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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

12

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13

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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a&;om;jyKpk xkwfa0cJhaom pmtkyfrsm;
1² ukaÉukÉm odef;oef; wefawmhw,f - 1997 ckESpf
2² ukokdvfwyJ i&Jwydom - 1969 ckESpf
3² auo&mZm - 1974 ckESpf
4² urBmywfvnf &uf&Spfq,f - 1960 ckESpf (Round The World in Eighty Days)
5² urBmajrtES@H - 1961 ckESpf
6² urBm&ef - 1968 ckESpf
7² urBmh0wˆKt!$ef; - 1996 ckESpf
8² usGefrtouf oajycuf - 1974 ckESpf
9² usm;rsufvkH;eJ@ a=umifrsufESm - 1975 ckESpf
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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10² ausmfaZ,sESihf oHuGefcsm ckepfxyf - 1975 ckESpf
11² ausmufbDvl; - 1964 ckESpf
12² cspfolESihf wc%/ rkef;olESihf wb0 - 1973 ckESpf
13² cspfol&Sdaom+rdKŒ - 1960 jynhfESpf
14² cspfaoma=umihf - 1956 ckESpf
15² *gr%d - 1978 ckESpf
16² jirf; - 1978 ckESpf
17² aiGvukdjrif =u,fpifr[kwfbl; - 1978 ckESpf
18² pdwfxJrSm wurBm - 1974 ckESpf
19² pdefac:yGJ - 1987 ckESpf
20² aZmfrkd;[def;ESihf eef;oufrGef ausmuf¶kyf - 1981 ckESpf
21² aZmfrkd;[def;ESihf odef;av;q,f rm,m - 1982 ckESpf
22² Zmwfortv,f - 1961 ckESpf
23² naps;wef;tp - 1961 ckESpf
24² nDtpfrrsm;ESihf vlpdrf;rsm; - 1982 ckESpf
25² wauG@awmh awG@=uOD;rnf - 1966 ckESpf
26² wckdifeef;rkd@ vGrf;vJh&nf - 1978 ckESpf
27² wq,f (10) (ewfEG,f/ rkd;a0) - 1964 ckESpf
28² wae@r[kwf wae@ - 1965 ckESpf
29² wyifukd ESpfyif,Sufw,f - 1974 ckESpf
30² wrifoufouf - 1961 ckESpf
31² w0Jvnfvnf - 1961 ckESpf
32² wuUokdvfESihf jyifyurBm - 1967 ckESpf
33² wzefjyefI rEkd;aom a0'em (Coma) - 1983 ckESpf
34² wa,mufu rm,m - 1973 ckESpf
35² wdwfwqdwf - 1961 ckESpf
36² wdrfpG,frSm uG,faomae - 1981 ckESpf
37² 'ufZ,fvm - 1987 ckESpf
38² '¾m&D - 1978 ckESpf
39² aeuef@vef@um vy0g - 1975 ckESpf
40² aemufqkH;wae@ aemufqkH;urBm - 1976 ckESpf
41² eEN0efokd@tjyef - 1972 ckESpf
42² eef;pHy,fESihf wa,muf+yD;wa,muf - 1972 ckESpf
43² eef;oufrGefESihf rsufESmpdrf;rsm; - 1973 ckESpf
44² EGJ@0g - 1976 ckESpf
45² ESraxG;r,hfukd vkdvSsif - 1961 ckESpf
46² ESpf}uD;orm; - 1957 ckESpf

21

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1933-2011

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

47² EG,feDEkdifiHwum tbd"mef - 1994 ckESpf
48² EG,feDtm&S ESpfcsKyf (1994) - 1994 ckESpf
49² EG,feDtm&S ESpfcsKyf (1995) - 1995 ckESpf
50² aygufyifupdrf; aus;updrf; - 1979 ckESpf
51² yOPrHtonf; yOPvuftjyHK; - 1979 ckESpf
52² yk¾u - 1980 jynhfESpf
53² jymjymndKa&mif r_dif;vJhvJh - 1975 ckESpf
54² b0[lonf (My Life) - 1991 ckESpf
55² b,f,drf;nmEGJ@ b,fjyefEGJ@ - 1977 ckESpf
56² ruG,faomae@u a=uGaomyef; - 1984 ckESpf
57² rae@wae@u ¶GmwJhrkd;
58² r+yD;qkH;ao;aomn - 1975 ckESpf
59² roEœm rodyg - 1973 ckESpf
60² rD;ckd;rqkH; rkd;rqkH; - 1967 ckESpf
61² rkd;njzLjzL - 1962 ckESpf
62² rkd;xJavxJ - 1954 ckESpf
63² rkd;jzLrpJ rkd;rnf;r¶Gm - 1979 ckESpf
64² rkd;rSmpae avrSm&m[k - 1975 ckESpf
65² armifESihfomtwl - 1961 ckESpf
66² armifESihfomtwl urBmajrtESH@ - 1973 ckESpf
67² rsuf0g;xifxif - 1956 ckESpf
68² rkef;yifatmufrSm cspfol&Sm - 1976 ckESpf
69² rsufawmifaumheJ@ rsufxm;ndK - 1972 ckESpf
70² rsufESmrSmtjyHK; rsufvkH;rSm a'go - 1973 ckESpf
71² jroZif - 1966 ckESpf
72² ajratmufoZif - 1959 ckESpf
73² jrefrmjynfajrmufykdif; (twGJ - 1) - 1966 ckESpf
74² jrefrmjynfajrmufykdif; (twGJ - 2) - 1967 ckESpf
75² r_cif;pkHaxmuf ukd,fawG@rSwfwrf; (Diary) - 1962 ckESpf
76² ,kZermvm - 1980 jynhfESpf
77² &wemvkd%f*l - 1960 jynhfESpf
78² &mrn - 1978 ckESpf
79² a&mru rdef;rysuf (Woman of Rome) - 1964 ckESpf
80² &efolw&m rdwfaqGwa,muf - 1973 ckESpf
81² &SufpzG,f (Shame) - 1961 ckESpf
82² a¶$ESihf,kd;rSm; yef;pum; - 1970 jynhfESpf
83² a¶$zvm;ESihf rkd;cg;a& - 1961 ckESpf

22

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84² vuG,fae@n - 1968 ckESpf
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85² avupm; =uGm;wvlvla0 - 1977 ckESpf
1933-2011
86² vif;t¶k%fOD; - 1985 ckESpf
87² 0uFyg - 1963 ckESpf
88² oDwmckepfwef awmifpOfckepfxyf - 1972 ckESpf
89² opfwkH;rSefvSsif qefvdrhfrnf - 1982 ckESpf
90² onfacwfESihf onfarmifESrrsm; - 1972 ckESpf
91² onfawmifwef;rSm armifxrf;ac:yghr,f - 1983 ckESpf
92² oEœmuGsef; (Coral Island) - 1960 jynhfESpf
93² od*ôw0uf a¶$w0uf - 1974 ckESpf
94² okH;ESpfokH;rkd; (Three Years) - 1990 jynhfESpf
95² tauG@waxmif
96² tcspfavSavmif;eJ@ acwfa&pD;a=umif; qefwufr,f (y-wGJ) - 1989 ckESpf
97² tcspfavSavmif;eJ@ acwfa&pD;a=umif; qefwufr,f ('k-wGJ) - 1989 ckESpf
98² teD;ta0; tedrhftjrihf - 1965 ckESpf
99² taemufrkd;ukyfpuf0kdif; - 1960 jynhfESpf
100² tysHoifp - 1960 jynhfESpf
101² tjym - 1956 ckESpf
102² tjymESihf t0g - 1971 ckESpf
103² tjym t0g - 1967 ckESpf
104² tjyifrSmaiGv &ifxJrSm aeq,fpif; - 1983 ckESpf
105² tjzLa&mif opPmyef;wyGihf (yxrwGJ) - 1988 ckESpf
106² tjzLa&mif opPmyef;wyGihf ('kwd,wGJ) - 1988 ckESpf
107² trsm;ESihfwa,muf (Fever) - 1983 ckESpf
108² t0g - 1960 jynhfESpf
109² t&dyfokH;yg; em;rvnf -1980 jynhfESpf
110² t¶kyfe*g; t¶kyfusm; - 1974 ckESpf
111² ta&SŒpl;pl; taemuf,Gef;,Gef; - 1969 ckESpf
112² ta&SŒrkd;aumif;uif trSwf (1) - 1965 ckESpf (Baltic Skies)
113² ta&SŒrkd;aumif;uif trSwf (2) - 1965 ckESpf (Baltic Skies)
114² tvnfvmwJh rdef;uav;&,f - 1974 ckESpf
115² tvGrf;. tvGrf; - 1981 ckESpf
116² tÀm0gjyifrSm xifaomv - 1981 ckESpf
117² ÁENmeDvm oEœmykvJ - 1977 ckESpf
118² tkH;tkH;usGufusGuf - 1965 ckESpf
119² wHcGefwkdif armifESrrsm; - 1972 ckESpf
(jrefrmtGefvdkif;pG,fpHkusrf;rS ²²²)

23

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

24

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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25

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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(www.maukkha.org rS ul;,laz: jyygonf?)

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Mary Callahan˜ Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma (Ithaca˜ NY: Cornell

10

University Press˜ 2003)˜ 221.)

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(11 Lalit K. Jha˜ ‘International Pressure Building on Burma’˜ Irrawaddy (Thailand)˜ 28 Sept, 2007. Mr Gambari was allowed to meet
Aung SanSuu Kyi but could not visit sites where the violence occurred
12
Statement by the President of the Security Council’˜ UN doc² S/PRST/2007/37 of 11 Oct, 2007
13

Mungpi ‘At Last India Voices Concerns over Burma Turmoil’˜ Mizzima News (India)˜ 26 Sept, 2007.)

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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(16 According to Amnesty International˜ ‘Myanmar: Arrests Increasing Four Months On’˜ 25 Jan, 2008. over 700 people arrested in
connection with the 2007 demonstrations were still in prison, along with over 1˜100 political prisoners incarcerated earlier.
Human Rights Watch˜ Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma˜ Dec² 2007. documents many cases˜ 87 8.
18 ‘Monasteries Raided Since September 26. Assistance Association of Political Prisoners Burma (Thailand)˜ www.aappb.org.
19
Ko Dee ‘Sporadic Movements Defying Junta’˜ Mizzima News˜ 7 Nov, 2007; Ko Dee˜ ‘Activists Group Urge People to Revive ‘‘Saffron

17

Revolution’’ ’˜ Mizzima News˜ 27 Nov, 2007.)

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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39

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(21 Interview˜ 4 Feb, 2008.
22 Aung San Suu Kyi˜ Thakore Prize Acceptance Speech˜ 2 Oct, 1995. For a detailed e»planation of Aung San Suu Kyi’s philosophy of non
25 ‘Apocalypse Naypyidaw’˜ Irrawaddy˜ 22 Nov, 2007.)

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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olpdrf;tdrf&J ht&dyf0,f

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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ponfh tar&duef ukefonftEkynm zvifykH&dyfawG tifwmeufrSm azmaX;atmif awG@&awmh
olrjrifawmhonfw
h idk af tmif =um;rdapcsio
f nf? rSwrf ad o;awmh/ rEœav;wGif rsupf v
d mjyonfh tacguu
f
ukov
dk af wmfb&k m;em; ac:oGm;=u&m bk&m;a&SŒu a&uefudk bmta&mifv[
J k ar;onfq.
dk ? 0if;0if;jrifh
(eef;awmfa&SŒ ) u “pdrf;ykyf}uD;yg q&m&,f” [k qkdawmh “jrpdrf;a&mifayghAsm” [k yef;csDq&mu
qkad vonf? olcpH m;wwfovkd pmzwfy&dowf jrifvmatmif zG@J EG@jJ y&mwGiv
f nf; wzufurf;a&mufoyl g?
ol. tEkpw
d t
f a&;tawG;a=umifh avmutvSudk jrifwwf/ ,Ofaus;r_oabmukd xif[yfvmEkid af om
tEkynmonfaygif;vnf; renf;awmh? urBmh,Ofaus;r_ tarGpkukd jrefrmhwkdif;&if;om;¶kd;&mESifh pe,f+yD;
vGwfvyfaom trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_opf ay:xGufatmif wm&macwfwGif olysKd;=uJcJhonf?

!SdxGef;a&$wkdif
[kdwavmu vlxkpdef0if;u wkdif;jynfwckukd xlaxmifawmhr,fqkd&if oabmw&m;ygwJh
0wˆK}uD;awG vlawGzwfp&m &Sd&w,f/ ckacwf pmayawGrSm 1950 ausmfu vuf0J0wˆK}uD;awGvkdrsKd;
vlxkukd v_H@aqmfEkdifwmr&Sdawmh[k aqmf=oonfukd zwfvkduf&onf? TacwfwGif tef*sDtkdvkdif;cs
ywf0ef;usif xdef;odrf;a&;0wˆK/ vli,fynmay;/ awmobm0 raemtxmusavmuf a&;wwfvSsif
=uufqlawmtv,f aZmfqGJEkdifatmif pmayu acwfysufae&m Aef;armfwifatmif/ ocifjroef;/
ewfE,
G x
f m;bd/ armifxif/ *sme,fausmrf rav;/ cifEiS ;f ,kavmufyif vloal v;yg; av;pm;p&mu touf
60 atmufwef;awGrSm rusefvSawmhyg?
urBmh,Ofaus;r_ tarGpkukd jrefrmh wkdif;&if;om; ¶kd;&mESifh pe,f+yD; vGwfvyf aom trsKd;om;
,Ofaus;r_opf ay:xGuf atmif wm&macwfwGif ol ysKd;}uJcJhonf?
xkd'Da&edrhf a&aoxJrSaeI pmayonf jynfol@twGuf[k ,kH=unf&mukd &J&J}uD;csjyum
EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: &otzGJ@ avmutjrif tqifhjrifhjrifh a&;cJh=uonfh wacwfESifh xkdacwftp
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1960 ausmf csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;
y&m[m;+rdKŒxkwf EsL;tkd&D&ifhr*~Zif;rS
jroDwm. jrefrmpmayta=umif;
aqmif;yg;yg pma&;q&m}uD;rsm;

wm&mr*~Zif;zcif '*kefwm&m. aus;Zl;ukd txl;atmufarh&awmhonf?
ol@0wˆKawGu ay;onfh teD;ta0; orkid ;f jzwfoef;r_ um;csyaf wGuvnf;
,ckacwfxd csdefxkd;tuJjzwfvkd@&ao;onf? ukdif;aeaomaygufyifrsm;/
vufvufavm a&$a&mifavm/ q,faEGq,frkd;/ ocif=uufaoG;.
usqkH;cef;/ ykdpwmuyfol/ aoewfoH? 1950-60 wGif; urBmhppf
at;*,uf E S i f h vuf 0 J v uf s mt+yd K if =oZmvk c sd e f r k d @ pmayonf
tEkynmtwGuf vkid ;f uvnf; y&dowfudk v$r;f rk;d Ekid &f ef ajymifajrmufaom
tEkynmrsm; xkwv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? armifxif/ cifEiS ;f ,k/ aomfwmaqG/ xifvif;/
pdefpdef²² ? [kdwkef;u ¶_r0ygwum;?
'*kefwm&monf EkdifiHa&;rvkyfaomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;aoG;=uJ
olr[kw?f acwftqufquf tcsK;d tauG@rsm;wGif “rSeef ef;tok;H cH” tjzpf
EkdifiHa&;oDv ajymufusm;cHcJholvnf; r[kwf? q&mr_dif;pum;ESifhqkdvSsif
“uG s ef 0 ,f & m ol t qpf r ygcJ h ” ? Ek d i f i H a &;wG i f pmay. u¾uk d
ajymifajrmufapcJhol/ pmayu EkdifiHa&;aemuf+rD;qGJ r[kwfbJ acwfukd
vrf;n$efEkdifcJhol ywfum;pma&;q&m/ &JabmfA[def;. opPm&SdvSpGmaom
cspfaqG?

orkdif;onfrqkH;
rEœav;wGif olEiS hf zke;f ajymavh&pdS Ofu [kw
d ,fr,fu q&mhu,
dk af wG@vm;²²²
“'Dvkdar;jref;a&;&wmayghAsm [J[J”/ b,f0wˆKu b,fZmwfaumif[m
tjyif r S m b,f o l @ uk d =unf h a &;wm r[k w f v m; ponf j zif h
‘ar’ 0wˆK rl&if;a&;ol t*Fvdyfpma&;q&m/
vl}uD;oabmaumif;oavmuf pyfpkrdvSsif olu +yHK;jrjrESifh “cifAsm;
jyZmwfq&m bDAmvDepfukd;
awmfawmfow
d myJ” [k jyefajymwwfyu
Hk dk ckxd c%c% owd&aerdonf?
(beverley-nichol)
vli,fawG acwfukd odatmiftm;xkwfonfh &Sm;yg; jrefrm
vl } uD ; wa,muf x H r S vl } uD ; awG jzwf o ef ; cJ h y k H u k d od v k d p d w f E S i f h
zvS,rf jd cif;om jzpfonf? &eforl &Sd rdwaf qGom&S[
d k a&;ajymaeus ol@xHrS
jynfoltrsm;pk}uD;ESifh xyfwlcHpm;wwfonfh tjrifpum;awGukdvnf;
=um;zl;onf?
a=omf arhv@dk ? ql;iSux
f rH S =um;zl;aom '*kew
f m&mykjH yifwcku
aumvdyf*sifema&;wGif OuUÏ}uD; OD;ae0if; vmar;pOf jyefcgeD; ol@ukd “
cifAsm; rkqkd;0wˆKawG a&;ao;vm;As” [k E_wfqufoGm;onf qkdonf?
tkdb,fh '*kef(Akdvf)wm&m? &mausmfouf&Snf+yD; jynfol@&ifckefoH
qENjynfh0atmif tm;ay;ygOD;?
'*kefwm&m. ‘ar’ (pwWKxt}udrf
(ar 10 '*kefwm&m 92 ESpfjynfhokd@)
1973/ tzkH; - yef;csDOD;b&ifav;)

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d v
dk ef;pif

(www.mizzimaburmese.com rS ul;,laz: jyygonf?)

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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jrefrmhumwGef;q&m}uD; OD;b*srf;onf 1926 ckESpfwGif aumvdyfausmif;om;b0Y
aumvdyfr*~Zif;xJwGif umwGef;pwifa&;qGJ&mrS umwGef;q&m}uD; jzpfvmoljzpfonf? OD;b*srf;.
yxrqH;k yHEk ydS af zmfjycH&onfh umwGe;f yHrk mS aumvdyaf bmf'gaqmifY xrif;auGs;onft
h cg [if;zwfenf;+y;D
t&nfrsm;aeonfh ta=umif; a&;qGJxm;onfhyHk jzpfonf? xdk@aemuf q&m}uD;onf paumufac:
uif;wyftzGJ@u xkwfa0onfh ‘bm;rm;bGKdif’ (Burma boy) r*~Zif;ESifh u0drsufrSef r*~Zif;rsm;Y
umwGef;rsm; qufvuf a&;qGJcJhonf?
&efukefaumvdyfY tdkifattxufwef;txd ynmoif=um;+yD;aemuf ausmif;xGufI
twGif;0ef¶Hk; (aemif 0ef}uD;rsm;¶Hk;)wGif wv 90 usyfjzifh pma&; 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifcJhonf? odk@aomf
tcsKyftjc,f rcHcsifaoma=umihf tvkyfrSxGufvdkuf.?
q&m}u;D u h h h h
“yef;csDq&mwdk@/ umwGef;q&mwdk@[m pdwfeJ@ywfouf+yD; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf aecsif=uw,f/
csKycf s,rf u
_ kd wpdwu
f av;rS cHcsi=f uwmr[kwb
f ;l ” [k aemifwiG f oltvkyrf S xGucf &H yHu
k kd ajymjycJo
h nf?
xdk@rSsru emrnfausmf=um;vmaomtcg zqyv tpdk;&u &mxl;}uD;}uD;ay;+yD; cef@xm;onfudkvnf;
jiif;y,fcJhavonf? “tpdk;&tvkyf rajymeJ@/ q&myifwdkif umwGef;qJGaewJh owif;pmwdkufu
vcpm;cef@onfuykd if rvky[
f ”k qdo
k nf?
q&mOD;b*srf;onf tEkynm
orm;yDyD tcsKyftcs,fudk r}udKuf/ vGwf
vGwf vyf aexdik w
f wfovd/k ol@uavmifukd jrefrmhumwGe;f 0dZm…
uef@owfcsKyfcs,fr_udkvnf; rcHcsifay?
Tonf E S i f h ywf o uf I umwG e f ;
q&mOD;baxG;. “umwGef;OD;b*srf;ESifh
olwdk@tjrif” pmtkyfY“ppftwGif; *syef
od y ` H c spf o l
acwfwek ;f u udb
k *sr;f eJ@ yef;csD udb
k =unf
u jyef=um;a&;XmerSm 0ifvkyf w,f?
q&muawmh *syeftpdk;&xkwf Armhacwf
owif;pmrSm vcpm;umwGe;f q&mtjzpf
eJ@ umwGe;f qGw
J ,f? tJ'w
D ek ;f u oHjzLZ&yfrmS azmufaewJh ,d;k ',m;-jrefrm rD;&xm;vrf; twGuf
v_@HaqmfwJhumwGef;yHkwyHkudk OD;b*srf;[m qGJay;w,f? tJ'D acGs;wyfxJ0if&if vc/ &duQm/ t0wf/
aq;0g;aumif;aumif; &Edkifr,fqdkwmawG ygw,f? wae@rSm udkb*srf;[m blwmbufa&mufvdk@
acGs;wyfom;awG t0wfrjynfph /kH tpm;csKŒd iJ/h aq;0g;vnf;r&Sb
d J 'kuaQ &mufaewmawG awG@&awmh pdwx
f cd u
kd +f y;D
qufrvkyaf wmhbJ anmifwek ;f jyefaew,f? aemuf ppf+y;D rS &efuek jf yefvmw,f”
“+y;D awmh zqyv tpd;k &u ol@udk &mxl;}u;D ay;+y;D cef@ygr,fqckd zhJ ;l wmjzpfayr,fh q&mOD;b*sr;f u
zqyv tpdk;&udkvnf; ol@umwGef;eJ@a0zef/ zqyv&JΠjynfawmfom pDrHudef;qdkwm}uD;udkvnf;
oa&mfvkyfcJhwmyg? tJ'DvdkyJ twdkuftcHawGudkvnf; tvGwfray;ygbl;? olu yk*~Kdvfa&; roa&mfbl;?
acwfudkom oa&mfwm/ olu owif; pmzwf/ wdkif;jynfrSm bmjzpfaeovJqdkwm tuJjzwf+yD;awmh
umwGe;f a&;wmyJ/ ol r}uKd u&f if a&;cdik ;f vd@k r&bl;/ ol ,H=k unfwmudk qef@usi+f y;D b,fawmhrS ra&;bl;?
azmfvHvnf; rzm;bl;” [lI rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf?

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q&m}uD; umwGef;OD;azodef;uvnf; ol. “pme,fZif;umwGef;ordkif; pmwrf;” wGif
“tEkynm&Siw
f a,muftaejzifh OD;b*sr;f . txl;jcm;qH;k *k%t
f *FgrmS aiGrrufjcif; jzpfonf? OD;b*sr;f onf
aiG&&eftwGuf umwGef;qGJonf r[kwf/ olonf wdkif;jynftwGuf umwGef;qGJaeonf[laom
,H=k unfcsujf zihf a&;qGaJ ejcif;jzpfonf” [k a&;om;xm;avonf?
tdk;a0OD;ndKjruvnf; q&mOD;b*srf;ESifhywfoufI TuJhodk@ aumufcsufcscJhyg onf?
“q&mOD;b*sr;f [m pdwo
f abmxm; El;nHah ysmah ysmif;olwa,mufyg? 'gayr,fh ol@odumQ udk
xdyg;vm&ifawmh qwfqwfxd rcHwwfygbl;? rmevnf;}uD;ygw,f”
wzef umwGe;f OD;ausmq
f ef;(uq) uvnf; “tJ'Dtcg q&mOD;b*srf;[m umwGef;udk pufeJ@vSnfhxkwfovdk a&;aewJhtcgaygh/ q&mu
umwGef;ukd [dkjyif'DjyifvkyfwJhwdkufudkawmh umwGef;ray;bl;? wcgvnf; owif;pmwdkuf}uD;wwdkufu
Edik if t
H zG@J tpnf;wckukd aqmfwu
hJ mwGe;f wcka&;yd@k zd@k OD;b*sr;f udk csO;f uyfw,f? ay;aeus umwGe;f c 25
usyt
f pm; 50 ay;ygrh ,fv@kd vnf; ajymw,f? tJ'aD wmh OD;b*sr;f u 50 r[kw/f 5000 ay;vnf; ra&;bl;?
usKyfqDu umwGef;&zdk@vnf; rarSsmfvifheJ@awmhqdk+yD; tJ'Dwdkufudk umwGef;jzwfxm;vdkufw,f? +yD;awmh
q&mOD;b*srf;u usaemfwdk@udk pmrsm;rsm;zwfzdk@ wdkufwGef;avh&Sdw,f? wzufom; epfemoGm;atmif
ra&;bJ [moaESm+yD; cHomatmifa&;zdk@ tjrJajymw,f? "rR"dÏmefusus a&;zdk@vnf; ajymw,f/
olrsm;cdkif;wdkif; ra&;bJ udk,f,HkrS a&;zdk@vnf; qHk;rw,f” [lI azmufonfcscJhonf?
od k @ uvd k rd r d , H k = unf c suf E S i f h rd r d c H , l c suf u d k twd r f ; tapmif ; rcH ol @ uavmif j zif h
a0zefoifhonfxifvSsif &J&J0Hh0HhwifjychhJaom umwGef;q&m}uD; OD;b*srf;udk 1902 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv 20
&uf=umoyaw;ae@wGif {&m0wDwikd ;f / anmifwek ;f +rKd Œ/ 9 vrf;Y tz yd;k ukeo
f nf OD;azmif/ trd a':jrpfw@kd rS
zGm;jrifcJhonf? arG;csif; 6 a,mufteuf yOPrajrmuf jzpfonf?
i,fpOfu anmifwek ;f +rKd Πt*Fvyd -f jrefrm ESpb
f momausmif;wGif pwif ynmoif=um;+y;D aemuf
&efukef+rdKŒ/ ul&Sifausmif;odk@ ajymif;a&$Œum owWrwef;rSpI ynmqnf;yl;&m xdkausmif;rSyif
q,fwef;atmifco
hJ nf? yHq
k b
JG momudk tydb
k momtjzpf ,lum q,fwef;atmifcjhJ cif; jzpfonf? c&pfEpS f
1924 wGif &efuek af umvdyo
f @kd a&mufI tdik af t (OyZm 0dZm… ) txufwef;txd qufvufynm qnf;yl;
cJah vonf?
OD;b*srf;onf jrefrmumwGef; odk@r[kwf ¶kyfajymifavmuwGif txl;xif&Sm;aom umwGef;
q&mwOD; jzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppfrwdkifrD oHk;av;ESpfcef@rS uG,fvGefonf? 1953 ckESpfwdkifatmif
jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f tausm=f um;qH;k / vl}uKd ut
f rsm;qH;k aom umwGe;f tEkynm&Si}f u;D jzpfc&hJ m ‘umwGe;f 0dZm… ’
[lI cs;D usL;ac:a0:jcif;cH&ayonf?
OD;b*sr;f . yxrqH;k a&;qGaJ om umwGe;f onf 1926 ckEpS x
f w
k f &efuek af umvdyf r*~Zif;wGif
ygcJhavonf? &efukefaumvdyfrS xGufaomtcg u0drsufrSefr*~Zif;/ &,f&$ifzG,f tvif;r*~Zif;/
&,f&$ifzG,f*sme,f/ &efukefa*Zuf t*Fvdyfowif;pm/ 'D;'kwf*sme,f/ ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/ Armhacwf/
[Hom0wD ponfh owif;pmrsm;ESifh '*kef/ ¶_r0r*~Zif;rsm;/ ,k0wD*sme,fwdk@wGif ¶kyfajymifumwGef;rsm;
a&;qGcJ o
hJ nf?
[mo¶kyfajymifumwGef;rsm;omru a=umfjimumwGef;rsm;/ yHkjyifumwGef; ¶kyfpHkrsm;udkvnf;
a&;qGJonf? yJa&muf¶kyf&SifwGif yxrqHk; jrefrmumwGef;¶kyf&Sif ‘tol&m’ ESifh ‘=uufawmifuG’ [laom
Zmwfum;rsm;udk pDpOfa&;om; ¶dkuful;cJhonf? bD*sDpwD'D,dk [laomtrnfjzifh bavmufwdkuf

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OD;b*sr;f tkw*f l

wnf a xmif c J h o nf ? ?tjyif / ‘a&$ + rd K Œawmf 0 wˆ K wd k u f ’
[l a omtrnf j zif h 0wˆ K rsm;xk w f a 0cJ h & m/ OD ; b*srf ;
udk,fwdkifa&;om;aom ‘nDrav;’ 0wˆKonf xdkwdkufrS
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hJ nf?
OD ; b*srf ; onf umwG e f ; ¶k y f a jymif r sm;
a&;qGJ&mwGif udef;}uD;cef;}uD;r&SdbJ tvsm; 5 ay/ teH 4
ay cef@&Sdaom pm;yGJa[mif;}uD;ay:wGif uwfxljym;cif;um
a&;qGcJ o
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hJ nf? w¶kwrf ifawmifu
h v
kd nf;
aoG;I oH;k wwfonf? ¶kyyf rkH sm;udk ta&mifay;aomtcgrsm;wGif csnq
f ;kd aq; a&mifpw
kH @kd jzifh ay;avh&o
dS nf?
OD;b*srf;onf pme,fZif;rsm;wGif rdrdtmabmfjzifh a&;onfhyHkjyifrsm;udk ‘b*srf;’ [lI
vufrw
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f jynft
h pHk a&;xd;k +y;D / rdrt
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bD*sD (B.G) [lI twdak umuf vufrw
S af &;xk;d avonf?
Ed k i f i H j cm;Y ynmqnf ; yl ; &m tpd k ; &u apv$ w f r nf q d k a omf v nf ; vd k v d k c sif c sif r&d S /
jiif;qefcahJ vonf? OD;b*sr;f wGif ud,
k yf ikd Zf mwfaumifrsm;&Scd o
hJ nf? Armhacwf owif; pmwGif OD;azsmufqyd /f
[Hom0wD owif;pmwGif ‘csm&m%oD armifajrZm’ ponfwdk@ jzpfonf? Zmwfaumif OD;azsmufqdyfudk
'kwd,urBmppfrwdkifrDu ol&d, owif;pmwGif a&;+yD; ppf+yD;aomtcg ol&d,owif;pmwdkufu r,lI
Armhacwfowif;pmwdu
k o
f @kd ajymif;ay;cJo
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OD;b*srf;onf yk*~dKvfa&;t& oa&mf+yD; a&;om;jcif; rjyKcJhay? acwfESihf p¶dkuf obm0udkom
t"duxm; oa&mfcJhonf? ae@pOfxkwf owif;pmrsm;udk zwf¶_um wdkif;jynfwGif; jzpfysufaeaom
ta=umif;udpw
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dS nf?
“OD;b*sr;f pum;ajymvSsif ovdyu
f yfoyH gonf? pum;ajymvSsif avoHw;kd wd;k jzifh ajymwwfonf?
&,f & $ i f z G , f & mrsm;ud k tjrJ a jymavh & S d o nf ? umwG e f ; ¶k y f a jymif r sm; a&;qG J v S s if qG J / rqG J v S s if
pmzwfaewwfonf” [lI q&m}u;D ESifh eD;eD;uyfuyfaexdik cf ahJ om OD;[depf eG ;f (1902-1987) u ajymonf?
q&m}uD;onf pmzwf0goemxHkI pmvnf;tvGefzwfol jzpfonf? pme,fZif;rsm;Y
tcgtcGifhoifhvSsif aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;qGJavh&Sdonf? q&m}uD;onf Av&Sifaq;jym; iHkxm;avh&Sdonf?
ud,
k w
f idk "f mwfy¶kH u
kd w
f wf¶rkH u zvifaq;jcif;/ ul;jcif; vkyif ef;rsm;udv
k nf; Edik ef if;pGm vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd o
f nf?
1936 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif yJcl;+rdKŒol a':cif=unfESifh vufxyfcJhonf? q&m}uD;.
vufxyfr*FvmyGJudk &efukef+rdKΠuGefwifeifw,f taqmufttHkY usif;ycJhonf? q&mOD;b*srf;onf
a&S;OD;pGm &efuek +f rKd Π14 vrf;/ trSwf 48 aetdrw
f iG f aexdik +f y;D xdrk w
S qifh 13 vrf; trSwf 37 aetdro
f @kd
ajymif;a&GŒaexkid o
f nf?
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aejynfawmfudk,faysmufrif;w&m;}uD;

0if;vJah r(acwW*syef)
From Burma Strange news blog

aejynfawmf rif;=wm;}u;D trSew
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w&m;0if xkwfazmfajymqdk=uonf? jynfy tajcpdkuf owif;Xme tcsdK@url rif;=wm;}uD; tem;,ljcif;
r[kwfbJ aemufuG,frS judk;udkifaeqJ jzpfonf[k a&;om;r_rsm;vnf; &Sdonf? xdk@ajumifh rif;=wm;}uD;
tem;,l-r,l udpPudk trsm;jynfoltaejzifh odk@avm²² odk@avm jzpfae=uonf?
,aehxkwf jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmt&rl rif;=wm;}uD; tem;r,lao;onfudk "mwfyHkrsm;eSifh
wuG awG@jrif&onf? odk@aomf udk,faysmuf rif;=wm;}uD; toGifaqmifxm;ojzifh "mwfyHkxJwGif
rif;=wm;}uD;udk awG@jriff&jcif; r&Sday?
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owif;pmrsm;wGif ay:xGufvmjcif;/ orRw OD;odef;pdef.
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hjuD; aqmifha=umifh xdkifaeonfudk "mwfyHkrsm;wGif awG@&jcif;
wdk@a=umifh rif;=wm;}uD; tem;r,lao;onfrSm trSefyif
aocsma=umif;/ jrefrmhta&; tuJcwfrsm;u oHk;oyf=uonf?
(Myanma Alin˜ 24 May 2011)

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ollwkd@pnf;rsOf;abmiftwkdif; rcspfaomfvJ atmifhumerf;qkdovkdbJ ukd,fh&J@&nf&G,fcsuftwGuf/
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aejcnf

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k yf ikd pf Of;Om%fjzifh awG;awm+y;D rSvufc&H ef a[mjyawmfrcl yhJ gw,f?

69

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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71

zefw;D ,lEikd yf gw,f? xd@k twl raumif;r_ukd jyKvyk af eolawGukd wm;qD;&mrSmvnf; yg0ifqifEEJ$ ikd yf gw,f?
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Edik b
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Nietzsche (on the Genealogy of Morals)

71

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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“jyifopfawmfveS af &; vrf;wpf0ufayguaf e+y”D [korl aocifq,fEpS af vmufu erdwzf wfjcif;rSm
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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vk y f a e&wJ h o l @ om;orD ; awG e J h wjcm;vl i ,f a v;awG ² ²ud k , f h w d k i f ; jynf x J v mjyD ; jud k u f o vd k
pD;yGm;&SmcGifh&xm;wJhtdrfeD;csif;awG²²²² aiGrsufeSmwckyJjunfhwwfwJhtxufzm; atmufzd tm%m&_;
awG²²²rw&m;tzrf;cHc&hJ aoG;ajrusc&hJ wJo
h C
H mawmfawGet
hJ jypfrehJ ikd if aH &;tusO;f om;awG²²tpDt&Dacgi;f
xJay:vm jyD;bmudkrSef;rodb,folhudkrSef;rodyJrausreyfjzpfvmw,f?aoaocsmcsmodvdkufwm
wckuawmh ol raus reyfjzpfaewJh vlawGxrJ mS olu,
kd w
f ikd x
f yd q
f ;kH uygaewmudyk ?J

85

oDwmatmif (oHvGifc)
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

86

tvif;tdrf 5 ESpfjynfh txdrf;trSwf 0w¬Kwdk jydKifyGJ

0wˆKtrnf
trnf&if;
uavmiftrnf

wefz;kd &Sad wmhvJ a&$aygh
t&SifZ0e
pdk;rdk;ol ('dkufOD;)

ae wh pfae vh ;Hk [m rD;cd;k wdwaf ew,f?
tokH;0ifypPnf; wpfck&JŒaysmufqkH;rSKaemufrSm
aomuawG/rauseyfrSKawG jynfhaew,f?
ntwGuvf nf; taz:aq;vdywf akd v;eJ h
txD;usef rSKk awGukd ajz&Si;f vdk &h awmhrmS r[kwbf ;l ?
rD;&JΠwefb;kd udtk ckawmh ydek m;vnfovdyk gyJ?

wefbdk;&SdawmhvJ a&$aygh
tcef; (1)
ppfa=uma&;pcef;u ay;vdkufwJh '%f&mawG/ emusifr_awGeJ@ pdwfaomua&mufaecsdefrSm
tay:xyf u qif ; vmwJ h vl t k y f } uD ; a=umif h bmawG v J pl ; prf ; csif p d w f u aomuud k c%
tem;ay;vdu
k yf gw,f? bmompum;wpfrsKkd ;udk qlnpH mG ajymqd&k if; vltyk f }u;D [m a&uefqD OD;wnf+y;D
oGm;ae=uygw,f? tcef;a&SŒu jzwfoGm;olwdkif;u u|efawmfhtcef;udk vSnfh=unfhoGm;=uyg w,f?
jrifaeusvl r[kwfawmh pl;prf;wJh t=unfhawGu u|efawmhftcef;udk usa&mufapygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@
vltkyf}uD;tm;vHk;[m u|efawmfwdk@ tcef;eJ@ twefi,fvSrf;wJh ae&mudk a&muf&SdoGm;w,f? q,fay/
q,fEh pS af ycef@&Sd tcef;usO;f av;xJ vl;vmw@Hk acguf avSsmuf&if; ae&mopf&ŒJ tcif;usi;f opfukd rsuaf ph/
em;/ pdww
f @kd udk zGi+hf y;D pl;prf;aerdw,f? wdwq
f w
d pf jyKvmwJh ywf0ef; usirf mS bmawGrsm; a&mufvmrvJ
qdw
k hJ pdwu
f vJ &ifxu
J kd 0ifa&mufvmjyefygw,f?
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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87

“ ydkif&Sif r&Sdao;wJh aq;vdyfwdk h h hydkif&Sif 'dk@ jzpfvdkufcsifygw,f ”
iH@vifhaewJh pdwftdrfxJudk xl;qef;wJh oDcsif;oH[m em;jywif;aygufuwqifh 0ifa&muf
vmygw,f? ol@oDcsif;oHu tawG;udk omru aomuudkyg Zwf}udK; apmifhqGJvdkufovdkygyJ? '%f&meJ@
emusirf a_ =umifh aomuawG vdr;f usx
H m;wJh rsuEf mS rSm ol@oDcsi;f oHu &uft
f wef=um aysmufq;kH aewJh
t+yHK;wpfyGifhudk rxifrSwfbJ vif;vufzdk@ cvkwfESdyfay;vdkufovdkygyJ? 'kwfwpfacsmif;eJ@ tr_dufyHkudk
ar$aESmuf&if; tcef;awG&JΠtjyifbufrSm ol[m oDcsif;qdk&if; tvkyf&SKyfaew,f? u|efawmhf
tcef;a&SŒta&mufrSm ol@oDcsif;oH[m wdwfoGm;ovdk ol@ajcvSrf;awG[mvJ &yfoGm;ygw,f?
ol@t=unfhawGuvnf; u|efawmhf tcef;qD usa&mufvdk@ vmjyefw,f? tcef;em;udk wdk;uyfvm+yD;
oHwikd t
f jyifbufu &yfv@kd twGi;f xJu u|eaf wmfh udk olu +yKH ;jyw,f?
“ tpfudk nu a&mufwmvm;/ 'DrSm tpfudkwdk@vdk a*:awG trsm;}uD;yJ”
olu &if;ESD;wJh avoHeJ@ E_wfquf&if; u|efawmfhudk pum;ajymvmw,f? u|efawmfuvJ
“ [kwfuJh/ u|efawmf nu a&mufw,f/ 'geJ@ tpfudkajymwJh a*:qdkwm bmvJ ”
olajymwJh pum;xJu u|efawmf em;rvnfwJh a*:qdkwJh a0g[m&udk ar;vdkufrdw,f? olu +yHK;+yD;
“ 'Dvdk udk&JŒ tpfudkwdk@vdk EdkifiHa&;r_eJ@ a&mufvmwJholawGudk taqmifu vlawGu
a*:EdkufawGvdk@ ac:=uw,f/ u|efawmf =um;zl;ovdk ajymjyr,faemf/ a*:qdkwmu w&kwfvdk ig;*%ef;udk
ac:wmwJh Edu
k q
f w
kd mu t*Fvyd v
f kd nudk ac:wm/ ESpcf ak ygi;f vdu
k af wmh ig;naygt
h pfu&kd m/ u|eaf wmfw@kd u
a*:Edu
k v
f @kd rac:awmhbJ a*:vd@k twdak umuf ac:vdu
k w
f m”
ol&iS ;f jyrSyJ u|eaf wmfw@kd vdk Edik if aH &; tusO;f om;awGtwGuf taqmifaeolawGu ay;xm;wJh
emrnftopfudk oabmus aerdw,f?
“ tpfudk vlopfqdkawmh bmrS ygvmrSm r[kwfbl;aemf/ u|efawmf bm&Smay;&rvJ/ vdkwm
u|efawmhfudk ajymyg? wwfEdkifoavmuf u|efawmf }udK;pm;&Sm ay;yghr,f ”
pawGŒawGŒcsi;f ulnaD y;vdak om arwWmpdwef @J ajymvmwJh ol@pum;oHawGa=umifh pdwx
f u
J ae
ol@udk cifrifoGm;rdw,f?
“ nDav;u aq;vdyfwdk vdkuf&Smaewmvm;/ tJ'D twdkawGu bmvkyfzdk@vJ/ a&m*g&r,f/
tr_dufyHkxJu aq;vdyfwdk udk raomufygeJ@vm;/ tpfudkvJ aq;vdyf }udKufygw,f/ ab;tcef;awGu
tpfudk@ &JabmfawG ay;xm;wJh aq;vdyfESpfvdyf &Sdw,f/ a&mh nDav; wpfvdyfaomuf/ rD;oGm;nSdvdkuf/
tpfudk aq;vdyfaomufcsifaewm =um+yD/ rD;b,fu &r,frSef; rodvdk@ aq;vdyfaomufcsifpdwfudk
twif;atmifhxm;&w,f ”
u|eaf wmfu aq;vdyw
f pfvyd u
f kd urf;ay;&if; oHwikd t
f jyifbuf&dS ol@udk rD;wd@k cdik ;f vdu
k w
f ,f?
“ tpfudka& aq;vdyf zifqDcHudk txifrao;eJ@aemf/ tpfudkwdk@vdk a*:awGu u|efawmhfudk
&Smcdik ;f xm;wm/ olw@kd vJ aomufz@kd r[kwb
f ;l / ta&;}u;D wJh udpw
P pfck vkyw
f mwJh tpfuakd &/ wefz;kd &Sw
d ,f
qdkyJAs ”
u|efawmfhpdwfxJ olajymjywJh xl;qef;wJh pum;awGudk em;axmif&if; tcef;usOf;av;xJ
tawG;yGm;aerdw,f? olu rD;nS&d ef xGuo
f mG ;awmh olajymwJh aq;vdyw
f &kd ŒJ wefz;kd udk awG;awmaerdw,f?
“ 'Davmufawmif bmawGrsm; toHk;0ifaeygvdrfh ”
tcef; (2)

87

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

88

u|efawmfwdk@u 15 rdepfavmufyJ tjyifxGuf&w,f? olwdk@uawmh wpfaeukef tjyifrSm
aecGifh&w,f? u|efawmfwdk@ tcef;awGa&SΠoef@&Sif;a&;/ a&tdk;awG a&jznfh/ u|efawmfwdk@ vdkwm
ulnzD @kd twGuf t+rw
J rf; &Sad ew,f? u|eaf wmfw@kd udk olw@kd u a*:awGv@kd ac:+y;D u|eaf wmfw@kd u olw@kd udk
t+rJqif;awGvdk@ ac:w,f? tcef;wdkif;eJ@ olu &if;ESD;+yD;awmh tcef;xJu vlawG udpPudkvJ rnnf;rnL
vkyfay;w,f? tm;wdkif; ol u|efawmfhtcef; tjyifbufu tkwfcHkrSm xdkif+yD; twGif;xJu u|efawmfeJ@
pum; awG vmajymw,f?
“ rD;jcpfr&Sdawmh ncif; aq;vdyfaomufcsif&if awmfawmf 'kuQa&mufw,f ”
u|efawmfu aq;vdyfwpfwdkudk ESpfa,mufaomuf&if; ncif; 'kuQudk ajymjyaerdw,f?
ol@vufxJrSm tr_dufyHkaygif;pHku aumuf,lxm;wJh aq;vdyfwdkawGudk u|wfu|wftdwf tao;av;xJ
pkxnf+h y;D udik x
f m;w,f?
“ u|efawmf pOf;pm;ygOD;r,f tpfudk&m/ vl}uH&if tm;vHk;jzpfygw,f? ”
“ rif;rSmvJ 'Daq;vdyfwdkawGeJ@ a wmfawmf tvkyf&SKyfr,faemf/ bmrsm; toHk;0if
vd@k vJ”
olu &,faew,f? aq;vdyw
f x
kd yk u
f kd ajrmS ufjy&if;
“ tzdk;wefawG tpfudk&/ tzdk;wefawG/ tpfudk ajymwm &r,faemf/ c%apmifh ”
armifOD;a&vdk@ u|efawmfhvdkaewJh tcef;xJu toHwpfoHa=umifh olu pum;udk qHk;atmif
rajymbJ rwfwyf&yfvu
kd w
f ,f? u|eaf wmht
f wGuf aq;vdyw
f pfvyd af vmuf &Smcdifk ;f wmudv
k J tpfuakd jymwm
&r,fv@kd ajym+y;D olxu
G o
f mG ;w,f?
tcef; (3)
u|efawmf wtH@w=o =unfhaerdw,f? olurf;ay;wJh yvwfpwpftdwfxJrSm vufav;vHk;
cef@om &SdwJh puULav;awG?
“ bmawGvJ nDav;& ”
u|eaf wmfu ar;vdu
k af wmh tdwu
f av;udk vufnKdS ;xd;k +y;D
“ tpfudk wpf&Gufcsif; =unfhvdkufav/ tpfudk ar;aewJh aq;vdyfwdkawGav ”
aq;vdyfzifpDcHrSm uyfxm;wJh owif;pm puULtydkif;av;awG/ u|efawmfu wtH@w=oeJ@
xl;qef;pGm ai;arm=unfhaewkef;rSm 15 rdepfqif;&ayrJh ol@udpPudk tjref aqmif&Gufvdk@ +yD;oGm;wJh
bd;k awmfu u|eaf wmft
h cef;a&SΠvm&yfw,f?
“ +yD;oGm;&if u|efawmfhtcef;xJ ydk@ay;aemf ”
u|efawmfhvufxJu tpDcHywf owif;pm tydkif;av;awGudk ar;aighjy&if; bdk;awmfu
pum;qdkvmw,f? a&mufcgp vlopfjzpf wJh u|efawmfu xl;xl;qef;qef; em;rvnfEdkifwJh toGifeJ@
ol@udk =unfv
h u
kd af wmh olu
“ 'Dv&kd w
dS ,f udpk ;kd &/ u|eaf wmfw@kd udk b,furS owif;awG r&atmif 'DaumifawGu enf;rsKd ;pHek @J
ydwx
f m;=uw,f/ b,fvykd J ydwyf w
d /f vlawGyAJ sm/ &Sm}u&H if enf;vrf;uawmh wpfcrk [kwf wpfck awGŒwmyJ/
tJ'D owif;pm twdkav;awGxJrSm udfk,fodcsifwJh owif;wdkav;awG/ ema&;awG tpHkygw,f? usKyfwdk@
odcsiw
f m wpfcrk [kwf wpfcak wmh ygvmwmyJ? owif;&zd@k twGuf aq;vdyzf ifpcD u
H vJ owif;0ifayguf
wpfckyJ? ”
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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89

vl o m;awG & J Π&S m }uH r _ / awG ; awmr_ a wG e J @ tcuf t cJ a wG u d k jzwf a usmf c J h w myJ a v?
'DtcuftcJawGudk aemufrSm csefcJh+yD; topf topfawGeJ@ vl@avmu}uD;u wdk;wufcJhwmr[kwfvm;?
bmr[kww
f hJ wm;qD;uef@owfra_ wGukd u|eaf wmfw@kd a&SŒuvlawG ausmjf zwfEifkd cf +hJ y?D tckawmh armifO;D
wyifwyrf; &SmazGaewJh aq;vdyw
f akd wG[m u|eaf wmfw@kd tm;vH;k qmavmifiwfrw
G f aewJh owif;awGukd
ay;aeygvm;?
tcef; (4)
“ tpfudk/ ncif;twGuf bmrS pdwfysufp&m r&Sdawmhbl; ”
0rf;omtm;& trlt&meJ@ tajy;tv$m; a&mufvmwJh armifOD;&JΠvufxJrSm ypPnf;wpfck
udik v
f mw,f? ol pdwyf supf &m r&Sad wmhb;l vd@k ajymaewJh t&mu ol@vufxu
J ypPn;f eJ@ qdik af eyHk &w,f?
“ bmvJuG ” vd@k useG af wmfu ar;awmh olu ol@vufxu
J ypPn;f udk xkwjf y+y;D 0rf;omtm;&wJh
rsuEf mS eJ@ u|eaf wmfu
h kd
“ tpfudk tqifajy+yD ”
ol 0rf;om+y;D ajymaeayrJh u|eaf wmf em;rvnf Edik af tmif jzpfaew,f? ol@vufxu
J ypPn;f uvJ
bmrS xl;xl;qef;qef;r[kwf oGm;wdu
k w
f H wpfacsmif;rSsom jzpfw,f? olu bmawGrsm; tqifajyatmif
vkyfay;rSmygvdrfh? u|efawmhfrSm ydk+yD; Za0Z0g jzpfoGm;&w,f?
“ 'Dvdk tpfudk&/ 'DrSm awG@vm;/ oGm;yGwfwHrSm jrSKyfxm;wm a&$As a&$ ”
u|efawmf aocsm =unfhvdkufawmh rD;jcpfausmufudk oGm;yGwfwH t&dk;rSm jrSKyfxm;wm
awGŒ&w,f? olu toifh,lvmwJh b&dwf'g;av;eJ@ tJ'D rD;jcpfausmufudk cwfjyw,f? u|efawmfhudkvJ
awGŒvm; tpfukd qdw
k hJ t=unfeh @J =unf&h if; +yKH ;jyw,f? +y;D awmh yvwfpwpftw
d x
f u
J pGyu
f s,t
f uFs pD
wpfpudv
k J xkwv
f u
kd w
f ,f? iSm;vmwJh rD;jcpfe@J pGyu
f s,t
f uFs pD udk rD;&SKd Πw,f? tm;vH;k rD;avmifomG ;awmh
yvwfpwpfcGufeJ@ rD;awmufudk tkyfcsvdkufw,f? +yD;awmh olu u|efawmhfudk +yHK;jyaejyef w,f?
em;rvnfEikd w
f hJ t=unfah wGe@J ol@ud=k unfah erdw,f?
“ 'D pGyfus,ftuFs Dtpudk rD;&SdKŒxm;wJh jympawGu ta&;}uD;w,f? y&kwfqDAl; tcGHxJudk
jympawG xnfh&r,f? 'DrSm=unfh ”
olu rD;&SdKŒ+yD; cGufeJ@ tkyfxm;wJh txJu jymawGudk ,l+yD; y&kwfqD Al;cGH ta[mif;xJ
xnfah y;w,f? oGm;wdu
k f aq;wHav;udk tomudik +f y;D b&dw'f g;eJ@ cwfw,f? atmufu jymcGuaf v;udk
cHxm;w,f? yGix
hf u
G v
f mwJh rD;zGm;awG[m jymp rSm oGm;uyfw,f? &JceJ jzpfomG ;wJh jymprSm aq;vdyw
f u
kd kd
xdk;pdkuf+yD; trdt& zGmvdkufw,f? ol tm;&yg;& &SdkKufvdkufwJh tqHk; rSm ol@ESmacgif;xJu rD;cdk;awG[m
tvdyv
f u
kd f xGuv
f mw,f? u|eaf wmfvJ 0rf;omtH@=opGmeJ@ ol@udak us;Zl;wif aerdawmhw,f?
“ aus;Zl;yJ nDav;&m ”
u|efawmf wu,fh &ifxJu vmwJh toHeJ@ ol@udk aus;Zl;wifpum; qdkrdw,f? olu
“ tpfudkwdk@ aus;Zl;awGu u|efawmhftay: trsm;}uD;/ u|efawmfvdkwm tm;vHk; tpfudkwdk@
b,ftcef;udk oGm;ajymajym vkyaf y;vdu
k w
f mcsn;f yJ/ u|eaf wmht
f rd u
f vmEdik w
f m r[kwb
f ;l / u|eaf wmhf
pm;a&;aomufa&; tm;vHk; tpfudkwdk@ &Sdaevdk@/ u|efawmfjyefvkyfay;&wmu bmrS rjzpfavmufygbl;
tpfu&kd m ”
tcef; (5)

89

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

90

urBmOD;u rD;udk pwif awGŒ&Sd+yD;aemuf vlom;,Ofaus;r_ wpf&yf[m tcsdK;tauGŒ wpfckodkŒ
a&muf&v
dS mw,fv@kd qdw
k ,f? tck rD;udk u|eaf wmfw@kd ud,
k w
f ikd f zefw;D Edik rf /_ aemuf u|eaf wmfw@kd aexdifk rf _
b0xJo@kd tqifajyr_rsm;pGm a&muf&v
dS m ygw,f? t0wfpawGukd wpfxyf/ yvwfpwpf wpfxyfxyf+y;D
vdyx
f m;wJh tvdyu
f av;udk armifO;D u ,lvmw,f?
“ tpfudk vkyfief;pr,f ”
15 rdepf qif;cgeD;rSm ola&mufvmw,f? tkwfeDcJ ESpfcJudkvJ tcef;xJudk oGif;vkdufw,f?
olu u|efawmfwdk@udk vdktyfwmawG ulnDae&wmudkyJ aus;Zl;qyfaewmvdk@ ausauseyfeyf}uD;
cH,lxm;wm? u|efawmfwdk@ tm;vHk;uvJ ol@udk apwem&Sd&Sd ay;urf;=uw,f? axmifxJa&muf+yD;
&ufyikd ;f twGi;f rSmyJ tdru
f ygq,f ypPn;f awG&awmh u|eaf wmht
f wGuf tcuftcJ odyrf &Sv
fd b
S ;l ? ol@eJ@yg
rSs+yD; pm;=uawmh olu aus;Zl;wifrqHk;atmif &Sdaew,f? u|efawmfwdk@ vdktyfcsufawGudkvJ
wpfae&m&mu &atmif &Sm}uHay;wwfw,f? u|efawmfh tcef;wHcg;udk olu zGifhvdkufw,f?
0efxrf;u olvyk &f r,fh tvkyu
f kd armifO;D wd@k vdk t+rq
J if;awGukd cdifk ;f xm;w,f? tck armifO;D u
u|efawmfhtcef;udk zGifh+yD; txJudk 0ifw,f? t0wfpawGudk pkyHk+yD; aq;vdyfrD;udk cyfememzGmw,f?
t0wfpawGrSm rD;zGm;awG usoGm;awmh zsmpav;awGeJ@ csdK;+yD;tHkxm;w,f? rD;zGm;udk raoatmif
yg;pyfuvJ tqufrjywf r_wfay;aew,f? ol@udk=unfh+yD; u|efawmf armaew,f? rD;awmufuav;eJeJ
t&rSm vufwpfqpfavmuf za,mif;wdkifwdkav;eJ@ rD;awmufuav;udk t&,lvdkufw,f? +yD;awmh
toufudk t0&SL+yD; tarmajzw,f? u|efawmfvJ em;rvnfpGm ol@udk ai;=unfhaew,f?
ol tarmajy oGm;awmh za,mif;wdik f rD;av;eJ@ yvwfpwpfA;l cGaH v;udk rD;&SKd Œw,f? yvwfpwpf
tpufav;awGudk t0wfeJ@ vdyfxm;wJh yvwfpwpfvdyfay:udk csw,f? wpfpuf/ ESpfpuf/ oHk;puf
tpufaygif;rsm;pGm tusrSm t0wfeJ@ yvwfpwpf a&mvdyfxm;wJh tvdyfav;ay:rSm rD;awmufav;
wpfck a&mufvmw,f? tkwfeDcJESpfckudk zdkcaemufvdk vkyf+yD; u|efawmfwdk@ xrif;pm;zdk@ ay;xm;wJh yHkpH
'efyef;uefjym;udk tay:u wifvdkufw,f? rD;awmufuav;u wjznf;jznf; t&Sdef &vmw,f? yHkpH
yef;uefjym;xJukd aomufa&td;k xJu a&udk ESpcf u
G f cyfxnfv
h u
kd w
f ,f? u|eaf wmfu
h kd armh=unf+h y;D
“ a&aEG;ylylav; &r,f ”
ol@t+yKH ;xJrmS atmifjrifra_ wG *k%,
f rl a_ wGukd awGŒvdu
k &f w,f?
tcef; (6)
“ &SmazGa&;/ &SmazGa&; ”
ab;tcef;u tvef@w=um; atmfvdkufwJh toHa=umifh u|efawmf vef@Edk;oGm;w,f?
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vSrf;=unfhvkdufrSmawmh b&dwf'g; u|efawmfh twGuf toHk;0ifwJh b&dwf'g;/ 'gudk olu w&m;r0if
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pdk;rdk;ol ('kdufOD;)
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bmomjyef tcef;quf
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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vkyfvkd@&w,f? ukdvlacsm[m ta&S@ukdukdif;jyD; aumifav;ukd vSrf;zufvkdufw,f? aumifav;
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.3

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“t&l;av; emuef;aevm;? rif;'Dbufuv
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“ reuf y k d i f ; rS m usaemf awmif , mbuf r S m ul v k y f a y;jyD ; ae@cif ; rS m =uG u f a wG
vku
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“'Dae&mrSmbJ q&m? aemufjyD; taqmif 2bufukd oGm;ygw,f? a&=uD; vkd@ =uGufawG
trsm;=uD ; xG u f v m=uw,f ? ” aumif a v;[m 'D v k d a jymzk d @ tcsd e f t =um=uD ; uwnf ; u
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tapmifhav? tJ'D ukvm;=uD; v#mb,fvkdjzpfoGm;ovJqkdwm rif;odw,fr[kwfvm;? ”ukvm;av;u
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zdeyf=uKd;jyefwyfygw,f? 'DrSm =unfhrSm? usaemfh zdeyf=uKd;[m =uKd;eJ@ csnfxm;&wmyg? ”vG,ftdwfxJu
zdeyfudk aoaocsmcsmxkwjf y&if; oufao xlvu
dk yf gw,f?

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axmifrSL;ukdvlacsm[m aumifav;ukd wGef;vkduf&if; -“ ig - rif;&J@zdeyfpkwfukd r=unfhcsifbl;? ig&Smaewmu tJ'Drkefwkdif; uswJh ae@rSm
aysmufoGm;wJhypPnf;ukd vkdcsifaewm? ig&atmif&Smr,f?” aumifav; ukdvl acsm&J@ ppfzdeyfukd
pku
d =f unfah erdw,f?
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h mukd uljy;D &Smay;csiyf gw,f? usaemfu axmifxrJ mS
bmrqkdaxmif=uD;xJrSm bmrqkd&SmazGwwfwJhaumif jzpfyg w,f? q&mtvkd&Sd&if uljyD;&Smay;yghr,f?
“ 'DrSm ukvm;av;/ acG;rom;av; ihgukd=unfhprf; ”
ukvm;av; rsufvkH;t0kdif;=uD;eJ@ jyef=unfhvkdufygw,f? ukdvlacsmu wkd; wkd;av; “ igrif;&J@
v#mukd rjzwfao;bl;? ajymajymqkdqkd aumifav;&J@ ar;aphukd ukd vufeJ@n‡pfukdifvkduf&if; “ rif;
vdrfajymwm igodvkd@uawmh v#mrjzwfbJ/ rif; ukd acG;pmau|;r,fodvm;?
“ rif; awZwku
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d cf ef; a&S@u jzwfomG ;wJah e@u &G@AH u
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ukv
d al csm ukvm;av;ukd aqmifw
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d &f if; “ oGm;prf; ukvm;av; rif;&J@ eHapmfaewJt
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igrcHEkdifawmhbl;? xGufoGm;prf;? ”
aumifav; vrf;av#mufae&if; vG,ftdwfxJu zdeyfukdxkwfjyD; ajray: csvkduf&if; wzufpD
pD;vku
d w
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ukdvlacsm emaewJh 'l;acgif;ukd jyefprf;aew,f? ajray:rSm xkdifcsvkduf&if; wHawG;
axG;xkwfvkdufygw,f? opfyifawGukd rESpfu ckwfypfcJhvkd@ tyifjrifhjrifhawG r&Sdawmhyg? ukvm;av;ukd
axmifxJrSm b,folu tm%mt&SdqkH;qkdwm jyojyD; jyD? 'l;acgif;u usnfqHrSefxm;ovkd emaew,f?
emvG e f ; vk d @ aumif a v;tay:uk d awmif v J u sbl ; w,f ? 'g[m 'l ; u emvk d @ vm;? 'grS r [k w f
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olrcd b
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ukvm;av;u rdbrJhw aumif=uGufjzpfovkd axmif=uD;xJrSm vcr ay;&bJ bmbJjzpfjzpf ckdif;vkd@&wJh
tvkyform;wa,mufbJ? olrsm;awG pm;jyD;om; tusefawGukdbJ pm;wmbJ? olrpm;vJ v$ifhypf&r,f?
tr_u
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f m;? aumifav;u ol@bmomol aeygap? bmrS oGm;rywfoufe@J ?”'gayrJh ukv
d al csm
aumifav;ukd 'Dtwkid ;f v$wx
f m;rSm r[kwyf g? 'Dwcg ukvm;av; ck;d pmwmawG@ &if b,fo@l ukrd S rajymbJ
ppfacG;avSmiftdrfxJ xJhxm;vkdufr,f?
axmifrSL; ukdvlacsm[m tdwfaxmifxJu w0ufaomufjyD;om; aq; ayghvdyfukdxkwfjyD;
rD;n‡dum w&_duf/ ESpf&_duf tm;&yg;& &_&_dufvkduf&if; jyefpOf;pm; aew,f?
acgif;xJrSm avmavmq,fq,f &Sdwmu emaewJh'l;acgif;ukd tjrefqkH; oufomvmatmif
b,fvv
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armifarmifvwf
qufvufazmfjy ay;oGm;ygrnf?
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Edik if aH &; tawG;tjrif bmomjyef tcef;quf

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jroef;wif h

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od@k &mwGif armf. oabmw&m;a&; &efo/l ,efped cf si;f u qef@usizf uf jzpfru
_ kd jiif;onf?
yËdyuQ jzpfaeaom buftoD;oD;onf aygi;f pnf;oGm;=uonf[k qd=k uonf? olu xdo
k abmw&m;udk
ESpf taygif; wpf oabmw&m;[k ac:onf? ESpftaygif; wpf oabmw&m;onf/ yËdyuQjzpfr_udk
jiif;y,fI nDr#r_/ xyfwlxyfr# jzpfr_/ wckwnf;udkom todtrSwfjyKonf?
(,efpdefcsif;onf &k&Sm;jyef “abmfv&SDApf” 28 OD;teuf wOD;jzpfonf? uGefjrLepf
tifwmae&Sife,f ta&S@zsm;AsK&dkwGif xkwfa0a&; wm0efcH vkyfcJhzl;onf? &k&Sm;bmomaA' yg&*l
jzpfonf? 1949 ckwGif yDuif;odk@ jyefa&muf+yD;/ w&kwfjynf tbd"rRm toif;. OuUX jzpfonf?
ygwrD wfveD if0g' oifwef;ausmif; 'kw,
d OuUX jzpfonf? ygwo
D ifwef;ausmif;ESihf armf. usr;f rsm;udk
oif&dk;!$ef;wrf;rS jzKwfypfcJhonf? 1957 rS 1946 xd oifwef;ausmif;wGif 'k OuUX jzpfcJhonf?)
armfu yËyd uQrsm;wGif twdu
k t
f cH yËyd uQEiS hf twdu
k t
f cH r[kwo
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JG nf?
twdkuftcHr[kwfaom yËdyuQonf wcgw&HwGif/ twdkuftcH yËdyuQodk@ ul;ajymif;oGm;onf [k
“jynfolwGif; yËdyuQrsm;udk rSefuefpGm udkifwG,fa&;usrf;”wGif azmfjyonf?
yËdyuQ. xl;jcm;r_wGif armfu t"du yËdyuQESifh yËdyuQ. t"dubuf[lIvnf;
xyfI cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmao;onf?
“&_yfaxG;aom t&mudpP. jzpfxGef;wdk;yGm;o!fh jzpfpOfwGif/ yËdyuQ tajrmuftjrm;
wnf&Sd&m/ 4if;wdk@teuf wckonf/ t"duyËdyuQ jzpf&rnf? 4if;. wnf&Sdr_ESifh }uD;xGm;r_u tjcm;
yËdyuQrsm;. wnf&Sdr_ESifh }uD;xGm;r_wdk@udk owfrSwfonf? odk@r[kwf *,uf&dkufonf?”
“Oyrm t&if;&Sifpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;ESihf "e&Sif vlwef; pm;
[laom yËdyuQjzpfaeo!fh/ tiftm;pk ESpf&yfonf t"du yËdyuQ jzpfonf? tjcm; yËdyuQ
tiftm;pktm;vHk;udk/ ,if;t"du yËdyuQu owfrSwfonf? *,uf&dkufonf?”
(“yËdyuQusrf;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 1)
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J iG &f adS om yËyd uQtm;vH;k udk wef;wlxm;I rjzpf[k armfu ,lqonf? 4if;wd@k udk
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nDnmjcif;r&Sd? wzufu t"dujzpfI wzufu omrn jzpf&vdrfhrnf?

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odk@&mwGif xdktajctaeonf/ rajymif;vJyJ wnf&Sdaeonfr[kwf? yËdyuQ. t"du
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qdk;0g;aom tajctaeonf/ yËdyuQ. t"dubufjzpfI/ aumif;aomtajctaeonf yËdyuQ.
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w&yfjzpfonf? trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; wdkufyGJtoGifjzifh qifE$Jo!fh vlwef;pm; wdkufyGJjzpfonf?
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a&S@udk wdk;roGm;EdkifwJhtcg/ EdkifiHa&;vrf;ay:u twm;tqD;awGudk z,f&Sm;ypfzdk@twGuf
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ajymufusm;ppf/ v_yf&Sm;ppfESihf ae&m,lppf po!fh/ ppfyGJoHk;rsdK; tjyeftvSef qufoG,fa&;/ po!fh
jy\emrsm;/ jynfol@ppfyGJ. pD;yGm;a&; jy\emrsm;/ udk,fzmom zlvHkaom wyfrawmfw&yf.
jy\emrsm;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh acgif;aqmifr_ jy\emrsm;udkvnf; tus,fw0ifh a&;cJhonf?
ol. a&;om;csufrsm;tm;vHk;Y armfonf jynfolwdk@. odpdwf&Sdaom aqmif&Gufr_ udk
tav;wif; azmfjyonf? ppfa&;jzpfap/ EdkifiHa&;jzpfap/ aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; tm;vHk;Y/ jynfolwdk@.
odpw
d f ta&;}u;D yHu
k kd axmufjyonf? jynfo.
l odpw
d &f adS om/ aqmif&u
G cf suf r&Syd J bmr# rjzpfEikd ?f
Tae&mYvnf; armfonf ygwDwGif;u “&k&km;jyef”rsm;. ckcHr_udk }uHK&onf? 4if;wdk@u
*syefcck aH &;ppfy.
JG ta&;}u;D yHu
k kd vspv
f sL&_=uonf? “ypPn;f rJh Edik if H wum0g'” [laom pum;vH;k jzifh
w&kwjf ynfwiG f csucf si;f vufiif;/ qd&k ,
S v
f pfpepf xlaxmif &ef awmif;qd=k uonf? w&kwjf ynforl sm;.
*syefqef@usifa&; pdwf"mwfudk owdarhae=uonf?
“trsdK;om;vGwfvufa&; qHk;&_H;aewJh jynfolw&yf&J@ awmfvSefa&; vkyfief;[m/
qdk&S,fvpfpepfudk csufcsif;xlaxmifzdk@ r[kwfbl;? vGwfvyfa&;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifzdk@ jzpfw,f?
qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk usifhoHk;&m wdkif;jynfudk/ tvkcHxm;&wJhtcsdefrSm u|efawmfwdk@[m qdk&S,f vpf0g'
ta=umif;udk ajymawmif rajymtyfbl; ” [k armfu 1936 ckESpfwGif t*~gpEdk;udk ajymcJhzl;onf?
1946 ckESpfwGif wyfeDawmfu csefau&Sdwftm; aoe*FAsK[m cHppfqifE$Jaeonf?
wcsdefwnf;wGif aoe*FAsK[m xdk;ppf}uD;udk jyifaeonf? vlxkudk EdkifiHa&;t& pnf;&Hk;jcif;/ vlxk

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vrf;pOfjzifh ynmay;jcif;/ b¾ma&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm; vkyfjcif;/ ygwDESihf ppfwyfudk
avhusijhf cif;/ yx0Dtaetxm;ESihf tcsed t
f cgukd avhvm wGucf sujf cif;/ “aus;vufrS +rKd @udk 0dik ;f a&;”
rlatmifjrif&ef/ aus;vufwGif tajccH pcef;rsm; aqmufjcif;/ ponfwdk@udk vkyf&rnf?
TtqifhwGif ajr,m jyK jyifajymif;vJa&;rSwqifh/ vlxkvrf;pOfudk taumif txnf
azmf&rnf? vlxv
k rf;pOfonf atmifyt
JG wGuf t"du vdt
k yfcsuf jzpfonf? T tqifyh g vkyif ef;rsm;udk
ausmfroGm;&?
armfonf w&kwfawmfvSefa&; qifE$J&mwGif aus;vufudk tajccHI/ +rdK@udk 0dkif;a&; rludk
csrw
S o
f nf? armfu ppfrwdu
k cf if Edik if aH &;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; vkyif ef;udk vkyx
f m;&rnf? wcsKd @ e,fajrrsm;ESihf
+rKd @ }u;D udk pGe@f v$ww
f ef pGe@f v$wrf nf? udprP &S?d od@k pGe@f v$wjf cif;jzifh vltm;udk ac|wm&ma&mufonf?
“tqef r ygaom”Avmatmif y G J r sm;ud k &zd k @ / vl a wG tqH k ; &_ H ; rcH E d k i f ? &ef o l @ wyf r sm;ud k
&efolqef@usifo!fh e,fajrrsm;xJodk@ a&mufatmif r#m;ac:&rnf? &efolqef@usifa&; vlxk
0J*,uf}u;D xJwiG f qGEJ pS yf pf&rnf? Tenf;tm;jzifh &efou
l kd ud,
k f vd&k mod@k ta&mufac:+y;D / t+y;D wdik f
acsr_ef;ypf&rnf[k armfu ,lqonf?
wyfr_;rsm;onf &J&J&ihf&ihf qHk;jzwfwwf&rnf? wyfr_rsm;. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk
wyfom;rsm;ESifh vlxktm;/ wwfEdkifor# today;&rnf? v#dK@ 0Sufrxm;&? Todk@ vkyfjcif; tm;jzifh
wyfom;rsm; / jynfolrsm;onf tajctaeudk em;vnfoabmaygufum/ udk,fydkif tod
udk,fydkifOm%frsm; ay;Edkifonf? yËdyuQw&m;rsm;udk tajcwnfI qHk;jzwfcsufudk pkaygif;
vkyaf qmif&rnf?
yËdyuQwGif yËdyuQjzpfaeaombufrsm;. jzpfay: wdk;wufr_onf wckESifhwck nDnm jcif;
r&Sd[k armfuajymcJhonf/ (yËdyuQrsm;. rnDnmr_ oabmw&m;?) wenf;ajym&aomf jzpfay:
wdk;wufr _wckY yËdyuQbufrsm;onf/ taetxm; ajymif;vJoGm;Edkifonf? armf. w&m;onf/
txl; ojzifh ppfyGJrsm;udk avhvm&mY ydkI xif&Sm;onf? ppfyGJY tiftm;}uD;aom bufonf
t+rw
J rf;Edik o
f nfr[kw?f tiftm;ao;aom bufonfvnf; t+rw
J rf;&_;H onf r[kw?f “Edik if u
H av;u
Edik if }H u;D wEdik if u
H kd tEkid w
f u
kd Ef ikd w
f ,f? tm;enf;wJh Edik if u
H tm; aumif;wJh Edik if u
H kd tEdik w
f u
kd Ef ikd w
f ,f
” [k armfu 1970 arv (20) &uf ausnmcsuw
f iG f axmufjycJo
h nf? TonfrmS yËdyuQrsm;.
bufajymif;vJr_ w&m;udk tajccHI armfu axmufjyjcif; jzpfonf?
armfu yËyd uQtwGi;f u ajymif;jyefajymif;vJr_ jzpfpOfukd ppfyw
JG iG f xif[yf usio
hf ;kH onf?
“ wpHkwckaom tajctaeY/ t&m0wˆKwcktwGif;u yËdyuQjzpfaeaom bufrsm;onf
qef@usifbufodk@ ajymif;oGm;wwfonf? rdrd.bufrS qef@usifbuf tajctaeodk@ ajymif;vJ
oGm;wwfonf ” [k armfu ajymcJhonf? yËdyuQ. bufwzufrS tjcm; qef@usifbuf wzuf odk@
ajymif;vJoGm;jcif;udk xyfwljzpfr_[k ac:onf? TonfrSm “tEkyËdavmrw&m;. tESpf jzpfonf?
tEkyËdavmrw&m;onf/ qef@usib
f ufrsm; rnfo@kd xyfwjl zpfomG ;=uonfukd jyonf? wckrw
S cko@kd
ajymif;vJoGm;yHkudk jyonf? qef@usifbuf rsm;onf taoozG,f/ a&G@vsm;jcif;r&Sd wnfaejcif;
r[kwfa=umif;/ 4if;wdk@onf ,m,Dr#om jzpfa=umif;/ v_yf&Sm; aea=umif;udk jyonf” [k vDeifu
ajymcJhonf? xdktcsufonf ppfyGJwGif ta&;}uD;onf/ ajymif;jyefajymif;vJr_twGuf vdktyfo!fh
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v_yf&Sm;r_udk em;vnfzdk@ vkdonf? xdkokd@ em;vnf&ef twGuf wDxGifr_ &Sd&OD;rnf? OD;aqmifr_
&S&d rnf? armfonf ajymif;jyefajymif;vJr/_ rnfo!fh tcsed w
f iG f ay:aygurf nfukd em;vnfo!fah e&mwGif
xl;c|efoljzpfonf? tcsdeftcgudk trdt& zrf;qkyfwwfonf?
odk@&mwGif yËdyuQrsm;. bufajymif;wwfaom oabmudk/ em;vnf&eftwGuf t"du
yËdyuQESifh vufatmufcH yËdyuQudk cGJjcm;Edkif&rnf? (yËdyuQrsm;. ajymif;jyefjzpfr_ oabmw&m;?)
*syefckcHa&; ppfyGJumvwkef;u/ t"du yËdyuQonf/ *syefe,fcsJ@pepfjzpfonf? Tt"du yËdyuQudk
ajz&Si;f &eftwGuf (wdusaom uef@owfcsurf sm;twGi;f ) cseaf u&Sw
d Ef iS hf nD!w
G af &; wyfaygi;f pk zG@J cJ&h onf?
od@k &mwGif wwd, jynfwiG ;f ppfumvwGirf /l w&kwjf ynfol trsm;pk}u;D ESihf tar&duefe,fcs@J orm;rsm;u/
usm;uefay;xm;aom cseaf u&Sw
d f ud,
k pf m; jyKo!fh vufa0cH "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;wd@k =um;u/ yËyd uQ.
vufatmufcHrsm; jzpfvmcJh=uonf? xdk@a=umihf csefau&Sdwf qef@usifa&; tiftm;pktm;vHk;udk/
odrf;oGif;pnf;&Hk;a&;onf/ vufiif; wm0ef jzpfvmonf? xdkESifhtnD aemufxyf nD!Gwfa&;
wyfaygif;pkwckudk zGJ@cJh&onf? Tonf rSm jynfwGif;ppf EdkifiHa&;udk armfu yËdyuQw&m;wGif
tajccHI cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmyHk jzpfonf?
jynfwGif;ppfumv ppfa&;udkvnf;/ armfu yËdyuQw&m;wGif tajccHI ajz&Sif;onf?
jynfwGif;ppfumv ppfa&;u azmfjyo!fh yËdyuQ bufESpfzufrSm wzufu csefau&Sdwf.
ppfwyf}uD;rsm;jzpfI/ tjcm;wzufu uGefjrLepfwyfrsm;jzpfonf? TbufESpfzufwGif csefau &Sdwfu
vufeuftiftm; aumif;onf? wyfOD;a&rsm;onf? uGefjrLepfwdk@xuf (4) qcGJ tm;aumif;onf?
uGejf rLepfw@kd u vufeuf!o
hH nf? tiftm;enf;onf? od@k &mwGif avhusifh r_ aumif;onf? ,H=k unfcsuf
&Sdonf? EdkifiHa&;tod&Sdonf? vlxkaxmufcHr_&onf? TyËdyuQ ESpfzufudk bufajymif;vkyfvdkv#if/
wenf; ol@udk tiftm;enf;atmifvkyfI/ udk,fhbufudk tm;omatmif vkyfvdkv#if/ jy\emudk
*&kwpdu
k f avhvm&vdrrhf nf? yËyd uQ. tjcm;buf wzuf (cseaf u&Sw
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ajz&Sif;enf;rsm;udk oHk;&rnf? *syefwyf rsm;udk wdkufo!fh/ ajymufusm;enf;rsm;udk oHk;Ir&?
tiftm;enf;aom ulrifwefwyfrsm;udk omvGef}uD;rm;o!fhtm;jzifh tjyKwfwdkufacsr_ef;ypf&rnf?
ud,
k x
hf uftm;}u;D aom &efo@l wyf }u;D rsm;udk a&SmifuiG ;f &rnf? 4if;wd@k tm; armyef;aeatmif vky&f rnf?
axmufyHha&; vrf; a=umif;rsm;udk jzwfawmufypf&rnf? twGif;rS v#dK@0SufI zsufqD;ypf&rnf?
pdwf"mwf ysufjym;atmif vkyf&rnf?
yËdyuQrsm;. bufrsm;/ bufajymif;oGm;yHkESifh ywfoufI--tcsdK@yËdyuQrsm;rSm Todk@ bufajymif;jcif;r&Sd[k/ vltcsdK@u ,lq=uonf? Oyrm
ukev
f yk pf rG ;f tm;pkEiS fh ukev
f yk q
f ufqaH &;wd@k . yËyd uQwiG /f ukev
f yk pf rG ;f tm;pku t"dujzpfonf [k
vnf;aumif;/ oabmw&m;ESihf vufawG@wd@k . yËyd uQwiG f vufawG@onf t"dujzpfonf [k
vnf;aumif;/ pD;yGm;a&;tkwjf rpfEiS hf txyfxyf taqmufttHw
k @kd . yËyd uQwiG f pD;yGm;a&; tkwjf rpfonf
t"du yËdyuQjzpfonf[k vnf;aumif; ,lq=uonf? 4if;wd@k . ae&mrsm;onf tjyeftvSef
ajymif;vJjcif;r&S[
d k qd=k uonf? TonfrmS puf,EW&m; &ky0f g'. ,lqcsuf jzpfonf? tEkyËad vmr
&ky0f g'. ,lqcsuf r[kwaf cs? ukev
f yk pf rG ;f tm;pk/ vufawG@/ pD;yGm; a&;tkwjf rpfw@kd onf a,bk,stm;jzif/h
t"duESifh tqH;k tjzwfay;aom tcef;rS yg=uonfrmS trSef jzpfonf? t=uifoo
l nf Ttcsufudk

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todtrSwf rjyKygu/ xkdolonf &kyf0g' orm; rjzpfEdkifacs? odk@&mwGif ukefvkyfqufqHa&;
oabmw&m;/ txyfxyf taqmufttHk po!fh t&mwdk@onf/ wpHkwckaom tajctaetwGif;wGif
t"duESifh tqHk;tjzwf ay;aom tcef;rS yg0if=ujyefonf? Ttcsufudkvnf; todtrSwf
jyK&rnfjzpfonf? ukefvkyfqufqH a&;udk rajymif;vJaoma=umifh/ ukefvkyfpGrf;tm;pk r}uD;xGm;
rwdk;wufEdkifo!fhtcgwGif/ ukefvkyfqufqHa&; ajymif;vJa&;onf/ t"duESihf tqHk;tjzwfusaom
tcef;rS yg0if&jyef onf? ‘awmfvSefa&; oabmw&m;w&yf r&SdyJ/ awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ r&SdEkdif’
[k vDeifu ajymouJo
h @kd jzpfaeo!ft
h cgrsKd ;wGi/f awmfveS af &; oabmw&m; zefw;D a&;ESifh jzef@jzL;a&;
wdk@onf/ t"duESifh tqHk;tjzwfay;aomtcef;rS yg0ifavonf?ordkif;. wdk;wufr_ wckvHk;wGif
&kyfu pdwfudk qHk;jzwfa=umif;/ vlr_a&;wnf&Sdr_u vlr_a&; odjrifr_udk qHk;jzwf a=umif;/
todtrSwfjyKxm;ouJhodk@yif/ pdwfu&kyfudk wkef@jyefEdkifo!fh owWd&Sda=umif;/ vlr_a&; odjrifr_u/
vlr_a&;wnf&Sdr_udk wkef@jyefEdkifo!fh owWd&Sda=umif;/ txyfxyf taqmufttHku pD;yGm;a&;
tajccHtw
k jf rpfukd wke@f jyefEikd o
f !fh owW&d adS =umif;udv
k nf;/ u|eaf wmfw@kd tod trSwjf yKonf? TonfrmS
&kyf0g'udk zDvmjyK jcif; r[kwf? puf,EW&m; &kyf0g'udk a&SmifuGif;+yD; tEkyËdavmr &kyf0g'udk pGJ+rJpGm
usihfoHk;jcif; jzpfonf? ( “yËdyuQusrf;” vufa&G;pOfusrf;/ twGJ 1)
Ttcsufonf ta&;}uD;onf? r[mypPnf;rJh ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&; jzpfpOf}uD;udk
em;vnfvdkv#if/ Ttcsufudk owdjyK&ef vdkonf? ,Ofaus;r_awmfvSefa&; qdkonfrSm/ tay: xyf
taqmuf t tH k u / awmf v S e f a &;jzpf o nf ? xd k a wmf v S e f a &;u tajccH taqmuf t tH k u d k
awmfveS af jymif;vJa&;twGuf vrf;cif;ay;onf?
,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;onf tawG;tac: ajymif;vJa&; jzpfonf? &kyf0wˆK ajymif;vJa&;
(tajccH taqmufttHk ajymif;vJa&;) twGuf armif;ESifa&;tiftm; jzpfonf?
Tod@k jzifh armfh tawG;tac:Y/ pdw-f &kyf ESihf &ky-f pdwf wd@k tjyeftvSef wnf&rdS _ w&m;onf/
yËdyuQukd ajz&Si;f a&;wGif aomhcsujf zpfaeonf? “avmuY rnfo!fh jzpfay:wd;k wufrr_ # wajy;nDpmG
rjzpf? nDnmpGm jzpfay:a&;/ nDr#r_ oabmw&m;udk u|efawmfwdk@ qef@usif &rnf” [k armfu
ajymcJhonf? armf. tawG;tac:onf +idrfoufr_ oabmw&m;udk acszsufvdkufonf? wmtkd0g'.
nD!w
G af ygi;f pyfrw
_ &m;udk acszsuv
f u
kd o
f nf? uGejf zL;&Syf &d;k &m0g'udk acszsuu
f m w&kw.
f awG;ac:r_ukd
qef;opfvu
kd o
f nf?
,iftef;u ausmif;q&m armfhudk avhvmvdkv#if/ ,iftef;wGif a&;cJho!fh/ t jcm;
ta&;}uD;aom/ usrf;wapmifudkvnf; avhvmoifhonf? ,if;rSm “'Drdkua&pDopfusrf; jzpfonf?”
'Drdkua&pDopfusrf;onf w&kwfawmfvSefa&;/. c&DpOfudk azmfjyo!fh ordkif; vlr_a&; usrf;wapmif
jzpfonf?
armfonf xdu
k sr;f udk 1939 ckEpS u
f ek w
f iG f a&;onf? uGejf rLepfygw.
D tqifu
h kd azmfjyonf?
uGefjrLepfygwDonf qGef,ufqif. pefrif;0g'udk rvdkufemo!fh rdp>mygwD[k csefau&Sdwfu
pGyfpGJaeonf? ygwDxJu “vuf0J*kd%f;cGJa&;” orm;rsm;uvnf;/ csefau&SdwfESifh nD!Gwfa&;
wyfaygif;pkzGJ@a&;rludk qef@usifaeonf? 0rfrif;onf ygwDxJwGif wpcef;xvm jyefonf?
0rfrif;tkyfpkonf ygwDxJwGif tcdkiftrm uwkwfusif; wl;xm;onf? odk@jzifh csefau&Sdwf. pGyfpGJr_/
“vuf0”J tacsmiform;rsm;. wdu
k cf u
kd rf /_ 0rfrif;. acgi;f axmifxvmr_ wd@k udk wdu
k &f ef/ Tusr;f udk
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a&;jcif; jzpfonf?
w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwo
D @kd 1935 ckEpS w
f iG f ygw0D if (40000) r# &S&d mrS/ 1940 ck aemufyikd ;f wGif
ygwD0ifaygif; (800000) &Sdvmonf?
ygwD0ifopfrsm;onf ygwDordkif;udkvnf; rod=u? c&D;&SnfcsDwufyGJrwdkifcifu ygwD
ta=umif;udk aumif;aumif;rod=u? xdk@a=umifh armf.ta=umif;udkvnf; rod=u? ol@udk OuUX }uD;
armf[k ac:aomfvnf;/ bm OuUXrSef; rod=u? e,fpyfa'o tpdk;&. OuUXvnf; r[kwf? ygwD
A[dkaumfrwD. OuUXvnf; r[kwf? ppfaumfr&Sif. OuUXjzpfI/ ygwDxJwGif aygvpfAsK&dk xdyfoD;wOD;
jzpfaomfvnf;/ taxGaxG twGif;a&;r_; csef0if&Sef.atmufu ae&onf? xdk@a=umifh xdktcsdefu
armfonf ygwDw&yfvHk;tay:wGif =oZmrv$rf;Edkifao;? txl;ojzifh ygwD ynmwwfrsm;ESifh
oabmw&m;a&; q&mrsm;}uD;pdk;&m/ ygwDpme,fZif;rsm; wGif =oZmr&Sd&Hkr#ru/ 4if;wdk@.
qef @ usif j cif ; ud k y if cH a e&ao;onf ? armf o nf usrf ; *ef E S H @ pyf o!f h ynm&S d j zpf I /
Om%f t vG e f x uf j ruf o !f h yk * ~ d K vf jzpf o !f h w d k i f / v,f o rm; trl t usif h r sm; ud k
wrifxdef;odrf;xm;onf[k t*~gpEdk;u rSwfcsuf csbl;onf? armfonf Todk@ v,form;vdk
a[ma[m'dik ;f 'dik ;f ajymjcif;jzif/h b0ifjriho
f !fh ynmwwfrsm;udk txdww
f vef@jzpfatmif vkycf siyf &kH onf?
armf u Tod k @ [ef y ef a wG / taqmif t a,mif a wG u d k oa&mf + yD q d k v #if / ynmwwf a wG
taecufwwf=uonf? omrefvlxkudk “ajcmufvSef@ ” ae=ur!hf “AvHk;AaxG; pOf;pm;olrsm;”
“*dk%f;cGJa&;orm;” rsm;udk armfu yufyufpufpuf ajymwwfonf? t,ltqa&; t& wae@wGif/
pm&if;&Sif;=u&OD;rnf[k tm;vHk;u &dyfrdcJh=uonf? 1939 ckESpfwkef;u *syefckcHa&; wuUodkvfwGif
ydk@csol q&mrsm;teuf/ vsLa&SmufcsDvnf; ygonf? vsLa&SmufcsDu “yËdyuQ yËdyuQeJ@
odyfajymrae=ueJ@? 'gawGajymaerJhtpm;/ a'ojzLtwGuf tvkyfvkyfzdk@ ta&;}uD;w,f ” [k
oifwef;om;rsm;udk &_H@rJhI ajymzl;onf[k qdkonf? armf. “yËdyuQusrf;” onf ,iftef;wGif
wcgr# yHkESdyfrcHcJh&? 1950 ckESpfrsm; aemufydkif;usrSom/ yHkESdyfjcif;cHcJh& onf? Tonfudkaxmufv#if
ygwD pme,fZif;rsm;udk armf csKyfudkifEdkifjcif;r&Sd[k ,lqzG,f jzpfonf?
“'Drdkua&pDopfusrf;”udk yHkESdyfaomtcg/ “vuf0J”tvGeftu|H orm;rsm;u jyif;jyif;
xefxef 0dkif;I a0zef=uonf? “'Drdkua&pDopf” [laom zGifhqdkcsuf topfawG ygojzifh armfpudk
uvnf; }udKqdkjcif; rjyK?
“'Drdkua&pDopf”Y armfu ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;. teuft"dy`g,fudk &Sif;vif;pGm
zGiq
hf o
kd nf? ,Ofaus;r_ awmfveS af &;wckonf tvkyo
f rm;/ v,form;rsm;xJrS acgi;f aqmif opfrsm;udk
arG;xkwfay;vdrfhrnf[k armfu ,lqonf?
1939 ckESpfwGif armfESifh “tjcm;&Jabmf ” rsm;onf/ ygwDoifwef;ausmif;twGuf
ordik ;f pmtkyw
f tkyu
f kd jyKp=k uonf? ,if;rSm “w&kwjf ynfawmfveS af &;ESihf w&kwjf ynf uGejf rL epfygwD
” qdko!fh pmwrf;jzpfonf? w&kwfjynf. ordkif;ESifh w&kwfawmfvSefa&;ordkif;jzpfonf?
'Drdkua&pDopftqifhESifh qdk&S,fvpftqifh ta=umif;udkrl “'Drdkua&pDopf ” usrf;usrS jy!fhpHkpGm
azmfjyxm;onf? “w&kwfjynfawmfvSefa&;ESifh w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD ” [lo!fh pmwrf;udk armfu
ol@tm; ay;zwfzl;onf[k tar&duef pma&;q&mr}uD; tifemvl0Dpxa&mif;u ajymzl;onf?
xkpd mwrf;udk ygwx
D w
J iG f (8) ESpaf usmf vS!zhf wfjy+y;D rS yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJjh cif; jzpfonf[k rpP pxa&mif;u

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qdkonf? w&kwf awmfvSefa&; ta&;edrfhcJhyHkrsm;ESifh ywfoufI armfu a0zef oHk;oyfxm;&m
xdktrSm;rsm;twGuf wm0ef&Sdol acgif;aqmiftcsdK@u rauseyf jzpfcJh=uonf?
“'Drdkua&pDopfusrf;” Y armfu w&kwfjynf 'Drdkua&pD awmfvSefa&;onf (18) &mpk
(19) &mpkrsm;twGif;u Oa&mywdkufwGif ay:aygufcJhaom yHkpHa[mif; 'Drdkua&pDrsdK;udk wnf
axmif&ef r[kwf[k &Sif;vif;cJhonf?
----Todk@aomacwfwGif rnfo!fh udkvdkeD- udkvdkeDwydkif; EdkifiHwGifrqdk tu,fI
e,fcsJ@pepfudk qef@usifaom (0g ) EdkifiHwum "e&Sif vlwef;pm;ESifh EdkifiHwumt&if;&Sif pepfudk
qef@usifaom awmfvSefa&; jzpfay:vmygu/ 4if;awmfvSefa&;onf/ urBmh "e&Sif 'Drdk ua&pD
awmfveS af &;a[mif; t0ef;t0dik ;f wGif t}uKH ;r0ifawmhy/J t0ef;t0dik ;f opfwiG f t}uKH ;0if vmavonf?
4if;awmfvSefa&;onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESihf t&if;&Sifpepf qdkif&m/ urBmh awmfvSefa&;a[mif;.
tpdwt
f ydik ;f wck r[kwaf wmhy/J urBmah wmfveS af &;opf. tpdwt
f ydik ;f wck (0g ) ypPn;f rJh qd&k ,
S v
f pf
awmfvSefa&;. tpdwftydkif;wck jzpfvmonf?----,if; awmfvSefa&;onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;
acgi;f aqmifo!f/h t&if;&Sif vl@tzG@J tpnf;ESihf "e&Sif tm%m&Sipf epf usio
hf ;kH aom Edik if x
H al xmif&ef/
&nf&G,faom awmfvSefa&;a[mif; r[kwf awmhyJ/ ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm; acgif;aqmifo!fh
yxrtqifhwGif 'Drdkua&pDopf vl@tzGJtpnf; udka&m awmfvSefaom vlwef;pm;toD;oD;yl;aygif;I/
tm%m&Sifpepf usifhoHk;aom EdkifiHudkyg xlaxmif&ef &nf&G,faom awmfvSefa&;opf jzpfayonf?
(“'Drdk ua&pDopfusrf; vufa&G;pifusrf;/” twGJ 2 )
odk@&mwGif 'Drdkua&pDopf awmfvSefa&;Y ESpfcG vuQ%m &Sdonf? udkvdkeD/ udkvdkeD wydkif;
Ed k i f i H u / trsd K ;om; "e&S i f vl w ef ; pm;onf awmf v S e f a omtcsuf & S d o !f h t avsmuf
nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pkwGif ygEdkifonf? xdk@a=umihf 'Drdkua&pDopf awmfvSefa&;onf/ tajccH tm;jzihf
"e&Sif 'Drdkua&pD awmfvSefa&; jzpf+rJ jzpfaeao;onf? wzufwGif t&if;&Sifpepf xGef;um;a&;udk
vrf;cif;ay;+yD;/ tjcm;wzufwGif qdk&S,fvpfpepftwGuf jyifqifay;onf/ xdkawmfvSefa&;udk
acgif;aqmifo!fh ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;ygwDonf/ Tvkyfief;ESpf&yfudk em;vnf&vdrfhrnf?
'Drdkua&pDopf orwEdkifiHY pD;yGm;a&;onfvnf;/ 'Drdkua&pDopf pD;yGm;a&; jzpfonf?
'Dru
kd a&pDopf pD;yGm;a&;Y/ yk*v
~ u
d t&if;udk jynfov
l x
l w
k .
kd toufarG;0rf;a=umif;b0wGif csKyu
f ikd cf iG hf
rjyKawmh? b%fwu
kd }f u;D rsm;ESihf pufrv
_ yk if ef;}u;D rsm;/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; vkyif ef;}u;D rsm;udk tpd;k &u
odrf;,lonf? tao;pm; yk*~vdu vkyfief;rsm;udk cGihfjyK +rJ jyKonf?
w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDu csrSwfo!fh/ 'Drdkua&pDopf EdkifiHawmfonf/ 1942 ck ulrifwef
yxr uGef*&ufu csrSwfo!fh a'gufwmqGef,ufqif. pefrif;0g' oHk;yg;ESifh udkufnDonf?
qGef,ufqif.rludk y,fzsufolrSm uGefjrLepfygwDr[kwf? csefau&Sdwfjzpfonf?
,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;ESifhywfoufI armfu--“arv (4) &ufae@ ta&;awmfyHk+yD;o!fhaemuf---w&kwfjynfwGif vHk;0 opfvGifaom
,Ofaus;r_ tiftm;pk ay:aygufvmcJhonf?---vGefcJho!fh tESpf (20) twGif; ,if; ,Ofaus; r_opf
wyfrawmf/ OD;wnfwu
kd cf ahJ om ae&mwdik ;f Y/ awG;ac:r_t&a&m/ o¾mef (pmta&; tom; ponfw@kd )
t&yg/ tvGef}uD;us,faom awmfvSefr_rsm; jzpfay:cJhonf?---,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;w&yfonf/
4if;tusdK;jyKaom EdkifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; awmfvSefr_rsm;. t,ltq a&;&m/ ta&mif&dkufcwfr_
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jzpfonf?” (“'Drdkua&pDopfusrf; vufa&G;pifusrf;/” twGJ 2)
'Drdkua&pDopf ,Ofaus;r_onf trsdK;om; ,Ofaus;r_jzpf.? xdk ,Ofaus;r_onf
e,fcsJ@pepf. zdESdyfr_udk qef@usif+yD; w&kwftrsdK;om;wdk@. *k%foduQmESifh vGwfvyfr_udk vdkvm;.?
xdk,Ofaus;r_onf u|efawmfwdk@ trsdK;om;ydkifjzpfI/ u|efawmfwdk@ trsdK;om;. xl;jcm;csufrsm;
yg&Sdonf? xdk ,Ofaus;r_onf/ tjcm;trsdK;om; rSefor#./ qdk&S,fvpf ,Ofaus;r_ESifh vnf;aumif;/
'Drdkua&pDopf ,Ofaus;r_ESifhvnf;aumif;/ yl;aygif;vsuf tjyef tvSef twk,lum/ tjyeftvSef
zG@H +zKd ;atmif vky+f y;D / urBm,
h Ofaus;r_opf jzpfay:vmatmif twl aqmif&u
G =f uonf?---w&kwjf ynfonf
rdrd ,Ofaus;r_twGuf vdktyfor#udk/ EdkifiHjcm; . wdk;wufaom ,Ofaus;r_rS tajrmuftrsm;
cH,l&rnf? ,cifcH,lcJhonfrSm vGefpGmyif enf;aeao;.?---odk@aomf u|efawmfwdk@onf EdkifiHjcm;rS
t&mrSefor#udk cH,l&mwGif tpm; tpm pm;ouJhodk@vkyfrS tusdK;&Sdrnf? tHoGm;jzifh 0g;I/
tpmtdrfjzifhacsI/ tm[m&ESifh tnpfta=u;[lI uGJjym;atmif cGJjcm;&rnf? tpm tm[m&udk
pkyf,lI/ tnpfta=u;udk xkwfypf&rnf?----b,fawmhrS tpdrf;vdkuf rsdKrcs&? vHk;vHk; ra0zefyJ
vufrcH&? ‘tm;vH;k taemufwikd ;f qefa&;’ qdo
k !frh o
l nf rSm;onf? Edik if jH cm; t&mrsm;ud/k o¾mef
0g'usus vufcHcJhojzifh w&kwfjynfonf t}uD;tus,f epfemcJhzl;onf? ( “'Drdkua&pDopfusrf; ”
vufa&G; pifusrf;/ twGJ 2 )
armf. “oif=um;csurf sm;” udk vl}uKd urf sm;onf? olpum;ajymv#if y&d\wfu wa0ga0g
yGJuswwfonf? armfonf pum;ajymaumif;ol wa,mufjzpfI/ av;eufo!fh EdkifiHa&; rdef@cGef;rsm;
t=um;wGif yHkwdkywfp uav;rsm; !SyfI ajymwwfonf? aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; wGif armfonf
nvHk;aygufxdkifonf? armyef;EGrf;e,fyHkr&? tpuuJhodk@yif vef;qef;aeonf?
armfonf “w&m;ao rwf0g'D ” rsm;udkrl jyif;jyif;xefxef wdkufonf? olwdk@u armf.
aoe*FAsK[mESifh ywfoufo!fh ydk@cscsufrsm;udk vufrcH=u? armf. tbd"rRm ydk@cscsufrsm;udkvnf;
r}udKuf? awmfvSefa&;ygwDw&yfwGif oabmw&m;a&;t&/ omvGefr_ onf ta&;}uD;qHk; jzpfonf?
xdk@a=umihf w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDxJY vrf;pOfESpf&yf. wdkufyGJonf &yfpJonf [lIr&Sd? ,iftef;Y
armfonf oabmw&m;a&;t& acgif;aqmifr_&cJhonf? odk@&mwGif vG,fvG,f&cJhonfr[kwf?
jyif;xefo!fh ygwDwGif;wdkufyGJrsm;udk jzwfoef;+yD;rS &jcif;jzpfonf? Tacgif;aqmifr_jzifh armfonf
ygwDESihf wyfrawmfudk wnfaqmufcJhonf/ rwf0g'udk w&kwfjynf. wdusaom tajctaersm;ESihf
tnD usifhoHk;cJhonf? armfonf ,iftef;wGif ygwDwGif;u twdkuftcHrsm;udk xyfI }uHK&jyefonf?
Tjy\emudk armfu vkyf[efjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_jzifh ajz&Sif;onf?
1938 ck aemufydkif;wGif armfu ygwDwnfaqmufa&; ta&;}uD;a=umif;udk tav;wif;
ajymcJo
h nf? ygwu
D kd OD;wnfcsuf rSeu
f efatmif vky&f rnf? wnf+ird cf ikd rf matmif vky&f rnf? ygw0D if
OD;a&opf rsm;jym;vmo!ft
h wGuf jy\emawG ay:vmonf? ,iftef;od@k ynmwwf trsm;tjym;/
a&mufvmo!fhtcgwGif armfu “ygwDtwGuf tvkyform;/ v,form;udk tusdK;jyKo!fh
ynmwwfrsm;vdkonf? ynmwwfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rSefuef aom ay:vpDudk usifhoHk;Edkifv#if
awmfveS af &; atmifjrif&eftwGuf ta&;}u;D aom tcsuf w&yf jzpfa=umif;/ ygww
D &yfv;kH u &Jabmfrsm;
em;vnfxm;&rnf ” [k ajymcJhonf? (“ynm wwf rsm;udk rsm;rsm;odrf;oGif;yg ” vufa&G;pifusrf;/
twGJ 2)

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od@k &mwGif ynmwwfrsm; 0ifa&mufvmo!ft
h wGuf ygww
D iG f jy\emopfrsm; ay:vmonf?
wyfom;a[mif;}uD;rsm;u olwdk@udk r,HkouFm jzpf=uonf? ynmwwfawGu tvkyform;rsm;/
ppfom;rsm;ESifh eifvm;/ igvm; ,SOfI/ tvkyf=urf;vkyf&ef aemufcsef=u onf? tacsmiform;0g'ESifh
wufvrf;&Sm0g'rsm; ay:aygufvmonf? ygwDwGif;odk@ ulrifwef olv#dKrsm; 0ifvmonf?
pifppfynmwwf[lonf/ "e&Sifvlwef;pm;rS vmolrsm;jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;&ifhusufr_ enf;onf?
Tt&mrsm;udk ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf armfu ygwDwGif; vkyf[ef jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_w&yf vkdtyfonf[k
,lqonf?
1941 ckESpf ZGefvwGif [pfwvmu/ qdkAD,uf ,leD,Hudk 0ifwdkufonf? xdk@a=umihf
w&kwfuGefjrLepfwdk@. *syefckcHppfonf qdkAD,uf ,leD,Htzdk@ ta&;w}uD; udpPw&yf jzpfvm onf?
cyfapmapmu ygwDwGif;wGif armf. &efolrsm;u/ *syefckcHa&;ppfyGJudk a&S@wef;wifae jcif;onf
EdkifiHwum0g'udk aemufwef;odk@ ydk@onf[k pGyfpGJcJh=uonf? ,ck tjzpftysufrsm;u *syefckcHa&;ppf
rnfr# ta&;}uD;a=umif; jyvdkuf+yD? taemufzufwGif emZDu qdkAD,uf ,leD,Hudk 0ifwdkufae+yD?
w&kwfjynfudk odrf;+yD;aemu/f *syefonf qdkAD,uf ,leD,Hudk wdkuf awmhrnf? armf. edrdwfzwfcsuf
aoG;xGufatmif rSefae+yD? [pfwvmu qdkAD,uf,leD,H udk 0ifwdkufo!fhtcgwGif/ ygwDwGif;u
armf. &efolrsm;onf/ toHwdwfoGm;=uonf? rnfodk@jzpfap [pfwvmu qdkAD,uf,leD,Hudk
wdkufjcif;onf ygwDwGif;u armf. &efolrsm;udk tm;enf;oGm;aponf?
1941 ck 'DZifbmvwGif *syefu ykvq
J yd u
f rf;udk wdu
k o
f jzihf tar&duef ppfxyJ g vmonf?
tar&dueftzd@k w&kwjf ynf ppfajrjyifonf ta&;w}u;D jzpfvmonf? tar&duef onf cseaf u&Sw
d u
f kd
*syefEiS rhf aygi;f atmif wm;&awmhrnf? TudpYP w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwED iS fh wyfeaD wmfonf ta&;}u;D o!fh
tcef;u ygaeonf? xdk@a=umifh w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD. tcef;on/f urBmh twdkif;twmt&
ta&;}u;D aomtcef;rS ygaeonf? uGejf rLepf qef@usif a&; vkyif ef;rsm;udk cseaf u&Sw
d f qufvyk af ev#i/f
rdrdwdk@tzdk@ 0rf;enf;zG,f tajctaeqdk; rsm;ESifh }uHKawG@&vdrfhrnf[k tar&duefu csefau&Sdwfudk
ta=umif;=um;cJo
h nf?
armf. wGufudef; rSefae+yD? urBmhtv,fwGif *syefudk wdkuf&mY t"du tiftm;pk tjzpf
todtrSwjf yKcaH e+yjD zpfaom/ w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwt
D zd@k aemufajcvSr;f vSr;f &awmh rnf? xdak jcvSr;f rSm
tm%modrf;a&; ajcvSrf;jzpfonf? tm%modrf;Edkifa&;twGuf ygwDudk jyefI wnfaqmuf&rnf?
vkyf[efjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_wckudk qifE$J&rnf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_onf vHk;0atmifyGJcHa&;twGuf
jyifqifjcif;jzpfonf? vlxv
k rf;pOfukd csrw
S &f rnf? vky[
f efjyif& rnf? ygwaD zmif;yGaejcif;udk pDppf&rnf?
tacsmiform;rsm;/ &efol@ olv#dKrsm;/ rvdkvm;tyfol rsm;udk ygwDwGif;rS oef@pifypf&rnf?
*dk%f;*%rsm;udk &Sif;ypf&rnf? ygwDordkif;udk jyefa&;& rnf? Tvkyfief;onf ygwDudk ynmay;a&;
vkyif ef;}u;D jzpfonf?
armfonf oHk;ESpfjyifqif+yD;aemuf vkyf[ef jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk pwifonf? urBmwGif
t}uD;qHk;aom EdkifiHa&;ynmay; v_yf&Sm;r_}uD; jzpfonf? urBmhuGefjrLepfygwDrsm; xJwGif wcgr#
r&SdcJhzl;ao;aom v_yf&Sm;r_}uD; jzpfonf?

jroef;wifh
qufygOD;rnf/
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tvif;tdrf

rSwfpk
tvif;tdrf (5) eSpjf ynfh txdr;f trSwf 0wˆKwjkd yKd iyf JG qkay;yGJ
tcrf;tem; udk ,ae hnae 5 em&DwGif Otsuka˜ Minami
Hall˜ Room (1) wGif usi;f y&m pmaytzG@J tpnf;rsm; jzpf=uaom
zefrD;tdrf azmifa';&Sif;/ a&$&wkpmapmif/ rdk;aomuf=u,f pm=unfh
wdkufESifh edkifiHa&;ygwDtoD;oD;rSyk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh woD;yk*~v pmay
0goem&Sirf sm; wufa&mufcs;D jriS chf =hJ uygw,f? tcrf;tem;wGif tvif;
tdrf wm0efcH OD;&Jjidrf; rS tzGifhtrSmpum;ajymjum;jyD; tvif;tdrf
r*~Zif; jzpfwnfr_ordkif;tusOf;tm; wifjyajymqdkcJhygw,f?
qufvufjy;D =uaG &mufcs;D jriS jhf uaomtzGt
hJ pnf;toD;oD;rS
tvif;tdrftay: t}uHjyKjcif;/ a0befjcif; eSifh trSmpum; rsm;
ajym=um;cJ&h mzefr;D tdrf azmifa';&Si;f rS udo
k ef;aqG (ajreDuek ;f )/ a&$&wk
pmapmif r S ud k j rod e f ; / jref r mh r sd K ;cspf ' D r d k u&uf w pf t if t m;
pk(BPDF)rSudkrif;xufaZmf/ jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDtzGJ hcskyf (LDB) rS
udkatmifxGef;vif;/ 'rz rS udkudkatmif/ BDArSudkoef;aqG/trsdK;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ hcsKyf vGwfajrmufe,fajr *syefXmecGJrS NLD (La)JB
rSudkvS[ef/ rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkufrS udkpdk;0if;&Sdefwdk hrS a0zef/
t}uHjyKtrSmpum;rsm;ajymjum;cJhygw,f?
tpDtpOft& 0wœkwdkjydkifyGJ usif;y&jcif;&nf&G,fcsufeSifh
pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk tvif;tdrf tr_aqmift,f'DwmwOD;jzpfol
OD;cifarmifaZmf (av;av;tdk O\majr)rS &Sif;vif;wifjycJhygw,f?
xdk haemuf qkay;yGJtpDtpOfudk udkpwifum tvif;tdrf 0wKˆwkd
jydKifyGJwGifqk&&Sdolrsm;jzpfaom yxrqk&Sif aumom; (rif;rif;odef;)/
'kwd,qk&Sif av;av;-wdkusdK(rav;av;) wdk@rS qkudkvufcH,ljyD;
qk&0wKˆtay:cHpm;r_ tusOf;eSifh aus;Zl;wifpum; ajymjum;cJhjujyD;
wwd,qk&iS f bd=k unf- xdik ;f (udb
k =kd unf AAPP) ud,
k pf m; udak ZmfaZmf
v_id f u vufc,
H jl y;D / ESpo
f rd q
hf &k iS f oDwmatmif (*syef)u qkuv
kd ufcH
ˆ ay:cHpm;r_ tusO;f ESihf aus;Zl;wif pum; ajym=um;cJh
&,lum qk&0wKt
=uygw,f?

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xdk haemuf wwd, qk&Sif udkbdkjunf AAPP (xdkif;) rS ay;ydk haom
o0%fv$mudk rcdkifjunf0if;rS zwfjum;ygw,f?
xdk haemuf tvif;tdrf wm0efcH OD;&Jjidrf;rS ed*Hk;csKyf
aus;Zl;wifpum;ajymjum;jyD;aemuf tau|;tarG;jzifh wnfcif;
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