bears it in its course. void of intellect. diversely. to earth. she turn’d toward the heav’n her face. which is the end Whither the line is drawn. Nor only creatures. Is turn’d: and thither now. we are carried by the force Of that strong cord. As from a cloud the fire is seen to fall. As on her frenzied child a mother casts. Are aim’d at by this bow. through sluggishness Of unreplying matter. Backward return with speed.The Divine Comedy of Dante . In this their order. to bend elsewhere. who in small bark have following sail’d. If. so this course Is sometimes quitted by the creature. that never looses dart. and your own shores 250 .

that draws Toward the realm of God’s own form. glorious. bore us Swift almost as the heaven ye behold. Apollo guides me. Who hath remov’d me from the mortal world. then spake: “If mortals err In their opinion. wonder’d not as ye will do. on which here They live. And in such space as on the notch a dart Is plac’d. whence the gloomy spots Upon this body. Timely for food of angels. who pass’d o’er To Colchos.” Me seem’d as if a cloud had cover’d us. Like adamant. Beatrice upward gaz’d. solid. to whom no work of mine was hid. firm. and I on her. that on both sides Equal returns. I saw myself Arriv’d. which below on earth Give rise to talk of Cain in fabling quaint?” She somewhat smil’d. Such as I best can frame. Where losing me. and rests unbroken. But in itself intelligibly plain. Ye other few. how much more Must the desire inflame us to behold That essence. not shown by proof. Turning to me. which needs must be If body enter body. The increate perpetual thirst. Through the deep brine ye fearless may put out Your vessel. and another Nine To my rapt sight the arctic beams reveal. Bespake me: “Gratefully direct thy mind To God. and it transcend Our weaker thought.The Divine Comedy of Dante . nor put out to open sea. which discovers by what means God and our nature join’d! There will be seen That which we hold through faith. Translucent. Those. when the key of sense 251 . The way I pass Ne’er yet was run: Minerva breathes the gale. When they saw Jason following the plough. who have outstretch’d the neck. E’en as the truth that man at first believes. perchance ye may remain Bewilder’d in deep maze. I answered: “Lady! I with thoughts devout. where wond’rous thing engag’d my sight. I pray thee. yet never know satiety. give thanks to Him. with aspect glad as fair. which the sun’s beam had smit Within itself the ever-during pearl Receiv’d us. and polish’d bright.Paradise Revisit. through whom to this first star we come. Whence she. as the wave a ray of light Receives. then loosen’d flies. well the furrow broad Before you in the wave. how one dimension thus Another could endure. If I then Was of corporeal frame. marking. But tell.

by transparency Of light. If rarity were of that dusk the cause. But this is not. which behind it lead conceals. Now wilt thou say. as through aught rare beside effus’d. From this perplexity will free thee soon Experience. And hence the beam. and more remote the third.” Then I: “What various here above appears. in like manner this Must in its volume change the leaves. Therefore remains to see The other cause: and if the other fall. since thou find’st. Which thou inquirest. declare. If it were true. If rare or dense of that were cause alone. and two remove From thee alike. the wings Of reason to pursue the senses’ flight Are short. If not from side to side this rarity Pass through. Three mirrors shalt thou take. Though that beheld most distant do not stretch A space so ample. Alike distributed. cause behind thy back A light to stand. whence Its contrary no further lets it pass. The first. Is caus’d. Beside. either in some part That planet must throughout be void. that on the three shall shine. Erroneous so must prove what seem’d to thee. I deem. save one. which I Shall bring to face it. Betwixt the former pair. By being thence refracted farther back. as bodies share Their fat and leanness. or less. had through the sun’s eclipse Been manifested.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that from without proceeds. if well Thou listen to the arguments. by bodies dense or rare. But what thy own thought is. shall meet thine eyes. yet in brightness thou 252 . And thus reflected come to thee from all. The fountain whence your arts derive their streame. or. surely wonder’s weapon keen Ought not to pierce thee. as colour comes. Must be pour’d back. there needs must be a limit. through glass Reflected. or more. Then turn’d toward them. The eighth sphere displays Numberless lights. nor fed With its own matter.” She then resum’d: “Thou certainly wilt see In falsehood thy belief o’erwhelm’d. if thereof thou trial make. and these. the which in kind and size May be remark’d of different aspects. Different virtues needs must be the fruits Of formal principles.Paradise Unlocks not. that there of murkier hue Than in the other part the ray is shown. Will by thy reasoning be destroy’d. One single virtue then would be in all.

that the tremulous beam Shall quiver where it falls. Its image takes an impress as a seal: And as the soul. Through members different. remains dismantled of the hue And cold. As thou beholdest now.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That hath so many lights. circles round A body. With which it knits. that dwells within your dust. 253 . This heaven. The following heaven. Mark me well. for their own seed and produce apt. How through this passage to the truth I ford. From hence proceeds. which erst with love my bosom warm’d Had of fair truth unveil’d the sweet aspect. May’st know to keep the shallows. And thence transmitting downwards. Different virtue compact different Makes with the precious body it enlivens. in whose virtue dies the being Of all that it contains. From its original nature full of joy.” CANTO III That sun. from step to step. untold. Where peace divine inhabits. “The virtue and motion of the sacred orbs. so thee. from it distinct. that cover’d it before. this being divides. As joy through pupil of the living eye. safe. As under snow the ground. e’en so The intellectual efficacy unfolds Its goodness multiplied throughout the stars. As mallet by the workman’s hand. The virtue mingled through the body shines. But now. The truth thou lov’st. that thou henceforth alone. Made beauteous by so many luminaries. In different pow’rs resolves itself. Thus do these organs of the world proceed. that generates Proportion’d to its power. and of the false reproof. On its own unity revolving still. as life in you is knit. and not from dense or rare. yet together form’d. Within the heaven. From the deep spirit. I will inform With light so lively. Dismantled in thy mind. Their influences from above deriving. that which from light to light Seems different. This is the formal cause. must needs By blessed movers be inspir’d. And yet contain’d within it. if the warm ray Smites it. The other orbs Their separate distinctions variously Dispose. that moves its circling sphere.Paradise Will own it equaling the rest. the dusk or clear. By proof of right. Through different essences.

me it well would please.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but. which. Makes thee fall back in unsound vacancy. That the true light. “Wonder not thou. in the tardiest sphere thus plac’d.” Whence she. or wave Clear and unmov’d. as I perceiv’d them. True substances are these. Who would have all her court be like herself. passes far All apprehension. As through translucent and smooth glass. to own myself convinc’d and free Of doubt. rais’d my head Erect for speech. And eyes glist’ning with smiles: “Our charity. amorous flame. I turn’d mine eyes. when I see Thy childish judgment. Here ‘mid these other blessed also blest. and believe. With such addition grac’d of loveliness.Paradise And I. and nothing saw. which thou behold’st. Hither through failure of their vow exil’d. That of confession I no longer thought. Will not conceal me long. born for joy! who in the rays Of life eternal. from the Holy Spirit conceiv’d. held me fix’d. I was a virgin sister in the earth. from whence I straight conceiv’d Delusion opposite to that. which rais’d Between the man and fountain. All stretch’d to speak. no more than she above. That on white forehead set a pearl as strong Comes to the eye: such saw I many a face. But speak thou with them. “at this my smiling. listen. who smiling shot forth beams From her celestial eyes. Then turn’d them back. directed on the light Of my sweet guide. And if thy mind observe me well. whose high affections burn alone With pleasure.” Straight to the shadow which for converse seem’d Most earnest. 254 . I addressed me. this form. as much as needed. But soon a sight appear’d. and flowing not so deep As that its bed is dark. Which. of that sweetness know’st The flavour. since not yet on truth It rests the foot. Permits not from its beams their feet to stray. As one by over-eagerness perplex’d: “O spirit. the shape returns So faint of our impictur’d lineaments. which fills them with desire. as it still is wont. Bars not the door.” She cry’d. but thou wilt know Piccarda. not tasted. with kindness prompt. so intent to mark it. Sudden. Our hearts. deeming these Reflected semblances to see of whom They were. To any wish by justice introduc’d. If thou wouldst tell me of thy name. and began. and this Your station here.

” Whence I to her replied: “Something divine Beams in your countenance. It is the mighty ocean. long ye for a higher place More to behold. pleases all. if here To be in charity must needs befall. though with like gracious dew The supreme virtue show’r not over all. and nought beyond desire. who sets us here. If we should wish to be exalted more. From former knowledge quite transmuting you. e’en so did I In word and motion. which in these orbs Thou wilt confess not possible. that this is ask’d. bent from her to learn What web it was. But what thou sayst hath to my memory Given now such aid. and of another still The appetite remains. And this condition. So that as we from step to step Are plac’d throughout this kingdom. Rather it is inherent in this state Of blessedness. Yet inform me. by which our wills with his Are one. whither tends Whatever it creates and nature makes. to that intent. who here Are happy. through which she had not drawn The shuttle to its point. ye. Then must our wishes jar with the high will Of him. But as it chances. who accepts each vow. By whose pure laws upon your nether earth The robe and veil they wear. that she seem’d With love’s first flame to glow: “Brother! our will Is in composure settled by the power Of charity. that to retrace your forms Is easier. if one sort of food Hath satiated. Is for this cause assign’d us.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to keep ourselves within The divine will. wond’rous fair. who in us plants his will. 255 . She thus began: “Exalted worth and perfectness of life The Lady higher up enshrine in heaven. and more in love to dwell?” She with those other spirits gently smil’d. And if her nature well thou contemplate. And in his will is our tranquillity.” Then saw I clearly how each spot in heav’n Is Paradise. Then answer’d with such gladness. And thanks for that return’d. who makes us will alone What we possess. which appears so low.Paradise Admitted to his order dwell in joy. that our vows Were in some part neglected and made void. That e’en till death they may keep watch or sleep With their great bridegroom. E’en as our King. Therefore to recollect was I so slow.

” She ceas’d from further talk. in her vesture mantling me. and thus I spake My wish more earnestly than language could. with like violence were torn The saintly folds. from the world. Yet not for that the bosom’s inward veil Did she renounce. and then began “Ave Maria” singing. That power produc’d. “How contrary desires each way constrain thee. what of myself I tell May to herself apply. Silent was I. first a man might die Of hunger. E’en when she to the world again was brought In spite of her own will and better wont. both equally Remote and tempting. when in dimness she was lost. Pursued her. Turn’d to the mark where greater want impell’d. Mine eye. to follow her. in dread of both alike: E’en so between two deer a dog would stand.Paradise Which to his gracious pleasure love conforms. which thou beholdst At my right side. as heavy substance through deep wave. that shaded her fair brows. CANTO IV Between two kinds of food. From her. who from that loud blast. E’en so would stand a lamb between the maw Of two fierce wolves. 256 . fault nor praise I to myself impute. Thereafter men.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ere he one could freely choose. so look’d Beatrice then. Forth snatch’d me from the pleasant cloister’s pale. And bent on Beatrice all its gaze. This is the luminary Of mighty Constance. like me A sister. if I was silent. by equal doubts Held in suspense. As Daniel. yet desire Was painted in my looks. since of necessity It happen’d. But she as light’ning beam’d upon my looks: So that the sight sustain’d it not at first. when young Escap’d. Whence I to question her became less prompt.” she thus her words address’d. that spurr’d him on to deeds unjust And violent. that far as it was capable. and. and with that song Vanish’d. Made promise of the way her sect enjoins. burning with all the light Of this our orb. Which blew the second over Suabia’s realm. “Well I discern. Wherefore. God knows how after that my life was fram’d. which was the third and last. when the haughty king he freed From ire. for ill than good more apt. This other splendid shape.

For no other cause The scripture. And Mercury. nor even Mary’s self.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and Mars. This principle. and therefore I the first Of that will treat which hath the more of gall. in that it seems. Believing it to have been taken thence. condescending graciously To your perception. and either John. nor breathes freely forth. nor so means: and holy church Doth represent with human countenance Gabriel. for it brings No peril of removing thee from me. and Michael. haply thus he hath disguis’d His true opinion. is less harmful. diversely Partaking of sweet life. If his meaning be. as Plato deem’d. Which moves thee. as more or less Afflation of eternal bliss pervades them. hands and feet to God Attributes. What reason that another’s violence Should stint the measure of my fair desert? “Cause too thou findst for doubt. So that it fell to fabled names of Jove. When nature gave it to inform her mold: Since to appearance his intention is E’en what his words declare: or else to shun Derision. That spirits to the stars. and him who made Tobias whole. that ye may apprehend. but all To intellectual.Paradise So that thy anxious thought is in itself Bound up and stifled. not that fate assigns This for their sphere. Unlike what here thou seest. Choose which thou wilt. Have not in any other heav’n their seats. Than have those spirits which so late thou saw’st. That other doubt. Perchance he doth not wholly miss the truth. These are the questions which thy will Urge equally. Here were they shown thee. Thou arguest. Moses and Samuel. our justice seems Make the first circle beauteous. who affirms Each soul restor’d to its particular star. if the good intent remain. “That. Of seraphim he who is most ensky’d. Return. which digested rightly after turns 257 . Thus needs. not understood aright. The judgment of Timaeus. Nor more or fewer years exist. but for a sign to thee Of that celestial furthest from the height. we speak: Since from things sensible alone ye learn That. That to the influencing of these orbs revert The honour and the blame in human acts. to the eye of man. Erewhile perverted well nigh all the world.

The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise

Unjust, is argument for faith, and not For heretic declension. To the end This truth may stand more clearly in your view, I will content thee even to thy wish “If violence be, when that which suffers, nought Consents to that which forceth, not for this These spirits stood exculpate. For the will, That will not, still survives unquench’d, and doth As nature doth in fire, tho’ violence Wrest it a thousand times; for, if it yield Or more or less, so far it follows force. And thus did these, whom they had power to seek The hallow’d place again. In them, had will Been perfect, such as once upon the bars Held Laurence firm, or wrought in Scaevola To his own hand remorseless, to the path, Whence they were drawn, their steps had hasten’d back, When liberty return’d: but in too few Resolve so steadfast dwells. And by these words If duly weigh’d, that argument is void, Which oft might have perplex’d thee still. But now Another question thwarts thee, which to solve Might try thy patience without better aid. I have, no doubt, instill’d into thy mind, That blessed spirit may not lie; since near

The source of primal truth it dwells for aye: And thou might’st after of Piccarda learn That Constance held affection to the veil; So that she seems to contradict me here. Not seldom, brother, it hath chanc’d for men To do what they had gladly left undone, Yet to shun peril they have done amiss: E’en as Alcmaeon, at his father’s suit Slew his own mother, so made pitiless Not to lose pity. On this point bethink thee, That force and will are blended in such wise As not to make the’ offence excusable. Absolute will agrees not to the wrong, That inasmuch as there is fear of woe From non-compliance, it agrees. Of will Thus absolute Piccarda spake, and I Of th’ other; so that both have truly said.” Such was the flow of that pure rill, that well’d From forth the fountain of all truth; and such The rest, that to my wond’ring thoughts l found. “O thou of primal love the prime delight! Goddess! “I straight reply’d, “whose lively words Still shed new heat and vigour through my soul! Affection fails me to requite thy grace With equal sum of gratitude: be his

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To recompense, who sees and can reward thee. Well I discern, that by that truth alone Enlighten’d, beyond which no truth may roam, Our mind can satisfy her thirst to know: Therein she resteth, e’en as in his lair The wild beast, soon as she hath reach’d that bound, And she hath power to reach it; else desire Were given to no end. And thence doth doubt Spring, like a shoot, around the stock of truth; And it is nature which from height to height On to the summit prompts us. This invites, This doth assure me, lady, rev’rently To ask thee of other truth, that yet Is dark to me. I fain would know, if man By other works well done may so supply The failure of his vows, that in your scale They lack not weight.” I spake; and on me straight Beatrice look’d with eyes that shot forth sparks Of love celestial in such copious stream, That, virtue sinking in me overpower’d, I turn’d, and downward bent confus’d my sight.

Illume me, so that I o’ercome thy power Of vision, marvel not: but learn the cause In that perfection of the sight, which soon As apprehending, hasteneth on to reach The good it apprehends. I well discern, How in thine intellect already shines The light eternal, which to view alone Ne’er fails to kindle love; and if aught else Your love seduces, ‘t is but that it shows Some ill-mark’d vestige of that primal beam. “This would’st thou know, if failure of the vow By other service may be so supplied, As from self-question to assure the soul.” Thus she her words, not heedless of my wish, Began; and thus, as one who breaks not off Discourse, continued in her saintly strain. “Supreme of gifts, which God creating gave Of his free bounty, sign most evident Of goodness, and in his account most priz’d, Was liberty of will, the boon wherewith All intellectual creatures, and them sole He hath endow’d. Hence now thou mayst infer Of what high worth the vow, which so is fram’d That when man offers, God well-pleas’d accepts; For in the compact between God and him,

CANTO V
“If beyond earthly wont, the flame of love

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This treasure, such as I describe it to thee, He makes the victim, and of his own act. What compensation therefore may he find? If that, whereof thou hast oblation made, By using well thou think’st to consecrate, Thou would’st of theft do charitable deed. Thus I resolve thee of the greater point. “But forasmuch as holy church, herein Dispensing, seems to contradict the truth I have discover’d to thee, yet behooves Thou rest a little longer at the board, Ere the crude aliment, which thou hast taken, Digested fitly to nutrition turn. Open thy mind to what I now unfold, And give it inward keeping. Knowledge comes Of learning well retain’d, unfruitful else. “This sacrifice in essence of two things Consisteth; one is that, whereof ‘t is made, The covenant the other. For the last, It ne’er is cancell’d if not kept: and hence I spake erewhile so strictly of its force. For this it was enjoin’d the Israelites, Though leave were giv’n them, as thou know’st, to change The offering, still to offer. Th’ other part, The matter and the substance of the vow,

May well be such, to that without offence It may for other substance be exchang’d. But at his own discretion none may shift The burden on his shoulders, unreleas’d By either key, the yellow and the white. Nor deem of any change, as less than vain, If the last bond be not within the new Included, as the quatre in the six. No satisfaction therefore can be paid For what so precious in the balance weighs, That all in counterpoise must kick the beam. Take then no vow at random: ta’en, with faith Preserve it; yet not bent, as Jephthah once, Blindly to execute a rash resolve, Whom better it had suited to exclaim, ‘I have done ill,’ than to redeem his pledge By doing worse or, not unlike to him In folly, that great leader of the Greeks: Whence, on the alter, Iphigenia mourn’d Her virgin beauty, and hath since made mourn Both wise and simple, even all, who hear Of so fell sacrifice. Be ye more staid, O Christians, not, like feather, by each wind Removable: nor think to cleanse ourselves In every water. Either testament,

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The old and new, is yours: and for your guide The shepherd of the church let this suffice To save you. When by evil lust entic’d, Remember ye be men, not senseless beasts; Nor let the Jew, who dwelleth in your streets, Hold you in mock’ry. Be not, as the lamb, That, fickle wanton, leaves its mother’s milk, To dally with itself in idle play.” Such were the words that Beatrice spake: These ended, to that region, where the world Is liveliest, full of fond desire she turn’d. Though mainly prompt new question to propose, Her silence and chang’d look did keep me dumb. And as the arrow, ere the cord is still, Leapeth unto its mark; so on we sped Into the second realm. There I beheld The dame, so joyous enter, that the orb Grew brighter at her smiles; and, if the star Were mov’d to gladness, what then was my cheer, Whom nature hath made apt for every change! As in a quiet and clear lake the fish, If aught approach them from without, do draw Towards it, deeming it their food; so drew Full more than thousand splendours towards us, And in each one was heard: “Lo! one arriv’d

To multiply our loves!” and as each came The shadow, streaming forth effulgence new, Witness’d augmented joy. Here, reader! think, If thou didst miss the sequel of my tale, To know the rest how sorely thou wouldst crave; And thou shalt see what vehement desire Possess’d me, as soon as these had met my view, To know their state. “O born in happy hour! Thou to whom grace vouchsafes, or ere thy close Of fleshly warfare, to behold the thrones Of that eternal triumph, know to us The light communicated, which through heaven Expatiates without bound. Therefore, if aught Thou of our beams wouldst borrow for thine aid, Spare not; and of our radiance take thy fill.” Thus of those piteous spirits one bespake me; And Beatrice next: “Say on; and trust As unto gods!”—”How in the light supreme Thou harbour’st, and from thence the virtue bring’st, That, sparkling in thine eyes, denotes thy joy, I mark; but, who thou art, am still to seek; Or wherefore, worthy spirit! for thy lot This sphere assign’d, that oft from mortal ken Is veil’d by others’ beams.” I said, and turn’d Toward the lustre, that with greeting, kind

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Erewhile had hail’d me. Forthwith brighter far Than erst, it wax’d: and, as himself the sun Hides through excess of light, when his warm gaze Hath on the mantle of thick vapours prey’d; Within its proper ray the saintly shape Was, through increase of gladness, thus conceal’d; And, shrouded so in splendour answer’d me, E’en as the tenour of my song declares.

Christ’s nature merely human, with such faith Contented. But the blessed Agapete, Who was chief shepherd, he with warning voice To the true faith recall’d me. I believ’d His words: and what he taught, now plainly see, As thou in every contradiction seest The true and false oppos’d. Soon as my feet Were to the church reclaim’d, to my great task, By inspiration of God’s grace impell’d, I gave me wholly, and consign’d mine arms To Belisarius, with whom heaven’s right hand Was link’d in such conjointment, ‘t was a sign That I should rest. To thy first question thus I shape mine answer, which were ended here, But that its tendency doth prompt perforce To some addition; that thou well, mayst mark What reason on each side they have to plead, By whom that holiest banner is withstood, Both who pretend its power and who oppose. “Beginning from that hour, when Pallas died To give it rule, behold the valorous deeds Have made it worthy reverence. Not unknown To thee, how for three hundred years and more It dwelt in Alba, up to those fell lists Where for its sake were met the rival three;

CANTO VI
“After that Constantine the eagle turn’d Against the motions of the heav’n, that roll’d Consenting with its course, when he of yore, Lavinia’s spouse, was leader of the flight, A hundred years twice told and more, his seat At Europe’s extreme point, the bird of Jove Held, near the mountains, whence he issued first. There, under shadow of his sacred plumes Swaying the world, till through successive hands To mine he came devolv’d. Caesar I was, And am Justinian; destin’d by the will Of that prime love, whose influence I feel, From vain excess to clear th’ encumber’d laws. Or ere that work engag’d me, I did hold

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Nor aught unknown to thee, which it achiev’d Down to the Sabines’ wrong to Lucrece’ woe, With its sev’n kings conqu’ring the nation round; Nor all it wrought, by Roman worthies home ‘Gainst Brennus and th’ Epirot prince, and hosts Of single chiefs, or states in league combin’d Of social warfare; hence Torquatus stern, And Quintius nam’d of his neglected locks, The Decii, and the Fabii hence acquir’d Their fame, which I with duteous zeal embalm. By it the pride of Arab hordes was quell’d, When they led on by Hannibal o’erpass’d The Alpine rocks, whence glide thy currents, Po! Beneath its guidance, in their prime of days Scipio and Pompey triumph’d; and that hill, Under whose summit thou didst see the light, Rued its stern bearing. After, near the hour, When heav’n was minded that o’er all the world His own deep calm should brood, to Caesar’s hand Did Rome consign it; and what then it wrought From Var unto the Rhine, saw Isere’s flood, Saw Loire and Seine, and every vale, that fills The torrent Rhone. What after that it wrought, When from Ravenna it came forth, and leap’d The Rubicon, was of so bold a flight,

That tongue nor pen may follow it. Tow’rds Spain It wheel’d its bands, then tow’rd Dyrrachium smote, And on Pharsalia with so fierce a plunge, E’en the warm Nile was conscious to the pang; Its native shores Antandros, and the streams Of Simois revisited, and there Where Hector lies; then ill for Ptolemy His pennons shook again; lightning thence fell On Juba; and the next upon your west, At sound of the Pompeian trump, return’d. “What following and in its next bearer’s gripe It wrought, is now by Cassius and Brutus Bark’d off in hell, and by Perugia’s sons And Modena’s was mourn’d. Hence weepeth still Sad Cleopatra, who, pursued by it, Took from the adder black and sudden death. With him it ran e’en to the Red Sea coast; With him compos’d the world to such a peace, That of his temple Janus barr’d the door. “But all the mighty standard yet had wrought, And was appointed to perform thereafter, Throughout the mortal kingdom which it sway’d, Falls in appearance dwindled and obscur’d, If one with steady eye and perfect thought On the third Caesar look; for to his hands,

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The living Justice, in whose breath I move, Committed glory, e’en into his hands, To execute the vengeance of its wrath. “Hear now and wonder at what next I tell. After with Titus it was sent to wreak Vengeance for vengeance of the ancient sin, And, when the Lombard tooth, with fangs impure, Did gore the bosom of the holy church, Under its wings victorious, Charlemagne Sped to her rescue. Judge then for thyself Of those, whom I erewhile accus’d to thee, What they are, and how grievous their offending, Who are the cause of all your ills. The one Against the universal ensign rears The yellow lilies, and with partial aim That to himself the other arrogates: So that ‘t is hard to see which more offends. Be yours, ye Ghibellines, to veil your arts Beneath another standard: ill is this Follow’d of him, who severs it and justice: And let not with his Guelphs the new-crown’d Charles Assail it, but those talons hold in dread, Which from a lion of more lofty port Have rent the easing. Many a time ere now The sons have for the sire’s transgression wail’d;

Nor let him trust the fond belief, that heav’n Will truck its armour for his lilied shield. “This little star is furnish’d with good spirits, Whose mortal lives were busied to that end, That honour and renown might wait on them: And, when desires thus err in their intention, True love must needs ascend with slacker beam. But it is part of our delight, to measure Our wages with the merit; and admire The close proportion. Hence doth heav’nly justice Temper so evenly affection in us, It ne’er can warp to any wrongfulness. Of diverse voices is sweet music made: So in our life the different degrees Render sweet harmony among these wheels. “Within the pearl, that now encloseth us, Shines Romeo’s light, whose goodly deed and fair Met ill acceptance. But the Provencals, That were his foes, have little cause for mirth. Ill shapes that man his course, who makes his wrong Of other’s worth. Four daughters were there born To Raymond Berenger, and every one Became a queen; and this for him did Romeo, Though of mean state and from a foreign land. Yet envious tongues incited him to ask

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Revolving. in himself. begging his life by morsels. to his own person joining The nature. As might have made one blest amid the flames. even at the sound Of Beatrice’s name. thus her words began: 265 .” Yet blank awe. Contemplate here the wonder I unfold.” “Thou in thy thought art pond’ring (as I deem. who return’d Twelve fold to him for ten. Beaming upon me. because it had eschew’d The way of truth and life. below.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who was unborn. Ne’er then was penalty so just as that Inflicted by the cross. the human kind Lay sick in grievous error many an age. scantly dealt. Which lords it o’er me. that she quench Thy thirst with drops of sweetness. it yields him. In sudden distance from my sight were veil’d. And what I deem is truth how just revenge Could be with justice punish’d: from which doubt I soon will free thee. all. And. For they of weighty matter shall possess thee. did bow me down As one in slumber held. But through itself alone was driven forth From Paradise. pure and good. His offspring: whence. God therefore and the Jews one sentence pleased: CANTO VII “Hosanna Sanctus Deus Sabaoth Superillustrans claritate tua Felices ignes horum malahoth!” Thus chanting saw I turn that substance bright With fourfold lustre to its orb again. who since him have liv’d. if thou regard The nature in assumption doom’d: ne’er wrong So great. By the mere act of his eternal love. Until it pleas’d the Word of God to come Amongst them down. himself condemn’d. “Speak. and like swiftest sparks. so thou mark my words.” it whisper’d me. Me doubt possess’d. speak unto thy lady. Created first was blameless. from its Maker far estrang’d. ‘T would deem the praise. and the rest unto their dance With it mov’d also. in reference to him. Aged and poor He parted thence: and if the world did know The heart he had. with such a smile. Not long that mood Beatrice suffer’d: she. who took Such nature on him. The nature with its Maker thus conjoin’d. and endur’d the doom. and “Speak.Paradise A reckoning of that just one. “That man. to evil turn’d.

thou sayst: but wherefore God this way For our redemption chose. Which doth disfranchise him. that spume All envying in its bounty. But yet I see thy mind By thought on thought arising sore perplex’d. no less Than from its state in Paradise. yet in those Are liveliest. intently as thou canst. uncontrollable by power Of each thing new: by such conformity More grateful to its author. in itself With such effulgence blazeth. whose bright beams. Whatever thence immediate falls. as sends forth All beauteous things eternal. much aim’d at. which resemble him the most. or else man himself For his own folly by himself aton’d. What I have heard. the dread abyss. No longer stainless. for that its light in him Is darken’d. and explore. The only fords were left through which to wade. Your nature. Count it not hard henceforth. Is plain. May fathom this decree. unless. What distils Immediate thence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . These tokens of pre-eminence on man Largely bestow’d. Either that God had of his courtesy Releas’d him merely. when thou dost hear That a just vengeance was by righteous court Justly reveng’d. is free. though the earth did quake. He for ill pleasure pay with equal pain. And heav’n was open’d. eludes my search.Paradise So different effects flow’d from one act. “Brother! no eye of man not perfected. for he could not stoop 266 . And to dignity thus lost Is no return. Sin alone is that. no end of being knows. And with how vehement desire it asks Solution of the maze. Free wholly. which entirely in its seed Trangress’d. In sooth. and make unlike To the chief good. Bearing its seal immutably impress’d. “Man in himself had ever lack’d the means Of satisfaction. Though all partake their shining. where guilt makes void. Instructed by my words. if any of them fail. It is a mark. from these distinctions fell. nor means Found of recovery (search all methods out As strickly as thou may) save one of these. On th’ everlasting counsel. “Fix now thine eye. He needs must forfeit his nobility. Nor fully ripen’d in the flame of love. and but little kenn’d: And I will therefore show thee why such way Was worthiest. The celestial love.

had been true They from corruption had been therefore free. As high he. “I see. and enamours of itself. With complex potency attract and turn. But this our life the’ eternal good inspires Immediate. Goodness celestial. thou sayst. from whence he fell. or one alone. I mean. every method else Were all too scant. than had the terms Been mere and unconditional release. Are by created virtue’ inform’d: create Their substance. Then behooved That God should by his own ways lead him back Unto the life. and soon Dissolve. Was or can be. Which thou hast nam’d. restor’d: By both his ways. remains I somewhat further to thy view unfold. whose broad signature Is on the universe. The earth and water. and all things of them Compounded. Giving himself to make man capable Of his return to life. Yet these were also things create. Either for him who gave or who receiv’d Between the last night and the primal day. When both our parents at the first were made. “The angels. thought to soar: And for this reason he had vainly tried Out of his own sufficiency to pay The rigid satisfaction. the fire I see. disobeying. to fulfil each wish of thine. “And hence thou mayst by inference conclude Our resurrection certain. of all its ways To raise ye up. in humility so low. was fain to leave out none.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And for his justice. as indeed they are In their whole being. But since the deed is ever priz’d the more.” 267 . to corruption turn. if what were told me. impassible and pure. had not the Son of God Humbled himself to put on mortal flesh. that round them circling move The soul of every brute and of each plant. Nor aught so vast or so magnificent. The ray and motion of the sacred lights. “Now. But the elements.Paradise Obeying. The more the doer’s good intent appears. if thy mind Consider how the human flesh was fram’d. That thou mayst see as clearly as myself. For God more bounty show’d. I call created. O my brother! and this clime Wherein thou art. and create the’ informing virtue In these bright stars. Because. the air. and what of them is made. So that our wishes rest for ever here.

As their eternal phases each impels. well dispos’d To do thee gentle service. the sun. compar’d To those celestial lights. ne’er since extinct in me. One motion. Leaving the circuit of their joyous ring. borrow’d they The appellation of that star. that tow’rds us came. That to please thee ‘t will be as sweet to rest.Paradise CANTO VIII The world was in its day of peril dark Wont to believe the dotage of fond love From the fair Cyprian deity. and sole began: “We all Are ready at thy pleasure. but the new loveliness That grac’d my lady. who in the van appear’d. to hear Renew’d the strain. Never was blast from vapour charged with cold. And as in flame A sparkle is distinct. and with voice 268 . gave me ample proof That we had entered there. And after them. or voice in voice Discern’d. rapid more or less. Whom I have sung preluding. Then parting from the rest One near us drew. deem’d of them Her mother. which views. when one its even tenour keeps. it had not seem’d To linger in dull tardiness.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who rolls In her third epicycle. as hath left Desire. Whether invisible to eye or no. that cours’d In circling motion. and her son. Not her alone with sacrifice ador’d And invocation. with those who rule Princedoms in heaven. him whom they feign’d To sit in Dido’s bosom: and from her. one impulse. To whom thou in the world erewhile didst Sing ‘O ye! whose intellectual ministry Moves the third heaven!’ and in one orb we roll. Such an hosanna sounded. yet are of love so full. shed on men By stream of potent radiance: therefore they Of elder time. The other comes and goes. so in that light I other luminaries saw. but like honours paid To Cupid and Dione. Descended with such speed. Conducted by the lofty seraphim. We are they. and were by her Assur’d. Now obvious and now averse. I was not ware that I was wafted up Into its orb.” After mine eyes had with meek reverence Sought the celestial guide. they turn’d again unto the light Who had so largely promis’d. in their old error blind.

in Palermo rais’d The shout of ‘death. And thus it answer’d: “A short date below The world possess’d me. That Rhone. Glad thou hast made me. Betwixt Pelorus and Pachynian heights. To think my gladness manifest to thee. That too did look To have its scepter wielded by a race Of monarchs. that will come. for much I muse. With Verde mingled. In me its lord expected. The beautiful Trinacria lies in gloom (Not through Typhaeus. and that horn Of fair Ausonia. Around. Forthwith it grew In size and splendour. when he hath mix’d with Sorga. laves. Or other for him. clearing the doubt Thy speech hath raised in me. And truly need there is. He had been warier that the greedy want Of Catalonia might not work his bale. Would ask the guard of braver arms. mighty as it is. The realm. Now make intelligent. Which gave me sov’reignty over the land By Danube wash’d. where thou markest that which thou dost speak. had not ill lording which doth spirit up The people ever. than such As only care to have their coffers fill’d. Thou lov’dst me well. who own it. when thou lookst Into the source and limit of all good. Had but my brother’s foresight kenn’d as much. As to myself. sprung through me from Charles and Rodolph. but the vap’ry cloud Bituminous upsteam’d). whenas he strays beyond The limits of his German shores. There. for had my sojourning Been longer on the earth. Thence priz’d of me the more. Already on my temples beam’d the crown. and Croton. from bounty fall’n to thrift. From where the Trento disembogues his waves. to the salt sea-flood. and Gaeta pil’d. Where.Paradise That bare the lively pressure of my zeal. on the gulf by stormy Eurus lash’d. lest more freight be laid On his already over-laden bark. Had the time been more. and shroud me.’ re-echo’d loud and long. that he forecast. had never chanc’d. 269 . with its boroughs old. Nature in him. through augmented joy.” “My liege. My gladness hides thee from me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And had’st good cause. The left bank. Bari. it doth enhance the joy thy words Infuse into me. “Tell who ye are. the love I bare thee Had put forth more than blossoms.” I cried. which doth shine. as an animal In its own silk unswath’d. Much evil.

in generation. Were it not That providence celestial overrul’d. The roots. Wilt thou this truth more clearly evidenc’d?” To whom I thus: “It is enough: no fear. Nature ever Finding discordant fortune. In her circuitous course. first faulty made them fail. were it worse for man. but in them Their energy to save: for nought.” He straight rejoin’d: “Say.” answer’d I. and he tells you ‘no. which thou dost mount. But is as level with the destin’d aim. And were the world below content to mark 270 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . Must differ. lest nature in her part should tire. when sweet is sown. that lies Within the range of that unerring bow. soon that Shall face thee. deducing to this point. or who. if different estates Grow not of different duties in your life? Consult your teacher. Doth well her art. still pursue Unswervingly. that guides And blessed makes this realm. Thus place I in thy sight That. these heavens. Therefore one is Solon born. Nature. I see. must the path Trac’d by the generator. And then concluded: “For this cause behooves.” “And may that be. which was late behind thee. which thy questioning declares Behind thee now conceal’d. Nature. Another. As ever mark to arrow’s point oppos’d. from whence your operations come. thrives but ill. He dates from Mars his lineage. Xerxes. The Good. that is the seal to mortal wax. If th’ intellectual powers. Would their effect so work. and this may not chance.”’ Thus did he come. and Melchisidec A third. If he liv’d not in fellowship on earth?” “Yea. it would not be Art. that move these stars. he forthwith replied: “If I have power to show one truth. Hence befalls That Esau is so wide of Jacob: hence Quirinus of so base a father springs.Paradise How bitter can spring up. thou dost visit. but no distinctions owns ‘Twixt one or other household. Fail not. ‘t is my will Thou wear this corollary. and he a fourth.” I thus inquiring. in sign Of more affection for thee. but destruction. But. like all seed Out of its proper climate. Ordains its providence to be the virtue In these great bodies: nor th’ all perfect Mind Upholds their nature merely. Were it not thus. whose airy voyage Cost him his son. “nor here a reason needs.

and the fountain-springs Of Brenta and of Piava. And prove thou to me. who from such a good estrange Your hearts. thus began. Another of those splendent forms approach’d. who was born to gird on him the sword. of the treachery spake That must befall his seed: but.” Said he. O fair Clemenza.” Nor may I tell thee more. From one root I and it sprang. that fills it. for that by its light This star o’ercame me. As to the good. And now the visage of that saintly light Was to the sun. turn’d again. Consider thou. next. manifested forth Approva1 of my wish. And not to perish. there doth rise. It would not lack supply of excellence. Blest spirit! quickly be my will perform’d. as before. As one who joys in kindness: “In that part Of the deprav’d Italian land. Firmly upon me. that is next me in our heaven. “And O. Which haply vulgar hearts can scarce conceive. O ye misguided souls! Infatuate. But ye perversely to religion strain Him.Paradise And work on the foundation nature lays. my name on earth Cunizza: And here I glitter. But to no lofty eminence. Yet I naught repine. Alas for you!—And lo! toward me. ere these hundred years Five times absolve their round. That yet was new to me. that my inmost thoughts I can reflect on thee. a hill. save that the meed Of sorrow well-deserv’d shall quit your wrongs. CANTO IX After solution of my doubt.” Thereat the light. thy Charles. which lies Between Rialto.” Of Beatrice. That.The Divine Comedy of Dante . testified The will it had to pleasure me. That sorely sheet the region. great renown hath left. Therefore your steps have wander’d from the paths. Lustrous and costly. resting. Nor grudge myself the cause of this my lot. From whence erewhile a firebrand did descend. “Tell it not. “and let the destin’d years come round. “This jewel. The eyes 271 . And of the fluent phrasemen make your king. whose plenitude of bliss Sufficeth all. from the recess. If to excel be worthy man’s endeavour. by its outward bright’ning. Where it before was singing. and bend your gaze on vanity.” I cried.

Pastime of heav’n. That cowl them with six shadowing wings outspread? I would not wait thy asking. and appear’d on other thoughts Intent. murkier grows the shade. Too large should be The skillet. Where was before th’ horizon. the crowd that now are girt By Adice and Tagliamento.” Said I. in that upper clime. the which those ardours sing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . shapes its course. widest next to that Which doth the earth engarland. When for their stubbornness at Padua’s marsh The water shall be chang’d. Mirrors. effulgence comes Of gladness. The hour is near. that divides with passage brief Genoan bounds from Tuscan. As the mind saddens. Yet they Care not for this. in splendour glowing. one Lords it. wert thou known To me. in show of party-zeal. it makes meridian there. Like choicest ruby stricken by the sun. that would hold Ferrara’s blood. Of so deep stain. from which to us Reflected shine the judgments of our God: Whence these our sayings we avouch for good. still Impenitent. Feltro too Shall sorrow for its godless shepherd’s fault. That other joyance meanwhile wax’d A thing to marvel at. as thoroughly I to thee am known. East and west Are nearly one to Begga and my land. Was Malta’s bar unclos’d. and bears his head aloft. ye call them thrones. that never. for whom The web is now a-warping.Paradise When such life may attend the first. We descry above. Courteous will give.’’ He forthwith answ’ring. Whose haven erst was with its own blood warm.” She ended. Who knew my name were wont to call me Folco: And I did bear impression of this heav’n. For. That voice which joins the inexpressive song. re-ent’ring on the wheel she late Had left. tho’ scourg’d. thus his words began: “The valley’ of waters. Between discordant shores. The which this priest. that laves Vicena And where Cagnano meets with Sile. Of that vale Dwelt I upon the shore. And wearied he. “blest Spirit! Therefore will of his Cannot to thee be dark. for the like. who ounce by ounce would weight it. as here laughter: and below. ‘twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s. “God seeth all: and in him is thy sight. against the sun Inward so far. Why then delays Thy voice to satisfy my wish untold. 272 . nor will the gift ill suit The country’s custom.

That was beguiled of Demophoon. as the sun-beam doth On the clear wave. Know then. The decretals. plant Of him. than did I. of all souls redeem’d: For well behoov’d. the soul of Rahab Is in that gladsome harbour. that here Beside me sparkles. Demands my further parle. erelong. She should remain a trophy. Nor Jove’s son. And yet there hides No sorrowful repentance here. that fashioneth With such effectual working. Pope and Cardinals. For this. First. Are the sole study. But for the virtue. Turning the shepherd to a wolf. in some part of heav’n. That were the grave of Peter’s soldiery. Engenders and expands the cursed flower. when the charms of Iole Were shrin’d within his heart. the Vatican. was taken up. Not for the fault (that doth not come to mind).” 273 . Long as it suited the unripen’d down That fledg’d my cheek: nor she of Rhodope. but mirth.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and the foremost rank assign’d. accruing to this upper world From that below. all that in this sphere have birth. that on his Maker turn’d the back. whose o’erruling sway And providence have wrought thus quaintly. whereof The Pope recks little now. Here The skill is look’d into. where Gabriel op’d his wings. Yet it may chance. and the good Discern’d. He to that heav’n. But fully to content Thy wishes. Who of this light is denizen. And of whose envying so much woe hath sprung. That hath made wander both the sheep and lambs. to our tribe United. And other most selected parts of Rome. that. Inquire thou wouldst.Paradise That now bears mine: for not with fiercer flame Glow’d Belus’ daughter. For that she favour’d first the high exploit Of Joshua on the holy land. as their stuft margins show. at which the shadow ends Of your sublunar world. ne’er journey but in thought To Nazareth. Shall be deliver’d from the adult’rous bond. injuring alike Sichaeus and Creusa. Thy city. in Christ’s triumph. to declare The mighty contest won with either palm. The gospel and great teachers laid aside. Intent on these.

But light transparent—did I summon up Genius. how thence oblique Brancheth the circle. Lo! I have set before thee. oh thank. So shall delight make thee not feel thy toil. Who of his spirit and of his offspring shows. both in heav’n and here beneath. from direct Were its departure distant more or less. and here on earth. with me. Now rest thee. What marvel. 274 . and muse Anticipative of the feast to come. All power well nigh extinct: or. the first Might Ineffable. and doles out Time for us with his beam. As one.Paradise CANTO X Looking into his first-born with the love.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Fourth family of the Omnipotent Sire. Which breathes from both eternal. the great minister Of nature. henceforth Demands entire my thought. There begin Thy wonder of the mighty Architect. I’ th’ universal order. It should be e’er imagin’d: yet believ’d It may be. and the sight be justly crav’d. oh then how great must needs Have been her brightness! What she was i’ th’ sun (Where I had enter’d). that upon the world imprints The virtue of the heaven. his eye Doth ever watch it. practice—I might not so speak. And holds them still enraptur’d with the view. ensue. whereat One motion strikes on th’ other. in heav’n above Much virtue would be lost. weetless of ascent. went circling on Along the spires. And thus to me Beatrice: “Thank. For Beatrice. she who passeth on So suddenly from good to better. weets not his coming. Join’d with the part. then. O reader! to the lofty wheels. hath in such order all dispos’d. who till arriv’d. where the planets roll To pour their wished influence on the world. Thy ken directed to the point. whence eye or mind Can roam. since no eye above the sun Hath ever travel’d? Such are they dwell here. Who loves his work so inwardly. Raise. And I was with him. And if our fantasy fail of such height. great defect Must. not through change of hue. art. See. Which late we told of. reader! on thy bench. for thyself Feed now: the matter I indite. Whose path not bending thus. As none may see and fail to’ enjoy. where each hour sooner comes. time Counts not the act.

from within. Let thine eye. but smil’d thereat so joyously. Then saw I a bright band. I then was of the lambs. And us their centre: yet more sweet in voice. Sometime Latona’s daughter we behold. singing thus. down whose hallow’d steps None e’er descend. As nearest stars around the fixed pole. When. That weaves her zone. As mine was at those words: and so entire The love for Him. Thomas I. That of her laughing eyes the radiance brake And scatter’d my collected mind abroad. Where well they thrive. that bloom In the bright garland.” Never was heart in such devotion bound. So dear and beautiful. Who from his phial should refuse thee wine To slake thy thirst. Than water flowing not unto the sea. List’ning. what plants are these. along the way. they cannot brook Transporting from that realm: and of these lights Such was the song. Cinctur’d thus. who themselves did make the crown. 275 . him. who spake: “Since with its beam The grace. girds This fair dame round. that held me. not sworn with vanity. it leads thee up Along this ladder. whence true love lighteth first his flame. Then seem’d they like to ladies. who by his grace To this perceptible hath lifted thee. which. Who doth not prune his wing To soar up thither. are many jewels found.The Divine Comedy of Dante . If thou of all the rest wouldst be assur’d.Paradise The Sun of angels. Those burning suns that circled round us thrice. in liveliness Surpassing. Thou fain wouldst hear. He. shines So multiplied in thee. no less constrained were. for his saintly flock. who strengthens thee for heav’n. Than in their visage beaming. That after doth increase by loving. but suspense. brother was. till they have caught the strain anew: Suspended so they stood: and. let him look from thence For tidings from the dumb. nearest on my right hand. Thus heard I one. that Dominic Leads. When the impregnate air retains the thread. and mount them not again. from the dance Not ceasing. Whence I return. admiring. And master to me: Albert of Cologne Is this: and of Aquinum. it eclips’d Beatrice in oblivion. Naught displeas’d Was she. In the celestial court. And with complacency so absolute Dispos’d to render up itself to God. in silent pause. waiting on the words I speak.

In the other little light serenely smiles That pleader for the Christian temples. Blest there. That next resplendence issues from the smile Of Gratian. Next behold That taper’s radiance. CANTO XI O fond anxiety of mortal men! How vain and inconclusive arguments Are those. That all your world craves tidings of its doom: Within. Goodliest of all. on high musings bent. while yet in flesh it dwelt. to all who hear him. Was Peter. is by such love inspired.Paradise In circuit journey round the blessed wreath. if thy mind’s eye pass from light to light. Affection springs in well-disposed breast. and from martyrdom And exile came it here. In deep discernment. Now. which make thee beat thy wings below 276 . Reading in the straw-litter’d street. he Who did provide Augustin of his lore. It can be known but where day endless shines. lie Down in Cieldauro. The fifth light. who to either forum lent Such help. Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore. and Richard. whence it was driven. if truth be truth. Lo! further on. Each part of other fitly drawn and urg’d. of note so sweet. that calleth up the spouse of God To win her bridegroom’s love at matin’s hour. As clock. Thus saw I move the glorious wheel. Clearliest. Rebuk’d the ling’ring tardiness of death. It is the eternal light of Sigebert. the nature and the ministry Angelical. nearest. thus heard Voice answ’ring voice. The saintly soul.” Forthwith. whose spirit. Upon my praises following. Sends out a tinkling sound. Is. Lastly this. from whom Thy look on me reverteth. Who ‘scap’d not envy. who adorns our quire. The other. there is the lofty light. was the beam Of one. when of truth he argued. so musical and soft. with the sight of all the good. more than man. as favour wins in Paradise. Of Bede. to whose view was shown. he that with the widow gave To holy church his treasure. of the eighth Thy thirst is next. That with a ken of such wide amplitude No second hath arisen. The limbs. endow’d With sapience so profound. erewhile.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that is. that shows The world’s deceitfulness.

As candle in his socket. Hath two ordain’d. that By force or sophistry aspir’d to rule. With Beatrice. They of the circle to that point. that governeth the world. Safe in herself and constant unto him. Who with loud cries was ‘spous’d in precious blood. And wouldst. Then within The lustre. I but of one will tell: he tells of both. To call things rightly. each one. “Between Tupino. He was not yet much distant from his rising. from whence they rise. Who one commendeth. arose A sun upon the world. who speak Of that place. that erewhile bespake me. say Ascesi. To rob another. whence heat and cold Are wafted through Perugia’s eastern gate: And Norcera with Gualdo. had turn’d.’ and that ‘no second such Hath risen. where I told thee late That ‘well they thrive. heard I thus begin: “E’en as his beam illumes me. that falls From blest Ubaldo’s chosen hill. smiling With merer gladness.Paradise For statues one.’ which no small distinction needs. who should on either hand In chief escort her: one seraphic all In fervency. Thou art in doubt. The other splendour of cherubic light. one moiling lay Tangled in net of sensual delight. And one to witless indolence resign’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and one for aphorisms Was hunting. 277 . and steady glow’d. be it henceforth styl’d. Where it doth break its steepness most. I thus gloriously Was rais’d aloft. to the end that she. as may be smooth To thy perception. and the wave. for its name Were lamely so deliver’d. Might keep her footing towards her well-belov’d. When his good influence ‘gan to bless the earth. so I look Into the eternal light. that I should bolt my words afresh In such plain open phrase. and another sought By civil business wealth. and made the guest of heav’n. In depth of counsel by created ken Unfathomable. Upon that side. Where erst it was. What time from all these empty things escap’d. this the priesthood follow’d. as duly this From Ganges doth: therefore let none. there hangs Rich slope of mountain high. but the East. “The providence. and clearly mark Thy thoughts. for wisdom upon earth. in its rear Mourn for their heavy yoke. which of them so’er Be taken: for their deeds were to one end.

with his spouse. to deck their Guardian’s virtues.Paradise A dame to whom none openeth pleasure’s gate More than to death. ‘gainst his father’s will. with Amyclas. His stripling choice: and he did make her his. was pleas’d T’ advance him to the meed. Nor aught avail’d. Thousand and hundred years and more. ‘Twixt Arno and the Tyber. take at large The rovers’ titles—Poverty and Francis. Who to such good had destin’d him. that. he from Christ Took the last Signet. ran. But not to deal Thus closely with thee longer. yet deem’d his footing slow. she Was found unmov’d at rumour of his voice. stood up In the proud Soldan’s presence. And reap’d Ausonian lands. When Mary stay’d beneath. And follow both the bridegroom. whom now the cord Girt humbly: nor did abjectness of heart Weigh down his eyelids. that he. Before the Spiritual court. Was by the eternal Spirit inwreath’d: and when He had. O hidden riches! O prolific good! Egidius bares him next. that trac’d HIS steps. so the bride Can please them. Then the season come. wonder and love. when numerous flock’d The tribe of lowly ones. and. and from him first receiv’d the seal On his religion. Whose marvellous life deservedly were sung In heights empyreal. through Honorius’ hand A second crown. So much. which he had earn’d 278 . She. through thirst of martyrdom. On the hard rock. and there preach’d Christ and his followers.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The father and the master. And with that family. Then. and by men In wond’rous sort despis’d. but found the race Unripen’d for conversion: back once more He hasted (not to intermit his toil). Their concord and glad looks. Who shook the world: nor aught her constant boldness Whereby with Christ she mounted on the cross. and next Sylvester. slighted and obscure. And sweet regard gave birth to holy thoughts. bereav’d Of her first husband. in pursuit of peace So heavenly. till he came. Then lov’d her more devoutly. And in his father’s sight: from day to day. was. by nuptial bonds. But royally His hard intention he to Innocent Set forth. which his limbs two years Did carry. for that he was son Of Pietro Bernardone. remain’d Without a single suitor. that venerable Bernard first Did bare his feet. Thenceforth goes he on his way.

And they who gaze. and enjoin’d their love And faith to her: and. and trick’d alike. As when. if thou have ta’en Good heed. And to the shepherd cleave. destitute of milk. recall To mind. thy wish may be in part fulfill’d: For thou wilt see the point from whence they split. but these so few. if that. circling. made with Noah. and such our Patriarch was. So that they needs into strange pastures wide Must spread them: and the more remote from him The stragglers wander.Paradise By his self-humbling. ‘That well they thrive not sworn with vanity.”’ CANTO XII Soon as its final word the blessed flame Had rais’d for utterance. As their just heritage. of the world No more to be o’erflow’d. Our Sirens with their tuneful pipes. the outer taking birth From that within (in manner of that voice Whom love did melt away. and to the innermost E’en thus th’ external answered. compass’d it. Two arches parallel. Span the thin cloud. bending. as sun the mist). wreath’d Those garlands twain. returning To its appointed kingdom. Therefore who follow him. nor would have His body laid upon another bier. so much mole they come Home to the sheep-fold. A little stuff may furnish out their cloaks. Thou mayst be certain. which that implies. if my words be clear. who were a fit colleague. straight the holy mill Began to wheel.The Divine Comedy of Dante . take good lading in. of song. in truth. nor yet had once revolv’d. song to song. And radiance. Nor miss of the reproof. to his brotherhood. if Juno bid her handmaid forth. will’d His goodly spirit should move forth. “Now. that as much our muses doth excel. as he enjoins. Motion to motion. who fear their harm. “Think now of one. which I have told. When the footing. about us thus Of sempiternal roses. presageful call to mind The compact. light with light accordant. each 279 . conjoining. Song. as ray Of primal splendour doth its faint reflex. There are of them. To keep the bark of Peter in deep sea Helm’d to right point. he gave in charge His dearest lady. But hunger of new viands tempts his flock. And other great festivity. Or ere another. from her bosom.

and so call’d him Dominic. at the sacred font. after weary course. alike Should be their glory. Prompts me to tell of th’ other guide. In that clime. Two champions to the succour of his spouse He sent. Where pledge of mutual safety was exchang’d. Where one is. thorough grace alone. 280 . And that such He might be construed. When. that makes me beautiful. and was prostrate. Whose he was wholly. The hollow’d wrestler. and friend Fast-knit to Christ.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The dame. gentle to his own. nor from those billows far. The other worthily should also be. In turning to its whereabout. Are shut and rais’d together). and full of doubt. who by their deeds and words might join Again his scatter’d people. And not through its deserving. and thus Began: “The love. that was from him And from his heirs to issue. Beyond whose chiding.Paradise Jocund and blythe. Was after the first counsel that Christ gave. Many a time his nurse. had at their pleasure still’d (E’en as the eyes by quick volition mov’d. Who reigneth ever. who was his surety. wherein the lion lies Subjected and supreme. under guard Of the great shield. as the labourer. That as their warfare was alike. for whom Such good of mine is spoken. safe abides The happy Callaroga. even in the mother’s womb. And with thin ranks. Messenger he seem’d. when its imperial Head. Whom Christ in his own garden chose to be His help-mate. The spousals were complete ‘twixt faith and him. as indeed he was. That made me seem like needle to the star. It prophesied. for the drooping host Did make provision. with which Europe sees herself New-garmented. So replete His soul with lively virtue. And to his enemies terrible. at entering found That he had ris’n in silence. And I speak of him. Slow. and the first love he show’d. She was inspir’d to name him of his owner. from the heart Of one amongst the new lights mov’d a voice. that when first Created. And there was born The loving million of the Christian faith. The sun doth sometimes hide him. As thou heard’st. in her sleep Beheld the wondrous fruit. Where springs the pleasant west-wind to unfold The fresh leaves. after its banner mov’d The army of Christ (which it so clearly cost To reappoint).

Smote fiercest. Not for the world’s sake. ere my coming. soon he grew Mighty in learning. for which now they pore Upon Ostiense and Taddeo’s page. he besought. But his who fills it basely). And. But the track. who come to meddle with the text. one. Thence many rivulets have since been turn’d. Which its smooth fellies made. And rode triumphant through the civil broil. erelong To rue the gathering in of their ill crop. Over the garden Catholic to lead Their living waters. leaf by leaf. Might still find page with this inscription on’t. From Bagnororegio. Bonaventura’s life in me behold.” O happy father! Felix rightly nam’d! O favour’d mother! rightly nam’d Joanna! If that do mean. not through its fault. is now deserted: That mouldy mother is where late were lees.’ Yet such were not From Acquasparta nor Casale. “If such one wheel of that two-yoked car. Turn backward.The Divine Comedy of Dante . From which the twice twelve cions gird thee round. ‘I am as I was wont. where resistance was most stout. Thou canst not doubt its fellow’s excellence. One stretches and another cramps its rule. if not tended well: And from the see (whose bounty to the just And needy is gone by. who in discharge Of my great offices still laid aside All sinister aim. that wont to trace his path. hath declar’d So courteously unto thee. Licence to fight. with sage doctrine and good will to help. that soon turns To wan and wither’d. whence Of those. But for the real manna. and have fed its plants. dashing ‘gainst the stocks of heresy. 281 . When the rejected tares in vain shall ask Admittance to the barn. Wherein the holy church defended her. But. I question not But he. Illuminato here. and invert their steps.Paradise As who should say. No dispensation for commuted wrong. “My errand was for this. who search’d our volume. Then. Forth on his great apostleship he far’d. Nor the first vacant fortune. His family. Which Thomas. Like torrent bursting from a lofty vein. and did set himself To go about the vineyard. ‘gainst an erring and degenerate world. nor the tenth). as men interpret it. That to God’s paupers rightly appertain. in favour of that seed.

That luminary. And its grain safely stor’d. as the swiftest heav’n Is swifter than the Chiana. endow’d With soul prophetic. Donatus. conceiving thus. Joachim . such as Ariadne made. for things there as much Surpass our usage. And thus it spake: “One ear o’ th’ harvest thresh’d. Pietro Mangiadore. Of that true constellation. T’ have rang’d themselves in fashion of two signs In heav’n. CANTO XIII Let him. and his goodly lore. Among the first of those barefooted meek ones. Of stars fifteen.Paradise And Agostino join me: two they were. 282 . and to us Those saintly lights attended. round which the first wheel rolls. and both In such sort whirl around. happier made At each new minist’ring. and.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Spins ever on its axle night and day. and the dance Twofold. in which the wondrous life Of the meek man of God was told to me. that. O’ercome the massiest air: thereto imagine The wain. and no Io Paean. As mountain rock. but Three Persons in the Godhead. When death’s chill seized her. sweet charity Invites me with the other to like toil. who deign’d To put his hand to the first art. in the bosom of our sky. and with me have mov’d this throng. that. from midst the ethereal host Selected. The bright courtesy Of friar Thomas. and in one Substance that nature and the human join’d. Who sought God’s friendship in the cord: with them Hugues of Saint Victor. that each should tend With opposite motion and. and that one of them Did compass in the other’s beam. There was sung No Bacchus. The song fulfill’d its measure. he shall attain As ‘t were the shadow. Nathan the prophet. and Anselmo.” With the bright summit of that horn which swells Due from the pole. Raban is here: and at my side there shines Calabria’s abbot. And he of Spain in his twelve volumes shining. Have mov’d me to the blazon of a peer So worthy. Imagine (and retain the image firm. Amid th’ accordant sons of Deity. who would conceive what now I saw. Metropolitan Chrysostom. the whilst he hears me speak). Then silence brake. that circled me. with lively ray serene.

with seed or without seed. mortal men. accomplish’d with each gift. nor from his love triune with them. ye. Mirror’d. that in the bosom. kindling with bright view. whence the rib Was ta’en to fashion that fair cheek. ‘How then had he no peer?’ thou might’st reply. must all Have by his virtue been infus’d. Whose faultering hand is faithless to his skill. That which dies not. which the heav’nly orbs Moving. through his bounty. not disjoin’d From him. Open now thine eyes To what I answer thee. Its energy so sinks. it shows Th’ ideal stamp impress: so that one tree According to his kind. and mark The primal virtue. Howe’er. such as in them it was. hath better fruit. Resembling thus the artist in her work. at your birth. of beatitudes A second. are but each the beam Of that idea. Their wax. whate’er of light To human nature is allow’d. there is none. both after and before Such satisfaction offer’d. and that which molds it. As centre in the round. Doth. for that lively light. differ much: And thence with lustre. to his enclos’d In the fifth radiance. And worse: and. 283 . which pierc’d By the keen lance. who form’d Both one and other: and thou thence admir’st In that I told thee.Paradise “Thou know’st. congregate itself. at last it makes But brief contingencies: for so I name Things generated. whose taste All the world pays for. Are in your talents various. produce. Itself unalterable and ever one. and in that. as ‘t were in new existences. And that which can die. The lustre of the seal should be complete: But nature renders it imperfect ever.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that the human nature ne’er Was or can be. such the burden fill’d The virgin’s bosom: so that I commend Thy judgment. and the heav’n In its disposing influence supreme. and thou shalt see Thy deeming and my saying meet in truth. more or less. “Descending hence unto the lowest powers. “Did I advance no further than this point. which our Soverign Sire Engendereth loving. That life can teem with. and such The clay was made. Which passeth from his brightness. as outweighs Each evil in the scale. if love itself dispose. Were the wax Molded with nice exactness. There all perfection is vouchsafed.

and what (When he was bidden ‘Ask’ ). like to scymitars. and the crowd beside.’ Thou shalt discern it only hath respect To kings. ponder. be made Triangle with each corner. 284 . or if Of the mid circle can. “Let not the people be too swift to judge.The Divine Comedy of Dante . may appear Right plainly. Both to the ‘yea’ and to the ‘nay’ thou seest not. And of our well-beloved. Whose affirmation. blunt or sharp. For he among the fools is down full low. reflected back The scripture-image.Paradise But. Bryso. that all the way across the sea Ran straight and speedy. E’en in the haven’s mouth seeing one steal. I have spoken thus. who he was. and the good Are rare. For I have seen The thorn frown rudely all the winter long And after bear the rose upon its top. is Without distinction. Arius. As one who reckons on the blades in field. to make Thee slow in motion. perish at the last. ‘Risen. and knew not whither: so did Sabellius. “Whence. If necessary with contingent e’er Have made necessity. And let this Henceforth be led unto thy feet. and the other fools. Who journey’d on. And. as a weary man. Who. or to know. Who fishes for the truth and wanteth skill. Thou kingly prudence and that ken mayst learn. to the end he might be king Sufficient: not the number to search out Of the celestial movers. by art. “Much more than vainly doth he loose from shore. which I have said. that in most instances Current opinion leads to false: and then Affection bends the judgment to her ply. who ask’d For wisdom. noting that. Or ere the crop be ripe. marking clearly. in each case alike Since it befalls. that what now appears not. that I told thee. or denial. Melissus. by distortion marr’d. Since he returns not such as he set forth. And bark. that first motion is. the motive sway’d To his requesting. And open proofs of this unto the world Have been afforded in Parmenides. he was a king. and this. With this distinction take my words. of whom are many. And they may well consist with that which thou Of the first human father dost believe. or whether that Be granted. At which the dart of my intention aims. That thou mayst see.

and so back From circle to the centre. 285 . of that heav’nly shower. if it doth. and for ever reigns In mystic union of the Three in One. regarmented with glorious weeds Of saintly flesh. Therefore shall increase. who lives ever. who in a ring Tread the light measure. Such was the image glanc’d into my mind. such as perhaps The angel’s once to Mary. As it hath grave beyond its virtue great. shall stay with you Eternally. thus replied: “Long as the joy of Paradise shall last. And Beatrice after him her words Resum’d alternate: “Need there is (tho’ yet He tells it to you not in words. must. the other fall. Whoso laments. As the great spirit of Aquinum ceas’d. and spring with gladder bound. as in vision blest. nor e’en In thought) that he should fathom to its depth Another mystery. fervent. And from the lesser orb the goodliest light. Our love shall shine around that raiment. as but to hear For highest merit were an ample meed. That also tell. inwardly. And that as far in blessedness exceeding. Unbounded. in their fitful mirth Raise loud the voice. ministering aid. The saintly circles in their tourneying And wond’rous note attested new delight. Him. when ye shall regain your visible forms. or from without.” As those. even as the blow Impels it. each spirit thrice Sang. How. Whate’er of light.Paradise Another brine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with such melody. at the hearing of that pious suit. he hath not seen The sweet refreshing. Let not Dame Birtha and Sir Martin thence Into heav’n’s counsels deem that they can pry: For one of these may rise. water moves In the round chalice. light. Tell him.” Thus. Our shape. that we must doff this garb Of frail mortality. Wherewith your substance blooms. bounding all. being thus entire. bright. CANTO XIV From centre to the circle. With gentle voice and mild. As fervent. as now: and. if the light. Show yet more gracious. The sight may without harm endure the change. imparts The Supreme Good. thenceforth to live Immortally above. his offering to the priest. gratuitous.

like the brightening up Of the horizon. And lo! forthwith there rose up round about A lustre over that already there. And from my bosom had not yet upsteam’d The fuming of that incense. So passing lovely. yet it its whiteness shines More lively than that. when I knew The rite accepted. Ere they were made imperishable flame. O’erpowering vision in me! But so fair. Sole with my lady. which yonder earth Now covers. “God of Sabaoth! that does prank them thus!” As leads the galaxy from pole to pole. that comes from it. doubtfully descried. befitting the new grace vouchsaf’d. and those whom best they lov’d. and I beheld myself. as plainly spoke Desire of their dead bodies. Distinguish’d into greater lights and less. in corporeal organs made Firm. and that too The ray. shall to view less radiant seem.” Followed from either choir. So thickly studded. in the depth of Mars. that I cried. So there new substances. 286 . and round the other twain Enwheeling. Mind cannot follow it. sweep their ampler circuit wide. and so preserves Its proper semblance. which the wisest fail to spell. and with that tongue which speaks The same in all. But as the greed Which gives out flame. and susceptible of all delight. in two listed rays The splendours shot before me. with warmer smile Impurpled. new appearances through heav’n Peer with faint glimmer. well denoted our ascent. but for their kindred dear. much increase The fervour.Paradise The better disclose his glory: whence The vision needs increasing. Of equal clearness. Beatrice show’d. With such mighty sheen And mantling crimson. which it kindles. Than shall our fleshly robe.The Divine Comedy of Dante . O gentle glitter of eternal beam! With what a such whiteness did it flow. Mothers and sires. thus this circling sphere Of splendour. Its pathway. an holocaust I made To God. nor words express Her infinite sweetness. methought began To rise in view. Thence mine eyes regain’d Power to look up. As at an evening hour Of twilight. Nor will such excess of light O’erpower us. to more lofty bliss Translated: for the star. yet perchance Not for themselves.” So ready and so cordial an “Amen. With all the heart.

for there came to me “Arise and conquer. Silenced that lyre harmonious. The atomies of bodies. to give me will For praying. and may own my truth. Which grows in transport as we mount aloof. in accordance thus were mute? He hath in sooth good cause for endless grief. indistinctly heard. The higher they are ris’n. So from the lights. That.” as to one who hears And comprehends not. who. who heareth not distinct the note. Yet I mark’d it was a hymn Of lofty praises. Accounting less the pleasure of those eyes. From horn to horn. and still’d The sacred chords. and that there I had not turn’d me to them. flow to righteous prayers Should they not hearken. now rapid and now slow. that are by heav’n’s right hand Unwound and tighten’d. as they met and pass’d. Thus oft are seen. Gather’d along the cross a melody.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And as the chime Of minstrel music. Christ Beam’d on that cross. that ever shows itself as clear In kindness. Here memory mocks the toil of genius. That holy pleasure here not yet reveal’d. But whoso takes his cross. as loose appetite in wrong. that never till that hour was thing That held me in so sweet imprisonment. whereof in my excuse I do accuse me. That quadrants in the round conjoining frame. Me such ecstasy O’ercame. Straight or athwart. 287 . interpos’d by art Against the noontide heat. with ravishment Possess’d me. he may well Excuse me that. and pattern fails me now. dulcimer.Paradise Those rays describ’d the venerable sign. and help With many strings. who is aware those living seals Of every beauty work with quicker force. with ever-changeful glance. Perhaps my saying over bold appears. But he. And ‘tween the summit and the base did move Lights. and follows Christ Will pardon me for that I leave untold. Whereon to look fulfilleth all desire. scintillating. a pleasant dining makes To him. long or short. When in the flecker’d dawning he shall spy The glitterance of Christ. To move along the sunbeam. CANTO XV True love. which there appear’d to me. whose slant line Checkers the shadow.

who is first of all. Despoils himself forever of that love. glow’d its course. for his high conception scar’d Beyond the mark of mortals. more thanks to her. yet no gem Dropp’d from its foil. And seems some star that shifted place in heav’n. Than any other in this gladsome throng. and through the beamy list Like flame in alabaster.The Divine Comedy of Dante . thus from the horn.Paradise Who. That on the dexter of the cross extends. Thou dost deem thy thoughts to me From him transmitted. The spirit to his proem added things I understood not. none is lost. for in her eyes Was lighted such a smile. So forward stretch’d him (if of credence aught Our greater muse may claim) the pious ghost Of old Anchises. Whose leaves or white or dusky never change. Who for such lofty mounting has with plumes Begirt thee. glides a sudden trail of fire. and on either side Amazement waited me. Only that. whence I Turn’d me toward him. “Best he thou. Thou hast allay’d. Attracting with involuntary heed The eye to follow it. within this light. From whence my voice thou hear’st. At nightfall. When the flight Of holy transport had so spent its rage. Or why to thee more joyous I appear. tho’ long. for the love of thing that lasteth not. then unto my dame My sight directed. the first sounds I heard Were. And it is soon extinct. Which took me reading in the sacred book. erewhile at rest. “O thou. Yet not of choice but through necessity Mysterious. When he perceiv’d his son. E’en as all numbers ray from unity. so profound he spake. As now to thee. And therefore dost not ask me who I am. Triunal Deity! That hast such favour in my seed vouchsaf’d!” Then follow’d: “No unpleasant thirst. my blood! O most exceeding grace divine! to whom. That nearer to the level of our thought The speech descended. hath twice the heav’nly gate Been e’er unclos’d?” so spake the light. in the’ Elysian bower. As oft along the still and pure serene. 288 . one luminary ran From mid the cluster shone there. my son. I thought that mine Had div’d unto the bottom of my grace And of my bliss in Paradise. whence it kindles. Down to its foot. Forthwith To hearing and to sight grateful alike.

utter forth the wish. as in its rising. and she heard Ere I had spoken. But will and means. and who. within her ancient limit-mark. that the love. hath pleas’d me: “thus the prompt reply Prefacing. For that they are so equal in the sun. In which thy thoughts. to exhibit feats Of chamber prowess. This howe’er I pray thee. his long Endurance should he shorten’d by thy deeds. on its first ledge Hath circuited the mountain. which keeps me wakeful ever. Whereto my ready answer stands decreed. let thy voice. next it added. was my son And thy great grandsire. smiling. nor yet had come Hardanapalus. House was none Void of its family. with no artful colouring on her cheeks. For thy paternal greeting. She had no armlets and no head-tires then. for in this hue Both less and greater in that mirror look. As makes all likeness scant. I saw Bellincione Berti walk abroad In leathern girdle and a clasp of bone. For fear the age and dowry should exceed On each side just proportion. Was chaste and sober. From whence ye drew your radiance and your heat. 289 . of whom Thy kindred appellation comes.Paradise The truth is as thou deem’st. or ere thou think’st. A mortal I Experience inequality like this. for the cause ye well discern. let me hear thy name. and I began “To each among your tribe. “Florence. But. No purfled dames. That to my will gave wings. living topaz! that ingemm’st This precious jewel. May be contended fully. as much To be surpass in fall.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Montemalo yet O’er our suburban turret rose. but in the heart. Wisdom and love were in one measure dealt. are shown. an assent. no zone. Well befits. Urging with sacred thirst of sweet desire. and frank and jocund. that caught the eye More than the person did. in whom naught unequal dwells. “he. Fearless. O leaf! whom to expect Even. And. And therefore give no thanks. Which calls her still to matin prayers and noon. what time ye kenn’d The nature. With unlike wings are fledge.” I turn’d me to Beatrice. Time was not yet. In mortals.” “I am thy root. These hundred years and more. When at his daughter’s birth the sire grew pale. and abode in peace. utter forth Thy will distinctly.

and there In your old baptistery. hushing it With sounds that lull’d the parent’s infancy: Another. “In such compos’d and seemly fellowship. Goes round thee with his shears. usurping.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in such good part he took My valiant service. possess Your right. as Rome.” CANTO XVI O slight respect of man’s nobility! I never shall account it marvelous. drawing off The tresses from the distaff. Resuming then With greeting such. There. And hence thy surname grew. Unless thou be eked out from day to day. I was made Christian at once and Cacciaguida. But since hath disaccustom’d I began. that a little space Was sever’d. And none left desolate a-bed for France! One wak’d to tend the cradle. The sons I saw Of Nerli and of Vecchio well content With unrob’d jerkin. I follow’d then The Emperor Conrad. call’d on with loud cries. And Beatrice. Eliseo and Moronto. lectur’d them Old tales of Troy and Fesole and Rome. and his knighthood he Did gird on me. when I could not choose. but make my vaunt in thee! Yet cloak thou art soon shorten’d. After him I went To testify against that evil law. Whose base affection many a spirit soils. Such faithful and such fair equality. Mary at my birth Bestow’d me. In so sweet household. That our infirm affection here below Thou mov’st to boasting. and their good dames handling The spindle and the flax. A Salterello and Cianghella we Had held as strange a marvel. “From Valdipado came to me my spouse. E’en in that region of unwarp’d desire. with her maidens. And from the martyrdom came to this peace. Whose people. by that foul crew Was I releas’d from the deceitful world. In heav’n itself. as were my brethren. O happy they! Each sure of burial in her native land. was first to bear. smil’d reminding me of her. 290 . for that time.Paradise His lady leave the glass. as ye would A Cincinnatus or Cornelia now. Whose cough embolden’d (as the story holds) To first offence the doubting Guenever. by the shepherd’s fault.

that now is mix’d From Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. at the breathing of the wind. and. But then the citizen’s blood. O how much better were it. forthwith It answer’d: “From the day. as hath become a Florentine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who now is sainted. Their flame enliven.Paradise “You are my sire. this fire had come. “you give me heart Freely to speak my thought: above myself You raise me. The Conti were possess’d Of Montemurlo still: the Cerchi still Were in Acone’s parish. All those. 291 . nor had haply From Valdigrieve past the Buondelmonte. where the last Partition of our city first is reach’d By him. But. its beams To reilumine underneath the foot Of its own lion. of whom I sprang. They.” said I. as a mother. him. had there our birth-place. Such one. Yet not in this our modern phrase. So that it bears the mighty tide. gracious to her son. had been turn’d adrift To Simifonte. and that at Galluzzo And at Trespiano. Through so many streams with joy My soul is fill’d. more honourable It is to pass in silence than to tell. And whence they hither came. where his grandsire ply’d The beggar’s craft. that gladness wells from it. when it was said ‘ Hail Virgin!’ to the throes. And I. Were but the fifth of them this day alive. ye should have your bound’ry. Ran purely through the last mechanic’s veins. lighten’d her of me Whom she was heavy with. Five hundred fifty times and thrice. as it grew More fair to look on. my honour’d stem! what ancestors Where those you sprang from. been stepdame unto Caesar. what was then Its state. so that light I saw Shine at my blandishments. Thus much Suffice of my forefathers: who they were. fit to carry arms. That hath Saint John for guardian. who in that time were there from Mars Until the Baptist. And trades and traffics. and bursts not Say then. and what years were mark’d In your first childhood? Tell me of the fold. by which my mother. and Signa’s. which of all the world Degenerates most. so with voice more sweet. That hath his eye already keen for bart’ring! Had not the people. that runs her annual game. Than to have them within. and who in it were highest seated?” As embers. that these people Were neighbours to you. and bear the stench Of Aguglione’s hind.

Giouchi. The Ravignani sat. in variety of food: And the blind bull falls with a steeper plunge. That families fail. flock Into her consistory. As surely as your church is vacant. whose renown Time covers. The Alberichi. Now in their wane. like yourselves. they endure so long. Galli and Barucci. Than five. Sifanti. The column. How mighty them I saw. That now is laden with new felony. when cities have their end. cloth’d with verrey. Than the blind lamb. the first Florentines. The o’erweening brood. And as the moon Doth. So cumb’rous it may speedily sink the bark. Greci and Ormanni. How they are gone. Such the sires of those. Hide and reveal the strand unceasingly. and oftentimes one sword Doth more and better execution. Urbisaglia mark. who now. and ‘t will seem No longer new or strange to thee to hear. I saw The Ughi. With them who blush to hear the bushel nam’d. Fair governance was yet an art well priz’d By him of Pressa: Galigaio show’d The gilded hilt and pommel. illustrious citizens: And great as ancient.Paradise The city’s malady hath ever source In the confusion of its persons. and after them how go Chiusi and Sinigaglia. 292 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . of Sannella him. still was seen Unshaken: the Sacchetti still were great. All things. Of the Calfucci still the branchy trunk Was in its strength: and to the curule chairs Sizii and Arigucci yet were drawn. Are mortal: but mortality in some Ye mark not. whom since their pride Hath undone! and in all her goodly deeds Florence was by the bullets of bright gold O’erflourish’d. At the poop. But unto such. as The body’s. That plays the dragon after him that flees. and whoso hath since His title from the fam’d Bellincione ta’en. So fortune deals with Florence. Mark Luni. With him of Arca saw. that appertain t’ ye. and you Pass by so suddenly. and Bostichi. and Soldanieri And Ardinghi. Hence admire not At what of them I tell thee. as turn and show the tooth. and at leisure There stall them and grow fat. Catilini and Filippi. in his house. by the rolling of her heav’nly sphere. of whom is sprung The County Guido.

Through the just anger that hath murder’d ye And put a period to your gladsome days. Was on its rise. named from those of Pera. from whence your tears have had their spring. A thing incredible I tell. not that aught thy words May to our knowledge add. who came to Clymene To certify himself of that reproach. That Ubertino of Donati grudg’d His father-in-law should yoke him to its tribe. And Importuni: well for its repose Had it still lack’d of newer neighbourhood. but yet so slight esteem’d. This day is mingled with the common herd. the first time Thou near our city cam’st.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Or through division been with vermeil dyed.Paradise Ay or the purse. who borders them With gold. But so was doom’d: On that maim’d stone set up to guard the bridge. but to the end. I saw Florence in such assur’d tranquility. At thy last peace. Albeit one. Was honour’d. who now are weeping. With these and others like to them. bearing true report Of the mind’s impress. Each one. and that saintly lamp. that ne’er The lily from the lance had hung reverse. and those consorted with it. Already Caponsacco had descended Into the mart from Fesole: and Giuda And Infangato were good citizens. is gentle as a lamb. Florence! fell. the victim. When thus by lady: “Give thy wish free vent. nor unobserv’d was such Of Beatrice. She had no cause at which to grieve: with these Saw her so glorious and so just. tho’ true: The gateway. (he whose end Still makes the fathers chary to their sons. Which had been fasten’d on him. it. In Borgo yet the Gualterotti dwelt. That it may issue. led Into the narrow circuit of your walls. who bears the sightly quarterings Of the great Baron (he whose name and worth The festival of Thomas still revives) His knighthood and his privilege retain’d. The house. 293 . E’en such was I. Had God to Ema giv’n thee. Who had erewhile for me his station mov’d.” CANTO XVII Such as the youth. O Buondelmonte! what ill counseling Prevail’d on thee to break the plighted bond Many. would rejoice.

looking at the point whereto All times are present.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as to the ear sweet harmony From organ comes. The common cry. This they wish. in the vengeance it dispenseth. Doth from the vision. Hippolytus departed. as or ere the Lamb of God was slain. there.Paradise That thou mayst use thyself to own thy thirst And men may mingle for thee when they hear. Nor with oracular response obscure. And visited the nether world of woe. which erewhile To me had spoken. in terms Precise and unambiguous lore. As earthly thought determines two obtuse In one triangle not contain’d. More then the tall ship. Throughout the livelong day. and this Contrive. and will ere long effectuate. Such as driv’n out From Athens. The arrow. seen beforehand. Touching my future destiny have heard Words grievous. find A faithful witness. and my will declar’d. Therefore my will Were satisfied to know the lot awaits me. But hence deriveth not necessity. replied The spirit of paternal love. unfolded not to view Upon the tablet of your mortal mold. Yet in his smile apparent. affix the blame Unto the party injur’d: but the truth Shall. so comes before mine eye The time prepar’d for thee. but. though I feel me on all sides Well squar’d to fortune’s blows. Beguil’d the credulous nations. such must thou Depart from Florence. Is all depictur’d in the’ eternal sight.” “O plant! from whence I spring! rever’d and lov’d! Who soar’st so high a pitch. How hard the passage to descend and climb By other’s stairs. by his cruel stepdame’s wiles. Will. 294 . Such. enshrin’d. the whilst I scal’d With Virgil the soul purifying mount. As Beatrice will’d. so clear Dost see contingencies.” So said I to the brightness. From thence. Thou shalt prove How salt the savour is of other’s bread. thou seest as clear. slacks its flight. But that shall gall thee most Will he the worthless and vile company. Thou shall leave each thing Belov’d most dearly: this is the first shaft Shot from the bow of exile. hurried down the flood. that reflects the scene. as ‘t is ever wont. ere in themselves Existent. I. explicitly. Where gainful merchandize is made of Christ. and thus spake: “Contingency.

which I had streteh’d for him Upon the warp. the contrary to that Which falls ‘twixt other men. Rich men and beggars interchanging fortunes. With him shalt thou see That mortal. “First refuge thou must find. impious all and mad. And thou shalt bear this written in thy soul Of him. He shall behold thee with such kind regard. His bounty shall be spread abroad so widely. In equal scorn of labours and of gold. was woven. As not to let the tongues e’en of his foes Be idle in its praise. 295 . What hath been told thee. ere the Gascon practice on great Harry. And after through this heav’n from light to light. Shall turn ‘gainst thee: but in a little while Theirs and not thine shall be the crimson’d brow Their course shall so evince their brutishness T’ have ta’en thy stand apart shall well become thee. my son. For all ungrateful.Paradise With whom thou must be thrown into these straits. who most Abandoned himself. Then added: “So interpret thou. Down through the world Of infinite mourning. Therefore ‘t is good I should forecast. who bears Upon the ladder perch’d the sacred bird. Had shown the web. as the saintly spirit. who in perplexity desires Counsel of other.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ready to inflict the blow. that of his deeds The nations shall take note. But. and along the mount From whose fair height my lady’s eyes did lift me. that driven from the place Most dear to me. the granting shall Forerun the asking. for these wheels Only nine years have compass him about. first place of rest. In the great Lombard’s courtesy. Which falls most heavily on him. I may not lose myself All others by my song. His unripe age Yet holds him from observance. by his silence. Look thou to him And his beneficence: for he shall cause Reversal of their lot to many people. benign and friendly: “My father! well I mark how time spurs on Toward me. “and things he told Incredible to those who witness them. That ‘twixt ye two. wise.—Lo! the ambushment That a few circling seasons hide for thee! Yet envy not thy neighbours: time extends Thy span beyond their treason’s chastisement. but tell it not. Sparkles of virtue shall shoot forth in him. I began. As one. who was at his birth impress So strongly from this star.” Soon.

Throughout these orbs. who hears. she spake: “Turn thee. notwithstanding. that did full On Beatrice shine. joy’d That blessed spirit. but that to such bliss The mind remounts not without aid. Thou. all deceit remov’d. vanquishing me with a beam Of her soft smile. that. and I fed on mine.Paradise Have I learnt that.” CANTO XVIII Now in his word. will feel thy saying sharp. Spirits. For this there only have been shown to thee. dimm’d or by its own Or other’s shame. And let them wince who have their withers wrung. And. that near Him I dwell. For the mind Of him. is loth to acquiesce And fix its faith. Affection found no room for other wish. It may with many woefully disrelish. Thus much Yet may I speak. See the whole vision be made manifest. who recompenseth every wrong. as I gaz’d on her. Shall. And. when that its sway hath ta’en The spirit wholly. Like to a golden mirror in the sun. and the deep. Next answer’d: “Conscience. Which I had found there. What though. Who led me unto God. smite the proudest summits. when tasted first.” As here we sometimes in the looks may see Th’ affection mark’d. To whom these days shall be of ancient date. I leave in silence here: nor through distrust Of my words only. the mountain. flashing.” At the sweet sounds of comfort straight I turn’d. These eyes are not thy only Paradise. admonish’d: “Muse On other thoughts: bethink thee. thus the hallow’d light. as the wind doth. bewray’d its will 296 . ruminating. sole. I fear my life may perish among those. Which is of honour no light argument. whom fame hath note of. first shone glisteningly. Tempting the sweet with bitter: she meanwhile. The cry thou raisest. with second view From her fair countenance my gladden’d soul Contented.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To whom I turn’d. unless the instance brought Be palpable. While the everlasting pleasure. and proof apparent urge. where enclos’d the treasure smil’d. which if I tell again. in the saintly eyes what love was seen. if I am a timid friend to truth. and list. on digestion it will turn To vital nourishment. thy voice shall prove Unwelcome.” The brightness.

such joy. Who spake with me among the other lights Did move away.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Paradise To talk yet further with me. The saintly creatures flying. Shall there enact. as every muse Might grace her triumph with them. whose fruit is ever fair And leaf unwith’ring. who perseveres In good deeds doth perceive from day to day His virtue growing. as doth 1n summer cloud Its nimble fire. within the lights. so. And to mine eyes so sudden was the change. First. the man. now lengthen’d troop. what next behoov’d. such in her. Last. noting the increase Of beauty in that wonder. Through silvery whiteness of that temperate star. then one 297 . and began: “On this fifth lodgment of the tree. A splendour gliding. together with the heav’n The circuit widen’d. sang. So mighty in renown. The next for Charlemagne And for the peer Orlando. along the cross. intently. Array them in their flight. and Duke Godfrey drew My ken. That were below. Like the change In a brief moment on some maiden’s cheek. To Beatrice on my right l bent. Which from its fairness doth discharge the weight Of pudency. the word was said. And the soul. as by sense Of new delight. the clear sparks Of love. greeting. Whose sixth orb now enfolded us. fashion to my view Our language. that stain’d it. Within that Jovial cresset. And as birds. Looking for intimation or by word Or act. as the eye pursues A falcon flying. blessed spirits abide. to their notes they mov’d. now L.” Along the cross I saw. and Renard. and mix. And. William. whom I name. Ere it was done: then. two my gaze Pursued. whose life Is from its top. and Robert Guiscard. I e’en thus perceiv’d Of my ascent. On the horns Look therefore of the cross: he. and made Now D. and gladness was the scourge Unto that top. and with the choir Of heav’nly songsters prov’d his tuneful skill. at the naming saw Of the great Maccabee. now I. ere they arriv’d in heav’n. that reign’d there. another move With whirling speed. nor. as seems. I saw. singing. Their new-found pastures. At the repeated name of Joshua. It past all former wont. now in round. from river banks Arisen. and did descry Such mere effulgence in her eyes. figur’d I’ th’ air.

were five-fold seven. That he would look from whence the fog doth rise. And on the summit of the M. with lilied crowning. O nymph divine Of Pegasean race! whose souls. source of augury to th’ unwise. I mark’d. The other bright beatitude. Then. And every line and texture of the nest Doth own from him the virtue. and some less. The characters. And when each one Had settled in his place. Of the fifth word they held their station. their bliss and primal good. the first. from whom Thy motion and thy virtue are begun. Who painteth there. Hath none to guide him. Singing. Making the star seem silver streak’d with gold. Be thy power Display’d in this brief song. dost inlay! Therefore I pray the Sovran Mind. In order each. and were mute. Diligite Justitiam. and the extreme Qui judicatis terram. as they appear’d. as drive Their traffic in that sanctuary. whose walls With miracles and martyrdoms were built. well content To over-canopy the M. methinks. which thou. As fancy doth present them.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Following gently the impress of the bird. decreed. In the M. that are on earth All after ill example gone astray. Which kindleth them. which thou Inspir’st. Vocal and consonant. Thyself a costly jewel. Ye host of heaven! whose glory I survey l O beg ye grace for those. that I may set forth the shapes. that rested there. that seem’d Erewhile. and a higher pitch Some mounting. mov’d forth. mak’st glorious and long-liv’d. lively Grav’d in that streaky fire. To vitiate thy beam: so that once more He may put forth his hand ‘gainst such. War once had for its instrument the sword: 298 . Both verb and noun all blazon’d. I saw Descending other lights. as they Cities and realms by thee! thou with thyself Inform me.Paradise Becoming of these signs. Thus more than thousand twinkling lustres hence Seem’d reascending. as at shaking of a lighted brand. the head and neck Then saw I of an eagle. e’en as the sun. Sparkles innumerable on all sides Rise scatter’d. fashions it. Sweet star! what glorious and thick-studded gems Declar’d to me our justice on the earth To be the effluence of that heav’n. a little while Did rest them. of himself he guides.

and. think.” The which no wish exceeds: and there on earth Have I my memory left.Paradise But now ‘t is made. Yours without veil reflects it. what intention form’d Of many. e’en by the bad Commended. Whence I address them: “O perennial flowers Of gladness everlasting! that exhale In single breath your odours manifold! Breathe now. Like to a falcon issuing from the hood. 299 . which thou wastest. that they. Finding no food on earth. singly as of one express. The beauteous image. wherewith I do prepare myself To hearken.” it began. So saw I move that stately sign. As in that image many were the loves. CANTO XIX Before my sight appear’d. “Who turn’d his compass on the world’s extreme. and claps him with his wings. —And thou. That writes but to cancel. ye the doubt that urges me With such inveterate craving. That with great craving long hath held my soul.” Thus is one heat from many embers felt. with praise Of grace divine inwoven and high song Of inexpressive joy. Thou hast good cause to cry. Nor hath ink written. And one the voice. And from the wilds was dragg’d to martyrdom. Who for the vineyard.” Straight I saw. which next Befalls me to portray. His beauty and his eagerness bewraying. that liv’d in solitude remote. whereon so intense The sun-beam glow’d that to mine eyes it came In clear refraction. That rears his head. voice hath not utter’d. l am exalted to this height of glory. Beginning: “For that I was just and piteous. For I beheld and heard The beak discourse. that issued from them all. And that. with open wings. nor in fantasy Was e’er conceiv’d. taking the bread away Which the good Father locks from none. Each did seem A little ruby. died. “He. in fruition sweet Gladdening the thronged spirits. “My heart so cleaves To him. This well I know. Ye discern The heed. that shows In faithful mirror the celestial Justice.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That if there be in heav’n a realm. while they leave its course untrod. I wist not of the fisherman nor Paul. and let the hunger be appeas’d. and mark thy doings. Peter and Paul live yet.

if he believeth not?’—What then. Whence needs each lesser nature is but scant Receptacle unto that Good. nor who doth read nor write. that turns about 300 . In proof whereof. Whose very cause depends upon its beam. The ken. Light is none. He first through pride supplanted. Or else its poison. and void of faith. of th’ omnipresent Mind A single beam. Save that which cometh from the pure serene Of ne’er disturbed ether: for the rest. which knows No limit. And who art thou.” As on her nest the stork. your world is gifted with. are good. that on the stool wouldst sit To judge at distance of a thousand miles With the short-sighted vision of a span? To him. Both openly. who was sum Of each created being. and abortive fell. that in itself is good. Derivable by no created good. and in secret. which hath hidden from thy search The living justice. And all his inclinations and his acts. which though it mark The bottom from the shore. Where is the justice that condemns him? where His blame.Paradise And in that space so variously hath wrought. As eye doth in the sea. As far as human reason sees. But hidden through its deepness. But unbaptiz’d he dies. ne’er been mov’d. that the Word Of his omniscience should not still remain In infinite excess. for thou saidst—’A man Is born on Indus’ banks.The Divine Comedy of Dante . its origin must own Surpassing far its utmost potency. Justice consists in consonance with it. and ne’ertheless it is. the chief Good. in the wide main Discerns it not. waited not For light celestial. ‘Tis darkness all. Here confess reveal’d That covert. descends In th’ everlasting Justice as low down. did not the safe word Of scripture hold supreme authority. of the which thou mad’st Such frequent question. There would assuredly be room for doubt Even to wonder. or shadow of the flesh. in such wise Could not through all the universe display Impression of his glory. Hath from itself. and none is there Who speaks of Christ. “O animals of clay! O spirits gross I The primal will. measur’d by itself alone. Therefore your sight. And he offendeth not in word or deed. who subtilizes thus with me.

Those burning splendours of the Holy Spirit Took up the strain. Christians like these the Ethiop shall condemn: When that the two assemblages shall part. who guards The isle of fire by old Anchises honour’d Shall find his avarice there and cowardice.Paradise Unto her young. When Prague shall mourn her desolated realm. whom lately she hath fed. of Portugal And Norway. who hath counterfeited ill The coin of Venice. there shall be expos’d with him Of Ratza. that speak Much in a narrow space. While they with upward eyes do look on her. The writing must be letters maim’d. All there shall know His uncle and his brother’s filthy doings. O blest Hungary! 301 . Wherewith the Romans over-awed the world. the other poor. Who by the tusk will perish: there be read The thirsting pride. Wheeling round It warbled. Who hath not a believer been in Christ. in the which All their dispraise is written.” Then still abiding in that ensign rang’d. When they shall see that volume. Than such. impatient of their bound. There shall be seen the Spaniard’s luxury. for his vices No less a mark than million. that he doth work With his adulterate money on the Seine. such is Th’ eternal judgment unto mortal ken. And they. One rich eternally. Who still to worth has been a willing stranger. In judgment. to whom his name was never known. But lo! of those Who call ‘Christ. Lab’ring with such deep counsel. Who so renown’d a nation and two crowns Have bastardized. He. and did say: “As are my notes To thee. The delicate living there of the Bohemian. “What may the Persians say unto your kings.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The halter of Jerusalem shall see A unit for his virtue. and thus it spake again: “None ever hath ascended to this realm. further off from him by far. and bending so The ever-blessed image wav’d its wings. And better to denote his littleness. spread to view? There amidst Albert’s works shall that be read. Either before or after the blest limbs Were nail’d upon the wood. who understand’st them not.’ there shall be many found. So lifted I my gaze. that maketh fool alike The English and Scot. Which will give speedy motion to the pen. There shall be read the woe. Christ.

that marshaleth the world And the world’s leaders. from our hemisphere. as it were hollow. e’en now are heard Wailings and groans in Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s. Thus up the neck. or of pipe. at the fret-board. at the wind-hole. for that all those living lights. O blest Navarre! If with thy mountainous girdle thou wouldst arm thee In earnest of that day. making known The richness of his spring-head: and as sound Of cistern. that sees.” it began. grudging at their beast. now doth he know The merit of his soul-impassion’d strains By their well-fitted guerdon. in the blessed beak Was silent. Sweet love! that dost apparel thee in smiles. suddenly the sky. comforted CANTO XX When. The world’s enlightener vanishes. Are chief of all the greatest. and forthwith Voice there assum’d.” After the precious and bright beaming stones. rose That murmuring of the eagle. Who keepeth even footing with the rest.. on whose tables I inscrib’d them. methought I heard The murmuring of a river. putting forth Innumerable lights wherein one shines. such as my heart Did look for. Which merely are from holy thoughts inspir’d! 302 . that doth fall From rock to rock transpicuous. This. burst forth into songs. That make the circle of the vision.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that shines Midmost for pupil. That did ingem the sixth light. was the same. who sang The Holy Spirit’s song. “must now Be noted steadfastly: for of the fires. and bare about The ark from town to town. those. How lustrous was thy semblance in those sparkles. As the great sign. Of such vicissitude in heaven I thought. Is. he Who to the beak is nearest. In mortal eagles. Of the five. modulate and tun’d. disappearing. and thence along the beak Issued in form of words.Paradise If thou no longer patiently abid’st Thy ill-entreating! and. Erewhile irradiate only with his beam. ceas’d the chiming Of their angelic bells. That figure me. Such as from memory glide and fall away. and day On all sides wasteth. glittering in mine eye. Is yet again unfolded. and bears the sun. “The part in me. Waxing in splendour.

with the laws and me. Drops satiate with the sweetness. Which fashions like itself all lovely things. how all the ill. So that thy knowledge waits not on thy faith: As one who knows the name of thing by rote. who follows In the circumference. which thou seest in the under bow.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That. From good intent producing evil fruit: Now knoweth he. albeit e’en his sight Reach not its utmost depth. The grace divine. for the over arch. though my doubting were as manifest. which the world cannot see. but conquers it.” Like to the lark.Paradise The widow for her son: now doth he know How dear he costeth not to follow Christ. To yield the shepherd room. Who in the erring world beneath would deem. Which he betokens by his radiant seeming. still. In silence waited not: for to my lips “What things are these?” involuntary rush’d. 303 . Both from experience of this pleasant life. trilling out his last sweet melody. As is through glass the hue that mantles it. And of its opposite. that the degrees of heav’n Alter not. That Trojan Ripheus in this round was set Fifth of the saintly splendours? now he knows Enough of that. not in such sort As man prevails o’er man. But is a stranger to its properties. The eye was kindled: and the blessed sign No more to keep me wond’ring and suspense. Replied: “I see that thou believ’st these things. Because ‘t is willing to be conquer’d. Fervent love And lively hope with violence assail The kingdom of the heavens. By true repenting slack’d the pace of death: Now knoweth he. which weeps For Charles and Frederick living: now he knows How well is lov’d in heav’n the righteous king. when through pious prayer below Today’s is made tomorrow’s destiny. Was William. Because I tell them. pass’d o’er to Greece. and overcome The will of the Most high. such appear’d That image stampt by the’ everlasting pleasure. whom that land bewails. Though it have brought destruction on the world. The other following. Then. I. deriv’d From his well doing. He next. doth not helm him aught. And forc’d a passage out: whereat I mark’d A sudden lightening and new revelry. Till other’s tongue reveal them. but discern’st not how. That warbling in the air expatiates long.

of whom I speak to thee. 304 . Whom at the right wheel thou beheldst advancing.” So. of lively hope. as thou deem’st. They quitted not their bodies. he endur’d no more The filth of paganism. by its mercy conquering. A little while returning to the flesh. And. and therein the song Acquires more pleasure. dancing to the sounds. Wherein believing. Like the accordant twinkling of two eyes.Paradise Though conquer’d. And. the whilst it spake. Gentiles but Christians. that I beheld The pair of blessed luminaries move. O how far remov’d. One from the barrier of the dark abyss. in firm rooted faith. The glorious Spirit. “Those. that at the second death He was made sharer in our gamesome mirth. Were sponsors for him more than thousand years Before baptizing. in the eye who live the first and fifth. Came back unto his bones. in believing. who see our Maker. as one handling skillfully the harp. Plac’d all his love below on just and right: Wherefore of grace God op’d in him the eye To the redemption of mankind to come. that wing’d The prayers sent up to God for his release. Attendant on some skilful songster’s voice Bids the chords vibrate. Cause thee to marvel. and God’s will and ours are one.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Which from so deep a fountain doth distil. Where never any with good will returns. The three nymphs. who had the means to help. so. O mortal men! be wary how ye judge: For we. Of lively hope Such was the meed. And put power into them to bend his will. in that thou behold’st The region of the angels deck’d with them. and for their ways Rebuk’d the stubborn nations. Predestination! is thy root from such As see not the First cause entire: and ye. was giv’n to me Sweet medicine to clear and strengthen sight. The other. by that form divine. As never eye created saw its rising. Believ’d in him. It doth remember me. through the riches of that grace. That of feet nail’d already to the cross. know not yet The number of the chosen: and esteem Such scantiness of knowledge our delight: For all our good is in that primal good Concentrate. nourish’d such a flame Of holy love. Their beamy circlets. This of the feet in future to be pierc’d.

wax’d So bright. In colour like to sun-illumin’d gold. so seem’d That glitterance. To her. That underneath the burning lion’s breast Beams. wafted on alternate wing. by whom my silence and my speech Are order’d. which in this mirror shall be shown. while some abide And wheel around their airy lodge. that. May know. Which this betokens me. Thy mind be with thine eyes: and in them mirror’d The shape. were no temp’ring interpos’d. but for her sake. mounting these eternal palace-stairs. Thy mortal puissance would from its rays Shrink. down whose steps I saw the splendours in such multitude Descending. when to new thoughts I chang’d.” quoth she. which the loftier it climbs. and I began: “I am not worthy. And with mine eyes my soul.” Unwillingly from question I refrain. prompted me T’ indulge the fervent wish. as the leaf doth from the thunderbolt. what joy To do the bidding of my heav’nly guide: In equal balance poising either weight. in whose happy reign No ill had power to harm. Some speed their way a-field.Paradise CANTO XXI Again mine eyes were fix’d on Beatrice. in this hour. commingled with his might. Into the seventh splendour are we wafted. As thou hast noted. cross their flight. Was shed thence. So shines. Yet no smile she wore And. still doth kindle more. A ladder. (As its remoter circle girds the world) Of that lov’d monarch. at dawn of day Bestirring them to dry their feathers chill. which my ken pursued in vain. My beauty. of my own desert. admits no doubt. That thou shouldst answer me. And one ling’ring near us. So lofty was the summit. methought. Returning. I saw rear’d up. and homeward some. how fondly I had fed My sight upon her blissful countenance. that in my thought: said: “The love. As upon certain stair it met. “Did I smile. Saw wherefore I was silent. which records the name. that seeth all. Who in the sight of Him. As the rooks. “thou wouldst be straight Like Semele when into ashes turn’d: For.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and clash’d Its shining. looking for a sign: whence she.” Whoso can deem. Within the crystal. 305 . ev’ry light in heav’n. that in her looks Found all contentment.

Upon its centre whirl’d the light. The mind. on the earth Is wrapt in mist. That no created ken may fathom it. that none henceforth dare Direct his footsteps to so dread a bourn. “‘Twixt either shore Of Italy. say. in such sort. I well discern: This harder find to deem.Paradise Who hath vouchsaf’d my asking. Doth the sweet symphony of Paradise Keep silence here. what passeth her ability. piercing through these folds. I the question urg’d no more. I thus far Descend these hallow’d steps: not that more love Invites me. spirit blest! That in thy joy art shrouded! say the cause. that did inhabit there. And of the spirit humbly sued alone T’ instruct me of its state. as much Or more of love is witness’d in those flames: But such my lot by charity assign’d. equaling with my blaze The keenness of my sight. as thou seest. Only to yield thee gladness of my voice. And of the light that vests me. nor the seraph That hath his eyes most fix’d on God. shall solve What thou hast ask’d: for in th’ abyss it lies Of th’ everlasting statute sunk so low. nor distant from thy land. That makes us ready servants.” I had not ended. That on the sov’ran essence. and thus Supported. 306 . “That in this court. Its virtue to my vision knits. replied: “Splendour eternal. Which bringeth thee so near: and wherefore. Wherewith I sparkle.” said I. I have the power to gaze: and hence the joy. for lo! there aloft.” By words like these Admonish’d. And. like rapid mill. when.” Was the reply: “and what forbade the smile Of Beatrice interrupts our song. which it wells from. That is in heav’n most lustrous. Look then if she may do. Below. why of thy peers Thou only to this office wert foredoom’d. lifts me so above myself. The thunder doth not lift his voice so high. “O sacred lamp! Love no compulsion needs. But not the soul. pervading with such sounds Of rapt devotion ev’ry lower sphere?” “Mortal art thou in hearing as in sight. To execute the counsel of the Highest. but follows free Th’ eternal Providence. to the mortal world when thou return’st. Be this reported. A stony ridge ariseth. and then The love.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When she is ta’en to heav’n. that here is radiant.

That with no costlier viands than the juice Of olives. where he trusteth most. For worship set apart and holy rites. What change in thee the song. so deaf’ning was the thunder. it hath no likeness here: nor I Wist what it spake. and what my smile Had wrought. thou art in heav’n? And know’st not thou.” I at those accents saw the splendours down From step to step alight. and that nothing there is done But is done zealously and well? Deem now.” A third time thus it spake. He came. like the chill. Down the palfrey’s sides Spread their broad mantles. Barefoot and lean. as chanc’d. Round this They came. O patience! thou That lookst on this and doth endure so long. for thus she spake. that ere long Detection must lay bare its vanity Pietro Damiano there was I y-clept: Pietro the sinner.—Cephas came. through much importuning I was constrain’d to wear the hat that still From bad to worse it shifted. Near upon my close Of mortal life. And she was like the mother. Is holy. and stay’d them. Modern Shepherd’s need Those who on either hand may prop and lead them. to the guardian of my steps I turn’d me. easily I pass’d the heats Of summer and the winter frosts.The Divine Comedy of Dante . content In heav’n-ward musings. with her voice Soothes him. who was the Holy Spirit’s vessel. who her son Beholding pale and breathless. At the first table. whatever is in heav’n. So burly are they grown: and from behind Others to hoist them. so as both the beasts Are cover’d with one skin. and wax. when before I dwelt Beside the Adriatic. eating their bread. who always runs Thither for succour. and he is cheer’d. Rich were the returns And fertile. which that cloister once was us’d To render to these heavens: now ‘t is fall’n Into a waste so empty. then added: “There So firmly to God’s service I adher’d. uttered them a shout So loud. 307 . CANTO XXII Astounded.Paradise They call it Catria: at whose foot a cell Is sacred to the lonely Eremite. Each circuiting. in the house Of our blest Lady. since thus the shout had pow’r to move thee. and wheel. Soothing me: “Know’st not thou. more beautiful.

These other flames. who their steps refrain’d Within the cloisters. I saw A hundred little spheres. father! to declare If I may gain such favour. Who in desire or fear doth look for it. when amid those pearls. as to gaze Upon thine image. Nor yet doth linger. As one. what thy mind conceives.” “Brother!” he thus rejoin’d. as a rose Before the sun. by no covering veil’d. Who brought the soul-subliming truth to man. Have rais’d assurance in me. And this the cheerful semblance.Paradise In which couldst thou have understood their prayers. beheldst the charity That burns amongst us. expectance may not weary thee. 308 . The spirits of men contemplative. “in the last sphere Expect completion of thy lofty aim. Abates in him the keenness of desire. That mountain. when the consummate flower Has spread to utmost amplitude. And such a speeding grace shone over me. Which thou must witness ere thy mortal hour. “Thy gentle words and kind. One largest and most lustrous onward drew. I remain’d. I will make answer even to the thought. Who thither carried first the name of Him. But elsewhere now l bid thee turn thy view. The vengeance were already known to thee.” I answ’ring. Here is Macarius. at whose side Cassino rests. Of thee Therefore entreat I. and held firm their heart. beaming in ye all. In old days. as she will’d. ere the lofty bound Thou reach. like me. Were utter’d. I behold Not unobservant. Romoaldo here: And here my brethren. who with the world Were in delusion lost. Was on its height frequented by a race Deceived and ill dispos’d: and I it was. whose kindly force Gives birth to flowers and fruits of holiness. Nor dares to question.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But that. wakening it Full-blossom’d in my bosom. And from within it these the sounds I heard. thus. That from their impious worship I reclaim’d The dwellers round about. Which thou hast such respect of. that fairer grew By interchange of splendour. “If thou. That it might yield contentment to my wish. save unto his seeming. who fearful of o’er-much presuming.” Mine eyes directing. The sword of heav’n is not in haste to smite. So shalt thou many a famous spirit behold. were all Enliven’d by that warmth.

than I was. Had. then the refluent sea. And there on mine: where every aim is found Perfect. Then all roll’d upward like an eddying wind. reader. and smite my breast. all pertains. To such. Ascending or descending here below. nor pole divides. ere The sign. Foul usury doth not more lift itself Against God’s pleasure. for abbey rear’d. Thither the Patriarch Jacob saw it stretch Its topmost round. turned into dens. I beheld. But to mount it now None lifts his foot from earth: and hence my rule Is left a profitless stain upon the leaves. grateful I refer. for the which I ofttimes wail my sins. good beginnings last not From the oak’s birth. with my pennon vied. His convent Peter founded without gold Or silver. Mortal flesh Is grown so dainty. by that influence only. Thou hadst been longer drawing out and thrusting Thy finger in the fire.” So saying. as I mounted. So.Paradise For there on each desire completion waits. And a less wonder. that no natural motion. whence each proceeds. Or on more vile allowance. entire. O glorious stars! O light impregnate with exceeding virtue! To whom whate’er of genius lifteth me Above the vulgar.The Divine Comedy of Dante . than that fruit which makes The hearts of monks so wanton: for whate’er Is in the church’s keeping. so prevail’d Over my nature. and for fulfillment ripe. that followeth Taurus. thou shalt find The white grown murky. May at God’s pleasure work amendment here. unto the acorn’s setting. Our ladder reaches even to that clime. And enter’d its precinct. The sweet dame beckon’d me to follow them: And. And Francis his in meek humility. With ye the parent of all mortal life 309 . as sue for heav’n’s sweet sake. Jordan was turn’d back. as my hope is to return Unto the holy triumph. I with pray’rs and fasting mine. There all things are as they have ever been: For space is none to bound. The walls. The cowls to sacks choak’d up with musty meal. when it appear’d to him With angels laden. and not To those who in respect of kindred claim. to his assembly back he drew: And they together cluster’d into one. And if thou note the point. Then look what it hath err’d to. And so at giddy distance mocks thy view.

that perforce It moved my smiles: and him in truth I hold For wisest. Forth from the havens stretch’d unto the hills. when I did first inhale The Tuscan air. of the time prevenient. And. till the dawn. what a world Already stretched under our feet there lies: So as thy heart may. fate decreed My passage at your clime. To you my soul Devoutly sighs. “that behooves thy ken Be vigilant and clear. Here I sustain’d The visage. appear’d before me all. Then to the beauteous eyes mine eyes return’d. That overhangs their couch. how swift. This petty area (o’er the which we stride So fiercely). in its blithest mood. Hyperion! of thy sun. Or even thou advance thee further.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and saw this globe So pitiful of semblance. Nor might I not descry Of all the seven. nor ever. on the spray. with wakeful gaze Expects the sun. And mark’d. in her nest. Nor of their several distances not learn. 310 .” Said Beatrice. when grace Vouchsaf’d me entrance to the lofty wheel That in its orb impels ye. and hence Their changes and their various aspects Distinctly scann’d. and with mine eye return’d Through all the seven spheres. who esteems it least: whose thoughts Elsewhere are fix’d. hence Look downward. as along the eternal twins I wound my way. sat darkling through the night. whereof late I deem’d That dense and rare were cause. impatient to descry Their wished looks. to this end. Removeth from the east her eager ken. and afterward. him worthiest call and best. “Thou art so near the sum of blessedness. here discern’d Jove’s tempering ‘twixt his sire and son. In the fond quest unconscious of her toil: She.Paradise Arose and set. and contemplate. With her sweet brood. round Move Maia and Dione. for virtue even now To meet the hard emprize that draws me on. CANTO XXIII E’en as the bird. how bulky each. who midst the leafy bower Has. and to bring home their food. Present itself to the triumphal throng.” I straight obey’d. I saw the daughter of Latona shine Without the shadow. how near him with their circle. Which through the’ etherial concave comes rejoicing.

As in the calm full moon. not with all their help to boot. that empower thee to sustain my smile. which did open lay The path. I say. And in her eyes such fullness was of joy. Unto the thousandth parcel of the truth. ‘mid th’ eternal nympus. and all the harvest reap’d at length Of thy ascending up these spheres. in a cloud imprison’d doth break out Expansive. seeing her Suspense and wand’ring. flow merely in her saintly looks it wrought. Long in expectance. and he strives in vain To shape it in his fantasy again. and. Holds now remembrance none of what she was. 311 . when I saw the heav’n Wax more and more resplendent. “Behold. while she spake her image all did burn. “Ope thou thine eyes. That. Betwixt the heav’n and earth. Wherein the past is written. I was not held. that had been yearned for so long.” Cried Beatrice. Now were all Those tongues to sound. O Beatrice! sweet and precious guide! Who cheer’d me with her comfortable words! “Against the virtue. that. that o’erpow’reth thee. I became as one. And here the wisdom.” Meseem’d. and. in the transport lost.” I was as one. and the hope Of somewhat new to come fills with delight. That. Short space ensued. That paint through all its gulfs the blue profound In bright pre-eminence so saw I there. My song might shadow forth that saintly smile. Thus in that heav’nly banqueting my soul Outgrew herself. In peerless beauty. Here is the might.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that my ken endur’d it not. O’er million lamps a sun. when Trivia smiles. and bent her glance Wistfully on that region. “the triumphal hosts Of Christ. that have on sweetest milk Of Polyhymnia and her sisters fed And fatten’d.Paradise So stood the dame erect. where the sun Abateth most his speed. from whom all drew Their radiance as from ours the starry train: And through the living light so lustrous glow’d The substance.” Like to the fire. so that from its womb enlarg’d. Which never may be cancel’d from the book. In whom desire is waken’d. and mark me: thou hast seen Things. Whenas that gracious boon was proffer’d me. It falleth against nature to the ground. And I am fain to pass unconstrued by. when a forgotten dream Doth come across him. Avails not to resist.

that inlays The floor of heav’n. and hov’ring round it wheel’d. my soul. in my eyeballs lively portray’d. as once here on earth Were. Wherein the word divine was made incarnate. like one. and diviner joy Shall from thy presence gild the highest sphere. our ventrous keel must furrow. Lady of Heav’n! will hover. “Why doth my face. no self-sparing pilot. yet saw I not The fountain whence they flow’d. as that thou dost not turn Unto the beautiful garden.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And that ‘t is lain upon a mortal shoulder. “ Angelic Love I am. Whatever melody sounds sweetest here. higher up Thou didst exalt thy glory to give room To my o’erlabour’d sight: when at the name Of that fair flower. O gracious virtue! Thou. blossoming Beneath the rays of Christ? Here is the rose. so saw I there Legions of splendours. Lo! from within the sky a cresset fell.Paradise And with such figuring of Paradise The sacred strain must leap. And draws the spirit most unto itself. Compar’d unto the sounding of that lyre. Circling in fashion of a diadem.” Prompt I heard Her bidding. long as thou Thy Son shalt follow. And. Where our desire did dwell: and round thee so. and echoed Mary’s name. whose broad stamp is on them. who thus with hov’ring flight enwheel The lofty rapture from that womb inspir’d. if it tremble with the burden. as the bright dimensions of the star In heav’n excelling. whom duly I invoke Both morn and eve. Mine eyes a flower-besprinkled mead have seen. Might seem a rent cloud when it grates the thunder. brooks No unribb’d pinnace. all the other lights Took up the strain. stream’d through broken cloud. on the goodliest ardour fix’d. who thinks how ponderous the theme. As erewhile. Wherewith the goodliest sapphire.” said Beatrice. And girt the star. Through glance of sunlight. And here the lilies. But he.” Such close was to the circling melody: And. by whose odour known The way of life was follow’d. 312 . was crown’d. on whom burning rays Shed lightnings from above. and encounter once again The strife of aching vision. May pardon. with all her might Collected. Though veil’d themselves in shade. as it ended. “thus Enamour thee. The track. that meets A sudden interruption to his road.

Be ye not heedless of his urgent will. After the milk is taken. and “Regina Coeli “ sang So sweetly. that to th’ observant eye The first seems still. That yet no glimmer of its majesty Had stream’d unto me: therefore were mine eyes Unequal to pursue the crowned flame. which I did note in beauty most Excelling. which from your table falls. so outstretch’d Their wavy summits all the fervent band. that stretches forth its arms For very eagerness towards the breast. or slow. Made me to rate the riches of their joy. the last. whose harvest now they keep. And the rejoicing spirits. that wind Their circles in the horologe. and with the nearer breath of God Doth burn and quiver. But may some influence of your sacred dews Sprinkle him. That rose and sought its natal seed of fire. And like to babe. Victorious he his mighty triumph holds. the delight hath left me never. They by the measure pac’d. O what o’erflowing plenty is up-pil’d In those rich-laden coffers. as it flew. as none was left more goodly there. and as wheels. Whereon who feeds hath every wish fulfill’d! If to this man through God’s grace be vouchsaf’d Foretaste of that. Under the Son of Mary and of God. and.” Beatrice spake. Here are the treasures tasted. that with its regal folds enwraps The world.The Divine Comedy of Dante . E’en thus their carols weaving variously. 313 . saw I issue forth a flame So bright. To whom the keys of glory were assign’d. From that. Whence flows what most he craves.Paradise The robe. Round Beatrice thrice it wheel’d about. Here in synod high Of ancient council with the new conven’d. so work The stated rounds. trail’d a blaze Of comet splendour. or swift. Or ever death his fated term prescribe. held so far retir’d Its inner hem and skirting over us. like to spheres On firm-set poles revolving. that with tears Were in the Babylonian exile won. Of the fount ye alway drink. When gold had fail’d them. Through zealous love to Mary: then in view There halted. which below Sow’d the good seed. CANTO XXIV “O ye! in chosen fellowship advanc’d To the great supper of the blessed Lamb.

who arms himself.”—”Rightly hast thou deem’d. Summoning up each argument to aid. “vouchsafe to me Apt utterance for my thoughts!” then added: “Sire! E’en as set down by the unerring style Of thy dear brother. soon as it was stay’d: To whom she thus: “O everlasting light Of him. till the master have propos’d The question. within whose mighty grasp our Lord Did leave the keys. “which here I scan Distinctly. which of this wondrous bliss He bare below! tent this man. “O saintly sister mine! thy prayer devout Is with so vehement affection urg’d.” Like to the bachelor.” “The deep things. arm’d me. as thou wilt. Declare thee. on which credence hope sublime 314 . What is faith?” Whereat I rais’d My forehead to the light. and not to end it.” I replied.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Such were the accents towards my lady breath’d From that blest ardour. Then turn’d to Beatrice. and in her looks Approval met. touching the faith. that to exalt its glory more. And speaks not. are below from mortal eye So hidden. If he in love. and the pen passeth on And leaves a blank: for that our mortal speech. in silence. And such profession: “As good Christian ought. and then proof. why first He hath defin’d it. Thou dost unbind me from that beauteous sphere. That giveth me the captain of the church For confessor. and herein doth consist Methinks its essence. But since true faith Has peopled this fair realm with citizens. Thou in his audience shouldst thereof discourse. Meet is. is not hid from thee: for thou Hast there thy ken. that fancy’s ear Records it not. So I. that from their inmost fount I should unlock the waters. substance. to approve. and in belief. Faith of things hop’d is substance. With lighter probe or deep. in hope.” said I. whence this had breath’d. who with thee conspir’d To bring Rome in unto the way of life. Be steadfast. Nor e’en the inward shaping of the brain. “May the grace. where all things are beheld In liveliest portraiture.Paradise With so divine a song. and the proof Of things not seen. By the which thou didst on the billows walk. while she spake. they have in belief alone Their being.” Was answer’d: “if thou well discern. As was behooveful for such questioner. Hath colours fine enough to trace such folds.

The rest were not an hundredth part so great. whence the costly jewel. on the which Is founded every virtue. “from the Spirit of God Rain’d down upon the ancient bond and new. which thou didst so believe. from branch to branch.” “The flood. that holds sweet dalliance with thy soul.” “That all the world. came to thee. “Who seest that. and no miracle been wrought. whatsoe’er has past them. that we now Approach’d the topmost bough. each argument beside Seems blunt and forceless in comparison.Paradise Is built. if thou hast it in thy purse. or on her anvil mould them. The next. Which so persuade thee. whate’er by learning men attain. It once was.” That ended. “should have bee turn’d To Christian. “The grace. and therefore substance it intends. “that they in very deed Are that they purport? None hath sworn so to thee. are the voice of heav’n?” “The works. Behooves thee to express. And inasmuch as we must needs infer From such belief our reasoning. I answer’d: “Nature did not make for these The iron hot. that convinceth me So feelingly. And when that Worthy thus.” “Even so glittering and so round. E’en thou wentst forth in poverty and hunger To set the goodly plant. evidence their truth”.” I answer’d. But tell me. So far discreetly hath thy lips unclos’d That. that from the vine. what thou believ’st. now is grown unsightly bramble. “I not a whit misdoubt of its assay. “Praise we one God!” In song of most unearthly melody. 315 . through the high celestial court Resounded all the spheres. I commend. he straight resum’d.” Then heard I: “Wherefore holdest thou that each.” said I. the sophist would want room To exercise his wit. that follow’d. Examining.” “O saintly sire and spirit!” I began.” said I. Would in itself be such a miracle. and whereon thy belief hath grown.” “Who voucheth to thee of the works themselves.— Here is the reas’ning.The Divine Comedy of Dante . both in weight and in alloy. Were understood. Was the reply. had led me. all respect To other view excluded.” Next issued from the deep imbosom’d splendour: “Say.” So breath’d the flame Of love: then added: “Current is the coin Thou utter’st. hence of proof Th’ intention is deriv’d. The elder proposition and the new.” Forthwith I heard: “If thus.

many a time. which is shed Through Moses.’’ As the master hears. With other voice and fleece of other grain I shall forthwith return. That I the tenour of my creed unfold. of whose love All heav’n is mov’d. which. at view whereof My Lady. whence had issued forth The first fruit of Christ’s vicars on the earth. and then enfoldeth in his arms The servant. One sole eternal Godhead. Essence threefold and one. 316 . And thou the cause of it hast likewise ask’d. And having told the errand keeps his peace. the rapt Prophets. whose behest Had op’d lips. and that ye yourselves did write. Thus benediction uttering with song Soon as my peace I held. When ye were gifted of the Holy Ghost. this firstling spark. Toward us mov’d a light. shall claim the wreath Due to the poet’s temples: for I there First enter’d on the faith which maketh souls Acceptable to God: and. The lively flame dilates.Paradise As to outstrip feet younger than thine own. mysterious league Of union absolute. who hath joyful tidings brought. be destin’d to prevail Over the cruelty. compass’d me thrice The apostolic radiance. but from that truth It cometh to me rather. where a sleeping lamb The wolves set on and fain had worried me. CANTO XXV If e’er the sacred poem that hath made Both heav’n and earth copartners in its toil. In three eternal Persons I believe. The word of gospel lore upon my mind Imprints: and from this germ. and. full of gladness. Or more intelligential and abstruse. Persuades me to this faith. The Gospel. And with lean abstinence. Next from the squadron. Peter had then circled my forehead thus. spake to me: “Lo! lo! behold the peer of mickle might. which bars me forth Of the fair sheep-fold.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And I reply: I in one God believe. Nor demonstration physical alone. and like heav’n’s star Doth glitter in me. Well pleas’d. Faded my brow. standing up At my baptismal font. for its sake. through many a year. and the Psalms. so well their answer pleas’d. Toward the sepulchre? thy will is here. himself unmov’d the while.

And without boasting. these to him Leave I. each. In the most secret council. so God give him grace. Th’ effect of grace divine and merit preceding. who figur’st them in shapes. willing to give proof of diligence.” Such cheering accents from the second flame Assur’d me. From Egypt to Jerusalem. but that he may tell How dear thou holdst the virtue. rejoin’d: Among her sons. which hither from the mortal world Arriveth. or ere thy death. but when an end Was to their gratulation. Not for more knowledge. thou mayst therewith Thyself. whose gentle love My soaring pennons in that lofty flight Escorted. The other points. silent. of the other great and glorious prince. 317 . whose liberal orb Enlighteneth all our tribe: and ere his term Of warfare. practis’d in his task. In circles each about the other wheels. that leads to blissful end. extolling both Their heavenly banqueting. Before me sat they down. Smiling then. I could not look upon them. to see. for he may answer thee with ease. not one more full of hope. how it doth flourish in thee.” Like to the scholar. And whence thou hadst it?” Thus proceeding still. hence permitted he is come.Paradise That makes Falicia throng’d with visitants!” As when the ring-dove by his mate alights. For thou. Seconds his teacher gladly. as clear. “Sith our Liege Wills of his grace that thou. And murmuring cooes his fondness. Who. declare. The second light: and she. both which thou hast inquir’d. well can’st speak them. Hath the church militant: so ‘t is of him Recorded in the sun. with his lords Shouldst be confronted. and be thou strong in trust: For that. What is that hope. “Hope.” “Lift up thy head. thus preventing me.” said I. As Jesus stood before thee. so burning bright. invigorate With hope. must be ripen’d in our beam. “Is of the joy to come a sure expectance. so that having view’d The glories of our court. With kindly greeting hail’d. and all who hear. Beatrice spake: “O life in glory shrin’d!” Who didst the largess of our kingly court Set down with faithful pen! let now thy voice Of hope the praises in this height resound. and mine eyes I lifted up Unto the mountains that had bow’d them late With over-heavy burden. thus saw I One.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

and their proper lands this delicious life. as of quick and vollied lightning. “They hope in thee. who in a ring Wheel’d. A light of so clear amplitude emerg’d. Yet therefore naught the more remov’d her Sight From marking them. or ere her words began. as the words were ending. Though gay. each one must be clad In twofold vesture.’ and with my faith who know not that? From thee.” And.” I reply’d.” first heard we cried: whereto Answer’d the carols all. “This is he.Paradise This light from many a star visits my heart. thy brother hath set forth This revelation to us. who sang The songs of the Supreme. As he. And strives with searching ken. Than to do fitting honour to the bride. What promise thou from hope in chief dost win. from above. whom also it delights. as became their rapture. Glows vigorous yet within me. yet innocent of worse intent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . In the dance And in the song it mingled. ‘who have known Thy name. In thine epistle. where he tells Of the white raiment destin’d to the saints. who looks intent. how he may see 318 . that I on others shower The influence of their dew. Within the bosom of that mighty sheen. Like as a virgin riseth up. Were such a crystal in the Cancer’s sign. And the dame Held on them fix’d her looks: e’en as the spouse Silent and moveless. “Propose the mark (which even now I view) For souls belov’d of God.” Thus she spake. who lay Upon the bosom of our pelican: This he. and inspires To ask of thee. Isaias saith.’ so speak his anthem. and goes. Amidst them next. himself supreme Among his tuneful brethren. then forth these accents breath’d: “Love for the virtue which attended me E’en to the palm.” Whileas I spake. That. Play’d tremulous. That winter’s month were but a single day. And enters on the mazes of the dance. the next. Or when they clos’d. A lamping. But flow’d to me the first from him. In terms more full. new and ancient. ‘Let all hope In thee. and issuing from the field.” “Both scriptures. So I beheld the new effulgence come Unto the other two. into whose keeping from the cross The mighty charge was given. fell on me the drops So plenteously. distilling from his spring. in their own land. And clearer far.

As till our number equal the decree Of the Most High. loseth power of sight: so I Peer’d on that last resplendence. ‘’hath arguments. to what point thy soul aspires: And meanwhile rest assur’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The oars. for they were The gates. And this place hath authority enough ‘T’ imprint in me such love: for. to converse urg’d.’’I answering thus: “Be to mine eyes the remedy or late Or early. on the happy coast she stood. and did light Her never dying fire. In earth: and shall be. and spake: “Behooves thee sift more narrowly thy terms. the flamy circle at that voice So rested. I descried her not. I turn’d. not wholly quench’d: Since thy fair guide and lovely. long as till thy vision. when daz’d With that excess. Beginning. for ease of labour. looking at my side again to see Beatrice. with discourse Thou compensate the brief delay. CANTO XXVI With dazzled eyes. and. although Not distant. on my form O’erspent. who level’d at this scope thy bow.” “Philosophy. shine alone With the two garments.” said I. So report below. through desire Of seeing. of constraint. Issued a breath.” As when. Forth of the beamy flame which dazzled me. All rest. in her look Hath potency. The two that have ascended. that in attention mute Detain’d me. My wishes here Are centered.Paradise The sun in his eclipse. with the rest. That Alpha and Omega. and the mingling sound was still. or to shun Suspected peril at a whistle’s breath. erewhile dash’d frequent in the wave. and these words it spake: “‘T were well. the like to that which dwelt In Ananias’ hand. And say. that sight in thee Is but o’erpowered a space. at which she enter’d. regain its virtue. whilst wond’ring I remain’d. Which from the trinal band soft-breathing rose. Which here abides not? Earth my body is. 319 . In this our blessed cloister. in this palace is the weal. That.” Yet again The voice which had dispers’d my fear. while I heard: “Why dazzlest thou thine eyes in seeking that. so long. is to all The lessons love can read me. When. but ah! how trembled in my thought. at her pleasure. Say then.

‘I will make all my good before thee pass. found without it. Such truth Learn I from him. In mortal ears the mystery of heav’n. that tends them all.Paradise Good. inasmuch as we perceive the good. from membrane on to the membrane urg’d. E’en at the outset of thy heralding. As for the leaves. To what intent the eagle of our Lord Had pointed his demand. “keep The choicest of thy love for God.’ Lastly from thee I learn. and mine own being. And as a sleep is broken and dispers’d Through sharp encounter of the nimble light. To the foremention’d lively knowledge join’d. where such advantage is. whose word Is truth. Confederate to make fast our clarity. and therewith a song most sweet Rang through the spheres. and in degree the more. as is the good Dealt by th’ eternal hand. With the eye’s spirit running forth to meet The ray. which all the faithful hope. loving. Have from the sea of ill love sav’d my bark. And that. holy. so that thou report How many are the fangs. The being of the world. The death which he endur’d that I should live. and th’ authority Therewith agreeing. that knit the heart to God.” I ended. But say.” “Through human wisdom. must needs attract The soul of each one. as I do.” Accordant with the rest my lady sang. who the truth Discerns. and “Holy. So. and resum’d: “All grappling bonds.” heard I answer’d. with which this love Is grappled to thy soul. Kindles our love. he misdeems Of all around him. yea noted well Th’ avowal. The essence then. at his sudden waking. that in the garden bloom. With the resplendence of her own. that cast 320 . which he led to. As it comprises more of goodness in ‘t. on which this proof is built. If thou yet other cords within thee feel’st That draw thee towards him. is naught else But of his light the beam.The Divine Comedy of Dante . holy. My love for them is great. who shows me the first love Of all intelligential substances Eternal: from his voice I learn. That each good. that of himself to Moses saith. till assurance waits On better judgment: thus the saintly came Drove from before mine eyes the motes away. And on the coast secur’d it of the right.” I did not miss. And the upstartled wight loathes that be sees. who chief proclaim’st.

whence at thy lady’s hest The Mantuan mov’d him. Four thousand and three hundred rounds and twice. Was in itself the cause of that exile. till the sun had made complete. Through the sleek cov’ring of his furry coat. from whose hounds She led me up in this ladder.Paradise Their brightness downward. ask’d Of a fourth light. Recover’d. That bows its lithe top till the blast is blown. clearer shall before. The fondness. awe-stricken bow’d. which I untold Better discern. and Himself Parhelion unto all things. when first engender’d! Ancient father! That doubly seest in every wedded bride Thy daughter by affinity and blood! Devoutly as I may. That ever the first virtue fram’d. So I. There. the whilst I dwelt Upon the earth. But only my transgressing of the mark Assign’d me. saw I him return. that man inclines to. my son. and.” Like the leaf. This wouldst thou hear. And I began: “O fruit! that wast alone Mature. and naught else To him. Whence I my vision. By its own virtue rear’d then stands aloof. through every light In his broad pathway. when to pleasure me it spake: “No need thy will be told. than thou whatever thing Thou holdst most certain: for that will I see In Him. Whence truly sprang the wrath that banish’d me. What space endur’d my season of delight. More speedily to hear thee. 321 . And Beatrice: “The first diving soul. ere was lasting. Then eagerness to speak embolden’d me. admires Within these rays his Maker. For naught. that through the covering shone. tell it not “ It chanceth oft some animal bewrays. and. that now with us I saw. steep and long. Thousand save sev’nty times. who is truth’s mirror. His annual journey. thousand miles below. which I spake and fram’d Not that I tasted of the tree. The language I did use Was worn away. and I. I pray thee hold Converse with me: my will thou seest. the whilst she said. how long since God Plac’d me high garden.The Divine Comedy of Dante . or ever Nimrod’s race Their unaccomplishable work began. well nigh astounded. still was I debarr’d This council. And what the language. Transparent. that stirs in him and conforms His outside seeming to the cheer within: And in like guise was Adam’s spirit mov’d To joyous mood.

Whose joy enfolds me: Eli then ‘t was call’d And so beseemeth: for. Silence ensued. in mortals. and in semblance such became. to the Son. these shalt thou see All in like manner change with me. if he and Mars were birds. As Jove might be. paints and adverse cloud. So Beatrice in her semblance chang’d: And such eclipse in heav’n methinks was seen. Is nature’s prompting: whether thus or thus. gladness unutterable. use Is as the leaf upon the bough. and variable. At eve or morning. which first had come. shrinks with maiden fear. She leaves to you. that with the song My spirit reel’d. Then saw I sprinkled over all the sky. Joy past compare. for. ay. as the sun. to that which cometh next (As the sun changes quarter). Which in the presence of the Son of God Is void). who from hence Malignant fell. 322 . Exhaustless riches and unmeasur’d bliss. When thus I heard: “Wonder not. Upon the mount Most high above the waters.Paradise Left by his reason free. El was the name on earth of the Chief Good. who here appoints Vicissitude of ministry. by Him. while I speak. Ere I descended into hell’s abyss. all my life. who in herself Secure of censure.” Such colour. As is the sky that sways him. And that. yet at bare report Of other’s failing. Through the blest quire. mine. Before mine eyes stood the four torches lit. And as th’ unblemish’d dame. began to wax In brightness. so passing sweet the strain: And what I saw was equal ecstasy. One universal smile it seem’d of all things. enjoin’d. to the sixth. Then the words CANTO XXVII Then “Glory to the Father. as ye do most affect it. My place He who usurps on earth (my place. the same hath made my cemetery A common sewer of puddle and of blood: The more below his triumph. if my hue Be chang’d.” rang aloud Throughout all Paradise. Imperishable life of peace and love. And other comes instead. did but reach From the first hour. that goes. And interchang’d their plumes. When the Most Holy suffer’d. And to the Holy Spirit.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Both innocent and guilty. That he speaks.

and of Cletus fed: That she might serve for purchase of base gold: But for the purchase of this happy life Did Sextus. “Not to this end was Christ’s spouse with my blood. All the first region overpast I saw.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so saw I there stream wide The vapours.Paradise Proceeded. Which were vouchsaf’d me. In shepherd’s clothing greedy wolves below Range wide o’er all the pastures. open thy lips. should for ensign serve Unto the banners.” As a Hood Of frozen vapours streams adown the air. son. nor that the keys. which did defend Through Scipio the world’s glory unto Rome. Europa! Mad’st thee a joyful burden: and yet more Of this dim spot had seen. That onward thence from Gades I beheld The unwise passage of Laertes’ son. said. So far pursued. for sigil-mark Set upon sold and lying privileges. who with us had linger’d late And with glad triumph deck th’ ethereal cope. where thou. O good beginning To what a vile conclusion must thou stoop! But the high providence. A constellation off and more. And hitherward the shore. that doth never leave 323 . Which makes me oft to bicker and turn red. Pius. Then by the spirit. and Callixtus bleed. that do levy war On the baptiz’d: nor I. marking me no more intent On upward gazing. they. nor hide What is by me not hidden. Will not delay its succour: and thou. Who through thy mortal weight shall yet again Return below. And Urban. the semblance did not alter more. With that of Linus. whose doom was not without Much weeping seal’d. but that the sun. And part upon their left. had ta’en His progress in the zodiac underneath. as till the space between From its reach sever’d them: whereat the guide Celestial. with voice.” From the hour When I before had cast my view beneath. Onward my sight their semblances pursued. What time the she-goat with her skiey horn Touches the sun. alter’d from itself So clean. “Look down and see What circuit thou hast compass’d. No purpose was of our That on the right hand of our successors Part of the Christian people should be set. Arm of God! Why longer sleepst thou? Caorsines and Gascona Prepare to quaff our blood. Which from the midmost to the bound’ry winds.

pleasure so divine Did lighten on me.Paradise Its amorous dalliance with my lady’s looks. enclasping it. its limit only known. so uniform was all. I may not say. whence motion on his race Starts. that fasts. which ruleth o’er its orb. Or in its limn’d resemblance. and with such gladness. And wafted on into the swiftest heav’n. he.The Divine Comedy of Dante . One yet a babbler. Whose welcome is the morn and eve his parting. When through the hundredth in his reck’ning drops Pale January must be shor’d aside 324 . Look elsewhere for the leaves. thus began: “Here is the goal. counted unto them forth. but its ruddy promise Is. can combine Through greedy eyes to take the soul withal. Made mere abortion: faith and innocence Are met with but in babes. and the virtue that it sheds. Yet before the date. Its boon influence From the fair nest of Leda rapt me forth. As by the fifth or half ye count forth ten. Except the soul divine. it doth divide Motion to all. As this doth clasp the others. that God’s love Seem’d from her visage shining. wherein time’s roots are plung’d. by the dripping of perpetual rain. To negro blackness change her virgin white. What place for entrance Beatrice chose. light and love. and the rest All mov’d around. The vase. Is kindled. She my secret wish Divin’d. Whenas I turn’d me. and its frail family Are therefore wand’rers. the soul divine. and to Him. loves and listens to His mother. Were to her beauty nothing. Who draws the bound. but no sooner hath free use Of speech. note that none Bears rule in earth. thou seest. that whatever bait Or art or nature in the human flesh. While yet a stammerer. So suddenly doth the fair child of him. to abate thy wonder. O mortal lust! That canst not lift thy head above the waves Which whelm and sink thee down! The will in man Bears goodly blossoms. Liveliest and loftiest. motionless the centre. each taking leave Ere cheeks with down are sprinkled. Measur’d itself by none. One circle. Back with redoubled ardour were mine eyes Led unto her: and from her radiant smiles. than he doth wish her in her grave. with his tongue let loose Gluts every food alike in every moon. “Thou. Wherein the love. Place in this heav’n is none.

set by its side.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Lit sudden ore he deem of its approach. Expected long. that its bow. in the world Appointed. Then. So that the fleet run onward. I well remember. More rapid than the motion. in itself apparent. Follow’d yet other two. that to the sparkle’ of truth Was nearest. as partaking most. a point I saw.Paradise From winter’s calendar. spies The shining of a flambeau at his back. Can miss of. As more in number distant from the first. Had I but witness’d order. round Enring’d each other. where she hath now the prow. had seem’d a moon. no lid. When lo! as one who. And bar’d the truth of poor mortality. till the seventh reach’d Circumference so ample. that darted light So sharp. these heav’nly spheres Shall roar so loud. and sees the record faithful As note is to its metre. Beyond the sev’nth. that by intenser love its course Is to this swiftness wing’d. if the glass Have told him true. none who spies. As star by side of star. whence love Had made the leash to take me. when most dense the vapour spreads. Within the span of Juno’s messenger. and that glow’d With flame most pure. And turneth to resolve him. hangs upon that point. such as in these wheels is seen. Looking upon the beauteous eyes. struck On mine. circle after circle. that fortune shall be fain To turn the poop. and true fruit. even thus. And every one. and all nature. As I turn’d. “To whom I thus: “It were enough. And know. in their circles. CANTO XXVIII So she who doth imparadise my soul. as is the halo from the light Which paints it. The least star we view 325 . The circle thereto most conjoin’d observe. may bear up Against its keenness. unclosing. Perchance. did befall to me. Was tardier in motion. which. Of its reality. There wheel’d about the point a circle of fire. The guide belov’d Saw me in anxious thought suspense. Had drawn the veil from off our pleasant life. methinks. and spake: “Heav’n. nor should I further seek. in a mirror. lied scarce been held entire. And so far off. shall crown at last the bloom!” From hence. And that. which first girds The world.

” “It is no marvel. that scours the sky. Suited in strict and wondrous harmony. if thy fingers foil’d Do leave the knot untied: so hard ‘t is grown For want of tenting. I fail to pierce the cause. Clear’d of the rack. when Beatrice drove With clear reply the shadows back. whose swift course enwheels The universal frame answers to that. Musing awhile I stood: and she. that holds. Such was my cheer. 326 . doth proportion its extent Unto the virtue through its parts diffus’d. As each is wider from the centre. “Hosanna. Each to the’ intelligence that ruleth it. forthwith our air. thou shalt see the heav’ns. Contemplating. The firmament looks forth serene. and truth Was manifested. whom thou beheldst. Every orb Corporeal. as a star in heaven. and. The greater is the body (if all parts Share equally) the more is to preserve. In number did outmillion the account Reduplicate upon the chequer’d board. Thus swift Follow their hoops. My wish may have completion I must know. And shall for ever hold them to their place. who saw by inward meditations. breadth Of substance. With his beauties all unveil’d. And when the words were ended. “if thou wish thy cure. Which is supreme in knowledge and in love Thus by the virtue. they. Glitters. That hath for confine only light and love.Paradise But in the sensible world such diff’rence is. Hence.” Thus she said: “But take. not unlike To iron in the furnace. measure. Are seraphim and cherubim. not the seeming. thus began: “In the first circles. That is each round shows more divinity. And entertain them subtly.” She added. Therefore the circle.” to the fixed point. irremovable. Wherefore such disagreement is between Th’ exemplar and its copy: for myself. If in this wondrous and angelic temple. that hung on it before.” As when the sturdy north blows from his cheek A blast. and smiles. every cirque Ebullient shot forth scintillating fires: And every sparkle shivering to new blaze. Greater to more. The greater blessedness preserves the more. and smaller unto less. Then heard I echoing on from choir to choir. my words. in likeness to the point.The Divine Comedy of Dante . From everlasting.

Thus happiness hath root In seeing. But soon as in this heav’n his doubting eyes Were open’d. From him Dissentient. Gregory at his error smil’d Nor marvel. And all Are blessed. even as their sight descends Deeper into the truth. next then Virtues. marshal’d in his thought. That round them fleet. All. disporting in their sphere. dominations first. for aye Rejoicing. 327 . one refus’d his sacred read. hierarchy of gods. as unto each in due degree Grace and good-will their measure have assign’d. That he. and they can The more. Together both. Are thrones. A smile Bat painted on her cheek. Desire In Dionysius so intently wrought. e’en so brief a space Did Beatrice’s silence hold. The other trine. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. wherein rest is For every mind. approaching. From an eye-witness to heav’n’s mysteries.Paradise Near as they can. and nam’d Their orders. and downward with such sway prevail. changing hemisphere. and powers the third. look Aloft. Breathe up in warbled melodies threefold Hosannas blending ever. as I have done rang’d them. nor what thou wouldst inquire demand. In even balance from the zenith pois’d. Part the nice level. The next to whom Are princedoms and archangels. These once a mortal view beheld. for he had learnt Both this and much beside of these our orbs. as they circle in their orders. not in loving. the loftier their vision. Till from that verge.” CANTO XXIX No longer than what time Latona’s twins Cover’d of Libra and the fleecy star. with glad round To tread their festal ring. that a denizen of earth Should scan such secret truth. each. and last the band Angelical.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that with still opening buds In this eternal springtide blossom fair. Those. at which my vision fail’d: When thus her words resuming she began: “I speak. which of sight Is aftergrowth. girding the’ horizon hang. in whom the first trine ends. That all with mutual impulse tend to God. from the three Transmitted. And of the seeing such The meed. gazing the Godhead next. and her fix’d gaze Bent on the point.

whom thou hast seen Pent with the world’s incumbrance. Ere one had reckon’d twenty. but forth To manifest his glory by its beams. Their circling. E’en at the moment of its issuing. Eternal Love unfolded. so long a space. Nor before. bound with strict league. Into new natures. That they surcease not ever. Simple and mix’d. Those penmen. glass. Yet in order each Created his due station knew: those highest. shines entire. But that what I disclose to thee is true. Intelligence and power. and amber. The others kept their station: and this task. Ere the creating of another world. For not in process of before or aft Upon these waters mov’d the Spirit of God. both form and substance. and how: and knowing hast allay’d Thy thirst. forth To perfect being started. day nor night. Describ’d on Jerome’s pages thou hast seen. Those. Not for increase to himself Of good. Who pure intelligence were made: mere power The lowest: in the midst. Inhabiting his own eternity. Beyond time’s limit or what bound soe’er To circumscribe his being. like three darts Shot from a bow three-corded. Of that fatal lapse the cause Was the curst pride of him. And as ray In crystal. Who scarce would grant the heav’nly ministers Of their perfection void. Thus when and where these spirits of love were made. where all time and place Are present. Thou know’st. which from the triple question rose. e’en so soon Part of the angels fell: and in their fall Confusion to your elements ensued. like unto himself. As if in dull inaction torpid lay. Long tract of ages by the angels past. from th’ eternal Sovran. whom the Holy Spirit mov’d In many a passage of their sacred book Attest. thus Did. Whereon thou lookst. as he will’d. as thou by diligent search shalt find And reason in some sort discerns the same.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which may not be increas’d. unsever’d bond. who had made them apt For ministries so high: therefore their views Were by enlight’ning grace and their own merit 328 . at one act Produc’d coeval. whom here Thou seest. began with such delight.Paradise For I have mark’d it. beam entire His threefold operation. were lowly to confess themselves Of his free bounty.

what favour for himself he wins. than when the book of God Is forc’d to yield to man’s authority. which they below. Canvas the’ angelic nature. so that in their will confirm’d They stand. intent Upon the glorious vision. 329 . Now. and left dark The Spaniard and the Indian. how the light shrouded itself Within its tabernacle. One tells.Paradise Exalted. others well aware they err. For do not doubt. Each the known track of sage philosophy Deserts. and shadow’d o’er the sun With intervenient disk. from the first. memory. even as the soul With prompt affection welcometh the guest. than the names Of Bindi and of Lapi in her streets. And gaze thy fill. though their eyes be open. with the Jew.The Divine Comedy of Dante . thus at variance with the truth Dream. ‘t is well thou take from me the truth. Bandied about more frequent. Remembrance there needs none to gather up Divided thought and images remote “So that men. The aim of all Is how to shine: e’en they. To whom more guilt and shame are justly due. Yet this. these substances. choice. But since thou hast on earth Heard vain disputers. as she withdrew: Another. nor feel to fall. offensive as it is. Have held unceasingly their view. And pass their own inventions off instead. darken and perplex. Pure and without disguise. reckless some Of error. let the gospel sleep. Equivocating. “Know thou. and has a byway of his own: So much the restless eagerness to shine And love of singularity prevail. if with good heed My words thy mind have treasur’d. reasoners in the schools. But to receive the grace. Therefore. which heav’n vouchsafes. and dispute Its powers of apprehension. without further help. how at Christ’s suffering the wan moon Bent back her steps. provokes Heav’n’s anger less. Such fables Florence in her pulpit hears. thou henceforth This consistory round about mayst scan. Or from its straightness warp’d: no reck’ning made What blood the sowing of it in the world Has cost. from the which Naught absent is nor hid: where then no change Of newness with succession interrupts. Is meritorious. whose office is To preach the Gospel. Rejoicing in the countenance of God. Who meekly clings to it. that.

Beside the gospel. 330 . return From pasture. Look then how lofty and how huge in breadth The’ eternal might. so there be no lack Of laughter. Fade. poor witless ones. and he has won the meed he sought: Could but the vulgar catch a glimpse the while Of that dark bird which nestles in his hood. while he vents them. As there are splendours. and the spangled firmament shuts in. so as the way Be shorten’d with the time. Paying with unstamp’d metal for their fare. broken and dispers’d Over such countless mirrors. And straightway as the handmaid of the sun Puts forth her radiant brow. Saint Anthony Fattens with this his swine. With light supplies them in as many modes. who spreads abroad The hands of holy promise. they do not see their harm? Christ said not to his first conventicle. all. fed with wind: and what avails For their excuse. that it shines on: each According to the virtue it conceives. Which now the dotards hold in such esteem. Differing in love and sweet affection. “But (for we far have wander’d) let us seek The forward path again. and. yet remains Whole in itself and one. The fountain at whose source these drink their beams.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and others worse Than swine. To aid them in their warfare for the faith. That every counterfeit. meanwhile. The preacher now provides himself with store Of jests and gibes. When from the midmost of this blue abyss By turns some star is to our vision lost. nor needed they. No mortal tongue Nor thought of man hath ever reach’d so far. light by light. which. ‘Go forth and preach impostures to the world. What Daniel of their thousands hath reveal’d With finite number infinite conceals. other spear or shield. who diet at his lazy board. That of these natures he might count the tribes.Paradise The sheep. and the sound Was mighty on their lips.” CANTO XXX Noon’s fervid hour perchance six thousand miles From hence is distant.’ But gave them truth to build on. as at the first. his big cowl Distends. They scarce would wait to hear the blessing said. and the shadowy cone Almost to level on our earth declines. finds a throng Of credulous fools beneath.

Such weal is in the love. fulminating streams Of living radiance play’d. Which in the final judgment thou shalt see. Love of true happiness replete with joy. as each artist’s is. Joy. So. Light intellectual replete with love. That save its Maker. Not merely to exceed our human. She (such as I bequeath her to the bruit Of louder trump than mine. which plays ever round the point. that hitherto is told of her. For. That overcame me. Have I with song applausive ever ceas’d To follow. and sight Kindled afresh. At this point o’erpower’d I fail. Not from that day. For its own flame the torch this fitting ever! No sooner to my list’ning ear had come The brief assurance. forc’d me bend Mine eyes on Beatrice once again. as I believe in sooth. When it doth touch the limit of his skill. Urging its arduous matter to the close). Unequal to my theme. If all.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that is unbodied light. Here shalt thou look on either mighty host Of Paradise. round about me.” As when the lightning. and left me swath’d And veil’d in dense impenetrable blaze. that transcends all sweetness of delight. as the sun doth to the feeblest sight. with vigour to sustain 331 . that stills this heav’n. none can to the full Enjoy it. E’en so remembrance of that witching smile Hath dispossess my spirit of itself. but not follow them no more. when on this earth I first Beheld her charms. dashes from the blinding eyes The visive spirits dazzled and bedimm’d. Mine eyes did look On beauty. With loss of other object. My course here bounded. and one in that array.Paradise E’en to the loveliest of the glittering throng. in a sudden spleen Unfolded. Her words resum’d. such. Thus vanish’d gradually from my sight The triumph. in gesture and in voice Resembling one accustom’d to command: “Forth from the last corporeal are we come Into the heav’n. up to that view of them. but. Wherefore love. as never bard Of buskin or of sock hath fail’d before. which hasteneth on. seeming (for it did) Engirt by that it girdeth. ‘t were too weak To furnish out this turn. Were in one praise concluded. than I understood New virtue into me infus’d.

shadowy of the truth They emblem: not that. O prime enlightener! thou who crav’st me strength On the high triumph of thy realm to gaze! Grant virtue now to utter what I kenn’d. outstarting. as they glided on ‘Twixt banks. as the eaves Of mine eyelids did drink of it. look other than before. “The thirst Of knowledge high. For that thy views not yet aspire so high. That moves. and in the flow’rs Did set them. Or ere that longing be allay’d. And diving back. on either side. from the tide. Then as a troop of maskers. All is one beam. forthwith Seem’d it unto me turn’d from length to round. with such eager straining. that had outslept his wont. and. With all this laughter on its bloomy shores. That the circumference were too loose a zone To girdle in the sun. and. that in seeing him alone Have peace. from which. then thus subjoin’d: “This stream. whereby thou art inflam’d. to the milk. in themselves. still another rose. And as some cliff. There ever and anon. And in the likeness of a river saw Light flowing. like to rubies chas’d in gold. from whose amber-seeming waves Flash’d up effulgence. and in a circle spreads so far. as if drunk with odors. when they put Their vizors off. Then. whose goodly shine Makes the Creator visible to all Created. To make the better mirrors of mine eyes In the refining wave. the things Are crude. plung’d again Into the wondrous flood. The counterfeited semblance thrown aside. painted with spring. But first behooves thee of this water drink. The more it warms thee. but on thy part is the defect. and distinct I saw Before me either court of heav’n displac’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . forth issuing from its gulf. Incredible how fair.” Never did babe. Are but a preface. flew Sparkles instinct with life. as one Re’enter’d.Paradise Excess of light. So into greater jubilee were chang’d Those flowers and sparkles. There is in heav’n a light. which being hence and vigour takes. Reflected from the summit of the first. and these. however pure. a living topaz each. Rush. To search the meaning of what here thou seest. that from the bottom eyes 332 . pleases me the more. As I toward the water. bending me.” So spake The day-star of mine eyes. I look’d.

where their fragrant labour glows. that soar aloft to gaze And celebrate his glory. Stood. eminent.—shall rest the soul Of the great Harry. where Magna’s priest Will sink beneath him: such will be his meed. and. Before her day be ripe. And drives away the nurse. and. he who. as a snow-white rose. but my view with ease Took in the full dimensions of that joy. Nor may it be. “This fair assemblage! stoles of snowy white How numberless! The city. that of hunger dies. Amid the vernal sweets alighting now. Beatrice led me. Openly or in secret. Near or remote. who in the sacred forum sways. where God Immediate rules. where we dwell. Eyeing the light. whom they love. redolent Of praises to the never-wint’ring sun. Which in his own blood Christ espous’d. the crown. That he. As if ‘t admire its brave appareling Of verdure and of flowers: so. or rose 333 . holds thine eyes—or ere thyself Mayst at the wedding sup. Hover’d around. Behold how vast! and these our seats so throng’d Few now are wanting here! In that proud stall. clustering. what there avails. and Nature. Whose lowest step embosoms such a space Of ample radiance! Yet. How wide the leaves Extended to their utmost of this rose. Now. round about.Paradise Its image mirror’d in the crystal flood. by the world Augustas hail’d. As is the bantling.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And in your tetchy wantonness as blind. shall with him Accordant walk: Whom God will not endure I’ th’ holy office long. But ye are sick. which in bright expansiveness. who fain would speak yet holds his peace. Lays forth its gradual blooming. already o’er its state Suspended. “Behold.” she said. Meanwhile That other host. whatever from our earth Has to the skies return’d. suspends Her sway? Into the yellow of the rose Perennial. to Italy must come. on more than million thrones. Flew downward to the mighty flow’r. like a troop of bees. but thrust him down To Simon Magus.” CANTO XXXI In fashion. nor amplitude Nor height impeded. lay then Before my view the saintly multitude. awed. On which. As one.

Smiles from within and radiance from above. All there. when I thought to see. In sooth no will had I to utter aught. When to their view the Lateran arose In greatness more than earthly. celestial light Glides freely. when he rests Within the temple of his vow. and no obstacle prevents. or view Obstructed aught. 334 . fanning their plumy loins. forever. in glory. from above. who then From human to divine had past. So rov’d my ken. and wings of gold. “Whither is she vanish’d?” straight I ask’d. And in each gesture grace and honour high. and its general form All Paradise survey’d: when round I turn’d With purpose of my lady to inquire Once more of things. Whisper’d the peace and ardour. I saw instead a senior. and now around. and out of Florence To justice and to truth. as the rest. at my side. upon the flower. as she wheels. (Where helice. Looks I beheld. And. and o’er his cheek diffus’d. Wherever merited. the vast Interposition of such numerous flight Cast. looks round In breathless awe. and now aloft. Rob’d. as a pilgrim. on one sole mark Their love and vision fix’d. and hopes some time to tell Of all its goodly state: e’en so mine eyes Cours’d up and down along the living light. O trinal beam Of individual star. But answer found from other than I ween’d. Vouchsafe one glance to gild our storm below! If the grim brood. that held my thought suspense. Visiting every step. from Arctic shores that roam’d. who reign in safety and in bliss. And as they flitted down into the flower. Faces had they of flame. which they won From that soft winnowing. Ages long past or new. Or hear. And.Paradise From the redundant petals.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that charmst them thus. streaming back Unto the steadfast dwelling of their joy. For. from time Unto eternity. Sparkles a mother’s fondness on her son) Stood in mute wonder ‘mid the works of Rome. Beatrice. how might I choose But marvel too? ‘Twixt gladness and amaze. The rest was whiter than the driven snow. With gestures such as spake a father’s love. From range to range. Shadow none. For. Now low. through the universe. Joy benign Glow’d in his eye. Where charity in soft persuasion sat. I.

hast not scorn’d. holy and rever’d: “That thou at length mayst happily conclude Thy voyage (to which end I was dispatch’d. Who haply from Croatia wends to see Our Veronica. I. That. if thine eyes are held Still in this depth below. when my spirit. Not from the centre of the sea so far Unto the region of the highest thunder. which thou madest whole. And from heav’n’s queen. Hangs over it with never-sated gaze. for the charity of him. where aloof she sat. Is loosen’d from this body. it may find Favour with thee. This garden through: for so. “Child of grace!” Thus he began: “thou shalt not knowledge gain Of this glad being. thy ken a higher flight shall mount. Stood lively before me. “O Lady! thou in whom my hopes have rest! Who. and bright. Who musing. and yet the form Came through that medium down. And saw her.” he replied.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so distant. and no means.Paradise “By Beatrice summon’d. unmix’d and pure. by ray divine Kindled. Of slave. till thou spy Seated in state. at large. that of this realm Is sovran. my true Lord and God? And was this semblance thine?” So gaz’d I then Adoring. And. O Jesus. But search around The circles. mine eyes I rais’d. in the world that peace enjoy’d. to the furthest.” So I my suit preferr’d: And she. the queen. Thou hast to freedom brought me. all that he hath heard revolving. her brow A wreath reflecting of eternal beams. there Behold her on the throne. to thy power And goodness. hast left untried. By supplication mov’d and holy love) Let thy upsoaring vision range. All gracious aid befriend us. as appear’d. For my deliverance apt. look’d down. 335 . Looking aloft To the third circle from the highest. saith Unto himself in thought: “And didst thou look E’en thus.” Straight mine eyes I rais’d. And smil’d. and the while ‘t is shown. “I come to aid thy wish. for my safety. virtue owe and grace. As was my ken from hers. whom fervent I adore. And thus the senior. wherein her merit Hath plac’d her. Thy liberal bounty still toward me keep.” Answering not.” Like a wight. in hell To leave the traces of thy footsteps mark’d! For all mine eyes have seen. then tow’rds th’ eternal fountain turn’d. for that I Am her own faithful Bernard.

believ’d. For these are a partition wall. or ere he came. and slack’d On every side the living flame decay’d. and on each part the light Diminish’d fades. Sarah next. which Phaeton Ill knew to guide. ‘T were all too poor to utter the least part Of that enchantment. unfelt before. down from deaf to leaf. she open’d first. Had I a tongue in eloquence as rich. Meek ancestress of him. At their glee And carol. underneath her. are set Such as in Christ. lo! Rachel with Beatrice. that charm’d him. that Mary clos’d. The third in order. where blooms Each leaf in full maturity. And from the seventh step. who look’d to Christ already come. And as the glow burns ruddiest o’er the wave. As is the colouring in fancy’s loom. that upward. in resplendence each Distinct.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Are in gradation throned on the rose. That joy was in the eyes of all the blest. CANTO XXXII Freely the sage. at the birth of morn. successively. And in that midst their sportive pennons wav’d Thousands of angels. 336 . as I name them. where the sun declines. though wrapt in musings high. On th’ other. at th’ extreme bound. Rebecca. On this part. abide All they. as from vale To mountain sped. intensest in the midst. who sang the songs Of sore repentance in his sorrowful mood. the eastern clime Above th’ horizon. Who sits so beautiful at Mary’s feet. Bernard gaz’d With so exceeding fondness. When he saw mine eyes Intent on her. Assum’d the teacher’s part. and quaint adornment. and mild began: “The wound.Paradise As. smil’d the Lovely One of heav’n. as the faith In Christ divides them. Judith. All. as infus’d Ardour into my breast. That waits the sloping beam. whereby The sacred stairs are sever’d. a part Excell’d in lustre all the front oppos’d. So burn’d the peaceful oriflamb. Adown the breathing tresses of the flow’r Still doth the file of Hebrew dames proceed. To mine eyes. where an intersected space Yet shows the semicircle void. and the gleaner maid. And as our Lady on her glorious stool.

if thou mark and listen to them well. “Here. Created in his joyous sight to dwell. And for a proof th’ effect may well suffice. Their childish looks and voice declare as much. And merely in respect to his prime gift. Learn too. From this realm Excluded. And ‘t is moreover most expressly mark’d In holy scripture. chalice no entrance here may find. have struggled in the womb. No more shall hunger. innocence herself 337 . behoov’d That circumcision in the males should imp The flight of innocent wings: but since the day Of grace hath come. Thus far from round to round. Nor is there aught thou seest. silent as thou art. none there are Who place obtain for merit of their own. as the finger to the ring. as grace Inweaves the coronet. O’erspeedy comers to immortal life. thirst. So heav’n’s decree Forecasts. which cleaves Midway the twain compartments. Francis.Paradise And they who on their stools beneath her sit. On set conditions: spirits all releas’d. where the twins are said To. than the parents’ faith. and for two years of hell. Exactly. This way distinction make: e’en so on his. Augustin. With faith in either view. A law immutable hath establish’d all. Benedict. With grace at pleasure variously endows. that downward from the step. past or to come. wherein Thy subtle thoughts have bound thee. Hath each his several degree assign’d. Our Sovran Lord—that settleth this estate In love and in delight so absolute. But have through others’ merit been advanc’d. Not in reward of meritorious deed. and beneath. In early times with their own innocence More was not wanting. Yet still continued holy). And. without baptismal rites In Christ accomplish’d. Ere for themselves they had the power to choose. Are different in their shares of excellence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that doth not fit. that these. And gladly will I loose the knot. To save them: those first ages past. It is not therefore without cause. so every brow Weareth its proper hue of orient light. Therefore. and the rest. The mighty Baptist that way marks the line (He who endur’d the desert and the pains Of martyrdom. this garden equally to fill. or sorrow can. That wish can dare no further—every soul. I know thy doubt.

fickle and perverse. Is Lucia. near unto the other. From all parts answ’ring.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so well content to look On her lov’d daughter. facing to Peter. “Father rever’d: Who deign’st. once. shalt thou win The pow’r to look on him. for me. The twain. winging that profound. lo! Where Anna sits. Into whose keeping Christ did give the keys Of this sweet flow’r: near whom behold the seer. who with the lance and nails Was won. the parent. On earth. whatsoever I had yet beheld. that with moveless eye She chants the loud hosanna: while. or in angel. oppos’d To the first father of your mortal kind. on each hand next our empress thron’d. And. From holy spirits. Now raise thy view Unto the visage most resembling Christ: For. That. Wherein thou sittest. met: And so beseems: for that he bare the palm Down unto Mary. whom Mary’s charms Embellish’d. Whatever of buxomness and free delight May be in Spirit. highest in bliss. by eternal lot! Say. rang: that holier joy Brooded the deep serene. and on pois’d wing. Maria. That. Who thus in answer spake: “In him are summ’d. now hail’d in heav’n. Or shown me such similitude of God. rests The leader. “Ave. He to the left. on the right.Paradise Must linger yet below. to quit the pleasant place. saw all the grievous times Of the fair bride.” Forthwith I saw Such floods of gladness on her visage shower’d.” sang: To whose sweet anthem all the blissful court. whose rash taste Proves bitter to his seed. Had not so much suspended me with wonder. Are as it were two roots unto this rose. and. who had to her descended. in her splendour only. when the Son of God Vouchsaf’d to clothe him in terrestrial weeds. And he. under whom on manna fed Th’ ungrateful nation. Now let thine eyes wait heedful on my words. he. as the sun the morning star. Gratia Plena. that all fire he seems. Those. who that angel is. at whose hest thy lady sped. On th’ other part. 338 .” So I again resorted to the lore Of my wise teacher. and so enamour’d glows Of her high beauty. ere he died. that with such glee Beholds our queen. That ancient father of the holy church. And note thou of this just and pious realm The chiefest nobles.

Created beings all in lowliness Surpassing. my prayers to thee prefer. Here kneeleth one. lady! and so great. large munificence. that its great Maker did not scorn. alas! in sooth Beating thy pennons. (And pray they be not scant) that thou wouldst drive Each cloud of his mortality away. of charity and love. To mortal men.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thy bounty succours.Paradise When on the edge of ruin clos’d thine eye. O queen! Who canst do what thou wilt! that in him thou CANTO XXXIII “O virgin mother. thinking to advance.” He said. This flower to germin in eternal peace! Here thou to us. with affection. Art. whose genial influence makes now 339 . for myself. Himself. daughter of thy Son. of hope a living spring. as the noon-day torch: and art. Yet. That he who grace desireth. and comes not To thee for aidance. “But (for the vision hasteneth so an end) Here break we off. Ennobler of thy nature. more fondly. Grace then must first be gain’d. Term by th’ eternal counsel pre-ordain’d. Relenting mercy. pity mild. as in height. That on the sovran pleasure he may gaze. imploring grace For virtue. Suppliant to thee he kneels. Whatsoe’er may be Of excellence in creature. That shapes the cloak according to the cloth: And to the primal love our ken shall rise. Her grace. So mighty art thou. Are all combin’d in thee. whilst I sue. above them all. far As sight can bear thee. Nor only him who asks. who ne’er Coveted sight. but doth freely oft Forerun the asking. beneath. so advanc’d In thee. That thou mayst penetrate the brightness. Thou in prayer Seek her: and. And I. Than now for him. Attend. yet more high to lift his ken Toward the bliss supreme. fain would have desire Fly without wings. This also I entreat of thee. whose might can help thee. From the world’s lowest gap unto this height. as the good workman doth. in his own work enclos’d to dwell! For in thy womb rekindling shone the love Reveal’d. Thou backward fall’st. and yield me all thy heart. Who of all spirits hath review’d the state. And thus the saintly orison began.

That. on I pass’d. While sight was unconsum’d. if thou waken aught Of memory in me. Fix’d on the suitor. till my view Hover’d the brink of dread infinitude. who from a dream awaken’d. all properties Of substance and of accident. beheld. Thenceforward. As one. with Beatrice. witness’d. so embolden’d. that I look’d. straight. as may well be thought. preserve Affection sound. Such keenness from the living ray I met. who drew Near to the limit. Beck’ning smil’d the sage. if mine eyes had turn’d away. Bare me into the ray authentical Of sovran light. many a saint Stretch their clasp’d hands. refining more and more. whatever The universe unfolds. Was not for words to speak. so far Can travel inward. yet still retains Impression of the feeling in his dream.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I. That I should look aloft: but. Unto the race to come. that shall not lose Thy triumph wholly. The ardour of my wish (for so behooved). what I saw. and yet the sense of sweet. nor memory’s self To stand against such outrage on her skill. Thus in the winds on flitting leaves was lost The Sybil’s sentence. how benign She looks on pious pray’rs: then fasten’d they On th’ everlasting light. still trickles in my heart. As ‘t were. but. All he hath seen forgets. I had been lost. that heav’n with love and awe regards.Paradise Wouldst after all he hath beheld. and. O grace! unenvying of thy boon! that gav’st Boldness to fix so earnestly my ken On th’ everlasting splendour. and endure to hear The record sound in this unequal strain. That sprang from it. meanwhile. away. O eternal beam! (Whose height what reach of mortal thought may soar?) Yield me again some little particle Of what thou then appearedst. Ended within me. give my tongue Power. Lo! Where. and human passions quell. Saw in one volume clasp’d of love. but to leave one sparkle of thy glory. methinks. Thus in the sun-thaw is the snow unseal’d. in that depth. E’en such am I: for all the vision dies. in furtherance of my suit!” The eyes. ere he bade. wherein no eye Of creature. For visual strength. as I remember. where all wishes end. Already of myself aloft I look’d. 340 .

As rainbow is from rainbow: and the third Seem’d fire. How to the circle fitted. As one Who vers’d in geometric lore. and of thyself Sole understood. while I mus’d. from another. Oh eternal light! Sole in thyself that dwellst. Than five-and-twenty ages had appear’d To that emprize. and admiration still Was kindled. That one. And in the spleen unfolded what it sought. like a wheel 341 . Had not a flash darted athwart my mind. One moment seems a longer lethargy. though pondering long And deeply. in its own hue Beheld our image painted: steadfastly I therefore por’d upon the view. still new miracles descry’d. yet one individual light The whole. willingly. till I speak. And toil’d me with the change. past. my soul dilates Beyond her proper self. Finds not. elsewhere defective found. on that circling. and. Wond’ring I gaz’d. For all the good. And of such bond methinks I saw The universal form: for that whenever I do but speak of it. breath’d equally from both. there Is summ’d. My tongue shall utter now. clear and lofty. suspense and motionless. that beginning. to give Conception birth! Yet this to what I saw Is less than little. which in thee Seem’d as reflected splendour. that will may covet. Complete. Three orbs of triple hue clipt in one bound: And. and all.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Not that the semblance of the living light Was chang’d (that ever as at first remain’d) But that my vision quickening.Paradise Compounded. It may not be. present. Here vigour fail’d the tow’ring fantasy: But yet the will roll’d onward. For I therein. one reflected seem’d. in that sole Appearance. no more E’en what remembrance keeps. who looks upon that light. seem’d methought. intent to scan The novel wonder. In that abyss Of radiance. With fixed heed. and therein How plac’d: but the flight was not for my wing. as I gaz’d. methought. which he needs. than could the babe’s That yet is moisten’d at his mother’s breast. or to come! Thou smiledst. would fain Measure the circle. can turn To other object. and trace out the form. that first made Neptune wonder At Argo’s shadow darkening on his flood. and. e’en such was I. Oh speech How feeble and how faint art thou. his view.

] So Petrarch. F. turns herself to the left. 58.] Ovid. fab.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 4. Prima. 29. ***** Thou shalt see me go as blive Unto the next laurer I see. As from the first a second beam. iii. 7. And kisse it for it is thy tree Now entre thou my breast anone. v. Through that.” v.] Being in the opposite hemisphere to ours. NOTES TO PARADISE CANTO 1 Verse 12. p. The laurel.” which he compares to a pilgrim hastening homewards. Ediz. 1. vi. and let my voice sound like his own. 1. Marsyas. II Filocopo. That moves the sun in heav’n and all the stars. meed of mighty conquerours And poets sage. Son. Filicaja. Met. thou Wilt helpe me to shewe now That in my head ymarked is. join.] He appears to mean nothing more than that this part of his poem will require a greater exertion of his powers than the former. and the equinoctial colure. v. In happiest constellation. 342 . by the Love impell’d.” &c. st.] Aries. st. —As glowing iron with fire. v.] “Where the four circles. divine vertue. the equator. 1. Caesar. Onor d’imperadori e di poeti. 15. the horizon.] “Like a reflected sunbeam.Paradise In even motion. 44. ii.“May he enter my bosom. v. L. b. All new of God another sunne. “Egli nel mio petto entri. the zodiac. —If the heaven had ywonne. or bard. Par. as may be seen in the armillary sphere. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. c. Upon the day appear’d.] So Milton. First Booke of Fame E par ch’ agginuga un altro sole al cielo. v. Benign Apollo. . 5. b. To the left. Arbor vittoriosa e trionfale. Q. 9. 39. canz. 1723. 594. Fir. 69. Beatrice that she may behold the rising sun. 47. Chaucer. v. 15.] Chaucer has imitated this invention very closely at the beginning of the Third Booke of Fame. 37. Ne simil tanto mal raggio secondo Dal primo usci. 19. when he made that daring mortal deserve to come forth unsheathed from his limbs. Compare Boccaccio. i. And Spenser. “ v. the last threeintersecting each other so as to form three crosses. Thus for. If. 25. P. v. Some understand the planetVenus by the “miglior stella “ v.

E’en as the truth. which differ both in bulk and splendor. 71. Adone. 9. Manno. introduces the angel arguing with Adam respecting the causes of the spots on the moon.” v. there wanteth not him skill and desire to bring his labour to the best effect. 71. xi.] Compare Hell. c. Fab.] The fixed stars. 52. Ed ecco un lustro lampeggiar d’ intorno Che sole a sole aggiunse e giorno a giorno. P. 111. 1. The virtue mingled.” v. Within the heaven. the primum mobile.] According to our Poet’s system. Polity. Milton. v. and the empyrean. —Seems another morn Ris’n on mid-noon. c.” Milton. O F. his reasoning is physical. Through sluggishness. xxviii. as Glaucus. st 9. the seven planets. canz. 1. v. st. 27. 9 v. Cain. he carrieth in mind the whole form which his work should have. 30. 65. b. which he hath to work on is unframeable. So Filicaja. oriente Tasso.Paradise Ariosto. Perche a risponder la discordia e sorda “The workman hath in his heart a purpose. And Note v. 1. there are ten heavens. Principio coelum. only the matter.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Perch’ a risponder la materia e sorda. 109.] “Thou O divine Spirit. in imitation of this passage. CANTO II v. i.] Virg. v. knowest whether 1 had not risen above my human nature.] the moon v. L. Ion. 311. v. If. formed me. 5.] Con la barchetta mia cantando in rima Pulci.” Hooker’s Eccl. This first star.” By “formal principles. L. but is self-evident. Morg. ] Ovid. x. Canto XX. b. Met. Magg. 46. Number1ess lights. as a late French translator of the Paradise well remarks. 125. Save one. “principj formali. c. Quando a paro col sol ma piu lucente L’angelo gli appari sull. In small bark. v. Aen. G. 66.] Like a truth that does not need demonstration. that of Dante partly metaphysical and partly theologic. Compare Euripides. st. But.] “Except that principle of rarity and denseness which thou hast assigned. vi. vi 724. &c. . Quanto l’acqua comporta un picciol legno Ibid. Xiii. 1550. 123. Io me n’andro con la barchetta mia. 143. and were not merely such as thou hadst then. the eighth spheres containing the fixed stars. are meant constituent or essential causes. c.

Bip. terms him. Plato. L.” Ricordano Malaspina in Muratori. and his son Frederick II “the third and last. the foundress of the order called after her She was born of opulent and noble parents at Assisi.] Ovid. v. Univ. v. 27. because he mistook a shadow for a substance. c. Script. and G. I v. Hist.] The sister of Forese whom we have seen in the Purgatory. 67. viii. Edit. son of Frederick I was the second emperor of the house of Saab. P. in 1193. She was fifty years old or more at the time. 598.] Plato’s opinion. Daniel. The first circle. Laurence. Metam. Constance.] Daughter of Ruggieri. Delusion. D. ix. 326. It. 1.] Plato Timaeus v. and secur’d His marriage with the sev’n times wedded maid. c. 34. that she retained her affection to the monastic life. 6. and by him was mother to Frederick 11.” v.) but not a word of his having been poisoned by Constance. Alcmaeon. 16.] “What Piccarda asserts of Constance. 100. being taken by force out of a monastery where she had professed. and “because it was not credited that she could have a child at that age. Of will. v. ii. the sociable spirit.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. See Biogr. v. CANTO IV v. The second. v.] See Liv. t. The death of Henry Vl.] Who suffered martyrdom in the third century. v. The French translator above mentored speaks of her having poisoned her husband. by an anonymous writer.] The empyrean. Villani. who pleased. v. Many came. p. 1813. Piccarda. Hist. king of Sicily. that any lady. and died in 1253. f. The Lady. 1. she was delivered in a pavilion and it was given out.” Such appears to me the most satisfactory explanation of the passage. for so this author. I a substance for a shadow. distributed to the stars an equal number of souls. p.] Henry Vl. that deign’d To travel with Tobias. x. ix. Canto XXIII. v. Between two deer] Tigris ut auditis. was at liberty to see her. b. and Ricordano Malaspina even mentions her decease as happening before that of her husband.] “That the ways of divine justice are often inscrutable to man.” v. “The Creator. is recorded in the Chronicon Siciliae. Scaevola. Ovid. 90. t. Met. v. 16. 166 v. v. 8vo. v. et ruere ardet utroque. erit facto pius et sceleratus eodem. mugitibus armentorum —Ultusque parente parentem Natus. Him who made Tobias whole. and that which I affirm is spoken of the will 344 . 10. 1. 13. ii. and the suspicion ceased. 82. Rer. who. Milton. 82. with some others.] See Daniel. Clare. 122. That to the eye of man. 121. (Muratori. when he had framed the universe.] “An error the contrary to that of Narcissus. was married to the Emperor Henry Vl. t. 48. 223. 1. v. 24. 1. Henry V. 939.. 50.] Raphael. ought rather to be a motive to faith than an inducement to heresy. 12. in the same words. appointing to each soul its several star.Paradise CANTO III v. Paris.” Neseit utro potius ruat. diversa valle duorum Extimulata fame. 107. is said absolutely and without relation to circumstances. p.] St. Of that. and saw her.

86. the substance of the vow. 47. 33. the Imperial ensign. 16. At Europe’s extreme point.] The light of divine truth.” v. procured him a place among the wisest and most judicious writers of this century. 56. 54. v.] See Virgil. viz.] Purgatory. Pallas died. the compact. Cent.] The Horatii and Curiatii.] “From the rape of the Sabine women to the violation of Lucretia. Arab hordes. 43. which. Aeneas. v. The rival three.] Constantine. v. 50. 1. 8. And who oppose ] The Guelphs. v. 345 .] Agapetus. p. Aen.] See Lev. Petrarca. v. being nearest to the sun. Canto IX. vi. 5. Near the hour. 56. Quintius. That hill. What then it wrought. carried the eagle. v. 13. Agapete. whose Scheda Regia. e. which was sacked by the Romans after the defeat of Cataline. the other. 33. That region.] As some explain it. Who pretend its power. Cent. v. Down. v.] The code of laws was abridged and reformed by Justinian. that of the incarnate word. Christ’s nature merely human. 41.] The city of Fesulae. A hundred years twice told and more.] Constantinople being situated at the extreme of Europe.] The one.] In the following fifteen lines the Poet has comprised the exploits of Julius Caesar.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” v.] The Arabians seem to be put for the barbarians in general.] The planet Mercury.Paradise conditionally and respectively: so that our apparent without any disagreement. and Justinian began his reign in 527. xii. near those mountains in the neighbourhood of Troy. difference is v. 124. ii c. 108. To clear th’ incumber’d laws. 59. v. t. from the west to the east.” who taught that in Christ there was but one nature. 15. v. the east. 119. 1. ii. addressed to the Emperor Justinian.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. ii. Either key. v. or form of it. 6. CANTO V v. It was enjoin’d the Israelites. That truth.] Quintius Cincinnatus. v. 39. is oftenest hidden by that luminary CANTO VI v. and xxvii. p. in transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium. on the contrary had moved along with the sun’s course.] The Emperor Constantine entered Byzantium in 324. according to others the equinoctial line. ii. 48. Two things. v. This sphere. and on the borders of Asia. X. v.] The Ghibellines. from whence the first founders of Rome had emigrated. E Cincinnato dall’ inculta chioma. v. when he passed from Troy to Italy. After that Constantine the eagle turn’d. v.] Justinian is said to have been a follower of the heretical Opinions held by Eutyches. c. v. 13.] Near the time of our Saviour’s birth. v. v.” Ibid. Bishop of Rome. 34.

I think. 3. 4. with the promise of being made emperor? See G. and his master as lavishly disbursed. 131. viii. King of Naples and Sicily. and the scrip.] Dante could not be ignorant that the reign of Justinian was long prior to that of Charlemagne. 140. v. Romeo’s light. count of Provence: and they rest this assertion chiefly on the fact of a certain Romieu de Villeneuve. The conclusion is that as before sin man was immortal. a stranger pilgrim from the shrine of St. was married to Louis IX of France. Charles. Four daughters. v. 95. but the spirit of the former emperor is represented. when he observes: “Wretched for us. son of Philip III of France. 1.The Divine Comedy of Dante . were misinformed in an occurrence of such notoriety. the staff. v.” It is here intended. P. to Richard. nor was it ever known whence he was or wither he went. 1. That man who was unborn.” G. v.] This prince.” v.] A Hebrew word. after he had long been a faithful steward to Raymond. the third. James in Galicia. Hist. Bella Mano. 112.] With Augustus Caesar. v. The French writers assert the continuance of his ministerial office even after the decease of his soverign Raymond Berenger. v. when an account was required from him of the revenues whichhe had carefully husbanded. See Millot. 75. v. Our resurrection certain. CANTO VII 346 . v. as Titus afterwards did. The yellow lilies. 17. into Italy by Pope Boniface. 136. According to them. and parted as he came. 110. and King of the Romans. Vengeance for vengeance ] This will be afterwards explained by the Poet himself. v. Henry’s brother. 42. c. Villani. had it in his power to surpass the glory of all who either preceded or came after him. the last of the house of Barcelona. of England. 61.] Of the four daughters of Raymond Berenger.] “Venturi appears to mistake the Poet’s reasoning. That substance bright. Litt des Troubadours. who was the contemporary of that prince.] So Giusto de’ Conti.] Adam.Jerusalem. having left large possessions behind him. about this time. Nor is it probable that the Italians. What distils. as conscious of the events that had taken place after his own time. to Charles I. by destroying the city of . Malahoth. died in 1245.” v. As might have made one blest amid the flames. c. Raymond Berenger. “Qual salamandra. the eldest. who was sent for. as appears by his will.Paradise v. or Romeo which answers to that of Palmer in our language.” v. to assure us of the truth of our resurrection. ii. and thus revenging the cause of God himself on the Jews. Is it not more likely to allude to Charles of Valois. The third Caesar. and brother to Louis. Sancha. In its next bearer’s gripe. 104.] The commentators explain this to mean Charles II. and the youngest. 135.” Che puommi nelle fiammi far beato. 89.] The French ensign. vi. to Henry III. Margaret. 98. There might however have been more than one person of the name of Romieu. and without intervention of secondary causes. preserved in the archives of the bishopric of Venice. that the whole of God’s dispensations to man should be considered as a proof of our resurrection. and of a higher kind. if we had not arguments more convincing. He is in the list of Provencal poets. he had first entered into the count’s service. who was count of Provence. v. Beatrice.] Justinian. king of Naples and Sicily. so being restored to the favor of heaven by the expiation made for sin. the next. 23. with which he v. in immortal. signifying “kingdoms. 92. Villani. both in this instance and in what follows. t.] “Tiberius the third of the Caesars. “He demanded the little mule.] The story of Romeo is involved in some uncertainty. who lived so near the time. Eleanor. Charlemagne.] “That which proceeds immediately from God.

v. imitating what Horace had said of Homer. 53. my father-in-law. Studiando io sto lungi da tutti gli nomini Ed ho irnparato piu teologia In questi giorni. had the time been more. 68. “Upon the back of this circle.] The giant whom Jupiter is fabled to have overwhelmed under the mountain Aetna from whence he vomits forth smoke and flame. in the heaven of Venus. the year of his death.] Charles Martel might have been known to our poet at Florence whither he came to meet his father in 1295. king of Naples. is a little sphere.” 1. His brother Robert. 11.] The spirit now speaking is Charles Martel crowned king of Hungary. 1. ‘O ye whose intellectual ministry. There is much in this poem to justify the encomium which the learned Salvini has passed on it. 718. v. 40. 1793.” in consequence of which the kingdom fell into the hands of Peter III of Arragon. Opere. Ibid. v.] “If the ill conduct of our governors in Sicily had not excited the resentment and hatred of the people and stimulated them to that dreadful massacre at the Sicilian vespers. 40. here mentioned. The left bank.] Virgil. 78. so called from its three promontories. To sit in Dido’s bosom. 48. when. 4. 73. which has in that heaven a revolution of its own: whose circle the astronomers term epicycle. he says— And dost thou ask. of which Pachynus and Pelorus. v. Epicycle. che ho riletto Dante. descended through me from Charles I and Rodolph I the former my grandfather king of Naples and Sicily. that “he remained more than twenty days in Florence.Paradise necessarily recovers his claim to immortality. Aen. Che nelle scuole fattto io non avria. in 1282 v. Villani. The land. v. i. he did not succeed. in an epistle to Redi.” &c.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Hungary. waiting for his father King Charles and his brothers during which time great honour was done him by the. Vll. v. the latter emperor of Germany.] He seems to tax his brother Robert with employing necessitous and greedy Catalonians to administer the affairs CANTO VIII v. v.] Provence. v.] “In sul dosso di questo cerchio. what themes my mind engage? The lonely hours I give to Dante’s page. and he was much in favour with all. 14 ‘Typhaeus. 57. i. 81.] “Sicily would be still ruled by a race of monarchs. My brother’s foresight. Thou lov’dst me well. who adds. whereof we are now treating. that the duties of life might be better learnt from the Grecian bard than from the teachers of the porch or the academy. viii. to which dominions dying in his father’s lifetime. The beautiful Trinaeria.] Voi ch’ intendendo il terzo ciel movete.” v. The retinue and the habiliments of the young monarch are minutely described by G. Convito di Dante. 347 . are two. See his Convito. 60. 77. Se volete saper la vita mia. ed.] Sicily. Ven. v. The first line in our Poet” first canzone. v. t. and son of Charles 11 king of Naples and Sicily. was the friend of Petrarch. Florentines and he showed no less love towards them. 62. That horn Of fair Ausonia. 13. c. “both celebrated in the Purgatory Canto.] The kingdom of Naples. p. And meet more sacred learning in his lines Than I had gain’d from all the school divines. Sprang through me from Charles and Rodolph. p. Had not ill lording.

See G. the rightful heir. who is said to have been murdered at Trevigi. at Vicenza. Consult your teacher. P. 125. v.] Aristole. are related by the chronicler Rolandino of Padua. Mr.) with whom she is supposed to have cohabited before her marriage: then lived with a soldier of Trevigi. v. Villani. c. v. CANTO IX v. that his parentage was attributed to Mars. v. (for even as an animal. and Adice to the west. and the soul.The Divine Comedy of Dante . regarding him. xxv. and property of master and slave. in like manner a state consists both of all these and besides these of other dissimilar kinds. t. in exclusion of his brother s son Carobert. of reason and desire. O fair Clemenza. All that appears certain.] He alludes to the occupation of the kingdom of Sicily by Robert. that he was better known by the appellation he derived from Marseilles. c. One. i. 1. 348 .] The five hundred years are elapsed: and unless the Provencal MSS. 7. and by Petrarch in the Triumph of Love. 99. See G. The treachery. 18. in Muratori Rer. 78. is what we are told in this Canto.] Folco of Genoa. of which place he was perhaps bishop. She eloped from her first husband. “Since a state is made up of members differing from one another. 32. 62.] She predicts also the fate of Ricciardo da Camino.” Yet that father has himself been accused of avarice in the Purgatory Canto XX. on the 18th September 1314. and at last resumed the religious habit. Villani.Paradise of his kingdom. the brother of Cunizza. v. where the rivers (Sile and Cagnano meet) while he was engaged in playing at chess. c. 3. De Rep.] The adventures of Cunizza. v. and the sources of the rivers Brenta and Piava is situated a castle called Romano. lastly when he also had fallen by the same hand she. in the company of Sordello. and a family. (see Purgatory. Robert. It. 6. 25. and second wife of Louis X. or Charles. Eloq. ix. Quirinus. Script. v. of France. 43 The crowd. c. c. and on his being murdered by her brother the tyrant. after her brother’s death. v.] Between Rialto and the Venetian territory. Five times. v. 1. That saintly light. v.] The people who inhabited the tract of country bounded by the river Tagliamento to the east. v.” v. Esau. 1. 173. In that part. 112. This. 1. v. iii. was again wedded in Verona.] Genesis c. 1. Many errors of Nostradamus. 1.] Daughter of Charles Martel. commonly termed Folques of Marseilles.] Cunizza foretells the defeat of Giacopo da Carrara. The tyrant we have seen in “the river of blood. c.) it necessarily follows that the excellence of all the members of the state cannot be one and the same. though his general character was that of a bounteous prince. viii. which have been followed by Crescimbeni. a celebrated Provencal poet. who is now speaking. 48.] Charles Martel. v. 45. Richard of St. whose wife was living at the same time in the same city. consists of soul and body. p. of man and woman. viii. De Vulg. Canto XII. 2. One of his verses is cited by Dante. Boniface.” Hell. should be brought to light the poetical reputation of Folco must rest on the mention made of him by the more fortunate Italians. 40. 37. 136. was by her brother married to a nobleman of Braganzo. v. Cunizza. are detected by the diligence of Tiraboschi. and Millot. Matthias’s ed. The hour is near. overcome by the influence of her star. and VII. 4. iv. 2.] Romulus. born of so obscure a father. that he was of Genoa. in the first instance. Canto VI. 22. 110. Quadrio. Lord of Padua by Can Grande. v. 137. How bitter can spring up. the birth-place of the famous tyrant Ezzolino or Azzolino.] “How a covetous son can spring from a liberal father. ii.

] The canon law. where Folco was born. 120. 98. v. That. The cursed flower. 80. Jove’s son. in which the Pope was accustomed to imprison such as had been guilty of an irremissible sin. and this repercussion. She of Rhodope. v. 89.] Heb. With either palm. “Wherever a man is. the Mediterranean at last reaches the coast of Palestine. where the common motion of the heavens from east to west may be said to strike with greatest force against the motion proper to the planets. and the greater part of them there put to death. 50.] A tower.” v.] Europe and Africa. Rahab.] The coin of Florence. 126. or.] “Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings. v. v.] “By the crucifixion of Christ” v. so that they were reconducted to that city. and Macra. v.” Isaiah. Belus’ daughter. v. Discordant shores. 85. as Venturi supposes.] The bishop.] Phyllis. The web. called the florin.” 349 .] He alludes either to the death of Pope Boniface VIII. to the east of Genoa. v.] “To that part of heaven. to the transfer of the holy see from Rome to Avignon. v. above his head. v. in the mirrors of eternal truth. CANTO X v. v.] Dido. who.” or (as some say) near a river of the same name. Such at least is the system of Dante. or else. v. 82. v. 53. We descry. is here the strongest. 31. which is on its horizon when it enters the straits of Gibraltar. v. 91.” says Vellutello. either in the citadel of Padua. v. had been “with many a foul and midnight murder fed.] The planet Venus. according to the yet more probable conjecture of Lombardi.” v. afterwards gave them up.] “We behold the things that we predict. This heav’n. The Vatican. 50. Feltro. The decretals. 93.] Extending to the east.] Folco. for which event Vellutello refers to the history of Augustino Giustiniani. who were in opposition to the Pope.] The great ocean. 64. v. 76. 112. v. had committed the above-mentioned act of treachery.] Hercules. to the coming of the Emperor Henry VII. a river to the west.] The net or snare into. 7. “there he has. his own particular meridian circle. as it were. 80. v. which under the tyranny of Ezzolino.] The Mediterranean sea. into Italy. Meridian.] Eora. —’Twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s. because the velocity of each is increased to the utmost by their respective distance from the poles. to show himself a zealous partisan of the Pope. 2. 83. 134. The valley of waters. nearly opposite to Genoa.] The Bishop of Felto having received a number of fugitives from Ferrara. Begga. which he is destined to fall. Malta’s. The point. that falls into the lake of Bolsena. under a promise of protection.” as Venturi explains it.Paradise v.] A place in Africa. 88. Whose haven. vi. v. 130.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 96.] Alluding to the terrible slaughter of the Genoese made by the Saracens in 936. “in which the equinoctial circle and the Zodiac intersect each other. which took place in the pontificate of Clement V. v. 58. c. 56 This priest. That other joyance. Six shadowing wings. xi. c.

” Tiraboschi. 104. “The famous Grecian fanatic.Paradise v. at Bologna. and the generation of the second person in the Trinity. was born of noble parents.] “The rivers might as easily cease to flow towards the sea. His Liber Sententiarum is highly esteemed. and died in 1160. and died in 1274. being chosen bishop of Paris.” (Eccl. for the use of the schools. Thomas Aquinas was his favourite pupil. but vainly.] Thomas Aquinas. Thomas. where Peter says: “Cupiens aliquid de penuria ac tenuitate nostra cum paupercula in gazophylacium domini mittere. Pol. where the remainder of his life was passed in superintending the school. iii. 1719. To either forum. and studied at Paris and at Padua. Fourth family. the fourth planet. Ital. 30. under the protection of this church of Rome. disciple of St.] “Pietro Lombardo was of obscure origin. v. v. “Take but Thomas away. v.] The zodiac. 101. t. I then. an abridgment or epitome of canon law.] “By reconciling. at the latter of which places he entered into the Dominican order. With a recommendation from the bishop of Lucca to St. He held his bishopric only one year. 12. and in composing his voluminous works on divinity and natural science. v. Peter.” as Venturi explains it “the civil with the canon law. nor is the place of his birth in Lombardy ascertained. 4. He died in 1280. v. that it may be deemed an original work. It contains a system of scholastic theology. iii. v. He then taught theology in various parts of Germany. v.] The procession of the third. 271.” v. Here his reputation was so great that Philip.] “The song of these spirits was ineffable. who anxiously. 96. Dionysius the Areopagite. and by birth a Tuscan. endeavoured to divert him from a life of celibacy and study. cent. That taper’s radiance. and I will overturn the v. 3. of whom Bucer is reported to have said. c.” v. and the writings of the ancient doctors.] St. 6. 11. as we could deny thee thy request. The part. 70. v. Echard and Quetif. In 1260. 101. Who with the widow gave. Lut. whence he afterwards proceeded to Paris. v. Felix and Nabor.” v. he reluctantly accepted the bishopric of Ratisbon. Albert of Cologne.] The inhabitants of the sun. 105. i.. the decrees of councils.] Albertus Magnus was born at Laugingen. drawn from the letters of the pontiffs. 112. 1. and who. and particularly at Cologne. 26.] “Gratian. part 2.] The above-mentioned intersection of the equinoctial circle and the zodiac. Where. Paul. c. at the age of fourty-seven.] The sun. resigned that dignity to Pietro. 350 . and his biographers take some pains to clear him of it. Storia della Lett. The fifth light. The absurd imputation of his having dealt in the magical art is well known. 25.] In which the sun rises every day earlier after the vernal equinox.] Solomon. 95.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. 2. 104. v. 162. he went into France to continue his studies.” and whom Hooker terms “the greatest among the school divines. about the year 1130. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. a Benedictine monk belonging to the convent of St. Oblique. Par. No less constrained. and in two years after resigned it.] This alludes to the beginning of the Liber Sententiarum. See also Purgatory Canto XX. Bernard. b. Such was the song. t. 45.] “I was of the Dominican order. ibid. 46. Of his spirit and of his offspring. p.” v. 1. p. Minister. composed. 91. who gave himself out for Dionysius the Areopagite. v. and returned to his cell in Cologne. and for that purpose remained some time at Rheims. v. 67.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose pupil he had been. in 1193. 9). Of Aquinum. Gratian. 86. so much more complete than any which had been yet seen. brother of Louis VII. v. by Quetif and Echard. in Thuringia. fol.

The spouse of God. 14 O miseras hominum mentes! O pectora caeca Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi quodcunque est! v. 1. “He was at the head of the Mystics in this century and his treatise. v.. others after.] Richard of St.” v. 132. 2. 12. 136. was canon and prior of the monastery of that name at Paris and died in 1173.] He was Archbishop of Seville during forty years.] The name of a street in Paris: the “Rue du Fouarre.] Lucretius. in his treatise De Vulg. 36. 4. and died in 635. or Ascesi where Francis was born in 1182. “acquired a considerable degree of reputation by the History he wrote to refute the cavils of the Pagans against Christianity. 1. cent. observes that “his grammatical theological. was received with the greatest avidity. ii. p. was born. t. the present period.] 1n the fifth century.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Mosheim.] Boetius. discover more learning and pedantry.” Maclaine’s Mosheim.] The study of medicine. was born in 672 at Wearmouth and Jarrow. vi. 127. Ital. I ii c. iv. v. 126. v. Eloq. either on real or pretended suspicion of his being engaged in a conspiracy. and beginning of the twelfth century.] The spirit of Thomas Aquinas v.] The church. whose critical opinions in general must be taken with some allowance. Richard. and by his books against the Pelagians and Priscillianists. ii. which contains as it were the marrow of this kind of theology. about 470. Invited to Rome by Pope Sergius I. 4. 23. among those “qui usi sunt altissimas prosas. 3. p. One.” v. v. in the bishopric of Durham. and died in 735.] Boetius was buried at Pavia. though some place him before. c. as one of his favourite authors. The other.] “A monk of the abbey of Gemblours who was in high repute at the end of the eleventh. v. Tupino. 34. cent. c. Paulus Orosius. v. gave laws and instructions to those that were desirous of raising their souls above all human things in order to unite them to their great source by sublime contemplation.] Saint Francis. 11. O fond anxiety of mortal men. ii. v. 29. 2. and historical productions. a native either of Scotland or Ireland. iii. 127. 131. Aphorisms. The eighth.Paradise venerable name. i.” v. The straw-litter’d street. c. CANTO XI v. entitled the Mystical Ark. 7. Hist. i. Cieldauro. 119. de Moreri. 351 . 2.] The church. v. “In 524 he was cruelly put to death by command of Theodoric. 40. he preferred passing almost the whole of his life in the seclusion of a monastery.] Saint Dominic. She. iii. A catalogue of his numerous writings may be seen in Kippis’s Biographia Britannica.”—” who have written prose with the greatest loftiness of style.” Della Lett. whose virtues obtained him the appellation of the Venerable. whose book De Consolatione Philosophiae excited so much attention during the middle ages. cent. A similar train of argument was pursued by Augustine.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. Isidore. 116. lived most probably in this century (the fourth). 1. in the monastery of St. Victor. v. Pietro in Ciel d’oro. p.] Bede. ‘The lustre. as Tiraboschi conjectures. v. xii. than judgment and taste. v. v. 124. v. 2. v. c.” Dict. Bede. 17. 1. See Mariana. v.] A rivulet near Assisi. Orosius is classed by Dante. That pleader. in his book De Civitate Dei. Sigebert. 2.” Ibid. 6. c.

v. Her first husband. Honorius.] His successor Honorius III who granted certain privileges to the Franciscans.] Cold from the snow. 106. Gainst his father’s will. on witnessing the secure poverty of the fisherman Amyclas: —O vite tuta facultas Pauperis. 83.] The third of his disciples. 60.] Thomas Aquinas 352 . in whose presence he made a profession of poverty. v. 40. 531. entitled Verba Aurea. Sylvester. 63. a stream that rises in a mountain near Agobbio.] Christ. v. The last signet.] Poverty. v. v.] The mountain Alverna in the Apennine.Paradise v. On the hard rock. 316. v. 55. was published in 1534. The planet from whence they split. Heat and cold. said to have been found on the saint’s body. will admit of either sense. 76.] In opposition to the wishes of his natural father v. 1.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Pope Innocent III. 90. Annales Ordinis Minoris.] v.] Chiascio. The wave. v.] “The rule of their order.] One of the first followers of the saint. This is the east. Ubaldo for the place of his retirement. 45. His work. 93. Aut potuit muris.] A man in an humble station of life at Assisi. v. and Venturi (as I have taken it) of the heavy impositions laid on those places by the Perugians.” Lucan Phars. nullo trepidare tumultu. 5. v. 50.] Lucan makes Caesar exclaim. 76. v. v.] Another of his earliest associates. CANTO XII v. His dearest lady. In his father’s sight.] Alluding to the stigmata. v. at Antwerp See Lucas Waddingus. Caesarea pulsante manu? v. and heat from the reflection of the sun. 72. or bishop. Yoke. Egidius. Innocent. chosen by St. v. For GIOGO. 113. The blessed flame. angustique lares! O munera nondum Intellecta deum! quibus hoc contingere templis. which the Dominicans neglect to observe. 58. or marks resembling the wounds of Christ. v. v. who died in 1262. Bernard. 127.] Vellutello understands this of the vicinity of the mountain to Nocera and Gualdo. 1. 100. v. Shakespeare. 42. and Juliet is the sun. v. p. His flock] The Dominicans. The east.] The spiritual father. 86. Pietro Bernardone. Amyclas. like the Latin JUGUM. Our Patriarch] Saint Dominic.

v. Histor. “He refused the archbishopric of York. who explained the decretals. 25. 75. and published by Quetif and Echard. in Old Castile. 89. Callaroga. v. 48.] A physician. a Franciscan.] Dominic was born April 5.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Tares.] Saint Buonaventura. v. Lyon. 1719. v. Dominic. The love. Francis. As men interpret it.] “But the rule of St. which was offered him by Clement IV. His birthplace. from which he communicated light to the east and the west. 1221. is said to have dreamt that she should bring forth a white and black dog. 111. transformed into the repercussion of the voice. A. 59. another. One. v. but through the fault of the pontiff.Paradise v. Felix.” v. 77. as Thomas Aquinas. given him in consequence of a vision by a noble matron. v. 51. his father and mother’s names. fol. Ed. -Illuminato here. 28. v. but afterwards was prevailed on to accept the bishopric of Albano and a cardinal’s hat.” v.] Felix Gusman. The see. general of the Franciscan order. That voice. but such would come neither from Casale nor Acquasparta:” of the former of which places was Uberto.” Dict.] A Saxon of the monastery of Saint Victor at Paris.] His godmother’s dream was. Francis is already deserted and the lees of the wine are turned into mouldiness. that now environ thee. a Dominican. Felix and Joanna. v.] Dominic did not ask license to compound for the use of unjust acquisitions. Par. “A man distinguished by the fecundity of his genius. and died August 6. is made to proclaim the praises of St. In the mother’s womb. said to be written in the thirteenth century.] He adverts to the parable of the taxes and the wheat. in Tuscany. are all told in an anonymous life of the saint. No dispensation.] A cardinal. I question not. from which have sprung up these four-and-twenty plants. And Agostino. and another in the nape of his neck. and died in 1274. who stood sponsor to him. when pregnant with him. of Florence.] Spain. Callaroga. 82.] Grace or gift of the Lord.] Between Osma and Aranda. par Chaudon et Delandine. who is seated in it. Francis. 12.] His mother. which no longer continues its wonted liberality towards the indigent and deserving. and of the latter. v. 1170. Ostiense.] “Some indeed might be found. t 1.] “For that seed of the divine word. with a lighted torch in its mouth. who treated in his writings of all the 353 . 88. 42. has celebrated those of St.D. who fed ill 1142 at the age of forty-four. v. v.] “The apostolic see. 121. The loving minion of the Christian faith. who still observe the rule of the order. 85. Matteo. one master general. in which he effected some reformation. The dame. Taddeo.] Two among the earliest followers of St. In favour of that seed.] The nymph Echo. But the track. who had enforced it with unnecessary rigour. Hugues of St. and indeed the establishment of the inquisition itself before the fourth Lateran council. 125. v. Ibid. as its doctrines are still the same. by dedicating a part of them to pious purposes. 55. Victor. 110. v. These writers deny his having been an inquisitor. v. 101. designated by the royal coat of arms. v. p. v. He was born at Bagnoregio or Bagnorea. 1221. 73. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. not indeed through its own fault. Buonaventura. 77. In that clime.” v. 1804. his mother’s dream.] By an act of mutual courtesy. 25. that he had one star in his forehead. and one of the most profound divines of his age. his name of Dominic. by whom the discipline had been relaxed. p.

2.” v. 33. Hist. A. where he afterwards devoted himself to a religious life. v. Oper.] “Having solved one of thy questions. about 1034. “It is an observation made by many modern writers. v. Leibnitz himself makes the remark. 23. Genev. v. and studied under Lanfrane at the monastery of Bec. 14. He relinquished these benefices to become a regular canon of St. c. della Lett. written in the name of Peter of Spain (by which he was known before he became Pope). v. Piatro Mangiadore. c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . iii. 2. v. by the falling in of the roof of his chamber. cent.” 354 . Ital. Canto XXIX. Jerome.] “Things corruptible and incorruptible.] Aelius Donatus. 134.] “Whoever would conceive the sight that now presented itself to me.] “To Pope Adrian V succeeded John XXI a native of Lisbon a man of great genius and extraordinary acquirements.” Mosheim.] The eloquent patriarch of Constantinople. or the Eater. and who composed several dissertations that are not destitute of merit. Eccl. may testify. c. “whom the multitude revered as a person divinely inspired and equal to the most illustrious prophets of ancient times. 2. CANTO XIII v. v.” v. The work by which he is best known. Victor at Paris. 2. as his books. p. that the demonstration of the existence of God. He enjoyed this dignity till his death.] St. Dominic. Hist. 1.” Ibid. 1768. ranged in two circles. Thou thinkest. v. His life was not much longer than that of his predecessors. in 1093. vol. Archbishop of Canter bury. I have looked into his writings. Chaudon et Delandine Dict. 131.] “Petrus Comestor. in his twenty-seventh year. A peer. p. v. 128. each resembling the crown of Ariadne. 570. xiv.] “Rabanus Maurus. 129. 2. p. p. Edit. though it was disturbed by many dissentions with William II and Henry I respecting the immunities and investitures.] “Anselm. ii. 1804. for he was killed at Viterbo. Stor. de Esp. especially in logic and in medicine. Hist. One ear. vacant by the death of Lanfrane. is his Historia Scolastica. t. iii . I proceed to answer the other. 125. 2. Chrysostom. Anselmo. 29. is deservedly placed at the head of the Latin writers of this age. to succeed to the archbishopric. Mariana. xiii. 2. 126. and moving round m opposite directions. In three years he was made prior. are only emanations from the archetypal idea residing in the Divine mind. that Adam and Christ were both endued with all the perfection of which the human nature is capable and therefore wonderest at what has been said concerning Solomon” v. v. where he died in 1198. which I shall have occasion to cite in the Notes to XXVI. in 1109. He of Spain. in the fourth century. l.D. Joachim. was so many ages back discovered and brought to light by Anselm. 48. ix. Raban. v. was canon and dean of that church. together with seven stars of Arcturus Major and two of Arcturus Minor. iii. was born at Aosta.] See Hell. 1277. Let him. cent.Paradise branches of sacred and profane erudition that were known in his time. That luminary. c. taken from the idea of a Supreme Being. 2 c.] Abbot of Flora in Calabria. one of the preceptors of St. then. born at Troyes. 1. Ibid. That. 31. 128. Donatus.” Tiraboschi. must imagine to himself fifteen of the brightest stars in heaven. cent. v. The Chiava. of which Des Cartes is thought to be the author. 45. v. after he had been pontiff only eight months and as many days. 21. Archbishop of Mentz. in Normandy. There is much depth and precisian in his theological works.] Thomas Aquinas. Lyon. the grammarian. and then abbot of that monastery! from whence he was taken. Ed. v. v. xii. 130. and found some reason for this high eulogium.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. and afterwards chancellor of the church of Paris. one within the other. iv.

] “He who considers that the eyes of Beatrice became more radiant the higher we ascended. v. v. To more lofty bliss. iii. That traveler. Troilus and Cresseide. c. 92.] The influence of the planetary bodies. 1. iii. affording instances of false reasoning. and the virtue or energy that acts on it. The goodliest light. 93. 55. 68. 126. informs us.] To the planet Mars. v.] Angels and human souls. He. The venerable sign. two and one Uncircumscript. CANTO XIV v. Thou one two. Him.” v. 684. 9.] Cacciaguida. v. His love triune with them. from the circle to the centre and that of Beatrice from the centre to the circle. v.] “He did not desire to know the number of the stars. father to Alighieri. v. 2. c. vi.The Divine Comedy of Dante . i.] For the singular opinions entertained by the two former of these heathen philosophers. from a consideration of his present character and actions. Such was the image. 125. v. see Diogenes Laertius. p. v. 62. 81. Sabellius. v. v. 138. 123.] Adam. Which calls her still. 26. 24.] “Let not short-sighted mortals presume to decide on the future doom of any man. that the wandering Arabs used their scymitars as mirrors. —Parmenides Melissus Bryso. v. v. Villani. 1. The last is also twice adduced by 2. 2. His brightness. 57. 89. Arius.] Purgatory. Their wax and that which moulds it.] The Word: the Son of God. iii. 1.] Matter.] See G. 52. 1. i. must not wonder that I do not except even them as I had not yet beheld them since our entrance into this planet. 5. l.” CANTO XV 355 . I am thy root. or to pry into the subtleties of metaphysical and mathematical science: but asked for that wisdom which might fit him for his kingly office.] Irrational life and brute matter. v. 1 and Phys.] A passage in the travels of Bertradon de la Brocquiere. l.] Well-known heretics. 124. 78. Who ask’d.” v. who wrote before Dante.) as 3. v. and Rhet.] The voice of Thomas Aquinas proceeding. 77. Scymitars. will explain this allusion. v. c.] The Holy Ghost. and all maist circonscrive.] The cross. and Aristot. v.] Virgil Aen. de Caelo. Florence.] Solomon. v. c. 88.] Literally translated by Chaucer. The mountain. The lowest powers. 53. The clay. translated by Mr. which has given some trouble to the commentators. v. Our greater Muse. 94.] The public clock being still within the circuit of the ancient walls. v. Johnes.Paradise v. 120. ix. 1. The heav’n. 84. of whom our Poet was the great-grandson. Aristotle (Anal Post. and three eterne on live That raignest aie in three. New existences. c. 2. Let not.

] When the women were not married at too early an age. not knowing him to be his ancestor. 31. near Florence. v. nd Notes. v. resided near the entrance of that named from the Porta S. the site of the villa Mellini. a lawyer. 1.” now uses more ceremony. who uses his name for an instance of effeminacy.] That the inhabitants of the above-mentioned places had not been mixed with the citizens: nor the limits of Florence 356 . and did not expect too large a portion.] Through the civil wars. therefore. The last. who had addressed the spirit. 15. 10. 50. From the day. 124. Each. v. the planet Mars had returned five hundred and fifty-three times to the constellation of Leo.] Two of the most opulent families in Florence. 48.] The Poet. Villani. Canto XX. 110.” Hell. 125. whose family name was Aldighieri. who were left in possession of the Holy Land. 130 Valdipado.] Cacciaguida’s wife. 38. from whence that city was discovered. Canto XIII. v.Paradise v. v.] The luxurious monarch of Assyria Juvenal is here imitated. Canto XVI. or of being deserted by her husband on a scheme of battle in France. Piero. v. and calls him “You. 44. 38. Villani. 113. through the supineness of the Pope. 103.] Florence.] Country places near Florence. v. That these people. Canto V. with a plain “Thou. With greeting. v. v. Conrad. 144. v. came from Ferrara. Of Nerli and of Vecchio. A Salterello and Cianghella. When.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 131. 1. 1 vi. 120. of which John the Baptist was the patron saint.” according to a custom introduced among the Romans in the latter times of the empire. v. 136. Mary. Bellincion Berti. 71. Void. 101.] Uccellatojo. v.] Beatrice’s smile encouraged him to proceed just as the cough of Ginevra’s female servant gave her mistress assurance to admit the freedoms of Lancelot. the ancestors of Dante. v. See Hell. 103. Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. which was the last reached by the competitor in the annual race at Florence.] The Emperor Conrad III who died in 1152. 34.] “None fearful either of dying in banishment. 21. 10. or Monte Mario. v.] The city was divided into four compartments. c. The fold.] Hell. v. His birth may. v. 101. 102 Sardanapalus. iv. v. called Val di Pado. Guinever.] The Virgin was involved in the pains of child-birth Purgatory. from its being watered by the Po.] The Mahometans. married to Lito degli Alidosi of Imola: the former Lapo Salterello. Villani. Sat. CANTO XVI v.] “Both in the times of heathenish and of Christianity. iv. See G. with which it is supposed to have a congenial influence. The Elisei. with whom Dante was at variance. 23. v. v. c. From Mars. Our suburban turret.] The latter a shameless woman of the family of Tosa.] From the Incarnation to the birth of Cacciaguida. commanding a view of Rome. Whose people. See G. be placed about 1106. Montemalo ] Either an elevated spot between Rome and Viterbo. 98. There is a curious description of the simple manner in which the earlier Florentines dressed themselves in G.

1. may consult G. 69. Supp. 74. v. With them. Villani.] Whoever is curious to know the habitations of these and the other ancient Florentines. The individual here alluded to is no longer known.]Two families in the v.” Shakespeare. 56. Simifonte. iv. Th’ o’erweening brood. 86. who. Luni. c.] The Adimari. iv. v..] Cities formerly of importance. See Macchiavelli. 80. belonging to one of the families thus distinguished. The sires of those. Aguglione’s hind and Signa’s.) was offended with his father-in-law.] Many editions read porta.] A castle dismantled by the Florentines. 2. i. and founded seven abbeys. For swifter course cometh thing that is of wight When it descendeth than done things light. 2. 91. Nic.] “Of the Visdomini. l. s. 113. Florence would not have been polluted by a race of upstarts. Compare Aristotle. One. 130.] So Chaucer. 127. in one whereof his memory was celebrated at Florence on St. 356. v. “gate. 2.” v. The gateway. 110. in consequence of which he sold all his possessions in Germany. Giolito. 132. v. 103. Villani. v.] If Rome had continued in her allegiance to the emperor. 99 v. 1. See Purgatory. to the simplicity of the people in naming one of the gates after a private family. where the vision is related. c.] The arms of the Abbati. v. v. v. 100. v. Had not the people. As the moon. which they do not spare. Villani. 30. v. Ediz. See G.] The same. that Ubertino Donato. a. b. The blind bull. The bullets of bright gold. or the Tosinghi one of which had committed a fraud in measuring out the wheat from the public granary. 124. that crown your city’s poop. c. Respect these wreaths. p. Troilus and Cresseide. with less probability. ii. l. and is there also scarce understood by the critics. nor lost the most respectable of her ancient families. v. that are the moon’s men doth ebb and flow like the sea. himself indeed derived from the same stock (see Note to Hell Canto XVI. v. The column cloth’d with verrey. v.” -The same metaphor is found in Aeschylus. who no longer retained his place among the nobility.] The Marchese Ugo. but then fallen to decay. and Bonifazio of Signa. At the poop. -Gualterotti dwelt And Importuni.Paradise extended beyond Galluzzo and Trespiano. The gilded hilt and pommel. gave many of the chief families license to bear his arms. 1 Henry IV. 1. Fior. 86. 99. as it is conjectured. v. Canto XII.” 357 . 72. v. This family was so little esteemed.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v.] Landino refers this to the smallness of the city: Vellutello.] Baldo of Aguglione. for giving another of his daughters in marriage to one of them. who had married a daughter of Bellincion Berti.] “The fortune of us. who resided at Florence as lieutenant of the Emperor Otho III. and had yet added to his arms a bordure or.] The arms of the Pigli. G. 13.] Either the Chiaramontesi. Ethic.] The symbols of knighthood v. vi. 1st. 61. 38. 109. The great baron. being sprung from the founders of the bishopric of Florence are the curators of its revenues. 54. Urbisaglia. whenever it becomes vacant. Thomas’s day. The Ughi. Chiusi and Sinigaglia. and the Guelph and Ghibelline factions had thus been prevented.] Giano della Bella. the Tosinghi and the Cortigiani.

19. in 1300. as if he had been a victim to the god. CANTO XVIII v. 65. Near the remains of the statue of Mars.] Phaeton. There. The Gascon. 38. v. with the same clearness of evidence. The great Lombard. where the expulsion of Dante’s party from Florence was then plotting. 27.] Either Alberto della Scala. in token of her defeat.] The Emperor Henry VII. 144.] 358 . 12. Great Harry.] “The evidence with which we see the future portrayed in the source of all truth. To Ema. Ovid. who came to his mother Clymene. 1. ad finem. Their coat of arms was a ladder and an eagle.] Of Amidei.” CANTO XVII v. 3.] “That thou mayst obtain from others a solution of any doubt that may occur to thee. The youth.] Can Grande della Scala. v. The arrow. 1. 69. From thence. Temp’ring the sweet with bitter. Che piaga antiveduta assai men duole. See Notes to Canto XXVIII. v. to inquire of her if he were indeed the son of Apollo.” v. nor been changed from argent to gules. v.] Pope Clement V. of Hell. v. born under the influence of Mars. and Florence had not since known the blessing of peace. 15. Buondelmonti was slain.” v.] “From the eternal sight.” v. On that maim’d stone. reflected in the sight by a ship sailing down a stream.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 80. or Bartolommeo his eldest son.” v. 49.] Nam praevisa minus laedere tela solent. v. The lily.] “It had been well for the city.Paradise compartment of the city called Borgo. The point.] “They shall be ashamed of the part they have taken aga’nst thee. Petrarca. the view of the Deity.] “Thou shalt stigmatize the faults of those who are most eminent and powerful. Trionfo del Tempo v. 80. v. v. Thou seest as clear. v. Canto XIII. no more necessitates that future than does the image. 127. v. necessitate the motion of the vessel. Met. 6.” as they afterwards were. That saintly lamp. Contingency. but at this time only nine years old v. 135. Theirs.] “Thou beholdest future events. v. That mortal.] At Rome.] Cacciaguida. See Ovid. when the Guelfi gained the predominance. 75. that we discern the simplest mathematical demonstrations. if thy ancestor had been drowned in the Ema. The cry thou raisest. 150.] The divine nature. when he crossed that stream on his way from Montebuono to Florence.] “The arms of Florence had never hung reversed on the spear of her enemies. 102. v.” v. 144. To own thy thirst. The house. 142. 43.] See Hell. i.

in 359 . 1. 3. Canto XXVIII. And Milton. ed.) but rather the two more celebrated heroes in the age of Charlemagne.] “Excommunication. To him. v. t. c. The great Maccabee.] The eagle predicts the devastation of Bohemia by Albert. v. That once more. xii.] Mars. 508. c. Robert Guiscard. in Duchesne. 130. Hist.] Compare Proverbs. after the battle of Courtrai. sed jure praeferenda est relatio authentica. professes to give his true life. William l. ed. cantilena. xx. 98. Par. is now employed as a weapon of warfare.] Judas Maccabeus.] Probably not. v. 42. which happened soon after this time. v. c. 26. Hist.] L. v. supposed to have been the founder of the present illustrious family of that name. 117. ye that be judges of the earth “ Wisdom of Solomon. 126.] Rev. Who turn’d his compass. 43. vii 224. P. Pope Boniface.” v. Tableau de l’Hist. v. Our countryman. of Orange. v.] Purgatory. 112. Morg. The latter is better known by having been celebrated by Ariosto. Ordericus Vitalis. v.] Godfrey of Bouillon. des Princes et Principante d’Orange.” v. Prague. 4to. two of the crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon. See Coxe’s House of Austria. 116. according to Joseph de la Piser. i.] “And thou. 12mo.] Matt. 3. v.” Eccl. Magg. Hist. des Croisades. 38. The characters. b.” v. Taking the bread away. or the interdiction of the Eucharist. William and Renard. 1302. i. William II of Orange. “Love righteousness. The former. s. under the name of Rinaldo. CANTO XIX v. who writest thy ecclesiastical censures for no other purpose than to be paid for revoking them. for had he thoroughly comprehended it. Normann Script. Shakespeare. The Word] “The divine nature still remained incomprehensible. Che come diligente intese e scrisse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Canto VI. c. 12. 81. c. On this fifth lodgment of the tree. part 1.] Philip IV of France. The Ethiop. That writest but to cancel. v. 28.] Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terrarm. 27. and his kinsman Raimbaud. 1682. as the commentators have imagined. i. p. 37. p. p. 96.” Vulgo canitur a joculatoribus de illo. Of this Lucifer was a proof. which had been misrepresented in the songs of the itinerant bards. 39. 46. 116. 43. 12.] See Hell. he would not have fallen. Pulci commends Dante for placing Charlemagne and Orlando here: Io mi confido ancor molto qui a Dante Che non sanza cagion nel ciel su misse Carlo ed Orlando in quelle croci sante.] The coin of Florence was stamped with the impression of John the Baptist. v. Duke Godfey. died about 808. (Maimbourg. 108. As you Like it. v. a. the fifth v. That volume. Albert.] “That he may again drive out those who buy and sell in the temple. L. viii. 41. v. 124. 114.” v. Charlemagne.Paradise Chewing the end of sweet and bitter fancy. v. He. when that Emperor obtained the kingdom for his eldest son Rodolph. 87 v.

son of Winceslaus II. v. Pesaro. xv. The meaning appears to be. is not recorded by the historian v. 136. in Sclavonia. 34. -Him Of Ratza.] He adverts to the disputes between John Baliol and Edward I. The Spaniard’s luxury. v. but the disgraceful forgery adverted to in the text. de Malte. 1. and XX. des Chev. in consequence. 215. See Purgatory. and Winceslaus. 360 . 1. and 1. Mariana. and whose history may be found in Mauro Orbino.] The eagle. p.derers of Eric VII king of Denmark. after a reign of near forty-six years. 19. Who.] Cities in the kingdom of Cyprus. It soon after (in 1328) followed the advice of Dante and had a monarch of its own. or Ratza. v. brother to Peter III. in 1314 v. the Imperial ensign. vi. 86. c. v. king of Majorca and Minorca. This king died in consequence of his horse being thrown to the ground by a wild boar. 135. 1.] Navarre was now under the yoke of France. the latter of whom is commended in the Purgatory.] The light of the sun. v. v. 117. vol. See Mariana.” Modern Univ. c. v. 4to edit. whence he supposes the other celestial bodies to derive their light v. v. Purgatory. Mountainous girdle. 121. The Bohemian.] James. where was the tomb of Anchises.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Canto VII. from 1161 to 1371. as it was supposed. and does not seem to have deserved the stigma here fastened on him. Navarre.] Frederick of Sicily son of Peter III of Arragon. Canto VII. raised the nominal value of the coin. p. commenced a war against his successor.] The Pyrenees. v. See Coxe’s House of Austria. king of Norway. Hist I. Dionysius was king of Portugal. -Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s. Canto VII. Regno degli Slavi. Ediz. His uncle. His brother. 11. who. is probably meant. v. iii. having given refuge to the mur. Purgatory. and died in 1312. Erie VIII. It seems probable that the allusion is to Ferdinand IV who came to the crown in 1295. The halter of Jerusalem. Hist. 140. v. 117. v.] James II of Arragon. 123. He died in 1328.] Winceslaus II. v. See note to Purgatory. xv. 133.] In the time of Dante. xxxii p. Hist. Canto VII. Uladislaus appears to have been the sovereign in Dante’s time. 138. Perhaps the rebellious son of Dionysius may be alluded to. i. Norway.Paradise which the French were defeated by the Flemings. 130. at the age of twenty four. son of Charles Martel. The great sign. prince of Bohemia. v. 6. 125. v. 78. almost to the utter ruin and destruction of both kingdoms. 136. c. 141. 143. He. 122. that the complaints made by those cities of their weak and worthless governor.] Haquin. 18.] Charles II of Naples and Jerusalem who was lame. xv. v. CANTO XX v. 122. Vertot. Wherein one shines. A D. v. 8. “which continued for nine years. v. The English and Scot. The isle of fire is Sicily.] The kingdom of Hungary was about this time disputed by Carobert. of his extreme intemperance. 133. who died in 1327.] The commentators refer this to Alonzo X of Spain. may be regarded as an earnest of his condemnation at the last doom. 1601.] One of the dynasty of the house of Nemagna. Canto VII. See Mariana. Hungary. which ruled the kingdom of Rassia. 1288. 127. at that time ruled by Henry II a pusillanimous prince. v. v.] David. Of Portugal.

Trojan Ripheus.” the sinner.] The constellation Leo. A stony ridge. The seventh splendour. Pietro distinguishes himself from another Pietro. William. and obtained the appellation of “the Good” and. v. 103. v. that had arisen from the mixture of the civil with the ecclesiastical power. The three nymphs. v. Peter. See Hell.] The planet Saturn v. Paul. v. 24. This. 112. He died at Faenza in 1072. The pair. 117. Canto XXIX. Compare Hell. Storia della Lett Ital. In equal balance. by the pains he took to correct the abuses among the clergy. 61. 39. CANTO XXI v. however. v.] Hezekiah.] Saturn. See Purgatory. Canto II. The prayers. He.] Faith.] Ripheus. Besides them. Hope. about 1007. Round this. Cephas. 56.] The cardinal’s hat. 44. king of Sicily. and prevailed on Alexander II to permit him to retire thither. ii. 97. v. Pietro Damiano obtained a great and wellmerited reputation. 21. t.] St. 130. and the bishopric of Ostia. 98.] At Ravenna. and Charity. v. 62. as the presence of Charles I of Anjou and Frederick of Arragon. he has left several treatises on sacred and ecclesiastical subjects. 68. as the poet says his loss was as much the subject of regret in his dominions. v. 116. Canto X. iii. according to which reading. That. v. 119. before he was sent on other embassies.] Trajan. Beside the Adriatic. is more unequivocally declared. v. 50.” Tiraboschi. iv.] Where the other souls were.] William II. Of that lov’d monarch. 91. 97.] Trajan. Aen. His letters throw much light on the obscure history of these times.] Ripheus. There is no passage in which Dante’s opinion of the evil. 30. 1. who was termed “Peccator. c. Some editions have FU instead of FUI. v.] Ripheus and Trajan. Canto XIV.] Round the spirit of Pietro Damiano.] “S.” v. He next. 114. v. and rewarded by Stephen IX with the dignity of cardinal. v. 4—. Pietro Damiano. v. What forbade the smile.] The prayers of St.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] The Apennine. Virg. 13. Ravenna is supposed to have been the place of his birth.] St. et servantissimus aequi. The hat. 2. at the latter part of the twelfth century He was of the Norman line of sovereigns. he preferred his former retreat in the monastery of Fonte Aveliana. Gregory v.Paradise v. 1. 57.] Constantine. 118. There aloft. v. v. 138. He was employed in several important missions. v.] “Because it would have overcome thee. The burning lion’s breast. was of sorrow and complaint. Purgatory. ‘The other following. His eloquence is worthy of a better age. to which. v. 119 The Holy Spirit’s vessel. justissimus unus Qui fuit in Teneris.] “My pleasure was as great in complying with her will as in beholding her countenance. Yet he did not long continue in this seclusion. 12.” 361 .

Maia and Dione. v. it is said.] There are two of this name enuerated by Mosheim among the Greek theologians of the fourth century. to render the eyes of Dante more capable of enduring the spectacle which now presented itself. 126. 98. xiv.] By synecdoche. v. was instituted.] The name of the Virgin. The rose.] A castle in the Terra di Lavoro. 73. cent. Compare Cicero. as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. v. Romoaldo.] So Milton. 130. That lyre. The lilies. v. 48. He was the author of a commentary on the Psalms. 36.D. See Purgatory. iv p. having sown the seed of good works on earth. 26. Th’ eternal nymphs. Canto XX. and the founder of the order of Camaldoli.] The constellation of Gemini. 2 . Eccles. a man of piety and reputation for the age he lived in.] S. ii. a native of Ravenna.” &c. The name of that fair flower. st. 70. v. 84. 2. “Macarius. b. 10.6.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 92. G. the brightest and most lovely portraiture of sanctity and virtue.] The stars. that with the sea Embraced is. 362 . as his works displayed. L. cent. 10.] The Virgin Mary. 48.] The planets Mercury and Venus. 71. P. and fully gan despite This wretched world. Scip. Phar 1. died in 1027. The Might. now contain the fruit of their pious endeavours. bands Of guardians bright. 107. 11. p. 14. 11 ch. 529. c. Somn. Macarius. i. The vengeance. v. 36. and Tasso. 11. A cresset. And down from thence fast he gan avise This little spot of earth. CANTO XXIII v. some few things excepted. Hist. b. 86.] Towards the south. 99. L. v. That region. 86. The sign. Cassino. Troilus and Cresseide. Romoaldo. I it was.] Those spirits who.9. v. A. v.] The angel Gabriel. when he is in the east or the west. In the following chapter. 140. 38. This globe. The patriarch Jacob.] The apostles. v.] The diving light retired upwards. v. it is supposed. v. by Benedict of Nursis. v. v.] Our Saviour v.] So Chaucer. 2 . which in a manner absorbed all the others that were established in the west. v. v. Thou didst exalt thy glory. ix. 26. an Egyptian monk.” Maclaine’s Mosheim.] A name of Diana. 510: The stairs were such.” v.Paradise CANTO XXII v. intimates the approaching fate of Boniface VIII. vi. Trivia. undoubtedly deserves the first rank among the practical matters of this time. 9. than. Lucan.] “A new order of monks. Those rich-laden coffers.] Beatrice. ch. iii. where the course of the sun appears less rapid. “Jam ipsa terra ita mihi parva visa est.] The Virgin v. the lyre is put for the angel v. v. 11. The goodliest sapphire. v.

The canons of St. v. 65.1. Lardner rejects that opinion as absurd. built. “At the time that the sepulchre of the apostle St.” for that John came first to the sepulchre. 39. c. but let me know if thy inward persuasion is conformable to thy profession.” Ps. From Egypt to Jerusalem. In the next Canto. T. but even round about to foreign nations. v. videns allum discipulum cunctantem ad ostium. qua spiritualia et aeterna bona speratam. Sine meritis enim aliquid sperare non spes. Sent. Bas.] See Mariana. with a desire of remedying these evils. cum venit in monumentum. James is called “Barone. As to outstrip. Who. along the whole read.” Opere de Dante. Many others were deterred by the difficulty for the journey. “Est autem spes virtus. whose shrine was at Compostella. Marsh. St. v. translated by Dr.] St. 31. but is well answered by Michaelis. 1793. E delle non visioili argomento. v. James. But let Dante have leave to explain his own meaning.] “The answer thou hast made is right. 13. 133. 129.Paradise v. Iii. Lomb. 1.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] This is from the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus. “made a slip. v. V. Ven. 1. which reached as far as to France. P. G. 35. vi. 10. CANTO XXIV v. For its sake. is obliged to leave the question undecided. 26. 82. I lifted up. in one of his sonnets. The second flame. Ed. Eloy afterwards (the precise time is not known). The fair sheep-fold.] Quel Baron. Cambridge. Current. That Worthy. c. by the roughness and barrenness of those parts. 1793. 26. 1. ii. in Galicia. 20. So Marino. who made captives many of the pilgrims.] Venturi insists that the Poet has here. 3.” v. though Peter was the first to enter it. 59. 67. the devotion for that place extended itself not only over all Spain.] From the lower world to heaven.” So in Boccaccio. The ancient bond and new. N. 40. Cxxi. Multitudes from all parts of the world came to visit it. hospitals for the reception of the pilgrims. dici potest. 363 . we find “Baron Messer Santo Antonio. v. The learned and candid Michaelis contends very forcibly for its having been written by James the Elder. v.] During their abode in this world. 1. He. . with the other holy men of the Old and New testament. xi. ed. As Jesus. xi. 91. beatitudinem aeternam. Which of the two was the author of it is yet doubtful. “En el tiempo. v.] For the sake of that faith.” v.] In the transfiguration on Mount Tabor.] The Old and New Testament. Peter.” &c.” v.” Pet. Such folds.] Pindar has the same bold image: On which Hayne strangely remarks: Ad ambitus stropharum vldetur. 28. CANTO XXV v. v. James is here attributed to the elder apostle of that name. while Benson argues against it. 124. Dist.] “I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills. iv. in a passage from his third book De Monarchia: “Dicit etiam Johannes ipsum (scilicet Petrum) introiisse SUBITO.] St. and by the incursions of the Moors. which calls Divozioni: Fede e sustanza di sperate cose. id est. Galicia throng’d with visitants. 13. Hope. Faith. v. who after all. 6. James was discovered. 146. sed praesumptio.] Hebrews. whence he was banished. v. v. 2. 114.] The Epistle of St. See his Introduction to the New Testament. Hist. from whence cometh my help. in many places. In the Babylonian exile.] Florence.

I will make. ix. in the last Canto but one. 135. Use. “Primum apud Hebraeos Dei nomen El dicitur. The leaves. CANTO XXVI v. 82. 9. of the writer who goes by the name of Dionysius the CANTO XXVII v. 62. Four torches. Poet. Thy brother. John v. referred to in the twenty-eighth Canto. if it 364 .” v. being the eldest. The two. v. Peter’ who looked as the planet Jupiter would. and others. there would be no interruption to the light. 107. James. Paul. 11. 112. 1. That. Peter.] Created beings.] Adam. St. The first living soul. who reclined on the bosom of our Saviour. but the whole month would be as a single day.” I. Canto II. Isaias ] Chap. from Limbo. Winter’s month.” In the Historia Scolastica of Petrus Comestor.” St. John. by putting his hand on St.” v. 42. who.” instead of EL: but the latter of these readings is confirmed by a passage from Dante’s Treatise De Vulg. had said. ed. cap. EL] Some read UN. or in spirit only. 177. v.] Some suppose that Plato is here meant. 10. v. that he tarry till I come what is that to thee.] St. &c. v. v. v. 4to. 2.] Psalm ix.] Who.] St. v. Ananias’ hand.] St. v. 133. 117. whom he has described.] That is.] St.] John. 13. v. 127. 62. St. 90. videlicet El. 1. Acts. 53. 36. lxi. i. v. which followed the death of Christ. 19. as rising above his sight. From him. Isidore in the Origines. t. 121. v. xxxiii. in his Banquet.] “I remained in the terrestrial Paradise only tothe seventh hour.] He looked so earnestly. 4. and to whose charge Jesus recommended his mother. v. p. 9. makes Phaedrus say: “Love is confessedly amongst the eldest of beings. At the outset. “Quod prius vox primi loquentis sonaverit.” v. John were present there in body.] From Horace. is the cause to us of the greatest goods “ Plat. 40. The eagle of our Lord. to descry whether St. This. Parhelion.] Christ and Mary. i. 51. v. All my life. x. John. it is said of our first parents: Quidam tradunt eos fuisse in Paradiso septem horae. The beamy flame.] “If a luminary.The Divine Comedy of Dante . vii. 1. Op. Areopagite. “One. Eloq.] St. 101. c. 17. c. restored his sight. v. Ars. and Adam. like that which now appeared. Whence. were to shine throughout the month following the winter solstice during which the constellation Cancer appears in the east at the setting of the sun. but is himself enlightened and comprehended by none. 1. John in the Revelation. v. c.] St. 10. Adam says that 5232 years elapsed from his creation to the time of his deliverance. So I.] Who enlightens and comprehends all things. vii. Fol. ed. John. c. See Hell. viro sanae mentis in promptu esse non dubito ipsum fuisse quod Deus est. 138.] Exodus. 1513. and. 94. c. v. Par.Paradise 1486. having had his doubts raised by that saying of our saviour’s: “If I will. Bip. 74. 1. Others have understood it of Aristotle. His anthem.

126.” thus called. 37. Ovid. the other heavens must be considered. Did Sextus. and the sun in Aries. 40. therefore.” says Beatrice.] Compare Milton. and Callixtus bleed And Urban. v.] Since he had last looked (see Canto XXII. of whom see Hell. v. part of those two constellations. in Italy.] Because. There was. 72. v. b. 76.] Phoenicia. the half of our hemisphere. a Gascon. into which it is divided. xii. shall amount to so large a portion of time. 184. in the fourth century. v. in the second. such colour. a native of Cahors.] He alludes to Jacques d’Ossa.] See Hell.” By this periphrasis is meant “ in a short time.] The commentators in general suppose that our Poet here augurs that great reform.” v. Of Linus and of Cletus. Canto XXVI.] “Here. from whence time springs: for the parts. v. v. as appears from the mention that is made of John XXII. Castor and Pollux. and a quarter of the heaven. He. 20. The shore. 63. iii. 78. Pius.] Dante was in the constellation Gemini. Wolves. 106 v. and to Clement V. Cahorsines and Gascons. “child of the sun.] Qui color infectis adversi solis ab ietu Nubibus esse solet. v. it cannot be denied but the conjecture is probable. v. which are drops in the reckoning of every year. &c. the daughter of Agenor mounted on the back of Jupiter. v. v. L. P. Time’s roots. 53. as has been before said. Canto XIX. 131.Paradise assumed the sanguine appearance of liars. the shepherds are become wolves. 135. Peter) should serve as a mark to authorize iniquitous grants and privileges. or that my figure (the seal of St. The sun. The fair child of him. and assumed the name of John XXII.] Bishops of Rome in the first century. No purpose was of ours. v. bishops of the same see. “are the roots. 80..] “From the Gemini. when we consider that this Canto was not finished till after the death of Henry.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” And she then breaks out into an exclamation on the degeneracy of human nature.] The former two. From Gades. Met. From the hour.] Boniface VIII. 508. 129. terms the day.” v. 112. 365 . Before the date. The fair nest of Leda. and the others. Pindar by a more easy figure. 42. 86. Lombardi refers the prognostication to Can Grande della Scala: and. between them. None. that January shall be no more a winter month. and Note. The she-goat.] When the sun is in Capricorn. such a thing will happen before a thousand years are over when we mean.] So she calls human nature. v. which he vainly hoped would follow on the arrival of the Emperor Henry VII. where Europa. 1. v. after it had been two years vacant.] “We did not intend that our successors should take any part in the political divisions among Christians. it will happen soon. and the whole of Taurus. before those fractions. v. v. which does not lift itself to the contemplation of divine things. Fortune shall be fain.) he perceived that he had passed from the meridian circle to the eastern horizon.” as we say familiarly. 26. because Leda was the mother of the twins. 51. who filled the papal chair in 1316. in his shape of a bull.] “Before many ages are past. 93. aut purpureae Aurorae.

to the eighth sphere. Orb within orb Milton. when the constellation Aries rises at sunset. v. Pent. and the intermediate part of the creation. It is almost unnecessary to add.] Gregory the Great. otestates. when they are opposite to one another. progeny of light. and in like manner throughout the two other trines of circles and spheres. that the orbits of the latter are more swift. P. Jerome had described the angels as created before the rest of the universe: an opinion which Thomas Aquinas controverted.” v. 601. fol.] Compare Homer. Heav’n. ed. P. were produced at once. was the production of a later age. L. The sturdy north. v. v. f. xxxiv. domination’s. which is God. princedoms.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the more they approximate to the central point. virtutes. quia videlicet esse. Paul. “From that beginning depend heaven and nature. and both hang for a moment. four. scimus: Angelos. On Jerome’s pages. that of the seraphim. 124. Gregory. the circles are more excellent and powerful. b. the more ample the body is.] The material world and the intelligential (the copy and the pattern) appear to Dante to differ in this respect. Milton. archangelos. 7. 125.] [GREEK HERE] Aristot. he says. which goes under his name. II. L. Thrones. 22.] The Areopagite. dominationae. xii. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. the nearer they are to the centre. noised as it were in the hand of the zenith. by the influence of autumn. v. not in process of before or aft. His threefold operation. and so went on doubling to the end of the account. that is.] Hear all ye angels. c. or primum mobile. as Dante thinks. if for the first we reckoned one. For. Par. or heaven of fixed stars. 1. He had learnt. 366 . brute matter. thronos. hangs upon that point. v. 106. Hom. cherubin atque seraphin. and the other under that of Libra. Metaph. v. Thus the first circle. had learnt from St. But in the intelligential world. for the next. v. that of the cherubim. above referred to. v. 82. Canto XXXIV.] Not injured. which participates both of spirit and matter. 51. and the latter. Dominations. or circle of thrones. The seeming contradiction is thus accounted for by Beatrice. 1518. b.] Dionysius. 30. v. whereas the contrary is the case with the orbits of the former. corresponds to the ninth sphere. 110. CANTO XXIX v. v. of time. Such diff’rence. principatus. 119. like the productions of our spring. as the sun and moon are in changing hemispheres. b.] St. 36. No longer. that the book. in his book De Caelesti Hierarchia.” Divi Gregorii. testante sacro eloquio. 105. virtues.] As short a space. powers. In the material world. v. v.] The sparkles exceeded the number which would be produced by the sixty-four squares of a chess-board. Dionysius. In number. 70.] See Hell.Paradise CANTO XXVIII v. 596. 1. or planet of Saturn.] He seems to mean that spiritual beings. and all nature. the one under the sign of Aries. 38. 126. v. In orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. “Novem vero angelorum ordines diximus. 524. the greater is the good of which it is capable supposing all the parts to be equally perfect. had Scripture on his side. v. two. the second. till the creation of the world.] There was neither “before nor after.” no distinction. to the seventh sphere. the third. for the third. 43.

121. v. cxxii. 263.] Common names of men at Florence v.] Son di lor vero ombriferi prefazii. 518. s.” Macbeth. But all sunshine. History in Dr. l. Of Bindi and of Lapi. clear as crystal. Saint Anthony. v. cent. 61. in his Religious Musings.” See Mosheim’s Eccles. when you should woo a soul. 118. The sheep. iii. L. c. This turn hath made amends. that remained faithful. from whom. Rot inwardly. b. &c. The hungry sheep look up and are not fed. 111. From behind the swine of St. Milton. and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. Anthony. v. P. 112. My view with ease.] He compares the vanishing of the vision to the fading away of the stars at dawn.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 80. 108. Maclaine’s Translation. v. v. Daniel.] So Milton.] Of angels. P. . v.] A lake That to the fringed bank with myrtle crown’d Her crystal mirror holds.] Questa vice. xi. 39. v.28. v. So Mr. As some cliff.Paradise v. 406. nor shade. Boniface VIII. Task.” Rev. which is more light. 1. vii.] Thus Shakespeare calls the eyelids “penthouse lids. when it is noon-day six thousand miles off. Engirt. P. b. Hence perhaps Milton. iv.] On the sale of these blessings. which are in reality encompassed by it. Milton. I.” v. formed by the earth over the part of it inhabited by the Poet. 44. b. viii. a.” Dan. 2. v. iii. 131.] From the ninth sphere to the empyrean. b. Lycidas. who died in 1313. or of liquid pearl. Life is a vision shadowy of truth. ‘Tis pitiful To court a grin. 491. the latter in that form which they will have at the last day. The preacher. Of the great Harry. But. proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. L.] Far and wide his eye commands For sight no obstacle found here. P. p. Coleridge. 2.] “Thousand thousands ministered unto him. and of beatified souls. Shadowy of the truth. 3. Either mighty host. ii.] Thus Cowper. c. and the shadow. our Poet levels a blow at the object of his inveterate enmity. 135. 18. Light flowing. Fattens with this his swine. Six thousand miles. v. L. is about to disappear. 13.] “appearing to be encompassed by these angelic bands. ii.] The Emperor Henry VII. Milton. v. b. 140. 88. v. v. 1. —underneath a bright sea flow’d Of jasper.] “And he showed me a pure river of water of life. v. they obtained the dignity and privileges of an independent congregation. swoln with wind and the rank mist they draw. 10. 367 . Forth. CANTO XXX v. “in 1297. 616. —the eves Of mine eyelids. This turn. the brothers of St. Anthony supported themselves and their paramours.

iii. v.] Eve. Bees.] The Virgin Mary. 108. and the great promoter of the second crusade. v. v. P. iii. b. 141. 87. Aen. or Bootes. 3 .Paradise v. de l’Hist.19. c. L. 109. “Light of Light. Ancestress. v.] Callisto. Canto II. 123. See Canto XXVII. 1. cent. She. then preserved at Rome. Hell. Aen. “chefs~d’oeuvres de sentiment et de force. 768. 145. 101. 53. 15. 93. 118. 95. 63. vi.] St. fab. ii. the ancestress of David. v. ii. Lucia.D.] The Trinity. Catullus.The Divine Comedy of Dante . His sermons are called by Henault. than fiveand-twenty ages would have appeared to the Argonauts. v. c. Tortaque remigio spumis incanduit unda. Helice. In holy scripture. Iliad. 3. Emersere feri candenti e gurgite vultus Aequoreae monstrum Nereides admirantes. v. et Thet. It is uncertain whether they were not delivered originally in the French tongue. Alagna’s priest. v. p. v. as it supposed her being honoured with a privilegewhich belonged to Christ Alone Dr. v. 97. Virg. and opposed the doctrine itself with the greatest vigour. Pel. 368 . That the part he acts in the present Poem should be assigned to him appears somewhat remarkable. v. 430.] See Hell. 89. He.] St. v. The Sybil’s sentence. The queen. That circling. xxv.] Gen.] Ruth.] The second of the circles.] Menage on this word quotes the Roman des Royau End Paradise.” in which he dimly beheld the mystery of the incarnation. on which the countenance of our Saviour was supposed to have been imprest. clipt in one bound. Oriflamme est une banniere De cendal roujoyant et simple Sans portraiture d’autre affaire. ii.] “A moment seems to me more tedious. They have even been preferred to al1 the productions of the ancients. and Milton. 445. —Iignages of Guillaume Ghyart. Oriflamb. 60. 29. 119. de Fr. CANTO XXXI v. changed into the constellations of the Greater Bear and Arctophylax. Bernard. Met. v. l.] Compare Homer. Him. v. 8. See Ovid. when we consider that he severely censured the new festival established in honour of the Immaculate Conception of the virgin. 6. v.] Pope Clement V. xii. Canto XIX. I. when they had resolved on their expedition.] Pope Boniface VIII. CANTO XXXIII v. 79. Argo’s shadow] Quae simul ac rostro ventosnm proscidit aequor.] Virg.” Abrege Chron. 92. in his sixtythird year. CANTO XXXII v. One moment. 1145. Maclaine’s Mosheim. and her son Arcas. Bernard. Bernard. v. Three orbs of triple hue. De Nupt. Our Veronica ] The holy handkerchief. and the author has been termed the last of the fathers of the church. 22. the venerable abbot of Clairvaux. 1153. who died A.

XXVIII. Purg. presented by different editions and commentators. 16 and Purg C. and becomes King of Naples. with the text of the original. and Par. because the story (if story it may be called) ends happily. 104. Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of the differences at Florence. owing to many interruptions. 1268. VII. Of his own ancestry he speaks in the Paradise. Guittone d’Arezzo. C. who shall be at the trouble of examining into the degree of accuracy with which the task has been executed. dies. not concluded till the summer before last. And Purgatory. 369 . 1275. C. Purg. H. 118. in more instances than I have noticed. C. January. is defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou. C. Thomas Aquinas dies. 67. and C. have made their appearance in this country. 96. 110. executed. D. secretary to Philip III. 25. as more conformable to the genius of our language than that of “The Divine Comedy. dies. Buonaventura dies. XXIV. during which (to use the eloquent language of Mr. 1814 A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF THE AGE OF DANTE A. I published the first part of the following translation. the painter. 66. and XVI. 97. Manfredi. the poet. I may be allowed to suggest. 1266. Purg. Gianni de’ Soldanieri heads the populace in that city. C. I have subjoined. It is not necessary that I should add a third: and I am induced to hope that the Poem. because the style was of the middle kind: and in the next. XXVI. XXVIII. 13. H. since. daughter of Folco Portinari. a view not only of the principal events which befell him. may not be without interest for the mere English reader.” Dante himself. H. 129. of England is succeeded by Edward I. C. XI. Our Poet first sees Beatrice. XXXII. 23. “The Purgatory” and “The Paradise. XII. 1274. Guido Guinicelli. XIX. XI. Purg. 96. Par. XXIII. H. Giotto. Pope Adrian V. Instead of a Life of my Author. C. The translation of the second and third parts. Fra. Canto XV. 83. In the same year. C. that their judgment should not be formed on a comparison with any single text of my Author. in Italian. but. XXVII.” in the first place. 1265. C. is born. Coleridge) “my individual recollections have been suspended. 38. C. even in the present version of it. two impressions of the whole of the Divina Commedia. son of Alighieri degli Alighieri and Bella. but of the chief public occurrences that happened in his time: concerning both of which the reader may obtain further information. Since that period. In one or two of those editions is to be found the title of “The Vision.Appendixes PREFACE In the years 1805 and 1806. in chronological order. Dante. and lulled to sleep amid the music of nobler thoughts. Henry III. C. Purg. 1276. of France. I have had to make my choice out of a variety of readings and interpretations. C. and as early as the year 1797. dies. 56. C. I do not regard those hours as the least happy of my life. king of Naples and Sicily. XX. VI. C. XX. C. I believe. Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sovereignty of Ravenna. On a retrospect of the time and exertions that have been thus employed. 95. Purg.” nor that study as misapplied. is born at Florence. X. termed it simply “The Comedy. To those.” was begun long before the first. by turning to the passages referred to in the Poem and Notes. III.” which I have adopted. the poet. Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death. Pierre de la Brosse. Hell. Purg. which has familiarized me with one of the sublimest efforts of the human invention. 1272.

59. C. Cimabue. 111. Ottocar. visits Florence. C. king of Hungary. dies. Can Grande della Scala is born. H. abdicates the papal chair. 86. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. Par. 135. 117. Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by Rugiez de Lauria. 1284. III. Purg. January 27. C. H. 1303. C. 56. C. C. 16. 113. and is succeeded by James II. 93. 61. 1294. X. V. C. 1279. C. 91. Par. Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal. The French defeated by the people of Forli. and XXI. Dante studies at the universities of Bologna and Padua. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. Guido Cavalcanti. 90. XXXII. H. 95. Charles Martel. XX. Par. of Arragon. 133. Purg.” 1288. XIV. XXIV. die. C. Brunetto Latini. Henry II. XXXIII. Carlino de’ Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano Travigne. C. XXI. son of Peter III. Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi dies of famine. 1296. H. 119. where the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo. XXXII. and condemned to two years’ banishment. C. C. H. The Emperor Rodolph dies. I. H. and VII. XXXII. VII. 96. C. XI. the painter. 1302. 75. XIX. H. X. and dies in the same year. XIX. C. C. H. dies. 1289. Purg. The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise in Pistoia. C. 67. He is sentenced. Frederick. 127. Par. During his absence at Rome. This is the year in which he supposes himself to see his Vision. XXXII. H. C. the most beloved of our Poet’s friends. dies. 1282. Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes “The War of Troy. Forese. C. Purg. Purg. dies. 28. C. dies. Par. 1281. 60. to be burned. XII. of Arragon. 101 and 110. 14. C. to the Florentines. He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans. June 11. and Purg C. 97. 1295. 135. I. Purg. XIX 71. VIII. Purg. Pope John XXI. VII. He marries Gemma de’ Donati. C. XIX. C. Purg. Charles I. Purg. H. 1278. and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. C. Purg. 57. XIX. 47. C. Purg. XIX. C. VII. or first of the Priors of Florence. 1. C. XX. dies. 109. Par. XIX. dies. 1287. John D’Acre. 1301. 144. 2. 80. His preceptor. dies. C. 1285. XX. Pope Martin IV. Tribaldello de’ Manfredi betrays the city of Faenza. 133. C. becomes king of Sicily. XXXIII. Par. Purg. 55. The French vanquished in the battle of Courtrai. 1280. The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia. XV. H. Philip III. 84. XVII. VII. 1291. king of Cyprus. XI. 142. 1290. in Valdarno. Purg. 98. 44. dies. 370 . dies. and Par. XXVII. XXIV. Albertus Magnus dies. 1300. king of Bohemia. Fulcieri de’ Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the Ghibelline party. C. VIII. the companion of Dante. 23. if taken. H. Par. C. of Arragon. H. VII. C. C. C. He is chosen chief magistrate. 92. with whom he lives unhappily. dies. C. king of Naples. and Peter III. admiral to Peter III. and continues in office from June 15 to August 15. 104. Pope Nicholas III. Purg. Purg. Clement V.Appendixes 1277. king of Majorca and Minorca. C. C. XXXII. of Arragon dies. 41. March 10. Alonzo III. The Sicilian vespers. 135. VI. H. 78. C. March 9. XXVII. and Par. Par. C. C. Purg. XIX. 126. Dante writes his Vita Nuova. Haquin. XX. Pope Boniface VIII. James. Dante is in the battle of Campaldino. C. comes to the throne. and XXVII. makes war on Denmark. of France. Beatrice dies. king of Norway. C. H. C. Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire.

1313. H. C. C. XIX. Par. Corso Donati. XVII. 1306. over various parts of Italy. 53. Par. under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. and XXX. and Par. VII. as one of the early commentators reports. XIX. C. XVII. return to http://www2. Charles II. and Par. His obsequies are sumptuously performed at Ravenna by Guido. 114. C. dies. under the roof of the Signori della Scala. 117. 1321. and Par. C. He seeks an asylum at Verona. He wanders. Dante visits Padua. whose father had been banished two years before from Florence. and XXX. XXVII. at Oxford.Appendixes 146. Winceslaus II. who himself died in the ensuing year. May. John XXII. 125. He is at Paris twice. king of Naples. H. is burned. C. 99. A conflagration happens at Florence. dies. He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. 61. He joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the city of Florence. C. 1314. C. about this time. C. Par. Par. 9. See his Convito.psu. 9. 94. XIX 123. Purg. XXIV. Petrarch. VII. 135.hn. 108. C. 69. C. July 20. 133. 80. XXVI. H. XIX. and Par. 122. July. Purg.htm If you wish to download more copies of Dante’s works. XXVII. C. C. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. and C. Dante’s political enemy. 20. 1316. Dolcino. 53. XXVII. 1307. 1305. If you wish to download more Electronic Classics Series electronic books. Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Grande. murdered. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve. and. of a complaint brought on by disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had been conducting with the Venetians. for his patron Guido Novello da Polenta. XXVIII. Purg. dies. XIX. XVII. Par. VIII. Dante dies at Ravenna. by whom he had hoped to be restored to Florence. C. Pope Clement V. Purg. VI. 140. of Spain. The Emperor Albert I. XXVI. and Par. C. 141. C. XIX. the fanatic. The Emperor Henry of Luxemburg. 1308. C. king of Bohemia.edu/faculty/jmanis/ jimspdf. of France dies. Ferdinand IV. return to http://www2. 86. H. 53. 45. slain. XIX. C.htm 371 . Purg. C. He takes refuge at Ravenna with Guido Novello da Polenta. elected Pope. Purg. C. is born at Arezzo. 1310. 1304. Par. C. XX. 98.hn.edu/faculty/jmanis/ dante. Philip IV.psu. dies. 81. dies. C. The Order of the Templars abolished. Par. IX. 1309.

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