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GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF CUSTOMISED “PRACTICAL SF6 HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS”

Task Force B3.02.01

August 2005

GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF CUSTOMISED “PRACTICAL SF6 HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS”

Task Force B3.02.01

Members and Contributors P Glaubitz (Convenor), S Stangherlin (Secretary), D Crawley, J Henriot, A Holm, P Jannick, P Justiz, M Meguro, R Probst, P Sieber, S Theoleyre, T Yokota, L Van der Zel

Copyright © 2005 “Ownership of a CIGRE publication, whether in paper form or on electronic support only infers right of use for personal purposes. Are prohibited, except if explicitly agreed by CIGRE, total or partial reproduction of the publication for use other than personal and transfer to a third party; hence circulation on any intranet or other company network is forbidden”. Disclaimer notice “CIGRE gives no warranty or assurance about the contents of this publication, nor does it accept any responsibility, as to the accuracy or exhaustiveness of the information. All implied warranties and conditions are excluded to the maximum extent permitted by law”.

SUMMARY
This document reviews all significant aspects in handling SF6 gas used in electric power equipment. Among all, gas recovering, reclaiming and recycling have fundamental importance in order to keep the gas permanently in a closed cycle, avoiding any deliberate release and preserving the environment. State-of-the-art technologies and procedures are described and suggested to minimize SF6 emissions down to the minimum functional level for the electric power equipment. All possible aspects that may be encountered during the whole life of electric power equipment are covered: • Commissioning or re-commissioning • Topping-up • Re-filling • Checking gas quality on-site • Sampling and shipment for off-site gas analysis • Recovery and reclaiming • Recovery and reclaiming at the end-of-life when the electric power equipment is dismantled State-of-the-art tools and measuring devices as well as the necessary personal protection equipment are given. The chapters are individually prepared and complete themselves and therefore can be used to compile a customized operating manual for “Practical SF6 Handling Instructions”. This is the first edition of the guide. SF6 tightness of electric power equipment will be covered in a separate document, which is at the planning stage for the time being.

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Contents
1 2 3 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................6 DEFINITIONS ...............................................................................................................7 GENERAL BACKGROUND MODULES .......................................................................8 3.1 Gas characteristics ................................................................................................8 3.1.1 General...........................................................................................................8 3.1.2 Physical ..........................................................................................................8 3.1.3 Thermodynamic..............................................................................................8 3.1.4 Electric ...........................................................................................................9 3.1.5 Environmental ................................................................................................9 3.2 Characteristics of the electric power equipment ..................................................10 3.2.1 Controlled pressure systems ........................................................................10 3.2.2 Closed pressure systems .............................................................................10 3.2.3 Sealed pressure system ...............................................................................11 3.2.4 Description of the installed system ...............................................................11 3.2.5 Description of the monitoring system for controlled and closed pressure systems 11 3.3 Environmentally compatible SF6 policy................................................................13 3.4 Toxicity ................................................................................................................14 3.5 Gas categories ....................................................................................................15 3.5.1 New gas or technical grade SF6 ...................................................................15 3.5.2 Non-arced gas..............................................................................................16 3.5.3 Normally arced gas ......................................................................................16 3.5.4 Heavily arced gas.........................................................................................16 3.5.5 Suited for the complete range of use pressures ...........................................16 3.5.6 Suited for the low range of use pressures ....................................................17 3.5.7 Not suited for re-use.....................................................................................17 3.6 Safety during on site SF6 handling ......................................................................18 3.6.1 General safety rules and recommendations .................................................18 3.6.2 Protection of personnel ................................................................................19 3.6.3 Personal hygiene..........................................................................................19 3.6.4 Handling of contaminated safety equipment/tools ........................................19 3.6.5 Pressurised equipment and tools/measuring devices ..................................20 3.7 Training of personnel...........................................................................................21 3.8 Storage and transportation ..................................................................................22 3.8.1 Gas categories .............................................................................................22 3.8.2 Storage of SF6 ..............................................................................................22 3.8.3 Containers for transportation of SF6 .............................................................23 3.8.4 Modes for shipment of SF6 ...........................................................................25 3.9 Responsibilities....................................................................................................26 3.10 References ..........................................................................................................27 3.10.1 Local regulations ..........................................................................................27 3.10.2 Standards .....................................................................................................27 3.10.3 Datasheets from suppliers............................................................................27 3.10.4 Others ..........................................................................................................27 4 PROCEDURE DESCRIPTION MODULES.................................................................29 4.1 Commissioning or re-commissioning of SF6 compartments ................................30 4.2 Topping-up of SF6 pre-filled compartments to the nominal pressure/density.......32 4.3 Re-filling of SF6 to the nominal pressure/density .................................................34 4.4 Checking the SF6 quality in gas compartments on-site .......................................36 4.4.1 Measurement of the moisture content/dew point of SF6 on-site ...................36 Page 3 of 71

4.4.2 Measurement of the SF6 content/quantity of inert gases on-site ..................37 4.4.3 Measurement of the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content on-site.....................................................................38 4.5 Sampling and shipment of SF6 for off-site analysis .............................................40 4.6 Recovery and reclaiming of non-arced and/or normally arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.........................................41 4.7 Recovery and reclaiming of heavily arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.....................................................................................43 4.8 Recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at the end-of-life disposal when the electric power equipment is dismantled......................................................................................45 4.8.1 Closed and controlled pressure systems......................................................45 4.8.2 Sealed pressure systems .............................................................................45 5 SF6 HANDLING EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION MODULES ........................................47 5.1 Gas reclaimers ....................................................................................................48 5.1.1 Pre-filtering unit ............................................................................................48 5.1.2 Filtering unit..................................................................................................49 5.1.2.1 Particle filter ..........................................................................................49 5.1.2.2 Gas/moisture filters ...............................................................................49 5.1.2.3 Oil filter ..................................................................................................49 5.1.3 Vacuum pump ..............................................................................................49 5.1.4 Compressor..................................................................................................50 5.1.5 Storage container .........................................................................................50 5.1.6 Evaporator/heater.........................................................................................51 5.1.7 Gas and hose connections ...........................................................................51 5.1.8 Gas piping and pipe junctions ......................................................................51 5.1.9 Control instruments ......................................................................................51 5.1.10 Safety valves ................................................................................................51 5.2 Personal protective equipment ............................................................................52 5.2.1 Skin protection..............................................................................................52 5.2.2 Eye protection ..............................................................................................52 5.2.3 Breathing protection .....................................................................................52 5.2.3.1 Breathing protective mask.....................................................................52 5.2.3.2 Full face mask .......................................................................................52 5.2.4 Overall protection .........................................................................................52 5.3 Devices for gas measurement on-site .................................................................53 5.3.1 Control instruments ......................................................................................53 5.3.1.1 Dew point meters ..................................................................................53 5.3.1.2 SF6 content measuring devices.............................................................53 5.3.1.3 Analysers of reactive gaseous decomposition products........................54 5.4 Cylinder for gas samples .....................................................................................55 5.5 Gas piping and pipe junctions .............................................................................55 APPENDIX 1 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SF6 HANDLING.....................56 1 Air residual pressure vs. SF6 dilution and moisture content ....................................56 2 SF6 residual pressure vs. SF6 handling losses........................................................58 APPENDIX 2 MOISTURE MEASUREMENT UNITS AND CONVERSIONS ..................60 1 Moisture partial pressure [Pa] .................................................................................60 2 Absolute humidity AH [g/m3]....................................................................................60 3 Moisture volume concentration [ppmv]....................................................................61 4 Moisture mass concentration [ppmw]......................................................................61 5 Dew point [°C] .........................................................................................................62 6 Relative humidity RH [%] ........................................................................................63 7 Maximum moisture content in equipment (IEC 60694, future IEC 62271-1) ...........64 8 Conversion to moisture volume concentration [ppmv].............................................64 Page 4 of 71

8.1 From moisture partial pressure [Pa] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv]64 8.2 From absolute humidity [g/m3] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv] .......65 8.3 From moisture mass concentration [ppmw] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv].........................................................................................................................66 8.4 From dew point [°C] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv] ........................67 8.5 From relative humidity RH for moisture volume concentration [ppmv] .............71

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1

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to give practical recommendations for a customised “Practical SF6 Handling Instruction Guide” that is specific to any equipment so that it becomes a standardized document containing standard information and procedures covering: • Commissioning or re-commissioning; • Topping-up; • Re-filling; • Checking gas quality on-site; • Sampling and shipment for off-site gas analysis; • Recovery and reclaiming; • Recovery and reclaiming at the end-of-life when the electric power equipment is dismantled The guide is organised in individual modules that can be bound together to form a customised “Practical SF6 Handling Instructions” manual. Such a standard manual describes the SF6 handling procedure, according to the state-of-the-art technique. It is recommended that this guide be strictly followed in order to achieve operational, safety at work and environmental benefits such as: • Safe operation of the equipment; • Optimisation of resources and tools required; • Minimisation of out-of-service time for equipment; • Standard training of personnel handling SF6; • Reduction of the amount of gas released during handling operations down to the functional physical limit; • Avoidance of any deliberate release, e.g. flushing to the atmosphere; • Reduction of SF6 losses and emissions during commissioning, service and operation to a minimum.

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2

DEFINITIONS

Pressure: pressures are given in terms of absolute units, either Pa or kPa. Air evacuation: Air transfer from the electric power equipment to the atmosphere. SF6 recovery: SF6 transfer from the electric power equipment into a reclaimer or a storage container. Reclaimer: Device for purification of used SF6 for the purpose of re-use. Energised: Adjective. Qualifies a conductive part having an electric potential difference with respect to a relevant reference. The reference potential is usually earth or an equipotential frame. Tight drilling system: When connection to SF6 compartment via available openings (e.g. filling points, pressure gauge) is not provided, then a tight drilling system shall be used. This generally consists of a drill fitted with a hollow bit connected to hoses with appropriate gasket systems to avoid leakage during and after drilling.

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3

GENERAL BACKGROUND MODULES

This section provides general background information organised as modules. 3.1 Gas characteristics

The following paragraphs give the main properties/characteristics of SF6 gas. 3.1.1 General Sulphur hexafluoride is a synthetic gas formed by 6 atoms of fluorine gathered around a centrally situated atom of sulphur. The chemical formula is SF6, the molecular weight is 146.05 g/mol and the gas is identified by CAS Number 2551-62-4. The chemical bond between fluorine and sulphur is known as one of the most stable existing atomic bonds. Six of these grant the molecule very high chemical and thermal stability. In addition, the compatibility of SF6 with material used in electric constructions is similar to that of nitrogen, up to temperatures of about 180 °C. Since the early 1960’s, SF6 has been successfully used by the Electricity Industry in power equipment for the HV transmission and MV distribution of electricity (gas insulated substations, ring main units, circuit breakers, transformers, cables, etc.). Other non-electrical industrial applications include metallurgy, electronics, scientific equipment, ocular surgery and military applications. The maximum tolerable moisture level for the gas in the equipment is specified by IEC 60694 [5] (currently under revision, future 62271 - 1). Purity requirements for SF6 as it comes from the supplier are specified by IEC 60376 [2] (currently under revision). Purity requirements for re-use of reclaimed SF6 are specified by IEC 60480 [3]. 3.1.2 Physical Pure SF6 is odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-flammable and chemically inert at ambient temperature. It does not support combustion. Although the gas is non-toxic, it does not support life, as it is not oxygen. Equipment containing SF6 must not be entered without adequate ventilation and personal protection equipment. Its solubility in water (7000 ppmv) is 4 times lower than that of air. 3.1.3 Thermodynamic At normal room temperatures and pressures (20 °C and 100 kPa) SF6 is about 5 times heavier than air (density: 6.07 kg/m3). As the gas is heavier than air, areas below ground level, poorly ventilated or unventilated areas (i.e.: cable ducts, trenches, inspection pits, drainage system, etc.), may remain full of SF6. Personnel must be aware of the danger of asphyxiation in such places.

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As the critical temperature and pressure of SF6 are 45.54 °C and 3.759 MPa respectively, it can be liquefied by compression and is usually transported as a liquid in cylinders or containers. As the gas is delivered in the form of compressed liquid, if large quantities of the gas are released rapidly, the temperature of both the gas and the container fall quickly. Frost and ice may form on metal parts. If this occurs, gas filling has to be immediately stopped until ice and frost are gone. Filling of SF6 must always be performed slowly. Personnel must be aware of the danger of freeze burns when touching iced and/or frozen metal parts. The heat capacity of one mole of SF6 is around 3 times greater than air. 3.1.4 Electric SF6 is strongly electronegative (i.e. it tends to attract free electrons). It has a unique combination of physical properties: high dielectric strength (about 3 times that of air), high thermal interruption capabilities (about 10 times that of air) and high heat transfer performance (about twice that of air). 3.1.5 Environmental SF6 does not harm the ecosystem: biological accumulation in the food chain does not occur. It is an inert gas with very low solubility in water so that it presents no danger to surface and/or ground water and/or the soil. SF6 has no impact on the stratospheric ozone layer (Ozone Depletion Potential – ODP = 0), but it is a potent (Global Warming Potential – GWP = 22500 - 22200 times CO2) and persistent (Atmospheric Life Time – ALT = 650 - 3200 years) greenhouse gas [10], [9]. The difference in the figures is a consequence of the adoption of different calculation models. The GWP of SF6 alone is not adequate to measure the environmental impact of electric power equipment based on SF6 technology. The environmental impact of any specific application shall be evaluated and/or compared using the Life Cycle Assessment – LCA approach as regulated by ISO 14040 [8]. SF6 has to be used in a closed cycle. When gas removal from containment is needed, a proper handling procedure shall be implemented to avoid any deliberate release into the atmosphere. The yearly SF6 emission rate from the overall Electric Industry represents 0.1% of the yearly emission rate of man-made global warming gases. As just one example, emissions from European manufacturers and users contribute only by 0.008%. The impact on global warming due to the SF6 concentration in the atmosphere (atmospheric burden) is approximately between 0.01 and 0.02% of the overall greenhouse effect.

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3.2

Characteristics of the electric power equipment

The main applications in electric power equipment utilising SF6 are defined by the current IEC Standards in force: 62271-200 for MV equipment, 62271-203 for HV equipment, 60694 for common specifications (currently under revision; it will become 62271-1), 62271100 as well as 62271-102 for circuit breakers and disconnectors, respectively. The tightness of certain old installed gas insulated power equipment, especially for HV systems, could be a significant issue for environmental impact. Nevertheless, it has to be kept in mind that handling SF6 during installation, on site testing and maintenance activities may contribute significantly to the overall emissions. State-of-the-art electric power equipment is designed and manufactured for tightness so that it is compatible with the environment. This implies: • Very low leakage rates: the quality of the encapsulation including its material, the machining process, the design of gaskets, the sealing material itself, and the factory testing procedures are of major importance; • Very low handling losses: smaller gas compartments, reduced maintenance frequency, more sophisticated tools and instruments to handle and to check the gas quality, specific training of designated personnel. In addition to the above, the procedure of installation, service, maintenance, repair and proper disposal is described by the manufacturer in as detailed a manner as possible. Special trained personnel shall carry out the practical work. 3.2.1 Controlled pressure systems A volume automatically replenished from an external or internal gas source. The volume may consist of several permanently connected gas-filled compartments. Controlled pressure systems are no longer used in new equipment, because of their high leakage rate. It is recommended that controlled pressure systems in old equipment are replaced by closed pressure systems, because of the unacceptable leakage rate. 3.2.2 Closed pressure systems A volume replenished only periodically by manual connection to an external gas source. High Voltage (above 72,5 kV) SF6 single pressure circuit breakers are examples of closed pressure systems. In spite of the fact that state-of-the-art HV electric power equipments are closed pressure systems, their typical time between two consecutive maintenance operations is around 25 years. In practice, on-site SF6 handling is already minimized, as it is only required for installation, extension and/or end-of-life-disposal/dismantling of equipment. It is recommended that: • The leakage rate is kept lower than 0.5% p.a. per gas compartment; • The typical time between two consecutive maintenance is up to 25 years; • The SF6 conditions are checked only after a filling operation; • Appropriate record – keeping procedures are used.

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3.2.3 Sealed pressure system A volume for which no further gas or vacuum processing is required during its expected operating life. Sealed pressure systems are completely assembled and tested in the factory. State-of-the-art MV electric power equipments are sealed pressure systems. They are commercially designated “sealed for life”, as they require no on-site gas handling for their whole life duration, typically 40 years. End-of-life-disposal is performed under the responsibility of the user and is supported by the manufacturer. Third parties, such as service companies, may also carry out end-of-life disposal. As SF6 is handled only twice, for gas filling at the beginning and for gas recovery at the end, during the whole product life and this is done in a controlled environment, handling losses can be considered to be of the same order of magnitude of leakage losses. Today a typical leakage rate is lower than 0.1% p.a. per gas compartment. 3.2.4 Description of the installed system Among all characteristics defined by the current IEC Standards in force and given in the instruction manual from the manufacturer, those most relevant to SF6 handling are highlighted in Table 1. They are, at least: Table 1: The most relevant characteristics of electric power equipment concerning SF6 handling
Closed pressure systems Sealed pressure systems SF6 mass per compartment/substation in kg Volume per compartment/substation in litres or m3 Rated SF6 filling pressure at 20 °C in kPa or bar Leakage rate in % p.a. per gas compartment Designation of different compartments: breaker, disconnector, bus-bar, etc. Number of separate compartments Location of safety overpressure control means System used to observe the pressure in each containment When relevant Precautions when handling SF6 containments Not relevant Record- keeping When relevant Typical time between two consecutive maintenance in years No maintenance required Typical time between two consecutive SF6 measurements in years No SF6 checking required Location of SF6 valves When relevant Location of gas tight spacers When relevant Pressure levels of alarms/indicators in kPa or bar, number of steps When relevant

It is recommended that reference be made to the SF6 switchgear instruction manual provided by the manufacturer. 3.2.5 Description of the monitoring system for controlled and closed pressure systems In order to operate safely, switchgear needs a minimum gas pressure/density. In the case of controlled or closed pressure systems, visual indications and/or acoustic alarms are set as a function of that threshold. If the gas pressure/density reaches its minimum threshold, standard operations can no longer be maintained and, according to specific users requirements, appropriate counter measures (e.g.: alarm, automatic lockout, switching features) come into effect. Page 11 of 71

Common gas monitoring systems provide an alarm or indication when 5 to 10% of the gas has been released. The system has been designed to operate safely under these conditions, and still keeps a safety margin. In the case of compartments containing a small amount of gas, the impact on the environment is very small. On the contrary, in the case of large compartments, such as long busbar ducts, the amount of gas released before reaching the threshold is significant for the environment. Therefore it is recommended that the gas pressure/density of each compartment is monitored, whenever technically reasonable, to enable early detection of small leaks. State-of-the-art monitoring systems continuously monitor gas pressure/density allowing for early detection of small leaks. In addition to the above, appropriate corrective measures to locate and eliminate the leak shall be immediately arranged.

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3.3

Environmentally compatible SF6 policy

SF6 must be handled in a closed cycle, to avoid any deliberate release to the environment. Among all the voluntary initiatives, gas recovery and recycling have the highest priority. Voluntary agreements [14] involving manufacturers and users have been signed in some countries with the aim of controlling and reducing emissions of SF6 from the electric power equipment. In general, it is mentioned in such agreements that for the development, manufacturing, installation, operation, maintenance and end-of-life disposal of SF6 electric power equipment, state-of-the-art technologies and procedures are applied to minimize SF6 emissions. Among all, the following voluntary actions are typically performed: • Systematic re-use, reprocessing and final disposal of SF6 as a closed cycle process; • Monitoring of SF6 - filled gas compartments to ensure that leaks are detected and eliminated at an early stage, in controlled and closed pressure systems; • Manufacturers of controlled and closed pressure systems produce and guarantee electric power equipment with a leakage rate lower than 0.5% p.a. for each compartment (for new equipment produced); • Manufacturers of sealed pressure systems provide electric power equipment with a leakage rate lower than 0.1% p.a. for each compartment (for new equipment produced); • SF6 recovered from electric power equipment on-site is, as far as possible re-used directly on-site. Non-reusable SF6 is kept in a closed cycle for further processing offsite; • SF6 producers take back non-reusable SF6 and re-process it or reduce it to environmentally compatible end products; • Personnel handling SF6 are regularly instructed so that SF6 is only handled by properly qualified personnel; • Producers of SF6 keep statistics of the SF6 quantities produced and sold. Users of SF6 in the electric industry record their SF6 consumption and inventories; • SF6 producers and professional associations of manufacturers/users of electric power equipment utilising SF6 provide the authorities SF6 relevant statistical data as basis for regional/national SF6 monitoring. If SF6 handling is performed as described above, life cycle assessment studies (LCA) demonstrate that SF6 technology applied to power electric equipment minimises the impact on the environment [15] [16]. State-of-the-art SF6 technology is compatible with the environment, as the concrete voluntary actions listed above are considerably reducing SF6 emissions down to the functional physical limit.

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3.4

Toxicity

Pure SF6 is not toxic (see paragraph 3.1.2). Toxic gaseous and/or solid decomposition products may arise during the operation of gas insulated electric equipment. They are fully described in a previous CIGRE document [12] and also in IEC Technical Report 61634 [6]. Design rules and operational procedures are implemented to handle both the gas and the equipment according to safety rules to eliminate any potential harmful effects.

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3.5

Gas categories

Sulphur hexafluride contains contaminants. These originate from the industrial manufacturing process as well as from use of the gas in electric power equipment. Depending on the nature and the amount of the contaminants, the following gas categories have been defined: • New gas or technical grade SF6; • Non-arced gas; • Normally arced gas; • Heavily arced gas; • Gas suited for the complete range of use pressures; • Gas suited for the low range of use pressures; • Gas not suited for re-use. The following paragraphs give more details. 3.5.1 New gas or technical grade SF6 Gas supplied in cylinders, tagged with the “green collar”, as provided by the SF6 producer/supplier and complying with a standard on SF6 for use in electric equipment such as IEC 60376 ed. 1 (new gas) or the near future ed. 2 (technical grade gas) [2]. The maximum acceptable impurity levels for new gas and technical grade SF6 are given in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. Table 2: Maximum acceptable impurity levels for new gas (IEC 60376 ed. 1)
Impurity Air CF4 H2O Mineral oil Total acidity expressed in HF Hydrolysable fluorides, expressed as HF Specification 0.05 % w 0.05 % w 15 ppmw see note 0.3 ppmw 1.0 ppmw

Note: SF6 shall be substantially free from oil. The maximum permitted concentration of oil and the method of measurement are under consideration.

Table 3: Maximum acceptable impurity levels for technical grade SF6 (FDIS IEC 60376 ed. 2)
Impurity Air CF4 H2O Mineral oil Total acidity expressed in HF Specification 0.2 % w [note 1] 2400 ppmw [note 2] 25 ppmw [note 3] 10 ppmw 1 ppmw [note 4]

Note 1: 0,2% w is equivalent to 1% v under ambient conditions (100 kPa and 20 °C). Note 2: 2400 ppmw is equivalent to 4000 ppmv under ambient conditions (100 kPa and 20 °C). Note 3: 25 mg/kg (25 ppmw) is equivalent to 200 ppmv (200 µl/l) and to a dew point of –36 °C, measured under ambient conditions (100 kPa and 20°C). Note 4: 1 ppmw is equivalent to 6 ppmv measured under ambient conditions (100 kPa and 20°C).

Due to the maximum impurity levels that can be present in SF6, the SF6 amount in a container (measured in the liquid phase) shall be higher than 99.7 %. Page 15 of 71

3.5.2 Non-arced gas Gas that has been handled in any way and has not experienced arcing. In practice, if the volume concentration of the indicator gases SO2 + SOF2 is lower than 100 ppmv, then the gas is non-arced. Non-arced gas is to be expected at: • Insulation testing in the factory; • Insulation testing on-site during erection/commissioning; • Routine maintenance of insulation compartments; • Repair of insulation compartments after malfunction without arcing; • Retrofitting of insulation compartments; • Decommissioning of insulation compartments in which arcing has not occurred; • Any kind of compartment after filling prior to energizing. The major contaminants in non-arced gas may be air (mainly introduced by handling) and moisture (mainly desorbed from inner surfaces). Small quantities of reactive gaseous decomposition products (typically in the 100 ppmv range) may also be present when strong partial discharges have occurred in the gas and no adsorbers were provided. 3.5.3 Normally arced gas Gas recovered from switchgear compartments after normal switching operations. In practice, if the volume concentration of the indicator gases SO2 + SOF2 is between 100 ppmv and 1%, then the gas is normally arced. Normally arced gas is to be expected at: • Maintenance and repair of switching devices after normal (load or fault) operation; • Interruption testing during switchgear development; • Decommissioning of switchgear. Normally arced gas may contain, in addition to air and moisture: • The inert gas CF4 generated by arc erosion of polymers; • Corrosive gaseous decomposition products up to about a few 100 ppmv as residues which have not been removed by adsorbers; • Solid decomposition products, mainly metal fluorides and tungsten oxifluorides, usually referred to as "switching dust". 3.5.4 Heavily arced gas Gas recovered from equipment in which failure arcing has occurred. In practice if the volume concentration of the indicator gases SO2 + SOF2 is greater than 1%, then the gas is heavily arced. Heavily arced gas is to be expected from: • Circuit breakers after interruption failure; • Insulation compartments after internal arcing failure; • Any kind of arcing failure. In this case, high levels of solid and gaseous contaminants have to be expected. The gaseous contaminants may reach levels of several % vol, of which a substantial fraction can be highly reactive and toxic and/or corrosive. The solid contaminants will generally be charged with adsorbed reactive gaseous contaminants. 3.5.5 Suited for the complete range of use pressures Used SF6 gas, stored in cylinders tagged with the “orange collar”, complying with a standard for used gas such as IEC 60480 [3], which can be re-used in any electric power equipment without any limitations. Page 16 of 71

The maximum acceptable impurity levels are given in Table 4. Table 4: Maximum acceptable impurity levels for re-use of SF6 – complete range of use pressures (IEC 60480)
Impurity Air and/or CF4 H2O Mineral oil Total reactive gaseous decomposition products Specification 3% volume [note 1] 25 ppmw [notes 2 and 3] 10 ppmw [note 4] 50 µl/l total or 12 µl/l for (SO2+SOF2) or 25 µl/l HF

Note 1: In case of SF6 mixtures, the equipment manufacturer shall specify the levels for these gases. Note 2: Converted to ppmv these levels shall also apply to mixtures until a suitable standard becomes available. Note 3: 25 mg/kg (25 ppmw) is equivalent to 200 ppmv (200 µl/l) and to a dew point of -36 °C, measured at 100 kPa and 20 C. Note 4: If gas-handling equipment (pump, compressor) containing oil is used, it may be necessary to measure the oil content of the SF6. If all equipment in contact with the SF6 is oil-free, then it is not necessary to measure oil content.

3.5.6 Suited for the low range of use pressures Used SF6 gas, stored in cylinders tagged with the “orange collar”, complying with a standard for used gas such as IEC 60480 [3], which can be re-used in any electric power equipment having the SF6 rated filling pressure not exceeding a certain limit, e.g. 200 kPa. The maximum acceptable impurity levels are given in Table 5. Table 5: Maximum acceptable impurity levels for re-use of SF6 – low range of use pressures (IEC 60480)
Impurity Air and/or CF4 H2O Mineral oil Total reactive gaseous decomposition products Specification 3% volume [note 1] 95 ppmw [notes 2 and 3] 10 ppmw [note 4] 50 µl/l total or 12 µl/l for (SO2+SOF2) or 25 µl/l HF

Note 1: In case of SF6 mixtures, the equipment manufacturer shall specify the levels for these gases. Note 2: Converted to ppmv these levels shall also apply to mixtures until a suitable standard becomes available. Note 3: 95 mg/kg (95 ppmw) is equivalent to 750 ppmv (750 µl/l) and to a dew point of –23 °C, measured at 100 kPa and 20 °C. Note 4: If gas-handling equipment (pump, compressor) containing oil is used, it may be necessary to measure the oil content of the SF6. If all equipment in contact with the SF6 is oil-free, then it is not necessary to measure oil content.

3.5.7 Not suited for re-use Used SF6 gas not complying with a standard for used gas such as IEC 60480 [3]. This gas requires further treatment, usually off-site and/or eventually final disposal.

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3.6

Safety during on site SF6 handling

Before starting any maintenance/service work in SF6 power equipment, the detailed state/condition of the equipment must be inspected and reported in detail. The following general safety rules have to be fulfilled: • Switch off and isolate; • Secure against re-closing; • Verify that equipment is de-energized; • Earth and short-circuit the equipment; • Cover or fence off nearby live parts. Written documents giving permission to work on/energize equipment shall be agreed and signed by both the owner of the equipment and the service provider. For environmental aspects and safety reasons, topping up of leaking energised compartments is not recommended and therefore it is not covered in the present document. 3.6.1 General safety rules and recommendations Table 6 lists the major issues to consider when working on SF6 switchgear. Table 6: General measures when working with SF6-switchgear.
Work in the vicinity of switchgear (operation of SF6-switchgear, visual check, roomcleaning) Filling, recovering, evacuation of SF6 gas-compartments Mandatory Mandatory [note] Mandatory Mandatory Opening of SF6 gascompartments, work on open compartments Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed

Item

SF6 material safety data sheet/operational manuals Training Gas handling equipment Cleaning/ neutralising equipment Personal protection equipment Flames Welding/Smoking Drinking/Eating

Note: General information must be specified according to type of work and installation.

In addition to paragraphs 3.1.2 and 3.1.3, like any gas but oxygen, a concentration greater than 19% of SF6 in the air is considered as potential risk of asphyxiation. This is because it reduces the oxygen concentration down to 16%, which is usually considered as the clinical threshold for asphyxiation. As a consequence it is recommended that the oxygen content in the gas compartment be measured prior to entering/accessing. In addition to that, the oxygen content in the ambient may be checked when working in confined spaces. Switching dust, which might be present inside the gas compartment after opening, as well as the adsorbers (or filters), contain acidic compounds and must be treated as special chemical waste according to local regulations. This applies also to any tool/equipment (i.e. vacuum cleaner, cleaning paper, protective clothes), which has been in contact with the switching dust. Page 18 of 71

3.6.2 Protection of personnel Safety measures are mandatory when accessing and/or entering a gas compartment. The type and extent of protection depend on the category of the gas in the compartment (see paragraph 3.5). Details are given in Table 7. Table 7: Safety at work when accessing/entering gas compartments in electric power equipment utilizing SF6
Item Open compartment before first SF6 filling Open compartment which contained nonarced SF6 Open compartment which contained either normally arced or heavily arced SF6 • Fumes of cleaning material • O2 starvation • Remaining gas • Residual reactive gaseous decomposition products • Switching dust and adsorbers • Removal of switching dust and adsorbers • Ventilation • Measurement of O2 concentration when entering • Wear personal protective equipment • Suction ventilator or vacuum cleaner concentration • O2 measuring device • Single use protective clothes, shoe covers, hair cap • Acid proof safety gloves • Full face mask (preferred) or, at least, breathing protective mask • Protective goggles

Potential risk

• Fumes of cleaning material • O2 starvation • Remaining SF6 or other gas from production process

• Fumes of cleaning material • O2 starvation • Remaining gas

Safety precaution

• Ventilation • Measurement concentration entering

of

O2 when

• Ventilation • Measurement concentration entering

of

O2 when

Safety equipment and tools

• Suction ventilator or vacuum cleaner concentration • O2 measuring device

• Suction ventilator or vacuum cleaner • O2 concentration measuring device

3.6.3 Personal hygiene Eating, drinking and smoking is not allowed when accessing/entering an open gas compartment. It is recommended that clothes should be changed and the skin washed to prevent potential danger of irritation or burns. 3.6.4 Handling of contaminated safety equipment/tools Safety equipment/tools, which have been in contact with switching dust and/or adsorbers shall be considered as contaminated. They shall be collected afterwards and placed in plastic bags. The plastic bags shall be sealed with tape and labelled. Page 19 of 71

Reusable safety equipment and/or tools shall be washed and neutralised in a water/soda solution with 10% liquid soda and then washed with clean water. Single use safety equipment and/or tools must be placed in a plastic bag for further disposal according to local regulations. They shall be considered as special waste. Disposal of both the water/soda solution and the washing water is done according to the local regulations. 3.6.5 Pressurised equipment and tools/measuring devices All equipment and tools used during SF6 handling potentially contain gaseous/liquid SF6 under high pressure. They should be handled with extreme caution.

Page 20 of 71

3.7

Training of personnel

Work on electric power equipment involving SF6 handling (manufacturing, testing, erection, commissioning, maintenance, service, and dismantling at the end-of-life) must be performed either by trained personnel or under the supervision of trained personnel. For the personnel involved, training is mandatory. Training can be done in different locations (e.g. special training centre of the user, in the factory or on site during erection, commissioning and maintenance of installed SF6-equipment). In all cases, the training shall be based on the operating instruction manual from the OEM (e.g. electric power equipment, tools, instruments) and datasheets (e.g. SF6, cleaning agents). Training courses shall consist of both theoretical and practical sessions. Training shall include at least: • SF6: • Physical/chemical/environmental characteristics of SF6; • Application of SF6, used in electric power equipment (insulation, arc quenching); • Standards; • Personnel safety: asphyxiation, contamination; gaseous and solid decomposition products; • Environmental impact; • Disposal of SF6 and its gaseous and/or solid decomposition products; • Electric power equipment: • Design and functionality; • SF6-handling on site during erection, commissioning, maintenance, and dismantling at the end-of-life; • Benefits of SF6 technology in electric power equipment; • Troubleshooting of electric power equipment utilizing SF6; Handling of SF6 in electric power equipment: • Evacuation of gas compartment; • Filling of gas compartment; • Recovery, reclaiming and storage of SF6; • Handling of maintenance equipment; • Working on open gas compartments; • Checking the gas quality.

Page 21 of 71

3.8

Storage and transportation

Storage and transportation of SF6 shall be performed according to international and local regulations. The procedures given in the material safety data sheet (MSDS) shall be strictly followed. 3.8.1 Gas categories With respect to storage and transportation, five gas categories have to be distinguished: • New gas or technical grade SF6, i.e. SF6 complying with IEC 60376 [2]; • SF6 suited for re-use in electric power equipment, i.e. SF6 complying with IEC 60480 [3]; • SF6 not suited for reuse in electric power equipment and containing neither toxic nor corrosive gaseous decomposition products, i.e. SF6 not complying with IEC 60480 [3] and containing CF4 (carbon tetrafluoride) and/or air and/or nitrogen; • SF6 not suited for re-use in electric power equipment and containing toxic gaseous decomposition products, i.e. SF6 not complying with IEC 60480 [3] and containing HF (hydrogen fluoride) and SOF2 (thionyl fluoride); • SF6 not suited for re-use in electric power equipment and containing both toxic and corrosive gaseous decomposition products, i.e. SF6 not complying with IEC 60480 [3] and containing HF (hydrogen fluoride) and SOF2 (thionyl fluoride). 3.8.2 Storage of SF6 Table 8 gives an overview of all possible storage methods on which a storage container may be based. Table 8: Methods for storage of SF6
Method Requirements Typical pressure lower than 2 MPa. Gas remains in the gaseous state Features Requires relatively small recovery pressure differential (typically 100:1) but needs larger storage volumes. Gas cannot be liquefied in cylinders for transportation. Therefore it is limited to small quantities (200 kg) and stationary use Requires relatively small recovery pressure differential (700:1) but needs cooling aggregate. Performance of cooling aggregate can influence processing speed. Additional maintenance requirements. Limited storage volume required and generally not suitable for transportation Requires recovery differential of 1000:1 but eliminates the need of additional aggregates. Can be used with any storage vessel rated 5 MPa or higher

Gaseous

Liquid-Cooling Assisted

Typical pressure equal to 3 MPa. Employs additional cooling system to cool SF6 after compression, which allows SF6 to be stored in liquid form

Liquid-Pressure Only

Typical pressure equal to 5 MPa. Gas compressed to 5 MPa liquefies by pressure only

Characteristics of the gas recovery process are: • Residual recovery pressure pres [kPa] (residual pressure in equipment down to which the gas can be recovered and compressed to the rated storage pressure pst); Page 22 of 71

• • • • • •

Recovery pressure differential (performance indicator of compressor(s)): pst/pres; Recovery speed [m3/min]: Time required recovering a gas volume of 1 m3 from 500 kPa down to the specified residual recovery pressure pres; Evacuation speed [m3/min]: Time required to evacuate a volume of 1 m3 from atmospheric pressure down to a residual air pressure of 300 Pa; Refill speed [kg/min]: Time required filling gas from the storage container at rated storage pressure into the equipment at its rated operating pressure; Failsafe operation control (to avoid gas contamination by incorrect handling); Filter exchange/handling/disposal facilities.

All the above process speed characteristics assume that there are no losses in the piping between the equipment and reclaimer. When used SF6 has to be stored on-site, the storage containers for this purpose should comply with the local pressure vessel regulations and should be labelled in compliance with the regulations given below in section 3.8.4. For practical reasons it is recommended to preferentially use transportable storage containers, wherever possible. 3.8.3 Containers for transportation of SF6 Each of the five gas categories requires a specific type of container and container labelling, as specified in Table 9.

Page 23 of 71

Table 9: Container types and labelling required for transportation of SF6
Gas category Container type Suitable for liquefied gas up to a pressure of 7 MPa. Note: The filling factor for new gas is up to 1.04 kg/litre. Recommendation: Containers should be marked with a green label or the container should be painted green according to DIN EN 1089-3 Same type of container as for new or technical grade SF6. Note: Due to the inert gas content (N2, O2, etc.), the filling factor is smaller than 0.8 kg/litre [note 1]. Recommendation: Containers should be specially coloured to avoid confusion between used and new gas (an orange band on the upper third of the cylinder is suggested) Container labelling

New gas or technical grade SF6

Stencilled on container: UN 1080, sulphur hexafluoride Danger label 2.2

SF6 suited for re-use

Stencilled on container: UN 3163, sulphur hexafluoride, carbon tetrafluoride or air or nitrogen [note 2] Danger label 2.2

SF6 not suited for reuse and containing neither toxic nor corrosive gaseous decomposition products

Same as for SF6 suited for re-use

Stencilled on container: UN 3162, sulphur hexafluoride, carbon tetrafluoride or air or nitrogen [note 2] Danger label 2.2 Stencilled on container: UN 3162, sulphur hexafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, thionyl fluoride [note 2] Danger label 2.3 Stencilled on container: UN 3308, sulphur hexafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, thionyl fluoride Danger labels 2.3 + 8

SF6 not suited for re-use and containing toxic gaseous decomposition products

Same as for SF6 suited for re-use

SF6 not suited for re-use and containing both toxic and corrosive gaseous decomposition products

Special containers approved for storing and transportation of corrosive gases (such as hydrofluoric acid HCl) with a corrosion-proof valve and adapter

Note 1: The filling factor is the weight of SF6 contained in the container divided by the container volume and is usually specified in kg/litre Note 2: Only the two most abundant contaminants have to be specified

Page 24 of 71

3.8.4 Modes for shipment of SF6 Electric power equipment containing SF6 and/or SF6 containers are shipped by: • Road (ADR) • Rail (RID); • Ship (IMDG code); • Air (IATA - DGR); Internationally accepted regulations for shipment of SF6 are available for transportation by road (ADR), rail (RID), ship (IMDG code), and air (IATA - DGR). These are similar concerning UN numbering, classification, danger labelling, final classification, and transport documentation. However official languages differ as follows: • ADR: German, French, English; • RID: English, • IMDG code: English; • IATA – DGR: English. The regulations for road, rail, ship and air transport are summarised in Table 10. Table 10: International regulations for shipment of SF6 by road (ADR), rail (RID), ship (IMDG code), and air (IATA – DGR).
SF6 not suited for reuse and containing neither toxic nor corrosive gaseous decomposition products UN 3163 liquefied gas 2A 2.2 UN 3163 liquefied gas, n.o.s. 2.2 UN 3163 liquefied gas, n.o.s. (sulphur hexafluoride and air or nitrogen or carbon tetrafluoride) 2.2 SF6 not suited for re-use and containing toxic gaseous decomposition products 3162 liquefied toxic gas 2T 2.3 UN 3162 liquefied gas, n.o.s. 2.3 UN 3162 liquefied gas, toxic, n.o.s. (sulphur hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride and thionyl fluoride 2.3 SF6 not suited for re-use and containing both toxic and corrosive gaseous decomposition products UN 3308 liquefied toxic and corrosive gas 2TC 2.3 + 8 UN 3308 liquefied gas, n.o.s. 2.3 + 8 UN 3308 liquefied gas, toxic, corrosive, n.o.s. (sulphur hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride and thionyl fluoride 2.3 + 8

Item

New gas or technical grade SF6

SF6 suited for re-use

UN Number Class Danger label Final classification

UN 1080 liquefied gas 2A 2.2 UN 1080 liquefied gas, n.o.s. 2.2

UN 3163 liquefied gas 2A 2.2 UN 3163 liquefied gas, n.o.s. 2.2 UN 3163 liquefied gas, n.o.s. (sulphur hexafluoride and air or nitrogen or carbon tetrafluoride) 2.2

Transport document

UN 1080 liquefied gas, n.o.s (sulphur hexafluoride) 2.2

Note: Any contamination of packaging exclusively dedicated to new SF6 shall be avoided

Page 25 of 71

3.9

Responsibilities

The owner of the SF6 electric power equipment is responsible for the proper use, transportation, and disposal of both the equipment and the gas. He is also responsible for record-keeping regarding SF6 banked in equipment and/or stored in cylinders as well as emission rates on a yearly basis. This is supported by the equipment manufacturer and the gas producer with basic information.

Page 26 of 71

3.10 References

3.10.1 Local regulations List here the national/local regulations to comply with when handling SF6 in electric power equipment. 3.10.2 Standards [1] [2] [3] IEC Standard 61276-200, 1st edition 2003, "A.C. metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV". IEC Standard 60376, 1st edition 1971 – and new FDIS under circulation, "Specification and acceptance of new sulphur hexafluoride". IEC Standard 60480, 2nd edition 2004, "Guide to the checking and treatment of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) taken from electrical equipment and specification for its re-use". IEC Standard 61276-203, 1st edition 2003, "Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV". IEC Standard 60694, 2.2 edition 2002 and new CDV 62271-1 under circulation "Common specifications for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards". IEC Technical Report 61634, 1st edition 1995 “High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Use and handling of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in high-voltage switchgear and controlgear”. IEC Standard 61640, 1st edition 1998 “Rigid high-voltage, gas-insulated transmission lines for rated voltage of 72,5 kV and above” ISO Standard 14040, 1997 “Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework”

[4] [5] [6]

[7] [8]

3.10.3 Datasheets from suppliers List here the datasheets from the SF6 supplier. List here the datasheet of the electric power equipment from the Original Equipment Manufacturer. 3.10.4 Others [9] Owens, J. G., “Calculation of the Global Warming Potential fur sulfur hexafluoride using the updated Atmospheric Lifetime from Moore, et al.”, Gaseous dielectrics IX, pp. 91 – 92, 2001 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001”, 2001

[10]

Page 27 of 71

[11] [12] [13] [14]

The CAPIEL Cradle-to-Grave Inventory Methodology for SF6 Insulated electrical High Voltage Switchgear in Europe, EPA Conference November 2002 CIGRE TF 23-02.01, “Handling of SF6 and its decomposition products in Gas Insulated Switchgears (GIS)”, ELECTRA, 136 and 137, 1991 CIGRE TF B3-02.01, “SF6 Recycling Guide. Re-use of SF6 gas in electrical power equipment and final disposal (Revision 2003)”, CIGRE Brochure 234, 2003 Template for Voluntary agreement on the use of SF6 and on measures for SF6 emission reduction in the national, regional electric industry. CIGRE WG B3-02, 2003 Project Group ABB, PreussenElektra, RWE, Siemens, and Solvay, Electricity supply using SF6 technology, summary given in: B. Zahn and E. Ruess, Economical and ecological system comparison for the electricity supply of an urban area, CIGRE SC23.99 (COLL) IWD, Zurich, 1999 Solvay Management Support: SF6-GIS-Technologie in der Energieverteilung – Mittelspannung. Life Cycle Assessment study commissioned by ABB, Areva T&D, EnBW Regional, e.on Hanse, RWE, Siemens, and Solvay Fluor und Derivate. Solvay: Hannover/Germany, 2003 (in German, abstract and summary available in English)

[15]

[16]

Page 28 of 71

4

PROCEDURE DESCRIPTION MODULES

This chapter cover the different phases where SF6 shall be handled on site, that is: • Commissioning or re-commissioning of SF6 compartments; • Topping-up or re-filling of SF6 compartments to the nominal pressure/density; • Checking the SF6 quality in gas compartments; • Sampling and transportation of SF6 • Recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at maintenance or repair • Recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at the end-of-life disposal when the electric power equipment is dismantled.

Page 29 of 71

4.1

Commissioning or re-commissioning of SF6 compartments

This module applies to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that currently contain a gas different from SF6 (typically air or N2) at ambient pressure or slightly overpressure (typically 100 to 150 kPa). This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and closed pressure systems that currently contain SF6 at a pressure above the atmosphere (typically 120 to 150 kPa). They shall be topped-up as described in paragraph 4.2. This module does not apply to leaking compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems to assure continuity of service. They shall be re-filled as described in paragraph 4.3. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for air/N2 evacuation and SF6 filling in each compartment shall be performed according to Figure 1. Additional details are given in Table 11. Figure 1: Diagram of the operations for commissioning or re-commissioning of SF6 compartments.
Inspection density sensor Documentation SF6 quality checking Documentation

SF6 filling pressure

Tightness inspection

Prepare gas handling equipment

SF6 filling Adsorber installation Documentation ≥ 12 hours

Atmospheric pressure

Evacuation Vacuum < 300 Pa ≥ 1 hour

Page 30 of 71

Table 11: Operational description for commissioning or re-commissioning of SF6 compartments.
Step 1 2 3 4 5 Prepare gas equipment handling Procedure Check that the gas reclaimer is working properly and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Quickly insert the adsorbers in the compartment. Start evacuation immediately afterwards. Connect the vacuum pump and leave it running until a vacuum level smaller than 300 Pa for at least 1 hour is reached in the gas compartment [note 1]. Detach the vacuum pump and read the pressure gauge. The vacuum level shall be smaller than 400 Pa. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the vacuum level of the residual air content, ambient temperature and date for further reference. Connect the SF6 container and fill the compartment until the SF6 rated filling pressure is reached. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge to avoid overfilling [notes 2 and 3]. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the final filling pressure, ambient temperature and date for further reference. Check the functionality of the pressure/density sensor. The operation can be performed during the filling operation. Check the tightness of at least all permanent connections made on site. Wait at least 12 hours after the filling operation and then measure the moisture content and the SF6 content of the gas in the compartment (see paragraph 4.2 for details). Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the functionality of the pressure/density sensor, the moisture content, the SF6 content, ambient temperature and date for further reference.

Adsorber installation Evacuation Residual air moisture content Documentation and/or

6 7 8 9 10

Filling with SF6 Documentation Pressure/density inspection sensor

Tightness inspection SF6 quality checking

11

Documentation

Note 1: The residual pressure of air in the gas compartment shall remain smaller than 300 Pa for at least 1 hour, according to Appendix 1. Note 2: SF6 gas to be introduced into the gas compartment shall comply with one of the following gas categories as defined in paragraph 3.5: • New gas or technical grade SF6; • Suited for the complete range of re-use pressures; • Suited for the low range of re-use pressures only in the case that the SF6 rated filling pressure of the equipment does not exceed the re-use limit, i.e. 200 kPa. Note 3: No gas check is required if the gas comes from the supplier in sealed cylinders or containers. In all other cases, the gas quality shall be checked prior to the filling operation. The gas quality check shall comprise moisture content, SF6 percentage, and residual acidity content.

Page 31 of 71

4.2

Topping-up of SF6 pre-filled compartments to the nominal pressure/density

This module applies to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain SF6 at above atmospheric pressure (typically 120 to 150 kPa). This is typically done for the purpose of shipping pre-filled new equipment. This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that currently contain a gas different from SF6 (typically air or N2) at ambient pressure or slightly overpressure (typically 100 to 150 kPa). These shall be commissioned or recommissioned as described in paragraph 4.1. This module does not apply to leaking compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems to assure continuity of service. These shall be re-filled as described in paragraph 4.3. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for SF6 topping-up in each pre-filled compartment shall be performed according to Figure 2. Additional details are given in Table 12. Figure 2: Diagram of the operations for topping-up of SF6 pre-filled compartments to the nominal pressure/density.
Inspection density sensor Documentation SF6 quality checking Documentation

SF6 filling pressure

Tightness inspection

Prepare gas handling equipment

SF6 topping up ≥ 12 hours

SF6 pre-filling pressure

Page 32 of 71

Table 12: Operational description for topping-up of SF6 pre-filled compartments to the nominal pressure/density.
Step 1 Prepare gas equipment handling Procedure Check that the gas reclaimer is working properly and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Connect the SF6 container and fill the compartment until the SF6 rated filling pressure is reached. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge to avoid overfilling [notes 1 and 2]. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the final filling pressure, ambient temperature and date for further reference. Check the functionality of the pressure/density sensor. The operation can be performed during the filling operation. Check the tightness of at least all permanent connections made on site. Wait at least 12 hours after the filling operation and then measure the moisture content and the SF6 content of the gas in the compartment (see paragraph 4.2 for details). Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the functionality of the pressure/density sensor, the moisture content, the SF6 content, ambient temperature and date for further reference.

2 3 4 5 6

Topping-up with SF6 Documentation Pressure/density inspection sensor

Tightness inspection SF6 quality checking

7

Documentation

Note 1: SF6 gas to be introduced into the gas compartment shall comply with one of the following gas categories as defined in paragraph 3.5: • New gas or technical grade SF6; • Suited for the complete range of re-use pressures; • Suited for the low range of re-use pressures only in the case that the SF6 rated filling pressure of the equipment does not exceed the re-use limit, i.e. 200 kPa. Note 2: No gas check is required if the gas comes from the supplier in sealed cylinders or containers. In all other cases, the gas quality shall be checked prior to the filling operation. The gas quality check shall comprise moisture content, SF6 percentage, and residual acidity content.

Page 33 of 71

4.3

Re-filling of SF6 to the nominal pressure/density

This module applies to leaking compartments (usually indicated by the first alarm/indication of the pressure/density monitor) of controlled and/or closed pressure systems to assure continuity of service. In this case, appropriate corrective measures to locate and eliminate the leak shall be immediately arranged. This module does not apply to leaking energised compartments. The Operating Instruction Manual from the equipment manufacturer shall be strictly observed. This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and closed pressure systems that currently contain a gas different from SF6 (typically air or N2) at ambient pressure or slightly overpressure (typically 100 to 150 kPa). These shall be commissioned or recommissioned as described in paragraph 4.1. This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain SF6 at a pressure above the atmosphere (typically 120 to 150 kPa). These shall be topped-up as described in paragraph 4.2. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for gas re-filling in each compartment shall be performed according to Figure 3. Additional details are given in Table 13. Figure 3: Diagram of the operations for SF6 re-filling of SF6 to the nominal pressure/density.
Prepare gas handling equipment

SF6 filling pressure

SF6 topping up Documentation

SF6 pressure in compartment

Page 34 of 71

Table 13: Operational pressure/density.
Step 1 Prepare gas equipment Re-filling with SF6 Documentation

description

for

re-filling

of

SF6

to

the

nominal

handling

2 3

Procedure Check that the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Connect the SF6 container and fill the compartment until the SF6 rated filling pressure is reached. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge to avoid overfilling [notes 1, 2, and 3]. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the final filling pressure, ambient temperature and date for further reference.

Note 1: SF6 gas to be introduced into the gas compartment shall comply with one of the following gas categories as defined in paragraph 3.5: • New gas or technical grade SF6; • Suited for the complete range of re-use pressures; • Suited for the low range of re-use pressures only in the case that the SF6 rated filling pressure of the equipment does not exceed the re-use limit, i.e. 200 kPa. Note 2: No gas check is required if the gas comes from the supplier in sealed cylinders or containers. In all other cases, the gas quality shall be checked prior to the filling operation. The gas quality check shall comprise moisture content, SF6 percentage, and residual acidity content. Note 3: As the amount of gas used for re-filling is very small in comparison to the amount of gas in the related compartment, it is not necessary to perform a SF6 gas quality check after the re-filling operation.

Page 35 of 71

4.4

Checking the SF6 quality in gas compartments on-site

The measurement of the SF6 quality is usually done on-site, using portable equipment. Off-site analysis may exceptionally be performed to cross-check unsatisfactory on-site results, by sampling the gas and sending it to a qualified chemical laboratory. Depending on the category of the SF6 contained in the gas compartment or container, different physical characteristics (e.g. moisture content, SF6 content, residual equivalent acidity) shall be checked. Minimum requirements are given in Table 14. Table 14: Minimum SF6 characteristics to check, depending on the gas category
SF6 category Non arced gas Normally arced gas Heavily arced gas SF6 characteristics Moisture, SF6 content Moisture, SF6 content, residual acidity content Moisture, SF6 content, residual acidity content

The residual acidity content shall be checked first to prevent damage of other instruments, if normally or heavily arced gas is expected. 4.4.1 Measurement of the moisture content/dew point of SF6 on-site This module applies to SF6 filled compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems or SF6 filled containers to check the moisture content/dew point of the gas on-site. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for an on-site SF6 moisture check shall be performed according to Figure 4. Additional details are given in Table 15. Characteristics of portable dew point meters are given in paragraph 5.3.1.1. Figure 4: Diagram of the operations for the measurement of the moisture content/dew point of SF6 on-site.
Read dew point meter Prepare measuring equipment Connect dew point meter Disconnect dew point meter Documentation

SF6 pressure in compartment

Page 36 of 71

Table 15: Operational description for the measurement of the moisture content/dew point of SF6 on-site.
Step 1 Prepare equipment measuring Procedure Check that the dew point meter is working properly; and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid any false measurements. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Use short connections to minimise SF6 release. Attach the dew point meter. Make tight connections and establish gas flow. Refer to the Operating Instruction Manual provided by the instrument manufacturer. Stop the gas flow and detach the dew point meter. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the reading and the date for further reference.

2 3 4 5

Connect the dew point meter Read the dew point meter Disconnect the dew point meter Documentation

4.4.2 Measurement of the SF6 content/quantity of inert gases on-site This module applies to SF6 filled compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems or SF6 filled containers to check the SF6 content/quantity of inert gases onsite. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for an on-site measurement of the SF6 content/quantity of inert gases shall be performed according to Figure 5. Additional details are given in Table 16. Characteristics of portable SF6 content measuring devices are given in paragraph 5.3.1.2. Figure 5: Diagram of the operations for the measurement of the SF6 content/ quantity of inert gases on-site.
Read device Prepare measuring equipment Connect SF6 content measuring device Disconnect SF6 content measuring device Documentation

SF6 pressure in compartment

Page 37 of 71

Table 16: Operational description for the measurement of the SF6 content/quantity of inert gases on-site.
Step Prepare equipment measuring Procedure Check that the SF6 content measuring device is working properly and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid any false measurements. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Use short connections to minimise SF6 release. Attach the SF6 content measuring device. Make tight connections and establish the gas flow. Refer to the Operating Instruction Manual provided by the instrument manufacturer. Stop the gas flow and detach the SF6 content measuring device. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the reading and the date for further reference.

1

2 3 4 5

Connect the SF6 content measuring device Read the SF6 content Disconnect the SF6 content measuring device Documentation

4.4.3 Measurement of the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content on-site This module applies to SF6 filled compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems or SF6 filled containers to check the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content on-site. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for an on-site measurement of the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content shall be performed according to Figure 6. Additional details are given in Table 17. Portable analysers of reactive gaseous decomposition products are described in paragraph 5.3.1.3. Figure 6: Diagram of the operations for the measurement of the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content on-site.
Read analyser Prepare measuring equipment Connect analyser Disconnect analyser Documentation

SF6 pressure in compartment

Page 38 of 71

Table 17: Operational description for the measurement of the residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content on-site.
Step Prepare equipment measuring Procedure Check that the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products is working properly and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid any false measurements. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Use short connections to minimise SF6 release. Attach the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products [note]. Make tight connections and establish gas flow. Refer to the Operating Instruction Manual provided by the instrument manufacturer. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the reading and the date for further reference. Stop the gas flow and detach the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products.

1

2

3 4 5

Connect the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products Read the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products Documentation Disconnect the analyser of reactive gaseous decomposition products

Page 39 of 71

4.5

Sampling and shipment of SF6 for off-site analysis

This module applies to SF6 filled compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems or SF6 filled containers to cross-check unsatisfactory gas quality measurements on-site. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for gas sampling and shipment shall be performed according to Figure 7. Additional details are given in Table 18. Characteristics of cylinders for gas samples are described in paragraph 5.4. Figure 7: Diagram of the operations for gas sampling and shipment
Prepare gas sampling equipment Documentation Disconnect sampling cylinder Shipment

Connect sampling cylinder

SF6 pressure in compartment

Table 18: Operational description for gas sampling and shipment.
Step 1 Prepare gas equipment Documentation Connect the sampling cylinder Disconnect the sampling cylinder Shipment sampling Procedure Evacuate the sampling cylinder [note]. Check that the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination of the sample and use short connections to minimise SF6 release. Tag the sampling cylinder with at least the following information: the serial number of the gas compartment, date, pressure, and ambient temperature. Attach the sampling cylinder. Make tight connections and establish gas flow. Stop gas flow and detach the sampling cylinder. Transportation to the laboratory shall be done in accordance to international and local regulations, as described in paragraph 3.8.3.

2 3 4 5
Note:

Stainless steel cylinders with a volume smaller than 1 litre shall be used

Page 40 of 71

4.6

Recovery and reclaiming of non-arced and/or normally arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems

This module applies to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain non-arced or normally arced SF6 to be recovered for maintenance or end-of-life disposal when the equipment is dismantled. This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain heavily arced SF6 to be recovered and reclaimed. These shall be handled as described in paragraph 4.7. This module does not apply to compartments of sealed pressure system. These shall be handled as described in paragraph 4.8.2. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for recovery of non-arced and normally arced gas from each compartment shall be performed according to Figure 8. Additional details are given in Table 18. The five safety rules given in paragraph 3.6 shall be strictly followed. Figure 8: Diagram of the operations for recovery and reclaiming of non-arced and/or normally arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.
Prepare gas handling equipment Connect filters Gas recovery SF6 pressure in compartment

Documentation Atmospheric pressure Minimise residual SF6 content

Open gas compartment

Remove switching dust and adsorbers (when present)

Neutralisation (if required) Flooding with air

Vacuum < 100 Pa

Page 41 of 71

Table 19: Operational description for recovery and reclaiming of non-arced or normally arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.
Step 1 Prepare gas equipment handling Procedure Check that the gas reclaimer is properly working, the filters and prefilters are still active, and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Connect the pre-filter between the gas compartment and the compressor and the filter between the compressor and the storage container. Connect the SF6 compartment. Use the main compressor stage as soon as the SF6 residual pressure in the compartment approaches the pressure in the storage container. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge to avoid overfilling of the storage container [note 1]. Connect the auxiliary compressor stage when the SF6 residual pressure in the compartment approaches 100 kPa and leave it running until a pressure smaller than 100 Pa is reached [note 2] [note 3]. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the reading and the date for further reference. Detach the compressor and let the air enter slowly into the gas compartment. Carefully open the gas compartment. Apply safety rules according to paragraph 3.6. Immediately use vacuum cleaner or wipe with a clean lint free rag to collect the dust, if present. Place adsorbers in a plastic bag. Seal the plastic bag with tape and tag it. If switching dust was collected, use 10% soda solution or equivalent to wash and neutralise all parts and then wash with clean water.

2

Connect filters

3

Gas recovery

4

Minimise content

residual

SF6

5 6 7 8 9
Note 1: Note 2: Note 3:

Documentation Flooding with air Open the gas compartment Remove switching dust and adsorbers when present Neutralisation, if required

In the case of liquid storage the weight of the storage container shall be controlled in order to avoid overfilling. The filling factor is smaller than 0.8 kg/litre for safety reasons. State-of-the-art handling equipment is capable of reaching a residual pressure of SF6 in the gas compartment lower than 100 Pa, according to 5.1.4. For different SF6 residual pressures refer to Appendix 1. A SF6 residual pressure lower than 2 kPa (instead of 100 Pa) applies to MV equipment, according to Appendix 1

Page 42 of 71

4.7

Recovery and reclaiming of heavily arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems

This module applies to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain heavily arced SF6 to be recovered for maintenance or at the end-of-life disposal when the equipment is dismantled. This module does not apply to compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems that contain non-arced or normally arced SF6 to be recovered and reclaimed. These shall be handled as described in paragraph 4.6. This module does not apply to compartments of sealed pressure systems. These shall be handled as described in paragraph 4.8.2. Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for recovery of heavily arced gas from each compartment shall be performed according to Figure 9. Additional details are given in Table 20. The five safety rules given in paragraph 3.6 shall be strictly followed. Figure 9: Diagram of the operations for recovering and reclaiming of heavily arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.
Prepare gas handling equipment Connect filters and prefilters SF6 pressure in compartment

Documentation Gas recovery Atmospheric pressure Minimise residual SF6 content Neutralisation Flooding with air Dust settling down Open gas compartment Remove switching dust and adsorbers

Vacuum < 100 Pa

≥ 1 hour

Documentation

Page 43 of 71

Table 20: Operational description for recovery and reclaiming of heavily arced SF6 from compartments of controlled and/or closed pressure systems.
Step 1 Prepare gas equipment handling Procedure Check that the gas reclaimer is properly working, the filters and prefilters are still active and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Connect the pre-filter between the gas compartment and the compressor and the filter between the compressor and the storage cylinder. Connect an additional pre-filter at the inlet of the gas reclaimer. Connect the SF6 compartment. Use the main compressor stage as soon as the SF6 residual pressure in the compartment approaches the pressure in the storage container. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge. Use an external storage container and avoid its overfilling [note 1]. Connect the auxiliary compressor stage when the SF6 residual pressure in the compartment approaches 100 kPa and leave it running until a pressure smaller than 100 Pa is reached [note 2] [note 3]. Record at least the serial number of the gas compartment, the reading and the date for further reference. Detach the compressor and let the air enter slowly into the gas compartment. Wait at least for 1 hour to give enough time the remaining switching dust to settle down in the gas compartment. Carefully open the gas compartment. Apply safety rules according to paragraph 3.6. Immediately use a vacuum cleaner to collect the dust. Place adsorbers and removable parts in plastic bags. Seal plastic bags with tape and tag them. Use 10% soda solution or equivalent to wash and neutralise all parts and then wash with clean water. Record all relevant information concerning the internal fault. Include some pictures.

2 3

Connect filters Connect filter additional pre-

4

Gas recovery

5

Minimise content

residual

SF6

6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Note 1: Note 2: Note 3:

Documentation Flooding with air Settling down of switching dust Open the gas compartment Remove switching dust, adsorbers and removable parts Neutralisation Documentation

In the case of liquid storage the weight of the storage container shall be controlled in order to avoid overfilling. The filling factor is smaller than 0.8 kg/litre for safety reasons. State-of-the-art handling equipment is capable of reaching a residual pressure of SF6 in the gas compartment lower than 100 Pa, according to 5.1.4. For different SF6 residual pressures refer to Appendix 1. A SF6 residual pressure lower than 2 kPa (instead of 100 Pa) applies to MV equipment, according to Appendix 1

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4.8

Recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at the end-of-life disposal when the electric power equipment is dismantled

This chapter covers the different phases where SF6 shall be handled during the end-of-life disposal when dismantling is chosen for the end-of-life of electric power equipment. End-of-life disposal/dismantling is performed under the user’s responsibility and supported by the manufacturer. Third parties, such as qualified service companies, may also carry out end-of-life disposal/dismantling. When the equipment is dismantled its material components will typically be metal materials such as aluminium, copper, aluminium casting components, low voltage components, hydraulic fluid and grease. SF6 gas and its gaseous and solid decomposition products. Almost 90% of all materials can be re-used. The materials have to be sorted before delivering to the waste collector. Electrical switchgear dismantling and related treatment of polluted gas, enclosures, powders, adsorbers and effluents shall be conducted with due regard to personnel and environment safety, as described in paragraph 3.6 and IEC 61634 [6]. In particular, SF6 gas shall be recovered, reclaimed, and recycled using an appropriate procedure before any other dismantling operations. Then, any contaminants in the remaining part of the switchgear shall be removed, if necessary. After treatment, the equipment can be recycled as normal electrical waste. 4.8.1 Closed and controlled pressure systems For this equipment, the gas recovery takes place either on-site or off-site and corresponding procedures are given in paragraphs 4.6 (Non-arced or normally arced SF6) and 4.7 (Heavily arced SF6). 4.8.2 Sealed pressure systems Generally, sealed pressure systems are collected for destruction before removal of SF6, this operation being conducted by service companies. These companies must implement the necessary handling and storage means to avoid any shocks that may crack or break the enclosure, in particular resin-based enclosures. Experience shows that the risk of the SF6 gas being dispersed in the environment during handling and transportation is extremely slight, if the manufacturer’s transportation instructions are followed. The devices to be dismantled may come from a number of places. For this reason, the residual quantity of gaseous and solid decomposition products sometimes cannot be determined prior to opening of the equipment. In these cases, the gas shall be considered as heavily arced and the procedure of paragraph 4.7 shall be applied. When it can be demonstrated that the SF6 is non-arced or normally arced, e.g. SF6 not exposed to current breaking and/or internal arc, then the procedure of paragraph 4.6 can be applied. When sealed pressure systems are fitted with connecting facilities, dedicated tools according to manufacturer instructions should preferably be used for the gas recovery. If not, then tight drilling systems as described in paragraph Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable. should be used. Page 45 of 71

Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer in the Operating Instruction Manual, the following detailed sequence of operations for SF6 handling at the end-of-life disposal, when the sealed pressure systems is dismantled, shall be performed according to Figure 10. Additional details are given in Table 21. The five safety rules given in paragraph 3.6 shall be strictly followed. Figure 10: Diagram of the operations for recovery and reclaiming of SF6 at the endof-life disposal when the sealed pressure system is dismantled.
Ship equipment Remove equipment Prepare gas handling equipment Connect filters Open gas compartment Gas recovery Remove switching dust and adsorbers (when present) SF6 pressure in compartment

Organisation

Atmospheric pressure

Disconnect equipment

Neutralisation (if required) Flooding with air

Vacuum < 2 kPa

Minimise residual SF6 content

Documentation

Page 46 of 71

Table 21: Operational description for SF6 recovery at the end-of-life disposal when the sealed pressure system is dismantled.
Step 1 2 3 4 Organisation Disconnection of equipment Removal of the equipment Shipping of the equipment Procedure Make arrangements with the manufacturer or a qualified service company for off-site SF6 recovery/end-of-life disposal of the equipment if required. Disconnect primary and secondary wiring Remove the sealed pressure system Transportation to the manufacturer or to the qualified service company shall be done in accordance to international and local regulations, as described in paragraph 3.8.3. Check that the gas reclaimer is working properly, the filters and prefilters are still active and the gas connections are clean and dry to avoid contamination. Check the validity of the calibration of instruments subject to calibration. Connect the pre-filter between the gas compartment and the compressor and the filter between the compressor and the storage container. Connect an additional pre-filter at the inlet of the gas reclaimer. Use dedicated tools and follow the manufacturer’s instructions to connect the SF6 compartment. In other cases, tight drilling systems shall be used. Use the main compressor stage to transfer the gas to the storage container. Use a safety valve and a calibrated gauge. Use an appropriate external storage container and avoid its overfilling [note 1]. Connect the auxiliary compressor stage and leave it running until a pressure smaller than 2 kPa is reached [note 2]. Detach the compressor and let the air enter slowly into the gas compartment. Wait until the remaining switching dust has settled down in the gas compartment. Carefully open the gas compartment. Apply safety rules according to paragraph 3.6. Immediately use vacuum cleaner or wipe with a clean lint free rag to collect the dust, if present. Place adsorbers and removable parts in a plastic bag. Seal the plastic bags with tape and tag them. If switching dust was collected, use 10% soda solution or equivalent to wash and neutralise all parts and then wash with clean water. Record the at least the serial number of the equipment, the date of dismantling and the quantity of gas recovered in kg.

5

Prepare gas equipment

handling

6

Connect filters Connect additional prefilter (only for heavily arced SF6) Connect SF6 compartment

7

8

9

Gas recovery Reduce content residual SF6

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Note 1: Note 2:

Flooding with air Settling down of switching dust (only for heavily arced SF6) Open the gas compartment Remove switching dust, removable parts, and adsorbers when present Neutralisation, if required Documentation

In the case of liquid storage the weight of the storage container shall be controlled in order to avoid overfilling. The filling factor is smaller than 0.8 kg/litre for safety reasons. A SF6 residual pressure in the gas compartment lower than 2 kPa applied to MV power equipment, according to Appendix 1.

5

SF6 HANDLING EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION MODULES

This module gives guidelines for the specifications, minimum functionality and performance criteria for SF6 handling equipment and specific components.

Page 47 of 71

5.1

Gas reclaimers

The appropriate type and size of the reclaimer should be chosen according to the gas quantity to be handled. The typical functions of a standard SF6 reclaimer are as follows: • Evacuation of air from the gas compartment; • Filling of SF6 in the gas compartment; • Recovery of SF6 from the gas compartment; • Storage and filtering of SF6; • Flooding of the gas compartment with ambient air. Figure 11 shows the basic functional scheme of a general purpose SF6 reclaimer. Figure 11: Functional scheme of a general purpose SF6 reclaimer.

External pre-filter

Internal pre-filter

SF6 reclaimer

Particle filter

Vacuum pump

Air to atmosphere

Gas compartment

Auxiliary compression stage

Main compression stage

Filters

SF6 internal storage container

SF6 external storage container

The requirements for each component of a SF6 reclaimer are discussed in the following paragraphs. 5.1.1 Pre-filtering unit A pre-filtering unit, either stand-alone or internal, is required to recover both normally and heavily arced SF6. The reactive gaseous decomposition products are acid compounds and could damage the gas reclaimer or the gas storage container. The requirements of the pre-filtering unit are basically the same as those of the filtering units installed in the gashandling device, but the pre–filtering capacity could be considerably higher. Recommended major characteristics are: • Pore size 10 µm (low through-flow resistance); Page 48 of 71

• •

Residual moisture lower than 200 ppmv; Residual reactive gaseous decomposition products lower than 200 ppmv.

5.1.2 Filtering unit Filtering units are required to remove the reactive gaseous decomposition products before they are stored – hence allowing for the re-use of SF6. These filtering units are installed in the SF6 reclaimer. Table 22 shows typical filter types used during SF6 reclaiming. Table 22: Typical filter types used during SF6 reclaiming.
Filter Type Particle filter Tasks Removes solid decomposition products and other particles at the reclaimer inlet. Removes reactive gaseous decomposition products and moisture. Removes oil when required. Major characteristics Pore size 1 µm. Residual moisture lower than 100 ppmv. Residual SO2+SOF2 lower than 12 ppmv. Particle retention ability. Special filter utilising active charcoal.

Gas/moisture filter Oil filter

The following paragraphs give further details. 5.1.2.1 Particle filter Some decomposition products, which are generated during switching operations, are made up of fine solid particles (e.g. metal particles, switching dust). The inner side of the particle filter consists of paper or suitable bonded fabric, able to retain the particles in a range up to 1 µm. Normally the particle filter is installed at the inlet and upstream from the outlet of the gas reclaimer to protect parts of the plant as well as the gas storage container. 5.1.2.2 Gas/moisture filters Appropriate filters can adsorb moisture and reactive gaseous decomposition products. They are mainly used in combination with the particle filter. Molecular sieves with a pore size smaller than 0.5 µm are used. In case of a bigger pore size is used, under certain conditions, thermodynamic reactions can occur resulting in severe filter overheating. Soda lime (NaCO3) shall not be used as a filter material for SF6 as, upon contact with certain reactive gaseous decomposition products, produces CO2, which is difficult to remove from SF6. 5.1.2.3 Oil filter An oil trap shall be inserted in the SF6 cycle if an oil-lubricated machine is used or if an oilinsulated electric component is included in the electric power equipment utilising SF6. The oil removal is achieved in several steps to avoid diffusion of the oil. 5.1.3 Vacuum pump The vacuum pump is used to evacuate the gas compartment/container/sample cylinders from gases different from SF6, typically air or N2. Page 49 of 71

The residual pressure at the inlet of the vacuum pump should be lower than 300 Pa. In order to speed up evacuation of gas compartments, the use of vacuum pumps with a residual pressure at the inlet lower than 10 Pa is recommended. The capacity of the vacuum pump should be suitable for the volume of the gas compartment and the evacuation time. The connecting diameter is also of great importance. For a gas compartment with a volume of 1000 l, a connecting diameter of 20 mm or ¾” is recommended. If smaller diameters are used, the evacuation process is considerably extended and the use of a vacuum pump with a higher capacity is not useful. The vacuum pump is equipped with a vacuum pressure gauge. The resolution of the vacuum pressure gauge shall be at least lower than 100 Pa. A resolution lower than 10 Pa is recommended. Vacuum gauges independent of the gas type are generally recommended. Thermal vacuum sensors are dependent on the gas type. They react with SF6 – vapours in different ways and can give a false vacuum reading. A valve is recommended to shut off the connection between the gas compartment and the vacuum pump. The valve shall close at least manually (automatically is recommended) after having turned off the vacuum pump to avoid oil diffusion into the gas compartment. 5.1.4 Compressor When the SF6 pressure in the gas compartment is higher than the pressure in the storage container, it is quicker to allow direct gas expansion. In all other cases, a compressor is required to recover the gas. A 2.5 MPa rated outlet pressure of the compressor is sufficient to store SF6 in a gaseous form (5 MPa pressure is recommended). An additional cooling device may be used to speed up gas recovery. A very important parameter for choosing a compressor is the pressure at the outlet divided by the pressure at the inlet (compression ratio). State-of-the-art compressor stages are optimised for a compression ratio 1:100 for technological reasons. As the pressure in the gas compartment may vary within a very wide range, a dual compressor shall be used: • The main compression stage, usually employing a piston type compressor, which operates between a gas inlet pressure about 100 kPa (typically higher than 50 kPa) and the pressure in the gas storage container. Almost all kinds of piston type compressors can be used, however those which are dry-running and hermetically sealed are preferred to reduce the possibility of SF6 leaks and oil contamination. • The auxiliary compression stage, connected in series when needed, operates between the pressure in the gas compartment and the pressure at the inlet of the main compressor. State-of the-art compressors can achieve 100 Pa pressure at the inlet. Preferred compressors are of dry-running and hermetically sealed. 5.1.5 Storage container Commercial pressure vessels or special storage containers for used SF6 are available as storage containers. They are mobile, stationary or installed in the gas reclaimer. Only specially approved storage containers or gas cylinders for storage and/or transportation of used SF6 are allowed. These are described in paragraph 3.8. The maximum pressure of the storage container should be suitable for the final pressure of the compressor. The local Page 50 of 71

regulations for the operation of pressure vessels must be observed. For storage containers with liquid SF6 storage a nominal pressure of 5 MPa is recommended. 5.1.6 Evaporator/heater If SF6 is stored in liquid form and used as a gas, icing/frosting of the storage container takes place when large gas quantities are handled in a short time. Cylinder heaters and evaporators are commercially available. The evaporator receives liquid SF6 from the storage container and shall be designed so that no liquid can reach the gas compartment. The storage container heaters shall be designed to avoid accidental overheating. It is recommended that the gas temperature is always kept lower than 60 °C. 5.1.7 Gas and hose connections The reclaimer, the gas storage container and the electric power equipment are connected via flexible hose connections. Particular care should be exercised to avoid the presence of air or other compounds inside the hoses in order to reduce the possibility of contaminating the gas. For this reason, hose connections with both self-closing and vacuum tight couplings are required. Suitable hoses, typically made of PTFE or flexible stainless steel, able to withstand vacuum and permeation are required. 5.1.8 Gas piping and pipe junctions Gas piping and pipe junctions shall be designed to avoid leaks and corrosion. For that purpose, copper and brass are typically used. The design of both piping and connections shall take vibration into account so that periodical operations such as re-tightening of fittings are not required. 5.1.9 Control instruments Control gauges shall be provided to show the gas pressure in the gas compartment, the vacuum level, the gas temperature, etc. They should be placed in a position so that they can be observed when initiating operations of the gas-handling device. Accuracy and resolution of the gauges should be adequate to allow preservation of safe operating conditions. 5.1.10 Safety valves Safety valves shall be used in the SF6 cycle for pressure relief. Local safety regulations shall be followed. Safety valves which do not directly release SF6 to the atmosphere are recommended.

Page 51 of 71

5.2

Personal protective equipment

Safety shoes and helmets must be used according to local safety regulations. In addition to that, protective equipment against SF6 decomposition products to consider when accessing a gas compartment is briefly described in the following paragraphs. 5.2.1 Skin protection Protective gloves shall be resistant to solvents, acids and liquid tight. They are usually made of nitril or neoprene. In addition to protective gloves, the use of protective creams is recommended. 5.2.2 Eye protection Safety goggles assure protection against gas and fine dust. 5.2.3 Breathing protection 5.2.3.1 Breathing protective mask Normal mask protecting nose and mouth against dust. 5.2.3.2 Full face mask Gas tight mask protecting eyes, nose and mouth with changeable active charcoal filter. 5.2.4 Overall protection Single use dust proof protective clothes to wear over normal clothes, shoe covers, hair cap.

Page 52 of 71

5.3

Devices for gas measurement on-site

5.3.1 Control instruments Pressure/density gauges are used to compare the SF6 pressure in the gas compartment to the SF6 rated filling pressure of each compartment. The ambient temperature shall be taken into account to permit proper comparison. Table 23 gives a survey on the SF6 control instruments including recommended measuring range and minimum accuracy. Table 23: On-site SF6 measuring devices
Device SF6 pressure gauge Thermometer Dew point meter SF6 content measuring device Reaction tubes Quantity Pressure Temperature Moisture SF6/N2, SF6/air SO2 Oil mist Range 0 to 1 MPa -25 to 50 °C Dew point: -50 to 0°C 0 to 100% by vol. 1 to 25 ppmv 0.16 to 1.6 ppmv Minimum accuracy ±10 kPa ±1 °C ±2 °C ±1 % vol. ±15 %

Gas quality measurements can be made under laboratory conditions and on-site. The following section describes the most commonly applied on-site control instruments for the determination of: • The moisture content/dew point, • The SF6 content/quantity of inert gases; • The residual quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products/residual acidity content. 5.3.1.1 Dew point meters The moisture content can be measured with different measuring principles and measuring instruments. It is mainly measured as dew point (dew = droplet) and expressed in °C. Desirable features of dew point meters are: • Sensor resistant to oil traces and corrosive gases; • Permeation resistant connecting pipes using self-sealing valve connections; • Portable; • Calibrated or capable of field calibration; • SF6 gas release less than ~6 g per measurement; • Average time to obtain the readout less than 5 minutes. 5.3.1.2 SF6 content measuring devices Devices that compare the speed of sound or the thermal conductivity of the SF6 gas mixture with pure SF6 are used to determine the SF6 content. Speed of sound based systems are fast (response time less than 1 min), accurate to ±1%, do not need recalibration and use only a minimal amount of gas. Their readout is the SF6 concentration in % volume. They are mostly calibrated for mixtures of SF6 and nitrogen and/or air.

Page 53 of 71

Devices measuring the concentration of the non-reactive gases (such as oxygen sensors) and then calculating the % of SF6 should not be used as different non-reactive gases such as nitrogen or CF4 may be present. Desirable features are: • Response time < 1 min; • No recalibration required; • Portable; • SF6 gas release less than 3 g per measurement. 5.3.1.3 Analysers of reactive gaseous decomposition products Desirable features for analysers of reactive gaseous decomposition products are: • Calibration for SO2 and SOF2; • Connecting pipes resistant to reactive gaseous decomposition products and utilising self sealing valve connections; • Portable; • SF6 gas release less than ~6 g per measurement. Reaction Tubes Reaction tubes sensitive to SO2 shall be used, as the gas remains for quite a long time in the SF6 environment. These portable field instruments change their initial colour if SF6 containing SO2 is fed through them. SO2 reaction tubes are also sensitive to SOF2. A small amount of SF6 from the equipment (~6 g) is needed. That gas sample is then released through the reaction tube to perform the measurement. A measuring range from 0 to 25 ppmv is recommended. Reaction tubes sensitive to HF shall not be used, as this gas reacts quickly with all metals to form metal fluorides. Electronic and electro-chemical SO2 sensors Electronic and electro-chemical SO2 sensors have been developed but have not yet been tested in SF6 insulated power technology. Ion Mobility Spectrometers A new method is at a very advanced development stage. It will be the state-of-the-art as soon as it is available on the market. It is based on an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) calibrated to detect the total quantity of reactive gaseous decomposition products as a whole and not only as the sum of SO2 and SOF2. For the time being, this method requires to be consolidated before being industrially adopted. Today, it seems that an IMS analyser will have the following advantages over reaction tubes: • Faster response time (approx. 10 seconds); • Smaller quantity of gas used (~2.5 g); • Lower detection threshold (0.5 ppmw); • No shelf live limitations of tubes; • Possibility of on-line monitoring; • Measuring results will be in electronic form, ready to be downloaded for automated record keeping; • IMS may be combined with moisture and purity analysers in one device.

Page 54 of 71

On the contrary, it seems that the disadvantages of an IMS analysers over reaction tubes will be: • Higher cost; • Needs to be flushed with small amount of pure SF6 prior to measurement. 5.4 Cylinder for gas samples

Stainless steel cylinders with a volume smaller than 1 litre are recommended. The gas quantity shall be not smaller than 6 g. The gas shall be sampled directly from the container (e.g. gas compartment, storage container of the gas reclaimer) using suitable fittings. If the pressure in the gas container exceeds the maximum allowable pressure of the cylinder, then a pressure regulator and a pressure gauge shall be used. 5.5 Gas piping and pipe junctions

For piping installed at electrical equipment or in buildings, piping and fittings made of copper, aluminium or stainless steel can be used. Stainless steel piping and fittings are recommended if normally arced or heavily arced gas is handled. Piping connections are a common source of SF6 leaks. Therefore it is recommended that connections be regularly checked for leakage. Safety valves shall be inserted in the SF6 cycle to limit the gas pressure in parts where this is required.

Page 55 of 71

APPENDIX 1 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SF6 HANDLING The following paragraphs present some theoretical considerations for best practices for SF6 handling. The focus is on both air and SF6 residual pressure in gas compartments vs. SF6 dilution and handling losses, respectively. 1 Air residual pressure vs. SF6 dilution and moisture content

When considering SF6 dilution due to the air residual content in the gas compartment, the following aspects should be considered: • Inert gases can be separated by compressing SF6 down to liquefaction. It should be noted that this requires more expensive gas reclaimers; • The new concept of supply of “technical grade SF6”, which will be introduced by the 2nd edition of IEC 60376 [2], allows up to 1% vol. air and 0.4% vol. CF4, i.e. 1.4% vol. for the sum of both inert gases; • The purity requirements for SF6 re-use and recycling that are specified by IEC 60480 [3] allow up to 3% vol. for the sum of both air and CF4; • Each time a gas compartment is evacuated down to the air residual pressure pair and filled with SF6 up to the SF6 rated filling pressure pSF61, the gas is diluted by a p factor 1 − air ; p SF6 In case of many complete handling operations (handling operation = evacuation + filling), the following equation applies:
⎛ p 1 − c f = (1 − c i )⎜1 − air ⎜ p SF6 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
n

where: • ci is the IEC 60376 [2] limit for air and CF4 (1.4%); • cf is the IEC 60480 [3] limit for air and CF4 (3.0%); • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure; • pair is the air residual pressure after evacuation; • n is the number of complete handling operations. Table 24 gives the number of handling operations required, starting from “technical grade SF6”, to reach the SF6 re-use limit specified by IEC 60480 [3], as a function of the air residual content and the SF6 rated filling pressure.

Typical SF6 rated filling pressures are: 100 to 150 kPa for MV insulation, ~300 kPa for MV breakers, ~500 kPa for HV insulation, and ~700 kPa for HV breakers.

1

Page 56 of 71

Table 24: Maximum number of handling operations vs. air residual pressure and SF6 rated filling pressure.
[# of times] 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 Air residual pressure [Pa] SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 100 150 300 500 700 16 24 49 81 114 8 12 24 40 57 5 8 16 27 38 4 6 12 20 28 3 4 9 16 22 2 4 8 13 19 2 3 7 11 16 2 3 6 10 14 1 2 4 8 11

State-of-the-art MV equipments have a typical SF6 rated filling pressure not greater than 300 kPa, they are sealed pressure systems (commercially denominated as “sealed for life”), and require no SF6 handling on-site. Therefore there is no practical need to reduce pair in order to permit a high number of handling operations in the low-end part of the pSF6 range. The vacuum level for evacuation is set to be smaller than 300 Pa for at least 1 hour from the viewpoint of getting rid of moisture of each gas compartment enough. Figure 12 shows the evacuation experiment in gas compartment (200 litres) containing 20 cm3 of water. Looking from the observation window into the gas compartment, it is possible to notice that: • The water starts to boil around 1300 Pa; • The pressure remains around 500 Pa for a short time and the moisture level is reduced; • When the pressure is smaller than 300 Pa the water is no longer visible in the gas compartment.

Page 57 of 71

Figure 12: Correlation between the pressure in a typical gas compartment and the evacuation time during air evacuation
Pressure - Evacuation Time Correlation
1400

The water starts to boil around 1300Pa.
1200

1000

Pressure(Pa)

800

When the pressure stays around 500Pa for a short time, the moisture level is reduced. The water is not longer visible in the gas compartment at around 300Pa.
Observation Window

Vacuum gauge

600

400 300 200

Vessel(200l) Water(20cc)

Pipe
0 0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

Vacuum Pump

Valve

Time(Min.)

The top limit concerning the residual pressure in any kind of gas compartment prior to filling is deduced from IEC 60694: dew point not higher than –5 °C, corresponding to a moisture partial pressure of 400 Pa. 2 SF6 residual pressure vs. SF6 handling losses

The SF6 handling loss per handling operation can be easily evaluated, as it is the ratio between the SF6 residual pressure pr and the SF6 rated filling pressure pSF6. This is given in Table 25. Table 25: SF6 handling loss in % per handling operation vs. SF6 residual pressure and SF6 rated filling pressure.
[% vol.] 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 100 150 300 500 700 0.10 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.20 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.50 0.33 0.17 0.10 0.07 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.20 0.14 2.00 1.67 0.67 0.40 0.29 5.00 3.33 1.67 1.00 0.71 10.00 6.67 3.33 2.00 1.43 20.00 16.7 6.67 4.00 2.86

State-of-the-art MV equipments require no SF6 handling on site. A SF6 residual pressure not higher than 2 kPa is required to assure reaching a target of 2% handling losses at the end-of-life disposal when the equipment is dismantled, assuming a SF6 rated filling pressure of approx. 100 kPa. The same SF6 residual pressure of 2 kPa is suggested for MV closed pressure systems.

SF6 residual pressure [Pa]

Page 58 of 71

Considering HV equipment with a typical rated filling pressure of 500 kPa and a SF6 residual pressure of 2 kPa, 0.4% handling losses are achieved. However, state-ofthe-art handling equipment is capable of recovering SF6 down to less than 100 Pa in the gas compartment, achieving a further environmental benefit.

Page 59 of 71

APPENDIX 2 MOISTURE MEASUREMENT UNITS AND CONVERSIONS Several physical quantities and units are used to measure the amount of moisture in a GIS compartment. They are: • Moisture partial pressure, usually in pascal [Pa]; • Moisture volume concentration, usually in parts per million by volume [ppmv]; • Moisture mass concentration, usually in part per million by weight [ppmw]; • Dew point, usually in degree centigrade [°C]; • Absolute humidity, usually in grams per cubic metre [g/m3]; • Relative humidity, usually in percentage [%] The following paragraphs define and give a short explanation of each measure. Conversion formulas and tables are also given. 1 Moisture partial pressure [Pa]

The primary physical quantity characterising the moisture level in a gas compartment is the moisture partial pressure. This is a linear measure of the moisture level and is independent of the pressure of the background gas as well as its nature. As the moisture partial pressure is a pressure, the unit is pascal [Pa]. The law of perfect gases can be successfully applied:
p H 2O = n H 2O V RT = m H 2O V R M H 2O T

(1)

where: • pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa]; • nH2O is the number moles of moisture contained in the gas compartment; • V is the volume of the gas compartment [m3]; J • R = 8.3143 is the universal constant of perfect gases; molK • T is the absolute temperature [K] to which the moisture partial pressure is referred, typically 293.16 K, corresponding to 20 °C; • mH2O is the mass of moisture contained in the gas compartment [g]; g • M H 2O = 18 is the molar mass of water. mol 2 Absolute humidity AH [g/m3]

The absolute humidity AH is the mass of moisture contained in the gas compartment divided by the volume of the gas compartment. This is a linear measure of the moisture level and is independent of the pressure of the background gas as well as its nature. As the absolute humidity is a mass density, the unit is [g/m3]. The following equation applies: m H 2O p H 2O M H 2O AH = = (2) T R V where: • AH is the absolute humidity [g/m3]; • mH2O is the mass of moisture contained in the gas compartment [g]; • V is the volume of the gas compartment [m3]; • pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa]; Page 60 of 71

• • •

T is the absolute temperature [K] to which the moisture partial pressure is referred, typically 293.16 K, corresponding to 20 °C; g M H 2O = 18 is the molar mass of water; mol J is the universal constant of perfect gases. R = 8.3143 molK

3

Moisture volume concentration [ppmv]

The moisture volume concentration cV is the volume occupied by the moisture contained in the gas compartment at the SF6 rated filling pressure divided by the volume of the gas compartment. This is also the ratio between the moisture partial pressure and the SF6 rated filling pressure. The recommended unit is ppmv, parts per million by volume. V H O RT n H 2O 3 p H 2O 3 n H 2O 6 m H 2O M SF6 3 10 = 10 = 10 = 10 (3) cV = 2 = V V p SF6 p SF6 n SF6 m SF6 M H 2O where: • cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]; • VH2O is the volume occupied by the moisture contained in the gas compartment at the SF6 rated filling pressure [cm3]; • V is the volume of the gas compartment [m3]; J • R = 8.3143 is the universal constant of perfect gases; molK • T is the absolute temperature [K] to which both the SF6 rated filling pressure and the moisture partial pressure are referred, typically 293.16 K, corresponding to 20 °C; • nH2O is the number moles of moisture contained in the gas compartment; • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]; • pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa]; • nSF6 is the number moles of SF6 contained in the gas compartment; • mH2O is the mass of moisture contained in the gas compartment [g]; • mSF6 is the mass of SF6 contained in the gas compartment [kg]; g • M SF6 = 146 is the molar mass of SF6; mol g • M H 2O = 18 is the molar mass of water. mol 4 Moisture mass concentration [ppmw]

The mass concentration cM is the ratio between the mass of the moisture and the SF6 contained in the gas compartment. The most common unit is ppmw, parts per million by weight. m H 2 O 3 p H 2 O M H 2 O 3 M H 2O cM = 10 = 10 = cV (4) m SF6 p SF6 M SF6 M SF6 where: • cM is the mass concentration [ppmw]; • mH2O is the mass of moisture contained in the gas compartment [g]; • mSF6 is the mass of SF6 contained in the gas compartment [kg]; • pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa]; • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]; Page 61 of 71

• • •

g is the molar mass of water; mol g M SF6 = 146 is the molar mass of SF6; mol cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]. M H 2O = 18

5

Dew point [°C]

Condensation of moisture as liquid (droplets = dew) or solid (ice) occurs when the moisture partial pressure reaches a critical value, termed the moisture saturation pressure. The moisture saturation pressure is a non-linear function of the temperature only. It has no relation to the pressure of the background gas or its nature. The moisture saturation pressure vs. dew point is an experimental curve. It is used to relate the dew point and moisture partial pressure. The Smithsonian Meteorological Tables define the worldwide interpolation curves, depending on the temperature interval: For temperatures ranging between –100 °C and 0 °C: ⎛ 273.16 ⎞ pw Tw ⎞ 273.16 ⎛ = −9.09718⎜ − 1⎟ − 3.56654 log10 log10 + 0.876793⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ T ⎟ 610.71 Tw ⎝ 273.16 ⎠ w ⎝ ⎠ For temperatures ranging between 0 and +100 °C: ⎛ 373.16 ⎞ pw 373.16 log10 + = −7.90298⎜ − 1⎟ + 5.02808 log10 ⎟ ⎜ T 101325.6 Tw w ⎠ ⎝
⎛ −3.49149⎛ 373.16 −1⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 11.344⎛ 1− Tw ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ T ⎟ w ⎝ 373.16 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ + 8.1328 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎜10 ⎜10 − 1⎟ − 1.3816 ⋅ 10 −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠
−7

(5)

(6)

where: • pw is the moisture saturation pressure [Pa]; • Tw is the absolute dew point [K]; Tw = 273.16 + t w where tw is the dew point in [°C]; Table 26 gives the non linear relationship between the dew point and the moisture saturation pressure in the temperature range –60 °C to +60°C in steps of 1 °C.

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Table 26: Moisture saturation pressure in the temperature range –60 °C to +60 °C in steps of 1 °C
Dew point tw [°C] -60 -59 -58 -57 -56 -55 -54 -53 -52 -51 -50 -49 -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 Moisture saturation pressure pw [Pa] 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.2 8.1 9.1 10.2 11.5 12.8 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 31 34 38 42 47 52 57 63 70 77 85 94 103 Dew point tw [°C] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Moisture saturation pressure pw [Pa] 103 114 125 137 151 165 181 198 217 238 260 284 310 338 368 401 437 476 517 562 611 657 705 758 813 872 935 1001 1072 1147 1227 1312 1402 1497 1598 1704 1817 1937 2063 2196 2337 Dew point tw [°C] 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Moisture saturation pressure pw [Pa] 2337 2486 2643 2809 2983 3167 3361 3565 3780 4006 4243 4493 4755 5031 5320 5624 5942 6276 6626 6993 7378 7780 8202 8642 9103 9586 10089 10616 11166 11740 12340 12970 13620 14300 15010 15750 16520 17320 18150 19020 19930

6

Relative humidity RH [%]

The ratio between the partial pressure and the saturation pressure of moisture, at the same reference temperature, is the relative humidity. The relative humidity is an implicit and non-linear function of the temperature, only. It has no relation to the pressure of the background gas or its nature. The typical unit is %. pH O RH = 100 2 (7) pw where: Page 63 of 71

• •

pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa] at the reference temperature t; pw is the moisture saturation pressure [Pa] at the reference temperature t.

7

Maximum moisture content in equipment (IEC 60694, future IEC 62271-1)

IEC 60694 states that the dew point in electric power equipment, at the SF6 rated filling pressure, is not higher than –5 °C for a measurement at 20 °C. Therefore the moisture partial pressure in electric power equipment, at the SF6 rated filling pressure, shall not exceed the limit of 401 Pa (see Table 26). The conversion to the recommended unit, given by eq. (3), is an inverse function of the SF6 rated filling pressure. It is given in Table 27 for a SF6 rated filling pressure range of 100 kPa to 850 kPa in steps of 10 kPa. Table 27: Maximum moisture content vs. SF6 rated filling pressure (IEC 60694, future IEC 62271-1)
SF6 rated filling pressure pSF6 [kPa] 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Maximum moisture content [ppmv] 4010 3650 3340 3080 2860 2670 2510 2360 2230 2110 2010 1910 1820 1740 1670 1600 1540 1490 1430 1380 1340 1290 1250 1220 1180 1150 SF6 rated filling pressure pSF6 [kPa] 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 Maximum moisture content [ppmv] 1145 1115 1085 1055 1030 1005 980 955 935 910 890 870 855 835 820 800 785 770 755 745 730 715 705 690 680 670 SF6 rated filling pressure pSF6 [kPa] 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 Maximum moisture content [ppmv] 670 655 645 635 625 615 610 600 590 580 575 565 555 550 540 535 530 520 515 510 500 495 490 485 475 470

8 8.1

Conversion to moisture volume concentration [ppmv] From moisture partial pressure [Pa] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv] pH 2 O pSF6

Eq. (3) applies: cV = where: Page 64 of 71
103

(8)

• cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]; • pH2O is the moisture partial pressure [Pa]; • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]. The conversion to the moisture volume concentration is given in Table 28.

Table 28: Conversion table between moisture partial pressure [Pa] and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] for typical values of SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa].
[ppmv] 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 30 40 50 70 100 150 200 300 400 100 10.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 70.0 100 150 200 300 400 500 700 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 150 6.67 10.0 13.3 20.0 26.7 33.3 46.7 66.7 100 133 200 267 333 467 667 1000 1330 2000 2670 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 5.00 3.33 2.50 2.00 1.67 7.50 5.00 3.75 3.00 2.50 10.0 6.67 5.00 4.00 3.33 15.0 10.0 7.50 6.00 5.00 20.0 13.3 10.0 8.00 6.67 25.0 16.7 12.5 10.0 8.33 35.0 23.3 17.5 14.0 11.7 50.0 33.3 25.0 20.0 16.7 75.0 50.0 37.5 30.0 25.0 100 66.7 50.0 40.0 33.3 150 100 75.0 60.0 50.0 200 133 100 80.0 66.7 250 167 125 100 83.3 350 233 175 140 117 500 333 250 200 167 750 500 375 300 250 1000 667 500 400 333 1500 1000 750 600 500 2000 1330 1000 800 667 700 1.43 2.14 2.86 4.29 5.71 7.14 10.0 14.3 21.4 28.6 42.9 57.1 71.4 100 143 214 286 429 571 850 1.18 1.76 2.35 3.53 4.71 5.88 8.24 11.8 17.6 23.5 35.3 47.1 58.8 82.4 118 176 235 353 471

8.2

From absolute humidity [g/m3] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv]

By substituting eq. (2) in eq. (3), the following equation is obtained R T cV = 10 3 AH M H 2O p SF6

Moisture partial pressure [Pa]

(9)

where: • cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]; J • R = 8.3143 is the universal constant of perfect gases; molK g • M H 2O = 18 is the molar mass of water. mol • T is the absolute temperature [K] to which the SF6 rated filling pressure is referred, typically 293.16 K, corresponding to 20 °C; • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]; • AH is the absolute humidity [g/m3]. Substituting the values for R and MH2O we obtain: (273.16 + t ) AH 8.3143 (273.16 + t ) cV = 10 3 AH = 461.91 18 p SF6 p SF6 where: • cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]; Page 65 of 71

(10)

• • •

t is the ambient temperature [°C]; pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]; AH is the absolute humidity [g/m3].

Eq. (9) at the ambient temperature of 20 °C becomes: 135410 cV = AH p SF6 where: • cV is the moisture volume concentration [ppmv]; • pSF6 is the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]; • AH is the absolute humidity [g/m3]. The conversion to the moisture volume concentration is given in Table 29.

(11)

Table 29: Conversion table between absolute humidity AH [g/m3] and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa].
[ppmv] 0.007 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.5 2 3 100 9.48 13.5 20.3 27.1 40.6 54.2 67.7 94.8 135 203 271 406 542 677 948 1350 2030 2710 4060 150 6.32 9.03 13.5 18.1 27.1 36.1 45.1 63.2 90.3 135 181 271 361 451 632 903 1350 1810 2710 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 4.74 3.16 2.37 1.90 1.58 6.77 4.51 3.39 2.71 2.26 10.2 6.77 5.08 4.06 3.39 13.5 9.03 6.77 5.42 4.51 20.3 13.5 10.2 8.12 6.77 27.1 18.1 13.5 10.8 9.03 33.9 22.6 16.9 13.5 11.3 47.4 31.6 23.7 19.0 15.8 67.7 45.1 33.9 27.1 22.6 102 67.7 50.8 40.6 33.9 135 90.3 67.7 54.2 45.1 203 135 102 81.2 67.7 271 181 135 108 90.3 339 226 169 135 113 474 316 237 190 158 677 451 339 271 226 1020 677 508 406 339 1350 903 677 542 451 2030 1350 1020 812 677 700 1.35 1.93 2.90 3.87 5.80 7.74 9.67 13.5 19.3 29.0 38.7 58.0 77.4 96.7 135 193 290 387 580 850 1.12 1.59 2.39 3.19 4.78 6.37 7.97 11.2 15.9 23.9 31.9 47.8 63.7 79.7 112 159 239 319 478

8.3

From moisture mass concentration [ppmw] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv] M SF6 M H 2O
146 c M = 8.1111c M 18

Eq. (4) applies: cV = cM = (12)

The conversion table between the moisture mass concentration and the moisture volume concentration is given in Table 30.

Absolute humidity AH [g/m3]

Page 66 of 71

Table 30: Conversion table between moisture mass concentration and moisture volume concentration
Moisture concentration Mass Volume [ppmw] [ppmv] 0.1 0.811 0.15 1.22 0.2 1.62 0.25 2.03 0.3 2.43 0.35 2.84 0.4 3.24 0.45 3.65 0.5 4.06 0.55 4.46 0.6 4.87 0.65 5.27 0.7 5.68 0.75 6.08 0.8 6.49 0.85 6.89 0.9 7.30 0.95 7.71 1 8.11 1.5 12.2 2 16.2 2.5 20.3 3 24.3 3.5 28.4 4 32.4 4.5 36.5 5 40.6 5.5 44.6 6 48.7 6.5 52.7 7 56.8 7.5 60.8 Moisture concentration Mass Volume [ppmw] [ppmv] 7.5 60.8 8 64.9 8.5 68.9 9 73.0 9.5 77.1 10 81.1 15 122 20 162 25 203 30 243 35 284 40 324 45 365 50 406 55 446 60 487 65 527 70 568 75 608 80 649 85 689 90 730 95 771 100 811 150 1220 200 1620 250 2030 300 2430 350 2840 400 3240 450 3650 500 4060

8.4

From dew point [°C] to moisture volume concentration [ppmv]

Table 26 can be used to obtain the moisture partial pressure and then Table 28 can be used to obtain the moisture volume concentration. The final result is given in Table 31, and Table 32. These can be used for direct conversion between the dew point [°C] and the moisture volume concentration [ppmv] using the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] as a parameter.

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Table 31: Conversion table between dew point [°C] and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]. The dew point is in the range between –60 °C and –20 °C
[ppmv] -60 -59 -58 -57 -56 -55 -54 -53 -52 -51 -50 -49 -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 100 10.8 12.4 14.1 16.1 18.4 20.9 23.8 27.0 30.7 34.8 39.3 44.5 50.3 56.7 63.9 72.0 81.0 91.0 102 115 128 144 161 179 200 223 249 277 308 342 380 421 467 517 572 632 698 771 850 937 1032 150 7.2 8.2 9.4 10.7 12.3 13.9 15.9 18.0 20.4 23.2 26.2 29.7 33.5 37.8 42.6 48.0 54.0 60.7 68.1 76.4 85.5 95.8 107 120 133 149 166 185 205 228 253 281 311 345 381 422 466 514 567 625 688 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 5.4 3.6 2.7 2.2 1.8 6.2 4.1 3.1 2.5 2.1 7.1 4.7 3.5 2.8 2.4 8.1 5.4 4.0 3.2 2.7 9.2 6.1 4.6 3.7 3.1 10.5 7.0 5.2 4.2 3.5 11.9 7.9 5.9 4.8 4.0 13.5 9.0 6.8 5.4 4.5 15.3 10.2 7.7 6.1 5.1 17.4 11.6 8.7 7.0 5.8 19.7 13.1 9.8 7.9 6.6 22.2 14.8 11.1 8.9 7.4 25.1 16.8 12.6 10.1 8.4 28.4 18.9 14.2 11.3 9.5 32.0 21.3 16.0 12.8 10.7 36.0 24.0 18.0 14.4 12.0 40.5 27.0 20.2 16.2 13.5 45.5 30.3 22.7 18.2 15.2 51.1 34.0 25.5 20.4 17.0 57.3 38.2 28.6 22.9 19.1 64.2 42.8 32.1 25.7 21.4 71.8 47.9 35.9 28.7 23.9 80.3 53.5 40.2 32.1 26.8 89.7 59.8 44.9 35.9 29.9 100 66.7 50.1 40.0 33.4 112 74.4 55.8 44.7 37.2 124 82.9 62.2 49.8 41.5 138 92.3 69.2 55.4 46.1 154 103 77.0 61.6 51.3 171 114 85.5 68.4 57.0 190 127 95.0 76.0 63.3 211 140 105 84.3 70.2 233 156 117 93.4 77.8 258 172 129 103 86.2 286 191 143 114 95.3 316 211 158 126 105 349 233 175 140 116 385 257 193 154 128 425 283 213 170 142 468 312 234 187 156 516 344 258 206 172 700 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.4 7.2 8.1 9.1 10.3 11.6 13.0 14.6 16.4 18.3 20.5 22.9 25.6 28.6 31.9 35.5 39.6 44.0 48.9 54.3 60.2 66.7 73.9 81.7 90.3 99.8 110 121 134 147 850 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.2 5.9 6.7 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.7 12.0 13.5 15.1 16.9 18.9 21.1 23.6 26.3 29.3 32.6 36.2 40.3 44.7 49.6 54.9 60.8 67.3 74.4 82.2 90.7 100 110 121

Dew point [°C]

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Table 32: Conversion table between dew point [°C] and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]. The dew point is in the range between –20 °C and –5 °C
[ppmv] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 100 1030 1140 1250 1370 1510 1650 1810 1980 2170 2380 2600 2840 3100 3380 3680 4010 150 688 757 832 914 1000 1100 1210 1320 1450 1580 1730 1890 2060 2250 2460 2680 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 516 344 258 206 172 568 378 284 227 189 624 416 312 250 208 686 457 343 274 229 753 502 376 301 251 826 551 413 330 275 905 604 453 362 302 992 661 496 397 331 1090 724 543 434 362 1190 792 594 475 396 1300 866 649 519 433 1420 946 709 567 473 1550 1030 774 619 516 1690 1130 845 676 563 1840 1230 921 737 614 2010 1340 1000 803 669 700 147 162 178 196 215 236 259 283 310 339 371 405 442 483 526 574 850 121 134 147 161 177 194 213 233 255 279 306 334 364 398 433 472

Figure 13 can be also successfully used for direct conversion between the dew point [°C] and the moisture volume concentration [ppmv] using the SF6 rated filling pressure [bar]1 as parameter.

1

1 bar is equal to 105 Pa or, better, 100 kPa.

Dew point [°C]

Page 69 of 71

Figure 13: Conversion nomogram between dew point [°C] and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [bar].

Page 70 of 71

8.5

From relative humidity RH for moisture volume concentration [ppmv]

Table 26 is used to obtain the moisture saturation pressure at the reference temperature and then eq. (7) to calculate the moisture partial pressure. Eventually, eq. (8) is used. Table 33 and Table 34 can be used for converting the relative humidity [%] at 0 °C and 20 °C respectively to the moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]. Table 33: Conversion table between relative humidity RH [%] at 0 °C and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]
[ppmv] 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Relative humidity RH [%] at 0 °C 100 305 611 916 1220 1530 1830 2140 2440 2750 3050 3360 3660 3970 4270 150 204 407 611 814 1020 1220 1420 1630 1830 2040 2240 2440 2650 2850 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 153 102 76 61 51 305 204 153 122 102 458 305 229 183 153 611 407 305 244 204 763 509 382 305 254 916 611 458 366 305 1070 712 534 427 356 1220 814 611 489 407 1370 916 687 550 458 1530 1020 763 611 509 1680 1120 840 672 560 1830 1220 916 733 611 1980 1320 992 794 662 2140 1420 1070 855 712 700 44 87 131 174 218 262 305 349 393 436 480 523 567 611 850 36 72 108 144 180 216 251 287 323 359 395 431 467 503

Table 34: Conversion table between relative humidity RH [%] at 20 °C and moisture volume concentration [ppmv] as a function of the SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa]
[ppmv] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 100 230 470 700 930 1170 1400 1640 1870 2100 2300 2600 2800 3000 3300 3500 3700 4000 4200 150 156 310 470 620 780 930 1090 1250 1400 1560 1710 1870 2000 2200 2300 2500 2600 2800 SF6 rated filling pressure [kPa] 200 300 400 500 600 117 78 58 47 39 230 156 117 93 78 350 230 175 140 117 470 310 230 187 156 580 390 290 230 195 700 470 350 280 230 820 550 410 330 270 930 620 470 370 310 1050 700 530 420 350 1170 780 580 470 390 1290 860 640 510 430 1400 930 700 560 470 1520 1010 760 610 510 1640 1090 820 650 550 1750 1170 880 700 580 1870 1250 930 750 620 1990 1320 990 790 660 2100 1400 1050 840 700 700 33 67 100 134 167 200 230 270 300 330 370 400 430 470 500 530 570 600 850 27 55 82 110 137 165 192 220 250 270 300 330 360 380 410 440 470 490

Relative humidity RH [%] at 20 °C

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