From Subnetting to VLSM

Classful vs. Classless Routing VLSM Explained Why VLSM Suggestions for Teaching VLSM

Credits
‡ Virginia Phillips, CCNA, CCAI
± Instructor CCNP classes, Youngstown State University

‡ Edmund Ickert, CCNA, CCAI
± Instructor CCNA classes, Youngstown State University, completed all CCNP courses

‡ Sandeep Kolwalkar, CCNA
± Graduate Student, taking CCNP classes, Youngstown State University

Classful vs Classless Routing
‡ Classful routing assigns address space based on the value in the first octet of the 32-bit IP address
± RFC Number 791 (760) ± Class based on value in first octet value ± Receiving router ands subnet mask to determine subnet
‡ Class A ‡ Class B ‡ Class C 0-126 128-191 192-223

‡ Classless routing ignores classes and uses a CIDR value (number of 1s in network mask) to identify the network
± CIDR transmitted as part of IP address ± RFC 1517-1520 ± Network portion not restricted to entire octet

Classless Routing
Address Space Issues

‡ Class A and Class B = 75% address space
± < 17000 organizations can be assigned address

‡ Class C = 12.5% available address space
± Each network limited to 254 maximum hosts ± Potential routing problems
‡ Too many network addresses in routing table ‡ Extra work for CPU; more memory required

Private Addressing
RFC 1918

‡ Class A 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 ‡ Class B 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 ‡ Class C 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
± Used to extend life of IPv4 addressing ± Note: Do not mix private and public IP address in same network ± it will create discontiguous subnets which causes problems

Classless Routing
‡ Another method used to extend the life of IPv4 ‡ Temporary solution to deal with lack of network numbers ‡ Uses bit mask (NOT 1st octet value) to determine network portion of address ‡ Uses CIDR to summarize routing information; CIDR transmitted with IP address ‡ Enables the use of supernets and/or route aggregation and summarization
± Smaller routing tables ± Reduced router memory requirements ± Reduced number of CPU cycles for routing processes

Routing Protocols
‡ Classful ± can¶t send subnet information in updates
± RipV1, IGRP, EGP, BGP3 ± also can¶t support discontiguous subnets

‡ Classless
± Sends CIDR in updates sent via multicasting ± Can authenticate
‡ RipV2 (RFC 1058), EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP4
± RIPV2 and EIGRP automatically summarize at classful boundary unless you configure differently » RouterA (config-router) no auto-summary

VLSM
Variable Length Subnet Masking

‡ Subnets a subnet ‡ Can support multiple contiguous routes ‡ Can use more than one subnet mask for address space allocated to a firm ‡ Makes more efficient use of available address space
± Creates two-host subnets for serial links

Why Not IPv6?
128-bit address space

‡ Slow to arrive ‡ IPv4 revitalized with new features
± VLSM, NAT/PAT, IP unnumbered, private addresses

‡ Not supported by legacy systems ‡ Requires new software (and hardware) ‡ Requires retraining

Zero Subnet (Ones too?)
‡ Zero subnet
± IOS 12.X and higher supports by default ± Configure pre-12.x IOS routers
‡ RouterA(config) IP subnet-zero

± DO Use it to increase address space available

‡ Ones subnet
± Defined in RFC 1878 ± Can use it; however can cause problems ± Avoid using unless you absolutely need it

Route Aggregation Example 1
‡ Assume you are using three Class B private addresses
± 172.16.0.0 ± 172.17.0.0 ± 172.18.0.0 10101100.000100 00.0.0 10101100.000100 01.0.0 10101100.000100 10.0.0

‡ Common bits are 10111000.0001
± 8 bits in first octet + 6 bits in second octet = 14 ± CIDR is 14

‡ Insulates upstream routers from route flapping problems (serial link problem)

Route Aggregation Example 2
‡ Assume you are using three Class A private addresses
± 10.20.0.0 ± 10.21.0.0 ± 10.22.0.0 00001010.000101 00.0.0 00001010.000101 01.0.0 00001010.000101 10.0.0

‡ Common bits are 00001010.000101
± 8 bits in first octet + 6 bits in second octet = 14 ± CIDR is 14

Supernet Example 1
‡ Company assigned 4 contiguous Class C networks
± ± ± ± 200.10.10.0 200.10.11.0 200.10.12.0 200.10.13.0 11001000.00001010.00001010.0 11001000.00001010.00001011.0 11001000.00001010.00001100.0 11001000.00001010.00001101.0

‡ Summarize on common bits = 21 ‡ Appears in routing table as 200.10.10.0/21

Supernet Example 2
‡ Company assigned 4 contiguous Class C networks
± ± ± ± 200.10.101.0 200.10.102.0 200.10.103.0 200.10.104.0 11001000.00001010.11001001.0 11001000.00001010.11001010.0 11001000.00001010.11001011.0 11001000.00001010.11001100.0

‡ Summarize on common bits = 21 ‡ Appears in routing table as 200.10.101.0/21

Network Subnet Example
‡ 128.1.0.0/16 is assigned IP address
± 130 subnets needed ± Requires use of third octet for subnet values
‡ 1,2,3,4, «., 254

± Each subnet can support 254 hosts ± Each serial connection will use a subnet and waste 252 address spaces

Network Subnet Example
‡ Assigned IP address is 128.1.0.0
± Scenario - 130 subnets needed and 20 serial connections used now ± Requires use of third octet for subnets
‡ 128.1.0.0 to 128.1.254.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or CIDR 24 ‡ Each subnet can support 254 hosts ‡ To use an entire subnet for a serial connection would waste 252 address spaces and we have 20 now ± SO«..

Network Subnet Example
Subnet the Subnet

‡ Use subnets 128.1.0.0 to 128.1.129.0 for needed subnets with a CIDR of 24 ‡ Subnet subnet 128.1.130.0 using CIDR 30
± ± ± ± ± 128.1.130.0/30 128.1.130.4/30 128.1.130.8/30 ««««««.. 128.1.130.252/30

Network 2 Subnet Example
‡ A Network address of 200.10.20.0 is assigned
± Subnet with a CIDR of 26
‡ 200.10.20.0, 200.10.20.64 (62 hosts)

± Subnet subnet 128 with a CIDR of 28
‡ 200.10.20.128, 200.10.20.144, 200.10.20.160 (14 hosts)

± Subnet subnet 200.10.20.176 with a CIDR of 30
‡ 200.10.20.176, 200.10.20.180, 200.10.20.184 (2 hosts)

‡ Can summarize (aggregate) on
± 200.10.20.0/26

Using VLSM
‡ Variable Length Subnet Masking ± allows division of address space based on the size of networks
± Start with network requiring the most addresses ± Create a subnet mask (use CIDR ± Classless InterDomain Routing ± number) ± Subnet the subnet as needed to provide address space required for other subnets
‡ Be logical ± start at beginning or end or address space ‡ Addresses must be contiguous to enable route summarization

Teaching Tips 1
‡ Make certain students understand subnetting
± Provide students with a mix of subnetting problems using Class A, B, and C addresses and different numbers of bits borrowed to ensure they do understand

‡ Show relationship of CIDR number of subnet mask

Teaching Tips 2
‡ Explain reasons for using VLSM ‡ Explain route aggregation (summarization) ‡ Explain supernetting ‡ Show how to summarize using common bits ‡ Show how to supernet using common bits

Teaching Tips 3
‡ Show a simple VLSM example using the third octet
± First subnet for 255 subnets with 254 hosts; CIDR = 24 ± Then subnet one of the subnets for subnets with CIDR of 28
‡ Subnet 200.16, 200.32, 200.48, etc.

± Then subnet one of the subnets for subnets to use for serial lines and a CIDR of 30
‡ Subnet 201.4, 201.8, 201.12, 201.16, etc.

Teaching Tips 4
‡ Show a second example using the fourth octet
± Subnet for 8 subnets with a CIDR of 27
‡ Subnets 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224

± Subnet subnet 96, 128, and 160 with a CIDR of 28
‡ Subnets 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176

± Subnet subnets 192 and 224 with a CIDR of 30
‡ Subnets 192, 196, 200, 204, 208, 212, 216, 220, 224, 228, 232, 236, 240, 244, 248, 252

Teaching Tips 5
‡ Show examples of divided address spaces
± Do not use slides ± use hard copy and give students a copy

‡ Give several problems moving from a very simple problem to a very complex problem
± Provide answers for each problem for students to check as problem is completed

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