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ABAQUS is a suite of finite element analysis modules. The heart of ABAQUS are the analysis modules, ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit, which are complementary and integrated analysis tools. ABAQUS/Standard is a general-purpose, finite element module. ABAQUS/Explicit is an explicit dynamics finite element module. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates the analysis modules into a Complete ABAQUS Environment for modeling, managing, and monitoring ABAQUS analysis and visualizing results. The finite element program we use in the FEA room is ABAQUS/CAE, which is an intuitive and consistent user interface throughout the system. Figure 1 shows the main user interface when entering ABAQUS/CAE.
Figure 1: ABAQUS/CAE Main User Interface
Chapter 2 Launch and Exit ABAQUS
2.1 Steps to launch ABAQUS
1) Click Start - All programs – ABAQUS - ABAQUS 6.6.1 - ABAQUS Command in Windows System. An ABAQUS Command window appears in DOS environment (see figure 2 & 3). 2) Use general commands in DOS system to move to your directory on the hard disk. For example, if you have created a file in catalogue C:\Temp named ABAQUS WORK and you want all your ABAQUS results be saved in this file, you can type command CD C:\Temp\ABAQUS WORK. 3) Run command ABAQUS CAE to enter ABAQUS/CAE user interface as figure 1 shows.
Figure 2 & 3: Steps to Start ABAQUS/CAE 2. • Open Database allows you to open a previously saved model or output database file. you have several paths to start a job. Normally in this step the file filter is default to be Model Database (*.3 Exiting ABAQUS When you have done some work in the middle of an ABAQUS job and want to exit. you can save your finished work as a Model Database file (*.2 Starting a job in ABAQUS After entering main interface of ABAQUS/CAE. . Click File – Exit to exit the main interface of ABAQUS/CAE. • Create Model Database allows you to begin a new analysis. • • • Click File – Save and input a file name (see Figure 4). • Run Script allows you to run a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands. you can just open the saved file and continue with the job. Next time you run ABAQUS.cae). • Start Tutorial allows you to begin an introductory tutorial from the online documentation 2.cae).
fil. *.sta. nobody can do ABAQUS analysis. *.stt.Figure 4: Save a File in ABAQUS 2. Please always check your catalogue on the disk and keep deleting all unnecessary files as the system clogs up very quickly. *.res.mdl. Once the hard disk is full. 3) . If you have already processed your results. you should always free the disk space by doing the following things. Therefore. Do not leave computers “locked” to other users for extended periods. You must delete all unnecessary files immediately after an ABAQUS analysis. *.msg. 2) Avoid running multiple jobs simultaneously as this uses up multiple licenses.odb. such as *. Instead. run multiple jobs consecutively. *. you should delete *. It will take the save time.4 ABAQUS Etiquette 1) It is a courtesy that you should be aware of the limited hard disk space of the computers in FEA room.
and name the part CHS. 3. create a 3D. The length of the tube could be 1200 mm for analysis. Use an approximate part size of 1000.1 Create a model Use ABAQUS/CAE to create a three-dimensional model of the circular hollow tube section (CHS). The purpose of this example is to determine the response of the circular hollow section and see how it changes as the compressive load increases.1 Defining the model geometry 1) Start ABAQUS/CAE. The circular tube is constructed of 5 mm thick steel and is 400 mm diameter. A dialog box of Create Part appears as Figure 5 shows.1. 3. and enter the Part module by clicking Part – Create. deformable part with an extruded shell base feature to represent the CHS (See Figure 5).Chapter 3 Example: Compressive Response on a Steel Circular Hollow Tube In this example you will assess the response of a steel circular hollow tube subjected to a compressive load. . Figure 5: Create Part 2) In the dialog box. 3) Click the button Create Circle: Center and Perimeter tool to sketch a circle with 400 mm diameter. We also aim to investigate the buckling load and yield load of the structure.
The section sketch is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6: Section Sketch .4) Pick center point at (0. the sketch is extruded to a depth of 1200 mm and a circular tube is therefore created.200) or (200. end the Create Circle: Center and Perimeter tool by clicking that button once again. 0) to define the circle geometry. and there appears a hint ‘Sketch the section for the shell extrusion’. After that. 5) When finish sketching the section. 0) and perimeter point at (0. The final part is shown in Figure 7. Set the depth 1200 mm. Click Done.
00 0.2 Defining the material properties In the Module selection.Figure 7: The Final Part of CHS 3. At this stage we do not know whether there will be any plastic deformation.08 Figure 8: Plasticity Data and Stress-strain Curve .3. Material properties Elastic properties: E = 200 ×109 Pa. select and click Property to define the material and section properties. Assume that the CHS is made of steel. We will include this information in the material definition.ν = 0.1. a Poisson’s ratio of 0. but we know the value of the yield stress and the details of the post-yield behavior for this steel. The plasticity data and stress-strain curve are shown in Figure 8.3 Plastic properties: True Stress (MPa) 400 400 460 500 True Strain 0. with a Young’s modulus of 210 GPa.05 0.03 0.
Figure 10: Material Manager You should note that ABAQUS is numerical and hence it does not have default units. Enter 200E9 Pa as the value for Young’s modulus and 0. You need therefore to be consistent in using units when defining geometry. select Mechanical – Elasticity – Elastic to define the elastic material properties.03 0. The Edit Material dialog box turns up.05 0.1. 3) Select Mechanical – Plasticity – Plastic to define the plastic material properties.08 Figure 9: The Yield Stress and Plastic Strain Data Input in ABAQUS 3. Name the material Steel. loads and material properties.00 0. In . You can click Material Manager to check if the properties are correctly entered as Figure 10 shows. Enter the yield stress and plastic strain data shown in Figure 9. 2) In the Edit Material dialog box.1 Create material To define an elastic-plastic material: 1) Click the button Create Material.Yield Stress (MPa) 400 400 460 500 Plastic Strain 0.2.3 as the value for Poisson’s ratio.
2) In the Edit Section dialog box. 2) Click the entire circular tube as the regions to be assigned a section.2. You can click Section Manager to check or modify the section properties in the dialog box as Figure 11 shows. 3.1. Then press OK. 3) Press Ok in the Edit Section Assignment dialog box. . Name the shell section property SteelSection. Figure 11: Section Manager To assign the SteelSection definition to the regions of the steel circular tube: 1) Click Assign Section. The Create Section dialog box appears. select Steel as the material. then the unit of stress and Young’s modulus should be MPa. You can click Section Assignment Manager to check or modify the section assignment in the dialog box as Figure 12 shows. select Shell Homogeneous and continue.this example. we used mm as the unit of dimension in defining the geometry and presume the unit of load to be N. and specify 5 mm as the value for the Shell thickness.2 Creating and assigning section properties To create homogeneous shell section properties and refer to the steel material definition and shell thickness: 1) Click Create Section. and press DONE.
select CHS as the part. Figure 13: Creating Assembly .3 Creating an assembly 1) Enter the Assembly module.1. and use the default coordinate system. 2) As shown in Figure 13. and click Instance Part.Figure 12: Section Assignment Manager 3.
Figure 14: Meshed CHS The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 14. However. click the perimeter as the region to be assigned local seeds and press DONE. and press OK to mesh the part. You should define the material properties for each part in the previous steps and assemble them in this step. 2) Select Seed – Edge By Number and specify that 60 elements be created along the perimeter of the circular section. 5) Select Mesh – Part. 3) Select Mesh – Controls. . 4) Select Mesh – Element Type. some models may be complicated if they are composed of several small parts which have different material properties. 3. This relatively coarse mesh provides moderate accuracy while keeping the solution time to minimum. You should carefully consider what type of element should be used before meshing a model. Different element types may make significant difference. Then enter 60 as the number of elements along the edge.4 Creating the mesh 1) Enter the Mesh module to seed the part instance. and use the default quadrilateral shell elements (S4R) as the element type to be applied in this case. You can create finer mesh to get more accurate solution which however takes longer when running the job.It is simple to create an assembly for an integrated structure such as this example. Check more details in relevant ABAQUS manuals. and use the default element shape and press OK. To do so.1.
create a set named Displacement. as shown in Figure 16. and click one node point of the moving end as the geometry. and name a new step as Buckle after the initial one. . 2) Select Tool – Set – Create.5 Defining steps 1) Enter the Step module. 3) In the Edit Step dialog box.3. Enter 10 as the vectors used per iteration. Press OK. select Linear perturbation – Buckle. and create a set named Fixed. 2) Select Step – Create. As for the procedure type. and press DONE.6 Prescribing boundary conditions and loads 1) Enter the Load module to define the boundary conditions used in this analysis. Enter 5 as the number of eigenvalues requested. Then. select the perimeter edge of one end of the CHS as the geometry of the set. Similarly. Figure 15: Step Management 3. and enter 1000 as the maximum number of iterations. create another set named Moving by selecting the other end of the CHS. You can click Step Manager to check or modify the steps in the dialog box as Figure 15 shows. specify the following step description: Buckle.1.1. Enter Set Manager to check the three sets.
UR1. See Figure 17. Press OK. tick U1. UR2. U2. Apply the boundary condition to the set of Fixed by clicking Set in the right corner and selecting Fixed. and create a boundary condition in the Initial step named Fixed Edge. Select Mechanical – Displacement/Rotation to be the type of step.Figure 16: Set Manager 3) Select BC – Create. U3. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box. UR3 to fully constrain the set (U1 = U2 = U3 = UR1 = UR2 = UR3 = 0). .
and create another boundary condition in the Buckle step named Moving edge. U3 = -2). See Figure 18. . In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box. U2. U3. keep the default settings and tick U1. Apply the boundary condition to the set of Moving by clicking Set in the right corner and selecting Moving. Press OK. Select Mechanical – Displacement/Rotation to be the type of step.Figure 17: Create Fixed Edge 4) Select BC – Create. UR1. UR2. UR3 and specify U3 as -2 (U1 = U2 = UR1 = UR2 = UR3 = 0.
Figure 19: Boundary Conditions .Figure 18: Create Moving Edge The boundary conditions applied is shown in Figure 19.
3. and investigate the cause of any warning messages. You can view the following shapes or plots by clicking corresponding tool buttons: Undeformed shape. and submit the job for analysis.2. and open the . 2) Save your model in a model database file. Specify the following job description: Buckle. Figure 20 shows the contour plot of spatial displacement at nodes.3.2 Analysis . U3 = -2).1 Visualization of results Enter the Visualization module. Animation of results. Deformed shape. correct any modeling errors that are detected.2.Estimating buckling stress In this example. 3. Eigenvalue.1 Defining and submitting a job 1) Enter the Job module. An incremental loading pattern was defined in *BUCKLE step (Fixed edge: U1 = U2 = U3 = UR1 = UR2 = UR3 = 0.odb file created by this job (Buckle.odb). Moving edge: U1 = U2 = UR1 = UR2 = UR3 = 0. eigenvalue buckling analysis was generally used to estimate the critical bucking loads of the CHS. . Monitor the solution progress. create a job named Buckle. A general eigenvalue buckling analysis can provide useful estimates of collapse mode shapes and calculate the buckling stress as well.2 Postprocessing 3. Contour plots.2.2.
3 Analysis . Riks. Minimum = 1e-20. The results show that where E is the material Young’s modulus. 3.Figure 20: Contour Plot of Spatial Displacement at Nodes in Eigenvalue Analysis 3. specify Arc length increment as followings: Initial = 0.0471.3. λ = 9. and therefore the buckling stress can be calculated. λ is the eigenvalue obtained from the results of FEA.02GPa . In the Incrementation box. L = 1200mm in the equation. 3) In the Edit Step dialog box.2. 3. specify the following step description: Analysis.2 Calculation of buckling stress The equation for calculation of buckling stress can be written as follows: σ cr = E ⋅ ε = E ⋅ λ ⋅ Δl l Δl is the initial displacement at the movable end input in the boundary conditions (U3 = -2) in ABAQUS. Press OK. l is the length of the column. ΔL = 2mm.2.01.Compressive response on CHS The objective of this analysis is to study the deformation of the CHS and the stress-strain response in various parts of the structure when it is subjected to a compressive load. σ cr = 3. Maximum = 1. . 2) Replace step Buckle with Geneal – Static.1 Modify model 1) Enter the Step module. As a result. Apply E = 200 ×109 Pa. Turn Nlgeom On.
and open the . however.3.3 Running and monitoring job process The objective of this analysis is to observe the stress-strain response of the CHS under compression.odb file created by this job (Analysis. Figure 21: Deformed Shape of CHS . 3. Figure 21 shows the deformed shape of CHS in the analysis.4 Postprocessing 3.odb). Contour plots. Specify the following job description: Analysis. In the process of the job.1 Visualization of results Enter the Visualization module. which means some part of the CHS has yielded.3. You can view the following shapes or plots by clicking corresponding tool buttons: Undeformed shape. The job will therefore be aborted. you can terminate the analysis by clicking Kill in the dialog box. 3. you can monitor the solution progress by clicking Results in the dialog box of Job Manager and see the changing of stress allocation during the whole analysis.3. create a job named Analysis. Save your model in a model database file.2 Defining and submitting a job 1) 2) Enter the Job module. all the response before the termination can be observed. Animation of results.3.4. Deformed shape. and submit the job for analysis. once the maximum stress of CHS reaches ultimate. For this example.3.
In the catalogue of Variables. In catalogue of Elements/Nodes. Click Clear Expression. In the catalogue of Variables. Click Plot Expression. Row down the operation column to click combine (X. Click Save – OK. there appears a dialog box. Then select U3 (Displacement in the direction of z-coordinate). click Node sets – Fixed. Then select RF3 (Reaction force in the direction of z-coordinate). Both of them are in the z-coordinate direction. In catalogue of Elements/Nodes.3.4. Give a negative sign to U3. select Position as Unique Nodal. Collect the data of displacement. Collect the data of reaction forces. The principle is to collect the data of reaction force in the fixed end of CHS and the data of the displacement of the movable end. Select U3 to Add to Expression and then RF3 (which was saved in the above procedure) to add to expression. A. Save as plot. Multi-select all the RF3 data and click Add to Expression. there appears a dialog box. Close the dialog box. and click sum((A. X). 1) 2) Select Tool – XY Data – Manager – Create – OBD field output. as the displacement is in the negative direction of z-coordinate while we hope the see the plot which displacement is positive. select Position as Unique Nodal. Row down the operation functions column on the right side. Then press Save – OK. Select Tool – XY Data – Manager – Create – Operate on XY data. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Figure 22: Plot of Load-displacement Response . the Load-Displacement diagram is shown as Figure 22.2 Data processing This section mainly introduces how to obtain a data plot of load-displacement in the movable end of CHS.3. Save as RF3. click Node sets – Displacement.…)).
You can also make diagrams using these data.4/ . Note: You must save it as an Excel file. you can do the following to save all the data of the plot as an Ms-Excel file.142. See Figure 23.Alternatively. 1) Click Report – XY.16:2080/v6. Check this file and you would find all the detailed data are included in.xls and save in the hard drive. otherwise it cannot be read. 2) In the catalogue of XY Data. 4) Click OK. 3) In the catalogue of Setup. name a file xxx. Figure 23: X-Y Data Saved as a MS-Excel File For further guidance. click plot.4 online documentation http://129. look up ABAQUS 6.78.