Centroids & Moment of Inertia

EGCE201 Strength of Materials I

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Hollowed pipes.. ‡ The moment of an area about any axis is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of its component areas. ‡ The moment of any area is defined as the product of the area and the perpendicular distance from the centroid of the area to the moment axis. ‡ Centroid of 3D objects often (but not always) lies somewhere along the lines of symmetry. ..Centroid ‡ Centroid or center of gravity is the point within an object from which the force of gravity appears to act. L shaped section have centroid located outside of the material of the section ‡ The centroid of any area can be found by taking moments of identifiable areas (such as rectangles or triangles) about any axis. Centroidal axis or Neutral Sum MAtotal = MA1 + MA2 + MA3+ .

.. area x distance | from the centroid of the area to the moment axis h ¨h h¸ h ¨h¸ (bh)Y ! (b )©  ¹  (b )© ¹ 2 ª2 4º 2 ª4º Take ZZ¶ as the reference axis and take moment w.t ZZ¶ axis h ¨ 3h h ¸ ! (b )©  ¹ 2 ª 4 4º h ! (b ).centroid example simple rectangular shape y h/2 centroid h/2 ZZ¶ b Sum MAtotal = MA1 + MA2 + MA3+ .r.

h 2 .

‡ It is a mathematical property of a section concerned with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the reference axis. The reference axis is usually a centroidal axis.Moment of Inertia (I) ‡ also known as the Second Moment of the Area is a term used to describe the capacity of a cross-section to resist bending. where .

Moment of Inertia example simple rectangular shape I z ! ´ y dA 2 I z ! ´ y bdy h 2 2 h h 2 dA ! bdy y h/2 z h/2 dy y !b 3 3 2  3 h 2 Centroid or Neutral axis b b «h ¨ h ! ¬  © 3­ 8 ª 8 3 bh ! 12 3 ¸» ¹¼ º½ .

‡ It is used to calculate the resistance to bending. y h h/2 z h/2 b/2 b/2 z b y bh 3 Iz ! 12 > Stronger section hb 3 Iz ! 12 . ‡ It can be used to determine the amount of deflection in a beam.³I´ is an important value! ‡ It is used to determine the state of stress in a section.

Built-up sections ‡ It is often advantageous to combine a number of smaller members in order to create a beam or column of greater strength. ‡ The moment of inertia of such a built-up section is found by adding the moments of inertia of the component parts .

‡ To determine the moment of inertia of such a section is to find the moment of inertia of the component parts about their own centroidal axis and then apply the transfer formula. It is known from calculus to be: . ‡ The transfer formula transfers the moment of inertia of a section or area from its own centroidal axis to another parallel axis.Transfer formula ‡ There are many built-up sections in which the component parts are not symmetrically distributed about the centroidal axis.

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