STEEL BRIDGES

METWALLY ABU-HAMD
Head of Structural Engineering Dept
Professor of Bridge and Steel Structures
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University



























Any part of this book may be reproduced by any means
WITHOUT

the written permission of the author.


Preface
___________________________________________

Bridges have always fascinated people, be it a primitive bridge over a
canal or one of the magnificent long span modern bridges. People built
bridges to challenge nature where some obstacles like rivers, valleys, or
traffic block the way they want to pass through. Our transportation system
would not exist without bridges. Their existence allows million of people,
cars, and trains to travel every day and everywhere they want to go. It is
obvious that both our economy and our society could not function without the
technology of bridge engineering.

Bridge building is one of the difficult constructional endeavors that both
attracts and challenges structural engineers. The design of such complex
structures requires a great deal of knowledge and experience. Depending on
the bridge span to be covered, several types of bridge systems exist.
Examples of bridge systems are beam bridges for short and moderate spans,
arch bridges for moderate spans, and cable stayed bridges and suspension
bridges for long spans.

This book covers the design of steel bridges in general with emphasis on
bridge systems commonly used to cover short and moderate spans, namely
plate girder bridges, box girder bridges, and truss bridges. The book is
intended for senior year college students and practicing bridge engineers.

The contents of the book are organized into two parts: the first four
chapters cover the design of steel bridges in general while the other four
chapters cover the design of specific bridge types. Chapter 1 describes the
different structural systems of steel bridges. Chapter 2 presents the design
loads on roadway and railway bridges. Chapter 3 presents the design
considerations. Chapter 4 covers the design of roadway and railway bridge
floor. Chapter 5 covers the design of plate girder bridges. Chapter 6 covers
the design of composite plate girders. Chapter 7 covers the design of box
girder bridges. Chapter 8 covers the design of truss bridges.

The author hopes that this book will enable structural engineers to design
and construct steel bridges with better safety and economy.

Dr Metwally Abu-Hamd
Professor of Steel and Bridge Structures
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University
Giza, 2007


CONTENTS
___________________________________________






1: INTRODUCTION


1.1 GENERAL 2
1.2 TYPES OF BRIDGES 5
1.3 MATERIALS FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION 20

2: DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES


2.1 INTRODUCTION 26
2.2 ROADWAY DESIGN LOADINGS 26
2.3 RAILWAY DESIGN LOADINGS 32
2.4 OTHER LOADS ON BRIDGES 36

3: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


3.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES 42
3.2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL 43
3.3 FATIGUE 65
3.4 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELDED JOINTS 106
3.5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BOLTED JOINTS 107

4: BRIDGE FLOORS


4.1 INTRODUCTION 116
4.2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF BRIDGE FLOORS 117
4.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 122
4.4 DESIGN EXAMPLES 125


5: PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES


5.1 INTRODUCTION 146
5.2 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 148
5.3 INFLUENCE OF BUCKLING ON GIRDERS DESIGN 154
5.4 ACTUAL STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDER ELEMENTS 173
5.5 FLANGE PLATE CURTAILMENT 181
5.6 DESIGN DETAILS 183
5.7 FLANGE-TO-WEB CONNECTION 183
5.8 STIFFENERS 187
5.9 SPLICES 194
5.9.4 DESIGN 200
5.10 BRIDGE BRACINGS 203
5.11 BRIDGE BEARINGS 208
5.12 DESIGN EXAMPLE 218

6: COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES


6.1 GENERAL 240
6.2 COMPONENTS OF COMPOSITE GIRDERS 243
6.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 245
6.4 SHEAR CONNECTORS

257
7: BOX GIRDER BRIDGES


7.1 INTRODUCTION 276
7.2 CROSS SECTION ARRANGEMENTS 278
7.3 BEHAVIOR OF BOX GIRDER BRIDGES 282
7.4 EFFECT BENDING 284
7.5 EFFECT OF TORSION 291
7.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE 306

8: TRUSS BRIDGES


8.1 TRUSS TYPES & CHARACTERISTICS 312
8.2 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS 318
8.3 GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES 320
8.4 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS 322
8.5 DESIGN OF TRUSS CONNECTIONS 329

Chapter 1: Introduction


















CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Steel Bridges


CHAPTER 1



INTRODUCTION




1.1 GENERAL

1.1.1 Historical Background

People have always needed to transport themselves and their goods from
one place to another. In early times, waterways were used wherever possible.
Navigable waterways, however, do not always go in the direction desired or
may not be always available. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop land
transportation methods and means of crossing waterways and valleys.
Roadway and railway development have therefore become an absolute
necessity for economic development. The rapid economic development in
Europe, USA, and Japan could not take place until land transportation was
developed. Even today, one important factor that has caused many countries
to lag behind in economic development is the lack of good land
transportation systems.

An important element of land transportation systems is the bridge. A
bridge is a structure that carries a service (which may be highway or railway
traffic, a footpath, public utilities, etc.) over an obstacle (which may be
another road or railway, a river, a valley, etc.), and then transfers the loads
from the service to the foundations at ground level.

The history of bridge engineering, which began with stone and wooden
structures in the first century BC, can be said to be the history of the
evolution of civil engineering. It is not possible to date humanity’s
conception and creation of the first bridge. Perhaps people derived the first
concept in bridge building from nature. The idea of a bridge might have
developed from a tree trunk that had fallen across a canal. Early bridges
consisted of simple short spans of stone slabs or tree trunks. For longer spans,
Chapter 1: Introduction
3
strands of bamboo or vine were hung between two trees across a stream to
make a suspension bridge.
The introduction of new materials – plain, reinforced, and pre-stressed
concrete; cast iron; wrought iron; and steel – evolved gradually within the
last two centuries. According to known records, the first use of iron in
bridges was a chain bridge built in 1734 in Prussia. Concrete was first used in
1840 for a 12-m span bridge in France. Reinforced concrete was not used in
bridge construction until the beginning of the twentieth century. Pre-stressed
concrete was introduced in 1927. These developments, coupled with
advances in structural engineering and construction technology, led to the
introduction of different forms of bridges having increasingly longer spans
and more load carrying capacities.

1.1.2 Bridge Components

In Figure 1.1 the principal components of a bridge structure are shown.
The two basic parts are:

(1) the UsubstructureU; which includes the piers, the abutments and the
foundations.
(2) the UsuperstructureU; which consists of:

a) the bridge deck, which supports the direct loads due to traffic and all
the other permanent loads to which the structure is subjected.
In roadway bridges it includes the deck slab, Fig. 1.1b.
In railway bridges it includes the rails and sleepers, Fig. 1.1c

b) the floor beams, which transmit loads from the bridge deck to the
bridge main girders. They consist of longitudinal beams, called
stringers, and transversal beams, called cross girders, Fig. 1.1c.

c) the main girders, which transmit the bridge vertical loads to the
supports.

d) the bracings, which transmit lateral loads to the supports and also
provide lateral stability to compression members in the bridge, Fig.
1.1b.

The connection between the substructure and the superstructure is usually
made through bearings. However, rigid connections between the piers (and
sometimes the abutments) may be adopted, such as in frame bridges, Figs.
1.4a and 1.4b.
Steel Bridges

a) Bridge Elevation


b) Cross Section of a Roadway Bridge



c) Cross Section of a Railway Bridge

Fig. 1.1 Principal Components of a Bridge Structure


stringer
bracing
main girder
Bridge deck
Chapter 1: Introduction
5
1.2 TYPES OF BRIDGES

Bridges can be classified in several ways depending on the objective of
classification. The necessity of classifying bridges in various ways has grown
as bridges have evolved from short simple beam bridges to very long
suspension bridges. Bridges may be classified in terms of the bridge’s
superstructure according to any of the following classifications:

1. Materials of Construction
2. Usage
3. Position
4. Structural Forms.
5. Span Lengths

A brief description of these bridge classifications is given next.

1.2.1 Bridge Classification by Materials of Construction

Bridges can be identified by the materials from which their main girders
are constructed. The most commonly used materials are steel and concrete.
This classification does not mean that only one kind of material is used
exclusively to build these bridges in their entirety. Often, a combination of
materials is used in bridge construction. For example, a bridge may have a
reinforced concrete deck and steel main girders.

1.2.2 Bridge Classification by Usage

Bridges can be classified according to the traffic they carry as roadway,
railway, Fig. 1.2, and footbridges, Fig. 1.3. In addition, there are bridges that
carry non-vehicular traffic and loads such as pipeline bridges and conveyor
bridges.

Steel Bridges


Fig. 1.2 Railway Through Bridge




Fig. 1.3 Foot Bridge






Chapter 1: Introduction
7
1.2.3 Bridge Classification by Position

Most bridges are fixed in place. However, to provide sufficient vertical
clearance to facilitate navigation through spanned waterways, bridges are
made movable; i.e., the bridge superstructure changes its position relative to
the roads that they link. In general, three kinds of movable bridges exist:

1. The bascule bridge, which has a rotational motion in the vertical
plane, Fig. 1.4a.

Fig. 1.4 a) Bascule Bridge

2. The lift bridge, which has a translational motion in the vertical plane,
Fig. 1.4b,














Fig. 1.4 b) Lift Bridge

Steel Bridges
3. The swing bridge, which has a rotational motion in the horizontal plane,
Fig. 1.4c.



Fig. 1.4 c) Swing Bridge

1.2.4 Bridge Classification by Structural Form

From an engineering perspective, bridges are best classified by their
structural forms because the methods of analysis used in bridge design
depend on the structural system of the bridge. Also, certain types of structural
forms are suitable for certain span ranges.

Structural form refers to the load resisting mechanism of a bridge by which
it transfers various loads from the bridge deck to the foundation. In different
types of bridges, loads follow different paths as they are first applied on the
deck and finally resolved in the earth below. From this perspective, several
structural systems are used in the elements of the bridge superstructure. It is
common in bridge terminology to distinguish between:
a. structural systems in the transversal direction, and
b. structural systems in the longitudinal direction.

The structural systems in the transversal direction are those used for the
bridge deck and floor structure to transfer loads to the bridge main girder.
Details of different systems used in both roadway and railway bridges are
given in Chapter 4.

The structural systems in the longitudinal direction are those used for the
bridge main girders to transfer loads to the supporting foundations. It should
be understood that bridge structures are basically three-dimensional systems
Chapter 1: Introduction
9
which are only split into these two basic systems for the sake of
understanding their behavior and simplifying structural analysis.

The longitudinal structural system of a bridge may be one of the following
types:

i) Bridges Carrying Loads Mainly by Bending: a) beam bridges
b) frame bridges

ii) Bridges Carrying Loads Mainly by Axial Forces: a) arch bridges
b) cable stayed bridges
c) suspension bridges.

The cross-section of the main girder incorporated in all these bridge types
may be a solid web girder or a truss girder depending on the values of the
design straining actions. Solid web girders dimensions are limited by the
requirements imposed by fabrication, transportation, and erection. Practical
maximum section depths of solid web girders range from 3 to 4 m for
economical design. If the required design exceeds this limit, a truss girder has
to be used, see Fig. 1.5.



Fig. 1.5 Truss Bridge

A truss used as a girder in flexure carries its bending moments by
developing axial loads in its chords, and its shears by developing axial loads
in its web members. Truss bridges are not specific bridge forms in themselves
– rather, trusses are used to perform the functions of specific members in one
of the types above. For example, a girder in flexure or an arch rib in axial
compression may be designed as a truss rather than as a solid web plate
girder.
Steel Bridges
1.2.4.1) Bridges Carrying Loads by Bending

By far the majority of bridges are of this type. The loads are transferred to
the bearings and piers and hence to the ground by beams acting in bending,
i.e. the bridges obtain their load-carrying resistance from the ability of the
beams to resist bending moments and shear forces. This type of bridge will
thus be referred to generally as a girder bridge.

Beam bridges are the most common and the simplest type of bridges.
These may use statically determinate beams (simply supported, Fig. 1.6a, or
cantilever beams, Fig. 1.6b) or continuous beams, Fig. 1.6c. Examples of
beam bridges are shown in Fig. 1.7:


Calculation Models
(a) Simply supported
(b) Cantilever Beam
(c) Continuous Beam
Structural System




Fig. 1.6 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Bending, Beam Bridges
Chapter 1: Introduction
11


(a) 14th Street Bridge over the Potomac River (USA). Continuous riveted
steel girders. Note the absence of internal hinges, and the roller supports
at the piers



(b) Continuous steel box girder bridge over the Rhine, Bonn, Germany,
1967. Note the varying depth of the box sections

Fig. 1.7 Examples of Beam Bridges
Steel Bridges
Simply supported beams are usually adopted only for very small spans (up
to 25m). Continuous beams are one of the most common types of bridge.
Spans for this system may vary from short (less than 20 m) to medium (20 -
50 m) or long spans (> 100 m). In medium and long spans, continuous beams
with variable depth section are very often adopted for reasons of structural
behavior, economy and aesthetics. These systems are suitable for bridge
spans up to 200 m for solid web girders and up to 300 m for truss girders.

Frame bridges are one of the possible alternatives to continuous beams.
Avoiding bearings and providing a good structural system to support
horizontal longitudinal loads, e.g. earthquakes, frames have been adopted in
modern bridge either with vertical piers or with inclined columns (Fig. 1.8).







Fig. 1.8 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Bending,
Rigid Frames with Vertical or Inclined Legs



Chapter 1: Introduction
13
1.2.4.2) Bridges carrying Loads by Axial Forces

This type can be further subdivided into those bridges in which the primary
axial forces are compressive, e.g.; arches, Fig. 1.9, and those in which these
forces are tensile, e.g.; suspension bridges, Fig. 1.11, and cable-stayed
bridges, Fig. 1.13.

Arches have played an important role in the history of bridges. Several
outstanding examples have been built ranging from masonry arches built by
the Romans to modern pre-stressed concrete or steel arches with spans
reaching the order of 500 m.. The arch may work from below the deck, Fig.
1.9a, from above the deck, Fig. 1.9b, or be intermediate to the deck level, Fig.
1.9c. The most convenient solution is basically dependent on the topography
of the bridge site. In rocky sites and good geotechnical conditions for the
footings, an arch bridge of the type represented in Fig. 1.9a is usually an
appropriate solution both from the structural and aesthetic point of view.
Arches work basically as a structure under compressive stress.. The shape is
chosen in order to minimize bending moments under permanent loads. The
resultant force of the normal stresses at each cross-section must remain
within the central core of the cross-section in order to avoid tensile stresses in
the arch.
(a) Deck Bridge
(b) Through Bridge (Bow String)


(c) Semi-Deck\Semi Through

Fig. 1.9 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces; Arch Systems

Steel Bridges


a) Solid Web Arch Bridge






b) Sydney Harbor Arch Bridge, completed 1932. Almost the longest arch
bridge in the world (longest is Bayonne Bridge, New York, completed a
few months earlier, 1.5 m longer). Two-hinge arch, span between
abutments is 503 m to allow unobstructed passage for ships in Sydney
Harbor. Contains 50,300 tons of steel (37,000 in the arch). The widest
(49 m) bridge in the world.

Fig. 1.10 Examples of Arch Bridges

Chapter 1: Introduction
15
The ideal "inverted arch" in its simplest form is a cable. Cables are
adopted as principal structural elements in suspension bridges where the
main cable supports permanent and imposed loads on the deck (Fig. 1.11).
Good support conditions are required to resist the anchorage forces of the
cable. This system is suitable for bridge spans between 300 and 2000 m.


Fig. 1.11a Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces;
Suspension Bridges





















Fig. 1.11b Section of a suspension bridge cable, showing it is made up
of a bundle of small cables

Steel Bridges


a) Golden Gate Bridge, 1937. Main span of 1280 m, was the longest
single span at that time and for 29 years afterwards.




















b) Akashi-Kaiyko Suspension Bridge, Japan. Links city of Kobe with
Awaji Island. World’s longest bridge (Main Span 1991 m)

Fig. 1.12 Examples of Suspension Bridges
Chapter 1: Introduction
17
A simpler form of cable bridges has been used - Cable stayed bridges
(Fig. 1.13). They have been used for a range of spans, generally between 100
m and 500 m, where the suspension bridge is not an economical solution.
Cable stayed bridges may be used with a deck made of concrete or in steel.

















Fig. 1.13 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces;
Cable-Stayed Bridges















Pont du Normandie (River Seine, Le Harve, France). 856 m main span,
longest cable stayed bridge in the world up to 1999. Longest now is
Tatara Bridge, Japan, 890 m
Fig. 1.14 Example of Cable-Stayed Bridges


Steel Bridges
1.2.5 Bridge Classification by Span Lengths

In bridge engineering, it is customary to identify bridges according to their
span lengths as short span, medium span, and long span. Presently there are
no established criteria to exactly define the range of spans for these different
classifications. A common practice is to classify bridges by span lengths as
follows:
Short-span bridges less than 50 m
Medium-span bridges 50 to 200 m
Long-span bridges Over 200 m

This classification of bridges is useful only in selecting the structural form
most suitable for the bridge span considered, as shown in the following table.
Each form of bridge is suited to a particular range of spans. The Table also
records the longest span for each type of construction.



1.2.6 Selection of Structural System

Flat girders, i.e. girders of constant depth, are used for all shorter span
bridges of both simple spans and continuous construction up to spans of
around 30 m. Rolled sections are feasible and usually offer greater economy.
Above this span fabricated sections will be required.

Haunched girders are frequently used for continuous structures where the
main span exceeds 50m. They are more attractive in appearance and the
Chapter 1: Introduction
19
greater efficiency of the varying depth of construction usually more than
offsets the extra fabrication costs. Both haunched and flat girders can be
either plate girders or box girders. Development in the semi-automatic
manufacture of plate girders has markedly improved their relative economy.
This form of construction is likely to be the preferred solution for spans up to
60 m or so, if depth of construction is not unduly limited. Above 60 m span,
and significantly below that figure if either depth of construction is limited or
there is plan curvature, the box girder is likely to give greater economy.

Cantilever trusses were used during the early evolution of steel bridges.
They are rarely adopted for modern construction.

Arches or rigid frames may be suitable for special locations. For example,
an arch is the logical solution for a medium span across a steep-sided valley.
A tied arch is a suitable solution for a single span where construction depth is
limited and the presence of curved highway geometry or some other
obstruction conflicts with the back stays of a cable stayed bridge. Frame
bridges are usually suitable for short or medium spans. In a three span form
with sloping legs, they can provide an economic solution by reducing the
main span; they also have an attractive appearance. The risk of shipping
collision must be considered if sloping legs are used over navigable rivers.

Cable stayed bridges, being self anchored, are less dependent on good
ground conditions. However, the deck must be designed for the significant
axial forces from the horizontal component of the cable force. The
construction process is quicker than for a suspension bridge because the
cables and the deck are erected at the same time. Suspension or cable stayed
bridges are the only forms capable of achieving the longest spans. They are
clearly less suitable for road or rail bridges of short or medium spans.

The following Figure shows the development of different bridge systems
with the span over the years.









Steel Bridges
1.3 MATERIALS FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

Steel and concrete are the two major materials used in bridge construction.
For bridge decks, concrete is predominant. However, for long span bridges,
there can be a saving in using steel orthotropic plate decks with an asphalt
wearing surface. Concrete is also the predominant material for curbs,
sidewalks, parapets, and substructure.

1.3.1 Structural Steels

Structural steel used in bridge construction can be categorized into three
main types: (1) Carbon steel, (2) High-strength low-alloy steel, and (3) heat-
treated alloy steel. Fig. 1.15 shows typical stress strain curves.

a) Carbon Steel

b) High Strength Steel
Fig. 1.15 Stress Strain Curves for Structural Steels
Chapter 1: Introduction
21
1. Carbon steel: This is the cheapest steel available for structural use. This
type of steel is characterized by the following chemical analysis contents:

Carbon : 0.15 - 0.29 %
Copper : 0.60 %
Manganese: 1.65 %

Examples of these steels are St. 37 which has a minimum yield stress of 24
kg/mmP
2
P.

2. High-strength low-alloy steel: Structural steels included in this category
have a minimum yield stress of 28 kg/mmP
2
P. The improvement in the
mechanical properties is achieved by adding small amounts of alloy
elements such as chromium, columbium, molybdenum, nickel, or
vanadium. The total of alloying elements does not exceed 5 % of the total
composition of steel, hence the term 'low-alloy'. Examples of these steels
are St. 44 and St. 52.

3. Heat-treated alloy steel: These steels are obtained by heat-treating the
low-alloy steels to obtain higher yield strength, 60 to 90 kg/mmP
2
P. The
process of heat treating involves quenching or rapid cooling with water or
oil from 900 P
o
PC to about 150 - 200 P
o
PC, then tempering by reheating to at
least 600 P
o
PC, and then controlled cooling. These steels do not exhibit a
well-defined yield point like the carbon and low-alloy steel.
Consequently, their yield strengths are determined by the 0.2 percent
offset method.


1.3.1.1 Physical Properties of Steel:

Mass Density ρ = 7.85 t/mP
3

Modulus of Elasticity E = 2100 t/cmP
2

Shear Modulus G = 810 t/cmP
2

Poisson's Ratio υ = 0.3
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion α = 1.2 x 10P
-5
/ P
o
PC








Steel Bridges
1.3.1.2 Mechanical Properties of Steel

Egyptian Standard Specification No.260/71

Grade of
Steel

Nominal Values of Yield Stress FR
y
R
and Ultimate Strength FR
u

Thickness t
t  40 mm 40 mm < t  100 mm
FR
y

(t/cmP
2
P)
FR
u

(t/cmP
2
P)
FR
y

(t/cmP
2
P)
FR
u

(t/cmP
2
P)
St 37 2.40 3.70 2.15 3.4
St 44 2.80 4.40 2.55 4.1
St 52 3.60 5.20 3.35 4.9


1.3.2 Welding Materials

Welding has become the predominant method for connecting parts of steel
bridges, especially with respect to shop fabrication. The development of
automatic welding has been a major factor in the fabrication of welded
bridges.

Structural steels may be welded by one of the following welding processes:

- Shielded Metal Arc Welding (S.M.A.W.): used for manual welding.
- Submerged Arc Welding (S.A.W.): used for automatic welding.
- Gas Metal Arc Welding (G.M.A.W.): used for semi-automatic welding.

The appropriate electrode types used in the weld process as well as their
yield and tensile strengths are given in Table 1 according to ECP 2001.









Chapter 1: Introduction
23
Table (1) Electrodes Used for Welding (ECP 2001)

Process
Electrode Strength *
Chemical Composition
Weld
Position
Remarks
Min. Yield
Stress
(t/cmP
2
P)
Min.
Tensile
Strength
(t/cmP
2
P)
Shield Metal
Arc
WELDING
(S.M.A.W.)
3.45 – 6.75 4.25 – 7.6
UElectrodeU: Low Carbon
UCoatingU: Aluminium, Silicon,
other deoxidizers
All weld
positions
Storage of
electrodes in
drying ovens
near the points is
a must.

Submerged
Arc
WELDING
(S.A.W.)

3.45 – 6.75
4.25 –
8.95
UElectrodeU: Medium Mn (1.0%)
Nominal Carbon (0.12%)
UFluxU: Finely powdered
constituents glued together with
silitales.
Flat or
horizontal
weld
position
-Fluxes must be
kept in storage.
-usually used in
shop.
Gas Metal
Arc
WELDING
(G.M.A.W.)
4.15 – 6.75 4.95 – 7.6
UElectrodeU: Uncoated mild steel,
dioxidized carbon manganese
steel
UShielding GasU: 75% Argon +
25% COR
2
R or 10% COR
2

Flat or
horizontal
weld
position
CoR
2
R is the least
shielding used in
buildings and
bridges.
Flux Cored
Arc
WELDING
(F.C.A.W.)
3.45 – 6.75 4.25 – 8.6
UElectrodeU: Low Carbon (0.05%
Max.)
UFluxU: Filled inside the electrode
core (Self Shielded)
All weld
positions
Useful for field
welding in severe
cold weather
conditions.
(*) The minimum value depends on the electrode type.


1.3.3 Bolts

Bolts used in bridge construction come in two general categories:

1. Ordinary Bolts: which are made from low-carbon steel. Example of
this type of bolts are grade 4.6 bolts. Because of their low strength,
they are not generally used in joints of main members. They should not
be used in joints subjected to fatigue.

2. High Strength Bolts: which are made from high strength alloy steels.
Examples of these bolts are grade 8.8 and 10.9 bolts. All high-strength
bolts carry markings on their heads to indicate the bolt grade; i.e., 8.8
or 10.9.

The usual bolt diameters used in bridge construction are 20, 22, 24, and 27
mm. The nominal values of the yield stress FR
yb
R and the ultimate tensile
strength FR
ub
R are as given in Table 2 according to ECP 2001. These bolt grades
are used in conjunction with structural components in steel up to St 52.





Steel Bridges

Table (2) (ECP 2001)
Nominal Values of Yield Stress FR
yb
R and
Ultimate Tensile Strength FR
ub
R for Bolts

Bolt grade

4.6 4.8 5.6 5.8 6.8 8.8 10.9

FR
yb
R (t/cm2)

2.4 3.2 3.0 4.0 4.8 6.4 9.0

FR
ub
R (t/cm2)

4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges











CHAPTER 2


DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES
Steel Bridges
CHAPTER 2



DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES



2.1 INTRODUCTION

Bridge structures must be designed to resist various kinds of loads: vertical
as well as lateral. Generally, the major components of loads acting on bridges
are dead and live loads, environmental loads (temperature, wind, and
earthquake), and other loads, such as those arising from braking of vehicles
and collision. Vertical loads are caused by the deadweight of the bridge itself
and the live load, whereas the lateral loads are caused by environmental
phenomena such as wind and earthquakes.

Bridge structures serve a unique purpose of carrying traffic over a given
span. Therefore, they are subjected to loads that are not stationary; i.e., moving
loads. Also, as a consequence, they are subjected to loads caused by the
dynamics of moving loads; such as longitudinal force and impact and
centrifugal forces.

Various kinds of bridge loads are shown in Fig. 2.1 and are described in the
following sections.

2.2 ROADWAY DESIGN LOADINGS

a) Dead Load

Dead load on bridges consists of the self-weight of the superstructure plus
the weight of other items carried by the bridge such as utility pipes which may
be carried on the sides or underneath the deck. The self-weight of the
superstructure consists of the deck, including the wearing surface, sidewalks,
curbs, parapets, railings, stringers, cross girders, and main girders. Depending
on the bridge type, the self-weight of the superstucture may be significant, as
in the case of long span bridges, or it may be a small fraction of the total
weight, as in the case of short span bridges. In any case, the dead load can be
easily calculated from the known or the assumed sizes of the superstructure
components.
Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges


Fig. 2.1 Design Loads on Bridges

In the case of bridge decks consisting of reinforced concrete slabs, it is a
common practice to apply the wearing surface and pour curbs, parapets, and
sidewalks after the slab has hardened. The weight of these additional
components is usually referred to as the superimposed dead load.

An important consideration in dead-load computation is to include, in
addition to the a.m. components, weights of anticipated future wearing surface
and extra utilities the bridge has to carry.

b) Live Loads

Live loads on bridges are caused by the traffic crossing the bridge. Design
live loads are usually specified by relevant design codes in the form of
equivalent traffic loads. Some traffic loads represent the weight of real vehicles
that can travel over the bridge; other values and distributions are chosen in
such a way that they produce maximum internal forces in bridge structures
similar to those produced by real vehicles.

According to the Egyptian Code for design loads on roadway bridges, the
roadway is divided into traffic lanes of 3 m width; the most critical lane for the
design of a structural member is called the main lane. Two types of loads are
specified in the Code for design:


LOADS ON BRIDGES
LONGITUDINAL
TRANSVERSAL
VERTICAL
Wind
Earthquake
Lateral Shock
Centifugal
Wind
Earthquake
Braking
Thermal
Friction
Dead Loads
Live Loads
Impact
Steel Bridges
i) Truck loads:

This load is intended to represent the extreme effects of heavy vehicles. It
consists of a 60-ton truck in the main lane and a 30-ton truck in a secondary
lane, which is taken next to the main lane. The arrangement of wheel loads is
shown in Fig. 2.2a. The locations of the main and secondary lanes are chosen
so as to produce maximum effect on the member considered.

For main girders with spans longer than 30 meters, an equivalent uniform
load of 3.33 t/mP
2
P and 1.67 t/mP
2
P may be used instead of the 60-ton and 30-ton
trucks for the design of Umain girdersU only.

ii) Uniform distributed load:

This load simulates the effects of normal permitted vehicles. It is applied on
the traffic lanes and over the lengths that give the extreme values of the stress
(or internal force) being considered. It may be continuous or discontinuous. It
consists of a 500 kg/m
2
uniform load in the main lane in front and back of the
main truck and 300 kg/m
2
in the remaining bridge floor areas, as shown in Fig.
2.2 b.

The interaction of moving loads and the bridge superstructure results in
dynamic amplification of the moving loads, resulting in vibrations and
increased stresses. This amplification was found to depend mainly on the
natural frequency of the structure which is a function of its length.
Consequently, the dynamic effect of moving loads is considered in the design
by increasing the static values of the main lane loading by the impact factor I
computed as:

I = 0.40 – 0.008 L > 0 (2.1)

where L = loaded length of main traffic lane giving maximum effect and is
evaluated as follows:

a) For directly loaded structural members, L is taken equal to the span length
of loaded span or the cantilever length of loaded cantilevers.

b) For indirectly loaded structural members, L is taken equal to the span
length of the directly loaded member transmitting the load or the span
length of the indirectly loaded member, whichever is greater.

c) For two-way slabs, L is taken equal to the short span length.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
For the assessment of the bridge fatigue strength, the prescribed live load
and impact values on roadway bridges shall be reduced by 50 %.
1
.
4
0
1.50
6.00
60 t Truck
(a) Wheel Arrangement
M
a
i
n
300 kg/m2
S
e
c
.
L
a
n
e
500 kg/m2
L
a
n
e
1.50
0
.
6
0
1.50 1.50
0
.
5
0
1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
0
.
5
0
30 T TRUCK = 6 x 5 T
60 T TRUCK = 6 x 10 T
(b) Loading Plan
30 t Truck
3
.
0
0


2
.
0
0

3
.
0
0
3
.
0
0
300 kg/m2
500 kg/m2
300 kg/m2
300 kg/m2
6.00
0.20 0.20 0.20
0
.
6
0


Fig. 2.2 Live Loads on Roadway Bridges

Steel Bridges
c) Longitudinal Tractive Forces

The term longitudinal forces refer to forces that act in the direction of the
longitudinal axis of the bridge; i.e., in the direction of traffic. These forces
develop as a result of the braking effort ( sudden stopping) , or the tractive
effort (sudden acceleration). In both cases, the vehicle’s inertia force is
transferred to the bridge deck through friction between the deck and the
wheels.

These forces are applied to the road surface parallel to the traffic lanes as
shown in Figure 2.3. According to the Egyptian Code, they are taken equal to
25 % of the main lane loading without impact, with a maximum value of 90
tons.
M
a
i
n

L
a
n
e

Fig. 2.3 Braking Forces on Roadway Bridges

d) Centrifugal Forces

When a body moves along a curved path with a constant speed, the body is
subjected to a horizontal transversal force due to centrifugal acceleration and
acts perpendicular to the tangent to the path. Curved bridges are therefore
subjected to centrifugal forces applied by the vehicles that travel on them.
According to the Egyptian Code, these forces are taken as two concentrated
forces applied horizontally spaced at 50 m at the roadway surface level at the
bridge centerline as shown in Fig. 2.4. The value of each force is computed
from the equation:

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
C = 3000 / (R + 150) (2.2)

Where C = centrifugal force, ton
R = radius of curvature, m

A vertical load of 30 tons distributed on a roadway area of 6 m long and 3
m wide is assumed to act with each force.
5
0

m
C
C

Fig. 2.4 Centrifugal Forces on Curved Roadway Bridges

e) Sidewalks

Many highway bridges, in urban and non-urban areas, have sidewalks
(footpaths) for pedestrian traffic. On these areas a uniform distributed load of
300 kg/mP
2
P shall be considered in addition to the main bridge loads.
Alternatively, a uniform load of 500 kg/mP
2
P acting alone shall be considered.
Sidewalks not protected from vehicles cross over (parapet height less than 35
cm) shall be designed for a single wheel load of 5 tons acting on a distribution
area 30*40 cm.

Handrails for sidewalks that are protected from highway traffic by an
effective barrier are designed to resist a horizontal distributed force of 150
kg/m applied at a height of 1m above the footway. When sidewalks are not
separated from the highway traffic by an effective barrier (parapet height less
than 35 cm), The elements of the sidewalk shall also be checked for the effect
of a vertical or horizontal concentrated load of 4 tons acting alone in the
position producing maximum effect. The working stresses for this case are
increased by 25 %.

Steel Bridges
2.3 RAILWAY DESIGN LOADINGS

a) Dead Load

Superimposed dead loads on railway bridges usually include the rails, the
sleepers, the ballast (or any other mean for transmission of train loads to the
structural elements), and the drainage system.

b) Train Loads

Train loads for railway bridges correspond to Train-type D of the Egyptian
Railways as shown in Figure 2.5. Two 100 ton locomotives with 80 ton tenders
are to be assumed, followed on one side only by an unlimited number of 80 ton
loaded wagons. Different live load positions shall be tried to arrive at the
specific position giving maximum effect. If two tracks are loaded at the same
time, only 90 % of the specified loads for one track are used for both tracks. In
case of three tracks, only 80 % of the specified loads are used. In case of four
tracks or more, 75 % of the specified loads are used.

Train loads specified in the code are equivalent static loading and should be
multiplied by appropriate dynamic factors to allow for impact, oscillation and
other dynamic effects including those caused by track and wheel irregularities.
Values of dynamic factors depend on the type of deck (with ballast or open-
deck) and on the vertical stiffness of the member being analyzed. For open-
deck bridges values of dynamic factors are higher than for those with ballasted
decks. Consideration of the vertical stiffness is made by adopting formulae in
which the dynamic factor is a function of the length, L, of the influence line for
deflection of the element under consideration. According to the Egyptian Code
of Practice, impact effects of railway loads are taken into consideration by
increasing the static values by the impact factor I computed as:

I = 24 / (24+ L) (2.3)

Where L (in meters) = Loaded length of one track, or the sum of loaded
lengths of double tracks. For stringers L is taken equal to the stringer span.
For cross girders L is taken equal to the sum of loaded tracks. For the main
girders L is taken equal to the loaded length of one track for single track
bridges or the sum of loaded lengthes of two tracks only in multiple track
bridges.

The value of I in this formula has a minimum value of 25 % and a maximum
value of 75 %. For ballasted floors with a minimum ballast thickness of 20 cm,
the value of I computed from the given formula shall be reduced by 20 %. For
bridges having multiple number of tracks, the dynamic effect shall be
considered for the two critical tracks only.
Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
8
0

T

W
A
G
O
N
8
0

T

T
E
N
D
E
R
1
0
0

T

L
O
C
O
M
O
T
I
V
E
8
0

T

T
E
N
D
E
R
1
0
0

T

L
O
C
O
M
O
T
I
V
E
1
2
.
0
0
8
.
4
0
1
0
.
5
0
8
.
4
0
1
0
.
5
0
3
.
0
0
3
.
0
0


Fig. 2.5 Live Loads on Railway Bridges (Train Type D)
Steel Bridges
c) Longitudinal Braking and Tractive Forces

These forces, which equals 1/7 of the maximum live loads (without impact)
supported by one track only, are considered as acting at rail level in a direction
parallel to the tracks, Figure 2.6. For double track bridges, the braking or
tractive force on the second track is taken as one half the above value. For
bridges with more than two tracks, these forces are considered for two tracks
only.
B/2
B/2

Fig. 2.6 Braking Forces on Railway Bridges



d) Centrifugal Forces

When the railway track is curved, the bridge elements shall be designed for a
centrifugal force “C” per track acting radially at a height of 2 m above rail
level. Its value is obtained as:

C = ( V
2
/ 127 R ) W (2.4)

Where C = centrifugal force in tons
V = maximum speed expected on the curve in Km/hr
R = radius of curvature in meters
W = maximum axle load in tons.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
e) Lateral Forces From Train Wheels

To account for the lateral effect of the train wheels, the bridge elements are
designed for a single load of 6 ton (without impact) acting horizontally in
either direction at right angles to the track at the top of the rail, Figure 2.7. This
force should be applied at a point in the span to produce the maximum effect in
the element under consideration.

For elements supporting more than one track, only one lateral load is
considered. For bridges on curves, design shall be based on the greater effect
due to the centrifugal forces or the lateral shock.


6t

Fig. 2.7 Lateral Shock Forces on Railway Bridges
Steel Bridges
2.4 OTHER LOADS ON BRIDGES

a) Wind Loads

The wind actions on a bridge depend on the site conditions and the
geometrical characteristics of the bridge. The maximum pressures are due to
gusts that cause local and transient fluctuations about the mean wind pressure.

Because steel bridges have a low span-to-weight ratios, wind effects on
bridges is very important and, if not properly considered, can lead to failure,
see Fig 2.8.




Fig. 2.8 Failure of a Suspension Bridge due to Wind loads
Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
Design wind pressures are derived from the design wind speed defined for a
specified return period. The wind load shall be assumed to act horizontally at
the following values:

1) When the bridge is not loaded by traffic: the wind pressure, on the
exposed area of the bridge, is equal to 200 kg/mP
2


2) When the bridge is loaded by traffic: the wind pressure, on the exposed
area of the bridge and the moving traffic, is equal to 100 kg/mP
2
P .

Exposed area of traffic on bridges has the length corresponding to the
maximum effects and in general a height of 3.00 m above the roadway level in
highway bridges and 3.50 m above rail level in railway bridges, Figure 2.9.
The exposed area of the bridge before the top deck slab is executed is taken
equal to the area of two longitudinal girders. Wind pressure during
construction can be reduced to 70 % of the specified values.

3
.
5
0
3
.
0
0
L
O
A
D
E
D
U
N
L
O
A
D
E
D
2
0
0

k
g


/

m
2
2
0
0

k
g

/

m
2
1
0
0

k
g

/

m
2
1
0
0

k
g

/

m
2
1
0
0

k
g

/

m
2



Fig. 2.9 Design Wind loads on Bridges


Steel Bridges
b) Thermal Effects on Bridge Structures

Daily and seasonal fluctuations in air temperature cause two types of
thermal actions on bridge structures:
a) Changes in the overall temperature of the bridge (uniform thermal actions),
b) Differences in temperature (differential thermal actions) through the depth
of the superstructure.

The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel may be taken as 1.2 x 10
-5
° C.
According to the Egyptian Code; bridge elements shall be designed for:
a) a + 30° C uniform change of temperature, Fig. 2.10 a, and
b) a + 15° C difference in temperature through the superstructure depth,
Fig. 2.10b.

The mean temperature of the bridge shall be assumed at 20° C.


Fig. 2.10 Thermal Loads on Bridges

If the free expansion or contraction of the bridge due to changes in
temperature is restrained, then stresses are set up inside the structure.
Furthermore, differences in temperature through the depth of the superstructure
cause internal stresses if the structure is not free to deform. A differential
temperature pattern in the depth of the structure represented by a single
continous line from the top to the bottom surface does not cause stresses in
statically determinate bridges, e.g. simply supported beams, but will cause
stresses in statically indeterminate structures due to reatraints at supports. If
differential temperature is not represented by a single continous line from the
top to the bottom surface, then thermal stresses are caused even in simple
spans.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges
c) Shrinkage of Concrete

In principle, shrinkage gives a stress independent of the strain in the
concrete. It is therefore equivalent to the effect of a differential temperature
between concrete and steel. The effect of shrinkage can thus be estimated as
equivalent to a uniform decrease of temperature of 20° C.

In composite girders the effect of concrete shrinkage is considered by using
a modified value of the modular ratio that is equal to three times of the normal
value. Generally, shrinkage effects are only taken into account when the effect
is additive to the other action effects.

d) Settlement of Foundations

The settlements of foundations determined by geotechnical calculations
should be taken into account during design of the superstructure. For
continuous beams the decisive settlements are differential vertical settlements
and rotations about an axis parallel to the bridge axis. For earth anchored
bridges (arch bridges, frame bridges and suspension bridges) horizontal
settlements have to be considered.

Where larger settlements are to be expected it may be necessary to design
the bearings so that adjustments can be made, e.g. by lifting the bridge
superstructure on jacks and inserting shims. In such a case the calculations
should indicate when adjustments have to be made.

e) Friction of Bearings

It should be checked whether the unavoidable friction of bearings can induce
forces or moments that have to be considered in the design of the structural
elements.

According to the Egyptian Code, the force due to friction on the expansion
bearings under dead load only shall be taken into account and the following
coefficients of friction shall be used:

a. Roller Bearings: One or two rollers 0.03
Three or more rollers 0.05

b. Sliding Bearings: Steel on Cast iron or steel 0.25

In a continuous beam with a hinged bearing at the center and longitudinally
movable bearings on both sides, expansion (or contraction) of the beam
Steel Bridges
induces symmetrical frictional forces. These forces are in horizontal
equilibrium if a constant coefficient of friction is assumed, and they normally
result in moderate axial forces in the main girders. However, to take into
account the uncertainty in the magnitude of frictional forces it may be
reasonable to assume full friction in the bearings on one side of the fixed
bearing and half friction on the other side.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
















CHAPTER 3

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Steel Bridges
CHAPTER 3



DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS





3.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

The aim of design is that the bridge should sustain all loads and
deformations liable to occur during its construction and use. A bridge design
should satisfactorily accomplish the objectives of constructability, safety, and
serviceability. Simply stated, a bridge design should permit safe structural
erection as planned and be able to safely perform its intended function during
its design life.

The basis for structural design philosophies is the known stress-strain
relationship of the material. It is usually assumed that the material is (a)
homogeneous, i.e., has the same physical properties at all points, (b) obeys
Hook's low, i.e., the material is linearly elastic, and (c) isotropic, i.e., has the
same elastic properties in all directions.

Two philosophies of design are in current use. The working stress design
philosophy has been the principal one used during the past 100 years.
According to this philosophy, a structural element is designed so that stresses
computed under the action of working, or service, loads do not exceed
predesignated allowable values. These allowable stresses are predescribed by a
building code or specification to provide a factor of safety against attainment
of some limiting stresses, such as the minimum specified yield stress or the
stress at which buckling occurs. The computed stresses are well within the
elastic range; i.e., stresses are proportional to strains.

The other design philosophy is generally referred to as limit states design.
This relatively recent term includes the methods commonly referred to as
"ultimate strength design", "strength design", "plastic design", "load factor
design", "limit design", and more recently, "load and resistance factor design
(LRFD)". Limit states is a general term meaning "those conditions of a
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
structure in which the structure ceases to fulfill the function for which it was
designed". Those states can be divided into the categories of strength and
serviceability. Strength (i.e., safety) limit states are plastic strength, buckling,
fatigue, fracture, overturning and sliding. Serviceability limit states are those
concerned with the use of the structure, such as deflection, vibration,
permanent deformation and cracking. In limit states design, the strength limit
states are dealt with by applying factors to the loadings, focusing attention on
the failure modes (limit states) by making comparisons for safety at the limit
state condition, rather than in the service load range as is done for working
stress design.

The design philosophy followed throughout this book is based on the latest
edition (2001) of the Egyptian Code of Practice for Steel Constructions and
Bridges (ECP). This code follows the allowable stress design method in which
the bridge elements (members and connections) are proportioned on the basis
of design loads and allowable stresses for the materials under service
conditions. Values of the basic allowable stresses for different cases are given
in Egyptian Building Code for the Design of Steel Structures and Bridges (ECP
2001) chapter 2 for members, chapter 3 for fatigue, and chapters 5, 6 for
welded and bolted connections. The main sections of the code are summarized
in this Chapter.

3.2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL

3.2.1 GENERAL APPLICATION

The following prescriptions, together with any other provisions stipulated in
the special specifications, are intended to apply to the design and construction
of steel bridges and buildings.

The structural safety shall be established by computing the stresses produced
in all parts and ascertaining that they do not exceed the allowable (working)
stresses specified herein, when these parts are subjected to the most
unfavourable conditions or combinations of the loads and forces according to
the current Egyptian Code of Practice for Loads and Forces for Structural
Elements. In applying the said prescriptions, approved scientific methods of
design shall be used. Deflections shall be computed and they shall in no case
exceed the limits herein after specified.

3.2.2 PRIMARY AND ADDITIONAL STRESSES

3.2.2.1 For the purpose of computing the maximum stress in a structure, the
straining actions shall be calculated for two cases:
Steel Bridges

Case I: Primary Stresses due to:
Dead Loads + Live Loads or Superimposed Loads + Dynamic Effects +
Centrifugal Forces.

Case II: Primary and Additional Stresses due to:
Case I + [(Wind Loads or Earthquake Loads), Braking Forces, Lateral Shock
Effect, Change of Temperature, Frictional Resistance of Bearings, Settlement
of Supports in addition to the Effect of Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete]

3.2.2.2 Stresses due to Wind Loads shall be considered as primary for such
structures as towers, transmission poles, wind bracing systems, etc...

3.2.2.3 In designing a structure, members shall, in the first instance, be so
designed that in no case the stresses due to case I exceed the allowable stresses
specified in the present code.

The design should then be checked for case II (primary + additional
stresses), and the stresses shall in no case exceed the aforesaid allowable
stresses by more than 20 %.

3.2.3 SECONDARY STRESSES

Structures should be so designed, fabricated and erected as to minimize, as
far as possible, secondary stresses and eccentricities.

Secondary stresses are usually defined as bending stresses upon which the
stability of the structure does not depend and which are induced by rigidity in
the connections of the structure already calculated on the assumption of
frictionless or pin-jointed connections.

In ordinary welded, bolted or riveted trusses without sub-panelling, no
account usually needs to be taken of secondary stresses in any member whose
depth (measured in the plane of the truss) is less than 1/10 of its length for
upper and lower chord members, and 1/15 for web members. Where this ratio
is exceeded or where sub-panelling is used, secondary stresses due to truss
distortion shall be computed, or a decrease of 15% in the allowable stresses
prescribed in this code shall be considered.

Bending stresses in the verticals of trusses due to eccentric connections of
cross-girders shall be considered as secondary.
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
The induced stresses in the floor members and in the wind bracing of a
structure resulting from changes of length due to the stresses in the adjacent
chords shall be taken into consideration and shall be considered as secondary.

Stresses which are the result of eccentricity of connections and which are
caused by direct loading shall be considered as primary stresses.

For bracing members in bridges, the maximum allowable stresses shall not
exceed 0.85 of the allowable stresses specified in this code if the bridge has not
been considered as a space structure.

3.2.4 STRESSES DUE TO REPEATED LOADS

Members and connections subject to repeated stresses (whether axial,
bending or shearing) during the passage of the moving load shall be
proportioned according to Chapter 3 of ECP 2001 which is summarized in
section 3.3 of this Chapter.

3.2.5 ERECTION STRESSES

Where erection stresses, including those produced by the weight of cranes,
together with the wind pressure, would produce a stress in any part of structure
in excess of 25 % above the allowable stresses specified in this code, such
additional material shall be added to the section or other provision made, as is
necessary, to bring the erection stresses within that limit.

3.2.6 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL

3.2.6.1 General

Allowable stresses for structural steel shall be determined according to the
grade of steel used. Structural sections shall be classified (depending on the
maximum width-thickness ratios of their elements subject to compression) as
follows:

1- Class 1. (compact sections):
Are those which can achieve the plastic moment capacity without local
buckling of any of its compression elements.

2- Class 2. (non- compact sections):
Are those which can achieve the yield moment capacity without local
buckling of any of its compression elements.

The limiting width to thickness ratios of class 1 and 2 compression elements
are given in Table 3.1.
Steel Bridges
Table (3.1a) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Stiffened
Compression Elements
=t
t
d=h-3t (t=t ,
f
w
d
)
w
h
w
t
d
d
t
w w
t
d
13
d
w
t

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Table (3.1b) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Stiffened
Compression Elements
F in t/cm
y
2
Steel Bridges
Table (3.1c) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for
Unstiffened Compression Elements
Stress distribution
in element
Stress distribution
in element
c
y



Fy
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Table (3.1d) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Compression
Elements
1. Compact
2. Non-Compact
Refer also to
"Outstand flanges"
(Table 2.1c)
1. Compact
2. Non-Compact


Steel Bridges
3- Class 3. (slender sections):

Are those which cannot achieve yield moment capacity without local
buckling of any of its compression elements.

When any of the compression elements of a cross-section is classified as
class-3, the whole cross section shall be designed as class-3 cross section.

3.2.6.2 Allowable Stress in Axial Tension F
t


On effective net area:

F
t
= 0.58 F
y
………………………… 3.1

Grade of Steel F
t
(t/cm
2
)
t  40

40 mm < t 100 mm
St 37 1.4 1.3
St 44 1.6 1.5
St 52 2.1 2.0

3.2.6.3 Allowable Stress in Shear q
all


3.2.6.3.1 The allowable shear stress on the gross effective area in resisting
shear is:
q
all
= 0.35
F
y
……….
3.2

Grade of
Steel
q
all
(t/cm
2
)
t  40 mm 40 mm < t 100

St 37 0.84 0.75
St 44 0.98 0.89
St 52 1.26 1.17

The effective area in resisting shear of rolled shapes shall be taken as the full
height of the section times the web thickness while for fabricated shapes it
shall be taken as the web height times the web thickness.

In addition, the shear buckling resistance shall also be checked as specified
in Clause 3.2.6.3.2 when:


Chapter 3: Design Considerations

-For unstiffened webs:

y
w
F
105
t
d
>
………………….…… 3.3

- For stiffened webs:
y
q
w
F
K
45
t
d
>
………………….……
3.4

Where K
q
=buckling factor for shear

k
q
= 4.00 + 5.34 / α
2
α < 1 …… 3.5
k
q
= 5.34 + 4.00 / α
2
α > 1 …… 3.6

Where α = d
1
/ d & d
1
= spacing of transversal stiffeners


3.2.6.3.2 Allowable Buckling Stress in Shear q
b


Depending on the web slenderness parameter :

λ
q
=
q
y
w
K
F
57
t / d
…………………………………


3.7

The buckling shear stress is :
For λ
q


0.8 q
b
= 0.35 F
y
……….………………… 3.8
0.8 < λ
q
< 1.2 q
b
= (1.5 – 0.625 λ
q
)

( 0.35 F
y
) ……. 3.9
λ
q
≥ 1.2
q
b
=
q
λ
0.9
(0.35 F
y
) ………………….
3.10
Steel Bridges

3.2.6.4 Allowable Stress in Axial Compression F
c


On gross section of axially loaded symmetric (having compact, non-
compact or slender section) compression members in which the shear center
coincides with the center of gravity of the section and meeting all the width-
thickness ratio requirements of Clause 3.2.6.1:

For λ = slenderness ratio = k l/ r < 100 :


2
c
4
y
y
10
75 . 0 F 58 . 0
F 58 . 0 F
) (
λ

− =
…..


3.11
Grade of
Steel
F
c
(t/cm
2
)
t  40 mm 40 mm < t100 mm
St 37 F
c
= (1.4 – 0.000065λ
2
) F
c
= (1.3– 0.000055λ
2
)
….….3.12
St 44 F
c
= (1.6 – 0.000085λ
2
) F
c
=(1.5– 0.000075λ
2
)
……..3.13
St 52 F
c
= (2.1 – 0.000135λ
2
) F
c
= (2.0– 0.000125λ
2
)
……3.14

For all grades of steel

For λ = kl/r ≥ 100 : F
c
= 7500/λ
2
…………………….. 3.15

For compact and non-compact sections, the full area of the section shall be
used, while for slender sections, the effective area shall be used.

In case of sections eccentrically connected to gusset plates (e.g. one angle),
unless a more accurate analysis is used, the allowable compressive stresses
shall be reduced by 40% from Fc in case the additional bending stresses due to
eccentricity are not calculated.

3.2.6.5 Allowable Stress in Bending F
b


2.6.5.1 Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of
“compact” sections symmetric about the plane of their minor axis:

F
b
= 0.64 F
y
……….……………………….


3.16




Chapter 3: Design Considerations

Grade of Steel F
b
(t/cm
2
)
t  40 mm 40 mm < t 100 mm
St 37 1.54 1.38
St 44 1.76 1.63
St 52 2.30 2.14

In order to qualify under this section:

1- The member must meet the compact section requirements of Table 3.1.

2- The laterally unsupported length (L
u
) of the compression flange is limited
by

i- For box sections:

f u
b
F
84
y
L <




3.17
y
2
1
F / b )
M
M
84 (137
f u
L + ≤




ii- For other sections


y
f
u
F
20b
L ≤






2.18
b
C
F d
L
y
f
u
1380A




Where b
f
is the compression flange width, M
1
/M
2
is the algebraic ratio of
the smaller to the larger end moments taken as positive for reverse curvature
bending, d is the web depth and C
b
is given in Equation 3.27.

3.2.6.5.2 Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of doubly
symmetrical I-shape members meeting the compact section requirements of

Steel Bridges
Table 2.1(c), and bent about their minor axis; solid round and square bars;
solid rectangular sections bent about their minor axis:

F
b
= 0.72 F
y
………………………… 3.19

3.2.6.5.3 Tension and compression on extreme fibers of rectangular tubular
sections meeting the compact section requirements of Table 3.1(b), and bent
about their minor axis:

F
b
= 0.64 F
y
……………………….… 3.20

3.2.6.5.4 Tension and compression on extreme fibers of box-type flexural
members meeting the “non-compact” section requirements of Table 3.1(b):


F
b
= 0.58 F
y

……………………….…….

3.21

3.2.6.5.5 On extreme fibers of flexural members not covered by Clauses
3.2.6.5.1 – 3.2.6.5.4 :

1- Tension F
bt



F
bt
= 0.58 F
y
……………………………...

3.22

Hence, F
bt
is taken as follows:









2- Compression F
bc


I. When the compression flange is braced laterally at intervals exceeding L
u

as defined by Equations 3.17 or 3.18, the allowable bending stress in
compression F
bc
will be taken as the larger value from Equations 3.23 and
3.24 or 3.25) with a maximum value of 0.58 F
y
:
Grade
of
Steel
F
bt
(t/cm
2
)
t  40 mm 40 mm < t

St 37 1.4 1.3
St 44 1.6 1.5
St 52 2.1 2.0
Chapter 3: Design Considerations

i- For shallow thick flanged sections, for any value of L/r
T
, the lateral
torsional buckling stress is governed by the torsional strength given by:

y b
f u
1 ltb
F 58 . 0 C
A / d . L
800
F ≤ =
………..…….3.23

ii- For deep thin flanged sections, the lateral torsional buckling stress is
governed by the buckling strength given by:

a- When
y
T u
y
F
C
188 r / L
F
C
84
b b
≤ ≤ ,then :

y y
b
5
y
2
T u
F 58 . 0 F )
C 10 x 176 . 1
F ) r / L (
64 . 0 (
2 ltb
F ≤ − = …….……..3.24

b- When
y
T u
F
C
188 r / L
b
> , then:
y b
2
T u
F 58 . 0 C
) r / L (
12000
2 ltb
F ≤ =
…………...……3.25

Alternatively, the lateral torsional buckling stress can be computed more
accurately as the resultant of the above mentioned two components as:



y
2
ltb
2
ltb tb l
F 58 . 0 F F F
2 1
≤ + =
……….……………3.26

In the above Equations:

L
u
= Effective laterally unsupported length of compression flange
= K. (distance between cross sections braced against twist, or lateral
displacement of the compression flange in cm).
K = Effective length factor (as given in Chapter 4 of Code)
r
T
= Radius of gyration about minor axis of a section comprising the
compression flange plus one third of compression web area (in
cms)
A
f
=
(b
f
* t
f
) Area of compression flange (in cm
2
)

Steel Bridges

D = Depth of web (in cm)
F
y
=
Yield stress (t/cm
2

)
t
f
= Compression flange thickness (in cm)

C
b


=

Coefficient depending on the type of load and support conditions as
given in Table 3.2. For cases of unequal end moments without
transverse loads, (C
b
) can be computed from the expression :

C
b
= 1.75 + 1.05 (M
1
/M
2
) + 0.3 (M
1
/M
2
)
2
≤ 2.3
………………...
3.27



Where: (M
1
/M
2
) is the algebraic ratio of the smaller to the larger end
moments taken as positive for reverse curvature bending. When the bending
moment at any point within the un-braced length is larger than the values at
both ends of this length, the value of (C
b
) shall be taken as unity.

II- Compression on extreme fibres of channels bent about their major axis and
meeting the requirements of Table 3.1.

y
f u
ltb
F 58 . 0 C
) A / d . L (
F
b
800
≤ =
.…
3.28

III. Slender sections which do not meet the non-compact section requirements
of Table 3.1 shall be designed using the same allowable stresses used for non-
compact sections except that the section properties used in the design shall be
based on the effective widths b
e
of compression elements as specified in Table
3.3 for stiffened elements and Table 3.4 for unstiffened elements. The effective
width is calculated using a reduction factor ρ as b
e
= ρ
b


Where:
ρ =
1
2
/ ) 05 . 0 15 . 0
p
p
( ≤ λ ψ − − λ
……………...……3.29
and

p
λ
= normalized plate slenderness given by
σ
= λ
K
F
44
/t b y
p
………………………
3.30
M
1
M
2
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
K
σ

= Plate buckling factor which depends on the stress ratio ψ as
shown in Tables 3.3 and 3.4.
b
= Appropriate width, (see Table 3.1) as follows :
b
= d for webs
b
= b for internal flange elements (except rectangle hollow sections)
b
= b-3t for flanges of rectangle hollow sections.
b
= c for outstand flanges
b
= b for equal leg angles
b
= b or (b+h)/2 for unequal leg angles
t = relevant thickness.

Table (3.2) Values of Coefficients K and C
b

Steel Bridges
Simple
Simple
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Simple
Simple
Fixed
Fixed
Warping
Restrained
Restrained
Bending Moment End Restraint
About Y-axis
Loading
Daigram
1.0
1.0
1.50
2.10
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
Simple
Simple
Fixed
1.70
1.04
0.90
1.35
1.07
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
2.30
1.13
1.00
1.30
1.00
1.00
2.30
Effective
Length
Factor K
C
b

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Table (3.3) Effective Width and Buckling Factor for Stiffened
Compression Elements
b
e1
b
e2
b
b
e1
b
b
e2
e
e
= /(1- )
b = 2 b /(5- )
b = 0.4 b
b
b
e1
= 0.6 b
e2
= b
e
c
b
b
= b
e2
e
= b
e1
e
b
b
e1
Stress Distribution
b b
e1 e2
b
1
Effective Width b for
e
e
= b
0.5
e1
b
b
= b
e2
0.5
b
= b
e
e
p
f f
2
f
1
f
2
1
f
f
2
b
c t
b
< 1
p
2
2 1
f f
Buckling
Factor
k
0 1 1> >0
8.2
1.05+
4.0
7.81
-1
23.9
0 > > -1
7.81-6.29 +9.78
2
-1> >-2
5.98(1- )
2
[(1+ ) + 0.112(1- ) ] +(1+ )
For 1 > > -1:
k
16
2
2 0.5
+
= ( -0.15 - 0.05 )/




Steel Bridges

Table (3.4) Effective Width and Buckling Factor For Unstiffened
Compression Elements
0.43
t
b
Buckling factor k
c
0.57-0.21 0.57 0.85
1 >
+0.07
> 0:
b
e
b
e
b
c
e
b
>0
+ 0.34
Buckling factor 0.43 k
1
0.578
1>
+17.1 1.70
0
1.7-5
0 >
23.8
>-1 -1
c
Stress Distribution
= ( -0.15 -0.05 ) / < 1
Effective Width b for
p
e
2
p
b
e
c
b
e
c
b
c
1 > > 0:
e
b

3.2.6.6 Allowable Crippling Stress in Web F
crp


Web crippling is a localised yielding that arises from high compressive
stresses occurring in the vicinity of heavy concentrated loads.

On the web of rolled shapes or built-up I-sections, at the toe of the fillet, the
allowable crippling stress shall not exceed:

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
R
n
n+2k
n+k
t
k
R
k
w


F
crp
= 0.75 F
y
…………………………………….. 3.31









The crippling stress (f
crp
) at the web toes of the fillets resulting from
concentrated loads (R) not supported by stiffeners shall be calculated from the
following Equations:

for interior loads
) k 2 n ( t
R
f
w
crp
+
=
………………… 3.32

for edge loads
) k n ( t
R
f
w
crp
+
=
……………………

3.33

3.2.6.7 Combined Stresses

3.2.6.7.1 Axial Compression and Bending

Members subjected to combined axial compression (N) and simple bending
moment (M) about the major axis shall be proportioned to satisfy the following
interaction Equation:

0 . 1 A
F
f
A
F
f
F
f
2
bcy
by
1
bcx
bx
c
ca
≤ + +
………..
3.34
Grade
of
Steel
F
crp
(t/cm
2
)
t  40 mm 40 mm < t

St 37 1.8 1.6
St 44 2.1 1.9
St 52 2.7 2.5
Steel Bridges
For cases when f
ca
/ F
c
< 0.15, A
1
= A
2
= 1.0.
otherwise:

)
F
f
1 (
C
A
Ex
ca
mx
1

=
,
)
F
f
1 (
C
A
Ey
ca
my
2

=


f
ca
= Actual compressive stress due to axial compression.
F
c
= The allowable compressive stress, as-appropriate, prescribed
in Clause 3.2.6.4.
f
bx
, f
by
= The actual bending stresses based on moments about the x
and y axes respectively.
F
bcx
,F
bcy
= The allowable compressive bending stresses for the x and y
axes respectively, considering the member loaded in bending
only as prescribed in Clause 3.2.6.5.
F
Ex
, F
Ey
= The Euler stress divided by the factor of safety for buckling in
the x and y directions respectively (t/cm
2
).
λ
=
2
x
Ex
7500
F
,
λ
=
2
y
7500
F
Ey ………………………..3.35

C
m
= Moment modification factor, and to be taken according to the
following:

a- For frames prevented from sway without transverse loading between
supports C
m
= 0.6 - 0.4 (M
1
/ M
2
) > 0.4 where the end moments M
1
and M
2

carry a sign in accordance with end rotational direction; i.e. positive moment
ratio for reverse curvature and negative moment ratio for single curvature (M
2

> M
1
).

b- For frames, prevented from sway, with transverse lateral loading between
supports, C
m
may be taken:

i- For members with moment restraint at the ends C
m
= 0.85.

ii- For members with simply supported end C
m
= 1.0.

c- For frames permitted to sway, C
m
= 0.85.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
d- In addition, sections at critical locations, e.g. at member ends, shall satisfy
the following Equation:

0 1.
bcy
F
by
f
bcx
F
bx
f
c
F
ca
f
≤ + +
…………………...…………

3.36

3.2.6.7.2 Axial Tension and Bending

Members subjected to combined axial tension "N" and bending moment "M"
shall be proportioned to satisfy the following conditions:

f
N
+ f
M
≤ 0.58 F
y
…………………………………….

3.37

Where:
f
N
= the tensile stress due to the axial tensile force (N)=N/A
net

f
M
= the maximum tensile stress due to the bending moment (M).

In addition, the compressive bending stress alone shall be checked against
the lateral torsional buckling stress.

3.2.6.8 Equivalent Stress f
e


Whenever the material is subjected to axial and shear stresses, the equivalent
stress (f
e
) must not exceed the permitted stresses given in this code plus 10%,
and the equivalent stress shall be calculated as follows:
all
2 2
e
F 1 . 1 q 3 f f ≤ + =
………………………………

3.38

3.2.7 ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN BEARINGS AND HINGES

3.2.7.1 Table 3.5 gives the allowable stresses in (t/cm
2
) in the parts of bearings
and hinges made of cast iron, cast steel, and forged steel subject to bending or
compression.

These allowable stresses may be exceeded by 20% when the maximum
combination of primary and additional stresses is taken into account.




Steel Bridges
Table (3.5) Allowable Stresses in Parts of Bearings and Hinges

Material
Primary Stresses (t/cm
2
)
Bending Compression
Cast steel CST 55 1.80 1.80
Forged steel FST 56 2.00 2.00
Cast Iron CI 14:
Tension
Compression

0.30
0.60

0.90
0.90

3.2.7.2 According to Hertz formula, the bearing pressure between a cylinder
and a plane surface is calculated as follows:



V E
0.423
max
f =
………….
3.39


Where:
f
max
= Maximum actual bearing pressure at the surface of contact (t/cm
2
).
r = Radius of cylinder or sphere (cm).
E = Young's modulus (t/cm
2
).
V = Maximum load on bearing (ton).
ℓ = Bearing length (cm).

For fixed, sliding, and movable bearings with one or two rollers, the
allowable bearing stresses (t/cm
2
) shall be as given below, when the surface of
contact between the different parts of a bearing are lines or points and when
their design is carried out according to Hertz formula, assuming these bearings
are subjected only to the primary stresses designated in Clause 3.2.2.1.











Material
Allowable Bearing Stress
(t/cm
2
)

For Cast Iron Cl 14 5.00
For Rolled Steel St 44 6.50
For Cast Steel CST 55 8.50
For Forged Steel FST 56 9.50
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
3.2.7.3 The allowable load V (ton) on a cylindrical expansion roller shall not
exceed the following values:








Where:
d = Diameter of roller (cm).
ℓ = Length of roller (cm).

In the case of movable bearings with more than two rollers, where the
compressive force affecting the said rollers cannot be equally shared by all
their parts, the aforesaid allowable reactions shall be increased by 20%.

3.2.7.4 When bearings are provided with cylindrical cast steel knuckle pins, the
diameter (d) of the pins shall be given by the formula:


V
.
3
4
d =
………………………………
3.40

Where:
d = Diameter of pin (cm).
V = Vertical load (ton).
ℓ = Length of pin (cm).

The bearing pressure between pins made of cast or forged steel and the
gusset plates shall not exceed 2.40 t/cm
2
.

Material Allowable Reaction (ton)
Rolled steel St 37 0.040 d.ℓ
Rolled steel St 44 0.055 d.ℓ
Cast steel CST 55 0.095 d.ℓ
Forged steel FST 56 0.117 d.ℓ
Steel Bridges
3.3 FATIGUE

3.3.1 General

A bridge member may respond to applied loads in one of the following three
ways, see Fig 3.1: (a) deform elastically, or (b) deform plastically, or (c) break.
Since steel is a ductile material, failure of steel members is normally preceded
by a considerable amount of elastic or plastic deformations. This amount
depends on the magnitude of applied loads (below or above the yield level) and
on the repetitive and cyclic nature of the load.

Elastic
Yield Failure

Fig. 3.1 Behaviour Stages: (a) Elastic, (b) Plastic, (c) Failure

Sometimes, however, certain types of steel members may fail suddenly in
the form of brittle fracture. It was found that this failure mode starts from the
presence of very small defect and cracks in the member during fabrication due
to rolling, cutting, drilling, and or welding, see Fig. 3.2. The presence of these
defects causes stress concentration around them as shown in Fig. 3.3a for a
plate with a hole and in Fig. 3.3b at a fillet weld toe. The stress concentration
around the defects causes them, although initially undetected, to increase in
size and eventually propagate to failure when the member is subjected to a
large number of stress cycles, see Fig 3.4.

In order to determine the design parameters that can prevent the occurrence
of this brittle failure, Fracture Mechanics concepts can be applied to arrive at
the fatigue strength of different bridge components; e.g., members and
connections. Control of fatigue failure is then achieved through efficient design
and detailing.
Chapter 3: Design Considerations

a) Porosity / Slag Inclusion

b) Lack of Fusion

c) Weld Cracks
Fig 3.2 Possible Defects Causing Fatigue Failure
Steel Bridges

Fig 3.3a Stress Concentration in a Plate with Hole

Fig 3.3b Stress Concentration at Fillet Weld Toe


Fig 3.3c Crack Initiation and Propagation
Chapter 3: Design Considerations




Fig 3.4 Cracks Causing Fatigue Failure due to Weld Defects

This section presents a general method for the fatigue assessment of
structures and structural elements that are subjected to repeated fluctuations of
stresses. Members subjected to stresses resulting from fatigue loads shall be
designed so that the maximum stresses do not exceed the basic allowable
stresses under static load conditions and that the stress range, see definition
below, does not exceed the allowable fatigue stress range given in this section.

Steel Bridges
3.3.2 DEFINITIONS

Fatigue: Damage in a structural member through gradual crack propagation
caused by repeated stress fluctuations.

Design Life: The period in which a structure is required to perform safely with
an acceptable probability that it will not fail or require repair.

Stress Range: The algebraic difference between two extreme values or
nominal stresses due to fatigue loads, see Fig. 3.5. This may be determined
through standard elastic analysis.

Fatigue Strength: The stress range determined form test data for a given
number of stress cycles.

Fatigue Limit: The maximum stress range for constant amplitude cycles that
will not form fatigue cracks.

Detail Category: The designation given to a particular joint or welded detail to
indicate its fatigue strength. The category takes into consideration the local
stress concentration at the detail, the size and shape of the maximum
acceptable discontinuity, the loading condition, metallurgical effects, residual
stresses, fatigue crack shapes, the welding procedure, and any post-welding
improvement.


Fig. 3.5a) Stress Definitions Related to Fatigue, Constant Stress Cycles


Chapter 3: Design Considerations

Fig. 3.5b) Variable Amplitude Stress History
Fig. 3.5c) Various Patterns of Stress Variation


3.3.3 BASIC PRINCIPLES RELATED TO FATIGUE

1- The differences in fatigue strength between grades of steel are small and
may be neglected.

2- The differences in fatigue damage between stress cycles having different
values of mean stress but the same value of stress range may be neglected.

3- Cracks generally occur at welds or at stress concentration due to sudden
changes of cross-sections. Very significant improvements in fatigue
strength can be achieved by reducing the severity of stress
concentrations at such points.

Steel Bridges
4- Members subjected to stresses resulting from wind forces only, shall be
designed so that the maximum unit stress does not exceed the basic
allowable unit stress given in the Code.

5- Cracks that may form in fluctuating compression regions are self-
arresting. Therefore, these compression regions are not subjected to
fatigue failure.

6- When fatigue influences the design of a structure, details should be
precisely defined by the designer and should not be amended in any way
without the designer’s prior approval. Similarly, no attachments or
cutouts should be added to any part of the structure without notifying
the designer.

7- Structures in which the failure of a single element could result in a
collapse or catastrophic failure should receive special attention when
fatigue cracks are a possibility. In such cases, the allowable stress
ranges shall be limited to 0.8 times the values given in Table 3.2 or in
Figure 3.1.

8- Slotted holes shall not be used in bolted connections for members
subjected to fatigue.

3.3.4 Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength

The fatigue strength of the structural elements depends upon:

1- The applied stress range resulting from the applied fatigue loads.
2- The number of stress cycles.
3- The detail category of the particular structural component or joint design.

3.3.5 Fatigue Loads

1- Roadway Bridges: The fatigue loads used to calculate the stress range are
50% of the standard design live loads including the corresponding dynamic
effect.

2- Railway Bridges: The fatigue loads used to calculate the stress range are
the full standard design live loads.

For bridges carrying both trucks and trains, the fatigue load is the combined
effect of the full railway live load and 60% of the traffic live loads.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
3.3.6 Fatigue Assessment Procedure

1- The fatigue assessment procedure should verify that the effect of the
applied stress cycles expected in the design life of the structure is less than
its fatigue strength.

2- The effect of applied stress cycles is characterized by the maximum
stress range (f
sra
). The maximum stress range can be computed from the
applied fatigue loads using an elastic method of analysis. The fatigue loads
should be positioned to give the maximum straining actions at the studied
detail. In some structures such as bridges and cranes, consideration should
be given to possible changes in usage such as the growth of traffic, changes
in the most severe loading, etc.

3- In non-welded details or stress relieved welded details subjected to
stress reversals, the effective stress range to be used in the fatigue
assessment shall be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress
range and 60% of the compressive portion of the stress range. In welded
details subjected to stress reversals, the stress range to be used in the fatigue
assessment is the greatest algebraic difference between maximum stresses.

4- The fatigue strength of a structural part is characterized by the allowable
stress range (F
sr
) which is obtained from Table 3.2 for the specified number
of constant cycles and the particular detail category.

5- The number of constant stress cycles to be endured by the structure
during its design life is given in Table 3.6a for roadway bridges and Table
3.6b for railway bridges. The number of cycles given in Tables 3.6a and
3.6b is subject to modifications according to the competent authority
requirements.

Table (3.6a) Number of Loading Cycles – Roadway Bridges

Type of Road ADTT
*
Number of Constant Stress Cycles
(N)
Longitudinal
Members
Transverse
Members
Major Highways and
Heavily Traveled Main
Roads
≥ 2500 2,000,000 Over 2,000,000
< 2500 500,000 2,000,000
Local Roads and Streets 100,000 500,000

*
ADTT = Average Daily Truck Traffic for 50 years design life
Steel Bridges
Table (3.6b) Number of Loading Cycles – Railway Bridges

Member Description Span Length
(L)
(m)
Number of
Constant Stress
Cycles (N)
Class I
Longitudinal flexural members and their
connections, or truss chord members
including end posts and their connections.
L > 30 500,000
30 ≥ L ≥ 10 2,000,000
L < 10 Over 2,000,000
Class II
Truss web members and their connections
except as listed in class III
Two tracks
loaded
200,000

One track
loaded
500,000
Class III
Transverse floor beams and their
connections or truss verticals and sub-
diagonals which carry floor beam
reactions only and their connections
Two tracks
loaded
500,000

One track
loaded
over 2,000,000

6- In detailing highway bridges for design lives greater than 50 years, the
fatigue loads should be increased by a magnification factor, M, given by the
following Table:
No. of Years 50 80 100 120
Magnification Factor, M 1.00 1.10 1.15 1.20

7- Each structural element has a particular detail category as shown in
Table 7.3 The classification is divided into four parts which correspond to
the following four basic groups:

Group 1: non-welded details, plain materials, and bolted plates.
Group 2: welded structural elements, with or without attachments.
Group 3: fasteners (welds and bolts).
Group 4: Orthotropic Deck Bridges.

8- When subjected to tensile fatigue loading, the allowable stress range for
High Strength Bolts friction type shall not exceed the following values:

Number of Cycles Allowable Stress Range F
sr
(t/cm
2
)
Bolts Grade 8.8 Bolts Grade 10.9
N ≤ 20,000 2.9 3.6
20,000 < N ≤ 500,000 2.6 3.2
500,000 < N 2.0 2.5
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Table (3.7) Allowable Stress Range (F
sr
)
for Number of Constant Stress Cycles (N)

F
sr
(t/cm
2
)
100,000 500,000 2,000,000 Over 2,000,000
A 4.30 2.52 1.68 1.68
B 3.42 2.00 1.26 1.12
B’ 2.77 1.52 1.02 0.85
C 2.48 1.45 0.91 0.70
D 1.92 1.12 0.71 0.49
E 1.53 0.89 0.56 0.32
E’ 1.11 0.65 0.41 0.18
F 0.72 0.52 0.40 0.36




0.1
1
10
10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000
Number of Constant Stress Cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s

R
a
n
g
e

2
)
A
B
B'
C
D
E
E'
F
Fig. 3.1. Stress Range Versus Number of Constant Stress Cycles
Steel Bridges
Table (3.8) Classification of Details
Group 1: Non-Welded Details
1.1. Base metal with rolled or
cleaned surfaces; flame cut
edges with a surface roughness
less than 25
Description Illustration Class
1.2. Base metal with sheared or
flame cut edges with a surface
roughness less than 50
2.1. Base metal at gross section
of high strength bolted slip
resistant (friction) connections,
except axially loaded joints
which induce out of plane
bending in connected material.
2.2. Base metal at net section of
fully tensioned high strength
bolted bearing type connections
2.3. Base metal at net section of
other mechanically fastened
joints (ordinary bolts & rivets).
3. Base metal at net section of
eye-bar head or pin plate.
net section area
net section area




Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Group 2: Welded Structural Elements

4.1. Base metal in members
without attachments, built up
plates or shapes connected by
continuous full penetration groove
welds or by continuous fillet welds
carried out from both sides without
start stop positions parallel to the
direction of applied stress.
Description Illustration Class
4.2. Same as (4.1.) with welds
having stop - start positions.
4.3. Base metal in members
without attachments, built-up
plates or shapes connected by
continuous full penetration groove
welds with backing bars not
removed, or by partial penetration
groove welds parellel to the
direction of applied stress.
5. Base metal at continuous
manual longitudinal fillet or full
penetration groove welds carried
out from one side only. A good fit
between flange and web plates is
essential and a weld preparation at
the web edge such that the root
face is adequate for the
achievement of regular root
penetration.
6. Base metal at zones of
intermittent longitudinal welds with
gap ratio g/h < 2.5
B
B
C
D
B
7. Base metal at zones containing
copes in longitudinally welded T-
joints.
D
8. Base metal at toe of welds on
girder webs or flanges adjacent to
welded transverse stiffeners.
C


Steel Bridges
9.1. Base metal and weld metal at
full penetration groove welded
splices ( weld made from both
sides ) of parts of similar cross
sections ground flush, with
grinding in the direction of applied
stress and weld soundness
established by radiographic or
ultrasonic inspection.
Description Illustration Class
9.2. Same as (9.1.) but with
reinforcement not removed and
less than 0.10 of weld width.
9.3. Same as (9.2.) with
reinforcement more than 0.10 of
weld width.
10.1. Base metal and weld metal
at full penetration groove welded
splices (weld made from both
sides) at transitions in width or
thickness, with welds ground to
provide slopes no steeper than 1
to 2.5 with grinding in the
direction of applied stress, and
with weld soundness established
by radiographic or ultrasonic
inspection.
10.2. Same as (10.1.) but with
reinforcement not removed and
less than 0.10 of weld width.
B
C
C
D
10.3. Same as (10.2.) with slopes
more than 1 to 2.5
D
10.4. Same as (10.1.) to (10.3.)
but with welds made from one
side only.
E
B
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
11.1. Base metal and weld metal
at transverse full penetration
groove welded splices on a
backing bar. The end of the fillet
weld of the backing strip is more
than 10 mm from the edges of
the stressed plate
Description Illustration Class
12.2 Base metal at ends of
partial length welded cover plates
wider than the flange without end
welds.
15.1. Base metal at full
penetration weld in cruciform
joints made of a special quality
weld.
D
15.2. Same as (15.1) with partial
penetration or fillet welds of
normal quality.
11.2. Same as (11.1) with the
fillet weld less than 10 mm from
the edges of the stressed plate.
E
t= thickness
t= thickness E
E
14. Base metal at members
connected with transverse fillet
welds.
D
12.1. Base metal at ends of
partial length welded cover plates
narrower than the flange having
square or tapered ends, with or
without welds across the ends or
wider than the flange with welds
at the ends.
Flange thickness < 20 mm
13. Base metal at axially loaded
members with fillet welded
connections.
t < 25 mm
t > 25 mm
C
a
te
g
o
r
y
E
o
r
E
E
,
E
C
E
Flange thickness > 20 mm E
,
Steel Bridges
16. Base metal at plug or slot
welds.
Description Illustration Class
17. Base metal and attachment
at fillet welds or partial
penetration groove welds with
main material subjected to
longitudinal loading and weld
termination ground smooth
R > 50 mm
R < 50 mm
18. Base metal at stud- type
shear connector attached by
fillet weld or automatic end weld.
19.1. Base metal at details
attached by full penetration
groove welds subject to
longitudinal loading with weld
termination ground smooth.
Weld soundness established by
radiographic or ultrasonic
inspection
R > 610 mm
610 mm > R > 150 mm
150 mm > R > 50 mm
R < 50 mm
D
C
19.2. Same as (19.1.) with
transverse loading, equal
thickness, and reinforcement
removed.
R > 610 mm
610 mm > R > 150 mm
150 mm > R > 50 mm
R < 50 mm
E
B
C
D
E
C
E
D
B

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Description Illustration Class
19.3. Same as (19.2.) but
reinforcement not removed
R > 610 mm
19.4. Same as (19.2.) but with
unequal thickness
R > 50 mm
R < 50 mm
C
D
D
D
E
C
E
D
19.5. Same as (19.4.) but with
reinforcement not removed and
for all R
21. Base metal at detail
attached by fillet welds or partial
penetration groove welds
subject to longitudinal loading
a < 50 mm

50 mm< a <12t or 100 mm
a >12t or 100 mm (t<25 mm)
a >12t or 100 mm (t>25 mm)
E
E
E
C
E
,
20. Base metal at detail
attached by full penetration
groove welds subject to
longitudinal loading
50-mm< a <12t or 100 mm
a >12t or 100 mm (t<25 mm)
610 mm > R > 50 mm
150 mm > R > 50 mm
R > 50 mm
a >12t or 100 mm (t>25 mm)


Steel Bridges
Group 3: Fasteners (Welds and Bolts)
22.1. Weld metal of full
penetration groove welds
parallel to the direction of
applied stress ( weld from both
sides)
Description Illustration Class
22.2. Same as (22.1.) but with
weld from one side only.
23.1 Weld metal of continuous
manual or automatic longitudinal
fillet welds transmitting
continuous shear flow.
26. Shear stress on nominal
area of stud-type shear
connectors.(Failure in the weld
or heat affected zone.)
B
C
C
28. Bolts and threaded rods in
tension (on net area)
F
22.3. Weld metal of partial
penetration transverse groove
weld based on the effective
throat area of the weld.
F
F
23.2 Weld metal of intermittent
longitudinal fillet welds
transmitting a continuous shear
flow.
E
,
E
,
24. Transversally loaded fillet
welds.
25. Shear on plug or slot welds.
F
F
27.2. Rivets and ordinary bolts
in shear.
D
23.3 Weld metal at fillet welded
lap joints.
D
27.1. High strength bolts in
single or double shear (fitted bolt
of bearing type).



Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Group 4: Orthotropic Deck Bridges
Description Illustration Class
29.1. Base metal at continuous
longitudinal rib with or without
additional cutout in cross girder.
( Bending stress range in the
rib)
t < 12mm
29.2. Same as (29.1.)
t > 12mm
32.1. Base metal at rib joints
made of full penetration weld
without backing plate. All welds
ground flush to plate surface in
the direction of stress. Slope of
thickness transition < 1:4.
(Bending stress range in the rib)
B
D
31. Base metal at rib joints
made of full penetration weld
with backing plate.( Bending
stress range in the rib)
D
C
E
30. Base metal at separate
longitudinal ribs on each side of
the cross girder. (Bending stress
range in the rib)
D
32.2. Same as (32.1.) with weld
reinforcement < 0.2
C
33. Base metal at connection of
continuous longitudinal rib to
cross girder. (Equivalent stress
range in the cross girder web).
34.1. Weld metal at full
penetration weld connecting
deck plate to rib section.
34.2. Weld metal at fillet weld
connecting deck plate to rib
section.
E
E


Steel Bridges
3.3.7 Examples of weld detail classifications

In order to assist a designer in selecting the correct detail category, this
section presents a case study of a particular civil engineering structure, and
shows how the details can be classified. The case study comprises an
imaginary steel bridge, as shown in an exploded isometric view in Figure 1. In
order to illustrate as many different details as possible, two forms of
construction are shown with a box girder on the left hand side and a braced
plate girder on the right hand side. Furthermore, there are differences between
the two sides in bearing arrangement, connection of cross girders, etc. It is not
suggested that these arrangements, nor even some of the details, are necessarily
representative of good design practice; they are presented for the purpose of
illustrating a point of discussion.

This imaginary structure is then subdivided as shown in Figure 1 into several
close-up details in Figures 2 - 7, which in some cases are further subdivided
where necessary for clarity. The detailed figures indicate the direction of
principal stress, and the potential crack location and direction; the category into
which the detail should be classified according to European Code is shown as a
number in a circle beside the detail.



Examples of Weld Detail Group Classifications

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 2:

a. This detail should generally be avoided (it is usually better, and probably
easier, to detail the longitudinal stiffeners passing through "mouseholes" in the
transverse stiffeners).
b. The category of 112 shown is the "standard" one for automatic fillet welding
carried out from both sides, but containing stop-start positions. If it contained
no stop-start positions it could be upgraded to category 125, or even 140 if a
specialist inspection shows that the welds are free from significant flaws;
conversely, if the fillet were placed manually, it would be downgraded to
category 100.
c. Stresses should be calculated using the gross section for slip resistant
connections, or the net section for all other connections. The effects of
eccentricity in the connection should be taken into account when calculating
the stresses in a single-sided connection.
d. This detail (at the termination of a longitudinal stiffener) may be treated for
cracking in the main plate as a long (>100m) longitudinal attachment within
the width of a plate with a non-load carrying weld. Note that the weld may also
require checking in shear, with the stress range calculated from the weld throat
area.
e. The gusset plate attached as shown to the leg of the angle may be treated as a
cover plate wider than the flange (with the leg of the angle representing the
flange). Provided all plate thicknesses are 20mm or less, this is category 50*
for cracking in the angle; this reduces to 36* if thicknesses exceed 20mm. The
weld should be continued down the leg of the angle, and ground to remove
undercut if necessary
Steel Bridges



Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 2a:

a & b These details show how cracks may grow in different directions in an
area of complex geometry and stress distribution. Considerations are similar to
Figure 2, note e, but the bearing plate > 20mm thick and so the category for
plate cracking is reduced to 36*.

c. See Figure 2, note b; as the weld to the bearing plate will almost certainly be
placed manually, the lower category of 100 is used.

d. The category of the plate edge depends on the method of production; if it is
a rolled flat the category could be increased to 160, or if machine flame cut
with subsequent machining to 140. The indicated category of 125 is for a
machine flame cut edge without subsequent machining. It should contain no
repairs by weld infill.

e. As for Figure 2, note b.

f. As for Figure 2, note c.

g. The category of this weld has been reduced from the 71 or 80 shown for web
stiffeners since the stiffener is shown flush with the edge of the plate
Steel Bridges
















Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 3:

a. This is a rather poor detail, since because of the taper in the flange a good fit
cannot be guaranteed above the backing flat; hence the low category of 50.
b. At the top of the butt weld, provided the "reinforcement" does not exceed
0.1 times the width of the weld bead, the category is 90; up to 0.2 it would be
80. Run off pieces should also be used. (If the weld is ground flush the
category could be 125 or higher). Normally there would be little point in
making the category of the top surface much higher than that of the bottom,
unless the eccentricity arising from the change of plate thickness results in a
higher stress range at the top.
c. The comparatively high category of this weld is only true for a gusset plate
with a generous radius as drawn ( > 150mm, and also > (width of main
plate)/3). The radius has to be formed by initial machining or gas cutting, with
subsequent grinding of the weld area parallel to the direction of stress. If the
radius < (width of main plate)/6 the category falls to 45*, and between the two
limits above to 71.
d. It should be noted that the weld should be held back 10mm from the end of
the gusset. As it is a single sided connection, the effects of eccentricity should
be considered.
e. The calculation of the stress in the main plate requires care, and in a single
sided application as shown may have to allow for eccentricity.
f. This is a standard "bad" detail for increasing the area of a plate. The plates in
the example are not thicker than 20mm so the category is 50*; above this
thickness the category is reduced to 36*. Contrary to what may be thought,
tapering the cover plate as shown, or rounding its end, does not, in itself,
improve the detail; however, a special detail with tapering welds and
chamfered cover plates, being developed by German Railways, may raise the
category to 80.
g. This is a two sided butt weld, with the surface ground flush. Significant
quality control and inspection is required to permit the use of this high
category.
h. As for Figure 2, note d.
Steel Bridges

Chapter 3: Design Considerations

Notes on Fig. 4:
a. This is a butt weld, without backing flat and ground flush, between plates of
different thickness. Provided the difference in thickness is taken up by tapering
the thicker member with a slope of not greater than 1:4, this still qualifies as a
category 112 weld.
b. As Figure 3, note g.
c. As Figure 3, note g, but it is a single sided weld without backing flat and
because very high quality of execution and inspection is specified, the category
can be raised to 125.
d. As for Figure 2, note c, but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity
occurs.
Steel Bridges



Notes on Fig. 4a:
a. This is the standard detail for fillet welds in shear. The stress range should
be calculated from the weld throat area.
b. As for Figure 2, note c, but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity
occurs. Note that crack begins from edge of washer.
c. As for Figure 2, note c, but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity
occurs. Note carefully that direction of crack is related to direction of stress.
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 4b:

a & b Are both as for Figure 2, note c, but note that the direction of stress, and
hence the direction of cracking, may differ from hole to hole.

c. As for Figure 4a, note a.

d. Note that the stiffener should terminate at least 10mm above the flange, and
the weld should be returned round the bottom of the stiffener. Some recent
evidence suggests that out-of-plane flexure of the web plate at the termination
of the stiffener could degrade this detail, but research continues on it.







Steel Bridges

Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 5:

a. As for Figure 4a, note a. Note crack propagating across direction of principal
tensile stress.

b. This is the standard detail for the welding of diaphragms in box girders to
the webs and flanges, where the diaphragm thickness is not greater than 12
mm. If the thickness were greater the category would be reduced to 71.

c. This is the standard detail for corner welds of box girders. Note that a good
fit between flange and web is essential, so that a one sided weld can be placed
without blow through. In certain forms of construction and loading this weld is
also prone to bending about its longitudinal axis due either to local traffic
loading or distortional effects in the box girder. It is virtually impossible to
give a category for such effects, and considerable experience is necessary.

d. As for Figure 2a, note d.

e. See Figure 2, note b. As the weld will be placed manually, it is category 100.


Steel Bridges













Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Notes on Fig. 5a:

a. This weld is being stressed by flexure of the web plate and is not readily
classifiable from the details in Eurocode 3 Part 1. It is similar, however, to the
long attachment, and it is probably safe to use that category (50*).

b. As for Figure 2, note c.

c. See Figure 3, note c. Because the main plate (the flange of the box girder) is
wide, the radius of the gusset plate is more severe than it appears and hence the
weld falls into the lowest category, for this detail, of 45*.

d, e & f These welds are very difficult to categorize and are not covered
explicitly in Eurocode 3 Part 1. Furthermore, although the direction of stress is
shown by arrows on the detail, the welds may also be subjected to flexural
effects in the web and flange. Considerable caution should therefore be used in
attempting to classify them.
Detail d can be thought of as an incomplete penetration butt weld placed from
one side only, and hence classified as category 36*.
Details e and f are analogous to the cruciform detail, and so are category 36* as
far as cracking from the root is concerned. Cracking in the parent plate from
the toe of the weld may be checked at the higher category of 71 in the gusset
plate or 90 in the flange, provided the special requirements in the table are
met).
Steel Bridges

Chapter 3: Design Considerations

Notes on Fig. 5b:

a. As this will be a machined plate, the high category of 140 may be used.
However, as there is a re-entrant corner, stress concentrations will occur and
the magnified stresses should be used in making the check.
b. This is similar to the category at the end of lengths of intermittent fillet weld
where the gap is less than 2.5 times the weld length. Hence the category may
be taken as 80.
c. As for Figure 5, note b.
d. As for Figure 4a, note a. Note crack propagating across direction of principal
tensile stress.
Steel Bridges


Notes on Fig. 6:

a. This detail is clearly of a very low category and should not be used if the
stress range is significant. It would appear appropriate to classify it as the
lowest category available, 36*.
b. The effect of the shear connectors on the base plate is to cause a category 80
detail.
c. The weld connecting the shear studs is classified in Code with the shear
stress calculated on the nominal cross section of the stud.
d. As for Figure 4a, note a.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations

Notes on Fig. 7:

a. This detail represents a butt weld on a permanent backing flat, where the
backing flat fillet weld terminates closer than 10mm from the plate edge.
b. As for Figure 2, note b.
c. As for Figure 2, note c.
d. This connection is effectively a welded transverse attachment with a non-
load carrying weld. However, the weld terminates at the plate edge, and so the
detail is a worse category than in the table. Category 50 appears appropriate. It
should be pointed out from this how an apparently minor, non-structural, detail
can seriously degrade the fatigue capacity of the structure. If it has to be used,
it should be positioned in an area of low stress fluctuation.
Steel Bridges

Notes on Fig. 7a

a. These welds are similar to those associated with cracking in the parent plate
from the toe of the weld in cruciform joints.
b. This detail is effectively a gusset with zero plan radius and so falls into
category 45*.
Chapter 3: Design Considerations


Notes on Fig. 7b:

a. This is a detail which is not explicitly classified in Eurocode 3 Part 1. It is
close to the cruciform detail but probably rather less severe. An appropriate
category is 50*.
b. These welds are all effectively the worst possible cruciform details. Note
that if the welds are made of sufficiently large section to avoid root cracking
there are other mechanisms which may govern.









Steel Bridges

Notes on Fig. 7c:

a. As for Figure 4a, note a. Note crack propagating across direction of principal
tensile stress.
b. These welds are similar to those associated with cracking in the parent plate
from the toe of the weld in cruciform joints.
c. This weld is likely to be placed manually - see comments at note b for
Figure 2.
d. As for Figure 2a, note d.
e. This detail is intended to represent what happens with a bolt in tension
through an endplate. The category for the bolt itself is the low one of 36*, and
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
the stress in tension in it should be calculated using its stress area. Account
should also be taken of any prying action resulting from flexing of the
endplate; it should be noted, however, that the stress range in the bolt may be
reduced substantially by appropriate preloading. The crack position in the
endplate shown on Figure 7c should also be checked under the flexural stresses
resulting from prying action.



Notes on Fig. 7d:

a. This is a straightforward instance of the detail for the ends of a continuous
weld at a cope hole.
b. This detail is a straightforward instance of the end of an intermittent fillet
weld. Note that where it occurs close to (but not actually at) a cope hole, it
permits use of the higher category of 80, compared with detail a above where
terminating the weld actually at the cope hole requires use of category 71.
c. This detail is not explicitly covered in Eurocode 3 Part 1. The weld is non-
load carrying, and hence there are some similarities with the detail shown in
Table 9.8.4 (3). However, the "transverse attachment" is a load carrying plate,
hence the detail is not fully appropriate. Tests have indicated a somewhat
lower category (50) is reasonable.
d. This detail is equivalent to the standard one for cracking in the main plate at
the end of a fillet welded lap joint. Note the specified rule for the calculation of
the stress in the main plate.
e. This detail is equivalent to the standard one for cracking in the lap plates in a
fillet welded lap joint. Note that the weld termination should be held back at
least 10mm from the plate edge, and that shear cracking in the weld should
also be checked.
f. As for Figure 3, detail g.
g. Whilst this detail belongs in the relatively high category of 140 for a
machine gas cut edge with all edge discontinuities removed, the stresses should
be calculated using the appropriate stress concentration factor for the radius
which is used.
h. This is the standard category for web stiffeners where the thickness of the
stiffener does not exceed 12mm and the welds do not come within 10mm of a
plate edge.
i. Whilst this detail is not explicitly covered in Eurocode 3 Part 1, it shows a
number of similarities to the "wide cover plate" detail. It is clear that a low
category is appropriate, and 45* is proposed.
Steel Bridges











Chapter 3: Design Considerations
3.4 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELDED JOINTS

3.4.1 Allowable Stresses for Butt (Groove) Welds

The complete joint penetration groove weld is of the same strength on the
effective area as the piece being joined. For permissible stresses two values are
considered; the first for good welds fulfilling the requirements of the
specifications, the second value for excellent welding where all welds are
examined to guarantee the efficiency of the joint:

i- Permissible Stresses for Static Loading:

Table (3.9) Permissible Stresses for Static Loading in Groove (Butt) Welds

Type of Joint Kind of Stress
Permissible Stress For
Good Weld
Excellent
Weld

Butt and K- weld


Compression

Tension

Shear


1.0 F
c

0.7 F
t

1.0 q
all



1.1 F
c

1.0 F
t

1.1 q
all



Where F
c
, F
t
, and q
all
are the minimum allowable compression, tension, and
shear stresses of the base metals.

ii- Permissible stresses for Fatigue loading:

See section 3.3.

3.4.2 Allowable Stresses for Fillet Welds

The stress in a fillet weld loaded in an arbitrary direction can be resolved
into the following components:

f

= the normal stress perpendicular to the axis of the weld.
q
//
= the shear stress along the axis of the weld.
q

= the shear stress perpendicular to the axis of the weld.

Steel Bridges
These stresses shall be related to the size (s) of the legs of the isosceles
triangle inscribed in the weld seam if the angle between the two surfaces to be
welded is between 60
O
and 90
O
. When this angle is greater than 90
O
the size of
the leg of the inscribed rectangular isosceles triangle shall be taken.

The permissible stresses F
pw
for all kinds of stress for fillet welds must not
exceed the following:

All kind of stresses F
pw
 0.2 F
u
……………………………... 3.41

Where F
u
is the ultimate strength of the base metal (see section 1.3.1.2).

In case where welds are simultaneously subject to normal and shear stresses,
they shall be checked for the corresponding principal stresses. For this
combination of stresses, an effective stress value f
eff
may be utilized and the
corresponding permissible weld stress is to be increased by 10 % as follows:

) q q ( 3 f f
2
//
2 2
eff
+ + =
⊥ ⊥
…………………………………………..
3.42

The effective length of a fillet weld is usually taken as the overall length of
the weld minus twice the weld size (s) as deduction for end craters.


3.5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BOLTED JOINTS

3.5.1 STRENGTH OF NON-PRETENSIONED BOLTED
CONNECTIONS OF THE BEARING TYPE

In this category ordinary bolts (manufactured from low carbon steel) or high
strength bolts, from grade 4.6 up to and including grade 10.9 can be used. No
pre- tensioning and special provisions for contact surfaces are required. The
design load shall not exceed the shear resistance nor the bearing resistance
obtained from Clauses 6.4.1 and 6.4.2.

3.5.1.1 Shear Strength R
sh

i- The allowable shear stress q
b
for bolt grades 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8 shall be taken as
follows:
q
b
= 0.25 F
ub
……………………………………………….. 3.43


Chapter 3: Design Considerations
ii- For bolt grades 4.8, 5.8 , 6.8, and 10.9, the allowable shear stress q
b
is
reduced to the following:-

q
b
= 0.2 F
ub
………………..……………………………… 3.44


iii- For the determination of the design shear strength per bolt (R
sh
) , where the
shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt:-

R
sh
= q
b
. A
s
.n .………………………………….………. 3.45

Where :




iv- For bolts where the threads are excluded from the shear planes the gross
cross sectional area of bolt (A) is to be utilized.

v- The values for the design of shear strength given in Equations 6.43 and
6.44 are to be applied only where the bolts used in holes with nominal
clearances not exceeding those for standard holes as specified in Clause 6.2.2
of Code.

3.5.1.2 Bearing Strength R
b


i- The bearing strength of a single bolt shall be the effective bearing area of
bolt times the allowable bearing stress at bolt holes:-

R
b
= F
b
.d. min ∑ t …………………………………………. 3.46
Where:
F
b
= Allowable bearing stress.
d = Shank diameter of bolt.
Min
∑ t
= Smallest sum of plate thicknesses in the same direction of the
bearing pressure.

ii- For distance center- to center of bolts not less than 3d, and for end distance
in the line of force greater than or equal to 1.5 d, the allowable bearing stress
F
b (
t/cm
2
):

F
b
= α F
u
…………………...………………………………. 3.47
Where:

F
u
= The ultimate tensile strength of the connected plates.
A
s
= The tensile stress area of bolt.
n = Number of shear planes.
Steel Bridges

As the limitation of deformation is the relevant criteria the α-values of
Equation 6.5 are given in Table 3.10


Table (3.10) Values of α for Different Values of End Distance


End distance in direction of force
≥ 3d ≥ 2.5d ≥ 2.0d ≥ 1.5d
α 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6

3.5.1.3 Tensile Strength R
t


When bolts are externally loaded in tension, the tensile strength of a single
bolt (R
t
) shall be the allowable tensile bolt stress (F
tb
) times the bolt stress area
(A
s
)

R
t
= F
tb
. A
s
………………………………………………. 3.48
With F
tb
= 0.33 F
ub
……………………………………………… 3.49

3.5.1.4 Combined Shear and Tension in Bearing–Type Connections

When bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension, the following
circular interaction Equation is to be satisfied:


…………………………….……

3.50

Where:
R
sh.a
= The actual shearing force in the fastener due to the applied
shearing force.
R
t.a
= The actual tension force in the fastener due to the applied
tension force.
R
sh
and
R
t

= The allowable shear and tensile strength of the fastener as
previously given in Equations (6.45) and (6.48) respectively.

1
2
t
R
a . t
R
2
sh
R
a . sh










+










R
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
3.5.2 HIGH STRENGTH PRETENSIONED BOLTED CONNECTIONS
OF THE FRICTION TYPE

3.5.2.1 General

In this category of connections high strength bolts of grades 8.8 and 10.9 are
only to be utilized. The bolts are inserted in clearance holes in the steel
components and then pretensioned by tightening the head or the nut in
accordance with Clause 6.5.3 where a determined torque is applied. The
contact surfaces will be firmly clamped together particularly around the bolt
holes.

Any applied force across the shank of the bolt is transmitted by friction
between the contact surfaces of the connected components, while the bolt
shank itself is subjected to axial tensile stress induced by the pretension and
shear stress due to the applied torque.

3.5.2.2 Design Principles of High Strength Pretensioned Bolts

a) The Pretension Force

The axial pretension force T produced in the bolt shank by tightening the nut
or the bolt head is given by:-

T = (0.7) F
yb
A
S
………………………………………… 3.51
Where:
F
yb
= Yield (proof) stress of the bolt material, (see section 1.3.3).
A
s
= The bolt stress area.

b) The Friction Coefficient or the Slip Factor “µ”

i- The friction coefficient between surfaces in contact is that dimensionless
value by which the pretension force in the bolt shank is to be multiplied in
order to obtain the frictional resistance P
S
in the direction of the applied force.

ii- The design value of the friction coefficient depends on the condition and the
preparation of the surfaces to be in contact. Surface treatments are classified
into three classes, where the coefficient of friction µ should be taken as
follows:-
µ = 0.5 for class A surfaces.
µ = 0.4 for class B surfaces.
µ = 0.3 for class C surfaces.

Steel Bridges
iii- The friction coefficient µ of the different classes is based on the following
treatments:

In class A:
- Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit with any loose rust removed, no
painting.
- Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and spray metallized with
Aluminum.
- Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and spray metallized with a Zinc
based coating.

In class B:
- Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and painted with an alkali-zinc
silicate painting to produce a coating thickness of 50-80 µm.

In class C:
- Surfaces are cleaned by wire brushing, or flame cleaning, with any loose
rust removed.

iv- If the coatings other than specified are utilized, tests are required to
determine the friction coefficient. The tests must ensure that the creep
deformation of the coating due to both the clamping force of the bolt and the
service load joint shear are such that the coating will provide satisfactory
performance under sustained loading.

c) The Safe Frictional Load (P
s
)

The design frictional strength for a single bolt of either grade 8.8 or 10.9
with a single friction plane is derived by multiplying the bolt shank
pretension T by the friction coefficient µ using an appropriate safety factor γ
as follows:-

P
S
= µ T / γ ………………………………………………….. 3.52
Where :
T = Axial pretensioning force in the bolt.
µ
= Friction coefficient.
γ
= Safety factor with regard to slip .
= 1.25 and 1.05 for cases of loading I and II respectively for
ordinary steel work.
= 1.6 and 1.35 for case of loading I and II respectively for parts of
bridges, cranes and crane girders which are subjected mainly to
dynamic loads.
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
Table 3.11 gives the pretension force (T) and the permissible frictional load
(P
s
) per one friction surface for bolts of grade 10.9.

3.5.3 Design Strength In Tension Connections

Where the connection is subjected to an external tension force (T
ext
) in the
direction of the bolts axis, the induced external tension force per bolt (T
ext,b
) is
to be calculated according to the following relation:-

T
(ext,b)
= T
(ext)
/ n ≤ 0.6 T …………………………………... 3.53

Where :
n = The total number of bolts resisting the external tension force T
(ext) .



Table (3.11) Properties and Strength of High Strength Bolts (Grade 10.9*)

B
o
l
t

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

(
d
)

m
m

B
o
l
t

A
r
e
a



(
A
)

c
m
2

S
t
r
e
s
s

A
r
e
a

(
A
s
)

c
m
2

P
r
e
t
e
n
s
i
o
n

F
o
r
c
e


(
T
)

t
o
n
s

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

T
o
r
q
u
e

(
M
a
)

k
g
.
m

Permissible Friction Load of One Bolt
Per One Friction Surface (P
s
) tons
Ordinary Steel
Work
Bridges and
Cranes
St.37&42-44
(µ=0.4)
St. 50-55
(µ=0.5)
St.37&42-44
(µ=0.4)
St. 50-55
(µ=0.5)
Cases of
Loading
Cases of
Loading
I II I II I II I II
M12 1.13 0.84 5.29 12 1.69 2.01 2.11 2.52 1.32 1.56 1.65 1.95
M16 2.01 1.57 9.89 31 3.16 3.37 3.95 4.71 2.47 2.92 3.09 3.66
M20 3.14 2.45 15.4 62 4.93 5.90 6.17 7.36 3.85 4.56 4.82 5.71
M22 3.80 3.03 19.1 84 6.10 7.27 7.63 9.10 4.77 5.65 5.96 7.06
M24 4.52 3.53 22.2 107 7.11 8.45 8.89 10.6 5.55 6.58 6.94 8.22
M27 5.73 4.59 28.9 157 9.25 11.0 11.6 13.8 7.22 8.55 9.03 10.7
M30 7.06 5.61 35.3 213 11.3 13.5 14.1 16.8 8.83 10.5 11.1 13.1
M36 10.2 8.17 51.5 372 16.5 19.6 20.6 24.5 12.9 15.2 16.1 19.1

* For HSB grade 8.8 , the above values shall be reduced by 30%


In addition to the applied tensile force per bolt T
(ext,b)
, the bolt shall be
proportioned to resist the additional induced prying force (P) (Fig. 3.6).
Steel Bridges
T
ext,b
0.8T P
ext,b
T
P 0.8T
P= Prying force
P= Prying force
T
ext

Figure 3.6 Prying Force

The prying force (P) depends on the relative stiffness and the geometrical
configuration of the steel element composing the connection. The prying
force should be determined according to Clause 6.9 of ECP 2001 and hence
the following check is to be satisfied:

T
(ext,b)
+ P ≤ 0.8 T …………………………………………… 3.54

3.5.4 Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear and
Tension

In connections subjected to both shear (Q) and tension (T
ext
)
,
the design
strength for bolt is given by the following formulae:-


µ (T – T
ext,b
)
Q
b

γ ………………………………………..

T
(ext,b)
+ P ≤ 0.8 T



3.55

3.5.5. Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear and
Bending Moment

In moment connections of the type shown in Fig. 3.7, the loss of clamping
forces in region “A” is always coupled with a corresponding increase in
contact pressure in region “B”. The clamping force remains unchanged and
there is no decrease of the frictional resistance as given by the following :-

P
S
= µ T / γ …………………………………………………….

3.56
Chapter 3: Design Considerations
The induced maximum tensile force T(
ext,b,M)
due to the applied moment
(M) in addition to the prying force P that may occur, must not exceed the
pretension force as follows:-

T
(ext,b,M)
+ P ≤ 0.8T ……………………………………………. 3.57
A
B
Q
M


Figure 3.7 Connections Subjected to Combined Shear
and Bending Moment

3.5.6 Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear,
Tension, and Bending Moment

When the connection is subjected to shearing force (Q), a tension force
(T
ext
) and a bending moment (M), the design strength per bolt is to be
according to the following formulae:-


µ (T – T
ext,b
)
Q
b

γ ………………………

T
(ext,b)
+ T
(ext,b,M)
+ P ≤ 0.8T




3.58

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors

















CHAPTER 4

BRIDGE FLOORS
Steel Bridges

CHAPTER 4



BRIDGE FLOORS







4.1 INTRODUCTION

The principal function of a bridge deck is to provide support to local
vertical loads (from highway traffic, railway or pedestrians) and transmit
these loads to the primary superstructure of the bridge, Figure 4.1. In addition
to this, the overall structural actions may include:
2. Contributing to the top flange of the longitudinal girders
3. Contributing to the top flange of cross girders at supports and, where
present in twin girder and cross girder structures, throughout the span,
4. Stabilizing stringers and cross girders in the transversal direction,
5. Acting as a diaphragm to transmit horizontal loads to supports,
6. Providing a means of distribution of vertical load between longitudinal
girders.

It may be necessary to take account of these combined actions when
verifying the design of the deck. This is most likely to be the case when there
are significant stresses from the overall structural actions in the same
direction as the maximum bending moments from local deck actions, e.g. in
structures with cross girders where the direction of maximum moment is
along the bridge.


Chapter 4: Bridge Floors

Fig 4.1 Structural Actions of a Roadway Bridge Deck


4.2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF BRIDGE FLOORS

Structural systems used in bridge floors vary according to the bridge usage
as follows:

4.2.1 ROADWAY BRIDGE FLOORS

Three main types of transverse structural systems may be used in roadway
bridge floors:
a) Slab
b) Beam-Slab (slab with floor beams)
c) Orthotropic plate floor
Steel Bridges
a) In the Slab cross-sections, Fig. 4.2a, a reinforced concrete deck slab
about 20 to 30 cm thick is supported directly on the bridge main girders. This
system is economical for small spans, generally below 25m, where multiple
girders are used for the longitudinal structural system at spacing of 2.5 – 4 m.

b) In the Beam-Slab cross-sections, Fig 4.2b, the deck slab is supported on
longitudinal floor beams (called stringers) and /or transversal floor beams
(called cross-girders). This system is generally adopted for medium spans
below 80 m where the spacing of main girders exceeds about 4 m.

In both cases, the slab may act independently of the supporting beams (a
very uneconomic solution for medium and large spans) or it may work
together with the supporting beams (composite bridge deck). The composite
action requires the shear flow between the slab and the girders to be taken by
shear connectors as shown in Fig. 4.2a.

c) In the Orthotropic Plate Deck, Fig. 4.2c, a stiffened steel plate covered
with a light wearing surface is welded on top of the main girder webs to
provide a deck surface. The deck plate, acting as the top flange of the main
girders, gives a very efficient section in bending. The steel plate is
longitudinally stiffened by ribs, which may be of open or closed section.
Transversally, the ribs are connected through the transverse floor beams
(cross girders) yielding a complex grillage system where the main girders, the
steel plate, the ribs and the floor beams act together.





Fig. 4.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: a) Slab Type Floor



Chapter 4: Bridge Floors

Fig. 4.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: b) Beam Slab Type Floor














Fig. 4.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: c) Orthotropic Plate Floors

When compared to concrete slab decks, the biggest disadvantage of
orthotropic steel plate decks is their high initial cost and the maintenance
required. Concrete decks are therefore usually more economic than
orthotropic steel plates. The latter are only adopted when deck weight is an
important component of loading, i.e. for long span and moveable bridges.
Steel Bridges
3.2.2 RAILWAY BRIDGE FLOORS

Tracks of railway bridges are normally carried on timber sleepers which
are 260 cm long and spaced at not more than 50 cm between centers. The
sleepers are then supported on the bridge floor system, which may be of the
open timber floor type, Fig. 4.3a, or of the ballasted floor type, Fig. 4.3b:

a) The Open Floor type consists of longitudinal beams, called stringers,
spaced at 1.5 to 1.8 meters, and transversal beams, called cross
girders, spaced at 4.0 to 6.0 meters.







Fig. 4.3 Railway Bridge Floors: a) Open Timber Floor

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
b) The Ballasted floor type consists of a 20 cm layer of ballast carried on
an R.C. slab which is supported on steel floor beams, e.g.; stringers
and/or cross girders as shown in Fig. 4.3b:







Fig. 4.3 Railway Bridge Floors: b) Ballasted Floor

Steel Bridges
4.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.3.1) ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STEEL St 52 (ECP 2001)

4.3.1.1) Allowable Stress in Bending F
b

1- Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of “compact”
sections symmetric about the plane of their minor axis:

F
bx
= 0.64 F
y
= 2.304 t/cmP
2


In order to qualify under this section:

i- The member must meet the compact section requirements of Table 2.1
of ECP.
Note that most rolled sections satisfy these requirements.

ii- The laterally unsupported length (L
u
) of the compression flange is
limited by
y
f
u1
F
20b
L ≤
b
C
F d
L
y
f
u2
1380A



2- Compression on extreme fibers of flexural members meeting the “non-
compact” section requirements of Table 2.1of ECP:

F
bx
= F
ltb
< 0.58 F
y
= 2.1 t/cmP
2


Usually F
ltb
is governed by: y b
f u
1 ltb
F 58 . 0 C
A / d . L
800
F ≤ =


3- Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of doubly
symmetrical I-shape members meeting the “compact” section
requirements of Table 2.1(c) of ECP, and bent about their minor axis:

F
by
= 0.72 F
y
= 2.592 t/cmP
2


4.3.1.2) Allowable Stress In Shear:

q
all
= 0.35 F
y
= 1.26 t/cmP
2


Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
The effective area in resisting shear of rolled shapes shall be taken as the
full height of the section times the web thickness while for fabricated shapes
it shall be taken as the web height times the web thickness.

4.3.2) DESIGN OF STRINGER CROSS SECTION

Stringers are usually designed as beams simply supported on the cross
girders. The maximum straining actions for design are computed from the
load positions and load combinations producing the maximum effect on the
member considered. The maximum bending stress in the flanges or the
maximum shear stress in the web usually governs the cross section size. The
stringers are usually connected at their ends to the cross girder by two
framing angles which are designed to transmit the maximum end reaction of
the stringer to the cross girder, Fig. 4.4a.

Stringers may also be designed as continuous beams. In this case the
connection between the stringer and the cross girder is designed to carry also
the negative moment at the stringer supports, Fig. 4.4b.

a) Simple Stringer b) Continuous Stringer

Fig. 4.4 Connection between Stringer and Cross Girder

In addition to the effect of vertical loads, stringers in open railway bridge
floors should be designed to carry the effect of the horizontal loads caused by
the lateral shock of the running wheels, see section 2.2 (f). This lateral load is
transmitted from the rails to the sleepers and then to the upper flange of the
stringer. This effect causes double bending of the stringer cross section.
Alternatively, a system of horizontal bracing, called lateral shock bracing,
can be arranged between the stringers upper flanges to reduce the effect of
lateral loads, Fig. 4.5.

Steel Bridges

Fig. 4.5 Stringer (Lateral Shock) Bracings

4.3.3) DESIGN OF CROSS GIRDER CROSS SECTION

Similarly, cross girders are usually designed as beams simply supported on
the main girders. The maximum bending stress in the flanges or the
maximum shear stress in the web usually governs the cross section size. The
cross girders are usually connected at their ends to the main girder by two
framing angles which are designed to transmit the maximum end reaction of
the cross girder to the main girder.

Cross girders of open railway bridge floors are designed to carry the effect
of the horizontal loads caused by the longitudinal braking forces. This lateral
load is transmitted from the rails to the sleepers and then to the upper flange
of the stringers and the cross girders. This effect causes double bending of
the cross girder section. Alternatively, a system of horizontal bracing, called
braking force bracing, can be arranged between the stringers and the cross
girders to eliminate the effect of longitudinal loads, see Fig. 4.6

Fig. 4.6 Cross Girder (Braking Force) Bracings
Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
4.4 DESIGN EXAMPLES

4.4.1) EXAMPLE 1: ROADWAY BRIDGE FLOOR


Steel Bridges
4.4.1.1) STRINGER

Structural System: Beam supported on cross girders,
Span = 4.50 m, Spacing = 1.75 m.

1) Straining Actions:

1.1) Dead Load:
• 22 cm Deck Slab = 0.22 × 2.5 = 0.55 t/mP
2

• 5 cm Asphalt = 0.05 × 2.0 = 0.10 t/mP
2

Total D.L = 0.65 t/mP
2

Own wt of stringer (assumed) = 0.10 t/mP
/
P
uniform load on stringer = 0.65 × 1.75 + 0.1 = 1.238 t/mP
/

Dead Load Actions: Q
DL
= 1.238 × (4.5) / 2 = 2.784 t

M
DL
= 1.238 × (4.5)P
2
P / 8 = 3.132 mt

1.2) Live Load & Impact:
• Impact factor I = 0.4 - 0.008 * L = 0.4-0.008*4.5= 0.364
(L = Loaded Length of main traffic lane = 4.5m)
Impact is applied to Main Lane Loads only

• Maximum LL Reaction on Intermediate Stringer:
Place 10P
t
P on stringer and add effect of 5 P
t
P @ 1 m:
P = 10 * (1 + 0.364) + 5 × (1.75-1)/1.75 = 15.783 t



Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
Loads position for Max Moment:









Note:

For L
st
< 2.6 m: M
max
occurs at the middle section with one LL reaction load
acting in the middle.

For L
st
> 3.4 m: M
max
occurs at the middle section with all three loads acting
as shown;

For 2.6 < L
st
< 3.4 m: M
max
occurs with two LL reaction loads placed such
that the stringer centerline bisects the distance between
the resultant and one load.

M
LL

& I
= 23.674 × 2.25 – 15.783 × 1.5 = 29.592 mt


• Loads position for Max Shear:









Notes:
For L > 3.0 m: Q
max
occurs at support with two loads acting on span
For L > 3.0 m: Q
max
occurs at support with all three loads acting as shown:

Q
LL&I
= 15.783 + 15.783 × (3/4.5) + 15.783 × (1.5/4.5) = 31.566 t
Bending
Moment
Shear Force
Steel Bridges
1.3) Design Straining Actions:

The total design moment on an intermediate stringer is:

at middle section: M
design
= 3.132 + 29.592 = 32.724 mt

The total design shear on an intermediate stringer is:

At support: Q
design
= 2.784 + 31.566 = 34.35 t

2) Design of Cross Section:

2.1) Case of Simple Stringer:

Straining Actions: M
x
= 32.724 m.t. (Maximum near middle)
Q
y
= 34.504 t (Maximum at support)

Design for Bending then check shear.

Section is compact w.r. to both local buckling requirements (being a
rolled section), and lateral torsional buckling requirements (compression
flange supported by deck slab); i.e.

F
bx
= 0.64 F
y
= 2.304 t/cm
2


Req. Z
x
= M
x
/ F
bx
32.72 x 100 / 2.304 = 1420 cm
3
--------- use IPE 450

Bending Stress: f
bx
= 32.72 x 100 / 1500 = 2.18 t/cm
2
< 2.304 t/cm
2
OK

Check of Fatigue: Actual Stress Range = f
sr
=(0.5 x 29.592)x100/1500
= 0.9984 t/cm
2

< Allowable Stress Range = F
sr
= 1.26 t/cm
2

(Assuming Class B detail under 2x10
6
cycles (Case 1.2 of Group 1 ECP)

Check Shear: q
y
= Q / A
w

net
= 34.504 / (0.85 x 45 x 0.94) = 0.95 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2
OK

2.2) Case of Continuous Stringer:

i) Section at mid span :

M
x
= 0.80 x32.72 = 26.20 m.t.,

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
Section is compact (see above): Req. Z
x
= M
x
/ F
bx
= 26.20 x 100 / 2.304
= 1137 cm
3

Use IPE 400
Check is similar to case 2.1 above.

ii) Section at support :

Mx = 0.75 x 32.72 = 24.54 m.t.

Compression flange (being at the bottom) is laterally unsupported,
therefore the section is assumed non-compact for simplicity. (Usually L
u
>
L
u1
, L
u2
) i.e., F
bx
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cm
2
.

Use IPE 450:

f
bx
= M
x
/ Z
x net
= 24.54 x 100 / (0.85x1500) = 1.925 t/cm
2

< 2.10 t/cm
2
OK

(Note: Net section properties were used to account for the moment bolted
connection)

Check Shear:

q = Q / A
w

net
= 34.504 / (0.85 x 45 x 0.94) = 0.95 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2
OK

Equivalent Stresses due to combined shear and bending:

all
2 2
e
F 1 . 1 q 3 f f ≤ + =
= 2.436 t/cm
2

> 1.1 x 2.1 = 2.31 N.G., Use IPE 500.

4.4.1.2) CROSS GIRDER

Structural System: Beam supported on main girders
Span = 7 m, Spacing = 4.5 m

1) Straining Actions:

1.1) Dead Load Effect:

Concentrated reaction from stringers = 2 × 2.784 = 5.568 t
Own weight of Cross Girder (assumed) = 0.3 t/m
/

Steel Bridges
Q
DL
= 3 × 5.568/2 + 0.3 × 7 / 2 = 9.402 t
M
DL
= 11.70 × 3.5 – 5.568 ×1.75 - 0.3 × (3.5)
2
/2 = 21.326 mt

1.2) Live Load & Impact Effect:

Impact I = 0.4 - 0.008 L = 0.4 × 0.008 (2×4.5) = 0.328
{L = larger of 2 L
st
(directly loaded members)
or L
xg
(indirectly loaded member)}
Impact is applied to Main Lane only

• Max LL Reactions on Cross Girder:




a) From Main Truck:
P
60
= 10 x (1+0.328) + 2 x 13.28 x 3/4.5
= 30.987 t
b) From Main Lane Uniform Load:
w
60
= 2 [ 0.5x1.328 x 0.75/4.5] = 0.331 t/m
/

c) From Secondary Truck:
P
30
= 5+ 2 x 5x 3/4.5 = 11.667 T
d) From Secondary Lane Uniform Load:
w
30
= 2 [ 0.3x 1.5 x 0.75/4.5] = 0.15 t/m
/


N.B.: Uniform load on Lane Fractions on both sides of trucks is to be
neglected.

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
• Loads position for Max Moment:
M
max
occurs at the middle with loads placed as shown:
M
LL

& I
= 96.88 mt



• Loads position for Max Shear:
Q
max
occurs at support with loads placed as shown:
Q
LL&I
= 64.24 t

1.3) Design Straining Actions:

The total design moment on an intermediate cross girder is:

At the middle section: M
design
= 21.326 + 96.88 = 118.206 mt

And the total design shear on an intermediate cross girder is:

At the support: Q
design
= 9.402 + 64.24 = 73.74 t

Steel Bridges
2) Design of Cross Section:

Straining Actions:
Mx = 118.206 m.t. (Maximum near middle)
Qy = 73.74 t (Maximum at support)
Section is compact w.r. to both local buckling requirements (being a
rolled section), and lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp flange
supported by deck slab); i.e.

F
bx
= 0.64 F
y
= 2.304 t/cm
2


Req. Z
x
= M
x
/ F
bx
= 118.206 x 100 / 2.304 = 5121 cm
3
--------- use HEA 650

f
bx
= 118.206 x 100 / 5470 = 2.157 t/cm
2
< 2.304 t/cm
2
OK

Check of Fatigue: Actual Stress Range = f
sr
=(0.5 x 96.88)x100/5470
= 0.886 t/cm
2

< Allowable Stress Range = F
sr
= 1.26 t/cm
2

(Assuming Class B detail under 2x10
6
cycles (Case 1.2 of Group 1 ECP)

Check Shear: q = Q / A
w

net
= 73.74 / (0.85 x 64 x 1.35) = 1.00 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
4.4.2) EXAMPLE 2: RAILWAY BRIDGE FLOOR





Steel Bridges
4.4.2.1) STRINGER

Structural System:
Beam supported on cross girders,
Span = 4.50 m, Spacing = 1.80 m.

1) Straining Actions:

1.1) Dead Load:

Track (rails, sleepers, conn. ) = 0.6 t/m
/
of track
= 0.3 t/m
/
of stringer

Own wt of stringer (assumed) = 0.15 t/m
/

uniform load on stringer =0.3 + 0.15 = 0.45 t/m
/

Dead Load Actions: Q
DL
= 0.45 × (4.5) / 2 = 1.013 t
M
DL
= 0.45 × (4.5)
2
/ 8 = 1.139 mt

1.2) Live Load & Impact:

• Impact factor I = 24/(24+ L) = 24/(24+4.5)= 0.842 (max 0.75)
(L = Loaded Length of track = 4.5 m)



• Loads position for Max Moment:

For L < 3.4 m: M
max
occurs with single wheel on stringer
For 3.4 < L < 4.4 m: M
max
occurs with two wheels on stringer

For L > 4.4 m: M
max
occurs with three wheels on stringer

M
LL

& I
= ((3x12.5/2)x2.25-12.5x2) x(1+I) = 30.08 mt



Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
• Loads position for Max Shear:


For L > 3.0 m: Q
max
occurs at support with three loads acting as shown:

Q
LL&I
= (12.5+12.5x2.5/4.5+12.5x.5/4.5) x (1+I) = 36.46 t

1.3) Lateral Shock Effect:

a) If No Stringer Bracing is used:

M
y
= 6 x 4 /4 = 6 m.t. ( at middle)

(Corresponding M
x
= 25.51 m.t. )


b) If Stringer Bracing is used:

M
y
= 6 x 2 / 4 =3 m.t. ( at quarter point)

Corresponding M
x
= 0.9 + 21.875 = 22.775 m.t. )


Steel Bridges
1.4) Design Straining Actions:

The total design moment on an intermediate stringer is:

a) If No Stringer Bracing is Used: Critical Section at Middle
M
x
= 1.139 + 30.08 = 31.219 mt
My = 6.75 mt
b) If Stringer Bracing is Used: Critical Section at Quarter Point
M
x
= 25.38 mt
My = 3.375 mt

And the total design shear on an intermediate stringer is:

At support: Q
y
= 1.013 + 36.46 = 37.473 t

1.5) Design of Cross Section:

1.5.1) Case of Simple Stringer without Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing:

Straining Actions: M
x
= 31.94 m.t., M
y
= 6.75 m.t.
(carried by top flange only)
Q
y
= 37.47 t
Section is compact w.r. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled
section), but not compact w.r. to lateral torsional buckling requirements
(comp flange unsupported for L
un
= 4.5m); i.e., Fbx = 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cm
2

F
by
= 0.72 F
y
= 2.592 t/cm
2
(Minor axis bending)

Section HEB 400
f
bx
= 31.94 x 100 / 2880 = 1.1 t/cm
2
< 2.10 t/cm
2
OK
f
by
= 6.75x 100 / (721/2) = 1.87 t/cm
2
< 2.592 t/cm
2
OK

Combined Bending: f
bx
/ F
bx
+ f
by
/

F
by
= 1.1/2.10 + 1.87/2.592= 1.24
< 1 x 1.2
(Factor 1.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads)
Unsafe  then use HEB 450
Check of Fatigue:
From Mx : Actual Stress Range = f
sr
=( 30.08)x100/3551 = 0.847 t/cm
2

From My : Actual Stress Range = f
sr
=( 6.75)x100/(781/2) = 1.728 t/cm
2

Total Stress Range = 0.847 + 1.728 = 2.575 t/cm2
> Allowable Stress Range = F
sr
= 1.2x 1.26 = 1.512 t/cm
2

(Assuming Class B detail under 2x10
6
cycles (Case 1.2 of Group 1 ECP)
Fatigue Check is UNSAFE: increase cross section
Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
Check Shear: q = Q / A
w

net
= 37.47 / (0.85 x 45 x 1.4) = 0.7 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2


1.5.2) Case of Simple Stringer with Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing:

Straining Actions: Mx = 28.25 m.t., M
y
= 3.375 m.t. (at quarter point)
Qy = 37.47t at support & Qy = 22.325t at quarter point

Section is compact w.r. to both local buckling requirements (being a
rolled section), and w.r. to lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp.
flange supported at L
un
= 2.25 m by stringer bracing);
i.e., F
bx
= 0.64 F
y
= 2.304 t/cm
2


F
by
= 0.72 F
y
= 2.592 t/cm
2
(Minor axis bending)

Section HEA 360 f
bx
= 28.25 x 100 / 1890 = 1.495 t/cm
2
< 2.304 t/cm
2
OK

f
by
= 3.375 x 100 / (526/2) = 1.283 t/cm
2
< 2.592 t/cm
2
OK

Combined Bending: f
bx
/ F
bx
+ f
by
/

F
by
= 1.495/2.304 + 1.283/2.592
= 1.144
< 1 x 1.2
(Factor 1.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads)

Check of Fatigue is similar to case above.

Check Shear at support: q = Q / A
w

net
= 37.47 / (0.85 x 35 x 1.0)
= 1.259 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2
OK

1.5.3) Case of Continuous Stringer without Lateral Shock Bracing:

i) Section near mid span: Mx = 0.8 x 31.94= 25.552 m.t., M
y
= 6.75 m.t.
(not affected by continuity)

Section is compact w.r. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled
section), but not compact w r to lateral torsional buckling requirements
(comp flange unsupported for L
un
= 4.5 m); i.e., F
bx
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cm
2

F
by
= 0.72 F
y
= 2.592 t/cm
2
(Minor axis bending)

Section HEB 400

f
bx
= 25.552 x 100 / 2880 = 0.887 t/cm
2
< 2.10 t/cm
2
OK
Steel Bridges
f
by
= 6.75 x 100 / (721/2) = 1.872 t/cm
2
< 2.592 t/cm
2
OK

Combined Bending: f
bx
/ F
bx
+ f
by
/

F
by
= 0.887/2.10 + 1.872/2.592= 1.145
<1x 1.2
(Factor 1.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads)

ii) Section at support : M
x
= 0.75 x 31.94 = 23.955 m.t., M
y
= 0, Q
y
= 37.47 t

Compression flange (being at the bottom) is laterally unsupported,
therefore the section is non-compact;
Use HEB360: for
y
f
u
F
20b
L ≤
= 316 cm,
therefore: F
bx
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cm
2


f
bx
= M
x
/ Z
x net
=23.955 x 100 / (0.85 x 2400) = 1.174 t/cm
2
< 2.10 t/cm
2
OK

q = Q / A
w

net
= 37.47 / (0.85 x 36 x 1.25) = 0.980 t/cm
2
< 1.26 t/cm
2
OK

Equivalent Stresses:
all
2 2
e
F 1 . 1 q 3 f f ≤ + =
= 1.993 t/cm
2
< 1.1 x 2.1
= 2.31 t/cm
2


1.5.4) Continuous Stringer with Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing:

i) Section at mid span: Mx = 0.8 x 28.25= 22.60 m.t.
M
y
= 3.375 m.t (at quarter point)

Section is compact w.r. to both local buckling requirements (being a rolled
section), and lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp. flange
supported at L
un
=2 m by stringer bracing); i.e., F
bx
= 0.64 F
y
= 2.304 t/cm
2

F
by
= 0.72 Fy = 2.592 t/cm
2
(Minor axis bending)

Section HEB 320
f
bx
= 22.60 x 100 / 1930 = 1.171 t/cm
2
< 2.304 t/cm
2
OK
f
by
= 3.375 x 100 / (616/2) = 1.096 t/cm
2
< 2.592 t/cm
2
OK

Combined Bending: f
bx
/ F
bx
+ f
by
/

F
by
= 1.171/2.304 + 1.096/2.592
= 0.931 < 1.2
(Factor 1.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads)

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
Check Shear: q = Q / A
w

net
= 37.47 / (0.85 x 32 x 1.15) = 1.198 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2


ii) Section at support : See ((1.3) ii) above.


4.4.2.2) CROSS GIRDER

Structural System:
Beam supported on main girders
Span = 5.30 m, Spacing = 4.50 m

2.1) Dead Load Effect:

Concentrated reaction from stringers = 2 × 1.013 = 2.026 t
Own weight of X.G. (assumed) = 0.3 t/m
/

Q
DL
= 2.026 + 0.3 × 5.3 / 2 = 2.821 t
M
DL
= 2.821 x 5.3/2 – 2.026x0.9-0.3 × (2.65)
2
/2= 4.6 mt

2.2) Live Load & Impact Effect:

• Impact factor I = 24/(24+ L) = 24/(24+ 9)=0.727

(L = Loaded Length of tracks= 2 x 4.5 = 9 m)


Steel Bridges
• Reactions on Cross Girder:

P = {12.5 + 2 x 12.5 x 2.5 / 4.5 + 6.25x0.75/4.5}x (1+I)
= {12.5 + 2 x 12.5 x 2.5 / 4.5 + 6.25x0.75/4.5}x (1.727)
= 47.37t



M
max
occurs at the stringer location

M
LL

& I
= 47.37 x 1.75 = 82.90 mt

Q
max
occurs at support:
Q
LL&I
= 47.37 t

So the total design moment on an intermediate XG is:

M
design
= 4.6 + 82.90 = 87.5 mt

And the total design shear on an intermediate XG is:

Q
design
= 2.821 + 47.33 = 50.191 t

2.3) Braking Force Effect:

a) If Braking Force Bracing is used:
Braking force is carried by the braking force bracing without any bending
in the Cross Girders. (i.e. My=0)

b) If No Braking Force Bracing is used:

Total Braking Force on the bridge:

B = Sum of train loads on bridge / 7 = 295 / 7 = 42.1 t

Braking force is equally divided between cross girders:

Braking force/ XG = 42.1 /no of XGs = 42.1/7= 6.02 t

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors


M
y
= ( 6.02 / 2) x 1.75 = 5.26 mt

2.4) Design of Cross Section:

2.4.1) Without Braking Force Bracing:

Straining Actions: M
x
= 87.50 m.t., M
y
= 5.26 m.t. ( at stringer location)
Q
y
= 50.191 t (at support)

Section is compact w.r. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled
section), but not compact w.r. to lateral torsional buckling requirements
(comp. flange unsupported for L
un
=5.3 m); i.e., F
bx
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cm
2


F
by
= 0.72 F
y
= 2.592 t/cm
2
(Minor axis bending)

Section HEB 600 :

f
bx
= 87.50 x 100 / 5700 = 1.535 t/cm
2
< 2.10 t/cm
2
OK
f
by
= 5.26 x 100 / (902/2) = 1.166 t/cm
2
< 2.592 t/cm
2
OK

Combined Bending: f
bx
/ F
bx
+ f
by
/

F
by
= 1.535/2.10 + 1.166/2.592 = 1.074
<1.2 OK

Check Fatigue as before.

Check Shear: q = Q / A
w

net
= 50.192 / (0.85 x 79 x 1.50) = 0.498 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2
OK

2.4.2) With Braking Force Bracing:

M
y
is carried by axial forces in the braking force bracing with the XG
subjected to M
x
only:

Req. Z
x
= M
x
/ F
bx
= 7.50 x 100 / 2.304 = 3798 cm
3
--------- use HEB 550

Check Shear: q = Q / A
w

net
= 50.192 / (0.85 x 55 x 1.5) = 0.716 t/cm
2

< 1.26 t/cm
2

Steel Bridges
4.4.3) CONNECTIONS OF BRIDGE FLOOR BEAMS

4.4.3.1 Calculations of Bolt Resistance:

High strength bolts of Grade 10.9 or 8.8 are normally used in bridge
constructions. Connections may be designed as Bearing Type (easier in
execution) or Friction Type (when slip is not allowed).


For Bearing Type Connections:

Bolt Resistance = Smaller of R
shear
and R
bearing
;
R
shear
= n x (Bolt area x Allowable bolt shear stress) = n x (π d
2
/4) x 2
R
bearing
= Bolt diameter x Allowable bearing stress x t
min
= d x (0.8 F
ult
) x t
min


(n = no. of shear planes, d= bolt diameter, Edge distance ≥ 2 d, F
ult
= 5.2
t/cm
2
)

For Friction Type Connections: Bolt Resistance = n x P
s


Bolt
Diameter
Bearing Type Connections Friction Type
Connections
R
S.Shear
R
bearing
R
D. Shear
Bolt 8.8 Bolt 10.9
M20 6.28 8.32 t
min
12.56 3.37 4.82
M22 7.60 9.15 t
min
15.20 4.17 5.96
M24 9.04 9.98 t
min
18.08 4.85 6.94

4.4.3.2 Design of Connection between Stringer and Cross Girder:

Railway Bridge Floor Data:

Stringer: Shear Force = 37.47
t
, -ve Moment = 23.955 m.t.,
section is HEB 360.

Cross Girder: HEB 600

2.1) Case of Simple Stringer:

Connection is designed for the max shear of stringer using framing angles as
shown:.

Using M20 HSB Grade 10.9 (Bearing Type):
Chapter 4: Bridge Floors
a) Bolts between stringer web (t
w
= 1.25 cm) and angle legs:

Double shear bolts R
b
= 8.32 x 1.25 = 10.4
t
= R
least

Number of bolts = Q / R
least
= 37.47 / 10.4 = 3.3 bolts

Fatigue Considerations: Case 27.1 of Group 3 of ECP: for Class C;
Allowable stress range = 0.91 t/cm2
R
sh
= 2 x 2.45 x 0.91 = 4.46 ton = R
sr


Number of bolts = Q
sr
/ R
sr
= 36.46 / 4.46 = 8.17 too many
Either use bolts with larger diameter or use Friction Type Joint:
i) Use M24 bolts: R
sh
= 2x3.53x0.91 = 6.43 ton = R
sr

Number of bolts = Q
sr
/ R
least
= 36.46 / 6.43 = 5.8
Use 6 bolts M24 (Bearing Type)
ii) Friction Type Joint: R
sh
= 2 x 4.82 = 9.64 ton = R
least

Number of bolts = Q
t
/ R
least
= 37.47 / 9.64 = 3.88
Use 4 bolts M24 (Friction Type)

b) Bolts between angle legs and cross girder web:

Single shear bolts on two sides: Fatigue governs the design
Number of bolts = Q
sr
/ R
sr
= 36.46 / (3.53x0.91) = 11.35

Use 12 bolts M24 (6 bolts each side)

(Alternative Using Friction Type Bolts: No. of Bolts = 37.47/4.82= 7.77,
i.e.; 4 bolts M20 (Friction Type) Each Side)

2.2) Case of Continuous Stringer:

Continuity is achieved by using top and bottom plates designed to transmit
the flange force:
C = T = M
-ve
/ h
str
= (0.75x30.08) / 0.36 = 62.667 t
Number of bolts = 62.667 / 6.43 = 9.746
use 10 bolts M24 (Bearing Type) each side.

(Alternative Using Friction Type Bolts: No. of Bolts = 66.54/4.82=13.8,
i.e.; 14 bolts M20 (Friction Type) Each Side)

Compute Plate Thickness from:
(30 – 4 x 2.6) x t x 2.1 = 66.54 which gives t
pl
= 1.617 cm

Use t
pl
= 1.80 cm
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges








CHAPTER 5

PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES
Steel Bridges



CHAPTER 5



PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES





5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.1.1 General

In section 1.4, bridges were classified according to the structural systems of
the main girder in the longitudinal direction into several types such as beam
and frame bridges, arch bridges, cable stayed bridges, and suspension bridges.
The cross section of the main girder used in any of these bridge types may be a
solid web girder or a truss girder depending on the values of the design actions.
For short and medium spans, solid web girders in the form of I-section or box
section are usually used. These girders are usually fabricated from welded
plates and thus are called "Plate Girders". Plate girders may be defined as
structural members that resist loads primarily in bending and shear. Although
shaped similarly to the commonly used hot-rolled steel I-beams, plate girders
differ from them in that they are fabricated from plates, and sometimes angles,
that are joined together to form I-shapes. They are characterized by thin webs,
which are usually deeper than those of the deepest available rolled shapes.
Such girders are capable of carrying greater loads over longer spans than is
generally possible using standard rolled sections or compound girders. Plate
girders may also be used as long-span floor girders in buildings, as crane
girders in industrial structures, and as bridge girders in all types of bridges.

5.1.2 Cross Sections of Plate Girders

Several cross sections may be used for plate girders as shown in Fig. 5.1.
Early plate girders were fabricated by riveting, Fig. 5.1(a). Their flanges
consisted of two angles riveted to the web ends and cover plates riveted to the
outstanding legs of the angles. Structural welding, which began to be widely
used in the 1950s, has significantly simplified the fabrication of plate girders.
Modern plate girders are normally fabricated by welding together two flange
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


plates and a web plate as shown in Fig. 5.1(b). Although not commonly used,
other variations are possible as shown in Fig. 5.1(c).

angles
Flange
Cover plates
plate
Web
Flange plate
plate
Web
(a) Riveted (b) Welded (c) Delta

Fig. 5.1 Cross Sections of Plate Girders

Because a plate girder is fabricated from individual elements that constitute
its flanges and web, a significant advantage offered by a plate girder is the
freedom a designer can have in proportioning the flange and web plates to
achieve maximum economy through more efficient arrangement of material
than is possible with rolled beams. This freedom gives a considerable scope for
variation of the cross-section in the longitudinal direction. For example, a
designer can reduce the flange width or thickness in a zone of low applied
moment as shown in Fig. 5.2. Equally, in a zone of high shear, the designer can
thicken the web plate. Furthermore, the designer has the freedom to use
different grades of steel for different parts of the girder. For example, higher-
grade steel St. 52 might be used for zones of high applied moments while
standard grade steel St. 37 would be used elsewhere. Also, “hybrid girders”
with high strength steel in the flange plates and low strength steel in the web
offer another possible means of more closely matching resistance to
requirements. More unusual variations are adopted in special circumstances,
e.g., girders with variable depth, see Fig. 5.3.





Steel Bridges


2
2
60°
1
4
1
4
(a) Width (b) Thickness
Welded
Joint

Fig. 5.2 Transition of Flange Plate Width and Thickness



Fig. 5.3 Plate Girder Bridge with Variable Depth

5.2 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

5.2.1 GIRDER DESIGN

Any cross-section of a plate girder is normally subjected to a combination of
shear force and bending moment. The primary function of the top and bottom
flange plates of the girder is to resist the axial compressive and tensile forces
arising from the applied bending moment. The primary function of the web
plate is to resist the applied shear force. Under static loading, bending and
shear strength requirements will normally govern most plate girder design,
with serviceability requirements such as deflection or vibration being less
critical.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


The first step in the design of plate girder section is to select the value of the
web depth. For railway bridges, the girder depth will usually be in the range
LR
o
R/12 to LR
o
R/8, where LR
o
R is the length between points of zero moment.
However, for plate girder roadway bridges the range may be extended to
approximately LR
o
R/20 for non-composite plate girders and to LR
o
R/25 for
composite plate girders.

Having selected the web plate depth, the effective flange area to resist the
applied moment can be computed from the relation, see Fig. 5.4(b):

M = FR
e
R AR
e
R hR
e
R ………………………..… (5.1)

Where: FR
e
R= allowable bending stress at flange centroid,
hR
e
R = effective depth for flange,
AR
e
R= equivalent flange area.
(a)
d

=

h
h
w
f
t
f
b
f
(b)
e
A
M
fe
e
h
e e A
(c)
w f
f
fe
e A
e e A
w
t
w
f
b
F
w

Fig. 5.4 Proportioning of Plate Girder Flanges

Flange Stress: According to ECP 2001, girders with laterally supported
compression flanges can attain their full elastic strength under load, i.e., FR
b
R =
0.64*FR
y
R for compact sections and FR
b
R = 0.58 * FR
y
R for non-compact sections. If
the compression flange is not supported laterally, then appropriate reduction in
the allowable bending stresses shall be applied to account for lateral torsional
buckling as set in the Code.

The equivalent flange area AR
e
R is made up of the actual area of one flange,
plus the part of the web area that contributes in resisting the applied moment.
The moment resistance MR
w
R of the web can be defined by; Fig. 5.4 (c):
Steel Bridges



MR
w
R = (0.5 FR
w
R) (0.5 AR
w
R) (2hR
w
R/3) = FR
w
R hR
w
R AR
w
R/6 ………………(5.2)

where AR
w
R = area of web and FR
w
R = maximum bending stress for web. From
the above equation it can be seen that one sixth of the total web area can be
considered as effective in resisting moment MR
w
R with lever arm hR
w
R and stress
FR
w
R. Consequently, the area required for each flange will be:

AR
f
R = AR
e
R - AR
w
R / 6 ................................................ (5.3)

Substituting for AR
e
R from Eqn. 5.1 gives:

AR
f
R = ( M / FR
b
R d ) - AR
w
R / 6................................... (5.4)

5.2.2 OPTIMUM GIRDER DEPTH

An optimum value of the plate girder depth d which results in a minimum
weight girder can be obtained as follows:

Express the total girder area as: AR
g
R = d tR
w
R + 2 AR
f
R ................................... (5.5)

The moment resistance of the girder can be expressed as

M = FR
b
R ZR
x
R .......................................... (5.6)

Where ZR
x
R is the section modulus of the girder. Substituting from Eqn. 5.6 into
Eqn. 5.4 gives:

AR
f
R = ZR
x
R/ d - AR
w
R / 6 ....................................... (5.7)

Substituting from Eqn 5.7 into Eqn. 5.5 gives:

AR
g
R = 2 ZR
x
R/ d + 2 AR
w
R / 3 = 2 ZR
x
R/ d + 2 d tR
w
R / 3 ......... (5.8)

By introducing a web slenderness ratio parameter, β = d/tR
w
R, Eqn 5.8 can be
expressed as
AR
g
R = 2 ZR
x
R/ d + 2 dP
2
P / 3 β ................................................. (5.9)

AR
g
R is minimum when ∂ AR
g
R / ∂ d =0 which gives:

dP
3
P = 1.5 β ZR
x
R ................................................................... (5.10)

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Substituting ZR
x
R = M / FR
b
R, Eqn 5.10 gives:

3
F / M 1.5 d β =
......................................... (5.11)

The value of β will normally lie in the range 100 to 150. With M expressed
in meter-ton units and F in t/cmP
2
P units, the above equation gives the optimum
girder depth in meters as:

3
F / M ) 3 . 0 ~ 25 . 0 ( d =
.................................. (5.12)

For steel St. 52 with FR
b
R = 0.58 FR
y
R this equation gives:


3
M ) 24 . 0 ~ 2 . 0 ( d =
........................................ (5.13)

Design Considerations:

For efficient design it is usual to choose a relatively deep girder, thus
minimizing the required area of flanges for a given applied moment. This
obviously results in a deep web whose thickness tR
w
R is chosen equal to the
minimum required to carry the applied shear. Such a web may be quite slender,
i.e. has a high d/tR
w
R ratio, and may be subjected to buckling which reduces the
section strength. A similar conflict may exist for the flange plate proportions.
The desire to increase weak axis inertia encourages wide, thin flanges, i.e.
flange with a high b/tR
f
R ratio. Such flanges may also be subjected to local
buckling.

Design of plate girders therefore differs from that of rolled sections because
the latter generally have thicker web and flange plates and thus are not
subjected to buckling effects. In contrast, the freedom afforded in material
selection in plate girder design makes buckling a controlling design criterion.
Thus, in designing a plate girder it is necessary to evaluate the buckling
resistance of flange plates in compression and of web plates in shear and
bending. In most cases various forms of buckling must be taken into account.
Figure 5.5 lists the different buckling problems associated with plate girder
design. A brief description of each form is given below:


Steel Bridges




Fig. 5.5 Plate Buckling Problems Associated with Plate Girders






a-
b-
c-
d-
e-
f-
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


a) Shear Buckling of the Web Plate

If the web width-to-thickness ratio d/tR
w
R exceeds a limiting value, the web
will buckle in shear before it reaches its full shear capacity. Diagonal buckles,
of the type shown in Fig.5.5a, resulting from the diagonal compression
associated with the web shear will form. This local buckling reduces the girder
shear strength.

b) Lateral Torsional Buckling of girder

If the compression flange is not supported laterally the girder is subjected to
lateral torsional buckling which reduces the allowable bending stresses, see
Fig. 5.5b.

c) Local Buckling of the Compression Flange

If the compression flange width-to-thickness ratio exceeds a limiting value,
it will buckle before it reaches its full compressive strength as shown in Fig.
5.5c. This local buckling will reduce the girder’s load carrying resistance.

d) Compression Buckling of the Web Plate

If the web width-to-thickness ratio d/tR
w
R exceeds a limiting value, the upper
part of the web will buckle due to bending compression as shown in Fig. 5.5d.
Consequently, the moment resistance of the cross section is reduced.

e) Flange Induced Buckling of the Web Plate

If particularly slender webs are used, the compression flange may not
receive enough support to prevent it from buckling vertically rather like an
isolated strut buckling about its minor axis as shown in Fig. 5.5e. This
possibility may be eliminated by placing a suitable limit on d/tR
w
R.

f) Local Buckling of the Web Plate

Vertical loads may cause buckling of the web in the region directly under
the load as shown in Fig. 5.5f. This buckling form is known as web crippling.
The level of loading that may safely be carried before this happens will depend
upon the exact way in which the load is transmitted to the web and the web
proportions.

Steel Bridges


Detailed considerations of these buckling problems will be presented in the
following sections.

5.3 INFLUENCE OF BUCKLING ON PLATE GIRDERS DESIGN

5.3.1 General

In the previous section, it was shown that plate girders might be subjected to
different forms of local plate buckling. In order to study the effect of local
buckling on the strength of the cross-section, knowledge of the theory of
buckling of rectangular plates is essential. Flanges can be modeled as long
plates under uniform compression with one long edge assumed simply
supported and the other long edge free. Webs can be modeled as long plates
with the two long edges as simply supported. The compression on the plate
edge may be uniform, as in the girder flange, see Fig. 5.6 a, or non-uniform, as
in the girder web, see Fig. 5.6 b. In addition, the web plate may be subjected to
shear stresses as shown in Fig. 5.6 c.

In the following sections, a brief treatment of the buckling of plates is given.
The results are then used to study the effect of plate buckling on the strength of
plate girders.

5.3.2 Buckling of Plates under Uniform Edge Compression

5.3.2.1 Theoretical Buckling Resistance

Consider a uniformly compressed plate of thickness t, width b, and length a
simply supported along its four edges as shown in Figure 5.7. Up to a certain
load, the plate remains compressed in its own plane. However, as the load
increases and reaches a critical value, the plane state of the plate becomes
unstable. Further increase in load causes the plate to deflect laterally, resulting
in the out-of-plane configuration shown in Fig. 5.7. This phenomenon is
referred to as plate buckling, and the stress that causes it is called the critical
buckling stress.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


(b) Web under Bending
(c) Web under Shear
(a) Flange under Compression
fc
fc
fc
fc
q
q

Fig. 5.6 Modeling of Plate Girder Components

b
f
x
a
w
x
f

Fig. 5.7 Buckling of Simply Supported Plate under Uniform Compression
Steel Bridges


The value of this buckling stress can be determined by applying structural
mechanics theories to study the behavior of the plate. The assumptions used to
solve this stability problem are those used in thin plate theory (Kirchhoff’s
theory):
1. Material is linear elastic, homogeneous and isotropic.
2. Plate is perfectly plane and initially stress free.
5. Thickness “t” of the plate is small compared to its other dimensions.
4. In-plane actions pass through its middle plane.
5. Transverse displacements w are small compared to the plate thickness.
6. Slopes of the deflected middle surfaces are small compared to unity.
7. Deformations are such that straight lines, initially normal to the middle
plane, remain straight lines and normal to the deflected middle surface.
8. Stresses normal to the thickness of the plate are of a negligible order
of magnitude.
Based on these assumptions, the governing differential equation of the plate
buckling is expressed as:

0
x
w
f t )
y
w
y x
w
2
x
w
( D
2
2
x
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
=


+


+
∂ ∂

+


.................................. (5.14)

where fR
x
R = normal stress
D = plate bending rigidity = E tP
3
P / 12(1 - ν P
2
P)
E = Elastic Modulus = 2100 t / cmP
2

t = Plate thickness
ν = Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

The solution of this equation gives the elastic buckling stress F
cr
of the plate as:


2
2
2
c cr
b
t
) 1 ( 12
E
k F






υ −
π
= = 1898 k
c
(t/b)P
2
P ....................................... (5.15)

where k
c
= plate buckling factor which depends on the type of stress
distribution, the edge support conditions, and the plate aspect ratio α = a/b. For
the case considered it can be expressed as:

k
c
= (m / α + α / m)P
2
P ................................................... (5.16)

where m = number of buckling half-waves in the longitudinal direction. For
each value of m, there exists a corresponding buckling stress and a buckled
configuration. Fig. 5.8 shows the dependence of k
c
on the ratio α for various
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


values of m. The buckling mode for values of α < 2 , has one half wave, for
values 2 < α < 6 , two half waves, etc.


Fig. 5.8 Plate Buckling Coefficient k
c
under axial compression

Referring to the curve for m = 1, it is seen that kc is large for small values of
α and decreases as α increases until α = 1 (i.e., square plate) when k reaches its
minimum value of 4. The value of k
c
increases again as α increases. Similar
c
Steel Bridges


behavior is obtained for other values of m. Therefore, k
c
= 4 may be considered
as valid for all values of m and is used as the basis for design.

Fig. 5.9 shows examples of buckled configurations of the plate for m=1,2,5.
In a physical sense, Eqn. 5.16 can be interpreted to mean that a plate, simply
supported on all four edges and uniformly compressed along the shorter sides,
buckles in half – waves whose lengths approach the width of the plate, see Fig.
5.9 d.
b
a
(a) m=1
w
(d) Wave Pattern
~b
w
-
w
+
(c) m=3
~b
a
w
-
b
(b) m=2
a
~b


Fig. 5.9 Buckling Configurations

The above discussion applies to plates simply supported along their four
edges. Plate girder sections may comprise plates, which are free along one
longitudinal edge, and supported along the other edges, e.g., flange plates.
Solution of the governing differential equation under these boundary
conditions yields the value of the plate buckling factor k
c
= 0.425.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Substituting the values of k
c
into Eqn. 5.5, the critical buckling stress is
obtained as:
1- For a plate with simple supports, ( k
c
=4 ) F
cr
= 7592 / (b/t)P
2
P

2- For a plate with a free edge, (k
c
=0.425) F
cr
= 807 / (b/t)P
2
P

Fig. 5.10 shows the relationship between F
cr
and (b/t) according to these
equations.

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0.0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Plate Slenderness Ratio (b/t)
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

F
c
r

(
t
/
c
m
2
)
k =0.425
k=4.0
k=23.9 (Bending)


Fig. 5.10 Critical Buckling Stress F
cr
under Compression and/or Bending

Analogy with buckling of Axially Loaded Columns:

At this point, it is instructive to compare and understand the differences
between this buckling behavior of simply supported plates and that of axially
loaded simply supported columns for which the critical load is given by: P
cr
=
πP
2
P E I / LP
2
P. The simply supported column buckles into one half-wave of length
L and the value of the critical buckling load is inversely proportional to LP
2
P and
is independent of the column width. By contrast, because of the supports along
the unloaded edges, a plate buckles into multiple half-waves the length of
Steel Bridges


which approach the plate width b. The critical stress in the simply supported
plate is inversely proportional to bP
2
P and independent of its length a.

5.3.2.2 Buckling of Plates under Linearly Varying Edge Compression

The above results can be extended to cover the general case of a plate
subjected to a linearly varying compressive stress, e.g., due to bending
moment in the plane of the plate as shown in Fig. 5.11 .
-
b
w = 0
w
+
w
-
+
~(2/3)b
w w

Fig. 5.11 Buckling of Plate due to Bending

The critical elastic buckling stress for this case is expressed as:


2
2
2
cr
b
t
) 1 ( 12
E
k F 





υ −
π
=
σ
....................................................... (5.17)

where the value of the plate buckling factor k
σ
is given by:


( ) ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 112 . 0 1
16
k
2
2
ψ + + ψ − + ψ +
=
σ
(for 1 > ψ >-1) ........... (5.18)


And k
σ
= 5.98 (1 - ψ)P
2
P (for -1 > ψ >-2) ........... (5.19)

where ψ = σ
2

1
= ratio of smaller stress σ
2
to larger stress σ
1
. The value ψ
= 1 corresponds to uniformly distributed compressive stress, where as the
value ψ = -1 corresponds to the case of pure bending (σ2 = - σ1). The
intermediate values, -1 < ψ < +1, correspond to combined bending and
compression.

For the special case of pure bending, i.e., ψ = -1, the value of k
σ
is equal to
25.9, giving:
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges



2 2
2
2
cr
b
t
45362
b
t
) 1 ( 12
E
9 . 23 F






=






υ −
π
= ............................... (5.20)

A plot of the relationship between F
cr
and (b/t) according to Eqn. 5.20 is
shown in Fig. 5.10.

Fig. 5.11 shows a typical buckling pattern of a plate initiated by bending of
the plate. This bend-buckling is somewhat different than the buckling of a
uniformly edge-compressed plate in that the out-of-plane deformation in the
tensile zone of the plate is zero (shown by w = 0). The plate buckles in a single
half-wave transversally (i.e., depth wise) and in multiple half-waves
longitudinally (i.e., length wise). As shown in Fig. 5.11, the lengths of the
buckling waves approach 2/3 b.

5.3.2.3 Buckling of Plates under Edge Shear

Fig. 5.12(a) shows a plate under the action of edge shear stresses. These
stresses are equivalent to tension and compression stresses that are equal in
magnitude to the shear stresses but inclined at 45P
o
P. The compressive stresses
may cause the plate to buckle as shown in Fig. 5.12 (a). The buckling mode is
composed of multiple wave forms which are skewed with respect to the edges.
The half-wave length is equal to about 1.25 b for long simply supported plates.

According to the elastic buckling theory, the critical buckling shear stress
can be expressed as:

2
q
2
2
2
q cr
b
t
k 1898
b
t
) 1 ( 12
E
k q






=






υ −
π
= ............................ (5.21)

where k
q
is a shear buckling factor calculated from elastic buckling theory
according to the plate aspect ratio α = a/b as follows:

k
q
= 4.00 + 5.34 / αP
2
P α < 1 ......................... (5.22 a)

k
q
= 5.34 + 4.00 / αP
2
P α > 1 ......................... (5.22 b)

A plot of the relationship between q
cr
and (b/t) according to Eqns. 5.21 and
5.22 is shown in Fig. 5.13 for different values of α.




Steel Bridges


b
(a) Plate under Pure Shear
q
(c) Principal Stresses
~1.25 b
(d) Wave Pattern
+
w
+ -
w w
(b) Element in
pure shear
q q
q
q
q
==
==
q
q
q




















Fig. 5.12 Shear Buckling of Plates
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges




(b/t)
cr
q
=1
=3
=0.5

Fig. 5.13 Critical Buckling Stress due to Shear
Steel Bridges


5.3.3 Resistance of Actual Plates

The buckling theory described in the previous section is based on
assumptions (1) to (8) of section 5.3.2.1 that are never fulfilled in real
structures. The consequences for the buckling behavior when each of these
assumptions is not valid are now discussed.

5.3.3.1 Effect of Inelastic Behavior

The first assumption of linear elastic behavior of the material is obviously
not valid when the value of F
cr
according to these equations exceeds the
material yield strength F
y
. This behavior is typical for thick plate panels having
low (b/t) ratios. In this case failure is governed by yielding rather than
buckling. If the material is considered to behave as linear elastic-ideal plastic,
the buckling curve must be cut off at the level of the yield stress F
y
as shown
in Figure 5.14.


Fig. 5.14 Effect of Inelastic Behavior on Plate Buckling


Accordingly, two regions must be considered for establishing strength:

1. for large (b/t) values: F
cr
< F
y
, i.e., Elastic buckling governs the design.
2. for low (b/t) values: F
cr
≥ F
y
, i.e, Yielding governs the design.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


For design purposes, it is convenient to define a plate slenderness parameter
λ in terms of the ratio of the yield stress to the critical stress F
y
/F
cr
as:


k 1898
F
t
b
b
t
) 1898 ( k
F
F
F
y
2
y
cr
y






=






= = λ ............................ (5.23)

A plot of F
cr
/F
y
versus λ is shown in Fig. 5.15. Curve (a) represents the
theoretical buckling curve defined by Eqn. 5.18, while the horizontal line at F
cr
= F
y
represents the yield condition. The value λ = 1 represents the limit
between elastic buckling and yield. Consequently, the plate fails due to elastic
buckling when λ >1 and due to yield when λ < 1.

y
F
1.0
1.0
A B
F
cr
W
(a)

Fig. 5.15 Non-dimensional Buckling Curve

5.3.3.2 Effect of Imperfections and Residual Stresses

The second and fourth assumptions of a plate without geometrical
imperfections and residual stresses are also never fulfilled in real structures.
Plates in fabricated structures are likely to have some initial out-of-plane
deviations. When the plate is loaded, these deviations will start growing in
depth and thus cause additional stresses on the cross section. Furthermore,
steel plates as well as rolled sections contain residual stresses. Residual
stresses in rolled sections are mainly caused by uneven cooling after hot
rolling. Plates in welded plate girders are subjected to high temperatures during
flame-cutting and welding. Shrinkage due to cooling of the hot areas is resisted
by the remaining cold parts of the cross section. As a result, the areas adjacent
λ
Steel Bridges


to the weld or flame cut are subjected to high tensile strains which may be
several times the yield strain, and the rest of the cross-section is subjected to
compression. As compressive and tensile residual stresses in the cross-section
balance, residual stresses do not cause any resultant axial force or bending
moment on the cross-section. However, those parts of the cross section where
the residual stress is of the same nature as the applied stress will reach yield
earlier. With further loading these yielded parts will not contribute any
resistance to the cross section and thus the effective stiffness, and consequently
the plate buckling strength, will be reduced. Residual stresses are less
important for plates subjected to shear or bending stress than plates under
compression because the applied stresses and the residual stresses are likely to
be of a different nature in different parts of the plates.

Tests have shown that the reduction in plate buckling strength due to
imperfections and residual stresses is most pronounced for plates with
intermediate values of (b/t). For design purposes, this effect is considered by
using a reduced value of the limit plate slenderness λ
0
< 1. Because of
statistical variations in material properties and imperfections which are not
sufficiently well known to be quantified accurately, the appropriate value of λ
0

differs substantially from country to country. A review of the international
design codes shows that λ
o
varies approximately from 0.6 to 0.9. ECP has
adopted the following limiting values for the plate slenderness parameter:

1. λ
o
= 0.74 for Class 2 elements in compression.
2. λ
o
= 0.90 for Class 2 elements in bending.
3. λ
o
= 0.80 for elements under pure shear.

These values can be used to calculate the limiting slenderness ratios of
different parts in a plate girder section as follows:

a)Limiting b/t Ratio for Flanges under Uniform Compression:

The flange plate in a plate girder cross-section is essentially a uniformly
compressed long narrow plate. As shown in sec. 5.3.2.1, the elastic buckling
stress may be calculated from Eqn. 5.15 using the appropriate value for the
plate buckling factor k =0.425. Furthermore, to account for the reduction in
buckling strength due to residual stresses and imperfections a reduced value of
λ = λ
o
= 0.74 is used. Substituting a value of k = 0.425 and λ
o
= 0.74 in Eqn.
5.23 gives:

k 1898
F
t
b
F
F
74 . 0
y
cr
y






= =
....................................... (5.24)
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


which gives:
y
lim
F / 21
t
b
≤ 





................................................ (5.25)
= 11 for St. 52,
= 15.5 for St. 37.

Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the plate girder compression
flange exceeds the a.m. limit, the flange is considered a “slender” element
whose strength is affected by local buckling as explained in the next section.

b)Limiting (d/t) Ratio for Webs under Pure Bending:

The web plate in a plate girder cross-section is essentially subjected to a
linearly varying normal stress due to bending. As shown in sec. 5.3.2.2, the
elastic buckling stress may be calculated from Eqn. 5.17 using the appropriate
value for the plate buckling factor k = 25.9. Furthermore, to account for the
reduction in buckling strength due to residual stresses and imperfections a
reduced value of λ = λ
o
= 0.90 is used. Substituting a value of k = 25.9 and λ
o

= 0.90 in Eqn. 5.23 gives:


9 . 23 x 1898
F
t
d
F
F
90 . 0
y
cr
y






= = ....................................... (5.26)

which gives:
y
lim
F / 190
t
d







.................................................. (5.27)
= 100 for St. 52,
= 122 for St. 37

Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the plate girder web exceeds the
a.m. limit, the web is considered a “slender” element whose strength is
affected by local buckling as explained in the next section.

c)Limiting (d/t) ratio for Webs under Pure Shear:

As shown in sec. 5.3.2.3, the elastic buckling stress for a plate under pure
shear may be calculated from Eqn. 5.21 using the value for the plate buckling
factor k defined by Eqns. 5.22. For a narrow long plate, α >> 1 which gives k
q

=5.34. Furthermore, to account for the reduction in buckling strength due to
residual stresses and imperfections a reduced value of λ = λ
o
= 0.80 is used.
Defining the plate slenderness parameter in shear λ
q
as:


Steel Bridges



2
q
y
cr
y
q
d
t
) 1898 ( k
3 / F
q
3 / F






= = λ
.............................. (5.28)

Substituting a value of k
q
= 5.34 and λ
o
= 0.80 in Eqn. 5.23 gives:


y
lim
F / 105
t
d







............................................. (5.29)
= 55 for St. 52,
= 67 for St. 37

Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of unstiffened plate girder webs
exceeds the a.m. limit, the web is considered a “slender” element whose shear
strength is affected by local buckling as explained in the next section.

5.3.3.3 Effect of Large Displacement:

Fig. 5.16 shows typical behavior of a compressed plate loaded to its ultimate
load. As shown in the figure, the stress distribution remains uniform as the
loading increases until the elastic buckling stress F
cr
is reached. Unlike one
dimensional structural members, such as columns, compressed plates will not
collapse when the buckling stress is reached. Further increase in load beyond
the elastic buckling load corresponding to the stress F
cr
can be achieved before
failure takes place. However, the portion of the plate farthest from its side
supports will deflect out of its original plane. This out-of-plane deflection
violates assumption (5) of small displacements and causes the stress
distribution to become non-uniform. The stresses redistribute to the stiffer
edges and the redistribution becomes more extreme as buckling continues. The
additional load carried thus by the plate beyond its elastic buckling stress F
cr
is
termed the “post-buckling” strength. Tests have shown that the post-buckling
strength is high for large values of (b/t) and very small for low values of (b/t).

In order to estimate the post-buckling strength, the non-uniform stress
distribution can be replaced in design calculations by equivalent rectangular
stress blocks over a reduced "effective width" b
e
as shown in Fig. 5.17.

This equivalent uniform stress has the same peak stress and same action
effect of the non-uniform stress distribution. The effective width of the element
is computed from the condition that if the maximum stress is considered
uniform over that width, the total section capacity will be the same.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


By applying this model, an "effective cross-section" is obtained from the
original cross-section by deducting the ineffective areas where local buckling
occurred. This design procedure is then the same used for sections not
subjected to local buckling effect provided that the stresses are calculated
using the effective section properties.

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
Average Axial Strain
uniform stress prior to
Straight line indicates
buckling
b
Low b/t
F
y
c
r
High b/t
strength
Post buckling


Fig. 5.16 Actual Plate Buckling Strength

(a) Actual Non-Uniform Stress
b
max
f
(b) Equivalent Uniform Stress
/2
= E
b
/2
E
b
f
max


Fig. 5.17 Effective Width Concept

Definition of the "Effective Width":

According to this procedure, the effective width can be expressed in terms of
the plate slenderness λ
p
defined by Eqn. 5.23 as:
Steel Bridges


b
e
= ρ * b.......................................................... (5.30)

where ρ = reduction factor = (λ
p
- 0.2) / λ
p
P
2
P

For the general case where the plate is subjected to a linearly varying
compression, e.g., due to bending, the reduction factor can be expressed in
terms of the stress ratio ψ as:

ρ = (λ
p
- 0.15 - 0.05*ψ) / λ
p
P
2
P ....................................... (5.31)

Tables 5.1 and 5.2 give the effective width of compression elements for the
case of stiffened elements, e.g., girder webs, and unstiffened elements, e.g.,
girder flange, respectively.












Non-effective zone

Centroidal axis



e
M
Centroidal axis of
effective section

Figure 5.18 Effective Cross Section for Girder in Bending

For members in bending test results have shown that the effective widths
may be determined on the basis of stress distributions calculated using the
gross section modulus, Z
x
, even though the formation of "effective holes" in
the compression parts will shift the neutral axis of the effective cross-section as
shown in Fig. 5.18. An iterative process is not, therefore, necessary to compute
the effective section properties.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Table (5.1) Effective Width and Buckling Factor for Stiffened
Compression Elements
b
e1
b
e2
b
b
e1
b
b
e2
e
e
= /(1- )
b = 2 b /(5- )
b = 0.4 b
b
b
e1
= 0.6 b
e2
= b
e
c
b
b
= b
e2
e
= b
e1
e
b
b
e1
Stress Distribution
b b
e1 e2
b
1
Effective Width b for
e
e
= b
0.5
e1
b
b
= b
e2
0.5
b
= b
e
e
p
f f
2
f
1
f
2
1
f
f
2
b
c t
b
< 1
p
2
2 1
f f
Buckling
Factor
k
0 1 1> >0
8.2
1.05+
4.0
7.81
-1
23.9
0 > > -1
7.81-6.29 +9.78
2
-1> >-2
5.98(1- )
2
[(1+ ) + 0.112(1- ) ] +(1+ )
For 1 > > -1:
k
16
2
2 0.5
+
= ( -0.15 - 0.05 )/
















Steel Bridges


Table (5.2) Effective Width and Buckling Factor For Unstiffened
Compression Elements
0.43
t
b
Buckling factor k
c
0.57-0.21 0.57 0.85
1 >
+0.07
> 0:
b
e
b
e
b
c
e
b
>0
+ 0.34
Buckling factor 0.43 k
1
0.578
1>
+17.1 1.70
0
1.7-5
0 >
23.8
>-1 -1
c
Stress Distribution
= ( -0.15 -0.05 ) / < 1
Effective Width b for
p
e
2
p
b
e
c
b
e
c
b
c
1 > > 0:
e
b

In determining the effective width of compression elements in a given cross-
section, the following assumptions can be made:
1. To determine the effective width of flange plate, the stress ratio ψ may be
based on the properties of the gross cross -section.
2. To determine the effective width of the web plate, the stress ratio ψ may be
obtained using the effective area of the compression flange but the gross
area of the web.
3. Generally the centroidal axis of the effective cross section will shift by a
distance, e, measured from the centroidal axis of the gross cross section, see
Figure 5.18. This eccentricity should be considered when calculating the
properties of the effective cross-section.
4. When the cross section is subjected to an axial force, N, the stress
calculations shall take into account the additional moment Δ M= N * e
N
,
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


where e
N
= eccentricity of the centroidal axis when the effective cross
section is subjected to uniform compression.

The actual plate girder strength is therefore represented by:

1- For plates with low values of (b/t); i.e., λ < λ
o
, the strength is computed
directly from the yield strength divided by the appropriate safety factor.

2- For plates having higher values of (b/t), λ > λ
o
, the strength is computed
from the yield strength or the elastic buckling strength by applying the
effective width concept to account for the stress reduction due to residual
stresses and imperfections and the stress increase due to post-buckling.

Fig. 5.19 summarizes the strength of actual plates of varying slenderness. It
shows the reduction in strength due to residual stress and imperfections for
intermediate slender plates, region BC, and the increase due to post-buckling
strength for slender plates, region CD .

1.0
y
F
1.0
A
C
B
F
cr
D
Elastic Buckling
Post-Buckling Strength
Yield

Fig. 5.19 Actual Plate Buckling Strength in Compression

5.4 ACTUAL STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDER ELEMENTS

5.4.1 General

It has been shown in the preceding section that the strength of plates is
affected by local buckling when the plate slenderness ratio exceeds a limiting
value. These limiting values are:
λ
Steel Bridges


i) For flange plate under uniform compression:
y
lim
F / 21
t
b









ii) For web plate under pure bending:
y
lim
F / 190
t
d










iii) For web plate under pure shear:
y
lim
F / 105
t
d









Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the girder web plate or flange
plate exceeds the a.m. limit, the plate is considered a “slender” element whose
strength is affected by local buckling. This effect is considered in the design of
plate girder sections as follows:

5.4.2 Plate Girders Under Bending Moment:

Plate girders subjected to the action of bending moment should be designed
using the section modulus determined for the effective cross-sections as shown
in section 5.3.3.3 and Table 5.1 and 5.2. This means that the bending stress
computed from the familiar bending formula f
b
= Mx / Z
eff
should not exceed
the allowable bending stress value:

a) For the compression flange: the allowable bending stress is equal to 0.58 F
y

if the flange is laterally supported otherwise lateral torsional buckling
governs the design.

b) For the tension flange: Two checks have to be made:
i) the maximum tensile stress should not exceed 0.58 F
y

ii) the maximum stress range due to live load application should not exceed
the allowable fatigue stress range, as shown in section 3.3.

According to ECP 2001; for plate girders without longitudinal stiffeners:

a- The web plate thickness of plate girders without longitudinal stiffeners (with
or without transverse stiffeners) shall not be less than that detemined from:

t
w
≥ d
bc
f / 145 > d/120 …………………… (5.32)

b- Where the calculated compressive stress f
bc
equals the allowable bending
stress F
bc
, the thickness of the web plate shall not be less than:
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


t
w
≥ d Fy / 190 ……………………………. (5.33)

Grade
of

t
w

t  40 mm 40 mm < t  100

St 37 d/120 d/130
St 44 d/110 d/120
St 52 d/100 d/105

If the assumed web thickness is not sufficient to resist buckling due to
bending, the section strength can be increased by providing a thicker web. In
plate girders with practical proportions, the flanges carry most of the applied
bending moment, ~ 85 %, while the web carries all the shear force and a small
part of the moment, ~ 15 %. Therefore, increasing the web thickness to resist
bend-buckling is not effective. A more economic solution is usually achieved
by limiting the web plate thickness to the minimum value required to resist the
applied shear force. If this thickness is not sufficient for bend-buckling, the
plate buckling strength is increased by providing the web plate with
longitudinal stiffeners as shown in Fig. 5.20.
b
Section
b1
d
/
5
t
s
s
Elevation

Fig. 5.20 Web Plate with Longitudinal Stiffeners

A longitudinal stiffener essentially forces the web to buckle in a higher
mode by forming a nodal line in the buckled configuration, with waves much
shorter than those of the longitudinally unstiffened plate. Analytically, the
stiffener subdivides the plate into smaller sub-panels, thus increasing
considerably the stress at which the plate will buckle. Theoretical and
experimental studies have shown that the optimum location of one longitudinal
stiffener is at 0.2d from the compression flange. The presence of this stiffener
increases the plate buckling coefficient to 42.5 as compared to 23.9 for a
Steel Bridges


longitudinally unstiffened web, i.e., about 280 % increase in the elastic
buckling stress.

The corresponding slenderness limit for this case becomes:

y
lim
F / 320
t
d







................................................ (5.34)

According to ECP 2001; for Girders Stiffened Longitudinally:

a- The web plate thickness of plate girders with longitudinal stiffeners (with or
without transverse stiffeners), placed at d/5 to d/4 from compression flange,
shall not be less than that determined from:

t
w
≥ d
bc
f / 240 > d/240 …………………...… (5.35)

b- Where the calculated compressive stress f
bc
equals the allowable bending
stress F
bc
, the thickness of the web plate shall not be less than:

t
w
≥ d Fy / 320 …....………………………..…. (5.36)

Grade
of

t
w

t  40 mm 40 mm < t  100 mm
St 37 d/206 d/218
St 44 d/191 d/200
St 52 d/168 d/175

For deep webs, e.g., depth larger than ~ 2.5 meters, a single longitudinal
stiffener is usually not sufficient to prevent web buckling due to bending. The
buckling strength of such webs is further increased by providing multiple
longitudinal stiffeners in the region between the neutral axis and the
compression flange.

5.4.3 Web Plates Under Pure Shear:

The effect of residual stresses and imperfections on the shear buckling stress
of plate girder webs is treated in a different manner. Instead of considering an
effective section for the buckled plate, the critical buckling stress in shear as
calculated from Eqn. 5.21 is divided by a suitable factor of safety to give the
allowable buckling shear stress. This stress is empirically modified to allow for
residual stresses and imperfections. For plate girders with practical
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


proportions, an economic solution can be obtained in most cases by using a
thin web stiffened transversally by stiffeners as shown in Fig. 5.21.
d
1
d

Fig. 5.21 Web Plate with Transverse Stiffeners

Post Buckling Stress in Shear: For transversely stiffened girders where the
transverse stiffener spacing lies within the range 1 < a/d < 3, full account may
be taken of the considerable reserve of post-buckling resistance. This reserve
arises from the development of "tension field action" within the girder.

Figure 5.22 shows the development of tension field action in the individual
web panels of a typical girder. Once a web panel has buckled in shear, it loses
its resistance to carry additional compressive stresses. In this post-buckling
range, a new load-carrying mechanism is developed, whereby any additional
shear load is carried by an inclined tensile membrane stress field. This tension
field anchors against the top and bottom flanges and against the transverse
stiffeners on either side of the web panel, as shown. The load-carrying action
of the plate girder than becomes similar to that of the N-truss in Figure 5.22 b.
In the post-buckling range, the resistance offered by the web plates is
analogous to that of the diagonal tie bars in the truss. The total shear buckling
resistance for design is calculated by adding the post-buckling resistance to the
initial elastic buckling resistance.

In this case, the shear buckling factor k
q
, is computed from Eqn. 5.21
according to the value of α = d
1
/d and the slenderness parameter in shear λ
q
as
determined from Eqn. 5.28.
Steel Bridges



Fig. 5.22 Tension Field Action in Plate Girders

The calculation of the allowable shear buckling stress then depends, as
illustrated in Figure 5.23, upon whether the web is:

1. thick (λ
q
< 0.8 , region AB in Fig. 5.23) in which case the web will not
buckle and the shear stress at failure will reach the shear yield stress of the web
material:
q
b
= 0.35 * F
y
.................................... (5.37)

2. intermediate (0.8 < λ
q
< 1.2, region BC in Fig. 5.23) which represents a
transition stage from yielding to buckling action with the shear strength being
evaluated empirically from the following:

q
b
= (1.5 - 0,625 λ
q
) (0.35*F
y
) ................... (5.38)

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


3. slender or thin (λ
q
> 1.2, region CD in Figure 5.23) in which case the web
will buckle before it yields and a certain amount of post-buckling action is
taken into account empirically:

q
b
= (0.9 / λ
q
) (0.35*F
y
) ...................... (5.39)

In all cases the calculated shear stress q
act
should not exceed the allowable
buckling shear stress q
b .
















Fig. 5.23 Buckling Shear Stress

Web plate without transversal stiffeners: The web plate of a typically
unstiffened plate girder has a large aspect ratio α. For such a case, the
allowable buckling shear stress q
b
is obtained from the Eqn. 5.21 using a value
of k
q
= 5.34 as:

For (d/t) <159/ Fy : q
b
= [1.5 – (d/t) Fy / 212] [0.35 Fy] < 0.35Fy…..(5.40)


For (d/t) > 159/ Fy : q
b
= {119 / [ (d/t) Fy ] } {0.35 Fy}………………..(5.41)


The forgoing equations may require relatively thick webs making the
resulting design uneconomic.

Effect of Longitudinal Stiffeners on Shear Buckling

Both shear and bending strengths of a plate girder are increased by the
presence of a longitudinal stiffener. Its location is, therefore, a key factor that
2.0
q
y
q
0.75
y
q 3
y
= F
A
cr
q
q
C
Thick
webs
Thin
webs
1.0
0.8 1.2
0.8 0.8
>
q q
D
b
B
q
cr
Elastic Bucling
Post Buckling Strength
Steel Bridges


affects both. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the
optimum location of one longitudinal stiffener is at 0.2d from the compression
flange for bending and 0.5d for shear. It is important to note that these criteria
for location of the stiffeners are based on elastic buckling considerations. The
longitudinal stiffener may be more effective in contributing to the ultimate
strength of the plate girder under combined bending and shear if placed
somewhere between 0.2d and 0.5d from the compression edge of the web. In
bridge design practices, 0.2d has been adopted as the standard location for a
longitudinal stiffener. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that
the contribution of the longitudinal stiffener placed at 0.2d to the shear
buckling stress is relatively small and is usually neglected, see Fig. 5.24.














Fig. 5.24 Effect of Longitudinal Stiffeners on Shear Buckling

5.4.4 INTERACTION BETWEEN SHEAR AND BENDING

In general, any cross-section of a plate girder will be subjected to bending
moment in addition to shear. This combination makes the stress conditions in
the girder web considerably more complex. The stresses from the bending
moment will combine with the shear stresses to give a lower buckling load.
The interaction between shear and bending can be conveniently represented by
the diagram shown in Fig. 5.25, where the allowable bending stress is plotted
on the vertical axis and the allowable buckling shear stress of the girder is
plotted horizontally. The interaction represents a failure envelope, with any
point lying on the curve defining the co-existent values of shear and bending
that the girder can just sustain. The equation representing this interaction
diagram is:

F
b
= [ 0.8 - 0.36 (q
act
/ q
b
)] F
y
............................................ (5.42)
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


The interaction diagram can be considered in 3 regions. In region AB, the
applied shear stress q
act
is low (< 0.6 q
b
) and the girder can sustain the full
bending stress F
b
based on the effective width b
eff
for the compression flange
At the other extreme of the interaction diagram in region CD, the applied shear
stress is high (= q
b
) then the allowable bending stress is reduced to 0.44 F
y
to
allow for the high shear. In the intermediate region BC the allowable bending
stress is reduced linearly from 0.58 F
y
to 0.44 F
y
.

Shear Stress
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

0.44 F
y
0.58 F
y
0.6 q
b
q
b
A
B
C
D

Fig. 5.25 Interaction between Shear and Bending

5.5 Flange Plate Curtailment:

Welded girders offer more flexibility than design with rolled sections. Since
the total design moment varies along the girder span, flange plates of varying
thicknesses, and sometimes of varying widths, may be butt welded to provide a
section strength that closely approximates the variation in bending moment.
Theoretical locations at which flange-plate thickness or width may be changed
along the girder length can be determined as follows; Fig. 5.26(a):
1. The resisting moments of the girder with several selected flange plate
areas are calculated.
2. The above values of the resisting moments are super-imposed on the
graph of the total design moment. This plot is then used to determine
the required length of each size flange plate.
Steel Bridges


(b) Transition in Thickness
(c) Transition in Width
Welded
Joint
4
1
2
M
3
2
M
M
1
(a) Moment of Resistant Diagram
1
2
4
60°
Z
1
3
Z
Z
2

Fig. 5.26 Curtailment of Flange Plates

The actual changes in flange plate thickness or width are made near
theoretical locations. Although a minimum steel weight results from such
changes, an excessive number of changes should be avoided since the cost of
making and testing the necessary butt welds increases the over-all cost of the
fabricated girder. For a simple span, the flange is usually made from three
plates of two sizes; a center plate covering 40 - 60 % of the span, and two
plates butt-welded to the center plate.

When flange plates of different thicknesses are butt-welded, design codes
require a uniform transition slope between the offset surfaces not exceeding
1 in 4, Fig. 5.26(b). If plates of different widths are joined, the wider plate
must taper into the narrower plate with the same slope or with a radius of 60
cm, Fig. 5.26(c).


Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


5.6 DESIGN DETAILS

Having designed the main girder to resist the action of applied loads, the
next step in the design of plate girder bridges is to design various details
needed to arrive at a complete bridge. These details include:

1. Connection between web and flange plates.
2. Stiffeners.
3. Splices
4. Lateral Bracings.
5. Bearings.

These details are governed in the next sections.

5.7 FLANGE-TO-WEB CONNECTION:

The connection between the flange plate and the web plate is usually
executed using fillet welds on both sides of the web plate. This weld should be
designed to transmit the horizontal shear flow between web and flange plate at
any point along the girder plus any load applied directly to the flange.

Shear Effect:

The effect of horizontal shear flow between the web and the flange can be
considered with reference to Fig. 5.27 as follows:
Q
act
act


Fig. 5.27 Horizontal Shear Flow between Web and Flange




Steel Bridges


Horizontal shear/unit length = shear flow

τ
act
= Q
act
S
f
/ I .................................................... (5.43)
Where
Q
act
= shear force,
S
f
= first moment of area of flange about neutral axis,
I = moment of inertia about neutral axis.

If the allowable shear stress in welds is q
w
, then the weld size s can be
calculated from the equation:

weld strength = q
w
* (2 s) ≥ τ
act
......................... (5.44)

i.e., weld size s ≥ τ
act
/ 2 q
w
............................... (5.45)

Direct Load Effect:

In deck bridges where the wheel loads are transmitted to the girder web
through the direct contact between the girder flange and the web, the flange-to-
web weld is also subjected to a vertical load in addition to the horizontal shear
stress. The direct load in railroad deck bridges, where sleepers rest on the top
flange, is taken as the train wheel load (12.5 ton) plus impact distributed over
one meter. For flanges carrying ballasted decks, the train wheel load may be
assumed distributed over 1.5 meter. In roadway deck bridges, the truck wheel
load (10 ton) plus impact is distributed over a length of 1 meter.
w
/
m
'
R
w


Fig. 5.28 Direct Load Effect on Flange-to-Web Weld

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


The effect of these external loads should be superimposed on the a.m. shear
stresses. If the external direct load per unit length of flange is w, the resultant
shear on the weld shall be, see Fig. 5.28:


2 2
R
w + τ = τ ................................................ (5.46)

and the weld size is computed from:

s > τ
R
/ 2 q
w
................................................... (5.47)

The calculated weld size (s) should satisfy the following requirements:

1. The maximum size of fillet weld should not exceed the thickness of the
thinner plate to be welded.
2. The minimum size of fillet welds as related to the thickness of the
thicker part to be joined is shown in the following table:


t (max. of t
1
or t
2
)
(mm)
Size s
(mm)
< 10 ≥ 4
10-20 ≥ 5
20 - 30 ≥ 6
30-50 ≥ 8
50-100 ≥10

Cover-plated sections:

For economic design, the cross-section of the main girder is usually changed
along the bridge length according to the structural requirements.

A flange may comprise a series of plates joined end-to-end by full
penetration welds. Three schemes can be used to accomplish changes in the
flange plate areas:
a) varying the thickness of the flange plates, Fig. 5.26b
b) varying the width of the flange plates, Fig. 5.26c, or
c) adding cover plates at regions of high moment, Fig. 5.29.

Proper connection in the region of cover plate cut-off presents a some what
special case of the previous procedure. Welds connecting a cover plate to a
flange should be continuous and capable of transmitting the horizontal shear
between the cover plate and the flange. The “theoretical end” of the cover plate
1
t
t
2
Steel Bridges


is the section at which the stress in the flange without that plate equals the
allowable stress. The “terminal distance” is the extension of the cover plate
beyond the theoretical end. Welds connecting the cover plate to the flange
within the terminal distance should be of sufficient size to develop the
computed stress in the cover plate at its theoretical end. This distance can be
calculated as follows; see Fig. 5.29:
x
B
1
A
2


Fig. 5.29 Weld at Cover Plate End

Let point A be the theoretical end of the cover plate A
2
with a girder having
a continuous flange A
1
. The size of weld connecting the cover plate to the
flange plate can be computed from shear flow considerations as:

Horizontal shear / unit length = q
c
= Q x S
c
/ I ............... (5.48)

where S
c
= first moment of area of cover plate about neutral axis.

Weld strength = q
w
x(2 s) > q
c
................................... (5.49)

i.e., weld size = s > q
c
/ 2 q
w
.................................... (5.50)

Let ∆x be the terminal distance of the cover plate extending from point A to
point B. The shear force between the cover plate and the flange is equal to the
resultant force in the cover plate, i.e.,


) x 2 ( * s * q A * P P
w 2 A 2 2
∆ ≤ = = ∆ f
................................. (5.51)
i.e.
w
2 A
q s 2
A
x
f
= ∆
...................................................... (5.52)
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


5.8 STIFFENERS:

In section 5.4, it was found that different types of stiffeners were needed to
increase the buckling strength of plate girder webs. In particular, longitudinal
stiffeners were used to increase the bend-buckling strength while transverse
stiffeners were used to increase the shear buckling strength. In order for these
stiffeners to effectively perform these functions, they should be adequately
designed as shown in the following sections:

5.8.1 Longitudinal Stiffeners

Where required, ((d/t) > 190/ Fy ), a longitudinal stiffener, Fig. 5.30,
should be attached to the web at a distance d/5 from the inner surface of the
compression flange measured to the center of the stiffener when it is a plate or
to the gage line when it is an angle. Longitudinal stiffeners are usually placed
on one side of the web. They need not be continuous, and they may be cut at
their intersection with the transverse stiffeners when both are provided on the
same side of the web.
b
Section
b1
d
/
5
t
s
s
Elevation

Fig. 5.30 Web Plate with Longitudinal Stiffeners
The primary function of the longitudinal stiffener is to increase the bend
buckling strength of the web plate. To perform this function efficiently, a
longitudinal stiffener must meet the following requirements:

1. Because the resistance to bend buckling is increased as a consequence of
higher buckling mode owing to the presence of a longitudinal stiffener,
it should be sufficiently stiff to maintain a longitudinal node in the
buckled web. For this reason, the stiffener should be proportioned so
that it has the following minimum value of its inertia:

I ≥ 4d
w
t
w
P
3
P ......................................................... (5.53)
Steel Bridges


where I = moment of inertia, cmP
4
P, of longitudinal stiffener about the edge
in contact with web,

If a second longitudinal stiffener is needed at the neutral axis; i.e., when
((d/t) > 320/ Fy ), its inertia should not be less than d
w
t
w
P
3.

2. To avoid local buckling of the stiffener, it must meet the width-thickness
limit of non-compact compression elements; i.e., b
s
/t
s
≤ 21 / Fy

3. The computed bending stress in the stiffener should not exceed the
allowable bending stress for the stiffener steel.

5.8.2 Transverse stiffeners

Transverse stiffeners, Fig. 5.31, should be used where d
w
/ t
w
exceeds the
value given in Eqn. 5.22; i.e.


y
lim
F / 105
t
d







................................................. (5.54)

or when the actual shear stress exceeds the allowable shear stress given by
Eqn. 5.29,5.30:

For (d/t) <159/ Fy : q
b
= [1.5 – (d/t) Fy / 212] [0.35 Fy] < 0.35F
y

(5.55)

For (d/t) > 159/ Fy : q
b
= {119 / [ (d/t) Fy ] } {0.35 F
y
} ………..……
(5.56)

5.8.2.1 Cross Sections

Transversal stiffeners are usually fabricated of plates welded to the girder
web. They may be used in pairs (one stiffener welded on each side of the web)
with a tight fit at the compression flange. When a concentrated load is applied
on the plate girder flange, transverse stiffeners in pairs are required to prevent
crippling in the web immediately adjacent to the concentrated load. These
stiffeners are designed as bearing stiffeners, see 5.8.3.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges
























Fig 5.31 Transverse Stiffeners

Alternatively, transverse stiffeners may be made of single plates welded to
only one side of the web plate. In this case they must be in bearing against the
compression flange (to prevent its twisting) but need not be attached to the
compression flange to be effective. When only single stiffeners are used, it is
usual to place them on the inside face of the web for aesthetic reasons. In some
cases a stiffener may be used as a connecting plate for a cross frame or a lateral
support (see sec. 5.10 bridge bracings), which could result in out-of-plane
movement in the welded flange-to-web connection. In such cases, attachment
of the stiffener to the compression flange may be necessary and the connection
should be adequately designed to transmit the lateral force developed at the
connection. Transverse stiffeners need not be in bearing with the tension
flange, but they should be terminated within a distance of four to six times the
web thickness from the tension flange. Transverse stiffeners should not be
welded to the tension flange to avoid fatigue problems, see sec. 5.7.




Steel Bridges


5.8.2.2 Design Considerations:

The primary function of the transverse stiffener is to increase the shear
buckling strength of the web plate. To perform this function efficiently, the
stiffener must meet the following requirements:

1. Stiffeners should project a distance b
s
from the web of:

a) at least b
f
/ 4, where b
f
is the flange width and

b) at least (d
w
/ 30 + 5) cm for stiffeners on both sides of the web, or
(d
w
/30 + 10) cm for stiffeners on one side only, where d
w
is the girder
depth, cm.

2. To avoid local buckling of the stiffener, it must meet the width-thickness
limit of compression elements; i.e., b
s
/t
s
≤ 21 / Fy

3. Intermediate transverse stiffeners should be designed to resist a force C
s

equal to:

. act
b
y
s
Q ) 1
q
F 35 . 0
( 65 . 0 C − = …………………………..(5.57)

where q
b
= allowable buckling stress , Q
act
actual shear force at stiffener
location. A part of the web equal to 25 times the web thickness may be
considered to act with the stiffener area in the design of the intermediate
stiffener.

4. Transverse stiffeners should be designed as a compression member with
a buckling length of 0.8d
w
.

5. The connection between the transverse stiffener and the web should be
designed on the stiffener design force such that the weld in either the
upper or the lower thirds of the stiffeners should transform the design
force.

Welding of the stiffener across the compression flange provides stability to
the stiffener and holds it perpendicular to the web. In addition, such welding
provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange of the
girder. For situations where the stiffener serves as the attachment for lateral
bracing, the weld to the compression flange should be designed to transmit a
force that equals 1 percent of the compression force in the flange.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Welding of stiffeners perpendicular to the tension flange should be avoided
because a severe fatigue condition may be created, see section 3.3. In
situations where the stiffener has to be connected to the tension flange, the
weld is made parallel to the tensile stress direction as shown in Fig.5.32.
Intermediate stiffeners should be terminated not closer than 4 times the web
thickness from the tension flange. To prevent web crippling, however, the
distance between stiffener-web connection and face of tension flange should
not exceed 6 times the web thickness.



Fig 5.32 Welding of Transverse Stiffener to Tension Flange

5.8.3 Bearing Stiffeners

Bearing stiffeners, Fig. 5.33, are required where concentrated loads are to be
transmitted to the web through flanges. Such locations are:
a) end bearings and intermediate supports of plate girders where the
bottom flanges receive the reactions,
b) points of concentrated loads applied to the top girder flange.

The function of these stiffeners is to distribute reactions or concentrated
loads into the web to create web shear. Additionally they prevent the
possibility of local crippling and/or vertical buckling of the web.
Steel Bridges


12 tw
End
25 tw
Intermediate
(a) TWO Plates (b) FOUR Plates
12.5 tw
Intermediate
12.5 tw
6 tw 6 tw
End
Elevation
Section

Fig 4.33 Bearing Stiffeners

To effectively perform these functions, bearing stiffeners should be
sufficiently stiff against buckling. Therefore, it is preferred to have bearing
stiffeners consisting of plates provided in pairs (i.e., placed on both sides of the
web), and their connection with the web should be designed to transmit the
entire reaction to the bearings. They must bear firmly on the flanges (i.e., fit
tightly against the loaded flanges) through which they receive the reaction (or
the concentrated load), and extend as far possible to the outer edges of the
flanges. The ends of bearing stiffeners must be milled to fit against the flange
through which they receive their reactions.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


To provide space for continuous fillet welds at the girder web-flange
connection, the side corner on one edge of the stiffeners must be clipped to
ensure tight fit against the flange. This results in a reduced contact area
between the stiffener and the loaded flange. This reduced contact area of the
stiffener should be adequate to transmit the reaction without exceeding the
permitted bearing stress on either the flange material or the stiffener material.

Design Considerations:

Bearing stiffeners are designed as concentrically loaded columns. A portion
of the web extending longitudinally on both sides of the bearing stiffeners is
considered participating in carrying the reaction. Depending on the magnitude
of the reaction to be transmitted, the design may require two (one on each side
of the web) or four or more stiffeners (symmetrically placed about the web).
The cross sectional area of the fictitious column is defined as follows:

1. when two stiffener plates are provided, the column section consists of
the two stiffener plates and a centrally loaded strip of the web equal to
12 t
w
for bearing stiffeners at girder ends and 25 t
w
for bearing stiffeners
at interior supports

2. If there are four or more stiffener plates, the column section consists of
the areas of all stiffener plates and a centrally loaded strip of the web
plate whose width is equal to that enclosed by the stiffener plates plus a
width equal to 12 t
w
for bearing stiffeners at girder ends and 25 tw for
bearing stiffeners at interior supports.

a) Buckling Check: The actual compressive stress in the fictitious column
should not exceed the allowable buckling stress of the stiffener cross section
considered to act as a column with a buckling length of 0.8 d
w
. The radius of
gyration of the section is computed about the axis through the center of the
web.

b) Compression Check: The compressive stress in the stiffener plate alone
should be less than the allowable stress in compression for the stiffener steel.

c) Bearing Check: The calculated stress on the actual contact area between
the stiffener and the bottom flange should not exceed the allowable bearing
stress. According to ECP: F
bearing
= 2 F
t
, where F
t
is the allowable tensile
stress of the material.

Steel Bridges


Connections of bearing stiffeners to the web should be designed to transmit
the concentrated load, or reaction, to the web

5.9 SPLICES:

Apart from the simplest of bridges, with relatively short spans, the main
girders of bridges are made up of elements connected together in the
fabricating shop. For example, a plate girder is normally fabricated by welding
together top and bottom flanges, web plates and stiffeners. Normally, as much
of the fabrication as possible is carried out in the fabricating shop as shown in
Fig. 5.34.


Fig. 5.34 Plate Girder Assembly Sequence
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


However, due to the reasons given below, most bridges consist of a number
of sub-assemblies connected together at site. Consequently, site connections,
referred to as splices, are required between sections of the main girders where
these cannot be delivered to site and erected in one piece.

Splices for girders should be avoided whenever possible. However, there are
conditions when splicing of girders is unavoidable. One is the available length
of plates and shapes; another is the length limit imposed by the transportation
facilities from the fabricating shop to the site of the structure. Occasionally, the
capacity of the erecting crane may set the maximum weight of one piece to be
handled. The maximum length of plates obtainable from local mills is 6 meters
while the maximum length of rolled shapes is 12 meters. Transportation
facilities vary greatly with local conditions. Where good highways lead from
the fabricating shop to the site, special arrangement can be made to transport
long and heavy pieces. Where direct railroad transportation is used, the length
of the pieces is governed by tunnel and bridge clearances, especially on curves.
Sometimes it is a matter of balancing the extra cost of splice against the
additional cost of transporting heavier and longer pieces.

The location of splices has a major influence on the economics of the design,
fabrication and erection of bridges. In addition, the detailing of splices
influences the fatigue and corrosion resistance of a bridge.

The designer must always, from initial concept through design and analysis
to final detailing of the bridge, keep the connections in mind. At all stages he
must know where the connections will be, how they will be designed and
detailed, how they will be fabricated and when they will be fitted together.

The relative position and orientation of the elements to be joined can make
the difference between a straightforward, effective connection and one that is
difficult to design, detail, fabricate and erect. It is for this reason that the
connections should be considered at an early stage in the design process.

5.9.1 TYPES OF SPLICE

There are two basic methods of making splices. Welding, using butt welds
or fillet welds, and bolting, see Fig. 5.35. Where the main elements of the
splice can be connected together with full strength butt welds, the design is
simple and the effect of any loss of section due to the bolt holes does not arise.



Steel Bridges




a) Welded Splice

b) Bolted Splice

Fig. 5.35 Plate Girder Splices

When making a decision as to whether welding or bolting is to be used, the
following are some of the points that should be considered:
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Aesthetics: Butt-welded connections are normally less obtrusive than bolted
connections.

Access: Adequate and safe access is required for both methods of connection;
but protection from wind and rain is also required for satisfactory welding.

Temporary support: The support of the member while the connection is being
made has to be considered. This is particularly significant in a welded splice,
where the location and alignment of the elements to be spliced must be
maintained during welding. This often requires the use of temporary erection
cleats and, if these are welded, the effect of the welding needs to be taken into
account when making any fatigue checks (even if they are removed after
erection).

Corrosion: Particular care is required to ensure that the corrosion protection
prevents rusting between the plates in a bolted connection and that the weld
area is properly cleaned before painting in a welded connection. Both types of
connection should then perform adequately as far as resistance to corrosion is
concerned.

Details: Bolted cover plate splices take up additional space, compared with
butt welded splices. This could be a problem, for example, where deck plates
are fixed to top flanges, particularly when a relatively thin wearing surface is
to be applied to the deck plates.

Cost: The cost of the various options should also be taken into account when
making decisions regarding the type and position of connections.

5.9.2 Welded Splices:

Welded Splices are usually made in the fabricating shop and therefore are
called Shop Splices. The locations of these splices are usually dictated by the
available plate lengths. Web and flange plates are usually spliced in the
workshop by full penetration butt welds of the V-type, Fig. 5.36. For thicker
plates, usually above 20 mm, a double V weld is used to reduce the amount of
welding and to balance the welding on both sides and thus eliminating angular
distortions.

In large girders, web and flange plates may be formed of plates of various
widths or thicknesses that are butt-welded together along both transverse and
longitudinal seams. When plates of different thicknesses are butt-welded,
design codes require a uniform transition slope between the offset surfaces not
Steel Bridges


exceeding 1 in 4, Fig. 5.36(a). If plates of different widths are joined, the wider
plate must taper into the narrower plate with the same slope or with a radius of
60 cm, Fig. 5.36(b).
(a) Transition in Thickness
(b) Transition in Width
4
2
2
60°
1
Joint
Welded
4
1
flange splice
w
e
b

s
p
l
i
c
e
flange splice
Double V Weld

Fig 5.36 Welded Splices

All details of welding procedures should be arranged to minimize distortion
and residual stresses. All important welds, particularly field welds, should be
inspected by one of the following weld inspection methods:










Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Table 5.3 Characteristics of Common Weld Inspection Methods
Inspection
Method
Characteristics and
Applications
Limitations
Visual (VT)
Most common, most
economical. Particularly
good for single pass.
Detects surface imperfections
only.
Dye
Penetrant
(DPT)
Will detect tight cracks,
open to surface.
Detects surface imperfections
only.
Deep weld ripples and scratches
may give false indications.
Magnetic
Particle
(MT)
Will detect surface and
subsurface cracks to ~ 2
mm depth with proper
magnetization.
Indications can be
preserved on clear plastic
tape.
Requires relatively smooth
surface.
Careless use of magnetization
prods may leave false indications.
Radiographi
c (RT)
Detects porosity, slag,
voids, irregularities, lack
of fusion.
Film negative is
permanent record.
Detects must occupy more than ~
1.2 % of thickness to register.
Only cracks partial to impinging
beam register.
Radiation hazards.
Ultrasonic
(UT)
Detects cracks in any
orientation, Slag, lack of
fusion, inclusions,
lamellar tears, voids.
Can detect a favorably
oriented planar reflector
smaller than 1mm.
Regularly calibrate on 1
½ mm dia. drilled hole.
Can scan almost any
commercial thickness.
Surface must be smooth,
Equipment must be frequently
calibrated.
Operator must be qualified.
Exceedingly coarse grains will
give false indications.
Certain geometric configurations
give false indication of flaws.

5.9.3 Bolted Splices

Splices made in the field are called Field Splices and are usually made using
bolts because of the difficulty sometimes encountered in field welding. The
location of field splices is usually dictated by length limits imposed by the
available transportation facilities, or by weight limits imposed by the capacity
of the erecting cranes.
Steel Bridges


Untorqued, bearing bolts in normal (2mm) clearance holes are not generally
used for splices in bridges. In most splices the deformation associated with slip
into bearing would be unacceptable. To avoid the slip, fitted bolts, in close
tolerance holes, or High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts are required, Fig.
5.37. Generally HSFG bolts are used, since this avoids the need to match and
ream the holes. The pretensioning of the bolts also improves their fatigue life
and prevents the nuts working loose due to vibration.



Fig. 5.37 Example of Bolted Splice

5.9.4 DESIGN

The most straightforward procedure for the design of a splice is to consider
the load paths by which the forces are transmitted through the splice. The load
paths must be sufficient to carry all the applied forces, moments and shears.
The load paths must be complete and in equilibrium, i.e., there must be no
weak or missing links. They should be as direct as possible.

Splices should be designed to carry the maximum bending resistance of the
girder section and the actual shear force at the splice location.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


The following points must be considered in the design and detailing of
splices:

1- Care is required to ensure that the worst combinations of moments and
forces that can occur at the splices are used for their design. They are not
necessarily the moment and forces used for the design of the members.
It follows that the moments and forces supplied by a computer program
for the design of the members may not be sufficient for the design of the
connections.
2- The centroidal axes of members (and elements of members) should
intersect wherever possible. If it is not possible, the effects of any
eccentricity should be taken into account in the design.
3- Wherever practicable, the centroidal axis of the splice material should
coincide with the centroidal axis of the elements joined. If this is not
possible, the effect of any eccentricity should be considered in the
design.
4- When a section changes at a splice location, the smaller section should
be used in calculations.
5- Avoid severe stress concentrations. This is particularly important where
fatigue could be a problem.
6- When friction type bolts are to be used, adequate clearances must be
provided to allow the use of suitable tightening tools.
7- When shims or packs are needed, for example, where there is a change
of flange plate thickness, it is essential that the surfaces of the packs or
shims comply with the requirements assumed for the faying surfaces in
the design.
8- When the bridge girder is continuous, the splices are usually positioned
near to where the inflection point (zero moment) would be if the bridge
were subjected to uniform loading. The maximum moment (and shear)
that the splice can be subjected to under the possible loading patterns
must be determined.

5.9.4.1 Bolted Web Splice

The girder web transmits primarily shearing stresses, and web splices are
most efficiently located at points of small shear, although practical
requirements may dictate otherwise. In general, the shear force to be spliced in
the web is much smaller than the shear capacity of the web. Most bolted web
splices, except those for very heavy girders, are controlled by minimum
dimension requirements rather than stress computations. For example, two
splice plates are usually employed one on each side of the web; the splice
plates must have not less than the minimum thickness; and must be extended
Steel Bridges


the entire depth of the girder from flange to flange. In all cases the net section
through the splice plates must provide the required area to resist the shear and
the required section modulus to resist the bending moment safely.

When a web splice is to transmit a pure shear Q (without any moment at the
splice location), the bolts should be designed to resist a force Q applied at the
centroid of the bolt group, Fig. 5.38. This means that the bolts should be
designed to transmit load Q, with an eccentricity e. When the depth d of the
web is much greater than the eccentricity e, the design is often made for a
direct shear Q, neglecting the eccentricity. In this case for a given bolt
diameter, the bolt resistance R is known, and the required number of bolts is
simply Q/R.

If, In addition to shear Q, there is a moment M at the splice section, then the
portion of the total moment carried by the web must be transmitted by the web
splice. This moment ,M
w
, is obtained as: M
w
= M I
w
/ I
g
, where I
w
and
I
g
= net moments of inertia of web and girder, respectively.

The splice is then designed to resist a shear force Q plus a bending moment
M
s
= Q * e + M
w
. A check is then made of the resulting force in the extreme
bolt and the bending stress in the splice plate.

5.9.4.2 Bolted Flange Splice

Girders flanges carry normal stresses due to bending moment, and therefore
whenever possible, for economy of material, flange splices should be located
at sections other than those of maximum moment. The flange splice is
designed to carry that portion of the total design moment not carried by the
web splice. The flange splice plates transmit the moment couple across the
splice in axial tension or compression, and into the girder flange by double
shear on bolts, see Fig. 5.38b:

Bolt Design: Flange splice moment = M
f
= M - M
w
............................ (5.58)
Flange couple C = T = M
f /
d ........................................... (5.59)
Number of splice bolts = T / R
least
...................................... (5.50)
where R
least
is the bolt resistance.

Splice Plate Design:
The net section of the splice plates is designed to carry the flange force T.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


e
(b) Two Gauge Lines
(a) One Gauge Line
Flange Splice
I
n
s
i
d
e

P
l
a
t
e
Splice Elevation
Q
Plate
Outside
Fill as required
Outside
Plate
M


Fig 5.38 Bolted Splice of Plate Girder

5.10 BRIDGE BRACINGS

A bridge is actually a space structure that not only carries the vertical
gravity loads to the supporting piers and abutments, but also resists:

a) Transversal loads caused by wind, seismic and centrifugal loads,
b) Longitudinal loads caused by braking and thermal effects.

Steel Bridges


The analysis and design of the bridge is usually simplified by breaking it
down into planar and linear components, such as stringers, cross girders, main
girders and bracing systems. The effect of vertical loads on bridge elements
has been presented in the preceding sections. In this section, the effect of
transversal loads due to wind on bridge elements is presented.

5.10.1 Transmission of Wind Loads

The horizontal wind pressure on the bridge is assumed to be transmitted to
the bridge supports using suitable systems of bracings. In general it may
consist of Upper, Lower, and Transversal bracing as shown in Fig. 5.39. The
wind load is assumed to be carried to the bridge supports as follows:
Upper
Bracing
Lower
Bracing
Cross
Frame


Fig. 5.39 Bridge Bracings

5.10.2) In deck bridges

a) The wind load on the upper half of the web of the exterior girder as well as
that on the live load on the bridge is assumed to be carried by a horizontal
bracing truss in the plane of the top flange to the span ends. The flanges serve
as the chords of the lateral bracing truss, and are connected together by the
cross girders plus a system of diagonal members. The diagonal members may
be single or double diagonals, or may be of the K- type, see Fig. 5.40. In a
deck bridge provided with a deck slab, the slab may be assumed to act as a
horizontal diaphragm transmitting wind loads to the span ends. In this case the
bracing truss is needed only temporarily during erection before the slab
hardens.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Fig. 5.40 Lateral Bracing Truss Systems

b) The wind load on the lower half of the web of the exterior girder of a deck
bridge is usually much smaller in value than that on the top flange (being the
unloaded chord) and thus may not need a complete lateral truss. Instead, wind
load on the bottom flange may be transmitted to the upper plane using:
a) intermediate cross frames (Fig. 5.41),
b) intermediate inverted U-frames (Fig.5.42), or
c) intermediate diaphragms (Fig. 5.43)

In addition, these intermediate systems facilitate erection and serve also to
brace the compression flange of the girder. According to ECP 2001, lateral
bracing of the compression flange of deck girders should be designed for a
transverse shear in any panel equal to 2.0 % of the total axial stress in the
flange in that panel, in addition to the shear from specified lateral forces.

Intermediate cross frames and diaphragms should be spaced at intervals up
to 8 meters. They should be placed in all bays. Cross frames should be as deep
as practicable. The angle of cross frame diagonals with the vertical should not
exceed 60 degrees.

In order to transmit the end reactions of upper bracings to the bridge
supports, end cross frames are provided at the bridge ends and over interior
supports.

5.10.3) In Through bridges

Neither cross bracings nor top lateral bracing can be used in most cases of
through plate girder bridges. Furthermore, the top flange is subjected to
compression in regions of positive moments and therefore must be braced to
prevent its lateral buckling. Lateral bracings are normally located near the
bottom flanges. These flanges thus also serve as the chords of the lateral
bracing truss, and are connected together by the floor beams plus a system of
diagonals. In such regions, the top compression flange should be stiffened
against lateral deformation with solid web knee brackets as shown in Fig.
5.44. The brackets should be attached securely to the top flanges of the bridge
(b) double diagonals (a) single diagonals (c) K-bracing
Steel Bridges


cross girders and to stiffeners on the main girders. They should be as wide as
clearance permits and should be extended to the top flange of the main girder.





Fig. 5.41 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges - Intermediate Cross frames


B
r
a
c
k
e
t
XG
B
r
a
c
k
e
t


Fig. 5.42 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges - Intermediate U- frames


Fig. 5.43 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges - Intermediate Diaphragms

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


These knee brackets are designed to carry the share of wind loads on the
bridge main girder and the moving live load (truck or train). When the bracket
is also used to support the compression flange against lateral torsional
buckling, it should be designed to carry additionally a stability force that is
equal to 2 % of the flange compression force.

Y
R
S
M
w

/

m
'
S
XG
Bracket
S
X
Sec S-S
Y
S
X
b
b

Fig. 5.44 Knee Bracket for Through Bridges

Steel Bridges


5.11 BRIDGE BEARINGS

Bearings are needed in bridges to fulfill the following functions:
1- transfer forces from one part of the bridge to another, usually from the
superstructure to the substructure;
2- allow movement (translation along and/or rotation about any set of axes)
of one part of the bridge in relation to another;

The main sources of movements in a bridge are due to temperature changes
and axial and bending strains arising from applied loads. In general, it is not
recommended to fully restrain a bridge against temperature movements. This
becomes obvious if we consider a steel plate girder of cross sectional area 500
cmP
2
P. If this girder is subjected to a 30P
o
P C rise in temperature and is restrained
from expanding axially, an axial stress of E α ΔT = (1.2*10P
-5
P) *2100*30 =
0.756 t/cmP
2
P is induced in the girder. The corresponding restraining force
required is 0.756*500 = 378 ton. Neither the girder nor its supporting structure
can carry such a force. Movements caused by bending strains arise from the
rotation of the member around the hinged bearing that is always located at a
distance from the neutral axis of the member.

To achieve the required degrees of freedom of movement, a complete
bearing usually consists of several components, each permitting a particular
movement, the sum of which is the total freedom required. This can be
achieved by using any of the following bearing types:

5.11.1 TYPES OF BEARINGS

Bearings may be classified according to their deformation behavior into
three basic types: a) fixed bearings,
b) hinged bearings,
c) expansion bearings.

a) A fixed-end bearing completely restrains the member end from
translation and rotation. It is capable of supplying a vertical and a horizontal
reaction plus a restraining moment. Considering the expense of fixing a heavy
steel member at the ends, the use of such a bearing is usually limited to sites
having very strong rocky soils. Typical applications of this type of bearings are
found at supports of arch bridges and sloping leg frames bridges.

b) A hinged bearing will permit rotation of the member ends, and this is
usually accomplished by a pin, see Fig. 5.45. Hinges carrying heavy vertical
loads are normally provided with lubrication systems to reduce friction and
ensure free rotation without excessive wearing.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges












Fig. 5.45 Examples of Hinged Bearing

c) Expansion bearings permit movement as well as rotation of the
superstructure. They are usually provided in two forms: the sliding type and
the rolling type. Sliding type bearings are used only for short spans and small
loads since they cause high friction forces between the sliding plates. Rolling-
type bearings achieve their translational movement by using cylindrical rollers,
see Fig. 5.46.



Fig.5.46 Roller Bearings


Bearings may also be classified according to the material used in their
fabrication into:
a) steel bearings,
b) elastomeric bearings,

A brief description of each of these types is given next.


Steel Bridges


5.11.2 STEEL BEARINGS

i) Roller Bearings

Roller bearings consist essentially of one or more steel cylinders between
parallel upper and lower plates, see Fig. 5.47. Gearing or some other form of
guidance should be provided to ensure that the axis of the roller is maintained
in the desired orientation during the life of the bearing. Roller bearings with a
single cylinder can permit translation parallel to the longitudinal bridge axis
and rotation about a horizontal axis in the transversal direction. Multiple
cylinders on the other hand require another element such as a rocker or a
knuckle bearing to permit rotation.

ii) Rocker Bearings

Rocker bearings consist primarily of a curved surface in contact with a flat or
curved surface and constrained to prevent relative horizontal movement, see
Fig. 5.47. The curved surface may be cylindrical or spherical to permit rotation
about one or more axes. Rocker bearings on their own do not permit translation
and are usually used at the fixed end of a bridge to complement roller bearings.
They can also permit rotation by the rolling of one part over another.

iii) Knuckle Pin Bearing

Knuckle pin bearings consist of a steel pin housed between an upper and a
lower support each having a curved surface which mates with the pin, see Fig.
5.47. Transversal lateral loads may be transmitted by flanges on the ends of the
pin. This type of bearing permits rotation by the sliding of one part on the
other.

iv) Leaf Pin Bearing

Leaf bearings consist of a pin passing through a number of interleaved plates
fixed alternatively to the upper and lower bearing plates, see Fig. 5.47. They
permit only rotational movements, but can be used in conjunction with roller
bearings to provide rotation and translation.





Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges























Fig. 5.47 Steel Bearings: Roller , Rocker, Knuckle Pin, and Leaf Pin




Steel Bridges


5.11.3 ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS

The main component of elastomeric bearings is a rubber pad that distributes
the loads from the superstructure to the substructure and uses its material
flexibility to accommodate the rotation and longitudinal movement of the
superstructure. Translational movement is accommodated by shear in the
elastomer, one surface of which moves relative to the other. Rotational
movement is accommodated by the variation in compressive strain across the
elastomer as shown in Fig. 5.48.

a) Original b) Shear c) compression d) rotation

Fig. 5.48 Deformation of Elastomeric Bearing Under Load

The rubber used is either natural rubber or synthetic rubber (neoprene).
Because of their relative simplicity and minimal fabrication effort, elastomeric
bearings are now widely used in new bridges.

Elastomeric bearings are available in two basic forms;

1- Plain elastomeric pads which are single unreinforced pads of elastomer
of relatively thin section;

2- Reinforced elastomeric pads comprising one or more layers of
elastomer bonded to reinforcing plates in sandwich form. Two main
types of reinforcements are used:
i) steel,
ii) polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) also known as Teflon.

A steel reinforced elastomeric bearing consists of discrete steel thin plates
strongly bonded between adjacent layers of elastomer as shown in Fig. 5.49,
and 5.50. The design of this type of bearings consists of finding the plan
dimensions, number of elastomeric layers and their corresponding thicknesses,
and steel plate thicknesses. Because these calculations depend largely of the
properties of the rubber used, the design of these bearing types is usually taken
from their manufacturer's certified design tables.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges



Fig. 5.49 Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Pad














Fig. 5.50 Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing

The other type of reinforced elastomeric bearings uses PTFE which is a
fluorocarbon polymer, one of a group of plastics remarkable for their extreme
chemical resistance, wide range of working temperatures and low coefficient
of friction. These features make PTFE an ideal material for bearings. A PTFE
bearing incorporates fabric pads with PTFE-stainless steel sliding interface to
permit large translational movements. The design of these bearings also
depends largely on the properties of the fabric used, and therefore is usually
taken from their manufacturer's certified design tables.
Steel Bridges


5.11.4 DESIGN OF STEEL BEARINGS

5.11.4.1 ROLLER BEARINGS

i) Roller Design:

The maximum contact stress (f in t/cmP
2
P) between a roller and a flat surface is
given by the following Hertz formula:



L ) 1 ( r 2
EV
f
2
υ − π
=

r L
EV
0.423 =
............................ (5.61)

Where V = reaction in tons
r = radius of roller, cm
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, t/cmP
2

υ = Poisson’s ratio of steel
L = roller length, cm

Since the contact stress is confined and limited to a small area, it is
permissible to use a high allowable stress, even exceeding the ultimate tensile
strength of the material. For fixed, sliding and movable bearings with one or
more rollers, the allowable contact stresses shall be as given below when the
surface of contact between the different parts of a steel bearing is a line:


Material Allowable Contact Stress
(t/cmP
2
P)

Cast Iron Cl 14 5.00
Rolled Steel St 44 6.50
Cast Steel CST 55 8.50
Forged Steel FST 56 9.50
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Thus for bearing rollers made from structural steel St 44, resting on flat
plates, using f = 6.5 t/cmP
2
P, E = 2100 t/cmP
2
P, and υ = 0.30 the above equation
gives:

V = 0.0550 d * L ............................................ (5.62)

where d is the diameter of roller in cms.

For other materials the following values are used:
Material Allowable Reaction
V(ton)
Rolled steel St 37 0.040 d*L
Cast Steel CST 55 0.095 d*L
Forged Steel FST 56 0.117 d*L




Fig. 5.51 Roller Bearing with Single Roller

It is recommended to use a single roller bearing made of special high tensile
alloy steels, Fig. 5.51. However, bearings containing multiple cylinders of
normal quality steels can be used, see Fig. 5.52. In bearings consisting of only
one roller, the round surface accommodates the rotation as well as the
longitudinal movement. With two or more rollers, an independent pin must be
provided to allow end rotation of the bridge due to bending deflection, see Fig.
5.52. Furthermore, for bearings employing more than two rollers, the
maximum permitted design loads given above for single rollers should be
reduced by 20 % to allow for uneven loading of the rollers caused by
dimensional differences.
Steel Bridges





Fig. 5.52 Roller Bearing with Multiple Rollers

To save space between rollers, they can be flat sided, as shown in Fig. 5.53.
Such rollers should be symmetrical about the vertical plane passing through
the centre and the width should not be less than one-third of the diameter or
such that the bearing contact doesn’t move outside the middle third of the
rolling surfaces when the roller is at the extreme of its movement.

ii) Base Plate Design:

The rollers are seated on a base plate which distributes the vertical load to
the concrete abutment or pier. The area of this plate is computed from the
allowable bearing stress on the concrete which is 70 kg/cmP
2
P for concrete C250
and 110 kg/cmP
2
P for concrete C350. The anchor bolts connecting the base plate
to concrete are designed to transmit any transversal or longitudinal frictional
forces resulting from movements. In some rare cases these bolts are designed
to carry tension when the bearing is subjected to negative reactions.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges




Fig. 5.53 Roller Bearing with Flat Sided Rollers

5.11.4.2 HINGED BEARINGS

The design of hinged bearings is similar to that for a roller bearing except
that the contact stress used for the pin design is computed from Hertz formula
for the case of bearing between two cylinders. If the pin is made of cast steel,
the diameter is given by:
d = 1.334 V/L

where d = diameter of pin in cm,
V = vertical load in ton,
L = length of pin in cm.

An example of a hinged bearing is shown on Fig. 5.54

Fig. 5.54 Hinged Bearing
Steel Bridges


5.12 DESIGN EXAMPLE

5.12.1 GENERAL

The following example illustrates the application of the design principles
presented in this chapter to the design of a two-lane plate girder roadway
bridge. The span measures 27 m between the centers of bearings. The bridge
cross section provides for a clear roadway having two 3-m-wide traffic lanes in
addition to 1.00 m wide median and two 1.5 m side walks. The bridge is to be
designed according to the Egyptian Code of Practice ECP2001 using steel
grade ST. 52. An elevation, plan, and a cross-section of the bridge is shown in
Fig. 5.55. The bridge deck consists of a 22 cm reinforced concrete slab covered
by an 8 cm asphalt wearing surface. The deck is carried by four main girders
spaced at 1.75 meters center-to-center.

The straining actions on an intermediate main girder due to dead loads and live
loads plus impact at the critical sections are shown in the following table:

Action

Load Case
At Support 6 m from support Mid section
Q
(t)
M
(m.t.)
Q
(t)
M
(m.t.)
Q
(t)
M
(m.t.)
Dead Load DL1 62 0 35 250 0 385
Add. Dead Load DL2 18 0 10 75 0 115
Live Load LL+I 100 0 60 460 25 700
Sum 180 0 105 785 25 1200

In this chapter, the main girder shall be designed as non-composite. A
composite design of the main girder is presented at the end of chapter 6.

5.12.2) Main Girder Design

i) Girder depth, d:
An estimate of the girder depth is obtained from Eq. 5.12 as:


3
b
F
M
) 3 . 0 ~ 25 . 0 ( d=

Assuming F
b
< 0.58 F
y
≅ (0.58 × 3.6) = 2.1 t/cmP
2
P, the required girder depth is


m 5 . 2 10 . 2
2
1200
) 3 . 0 ~ 25 . 0 ( d
3
→ = =

Use d = 2.25 cm
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges




XG
ST
FLOOR PLAN
CROSS SECTION
4@1750=7000
XG
ST
AT INTERMEDIATE CROSS GIRDERS
AT BRIDGE ENDS
15000
B
R
G
.

S
T
I
F
F
.
6000
I
N
T
.

S
T
I
F
F
.
9000 B
E
A
R
I
N
G
R
O
L
L
E
R
H
I
N
G
E
D
B
E
A
R
I
N
G
6x4500 =27000
4
@
1
7
5
0
=
7
0
0
0
X
.
G
.
H
l

B
r
Stringer
Main Girder
X
.
G
.
BRIDGE ELEVATION
Main Girder
PL.24x500 PL. 36x600
Main Girder
S
P
L
I
C
E
F
I
E
L
D
B
R
G
.

S
T
I
F
F
.
6x4500=27000
F
I
E
L
D
S
P
L
I
C
E
STRINGER
HEB 600
CROSS GIRDER
HEB 360
STRINGER
HEB 360



Fig. 5.55 Bridge Arrangement for the Design Example



Steel Bridges


ii) Web thickness, tw:

According to section 5.4.3, transverse stiffeners may be omitted if the actual
shear stress does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eqns. 5.40 ,
5.41. Usually d/t > 1.59
y
F gives:

q
b
= ( 119 / (d/t)
y
F ) (0.35 F
y
)

With the actual shear stress given by q
act
= Q / (d * t), the minimum thickness
for a web without transverse stiffeners is obtained from:

tP
2
P = Q / (41.65
y
F )

Substituting Q = 180 at support gives:

tP
2
P = 180 / 41.65 6 . 3 ) = 2.27 i.e., t = 1.51 cm

Either use t = 16 mm (next even integer) without transverse stiffeners, usually
an uneconomic solution, or a smaller value t = 14 mm with transverse
stiffeners. Stiffener spacing d
1
is controlled by:

a) cross girder spacings = 4.50 m
b) aspect ratio α =d
1
/d = ~ 1

A suitable value for d
1
would be 2.25 m

iii) Check of web buckling due to shear:

Using transversal stiffeners at a distance d
1
= 2.25 m, then

Aspect ratio: α = d
1
/ d = 225/225 = 1

Buckling Coefficient K
q
= 4 + 5.34 / αP
2
P = 9.34


Plate Slenderness
2 . 1 74 . 1
34 . 9
6 . 3
34 . 57
4 . 1 / 225
K
F
34 . 57
t / d
d
t
) 1898 ( K
3 / F
q
y
2
q
y
q
> = =
=






= λ

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges



Buckling Shear Stress: 2 cm / t 652 . 0 ) 6 . 3 35 . 0 (
74 . 1
9 . 0
q
b
= × × =


Actual Shear Stress:
.) K . O ( q cm / t 571 . 0
4 . 1 225
180
q
b
2
act
< =
×
=

i.e., Web Plate is safe against buckling due to shear at support

Since shear decreases away from support, the location where the transverse
stiffeners are not needed can be found from the unstiffened web equation:

tP
2
P = Q / (41.65
y
F )

Substituting t = 1.4 cm gives Q = 154 t. This value is located at ~ 2 m from
the support so that the transverse stiffener is only needed between the support
and the first cross girder. Note that transverse stiffeners are always used at
cross girder locations where the concentrated reaction of the cross girder is
transmitted to the main girder.

iv) Flange Plate

From Eqn. 5.7:
A
f
= (M / (F
b
d)) – A
w
/ 6

=
2
cm 167 . 214
6
4 . 1 225
25 . 2 2
1200
=
×

×


Assume flange width b
f
= (0.2 ~ 0.3) d = (48 ~ 72) cm

Use b
f
= 60 cm and calculate the required flange thickness as:

t
f
= 214.167/ 60 = 3.56 cm

Provide two 600 × 36 mm flanges,

Check the b/t ratio for compression flange local buckling acc. to Eqn. 5.25
for st. 52:

b
f
/ 2f
t
< 21 / 6 . 3 = 11
Steel Bridges



actual b
f
/ 2t
f
= 600 / (2× 36) = 8.333 < 11 O.K. for non-compact flange

Check d/t ratio for web buckling due to bending acc. to Eqn. 5.27 for st. 52:

d / t < 190 / 6 . 3 = 100

actual d / t = 225 / 1.4 = 160.714 > 100 i.e., web is slender

It is therefore necessary to use longitudinal stiffeners to prevent web
buckling due to bending. First longitudinal stiffener at d/5 = 225/5 = 45 cm
from compression flange (top).

Note that, according to Eqn. 5.34, no need for another longitudinal stiffener at
d/2 since d/t = 160.74 < 320 / 6 . 3 = 168.65.


v) Check of Bending Stresses:

Section properties:
Inertia I
x
= 1.4 (225)P
3
P / 12 + 2 * (60 × 3.6) (114.3)P
2
P = 6973232 cmP
4

Modulus Z
x
= 6973232 / 116.1 = 60062 cmP
3


Actual bending stress f
b
= M
max
/ Z
x
= 1200 × 100 / 60062 = 1.998 t/cmP
2
P


a) Check of Bending Compression:

Since the girder compression flange is supported laterally by deck slab, the
allowable bending stress in compression F
b
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cmP
2
P.

Girder is safe in bending compression

The lateral stability of the girder during erection (before the deck slab hardens)
should be also checked. For this case:

Dead load bending stress f
DL
= 385*100/ 60062 = 0.641 t/cmP
2


The allowable lateral torsional buckling stress is computed as:

L
u
/r
t
= 2700/15.5 = 177.42 F
ltb
= 12000 / (177.42)P
2
P = 0.381 t/cmP
2


Since f
DL
> F
ltb
then the girder must be supported laterally during erection
using upper wind bracings.
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


b) Check of Bending Tension:

i) Allowable tensile stress = 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cmP
2


Girder is safe in bending tension

ii) The girder tension flange should also be checked for Fatigue:

Straining Actions for fatigue: According to ECP, live loads on roadway
bridges are reduced by 50% for fatigue assessment; i.e.
M
LL+I
= 0.5 ×700 = 350 mt

Actual stress range f
sr
= f
max
- f
min
=0.5 * f
LL+I


f
sr
= 350 × 100 / 60062 = 0.583 t/cmP
2


The allowable fatigue stress range (F
sr
) is obtained as follows:

* From ECP Table 3.1.a: ADTT >2500, Number of cycles = 2 ×10P
6

Detail Class = B′ (case 4.2 of Table 3.3)

Table 3.2 gives F
sr
= 1.02 t/cmP
2
P > f
sr
(O.K.)

Girder is safe against Fatigue

vi) Curtailment of Flange Plates

The girder section has been designed to carry the maximum moment at the
point of mid span. As the moment decreases away from that point, the girder
section can be reduced accordingly. The section at maximum moment is
usually taken to cover ~ 40 – 60 % of span, i.e., 10.8 – 16.2 meters. Assume
that the section covers the middle 15 meters and find the reduced section to
cover the end 6 meters from each support where the bending moment value is
785 m.t. and the shear value is 105 ton. By similar calculations the reduced
section has a flange plate of 500*24 mm. The moment of inertia of the reduced
section is 4431667 cmP
4
P. Note that this section is subjected to the combined
action of shear and bending. The actual shear stress is

391 . 0 652 . 0 * 6 . 0 q * 6 . 0 cm / t 333 . 0
4 . 1 225
105
q
b
2
act
= = < =
×
=

Therefore no reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. The actual
bending stress is
f
b
= M
max
/ Z
x
= 785 × 100 / 38570 = 2.035 t/cmP
2
P

< F
b
= 0.583 F
y
= 2.10 t/cmP
2
P.
Steel Bridges


5.12.3 FLANGE -TO-WEB WELD:

Each flange shall be connected to the web by a fillet weld on each side.
These welds must be designed to resist the horizontal shear between the flange
and the web as follows:

* Shear Effect:

Q = maximum shear force (at support) = 180 t
S = Static moment of flange = 50 * 2.4 * (112.5+1.2) = 13644 cmP
3

Shear force / unit length = τ = QS/I = 180 * 13644 / 4431667 = 0.554 t/cm'

* Direct Load Effect

The effect of direct load on top flange of deck bridges is calculated assuming
the maximum wheel load (10 t) plus impact (40 %) is distributed on a 1 m
width;i.e.,
w = P / 1 m = 10*1.4 /1 = 1.4 t/m = 0.14 t/cm'

The resultant shear flow is thus given by


2 2
R
w + τ = τ
=
2 2
) 14 . 0 ( ) 554 . 0 ( + = 0.572 t/cm'

The allowable weld stress q
w
is equal to 0.2 F
u
, i.e., q
w
= 0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cmP
2
P.
Using this value, the required weld size is computed from

s = τ
R
/ 2q
w
= 0.572 / (2 * 1.04) = 0.274 cm

* Fatigue Considerations:

The allowable fatigue stress range, F
sr
according to ECP Table 3.2, for a weld
detail D (case 23.1 of Table 3.3) and 2 * 10P
6
P cycles is 0.71 t/cmP
2
P. The actual
stress range is

τ
sr
= 0.5* Q
LL+I
* S / I = 0.5*100 * 13644 / 4431667 = 0.154 t/cm'

The resultant shear stress range is thus given by


2 2
R
w + τ = τ =
2 2
) 14 . 0 ( ) 154 . 0 ( + = 0.208 t/cm'

The required weld size from fatigue considerations is

s = τ
sr
/ 2 F
sr
=0.208 / (2 * 0.71) = 0.146 cm

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


This value is smaller than the value computed from shear stress
considerations so that fatigue does not govern the design. Furthermore, both
values are less than the 6 mm minimum size permitted for a 24 mm thick
flange plate according to ECP. Therefore, use 6 mm fillet weld.

5.12.4 STIFFENERS

5.12.4.1 End Bearing Stiffener at Support:

A pair of bearing stiffeners should be provided at each end to transmit the end
reaction to the supports. The stiffener is designed as a compression member as
follows:
Reaction = 180 t

Using a stiffener plate on each side of web:

min. width: x cm 5 . 12 5
30
225
5
30
h
= + = + ≥
max. width x cm 3 . 24
2
4 . 1
2
50
= − ≤

Try width b
s
= 20 cm
minimum thickness from b/t < 21 / Fy = 11 for St. 52

t ≥ 20 / 11 = 1.82 cm Try t
s
= 2 cm

a) Check bearing area at stiffener ends:

Bearing area = 2 *(20 - 2) * 2 = 72 cmP
2


Bearing stress =
72
180
= 2.5 t/cmP
2
P < f
bearing
= 2 * F
b
= 4.2 t/cmP
2


b) Check column action:

Area A = 12 * 1.4P
2
P + 2 * 20 * 2 = 103.92 cmP
2


Interia I = 2 (2*20+1.4)P
3
P / 12 = 11826 cmP
4


i = I A / = 10.688 cm,
i
L
b
= 0.8 * 225 / 10.688 = 16.84
F
pb
= 2.1 - 0.000135 (16.84)P
2
P = 2.062 t/cmP
2


f
act
= 180 / 103.92 = 1.739 t/cmP
2
P< F
pb

Steel Bridges


c) Design of weld between stiffener and web:

Stiffener-web welds must be capable of carrying the end reaction of 180 t.
With fillet welds on opposite sides of each stiffener, four lines of welds are
used. They extend the total length of stiffeners.

Thus, Total weld length = 4 * (225 - 2 * 2) = 944 cm.

Average shear on weld = 180 / 944 = 0.191 t/cm'.

Weld size required to carry the end reaction is, with allowable weld stress of
0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cmP
2
P,
s =
04 . 1
191 . 0
= 0.183 cm

This, however, is less than the 5 mm minimum size of weld required for a 20
mm thick stiffener plate. Therefore, use 5 mm fillet weld.

5.12.4.2 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners:

Intermediate transverse stiffeners will be provided at d
1
= 2.25 m as required to
resist buckling due to shear. Using a single stiffener on the inside of each
girder. The design of the first intermediate stiffener adjacent to the end bearing
is as follows:

a) Stiffener Size:
min. width: b
s
cm 5 . 17 10
30
h
= + ≥
max. width: b
s
≤ 50 / 2 - 1.4/2 = 24.3 cm

Use b
s
= 20 cm.

Min. thickness to resist local buckling = 20/11 = 1.818 cm

Use stiffener plate 200 * 20 mm.

b) Strength Requirements:

Shear force at the stiffener location = 150.7 t

Force carried by stiffener =
. act
b
y
s
Q ) 1
q
F 35 . 0
( 65 . 0 C − =
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


7 . 150 ) 1
635 . 0
6 . 3 * 35 . 0
( 65 . 0 C
s
− = = 96.4 t

Column area = 20 * 2 + 25 * 1.4P
2
P = 89 cmP
2


Interia I = 2 (20)P
3
P / 3 = 5333 cmP
4


i = I A / = 7.74 cm,
i
L
b
=0.8 * 225 / 7.74 = 23.256

f
pb
= 2.1 - 0.000135 (23.256)P
2
P = 2.027 t/cmP
2


f
act
= 96.4 / 89 = 1.083 t/cmP
2
P< f
pb


c) Weld between Stiffener and Web

Welding between the stiffener and the web plate in either the upper or lower
thirds of the stiffener should be designed to transmit the design force C
s
.
Weld length = (225/3) * 2 = 150 cm (2 for weld on both sides)

Weld Force / unit length = 96.4 / 150 = 0.642 t/cm'

With allowable weld stress of 0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cmP
2
P, the required weld size
required to carry this force is,

Weld size = 0.642 / (1.04) = 0.617 cm use 7 mm weld.

Note that, for fatigue reasons, the weld and also the stiffener, is stopped at
∼ 60 mm from the tension flange.

5.12.4.3 Longitudinal Stiffener:

One longitudinal stiffener will be welded to the web at d/5 = 45 cm from the
compression flange.

Assume: width = 20 cm and thickness = 2 cm as calculated for the transverse
stiffener, then:
I
act
= 2 * 20P
3
P / 3 = 5333 cmP
4


I
min
= 4 d
w
t
w
P
3
P = 2470 cmP
4
P < I
act
O.K.

Therefore, use a 200 * 20 mm plate for the longitudinal stiffener.
Steel Bridges




Details of Stiffener Attachments


5.12.5 BOLTED SPLICE

A bolted field splice will be executed at 6m from the support. The design shear
and moment at the splice location are:

Shear Force:
Q
DL
= 45 t
Q
LL+I
= 60 t
Total Shear = 105 t
Bending Moment:
M
DL
= 325 mt
M
LL+I
= 460 mt
Total Moment = 785 t

The value of the bending moment to be used for the design of splice is the
moment capacity of the cross section, which is computed for the smaller
section at the splice as follows:

Gross moment of inertia Ig = 4431667 cmP
4

Gross section modulus Zg = 38570 cmP
3
P
Bending moment capacity M
net
= 38570 * 2.1 /100 = 810 mt

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


200
100 50 100
50
PL. 36x600
5
0
1
4
4x100
PL.24x500
5
0
50
4x100 100
50
1
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
6
0
0
5
0
0
5
0
2
0
@
1
0
0
=
2
0
0
0
PLAN
SIDE VIEW
ELEVATION
PL.200x16

PL.500x16
50 100 50
100 100
3
6
Top & Bottom
2 Plates 16x500x1000
2
4
PL.200x16
2PL.10mm
Top & Bottom
2 Plates 16x400x810
3
6
2 Plates 10x600x2100
Top & Bottom
5
0
2 Plates 16x200x1000
PL.500x16
2
4


Fig. 5.56 BOLTED FIELD SPLICE
a) Web Splice:

The web splice carries a bending moment equal to the total design moment
on the section multiplied by the ratio of the moment of inertia of the web to the
moment of inertia of the entire section. In addition to this moment, the web
splice also carries the design shear at the splice location and the moment due to
the eccentricity of the shear force.

Using three columns of M 24 High Strength Friction Type bolts of grade
10.9 at a vertical pitch of 10 cm (21 rows) and a horizontal pitch of 10 cm, see
Fig. 5.56 , the design is checked as follows:


Steel Bridges


Moment of inertia of web I
w
= 1.4*225P
3
P /12 = 1328906 cmP
4


Moment of inertia of girder section I
g
= 4431667 cmP
4


Moment carried by web M
w
= M
des
* I
w
/ I
g
= 242.89 m.t.

Eccentricity moment M
e
= Q * e = 105 * 0.15 = 15.75 m.t.

Total moment on web splice M
s
= 242.89 + 15.75 = 258.64 m.t.

i) Check of Bolt Resistance:

Bolt force due to shear = Shear / Bolt Number = 105 / 21*3 = 1.667 t

Bolt force due to moment :
∑ xP
2
P = 21*(5P
2
P+15P
2
P+25P
2
P)= 18375

∑ yP
2
P = 2*3*(10P
2
P+20P
2
P+30P
2
P+40P
2
P+50P
2
P+60P
2
P+70P
2
P+80P
2
P+90P
2
P+100P
2
P)= 231000

∑ dP
2
P =18375 + 231000 = 249375 cmP
2


Hl component = M
s
* y / ∑ dP
2
P = 25864 * 100 / 249375 = 10.372 t

Vl component = M
s
* x / ∑dP
2
P = 25864 * 5 / 249375 = 0.519 t

Resultant shear force /bolt = √ (1.667+0.519)P
2
P + 10.372P
2
P = 10.6 t

The allowable bolt resistance for M 24 friction type high strength bolt acting in
double shear is equal to 2 * 6.94 = 13.88 t. Therefore, the design is safe.

ii) Design of Splice Plate:

Assume two splice plates 10 * 600 * 2100 mm,

Gross Inertia I
g
= 2 * (1 * 210P
3
P / 12) = 1774667 cmP
4


Bending Stress = 25864 * (210/2) / 1774667 = 1.53 t/cmP
2
P < 2.1 t/cmP
2
P

Shear Stress = 105 / (2*210*1) = 0.25 t/cmP
2
P < 1.26 t/cmP
2






Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


b) Flange Splice:

The flange splice carries that portion of the total moment not carried by the
web plate. The flange splice plates transmit the moment couple across the
splice in axial tension (at bottom) or compression (at top), and into the girder
flange by double shear on M 24 High Strength Friction Type bolts of grade
10.9.

i) Flange Bolts:

Design moment on flange splice = 810 – 242.89 = 567.11 m.t.
Flange force = 567.11 / 2.25 = 252 t

(This value can also be calculated from the flange strength as 50*2.4*2.1 =
252 t)

No. of M 24 double shear bolts = 252 / ( 2*6.94 ) = 18.15 bolts

Use 5 rows * 4 bolts each = 20 bolts.

ii) Splice Plates:

area required = 252 / 2.1 = 120 cmP
2
P
assume one outside plate 16 * 500 = 80 cmP
2

plus two inside plates 16 * 200 = 64 cmP
2
P

P Area provided = 80+64 = 144 cmP
2
P
Steel Bridges


5.12.6 BRIDGE BRACINGS:

Wind loads on the Bridge


a) Unloaded Case:

wind pressure = 200 kg/mP
2







b) Loaded Case:

wind pressure = 100 kg/mP
2
P
Bracing Systems and Transmission of Wind Loads:

Since the bridge has a deck slab, it will carry all wind loads on the bridge
after erection and thus no upper horizontal lateral bracings are needed.
However, during erection, an upper bracing is needed to support the
compression flange laterally and to carry wind loads on the bridge before the
slab hardens.
The wind loads on the bridge are transmitted to the bridge supports as
follows:
1- Wind loads on the lower half of the main girder can be carried
directly by a system of lower horizontal lateral bracings to the bridge
bearings. However, it is more economical to transmit these loads to
the deck level using intermediate knee brackets at each cross girder
working with the cross girders as inverted U-frames, see Fig. 5.56.
2- Wind loads on the upper half of the main girder and deck slab
during erection are carried directly by an upper horizontal lateral
bracings to the bridge ends.
3- After the slab hardens, wind loads on the moving trucks (height = 3
m) and the bridge main girder and deck slab (case of loaded bridge)
are carried directly by the concrete slab to the bridge ends.
3
.
0
0




2
0
0

k
g

/

m
2
1
0
0

k
g

/

m
2



1
0
0

k
g

/

m
2
Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


4- End brackets (or end cross frames) shall be provided at the bridge
ends to transmit wind reactions at the deck level to end bearings
located at the lower level, see Fig. 5.56.





































Fig. 5.56 Transversal Bracing Systems



XG
ST
P
L
.
2
2
5
0
x
1
4
(ALTERNATIVE TO END BRACKET)

END BRACKET AT GIRDER ENDS
INTERMEDIATE BRACKET AT CROSS GIRDERS
SEC. S-S
SEC. S-S
XG
ST
XG
ST



WEB
s s
s s
300
2
0
0
s s
s s
2
0
0
WEB
200
4 @ 1750 = 7000
CROSS FRAME AT GIRDER ENDS
Steel Bridges


1- Design of Intermediate Brackets (at each cross girder):

Wind pressure q = 200 kg/mP
2
P (Unloaded Bridge governs)

Wind load ω = 0.2 * 4.5 = 0.9 t/m’

Max moment on bracket section s-s (cross girder section HEB600)

M
max
= 0.9 * (2.25-0.6)P
2
P /2 = 1.225 m.t.

Assume Section: Web: PL 200*16; Flange: Pl 200*12
Centroid at 14 cm from web, I
y
= 2624 cmP
4
P

P Bending Stress f
b
= 1.225*100* 14 / 2624
= 0.654 t/cmP
2
P < 2.1 t/cmP
2
P

2. Design of Upper Bracings:
P
L
.
2
4
x
5
0
0
M
a
i
n

G
i
r
d
e
r
6
x
4
5
0
0

=
2
7
0
0
0

PLAN OF UPPER BRACINGS




S
t
r
i
n
g
e
r

X.G.
X.G.
M
a
i
n

G
i
r
d
e
r
M
a
i
n

G
i
r
d
e
r
H
l

B
r
7000




Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Upper bracing carries wind load on bridge during erection; i.e., case of
unloaded bridge governs

Joint load (at each bracket) = 0.9 * (2.25+0.30) = 2.295 ton

End Reactions R
w
= 3 * 2.295 = 6.885 ton

Tan θ = 7 / 4.5 = 1.5555 θ = 57.265

Max. Force (in first diagonal) = C = T = 6.885 / (2*sin θ) = 4.09 ton

Design for Compression; assume 2 L 100*100*10

Diagonal Length = √4.5P
2
P + 7P
2
P = 8.32 m

L
b
/ i = 0.75 * 832 / (0.45*10) = 138.67 < 140 for bridge bracings

F
buck
= 0.85*{7500 / (138.67)^P
2
P} = 0.332 t/cmP
2

f
a
= C/A = 4.09/(2*19.2) = 0.107 t/cmP
2
P < F
buck
O.K.


3. Design of End Bracket (at Bearings):

End brackets carry wind reactions from upper level to bearings at lower
level. Compare wind loads for the two cases of unloaded and loaded bridge
and design for the critical case which is the loaded one here.

For loaded bridge:
Joint load W = 0.1*4.5*(2.25+0.30+3.00) = 2.5 t

End reaction R
w
= 3 * 2. 5 = 7.5 t

Max moment on bracket section s-s:

M
max
= ( 7.5/2 ) * (2.25-0.6)= 6.1875 m.t.

Assume Section: Web: Pl 300*16 ; Flange: Pl 200*12

Centroid at 19.8 cm from web, I
y
= 7505 cmP
4

Bending Stress: f
b
= 6.1875 *100* 19.8 / 7505 = 1.632P

Pt/cmP
2
P < 2.1 t/cmP
2
P O.K
Steel Bridges


5.12.6 BEARINGS

Each main girder transmits its end reactions to piers through one expansion
bearing at one end and one hinged bearing at the other end. The roller bearing
should be designed to permit movements resulting from variations of
temperature between ± 30 P
o
PC, and to allow rotation of the girder ends under
live loads. Both bearings are fabricated from forged steel.

i) Roller Bearing:

The expansion bearing incorporates a flat sided roller to permit the required
movements and a base plate to distribute the load to the concrete foundation as
shown:
400
5
0
0
1
0
0
3
0
0
1
0
0
4 ANCHOR BOLTS
? 25 mm
BASE PLATE
ELEVATION SIDE VIEW
300
7
0
75
400
2
0
2
0
0
75 250
? 20 PINTLE
160
2
0
0 50
500
7
0
GROUT
400
500
3 3
15
Keeper Plate
ROLLER



Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges


Roller Design:

The roller length is taken equal to the bottom flange width minus 5 cm
clearance each side. By Hertz formula for forged steel,

Reaction V = 0.117* d * l
180 = 0.117*d*40
Roller Diameter d ≥ 38.46 cm Use d = 40 cm

Use flat sided roller with width b > d/3 = 40/3 =13.33 cm to resist overturning.
Select b = 16 cm

The 160-mm-thick roller web rests on a steel base plate while its curved top
bears against the girder bottom flange. Thus, the compressive stress in the 40-
cm-long web is:
f
p
=
40 * 16
180
= 0.281 t/cmP
2
P < 2.00 t/cmP
2
P
= Allowable compression for forged
steel according to ECP

Base Plate:

The rocker is seated on a base plate, which distributes the 180 tons load to the
concrete pier. Allowable bearing stress on the C350 concrete is 110 kg/cmP
2
P.
Hence,
Net area of the plate = 180 * 1000 / 110 = 1636 cmP
2
P.
For a width of 40 cm , min. length of plate = 1636 / 40 = 40.9 cm.

Use base plate 40*50 cm

Thickness of plate must be large enough to keep bending stresses caused by
the bearing pressure within the allowable. Under dead load and live load plus
impact, the base pressure is:

p =
50 * 40
180000
= 90 kg/cmP
2


The bending moment in the middle of a 1 cm wide strip of plate (at the bearing
point) is:
M =
2
) 20 ( 90
2
= 18000 kg.cm = 18 t.cm

Steel Bridges


With the basic allowable stress F
b
= 0.72*F
y
= 0.72*3.35=2.412 t/cmP
2
P for ST 52
(F
y
=3.35 t/cmP
2
P for thicknesses > 40 mm and F
b
=0.72 F
y
for rectangular section
bent about their minor axis ), the thickness of base plate required is:

cm 7 say , 69 . 6
412 . 2
18 * 6
F
M 6
t
b
= = =

Use a base plate 400 * 70 mm by 500 mm long.


ii)Hinged Bearing:

The same detail is used for the hinged bearing except that the roller bottom is
welded to the base plate to prevent translation as shown below:
2
0
7
0
400
160
250
2
0
0
75
300
75
HINGED BEARING



Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

239


CHAPTER 6


COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES
Steel Bridges 240


CHAPTER 6




COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES
















6.1 GENERAL

6.1.1 Composite Action

Steel structures supporting cast-in-place reinforced concrete slab construction
were historically designed on the assumption that the concrete slab acts
independently of the steel in resisting loads. No consideration was given to the
composite effect of the steel and concrete acting together. This neglect was
justified on the basis that the bond between the concrete deck and the top of
the steel girder could not be depended upon. However, with the wide use of
structural welding, it became practical to provide mechanical connectors
between concrete and steel to resist the horizontal shear which develops
during bending, Fig 6.1. Composite action is developed when the concrete
deck and the supporting steel girder are integrally connected so that they
deflect as a single unit.
Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

241



Fig. 6.1 Composite Deck Bridges

In developing the concept of composite behavior, consider first the non-
composite girder of Fig. 6.2, wherein if friction between the slab and the
girder is neglected the girder and slab each carry separately a part of the load.
The strain distribution corresponding to this case is shown in Fig.6.2. There
are two neutral axes; one at the slab mid surface and the other at the girder
centroid. When the slab deforms under vertical loads, its lower surface is in
tension and elongates; while the upper surface of the girder is in compression
and shortens. Thus a discontinuity will occur at the plane of contact. Since
friction is neglected, only vertical internal forces act between the slab and
girder.
When complete interaction between the slab and girder is developed by the
introduction of mechanical connectors, no relative slippage occurs between
the slab and girder and the resulting strain diagram is shown in Fig. 6.3. Under
this condition a single neutral axis occurs which lies below that of the slab and
above that of the girder. Horizontal forces (shears) are developed that act on
the lower surface of the slab to compress and shorten it, while simultaneously
they act on the upper surface of the girder to elongate it.




Steel Bridges 242



Fig. 6.2 Stress and Strain Distributions in Non-Composite Girders







Fig.6.3 Stress and Strain Distributions in Composite Girders

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

243

6.1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages:

The basic advantages resulting from composite design are:
1. Reduction in steel weight.
2. Shallower steel girders.
3. Increased stiffness.

A weight saving in steel between 20 to 30 % is often possible by taking full
advantages of composite action. Such a weight reduction in the supporting
steel girders permits the use of a shallower section which is better from the
traffic clearance point of view. The stiffness of the composite bridge is
substantially greater than that of the concrete floor with its supporting steel
girders acting independently. Normally the concrete slab acts as one-way plate
spanning between the supporting girders. in composite design, an additional
use is made of the slab by its action In a direction parallel to and in
combination with the supporting steel girders. The net effect is to greatly
increase the moment of inertia of the floor system in the direction of the steel
girders. The increased stiffness considerably reduces the live load deflections.
Assuming full composite action, the strength of the section greatly exceeds the
sum of the strengths of the slab and the girder considered separately,
providing high overload capacity.
While there are no major disadvantages to using composite construction, some
limitations should be recognized. In continuous bridges, the negative moment
region will have a different stiffness because the cracked concrete slab in
tension is not participating. Also, long-term deflection caused by concrete
creep and shrinkage could be important when the composite section resists a
substantial part of the dead load, or when the live load is of long duration.
These two points shall be dealt with in later sections.



6.2 COMPONENTS OF COMPOSITE GIRDERS

6.2.1 Steel Girder

Composite construction is more economic when the tension flange of the steel
section is larger than the compression flange. The ratio of the girder span, L,
to the girder overall depth including concrete slab, h, lies generally between
16 and 22. For limited girder depth, L/h may exceed 22 provided that
deflection due to live load without impact does not exceed the allowable value
specified by the Code as L/800.
Steel Bridges 244


Fig. 6.4 Composite Section Parameters


6.2.2 Concrete Slab

Concrete: The concrete used for composite construction shall comply with the
current Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of Reinforced Concrete
Structures. The minimum accepted value for the characteristic cube concrete
strength, f
cu
, is 300 kg/cm
2
for bridges. For deck slabs subjected directly to
traffic (without wearing surface) , the value of f
cu
shall not be less than 400
kg/cm
2
.

Thickness: The thickness for the deck slab shall not be less than 16 cm. If the
slab is subjected directly to traffic with no wearing surface, the minimum
thickness shall be 20 cm.
The slab may rest directly on the steel girder or on concrete haunch to increase
the moment of inertia of the composite section, see Fig. 6.4. It is also possible
to use formed steel deck with the deck ribs oriented parallel or perpendicular
to the steel girder. The concrete slab may also be prestressed.

6.2.3 Shear Connectors

Since bond strength between concrete slab and steel girder is not dependable,
mechanical shear connectors must be provided. They are connected to the top
flange of the steel girder and embedded in the concrete slab to transmit the
longitudinal shear and prevent any slippage between the concrete slab and the
steel girder. There are several types of the shear connectors such as: anchors,
hoops, block connectors, studs, channels and angle connectors as will be
discussed in details in section 6.4.

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

245

6.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

6.3.1 Effective Width

In ordinary girder theory the bending stress is assumed constant across the
girder width and is calculated from the bending formula, f = M * y / I. Since
the composite girder has a wide top flange, plate theory indicates that the
stress in the concrete slab is not uniform across the girder width. Referring to
Fig. 6.5, the stress is maximum over the steel girder and decreases non-
linearly as the distance from the supporting girder increases. Similarly to the
treatment of T-sections in reinforced concrete design, an effective width is
used in place of the actual width, so that the ordinary girder theory can be
used. The effective width of the slab b
E
is computed from the condition that b
E

times the maximum stress f
c
equals the area under the nonlinear stress curve.




Fig. 6.5 Effective Width Concept

For design purposes, ECP defines the portion of the effective width of the
concrete slab on each side of the girder centerline b
EL
or b
ER
as the smaller of
the following values; see Fig. 6.6:

Steel Bridges 246
1. One-eighth of the girder span,(center-to-center of supports), L/8.
2. One half the distance to the center-line of the adjacent girder, b.
3. Six times the thickness (t) of the slab neglecting haunch.
4. the distance to the slab edge, b
*
(for exterior girders)

For girders having a slab on one side only, the effective slab width b
E
shall not
exceed the smaller of 1/12 of the span length of the girder or six times the
thickness (t) of the slab neglecting haunch.


Fig. 6.6 Effective Width of Concrete Slab

The span lengths to be used in continuous beams are shown in Fig. 6.7. If the
two adjacent spans in a continuous beam are unequal, the value of b
E
to be
used in calculating bending stresses and longitudinal shear in the negative
moment regions shall be based on the mean of the values obtained for each
span separately.


Fig. 6.7 Effective Spans for Continuous Beams
Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

247

6.3.2 Computation of Section Properties

The section properties of the composite section can be computed by the
transformed section method. In contrast to reinforced concrete design where
the reinforcing steel is transformed into an equivalent concrete area, the
concrete slab in the composite section is transformed into an equivalent steel
area. As a result, the concrete area is reduced by using a reduced slab width
equal to b
e
/n, where n is ratio of the steel modulus of elasticity E
s
to the
concrete modulus of elasticity E
c
. While as the steel modulus is equal to a
constant value at 2100 t/cm
2
Concrete Characteristic
Cube Strength, f
, the concrete modulus varies according to the
concrete grade. Consequently, the value of the modular ratio n varies with the
concrete grade as follows:

Table (6.1) Recommended Values of the Modular Ratio (n)

cu
(kg/cm
2
Modulus of Elasticity
of Concrete, E
)
c
(t/cm
2
Modular
Ratio, n )
250
300
400
≥ 500
220
240
280
310
10
9
8
7

With this transformation, the composite girder may be considered as a steel
girder to which has been added a cover plate on the top flange. It should be
noted that this cover plate, being concrete, is considered to be effective only
when the top flange is in compression. In continuous girders, the concrete slab
is in tension and thus composite action does not exist. Referring to Fig. 6.7,
the following section properties can be calculated.,

A
s
= Cross-sectional area of steel girder,
A
c
= Cross-sectional area of slab only,
A
r
A
v
= Cross-sectional area of transformed section = A
s
+ A
c
/ n ,
= Cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement,
I
s
= Moment of inertia of steel girder @ its own central axis s – s,
I
c
= Moment of inertia of effective slab @ its own central axis c – c,
l
v
= Moment of inertia of transformed section @ its own central axis v – v,
= I
s
+ A
s
* e
v
2
+ (I
c
+ A
c
* y
c
2
) / n



Steel Bridges 248



Fig. 6.7 Composite Section Properties

Section Moduli:

Steel Section: Upper Steel Z
us
= I
s
/ y
us

Lower Steel Z
ls
= I
s
/ y
ls


Composite Section: Upper Steel Z'
us
= I
v
/ y'
us

Lower Steel Z'
ls
= I
v
/ y'
ls
Upper Concrete

Z'
uc
= I
v
/ y'
uc



5.3.3 Stress Calculations

Bending stresses in the composite section (steel girder, concrete slab, and
longitudinal reinforcement) shall be calculated in accordance with the elastic
theory, ignoring concrete in tension and assuming no slippage between the
steel girder and concrete slab. The actual stresses that result in the composite
section due to a given loading depend on the manner of construction. Two
different methods of construction may be used:

Case I: Without Shoring:

The simplest construction occurs when the steel girders are placed first and
used to support the concrete slab formwork. In this case the steel girder, acting
Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

249

noncompositely, supports the weight of the forms, the wet concrete and 'its
own weight. Once the forms are removed and concrete has cured, the section
will act compositely to resist dead loads placed after concrete curing (e.g.,
wearing surface) and live loads. Such construction is said to be without
temporary shoring or unshored. Referring to Figs. 6.8 and 6.10a; the stresses
in steel and concrete are computed as:

f
us
= M
D
/ Z
us
+ M
L
/ Z'
us

f
lS
= M
D
/ Z
ls
+ M
L
/ Z'
ls

f
uc
= M
L
/ ( n *
'
uc
Z )

where M
D
= bending moment due to dead load and M
L
=bending moment due
to additional dead load and live load plus impact.



Fig. 6.8 Unshored Construction

Steel Bridges 250

Case II: With Shoring

Alternatively, the steel girders may be supported on temporary shoring. In
such a case, the steel girder, forms, and wet concrete are carried by the shores.
After curing of concrete, the shores are removed and the section acts
compositely to resist all dead and live loads. This system is called shored
construction. Referring to Fig. 6.9 and 6.10b; the stresses in steel and concrete
are computed as follows:
f
us
= ( M
D
+ M
L
) /
'
us
Z
f
ls
= ( M
D
+ M
L
) /
'
lS
Z
f
uc
= ( M
D
+ M
L
) / n
'
uc
Z



Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

251

Fig. 6.9 Shored Construction
Figure 6.10 illustrates the distribution of bending stresses for composite
girders constructed with or without shoring. Maximum bending stresses in the
steel section shall comply with the allowable bending stresses of the used
materials. The compression flange of the steel girder and its connection to the
web must be designed for the shear flow calculated for the composite section.
During construction, the compression flange must satisfy local buckling and
lateral torsional buckling requirements. After construction, however, the
composite section shall be exempt from such requirements.
The maximum bending stresses in the concrete slab shall not exceed the
allowable limits permitted by the Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of
Reinforced Concrete Structures. The steel web alone shall resist vertical shear
stresses of composite girder, neglecting any concrete slab contribution.




Steel Bridges 252
Fig. 6.10 Stress Distributions in Composite Sections
6.3.4 Design for Creep and Shrinkage

If shoring provides support during the hardening of concrete, i.e. Case II, the
total deflection will be a function of the composite section properties. Account
must be taken of the fact that concrete is subject to creep under long-time
loading (i.e, dead load) and that shrinkage will occur, see Fig. 6.11.

6.3.4.1 Influence of Creep

i) General:
For the usual concrete dead loads, concrete does not behave as an elastic
material. Actually, concrete is a plastic material subjected to progressive
permanent deformation under sustained loads. This permanent deformation is
known as creep. For a constant permanent load the creep will vary from 1 to 4
times the elastic deformation under the same load, see Fig. 6.11.
It is known that only permanent loads causing compressive stresses in
concrete produce creep. Moving loads have little effect, as they do not last
long. The amount of creep varies with the magnitude of the permanent
compressive stresses. Low concrete stresses produce very little plastic flow,
which may be neglected.


Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

253

Fig. 6.11 Creep in Concrete
Creep in composite beams causes tensile stresses in concrete, compressive
stresses in the top flange and relatively small tensile stresses in the bottom
flange of the steel beam, see Fig. 6.12.

The creep of concrete depends on the curing conditions of the concrete at the
time the stresses are applied, on the intensity and duration of their effect, on
the quality of the concrete and the degree of humidity of its surroundings.
Assuming that deformation of the concrete with creep is directly proportional
to the prevailing stress and assuming a uniform modulus of elasticity E
C
, the
basic relationship between deformation & constant stress is :
ε = (f
c
/ E
c
) / (1 + φ)
where φ = elastic expansion / creep expansion and ε = strain.


Fig. 6.12 Effect of Creep and Shrinkage on Composite Sections


ii) Design for Creep:

The influence of creep is different according to the method of erection of the
composite beam.If the erection is done by case I, the concrete dead load is
carried by steel alone thus no appreciable creep. If the erection is done by
case II, the entire dead load is carried by the composite section causing creep.

Steel Bridges 254
Hence for case I, the stresses in the composite section may be computed
neglecting creep. However, for case II, stresses in the composite section are
computed using a modular ratio 3n for all dead loads and using a modular
ratio of n for live loads, as to get more stresses in the steel section in
agreement with the phenomena of creep.

Concrete stresses in composite beams are reduced by creep. Therefore the
maximum concrete stress should be determined by neglecting creep.

6.3.4.2 Shrinkage

If the concrete slab is restrained from shrinkage by the steel girders, internal
stresses in concrete and steel independent of external loads will be produced.
Similar to the effect of creep, the shrinkage of concrete creates internal tensile
stresses in the concrete slab, compression in the top flange and tension in the
bottom flange of the steel beams, similar to the effect of creep. The ultimate
shrinkage strain in concrete shall be estimated to be equal to 0.0003.

6.3.5 Design For Temperature Effect

The variation of temperature shall be assumed according to the Egyptian Code
of Practice for Calculating Design Loads and Forces on Structures. In general,
a 30
o
c uniform variation of the overall temperature of the structure is assumed.
Due consideration shall be given for the fact that although the coefficient of
thermal expansion for both steel and concrete is identical, the coefficient of
thermal conductivity of concrete is only about 2 % of that of the steel.
Therefore the top of the concrete slab and other levels through the depth of the
girder shall be assumed as shown in Fig. 6.13c .
Such difference in temperature of steel and concrete will create internal
stresses similar to those due to shrinkage and creep, Fig. 6.14. These stresses
result from the jump of temperature at the area of contact between steel and
concrete.
Due consideration of this phenomenon by appropriate method of calculation is
recommended.







Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

255

Fig. 6.13 Temperature Distribution










Fig. 6.14 Stress Distribution due to Effect of Temperature


6.3.6 Deflections

If the construction is shored during construction, Case II, the composite
section will support both the dead load and the live load deflections. However,
if the construction is not shored, Case I, the total deflection will be the sum of
the dead load deflection of the steel girder and the live load deflection of the
composite section. The deflection allowable limit due to live load without
impact is equal to L/800.





Steel Bridges 256
6.3.7 Composite Construction in Continuous Span Bridges

i) General:

When the total bridge length is sufficiently long to require multiple spans,
the designer can either select a series of simple spans or he can use continuous
spans. Simple beam spans has the advantages of:
1) simpler analysis and design,
2) less field splices leading to faster erection,
3) no stresses due to support settlement.
Continuous span construction has the advantages of:
1) less steel weight,
2) less deflection,
3) Fewer number of bearings.

Before a system is selected for a particular bridge, the designer has to study
the advantages of both systems and decide accordingly. A two-span
continuous bridge has only slight economy over simple spans. The usual
bridge structure has three or more spans with the intermediate spans 20 % to
30 % longer than the end spans.

In continuous span bridges, the top concrete slab is subjected to tensile
stresses in the negative moment regions. Accordingly, the slab does not
contribute to the resistance of the cross section. However, benefit can be taken
from the presence of the slab by considering that the longitudinal
reinforcement bars, see Fig. 6.15, remain active within an effective width of
the slab.


Fig. 6.15 Composite Cross-Section at Interior Supports
Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

257

This effective width is related to the length of the negative moment region as
shown in Fig. 6.7.

ii) Design Considerations:

The area of reinforcement bars within the effective width is added to the steel
section of the negative moment region. Geometrical properties of both steel
section only and the composite section are calculated and then used to check
the bending stresses as explained before in section 6.3.3. In the negative
moment regions, the lower flange of the steel girder is subjected to
compression and therefore should be checked against lateral and local
buckling provisions.

6.4 SHEAR CONNECTORS

6.4.1 Horizontal Shear Force

The horizontal shear force transferred by the connector shall be computed at
the interface between concrete and upper flange of the steel girder utilizing the
virtual section properties. This horizontal shear must be resisted so that the
slip between both materials at the concrete-steel interface will be restrained.
Friction between the concrete slab and the steel girder can not be depended
upon to provide the required interface shear strength. Instead, the horizontal
shear force at the interface between the concrete slab and the steel girder shall
be transferred by shear connectors, as shown in Fig. 6.16 to Fig. 6.18,
throughout simple spans and positive moment regions of continuous girders.
In negative moment regions, shear connectors shall be provided when the
reinforcing steel embedded in concrete is considered as part of the composite
section, see section 6.3.7.

6.4.2 Connector Capacity

Ideally, to obtain a fully composite section, the connector should be stiff
enough to provide the complete interaction; i.e., no slip at the interface. This,
however, would require that the connectors be infinitely rigid. Also, since the
shear force varies along the girder length, the distribution of the shear
connectors should be such that more connectors are used at high shear
locations.



Steel Bridges 258
6.4.3 Connector Design

If the dead load stresses are carried by the steel section, e.g., unshored
construction, the connectors may be designed to carry the shearing forces due
to live loads only. But to allow for shrinkage and creeping effects and to give
better security against slip, it is recommended to design the connector to carry
shearing forces due to half the dead load in addition to the live load. For
shored construction, the connectors are to be designed to carry the shearing
forces due to dead and live loads.

To design the connector, the longitudinal shearing force per unit length of the
girder is calculated as:

τ
c
= Q A
c
y
c
/ I
v


where:

A
c
= Area of concrete section without haunches
y
c
= Distance between central axis of concrete section and that of
the composite section.

If the spacing between the connectors is equal to "e", then the total horizontal
shear to be transmitted by one connector along a pitch “e” is :

e * τ
c
= e * (Q A
c
y
c
/ I
v
)

This value should be less than the allowable load the connector can carry,
denoted by R
sc
, i.e.,

e * (Q A
c
y
c
/ I
v
) < R
sc


From this equation, the connector spacing e can be calculated as:

e = R
sc
* I
v
/ (Q A
c
y
c
)

Thus the pitch “e” is inversely proportional to Q and the connectors are to be
arranged closer to each other at the supports and at bigger intervals near the
middle of the girder.
In the following section, different types of shear connectors used in composite
construction are described. In addition, it applies to the calculation of the
allowable horizontal shear load, R
sc
, for one connector. The value of R
sc

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

259

computed from the following formulas shall not exceed the allowable
horizontal load, R
w
, provided by the connector connection to the girder flange.

6.4.4 Connector Types

Various types of such connectors are shown in Figures 6.16 thru 6.18. The
most common types are the anchor and hoop connectors, the block connector,
the angle and channel connectors, and the stud connectors.

6.4.4.1 Anchors and hoops

a- Anchors and hoops (Fig. 6.16) designed for longitudinal shear should point
in the direction of the diagonal tension. Where diagonal tension can occur in
both directions, connectors pointing in both directions should be provided.
b- Hoop connectors (diameter = φ   shall satisfy the following:
r ≥ 7.5φ L ≥ 4r concrete cover ≥ 3 φ

c- Development length and concrete cover of anchors shall be based on the
allowable concrete bond stresses as per the Egyptian Code of Practice for
the Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.

d- The allowable horizontal load for each leg of anchors and hoops shall be
computed as follows:

R
sc
= 0.58 A
s
F
ys
cos β / (1 + sin
2
α)
½

≤ R
w


Where
A
s
= Cross sectional area of anchor or hoop
F
ys
= Yield stress of anchor or hoop material
β = Angle in horizontal plane between anchor and longitudinal axis
of the girder.
α = Angle in the vertical plane between anchor or hoop and the girder
upper flange.

Steel Bridges 260

Figure (6.16) Anchor & Hoop Shear Connectors


6.4.4.2 Block Connectors

Block connectors (Fig. 6.17) such as bar, T-section, channel section and
horseshoe can be used as shear connectors. The front face shall not be wedge
shaped and shall be so stiff that uniform pressure distribution on concrete can
be reasonably assumed at failure.

a- Block connectors shall be provided with anchoring devices to prevent
uplift of concrete slab.
b- The height of bar connectors shall not exceed four times its thickness.
c- The height of T-sections shall not exceed ten times the flange thickness
or 150 mm, whichever is the least.
d- Channel sections shall be hot rolled with a web width not exceeding 25
times the web thickness. The height of the connectors shall not exceed 15
times the web thickness nor 150 mm, whichever is the least.
e- The height of horseshoe connectors shall not exceed 20 times the web
thickness nor 150 mm, whichever is the least.
f- The allowable horizontal load (R
be
) transmitted by bearing can be computed
from the following Equation:

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

261





Fig. 6.17 Block Shear Connectors
Steel Bridges 262
R
bl
= 0.3 η A
1
f
cu


Where

η =
(A
2
/A
1
)
1/2
A
1

≤ 2
= Area of connector front face
A
2
= Bearing area on concrete, shall be taken as the front area of the
connector, A
1
, enlarged at a slope of 1:5 (see Fig. 6.17) to the rear
face of the adjacent connector. Only parts of A
2
falling in the
concrete section shall be taken into account.

g- Block connectors shall be provided with anchors or hoops sharing part of
the horizontal load supported by the connector, provided that due account
shall be taken of the differences of stiffness of the block connector and the
anchors or hoops. The allowable horizontal load per connector can be
computed from the following:

R
sc
= R
bl
+ 0.5 R
an
≤ R
w

And R
sc
= R
bl
+ 0.7 R
h
≤ R
w



Where
R
an
= Horizontal load supported by anchor
R
h
= Horizontal load supported by hoop


6.4.4.3 Channel Shear Connectors

The allowable horizontal load, R
sc
, for one channel shear connector, Fig. 6.18,
shall be computed from the following Equation:

R
sc
= 0.12 ( t
f
+ 0.5t
w
) L
c
( f
cu
E
c
)
1/2

≤ R
w


where: t
f
, t
w
= flange and web thicknesses, cm,
L
c
= connector length, cm.


Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

263


Fig. 6.18 Channel Shear Connectors

5.4.4.4 Angle Connectors

The height of the outstanding leg of an angle connector shall not exceed ten
times the angle thickness or 150 mm, whichever is the smaller. The length of
an angle connector shall not exceed 300 mm (Fig. 6.19).
The allowable horizontal load for an angle connector shall be computed as
follows:

R
sc
= 4 L
c
t
c
3/4
f
cu
2/3

≤ R
w

where
L
c
= Length of the angle connector ,cm.
t
c
= Width of the outstanding leg of the angle connector, cm.
And f
cu
in kg/cm2

Steel Bridges 264



Fig. 6.19 Angle Shear Connectors

It is recommended to provide a bar welded to the angle to prevent uplift of the
concrete slab, the minimum diameter of the bar shall be computed from the
following:

Φ ≥ 0.45 (R
sc
/ F
ys
)

1/2

Where

Φ = Diameter of the bar, cm
F
ys
= Yield stress of the bar, kg/cm
R
sc

2

= Allowable shear load for one angle connector.

The length of the bar on each side of the angle connector standing leg shall be
computed based on the allowable bond strength of concrete following the
provisions of the Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of Reinforced
Concrete Structure.

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

265

6.4.4.5 Stud Connectors

Despite this wide range of connector types, the stud connector, Fig. 6.20 and
6.21, has now become the primary method of connections for composite
beams. The stud can be forge welded to the steel section in one operation
using a special hand held welding machine, see Fig. 6.20. These machines
allow operators to weld approximately 1000 studs per day. Fig. 6.21 shows a
typical shear stud before and after welding.
















Fig. 6.20 Automatic Welding of Stud Shear Connectors


The length of the stud connector shall not be less than four times its diameter,
d
s
, after installation. The nominal diameter of the stud head shall not be less
than one and half times the stud diameter, d
s
. The value of d
s
shall not exceed
twice the thickness of the steel girder top flange. Except where formed steel
decks are used, the minimum center-to-center spacing of studs shall be (6d
s
)
measured along the longitudinal axis of the girder ; and (4d
s
) transverse to the
longitudinal axis of the supporting composite girder , (Fig. 6.22). If stud
connectors are placed in a staggered configuration, the minimum transversal
spacing of stud central lines shall be 3d
s
. Within ribs of formed steel decks, the
minimum permissible spacing is 4d
s
in any direction.
Steel Bridges 266

Fig. 6.21 Stud Shear Connectors



Fig. 6.22 Minimum Spacing of Stud Connectors

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

267


The allowable horizontal load, R
sc
, for one stud connector shall be computed
from the following formula:

R
sc
= 0.17 A
sc
( f
cu
E
c
)
½

≤ R
w

≤ 0.58 A
sc
F
y

where:
A
sc
= Cross sectional area of stud connector, cm
6.4.5 General Requirements for Shear Connectors
2

F
y
= The yield stress of stud steel connectors



6.4.5.1 Connection to Steel Flange

The connection between the shear connectors and the girder flange shall be
designed to resist the horizontal shear load acting on the connector; section
6.4.4.

6.4.5.2 Concrete Cover

a- In order to ensure adequate embedment of shear connectors in concrete
slab, the connector shall have at least 50 mm of lateral concrete cover. On the
other hand, the minimum concrete cover on top of the connector shall not be
less than 20 mm.

b- Except for formed steel slab; the sides of the haunch should lie outside a
line drawn at maximum of 45
o
• 60 cm
from the outside edge of the connector. The
lateral concrete cover from the side of the haunch to the connector should be
not less than 50 mm.


6.4.5.3 Placement and Spacing

Except for stud connectors, the minimum center-to-center spacing of shear
connectors shall not be less than the total depth of the slab including haunch,
d
o
. The maximum center-to-center spacing of connectors shall not exceed the
least of the following:
• Three times the total slab thickness (d
o
)
• Four times the connector height including hoops or anchors, if any.

Steel Bridges 268
However, the maximum spacing of connectors may be exceeded over supports
to avoid placing connectors at locations of high tensile stresses in the steel
girder upper flange.

6.4.5.4 Dimensions of Steel Flange

The thickness of steel flange to which the connector is fastened shall be
sufficient to allow proper welding and proper transfer of load from the
connector to the web plate without local failure or excessive deformations.
The distance between the edge of a connector and the edge of the girder flange
to which it is welded should not be less than 25 mm .

6.4.5.5 Concrete Slab Edges

Concrete slab edges shall be provided with end closures, e.g. channels, angles,
or plates, as shown in Fig. 6.23. End closures have to be fixed to the steel
girders before casting the concrete slab. Besides minimizing grout loss during
casting of concrete, end closures enhance the shear connectivity between
concrete slab and steel girders at zones of maximum shear forces. End closures
also help in resisting forces arising from shrinkage and creep.

Fig. 6.23 End Closure for Concrete Slab









Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

269


6.5 DESIGN EXAMPLE:

The design example presented in chapter 5 is used here to illustrate the
method of design of composite plate girders. The example uses the same
values of the straining actions at the middle section.

The selection of the girder cross section is essentially a trial-and-error
procedure in which a trial section is assumed and used to check the resulting
stresses in both steel and concrete:

The following section is assumed:

a) Web 2250 × 14

b) Top Flange 400 × 12
(b
f
/ 2t
f
= 40 / (2 ×1.2) = 16.667 > 21 /
y
f = 11
No problem since flange is prevented from local buckling by deck slab)

c) Bottom Flange 600 × 32

Section properties are then computed for the following cases:

a) Steel section only:
Centroid Y
us
= 143.391 cm
Intertia I
s
= 3953428 cm
4

Section Moduli Z
us
= 27571 cm
3

Z
ls
= 45965 cm
3


b) Effective Slab Width:

For the right girder:
b
ER
= b* = 150 cm (Side Walk Slab)
b
EL
= smaller of:
1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.4375 m
2) Spacing /2 = 7/2 = 3.5 m
3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm governs

Total effective width b
ER
+ b
EL
= 150 + 132 = 282 cm

Steel Bridges 270
c) Composite section with n = 9 (F
cu
= 300 kg / m
2
)

Centroid Y'
us
= 57.862 cm
Intertia I
v
= 11309956 cm
4

Section Moduli Z′
us
= 195465 cm
3

Z′
ls
= 65933 cm
3
Z
uc
= 141619 cm
3


d) Composite section with n = 3 × 9 = 27 (Effect of Creep)

Centroid Y'
us
= 98.186 cm
Intertia I
v
= 7836139 cm
4

Section Moduli Z′
us
= 79809 cm
3

Z′
ls
= 59720 cm
3
Z
uc
= 65200 cm
Load
3


Check of Bending Stresses:

a) Non-Shored Construction:

Upper Steel (-)
t/cm
Lower Steel (+)
t/cm
2

Upper Concrete
kg / cm
2

2

DL 1 F
us
= 385 × 100/27571
= 1.396
F
ls
= 385 × 100/45965
= 0.838
= 0 for non-shored
construction
DL 2 F
us
= 115 × 100/79809
= 0.144
F
ls
= 115 × 100/59720
= 0.193
F
uc
= (115 × 100/65200)
*(1000/27) = 6.533
LL + I F
us
= 700 × 100/195465
= 0.358
F
ls
= 700x100/65933
= 1.062
F
uc
= (700/141619)
*(1000/9) = 54.92
Total 1.899 2.092 61.453

Checks:
1- Compression at Upper Steel :

a) Total stress: F
us
= 1.899 < F
b
= 2.1 t/cm
2

(compression flange is laterally supported by deck slab)

b) Due to D.L. only Fus = 1.396 t / cm2
compression flange is laterally supported by upper bracing with
L
u
= 4.5 m, r
T
= 8 cm
L
u
/r
T
= 450 / 8 = 56.25
Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

271


y
T u
F
C
188 r / L
b
≤ = 99
y y
b
5
y
2
T u
F 58 . 0 F )
C 10 x 176 . 1
F ) r / L (
64 . 0 (
2 ltb
F ≤ − =
= 1.955 t/cm2

F
us
< F
LTB

2. Tension at Upper Steel :
O.K.


a) Total Tension: f
ls
= 2.092 < F
b
= 2.10 t/cm
2


b) Fatigue f
sr
= 0.5 × 1.062 = 0.531 < F
sr
= 1.02 t/cm
2


{The allowable fatigue stress range (F
sr
) is obtained as follows:
* From ECP Table 3.1.a: ADTT >2500, Number of cycles = 2 ×10
6

Detail Class = B′ (case 4.2 of Table 3.3)
Table 3.2 gives F
sr
= 1.02 t/cm
2
3. Compression on Upper Concrete:
> f
sr
}


Concrete f
uc
= 61.453 < 70 kg/cm
2


b) Shored Construction:

DL1 + DL2 LL + I
Upper Steel f
us
= 50000 / 79809 + 70000 / 195465 =
= 0.626 + 0.358 = 0.985 t/cm
2


Lower Steel f
ls
= 50000 / 59720 + 70000 / 65933 =
= 0.837 + 1.062 = 1.899 t/cm
2


Upper Concrete: f
uc
=50000*1000 / (65200*27) + 70000*1000 / (141619*9)
= 28.403 + 54.92 = 83.323 kg/cm
2


Code recommends to neglect creep in computing concrete stresses:

Upper Concrete: f
us
=50000*1000 / (141619*9) + 70000*1000 / (141619*9)
= 39.229 + 54.92 = 94.149 kg/cm
2


Note that shored construction results in decrease of steel stresses and increase
in concrete stresses.

Steel Bridges 272
Design of Shear Connectors

Assuming non-shored construction, the shear force to be carried by the
connectors at the support is:

Q
c
= 0.5 * Q
DL1
+ (Q
DL2
+ Q
LL+I
)
= 0.5 × 62+ (18 + 100) = 149 tons

The shear / unit length is τ = Q
c
S
c
/ I
v


Where S
c
= first moment of area of the concrete slab about the neutral axis of
the composite section = A
c
* y
c


= (282 × 22/9) * (57.862+11) = 47469 cm
3


τ = 149 × 47469 / 11309956 = 0.625 t / cm'

a) Stud Connecters:

i) Stud Capacity:

The allowable load of one stud connector is computed as:

R
sc
= 0.17 A
sc
(f
cu
E
c
)
1/2
≤ 0.58 A
SC
F
y

≤ R
w

using φ 24 mm studs, A
sc
= π / 4 (2.4)
2
= 4.52 cm
2

F
cu
= 300 kg / cm
2
= 0.3 t/cm
2

E
c
= 240 t/cm
2

R
sc
= 0.17 × 4.52 (0.300 × 240)
1/2
= 6.52 t

OR = 0.58 A
sc
× F
y
= 6.29 t

ii) Stud Connection Capacity:

The allowable stress range in shear on the nominal area of the stud (case 26 of
table 3.3) is equal to 0.4 t/cm
2
according to table 3.2; i.e.,

R
w
= Shear range / stud = π / 4 (2.4)
2
× 0.4 = 1.808 t governs

τ
sr
= (0.5 × 100) ×47469 / 11309956 = 0.210 t/cm'

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges

273

Using 3 studs per row:

Spacing e ≤ R/τ
sr
= 1.808 × 3/ 0.21 = 25.846 cm

Use studs at 20 cm (check: e ≥ 6d = 14.4 cm)


b) Channel Connector:

The allowable load on one channel connector is calculated from:

R
sc
= 0.12 (1 + 0.3) × 20 (0.3 × 200)
1/2
= 24 t

However, the design is usually governed by the fatigue capacity of the welded
connection between the channel and the top flange computed as follow:

According to Case 24 of table 3.3 → Fatigue Class E′
From Table 3.2 → τ
sr
= 0.41 t/cm
2


Assuming 2 x 20 cm length of 5 mm weld, then

R
w
= 2 × 20 × 0.5 × 0.41 = 8.2 t

Connector Spacing = 8.2/0.21 = 39.05 cm

Use Channel C12 spaced at 30 cm.

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges











CHAPTER 7

BOX GIRDER BRIDGES

Steel Bridges

CHAPTER 7



BOX GIRDER BRIDGES





7.1 INTRODUCTION

Box girders have two properties which can offer substantial advantages in
certain circumstances over plate girders:

1- they possess torsional stiffness, and
2- their flanges can be made much wider, thus solving the problem of
providing a large steel area within a narrow width of plate.

As well as being advantageous in the completed condition of the bridge,
these properties can also make box girder bridges simpler in principle to
erect. The problems of lateral torsional buckling, for example, do not arise,
and if a bridge is to be erected by cantilevering, very long unsupported spans
can be adopted.

For medium span bridges, box girders offer an attractive form of
construction. Design and construction techniques already popular and
common for plate girder bridges can be utilized to produce box girder bridges
of clean appearance whilst maintaining relative simplicity and speedy
construction procedures. The scope of application of such designs could
cover the medium span range from about 45 m to 100 m.

Until 1940 the structural possibilities for box girders were limited; most
bridge girders were assembled from rolled sections, plates and riveted
connections. With the development of electric welding and precision flame
cutting, the structural possibilities increased enormously. It is now possible to
design large welded units in a more economical way.



Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 277
A bridge box girder consists of, see Fig. 7.1 :

1. a concrete deck or an orthotropic steel deck serving as the top flange.
2. a stiffened plate as a bottom flange.
3. Web plates, vertical or inclined.
4. stiff diaphragms or cross bracings at supports, and lighter diaphragms
or cross bracings at distances of about 2.5 times the construction depth.



Fig. 7.1 Components of a Box Girder


Clearly, the feature which differentiates the behavior of box girder bridges
from plate girder bridges is the much greater torsional stiffness of the closed
section. The prime effect this has on global bending behavior is to share the
vertical shear more equally between the web plates. Consequently upon this
equal sharing, bending stresses in the flange plates are also more evenly
shared. As a result, box girders behave more efficiently – there is less need to
design for peak load effects which occur on only one plate girder at a time.

Box girders, in addition, have other advantages over plate girders which
make their use attractive; such as:

i- a much neater appearance since the stiffening can remain invisible inside
the box.
ii- the use of inclined webs provides an efficient aerodynamic shape which
is important for long span bridges, see Fig. 7.2.


Steel Bridges


Fig. 7.2 Box Girder Section for Long Span Bridges


UUUsual Span Ranges:UU Box girders are suitable for longer span than plate
girders and allow larger span-to-depth ratios. The span to depth ratio will
normally be around 20 to 25 for simple girders and around 25 to 35 for
continuous girders. It is possible to reduce the depth, if necessary, at the
expense of additional steel. The above ratios are valid for roadway bridges.
For railway bridges the ratios should be smaller, say 15 and 20. The
following table gives the economic span limits for roadway bridges:

Composite concrete
deck
Orthotropic
deck
Simple span 20 – 100 70 – 120
Continuous spans 30 – 140 100 – 250

The longest span so far is 300 m achieved in 1974 by costa de silva bridge
in Rio de Janeiro.

7.2 CROSS SECTION ARRANGEMENTS

Box girder bridges can be constructed with single, twin or multiple box
girders. Generally, single box forms, Fig. 7.3 are limited to bridges of fairly
narrow width (although some very wide shallow single boxes have been used
in long span suspension bridges which are outside the scope of this book).

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 279







Fig. 7.3 Box Girder Bridge Sections with One Box
Steel Bridges
Typical width of the boxes themselves would be between about 2 m and 4
m although both wider and narrower boxes have been used (it is common
practice for the box to be made complete in the fabricator's works in order to
minimize site assembly; boxes much in excess of 4 m in width, whilst
perfectly practical to design and fabricate, can cause problems in transport).
Cantilever brackets would normally be made between about 3 m and 5 m
long, and cross girders between 10 m and 15 m in length (again, of course,
these are not absolute limits, merely common practice). Using these figures
gives total bridge widths of between 8 m and 14 m for a single box with
cantilevers either side, and between 20 m and 33 m for twin boxes with cross
girders between them and cantilevers outside the outer webs.

The most usual layout for bridges of medium span consists of two
longitudinal box girders, interconnected by cross girders which are usually
fabricated plate girders and having also fabricated plate cantilever brackets
projecting beyond their outer webs (Fig.7.4). The deck can either be of
reinforced concrete or of orthotropic stiffened steel plate. If the deck is of
concrete, it will act compositely with the main box girders and also with the
transverse plate girders and cantilevers; if of steel plate, it forms parts of the
flanges of the boxes. As general guidance, a reinforced concrete deck would
be used if the bridge span is less than about 150 m, and an orthotropic steel
deck if it is over 200 m. Between these limits consideration should be given
to either form of construction. It must always be remembered that special
considerations may require the use of a particular type of deck outside the
suggested span ranges quoted above.

An alternative solution to two lane bridges involves carrying each lane on
its own individual single box girder. Such a layout has a number of
advantages in addition to overcoming the problem of fitting a cross girder
accurately between two longitudinal girders present in plate girder bridges.
The use of separate structures for the two lanes of a dual lane bridge ensures
that even if one superstructure is damaged or even destroyed the bridge can
continue to be used whilst it is being repaired or replaced, by diverting two
way traffic on to the remaining structure.

Multiple boxes are needed for wider roads. Alternatively, wide roads can
be carried on twin box sections with cross girders, so that the deck slab works
longitudinally, rather than transversally between the lines of the box webs.

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 281






Fig. 7.4 Box Girder Bridge Sections with Two Boxes

When a reinforced concrete slab is used for the deck, the steel girders may
be closed box sections or may be open sections (U – shaped) which are
closed when the slab is cast. In this case separate (and relatively small) flange
plates are provided at the top of each web. These flanges need to be stabilized
laterally by upper horizontal bracing during construction. Shear connectors
are arranged on the top of these flanges to ensure composite action.

When the bridge deck is steel, the top flange plates are stiffened
orthotropically to carry traffic wheel loads as well as acting as the top flange
of the box girder. This stiffening usually takes the form of longitudinal
trapezoidal ribs supported at regular intervals by transverse beams.


Steel Bridges
In the descriptions above it has been implicitly assumed that the steel
boxes themselves are of rectangular cross-section. Whilst this is probably the
commonest cross-section, there is no reason in principle why the webs should
be vertical; many boxes from the smallest to the largest have had sloping
webs. In some cases of very large boxes this provides an expedient by which
a two lane deck maybe carried on a single box. The loading on the deck may
be transferred to the webs through deck slab action or through cross girders
inside the box bearing on transverse stiffeners on the webs. If the depth of the
web varies according to the bending moment requirements, the use of non-
vertical webs should be avoided since this combination would give rise to
extremely awkward detailing problems, and could sometimes result in ugly
appearance of the bridge

7.3 BEHAVIOUR OF BOX GIRDER BRIDGES

7.3.1 Structural Analysis

A global structural analysis of the bridge is usually required in order to
establish the maximum forces and moments at the critical sections of the
bridge under the variety of possible loading conditions. Local analysis of the
deck slab is usually carried out separately from the global analysis. For
proper and efficient evaluation of bending and torsion effects, it is necessary
to use computer analysis.

7.3.2 Bending, torsion and distortion

The general case of an eccentric load applied to a box girder may be
resolved into two components, see Fig. 7.5:

1- A symmetrical component with both webs subjected to two equal
vertical loads; and

2- An anti-symmetrical component with the two webs subjected to two
equal and opposite forces forming a couple.

The symmetric component causes the box girder to be subjected to:

1- shear and bending in a vertical plan
2- distortion from bending if the girder section is open

The anti-symmetric component causes the box girder to be subjected to:

1- shear stresses from torsions
2- distortion from torsion.
Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 283




Fig. 7.5 Effect of Eccentric Loading on Box Girder Sections:
Steel Bridges
7.4 Effect Bending
Bending moments produce longitudinal normal stresses in the box girder
given by:
y
I
M
f
x
x
=

Since box girders contain wide flanges, the distribution of the bending
stresses is non-uniform because the flange distorts in its own plane; i.e., plane
sections do not remain plane. This phenomenon is known as "Shear Lag".






Fig. 7.6 Actual Bending Stress Distribution in a Box Girder.


7.4.1 Shear Lag Phenomenon

When the axial load is fed into a wide flange by shear from the webs, the
flange distorts in its plane and plane sections do not remain plane. The
resulting stress distribution in the flange is not uniform as shown in Fig. 7.6.
In very wide flanges, shear lag effects have to be taken into account for the
verification of stresses, especially for short spans, since it causes the
longitudinal stress at a flange/web intersection to exceed the mean stress in
the flange.

Shear lag can be allowed for in the elementary theory of bending, by using
an effective flange breadth (less than the real breadth) such that the stress in
the effective breadth equals the peak stress in the actual flange, see Fig.7.7.
This effective flange breadth depends on the ratio of width to span.
Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 285



Fig. 7.7 Effective breadth for shear lag effects

The effective width is a function of the ratio of the span L to the width b of
the box, the cross-sectional area of the stress carrying stiffeners, and the type
and position of loading. For continuous girders, the effective widths are
obtained separately for the individual equivalent simple spans between the
points of inflection. Fortunately, in most situations the span/breadth ratio is
not sufficiently large to cause more than 10-20% increase in peak stress, on
account of shear lag.

According to British Standards UBS5400 : 3/2000:U The effective
width bRB
e
RB should be taken as follows:

a) bRB
e
RB = ψb for portions between webs:

where
b = half the distance between centers of webs measured along the
mid-plane of the flange plate;

b) bRB
e
RB = kψb for portions projecting beyond an outer web;

where

b = distance from the free edge of the projecting portion to the centre
of the outer web; measured along the mid-plane of the flange
plate;

k = (1 – 0.15b/L);

L = span of a beam between centers of support,
or in the case of a cantilever beam, between the support and the
free end;

Steel Bridges
ψ = appropriate effective breadth ratio taken from Tables 7.1 – 7.3
for uniformly distributed loads;

a = 0 if there are no stiffeners on the flange within the width b in the
span direction, otherwise:


a =
b width in plate flange of area sectional
b width in stiffeners flange of area sectional


Values of ψ for intermediate values of b/L and a and for intermediate
positions in the span may be obtained by linear interpolation.

The value of ψ at an interior support should be taken as the mean of the
values obtained for adjacent spans. For end spans of continuous beams the
effective breadth ratios may be obtained by treating the end span as a propped
cantilever of the same span.

For the purpose of calculating deflections of beams, the values of ψ given
in these may be adopted for all sections in the span.

Table 7.1 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for simply supported beams


b/L
Mid-span Quarter span Support
a = 0 a= 1 a = 0 a = 1 a = 0 a = 1
0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.05 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.96 0.84 0.77
0.10 0.95 0.89 0.93 0.98 0.70 0.60
0.20 0.81 0.67 0.77 0.62 0.52 0.38
0.30 0.66 0.47 0.61 0.44 0.40 0.28
0.40 0.50 0.35 0.46 0.32 0.32 0.22
0.50 0.38 0.28 0.36 0.25 0.27 0.18
0.75 0.22 0.17 0.20 0.16 0.17 0.12
1.00 0.16 0.12 0.15 0.11 0.12 0.09









Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 287
Table 7.2 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for interior spans of continuous beams


b/L
Mid-span Quarter span Support
a = 0 a = 1 a = 0 a = 1 a = 0 a = 1
0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.05 0.96 0.91 0.85 0.76 0.85 0.50
0.10 0.86 0.72 0.68 0.55 0.41 0.32
0.20 0.58 0.40 0.42 0.31 0.24 0.17
0.30 0.38 0.27 0.30 0.20 0.15 0.11
0.40 0.24 0.18 0.21 0.14 0.12 0.08
0.50 0.20 0.14 0.16 0.11 0.11 0.07
0.75 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.06
1.00 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.05


Table 7.3 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for cantilever beams


b/L
Fixed end Quarter span near
fixed end
Free end
a = 0 a = 1 a = 0 a = 1 a = 0 a = 1
0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.05 0.82 0.76 1.00 1.00 0.92 0.86
0.10 0.68 0.61 1.00 1.00 0.84 0.77
0.20 0.52 0.44 1.00 1.00 0.70 0.60
0.30 0.42 0.35 0.95 0.90 0.60 0.48
0.40 0.35 0.28 0.88 0.75 0.52 0.38
0.50 0.30 0.25 0.76 0.62 0.40 0.33
0.75 0.22 0.18 0.52 0.38 0.34 0.23
1.00 0.18 0.14 0.38 0.27 0.27 0.18

7.4.2 Effect of Local Buckling

In addition, web and flange plates of a box girder must satisfy the
requirements of ECP code for local plate buckling resulting from:

1- Axial compression in compression flange.
2- Bending compression in web.
3- Shear in web.




Steel Bridges
7.4.2.1 Local Buckling of Compression Flange:

The compression flange is non-compact if
y
F
64
t
b
≤ for stiffened
elements and
y
F
21
t
b
≤ for unstiffened elements

If (b/t) exceeds these limits then either:

(1) provide longitudinal flange stiffeners to satisfy these requirements; or

(2) base design on effective width bRB
e
RB calculated as follows :

bRB
e
RB = ρ b,
( ) ) 1 ( / 05 . 0 15 . 0
p
2
p
= ψ λ ψ − − λ = ρ

σ
= λ k / F
44
t / b
y p



7.4.2.2 Web Buckling due to Bending :

Web is non-compact in pure bending (ψ = -1 )

if:
y
w
w
F
190
t
d


For the case FRB
all
RB = 0.58 fRB
y
RB gives dRB
w
RB/tRB
w
RB = 100 for st. 52


If
y
w
w
F
190
t
d

|
|
.
|

\
|
Either :
1- provide longitudinal web stiffeners at d/5 from compression flange such
that:

y
w
w
F
320
t
d

|
|
.
|

\
|
(= 168 for st. 52) and, if need ,

Use another stiffener at d/2 such that
y
w
w
F
370
t
d

|
|
.
|

\
|
(= 195 for st. 52)
Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 289
Or
2- base design on effective width dRB
e
RB calculated as follows:


( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= = λ
= = λ
− = ψ λ Ψ − − λ = ρ
ρ = ρ =
σ σ
4 . 113
t / d
9 . 23
6 . 3
44
t / d
52 . st for
) 9 . 23 k ( , k / F
44
t / d
) 1 ( , / 05 . 0 15 . 0
2 / d d de
p
y p
p
2
p
c


7.4.2.3 Web Buckling due to Shear:

Web is non-compact in shear if
y
F
105
tw
dw


For the case qRB
all
RB = 0.35 FRB
y
RB d/t = 55 for St. 52

If
y
F
105
t / d 〉 then reduce allowable shear stress to qRB
b
RB given by :

( )
) 2 . 1 ( ) F 35 . 0 (
9 . 0
) 2 . 1 8 . 0 ( F 35 . 0 625 . 0 5 . 1 q
q y
q
q y q b
〉 λ
λ
=
〈 λ 〈 λ − =

Where:

) 1 ( / 4 34 . 5
) 1 ( / 34 . 5 4 k
k
F
57
t / d
2
2
q
q
y
q
〉 α α + =
〈 α α + =
= λ

For vertically unstiffened webs : (α >> 1)

70
t / d
F
5 . 132
t / d
34 . 5 k
q
y q
q
= λ
= λ
=

this gives :

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
y y
y
y y y b
F / 159
t
d
for F 35 . 0
F t / d
119
F / 159
t
d
for F 35 . 0 212 / F t / d 5 . 1 q
〉 =
≤ − =

Steel Bridges
7.4.3 Combined Shear & Bending

In general, any cross-section of a box girder will be subjected to bending
moment in addition to shear. This combination makes the stress conditions in
the girder web considerably more complex. The stresses from the bending
moment will combine with the shear stresses to give a lower buckling load.
The interaction between shear and bending can be conveniently represented
by the diagram shown in Fig. 7.8, where the allowable bending stress is
plotted on the vertical axis and the allowable buckling shear stress of the
girder is plotted horizontally. The interaction represents a failure envelope,
with any point lying on the curve defining the co-existent values of shear and
bending that the girder can just sustain. The equation representing this
interaction diagram is :

( ) | |
y b a c t b
F q / q 3 6 . 0 8 . 0 F − =

The interaction diagram can be considered in 3 regions. In region AB, the
applied shear stress qRB
act
RB is low (< 0.6 qRB
b
RB) and the girder can sustain the full
bending stress FRB
b
RB based on the effective width bRB
eff
RB for the compression flange.
At the other extreme of the interaction diagram in region CD, the applied
shear stress is high (=qRB
b
RB) then the allowable bending stress is reduced to 0.44
FRB
y
RB to allow for the high shear. In the intermediate region BC the allowable
bending stress is reduced linearly from 0.58 FRB
y
RB to 0.44 FRB
y
RB.
Shear Stress
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

0.44 F
y
0.58 F
y
0.6 q
b
q
b
A
B
C
D


Fig. 7.8 Interaction between Shear and Bending


Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 291
7.5 Effect of Torsion

The torsion component is shown in Figure 7.5 simply as a force couple.
However, torsion is in fact resisted in a box section by a shear flow around
the whole perimeter. The couple should therefore be separated into two parts,
pure torsion and distortion, as shown in Figure 7.5. The distortion component
comprises an internal set of forces, statically in equilibrium, whose effects
depend on the behavior of the structure between the point of application and
the nearest positions where the box section is restrained against distortion.

At supports, bearings will be provided, see Fig. 7.9. Where a pair of
bearings is provided, they are usually either directly under each web or just
inside the line of the webs. To resist forces reacting on the bearings as a
result of the bending and torsion components, bearing support stiffeners will
be required on the web. In addition, a diaphragm (or at least a stiff ring
frame) will be required to resist the distortional effects consequent in
transmitting the torsion from the box to a pair of bearing supports.



Fig. 7.9 End Bearings of a Box Girder

In some cases only a single bearing is provided; a stiffened diaphragm will
be needed to resist the reaction and to distribute the force to the webs.

Between points of support, intermediate transverse web stiffeners may be
provided to develop sufficient shear resistance in a thin web. Intermediate
diaphragms or cross frames, see Fig. 7.10, may be provided to limit the
distortional effects of eccentrically applied loads; they are particularly
effective where concentrated eccentric effects are introduced, such as from a
cantilever on the side of the box. Intermediate cross-frames may also be
provided to facilitate construction.

Steel Bridges




Fig. 7.10 Diaphragms and Cross Frames in Box Girders

7.5.1 Torsion and Torsional Warping

The theoretical behavior of a thin-walled box section subject to pure torsion
is well known and treated in many standard texts. For a single cell box, the
torque is resisted by a shear flow which acts around the walls of the box. This
shear flow (force/unit length) is constant around the box and is given by q =
T/2A, where T is the torque and A is the area enclosed by the box. (In Figure
7.5 the torque is QB/2 and the shear flow is Q/4D). The shear flow produces
shear stresses and strains in the walls and gives rise to a twist per unit length,
Ө which is given by the general expression :



= θ = θ
GJ
T
, or
t
ds
G A 4
T
2


where J is the torsion constant.

However, it is less well appreciated that this pure torsion of a thin walled
section will also produce a warping of the cross-section, unless there is
sufficient symmetry in the section as shown in Figure 7.11.


Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 293


Fig. 7.11 Warping of a Rectangular Box subject to Pure Torsion.


For a simple uniform box section subject to pure torsion this warping is
unrestrained and does not give rise to any secondary stresses. But if for
example, a box is supported and torsionally restrained at both ends and then
subjected to applied torque in the middle, warping is fully restrained in the
middle by virtue of symmetry and torsional warping stresses are generated.
Similar restraint occurs in continuous box sections which are torsionally
restrained at supports.

This restraint of warping gives rise to longitudinal warping stresses and
associated shear stresses in the same manner as bending effects in each wall
of the box. The shear stresses effectively modify slightly the uniformity of
the shear stress calculated by pure torsion theory, usually reducing the stress
near corners and increasing it in mid-panel. Because maximum combined
effects usually occur at the corners, it is conservative to ignore the warping
shear stresses and use the simple uniform distribution.

The longitudinal effects are, on the other hand greatest at the corners. They
need to be taken into account when considering the occurrence of yield
stresses in service and the stress range under fatigue loading. But since the
longitudinal stresses do not actually participate in the carrying of the torsion,
the occurrence of yield at the corners and the consequent relief of some or all
of these warping stresses would not reduce the torsional resistance. In simple
terms, a little plastic redistribution can be accepted at the ultimate limit state
and therefore there is no need to include torsional warping stresses in the
ultimate limit state checks.




Steel Bridges
7.5.2 Distortion

When torsion is applied directly around the perimeter of a box section, by
forces exactly equal to the shear flow in each of the sides of the box, there is
no tendency for the cross section to change its shape.

If torsion is not applied in this manner, a diaphragm or stiff frame might be
provided at the position where the force couple is applied to ensure that the
section remains square and that torque is in fact fed into the box walls as a
shear flow around the perimeter. The diaphragm or frame is then subject to a
set of distortional forces as shown in Figure 7.5.

Provision of such diaphragms or frames is practical, and indeed necessary,
at supports and at positions where heavy point loads are introduced. But such
restraint can only be provided at discrete positions. When the load is
distributed along the beam, or when point loads can occur anywhere along
the beam such as concentrated axle loads from vehicles, the distortional
effects must be carried by other means.

To illustrate how distortion occurs and is carried between effective
restraints, consider a simply supported box which is subject to a point load
over one web at mid-span. If a flexible intermediate cross-frame (a ring
stiffener without any triangulated bracing in its plane) is placed at the point of
application of the load, it tends to resist the distortion of the cross section by
'sway bending' of the form shown in Figure 7.12. Obviously, the stiffer the
frame the less the distortion of the cross section. (Cross bracing or a plated
diaphragm would be even more effective).



Figure 7.12 Distortion of Box Girder with Stiff Corners or Cross-Frames

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 295
The bending of cross-frames and the walls of a box, as a result of the
distortional forces, produces transverse distortional bending stresses in the
box section.

In general the distortional behavior depends on interaction between the two
sorts of behavior, the warping and the transverse distortional bending. The
behavior has been demonstrated to be analogous to that of a beam on an
elastic foundation, BEF, representing the transverse distortional bending
resistance. The BEF model is used as the basis for the rules in Appendix B of
BS 5400 Part 3 for calculating distortion and warping stresses in box girders.
This Appendix is shown in the next section.

It must be emphasized that distortional effects are UUprimaryUU effects – they are
an essential part of the means of carrying loads applied other than at stiff
diaphragms – and they should not be ignored.
Steel Bridges
7.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE:

The design example presented in chapter 5 and chapter 6 is used here to
illustrate the method of design of composite box girders. The same
roadway is carried by two box girders as shown below:

1
4
8
0
1500 7000
2150 2700 2150
1500
3
2
0
2
2
0
25 25 1450


The example uses the same values of the straining actions as shown
next:











7.6.1 Web Plate Design:

Web Plate Height: The web plate height shall be assumed at 148 cm which
corresponds to an inclined web plate length of 150 cm (standard plate width).

Web Plate Thickness: The minimum thickness for a web without transverse
stiffeners is obtained from:
tPP
2
PP = Q / (41.65
y
F )

Since the total shear force is carried by two webs, each web carries
Q = 180/2 = 90 ton (at support). This gives:

tPP
2
PP = 90 / 41.65 6 . 3 ) = 1.135 i.e., t = 1.065 cm

Use t = 12 mm (next even integer) without transverse stiffeners.
Action

Load Case
At Support Mid section
Q
(t)
M
(m.t.)
Q
(t)
M
(m.t.)
Dead Load DL1 62 0 0 385
Add. Dead Load DL2 18 0 0 115
Live Load LL+I 100 0 25 700
Sum 180 0 25 1200
Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 297

Check of web buckling due to shear:

Allowable Buckling Shear Stress = qRB
b
RB = ( 119 / (d/t)
y
F ) (0.35 FRB
y
RB)
qRB
b
RB= ( 119 / (150/1.2)
y
F ) (0.35 FRB
y
RB ) = 0.632 t/cmPP
2
PP
Actual Shear Stress:



i.e., Web Plate is safe against buckling due to shear at support

.) K . O ( q cm / t 514 . 0
2 . 1 146
90
q
b
2
act
< =
×
=
Steel Bridges
7.6.2 Main Girder Design:

The section properties of the proposed cross section are as follows:

The following section is assumed:

a) Two Webs 1500 × 12

b) Top Flange 300 × 12
(bRB
f
RB / 2tRB
f
RB = 30 / (2 ×1.2) = 12.5 > 21 /
y
f = 11
(No problem since flange is prevented from local buckling by deck slab)

c) Bottom Flange 1500 × 22

UUSection properties are then computed for the following cases:

a) Steel section only:
Centroid YRB
us
RB = 99.336 cm
Intertia IRB
s
RB = 2360156 cmPP
4
PP
Section Moduli ZRB
us
RB = 23759 cmPP
3
PP
ZRB
ls
RB = 49310 cmPP
3
PP

b) Effective Slab Width:

For the exterior web:
bRB
ER
RB = b* = UU150UU cm (Side Walk Slab)
bRB
EL
RB = smaller of:
1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.4375 m
2) Spacing /2 = 2.15/2 = UU1.075UU m governs
3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm

For the interior web:
bRB
ER
RB = smaller of:
1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.4375 m
2) Spacing /2 = 2.15/2 = UU1.075UU m governs
3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm

bRB
EL
RB = smaller of:
1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.4375 m
2) Spacing /2 = 2.70/2 = 1.35 m
3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = UU132 UUcm governs

Total Effective Slab Width = (150 + 107.5) + (107.5+132) = 497 cm
Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 299
c) Composite section with n = 9 (FRB
cu
RB = 300 kg / mPP
2
PP)

Centroid Y'RB
us
RB = 31.372 cm
Intertia IRB
v
RB = 8123595 cmPP
4
PP
Section Moduli Z′RB
us
RB = 258941 cmPP
3
PP
Z′RB
ls
RB = 70153 cmPP
3
ZRB
uc
RB = 152206 cmPP
3
PP

d) Composite section with n = 3 × 9 = 27 (Effect of Creep)

Centroid Y'RB
us
RB = 60.896 cm
Intertia IRB
v
RB = 5608461 cmPP
4
PP
Section Moduli Z′RB
us
RB = 92098 cmPP
3
PP
Z′RB
ls
RB = 64985 cmPP
3
ZRB
uc
RB = 67656 cmPP
3
PP
Check of Bending Stresses:

UUa) Non-Shored Construction:

Load Upper Steel (-)
t/cmPP
2
PP
Lower Steel (+)
t/cmPP
2
PP
Upper Concrete
kg / cmPP
2
PP
DL 1 FRB
us
RB = 385 × 100/23759
= 1.620
FRB
ls
RB = 385 × 100/49310
= 0.781
= 0 for non-shored
construction
DL 2 FRB
us
RB = 115 × 100/92908
= 0.125
FRB
ls
RB = 115 × 100/64985
= 0.177
FRB
us
RB = (115 × 100/67656)
*(1000/27) = 2.575
LL + I FRB
us
RB = 700 ×
100/258941
= 0.270
FRB
ls
RB = 700x100/70153
= 0.998
FRB
us
RB = (700/152206)
*(1000/9) = 51.10
UUTotalUU UU2.016UU UU 1.956UU UU53.676UU

Checks:
1- Compression in Upper Steel :

a) Total stress: FRB
us
RB = UU2.016UU < FRB
b
RB = UU2.1UU t/cmPP
2
PP
(compression flange is laterally supported by deck slab)

b) Due to D.L. only Fus = UU1.620UU t / cmPP
2
PP

Assume compression flange is laterally supported by upper bracing
with
LRB
u
RB = 4.5 m, rRB
T
RB= 8 cm LRB
u
RB/rRB
T
RB = 450 / 8 = 56.25

y
T u
F
C
188 r / L
b
≤ = 99
Steel Bridges
y y
b
5
y
2
T u
F 58 . 0 F )
C 10 x 176 . 1
F ) r / L (
64 . 0 (
2 ltb
F ≤ − =
= UU1.955UU t/cm2

FRB
us
RB < FRB
LTB
RPBP

PPO.K.

2. Tension in Upper Steel :

a) Total Tension: fRB
ls
RB = 1.956 < FRB
b
RB = 2.10 t/cmPP
2
PP

b) Fatigue fRB
sr
RB = 0.5 × 0.998 = 0.499 < FRB
sr
RB = 1.02 t/cmPP
2
PP

{The allowable fatigue stress range (FRB
sr
RB ) is obtained as follows:
* From ECP Table 3.1.a: ADTT >2500, Number of cycles = 2 ×10PP
6
PP
Detail Class = B′ (case 4.2 of Table 3.3)
Table 3.2 gives FRB
sr
RB = UU1.02UU t/cmPP
2
PP > fRB
sr
RB }

3. Compression in Upper Concrete:

fRB
uc
RB = 53.676 < 70 kg/cmPP
2
PP

7.6.3 Comparison between Different Designs:

The following table shows a comparison between the total weight of steel
needed for the bridge according to the three designed presented in Chapter 5
using non-composite plate girders, in Chapter 6 using composite plate
girders, and in Chapter 7 using composite box girders. It should be note that
the total weight of the first two cases should include the weight of the
stringers and cross girders, not present in the third case. The comparison
shows that the composite box girder solution uses the least weight followed
by the composite plate girder solution.

Section Weight
of Main
Girder
Weight of
Floor Beams
Total
Weight
Web Flanges
1- Non-Composite
Plate Girder
2250*14 600*36
600*36
31.665 15.596 47.261
2- Composite
Plate Girder

2250*14 400*12
600*32
23.526 15.596 39.122
3- Composite
Box Girder

2(1500*12) 2(300*12)
1500*22
32.302 0 32.302

Chapter 8: Truss Bridges





















CHAPTER 8
______________________________________________________________

TRUSS BRIDGES

Steel Bridges

CHAPTER 8





TRUSS BRIDGES






8.1 TRUSS TYPES & CHARACTERISTICS

8.1.1 GENERAL

A truss is essentially a triangulated assembly of straight members. A planar
truss may be regarded as a deep girder, where the girder flanges are replaced
by the truss chords and the web plate is formed by an open system of web
members. A truss may be used to replace a girder in several cases: as a
simply supported or continuous girder; as an arch; or in the deck of a
suspension or a cable-stayed bridge; see Fig. 8.1 and Fig. 8.2.

In a typical truss, the centroidal axes of all members are straight and
concurrent at the joints. Because the truss is loaded only at the joints; applied
loads are resisted primarily by axial forces induced in the truss members.
Bending moments are generally small and have a minor effect on the axial
forces. Ideally, all member bending moments should be close to zero, a
condition that can only be achieved by using frictionless pins at the joints. In
practice, however, most members are rigidly connected at the joints, resulting
in small moments which are usually neglected, except in some few special
cases.

A truss bridge has thus two major structural advantages:

(a) the primary member forces are axial loads,
(b) the open web system allows a greater overall depth than in an
equivalent solid web girder. This increased depth gives more rigidity to
the bridge and results in reduced deflections.
Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 313
















































Fig. 8.1 Applications of Trusses in Bridges
Steel Bridges










































Fig. 8.2 Examples of Truss Bridges
Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 315
8.1.2 TRUSS BRIDGE COMPONENTS

A truss bridge of conventional design consists of the following parts; see
Fig. 8.3;
(a) a deck slab or similar structural system,
(b) longitudinal stringers directly supporting the deck slab,
(c) cross beams at truss panel points carrying the load from the
longitudinal stringers,
(d) the two main truss systems,
(e) lateral bracing systems in the planes of the upper and lower
chords,
(f) end sway frames transmitting the reactions of the lateral bracing
systems to the bridge supports,
(g) additional intermediate sway frames distributing the transverse
wind loads to the lateral systems and keeping the system stable
during erection.

For through trusses, a system of upper wind bracings is always provided.
This upper bracing provides rigidity, stabilizes the compression chord, and
carries the main part of the wind loads to the bridge end sway frames, called
portal frames. These end frames are designed as rigid frames to transmit the
load from the upper bracing to the bridge supports.





















Fig. 8.3 Components of a Through Truss Bridge
Steel Bridges
8.1.3 TRUSS FORMS

The most common forms of bridge trusses are:


(1) Pratt or N-Truss (Fig. 8.4 a):

In this system the diagonals are always subjected to tension while the
verticals carry the shear in compression only. This case can represent an
advantage since the shorter members carry the compression.


(2) Warren Truss (Fig. 8.4 b):

Where the chords carry the bending in tension and compression and the
diagonals carry the shears, also in tension and compression. The vertical
members carry only panel loads.

(3) Trusses with Curved chords (Fig. 8.4 c)

Truss Chords may be placed on a curved alignment to carry part of the
shear and to reduce the forces in the diagonals. This alignment results in a
slight increase in the fabrication cost which is offset by material savings.

(4) Subdivided Panels ( Fig. 8.4 d):

The economic height-span ratio is about one-sixth to one-eighth, according
to loading and span length. With increasing span lengths, truss height also
increases. Thus, both the warren and Pratt trusses will result in long panel
length if the diagonal inclination remains about 45P
o
P. An alternative is to
subdivide these trusses as shown in Fig. 8.4 d.

(5) K – Truss (Fig. 8.4 e:)

Subdivided trusses develop high secondary stresses. A better solution may
be obtained by using K-trusses to keep the desired inclinations, accommodate
the required truss depth, and also limit the strength span.



Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 317
d =
span
7
(0.5-0.7) d
"d" Subdivided Truss
"e" K-Truss



"a" N-Truss
"b" Warren Truss
"c" Truss with Curved Chord


Fig. 8.4 Common Forms of Trusses used in Bridges



8.1.4 SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS

8.1.4.1 Truss Depth

For simple span trusses, experience has shown that a depth-span ratio of
1 : 6 to 1 : 8 yields economical designs. For continuous trusses a depth-span
ratio of 1 : 12 should be satisfactory. Because of the lighter live loads for
Steel Bridges
roadway bridges, trusses are rarely used. If trusses are used for roadway
bridges, somewhat shallower truss depths may be used.

The truss depth shall be sufficient to limit the elastic deflections due to live
load without impact to L/600 for roadway bridges and L/800 for railway
bridges and L/300, where L = bridge span.

8.1.4.2 Economic Truss Spans

Truss bridges are generally comparatively easy to erect because light
equipment often can by used. Assembly of bolted joints in the field is
relatively costly, which may offset some of the savings in steel.
Consequently, trusses seldom can be economical for roadway bridges with
spans less than about 130 m. Railway bridges, however, involve different
factors, because of the heavier loading. Trusses generally are economical for
railway bridges with spans greater than 45 m.

8.2 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS

8.2.1 Determination of Member Forces:

Structural analysis techniques may be applied to the bridge system to find
the effect of applied loads and forces acting on the truss members. The
following assumptions are usually made:

1- Members are connected at their ends by hinges,
2- Loads are applied at the truss joints,
3- In case of a curved member, the additional bending moment induced
due to member curvature should be calculated,
4- Secondary stresses due to joint rigidity and bending moments due to
own weight are neglected expect in trusses with subdivided panels,
trusses with loads acting between joints, and trusses with member
height more than one tenth of the member length.

Load cases that yield maximum straining actions should be considered
carefully. The resulting forces in the truss members are axial compression
and tension. Members are then designed using the allowable stress method.
Special design considerations are outlined next.






Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 319
8.2.2 Cross Section Shapes for Truss Members:

Members for bridge trusses generally consist of; see Fig. 8.5:

(a) Box sections made of plates or rolled sctions by welding;
(b) l-sections, either rolled or built up.

Box sections are usually used for chord members and heavy web members.
I-sections are usually used for light web members. Box sections present some
difficulties in their connection with gusset plates. Bolted connections with
gusset plate shall require the existence of temporary erection openings in the
box section to allow for bolt tightening. These openings shall be closed after
the truss erection. If design permits, use of I-sections for chord members
results in much easier connections.


Top Chord Bottom Chord
Diagonals and Verticals
b
b
b b


Fig. 8.5 Common Shapes of Bridge Truss Members

Steel Bridges
8.3 GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES

8.3.1 Geometry
For short and medium spans, it will generally be found economic to use
parallel chords to keep fabrication and erection costs down. However, for
long continuous spans, a greater depth is often required at the piers.
Secondary stresses should be avoided as far as possible by ensuring that the
neutral axes of all intersecting members meet at a single point, in both
vertical and horizontal planes. This will not always be possible, e.g. cross
girders will be deeper than the bottom chord and bracing members may be
attached to only one flange of the chords.
8.3.2 Compression Chord Members
These members should be kept as short as possible and consideration given
to additional bracing if economical. The effective length for buckling in the
plane of the truss is normally not the same as that for buckling out of the
plane of the truss, depending on the arrangement of upper bracings. This
effect can be further complicated in through trusses where horizontal bracing
may be provided at mid panel points as well as at the main nodes. When
making up the section for the compression chord, the ideal disposition of
material will be one that produces a section with radii of gyration such that
the ratio of effective length to radius of gyration is the same in both planes. In
other words, the member is just as likely to buckle horizontally as vertically.
8.3.3 Tension Chord Members
Tension members should be as compact as possible, but depths have to be
large enough to provide adequate space for bolts at the gusset positions. The
width out of the plane of the truss should be the same as that of the verticals
and diagonals so that simple lapping gussets can be provided without the
need for packing.
It should be possible to achieve a net section about 85% of the gross section
by careful arrangement of the bolts in the splices. This means that fracture at
the net section will not govern for common steel grades.
As with compression members, box sections would be preferable for ease
of maintenance but open sections may well prove cheaper.


Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 321
8.3.4 Vertical and Diagonal Members
These members should be all the same width normal to the plane of the
truss to permit them to fit flush with or to be slotted inside the top chord
(where the top-hat section is used) and to fit flush with the bottom chord.
However, the width of the diagonals in the plane of the truss should be
reduced away from the supports by about 75 mm per panel. This reduction
may mean that some members are understressed. It is often possible to use
rolled sections, particularly for the lightly loaded members, but packs will
probably be required to take up the rolling margins. This fact can make
welded members more economic, particularly on the longer trusses where the
packing operation might add a significant amount to the erection cost.
Aesthetically, it is desirable to keep all diagonals at the same angle, even if
the chords are not parallel. This arrangement prevents the truss looking over-
complex when viewed from an angle. In practice, however, this is usually
overruled by the economies of the deck structure where a constant panel
length is to be preferred.
8.3.5 Wind Bracings

Truss bridges should be provided with top and bottom lateral bracing
systems as shown in Fig. 8.3 to carry wind and other lateral loads acting on
the bridge. These lateral bracing systems are also effective in providing
lateral supports to the main truss compression chords. In addition, transversal
bracing should be provided at truss ends to transmit lateral loads from lateral
bracing systems to the bridge supports. These transversal bracings take the
form of portal frames for through bridges and cross frames for deck bridges.
Similar intermediate portal or cross frames are used to provide space rigidity
to the bridge and help in distributing lateral loads.
Forces to be considered in bracing design include wind, seismic loads, and
centrifugal forces. The bridge truss chords act as the chords of the lateral
system. In general, the design of these members is governed by slenderness
ratio conditions. Because of the long unbraced lengths of these members, it is
often advantageous to consider the cross bracing acting in tension only and
the neglect its resistance to compression.







Steel Bridges
8.4 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS

8.4.1 Selection of Member Dimensions:

1. Member height “h” and distance between gussets “b” can be selected as
follows:


h )
4
5
4
3
( b
10
Length Panel
15 12
Length Panel
h
− =


=


“b” should be constant for all members.

“h” is usually the same for top and bottom chord members.

2. Top chord is symmetrical about y-axis, Bottom chord is usually
symmetrical about x and y axes.

3. Start the design with the members with maximum forces.

8.4.2 Slenderness Ratios:

The maximum allowable slenderness ratios “L/i”, as per the Egyptian Code
of Practice are as follows:

Railway Roadway Bracing Hanger
Compression 90 110 140 ---
Tension 160 180 200 300

8.4.3 Minimum Plate Thickness:

The minimum plate thickness to be used is as follows:

) Element Stiffened (
F
64
t
w
& ) Element d Unstiffene (
F
21
t
w
Y Y
≤ ≤

where w is the plate width from the points of fixation (welds or bolts)




Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 323
8.4.4 Allowable Stresses:

According to the Egyptian Code of Practice for the allowable stresses of
Tension and Compression Members:

Grade of Steel Allowable Stresses (t/cmP
2
P)
0BTension
Member
1BCompression Member
100 〉
i
L
100 〈
i
L

St. 37
1.4
2
7500
|
.
|

\
|
i
L

2
000065 . 0 4 . 1
|
.
|

\
|

i
L

St. 44
1.6
2
000085 . 0 6 . 1
|
.
|

\
|

i
L

St. 52
2.1
2
000135 . 0 1 . 2
|
.
|

\
|

i
L




8.4.5 Buckling Length of Truss Bridge Members:

i) According to the Egyptian Code of Practice for determination of the
buckling length of truss bridge members:


Steel Bridges


Buckling Length of Truss Bridge Members

Member Effective Buckling Length LR
e

3BIn-Plane 2BOut-of-Plane
Compression
Chord Laterally
Braced
Compression
Chord Unbraced
Chord
Members
0.85 The
Member Length
0.85 The distance
between lateral
bracing members
1.25 the distance
between U
frames or 0.75
Truss Span
W
e
b

S
y
s
t
e
m

Single
Web
System
0.7 The Member
Length
0.85 The
Member Length
1.0 The Member
Length
Multiple
Web
System
0.85 The
Member Length
0.7 The distance
between
intersection with
Main Chords
0.85 The distance
between
intersection with
Main Chords


ii) For Pony Trusses:

For a bridge truss where the compression chord is laterally restrained by
U-frames composed of the cross girders and verticals of the trusses, the
effective buckling length of the compression chord (ℓR
b
R) is

Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 325
ℓR
b
R a a I E 5 . 2
4
y
≥ δ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

Where,

E = The Young’s modulus (t/cm2).
Iy = The moment of inertia of the chord member about the Y-Y axis
shown in Figure 4.2 (cmP
4
P).
a = The distance between the U-frames (cm).
δ
= The flexibility of the U-frame: the lateral deflection near the mid-
span at the level of the considered chord’s centroid due to a unit
load acting laterally at each chord connected to the U-frame. The
unit load is applied only at the point at which δ is being calculated.
The direction of each unit load shall produce a maximum value for δ
(cm).


Force
Unit
Force
Unit
Y
1 1
2
2
d
1
d
Y


Figure 8.6 Lateral Restraint of Pony Truss Chords by U-Frame

The U-frame is considered to be free and unconnected at all points except
at each point of intersection between cross girder and vertical of the truss
where this joint is considered to be rigidly connected.

In case of symmetrical U-frame with constant moment of inertia for each
of the cross girder and the verticals through their own length, δ may be taken
from:
2
2
2
1
3
1
EI 2
B d
EI 3
d
+ = δ




Steel Bridges
Where:

d

= The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the
nearest face of the cross girder of the U-frame.
d

= The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the
centroidal axis of the cross girder of the U-frame.
IR
1
= The second moment of area of the vertical member forming the arm
of the U-frame about the axis of bending.
IR
2
= The second moment of area of the cross girder about the axis of
bending .
B = The distance between centres of consecutive main girders connected
by the U-frame.

The verticals of the pony truss are designed to carry a bending moment
in addition to the normal forces induced due to regular loads. The bending
moment is estimated as:
H
100
C
M = ,
where C is the average compression force in the top chord members
intersecting the vertical member, and H is the distance between the top chord
and the top of the cross girder at the vertical member.



8.4 DESIGN EXAMPLE:

8.4.1 Design a top chord member for a roadway bridge for the
following data:

Design Force = -1250 Tons (Compression)
Member Length = 1000 cm
Buckling Length LR
x
R = LR
y
R = 0.85 × 1000 = 850 cm
Steel Grade St. 52

Selection of Member Dimensions: (Assume member stress = 1.8 t/cmP
2
P)


2
. req
cm 695
8 . 1
1250
A
cm 70 87 52 h
4
5
4
3
b
cm 80 66 83
15 12
Panel
h
≅ =
− ⇒ − =
|
.
|

\
|
− =
− ⇒ − =

=

Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 327

Min Thickness :
Flange : cm 2 . 2 Choose , cm 075 . 2
7 . 33
70
t
f
= ≥
Web : cm 4 . 2 Choose , cm 255 . 2
7 . 33
75
t
w
= ≥

Try the following section:

Area (cmP
2
P)
Top Flange Pl. 800 × 22 176
Web 2 Pl. 800 × 24 384
Bottom
Flange
Pl. 652 × 22 143.44
703.44


Section Properties and Stress Check:

Safe F cm / t 777 . 1
44 . 703
1250
f
cm / t 976 . 1 ) 4 . 30 ( 000135 . 0 1 . 2 F
100 4 . 30
28
850
i
L
cm 28 a 4 . 0 i
cm 32 h 4 . 0 i
buck
2
act
2 2
buck
y
y
y
x
⇒ < = =
= − =
< = =
= × ≈
= × ≈




8.4.2 Design a bottom chord member for a roadway bridge for the
following data:
Design Force = + 1250 Tons (Tension)
Member Length = 1000 cm
Buckling Length LR
x
R = LR
y
R = 0.85 × 1000 = 850 cm

Use section similar to top chord:


2 2
act
net
cm / t 1 . 2 cm / t 091 . 2
44 . 703 x 85 . 0
1250
f
Agross 85 . 0 A
〈 = =



8
0
0
700
Steel Bridges
Fatigue Check :


. k . o cm / t 80 . 1 Fsr
B Class Detail
10 x 5 cycles of . No : for
cm / t 588 . 1
44 . 703 x 85 . 0
950
f
t 950 F
t 300 F
2
2
2
sr
l LL
DL
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
=
= =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
=
+




8.4.3 Design a diagonal member for a roadway bridge for the following
data:
Design Force = - 180 Tons (Compression)
Member Length = 700 cm
Buckling Length LR
x
R = 0.7 × 700 = 490 cm
LR
y
R = 0.85 × 700 = 595 cm
Total member depth = b = 70 cm

Trial Section :

Web 660 x 20 = 132

Flange 2x300 x 20 = 120

Total Area = 252 cmP
2


. k . o f 2 cm / t 714 . 0 252 / 180 f
cm / t 772 . 0 17 . 99 * 000135 . 0 1 . 2 f
. k . o 110 17 . 99
6
595
i
L
cm 6 30 x 2 . 0 i
7 . 17
28
495
i
L
28 ~ i
pb act
2 2
pb
y
y
y
x
x
x
〈 = =
= − =
〈 = =
= ≅
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =





Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 329
8.4.4 Design a diagonal member for a roadway bridge for the following
data:
Design Force = + 250 Tons (Tension)
Member Length = 700 cm
Buckling Length LR
x
R = 0.7 × 700 = 490 cm
LR
y
R = 0.85 × 700 = 595 cm
Trial Section :
Web 676 x 12 = 81.12

Flange 2x300 x 12 = 72.00

Total Area = 153.12 cmP
2
P
( )
. k . o 1 . 2 2 cm / t 92 . 1 152 . 130 / 250 f
cm 152 . 130 12 . 153 x 85 . 0 A
. k . o 180 2 . 99 30 x 2 . 0 / 595
i
l
act
2
net
y
y
〈 = =
= ≈
〈 = =



8.5 DESIGN OF TRUSS CONNECTIONS

8.5.1 Truss Joints

Members of bridge trusses are usually connected by gusset plates at the
joints where members meet. Connections are usually made by bolting the
members to gusset plates on both sides of the cross section as shown in Fig.
8.7.
















Fig. 8.7 Bolted Truss Joints
Steel Bridges
The usual gusset plate thickness is 14-20 mm. At every truss joint, working
lines of the intersecting members should meet at one point to avoid eccentric
loading. Force transmission through the gusset plates at a truss joint may be
achieved in one of the following two ways:

(a) If the chord member runs continuous through the joint, the main portion
of the force is transferred directly within the chord, and only the difference of
the chord forces is carried through the gusset. This arrangement if often used
to relieve the gusset plate of any excessive load. In this case, chord members
are usually spliced outside the joints, see Fig. 8.8.
















Fig. 8.8 Bolted Truss Joints with Splice outside Joint

(b) If the chord members are spliced at the joint, the gusset plates at this
location will be subjected to heavy stresses because it transmits the entire
amount of the chord forces.
At the nodes of a truss where the web members are connected to the chords,
there is a change in load in the chord which necessitates a change in its cross-
section area. The node is, therefore, the point at which there is a joint in the
chord as well as being the connection point of the web members.
The web members are connected to the chords by vertical gusset plates.
They are usually bolted to the chord webs and the web members fit between
them (Figure 8.9a).
The chord joint is effected by providing cover plates. They should be so
disposed, with respect to the cross-section of the member, as to transfer the
load in proportion to the respective parts of the section (Figure 8.9b).
Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 331

Fig. 8.9 Bolted Truss Bridge Connections
The gusset plates form the external web cover plates. Since they work in
the dual capacity of cover plate and web connector, their thickness takes this
into account. The joint is designed to carry the coexistent load in the lesser
loaded chord plus the horizontal component of the load in the adjacent
diagonal. The load from the other diagonal is transferred to the more heavily
loaded chord through the gussets alone. In compression chords which have
Steel Bridges
fitting abutting ends in contact, design codes allow up to 75% of the
compressive load to be carried through the abutting ends.
Sometimes the gusset is formed by shop-welding a thicker shaped plate to
the chord in place of the chord web. The web members are then all narrower
than the chords and the chord splice is offset from the node. An advantage
occurs in erection as the web connections can be made before the next chord
is erected.
At the connections of all tension members and elements, care has to be
taken in the arrangement of bolt holes to ensure that the critical net section
area of the section is not so small that fracture will govern. If necessary
remember that the critical net section is usually at the ends of the section or
the centre of the cover plates, and that elsewhere some of the load has been
transferred to the other parts of the joint and more bolt holes can be tolerated.
Connections of web members to gussets are quite straightforward and
special treatment such as the use of lug angles is rarely required. In
connecting rectangular hollow sections the method shown in Figure 8.9d is
preferable to that of Figure 8.9c.
Unsupported edges of gussets should be such that the distance between
connections does not exceed about 50 times the gusset plate thickness (Fig.
8.9a). If this is unavoidable, the edge should be stiffened.
8.5.2 Cross Girder Connections
They are quite straightforward. The 2 or 4 rows of bolts in the cross girder
end plate are made to correspond with the equivalent central rows of bolts in
the gusset. Packing plates may be required to accommodate the difference in
height of gussets and cross girders (Figure 8.9e).
8.5.3 Lateral Bracing Connections
The axes of the lateral systems should be in the same planes as those of the
truss chords. This requirement is met in 2 of the 3 types of lateral members
and connections described below:
i. For long and medium spans, the lateral members are frequently made from
two rolled channel sections connected by lacing to give an overall depth the
same as the chords. They are connected to the chords by gussets bolted to the
chord flanges exactly as the main web members are connected to the main
joint gussets.
Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 333
ii. For medium spans, laterals consisting of two rolled angles arranged toe to
toe in "star" formation and with intermediate battens are often ideal. They are
connected to the chords by gussets positioned at the chord axis (Figure 8.9f).
Note, angles "back-to-back", but separated by a small gap should never be
used because of maintenance problems.
iii. On short spans single laterals often suffice. They can be connected by a
gusset to the upper or lower chord flange, as the moments due to eccentricity
are small.

8.5.4 MEMBER SPLICES

Splices of bridge truss members are needed because of the limitations
imposed by:

(a) the available length of plates and shapes;
(b) length limits imposed by the transportation facilities; and
(c) capacity of the erecting cranes.

Splices made in the shop are dictated by the available plate lengths. Full
penetration butt welding of the V or X type is usually used for shop splices.
Splices made in the field are preferably made using high strength bolts.
Splices are usually designed to carry the maximum strength of the spliced
parts computed from:

SR
max
R = AR
net
R x FR
t
R (Tension)

= AR
gross
Rx FR
c
R (Comp.)

Member splices made with shear plates require a complete design of load
transfer from the spliced parts through splice plates. On the other hand, for
compression members bearing against each other at the splice location, the
bearing surfaces may be milled for full contact and direct load transfer.

Any part of this book may be reproduced by any means WITHOUT the written permission of the author.

Preface ___________________________________________
Bridges have always fascinated people, be it a primitive bridge over a canal or one of the magnificent long span modern bridges. People built bridges to challenge nature where some obstacles like rivers, valleys, or traffic block the way they want to pass through. Our transportation system would not exist without bridges. Their existence allows million of people, cars, and trains to travel every day and everywhere they want to go. It is obvious that both our economy and our society could not function without the technology of bridge engineering. Bridge building is one of the difficult constructional endeavors that both attracts and challenges structural engineers. The design of such complex structures requires a great deal of knowledge and experience. Depending on the bridge span to be covered, several types of bridge systems exist. Examples of bridge systems are beam bridges for short and moderate spans, arch bridges for moderate spans, and cable stayed bridges and suspension bridges for long spans. This book covers the design of steel bridges in general with emphasis on bridge systems commonly used to cover short and moderate spans, namely plate girder bridges, box girder bridges, and truss bridges. The book is intended for senior year college students and practicing bridge engineers. The contents of the book are organized into two parts: the first four chapters cover the design of steel bridges in general while the other four chapters cover the design of specific bridge types. Chapter 1 describes the different structural systems of steel bridges. Chapter 2 presents the design loads on roadway and railway bridges. Chapter 3 presents the design considerations. Chapter 4 covers the design of roadway and railway bridge floor. Chapter 5 covers the design of plate girder bridges. Chapter 6 covers the design of composite plate girders. Chapter 7 covers the design of box girder bridges. Chapter 8 covers the design of truss bridges. The author hopes that this book will enable structural engineers to design and construct steel bridges with better safety and economy. Dr Metwally Abu-Hamd Professor of Steel and Bridge Structures Faculty of Engineering Cairo University Giza, 2007

CONTENTS ___________________________________________

1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 GENERAL TYPES OF BRIDGES MATERIALS FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION 2 5 20

2: DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 INTRODUCTION ROADWAY DESIGN LOADINGS RAILWAY DESIGN LOADINGS OTHER LOADS ON BRIDGES 26 26 32 36

3: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL FATIGUE ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELDED JOINTS ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BOLTED JOINTS 42 43 65 106 107

4: BRIDGE FLOORS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 INTRODUCTION STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF BRIDGE FLOORS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLES 116 117 122 125

5: PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9.4 5.10 5.11 5.12 INTRODUCTION GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS INFLUENCE OF BUCKLING ON GIRDERS DESIGN ACTUAL STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDER ELEMENTS FLANGE PLATE CURTAILMENT DESIGN DETAILS FLANGE-TO-WEB CONNECTION STIFFENERS SPLICES DESIGN BRIDGE BRACINGS BRIDGE BEARINGS DESIGN EXAMPLE 146 148 154 173 181 183 183 187 194 200 203 208 218

6: COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 GENERAL COMPONENTS OF COMPOSITE GIRDERS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS SHEAR CONNECTORS 240 243 245 257

7: BOX GIRDER BRIDGES 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 INTRODUCTION CROSS SECTION ARRANGEMENTS BEHAVIOR OF BOX GIRDER BRIDGES EFFECT BENDING EFFECT OF TORSION DESIGN EXAMPLE 276 278 282 284 291 306

8: TRUSS BRIDGES 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 TRUSS TYPES & CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS DESIGN OF TRUSS CONNECTIONS 312 318 320 322 329

Chapter 1: Introduction CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .

Steel Bridges

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL 1.1.1 Historical Background People have always needed to transport themselves and their goods from one place to another. In early times, waterways were used wherever possible. Navigable waterways, however, do not always go in the direction desired or may not be always available. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop land transportation methods and means of crossing waterways and valleys. Roadway and railway development have therefore become an absolute necessity for economic development. The rapid economic development in Europe, USA, and Japan could not take place until land transportation was developed. Even today, one important factor that has caused many countries to lag behind in economic development is the lack of good land transportation systems. An important element of land transportation systems is the bridge. A bridge is a structure that carries a service (which may be highway or railway traffic, a footpath, public utilities, etc.) over an obstacle (which may be another road or railway, a river, a valley, etc.), and then transfers the loads from the service to the foundations at ground level. The history of bridge engineering, which began with stone and wooden structures in the first century BC, can be said to be the history of the evolution of civil engineering. It is not possible to date humanity’s conception and creation of the first bridge. Perhaps people derived the first concept in bridge building from nature. The idea of a bridge might have developed from a tree trunk that had fallen across a canal. Early bridges consisted of simple short spans of stone slabs or tree trunks. For longer spans,

Chapter 1: Introduction 3 strands of bamboo or vine were hung between two trees across a stream to make a suspension bridge. The introduction of new materials – plain, reinforced, and pre-stressed concrete; cast iron; wrought iron; and steel – evolved gradually within the last two centuries. According to known records, the first use of iron in bridges was a chain bridge built in 1734 in Prussia. Concrete was first used in 1840 for a 12-m span bridge in France. Reinforced concrete was not used in bridge construction until the beginning of the twentieth century. Pre-stressed concrete was introduced in 1927. These developments, coupled with advances in structural engineering and construction technology, led to the introduction of different forms of bridges having increasingly longer spans and more load carrying capacities. 1.1.2 Bridge Components In Figure 1.1 the principal components of a bridge structure are shown. The two basic parts are: (1) the substructure; which includes the piers, the abutments and the foundations. (2) the superstructure; which consists of:
U U U U

a) the bridge deck, which supports the direct loads due to traffic and all the other permanent loads to which the structure is subjected. In roadway bridges it includes the deck slab, Fig. 1.1b. In railway bridges it includes the rails and sleepers, Fig. 1.1c b) the floor beams, which transmit loads from the bridge deck to the bridge main girders. They consist of longitudinal beams, called stringers, and transversal beams, called cross girders, Fig. 1.1c. c) the main girders, which transmit the bridge vertical loads to the supports. d) the bracings, which transmit lateral loads to the supports and also provide lateral stability to compression members in the bridge, Fig. 1.1b. The connection between the substructure and the superstructure is usually made through bearings. However, rigid connections between the piers (and sometimes the abutments) may be adopted, such as in frame bridges, Figs. 1.4a and 1.4b.

Steel Bridges

a) Bridge Elevation Bridge deck stringer main girder bracing b) Cross Section of a Roadway Bridge

c) Cross Section of a Railway Bridge Fig. 1.1 Principal Components of a Bridge Structure

Chapter 1: Introduction 5 1.2 TYPES OF BRIDGES Bridges can be classified in several ways depending on the objective of classification. The necessity of classifying bridges in various ways has grown as bridges have evolved from short simple beam bridges to very long suspension bridges. Bridges may be classified in terms of the bridge’s superstructure according to any of the following classifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Materials of Construction Usage Position Structural Forms. Span Lengths

A brief description of these bridge classifications is given next. 1.2.1 Bridge Classification by Materials of Construction Bridges can be identified by the materials from which their main girders are constructed. The most commonly used materials are steel and concrete. This classification does not mean that only one kind of material is used exclusively to build these bridges in their entirety. Often, a combination of materials is used in bridge construction. For example, a bridge may have a reinforced concrete deck and steel main girders. 1.2.2 Bridge Classification by Usage Bridges can be classified according to the traffic they carry as roadway, railway, Fig. 1.2, and footbridges, Fig. 1.3. In addition, there are bridges that carry non-vehicular traffic and loads such as pipeline bridges and conveyor bridges.

Steel Bridges

Fig. 1.2 Railway Through Bridge

Fig. 1.3 Foot Bridge

Chapter 1: Introduction 7 1.2.3 Bridge Classification by Position Most bridges are fixed in place. However, to provide sufficient vertical clearance to facilitate navigation through spanned waterways, bridges are made movable; i.e., the bridge superstructure changes its position relative to the roads that they link. In general, three kinds of movable bridges exist: 1. The bascule bridge, which has a rotational motion in the vertical plane, Fig. 1.4a.

Fig. 1.4 a) Bascule Bridge 2. The lift bridge, which has a translational motion in the vertical plane, Fig. 1.4b,

Fig. 1.4 b) Lift Bridge

which has a rotational motion in the horizontal plane. bridges are best classified by their structural forms because the methods of analysis used in bridge design depend on the structural system of the bridge. The structural systems in the longitudinal direction are those used for the bridge main girders to transfer loads to the supporting foundations.4 Bridge Classification by Structural Form From an engineering perspective. several structural systems are used in the elements of the bridge superstructure. It is common in bridge terminology to distinguish between: a.Steel Bridges 3. 1.4 c) Swing Bridge 1. loads follow different paths as they are first applied on the deck and finally resolved in the earth below. 1. and b. In different types of bridges. Details of different systems used in both roadway and railway bridges are given in Chapter 4.2. Fig. structural systems in the transversal direction. The swing bridge. structural systems in the longitudinal direction.4c. certain types of structural forms are suitable for certain span ranges. The structural systems in the transversal direction are those used for the bridge deck and floor structure to transfer loads to the bridge main girder. Structural form refers to the load resisting mechanism of a bridge by which it transfers various loads from the bridge deck to the foundation. From this perspective. Fig. It should be understood that bridge structures are basically three-dimensional systems . Also.

The longitudinal structural system of a bridge may be one of the following types: i) Bridges Carrying Loads Mainly by Bending: a) beam bridges b) frame bridges ii) Bridges Carrying Loads Mainly by Axial Forces: a) arch bridges b) cable stayed bridges c) suspension bridges. trusses are used to perform the functions of specific members in one of the types above. 1. a girder in flexure or an arch rib in axial compression may be designed as a truss rather than as a solid web plate girder. 1. If the required design exceeds this limit.Chapter 1: Introduction 9 which are only split into these two basic systems for the sake of understanding their behavior and simplifying structural analysis. Solid web girders dimensions are limited by the requirements imposed by fabrication.5 Truss Bridge A truss used as a girder in flexure carries its bending moments by developing axial loads in its chords. transportation. Practical maximum section depths of solid web girders range from 3 to 4 m for economical design. see Fig. Fig. Truss bridges are not specific bridge forms in themselves – rather. a truss girder has to be used. For example. and its shears by developing axial loads in its web members.5. The cross-section of the main girder incorporated in all these bridge types may be a solid web girder or a truss girder depending on the values of the design straining actions. and erection. .

6b) or continuous beams.2. 1. Fig. 1. This type of bridge will thus be referred to generally as a girder bridge.1) Bridges Carrying Loads by Bending By far the majority of bridges are of this type.6a. These may use statically determinate beams (simply supported. Fig. or cantilever beams.Steel Bridges 1. Fig. The loads are transferred to the bearings and piers and hence to the ground by beams acting in bending.6 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Bending. Examples of beam bridges are shown in Fig.e.7: Structural System Calculation Models (a) Simply supported (b) Cantilever Beam (c) Continuous Beam Fig. i. 1. Beam bridges are the most common and the simplest type of bridges. 1. 1.4.6c. the bridges obtain their load-carrying resistance from the ability of the beams to resist bending moments and shear forces. Beam Bridges .

Continuous riveted steel girders.Chapter 1: Introduction 11 (a) 14th Street Bridge over the Potomac River (USA). Germany. Note the varying depth of the box sections Fig. Bonn.7 Examples of Beam Bridges . Note the absence of internal hinges. 1967. and the roller supports at the piers (b) Continuous steel box girder bridge over the Rhine. 1.

These systems are suitable for bridge spans up to 200 m for solid web girders and up to 300 m for truss girders. Rigid Frames with Vertical or Inclined Legs . continuous beams with variable depth section are very often adopted for reasons of structural behavior. 1. Frame bridges are one of the possible alternatives to continuous beams. 1. frames have been adopted in modern bridge either with vertical piers or with inclined columns (Fig.8). Spans for this system may vary from short (less than 20 m) to medium (20 50 m) or long spans (> 100 m). e. Avoiding bearings and providing a good structural system to support horizontal longitudinal loads. In medium and long spans. Continuous beams are one of the most common types of bridge. Fig.Steel Bridges Simply supported beams are usually adopted only for very small spans (up to 25m). earthquakes.8 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Bending.g. economy and aesthetics.

1. an arch bridge of the type represented in Fig. arches. and those in which these forces are tensile. 1. or be intermediate to the deck level.g. The shape is chosen in order to minimize bending moments under permanent loads.Chapter 1: Introduction 13 1. 1.2. 1. The most convenient solution is basically dependent on the topography of the bridge site. Arches work basically as a structure under compressive stress.4. Fig. Fig..9a is usually an appropriate solution both from the structural and aesthetic point of view.9c. 1.9. In rocky sites and good geotechnical conditions for the footings. Arches have played an important role in the history of bridges. e. (a) Deck Bridge (b) Through Bridge (Bow String) (c) Semi-Deck\Semi Through Fig. Several outstanding examples have been built ranging from masonry arches built by the Romans to modern pre-stressed concrete or steel arches with spans reaching the order of 500 m.. suspension bridges. Arch Systems . from above the deck.9b. Fig.g. e.2) Bridges carrying Loads by Axial Forces This type can be further subdivided into those bridges in which the primary axial forces are compressive.9a.13.11. 1.. The resultant force of the normal stresses at each cross-section must remain within the central core of the cross-section in order to avoid tensile stresses in the arch. Fig. 1. Fig. 1.9 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces.. and cable-stayed bridges. The arch may work from below the deck. Fig.

Fig. 1. The widest (49 m) bridge in the world. Almost the longest arch bridge in the world (longest is Bayonne Bridge.Steel Bridges a) Solid Web Arch Bridge b) Sydney Harbor Arch Bridge.300 tons of steel (37. completed 1932. span between abutments is 503 m to allow unobstructed passage for ships in Sydney Harbor. Two-hinge arch. 1.000 in the arch). Contains 50. completed a few months earlier.5 m longer).10 Examples of Arch Bridges . New York.

11). 1. Cables are adopted as principal structural elements in suspension bridges where the main cable supports permanent and imposed loads on the deck (Fig. showing it is made up of a bundle of small cables . Suspension Bridges Fig. 1. Good support conditions are required to resist the anchorage forces of the cable. Fig.Chapter 1: Introduction 15 The ideal "inverted arch" in its simplest form is a cable.11b Section of a suspension bridge cable. This system is suitable for bridge spans between 300 and 2000 m.11a Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces. 1.

1. Links city of Kobe with Awaji Island. 1937. Japan. b) Akashi-Kaiyko Suspension Bridge. World’s longest bridge (Main Span 1991 m) Fig.Steel Bridges a) Golden Gate Bridge. was the longest single span at that time and for 29 years afterwards.12 Examples of Suspension Bridges . Main span of 1280 m.

They have been used for a range of spans. where the suspension bridge is not an economical solution. Longest now is Tatara Bridge. Fig. 1. France).13 Bridge Systems Carrying Loads by Axial Forces. 890 m Fig. Japan. 856 m main span. Cable-Stayed Bridges Pont du Normandie (River Seine.13).Cable stayed bridges (Fig. longest cable stayed bridge in the world up to 1999. Cable stayed bridges may be used with a deck made of concrete or in steel.Chapter 1: Introduction 17 A simpler form of cable bridges has been used .14 Example of Cable-Stayed Bridges . generally between 100 m and 500 m. 1. 1. Le Harve.

Each form of bridge is suited to a particular range of spans. Above this span fabricated sections will be required. and long span. Haunched girders are frequently used for continuous structures where the main span exceeds 50m. Rolled sections are feasible and usually offer greater economy. They are more attractive in appearance and the . medium span. it is customary to identify bridges according to their span lengths as short span. The Table also records the longest span for each type of construction. Presently there are no established criteria to exactly define the range of spans for these different classifications. 1. i.Steel Bridges 1. A common practice is to classify bridges by span lengths as follows: Short-span bridges less than 50 m Medium-span bridges 50 to 200 m Long-span bridges Over 200 m This classification of bridges is useful only in selecting the structural form most suitable for the bridge span considered.6 Selection of Structural System Flat girders.5 Bridge Classification by Span Lengths In bridge engineering. are used for all shorter span bridges of both simple spans and continuous construction up to spans of around 30 m.2.2. girders of constant depth. as shown in the following table.e.

if depth of construction is not unduly limited. Suspension or cable stayed bridges are the only forms capable of achieving the longest spans. they can provide an economic solution by reducing the main span. Cable stayed bridges. The construction process is quicker than for a suspension bridge because the cables and the deck are erected at the same time. This form of construction is likely to be the preferred solution for spans up to 60 m or so. Frame bridges are usually suitable for short or medium spans. They are clearly less suitable for road or rail bridges of short or medium spans. For example. they also have an attractive appearance. Above 60 m span. In a three span form with sloping legs. being self anchored. They are rarely adopted for modern construction. However. Development in the semi-automatic manufacture of plate girders has markedly improved their relative economy. and significantly below that figure if either depth of construction is limited or there is plan curvature. The risk of shipping collision must be considered if sloping legs are used over navigable rivers. Both haunched and flat girders can be either plate girders or box girders. Arches or rigid frames may be suitable for special locations. The following Figure shows the development of different bridge systems with the span over the years. Cantilever trusses were used during the early evolution of steel bridges. . are less dependent on good ground conditions. the deck must be designed for the significant axial forces from the horizontal component of the cable force.Chapter 1: Introduction 19 greater efficiency of the varying depth of construction usually more than offsets the extra fabrication costs. A tied arch is a suitable solution for a single span where construction depth is limited and the presence of curved highway geometry or some other obstruction conflicts with the back stays of a cable stayed bridge. an arch is the logical solution for a medium span across a steep-sided valley. the box girder is likely to give greater economy.

Concrete is also the predominant material for curbs. sidewalks. a) Carbon Steel b) High Strength Steel Fig. 1.Steel Bridges 1. concrete is predominant. However. and substructure.3. for long span bridges.15 shows typical stress strain curves.15 Stress Strain Curves for Structural Steels . there can be a saving in using steel orthotropic plate decks with an asphalt wearing surface.3 MATERIALS FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION Steel and concrete are the two major materials used in bridge construction. 1.1 Structural Steels Structural steel used in bridge construction can be categorized into three main types: (1) Carbon steel. Fig. and (3) heattreated alloy steel. For bridge decks. (2) High-strength low-alloy steel. 1. parapets.

29 % Copper : 0.85 E = 2100 G = 810 υ = 0.60 % Manganese: 1.2 percent offset method. their yield strengths are determined by the 0. Consequently.15 . hence the term 'low-alloy'.0. The process of heat treating involves quenching or rapid cooling with water or oil from 900 oC to about 150 . or vanadium.2 x 10-5 P t/m3 t/cm2 t/cm2 P P P / oC P P .3 α = 1.3. The improvement in the mechanical properties is achieved by adding small amounts of alloy elements such as chromium. These steels do not exhibit a well-defined yield point like the carbon and low-alloy steel. nickel. columbium. 52. The total of alloying elements does not exceed 5 % of the total composition of steel.65 % Examples of these steels are St. molybdenum. 37 which has a minimum yield stress of 24 kg/mm2. High-strength low-alloy steel: Structural steels included in this category have a minimum yield stress of 28 kg/mm2. 44 and St. This type of steel is characterized by the following chemical analysis contents: Carbon : 0. 60 to 90 kg/mm2.200 oC. P P 3. Examples of these steels are St. then tempering by reheating to at least 600 oC.1. Carbon steel: This is the cheapest steel available for structural use. P P P P P P P P 1. P P 2.1 Physical Properties of Steel: Mass Density Modulus of Elasticity Shear Modulus Poisson's Ratio Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ρ = 7. and then controlled cooling. Heat-treated alloy steel: These steels are obtained by heat-treating the low-alloy steels to obtain higher yield strength.Chapter 1: Introduction 21 1.

1 4.W.): used for manual welding.A.20 2.260/71 Nominal Values of Yield Stress F y and Ultimate Strength F u R R R Grade of Steel Thickness t t  40 mm Fy (t/cm2) R P P 40 mm < t  100 mm R Fu (t/cm2) P P Fy (t/cm2) R P P Fu (t/cm2) R P P St 37 St 44 St 52 2.60 3.2 Welding Materials Welding has become the predominant method for connecting parts of steel bridges.Shielded Metal Arc Welding (S.W.Submerged Arc Welding (S.Gas Metal Arc Welding (G. The appropriate electrode types used in the weld process as well as their yield and tensile strengths are given in Table 1 according to ECP 2001. The development of automatic welding has been a major factor in the fabrication of welded bridges.40 5.A. .W.3.55 3.M.): used for semi-automatic welding.Steel Bridges 1. .3.35 3.40 2. . Structural steels may be welded by one of the following welding processes: .): used for automatic welding.1. especially with respect to shop fabrication.80 3.4 4.15 2.2 Mechanical Properties of Steel Egyptian Standard Specification No.M.70 4.A.9 1.

15 – 6.) Submerged Arc WELDING (S.6 U Electrode: Uncoated mild steel.25 – 8.3 Bolts Bolts used in bridge construction come in two general categories: 1.8 and 10. 1. U U U U Flat or horizontal weld position Flat or horizontal weld position All weld positions 4.) Gas Metal Arc WELDING (G.9.45 – 6.0%) Nominal Carbon (0.A.Chapter 1: Introduction 23 Table (1) Electrodes Used for Welding (ECP 2001) Electrode Strength * Min.6 bolts.75 4. Examples of these bolts are grade 8. The nominal values of the yield stress F yb and the ultimate tensile strength F ub are as given in Table 2 according to ECP 2001. 22.25 – 7. they are not generally used in joints of main members.W.45 – 6.A.75 4. Min.) Flux: Filled inside the electrode core (Self Shielded) U U U R R R U U U Useful for field welding in severe cold weather conditions. R R R R . other deoxidizers U U U All weld positions Storage of electrodes in drying ovens near the points is a must. Example of this type of bolts are grade 4. 24.05% Max. Ordinary Bolts: which are made from low-carbon steel.M. The usual bolt diameters used in bridge construction are 20.75 4.W. Co 2 is the least shielding used in buildings and bridges.) Flux Cored Arc WELDING (F.3. These bolt grades are used in conjunction with structural components in steel up to St 52.W. i. They should not be used in joints subjected to fatigue. -Fluxes must be kept in storage.e.75 4.. -usually used in shop. dioxidized carbon manganese steel Shielding Gas: 75% Argon + 25% CO 2 or 10% CO 2 Electrode: Low Carbon (0. Yield Tensile Stress Strength (t/cm2) (t/cm2) P P P P U Process Chemical Composition Weld Position Remarks Shield Metal Arc WELDING (S.45 – 6.95 – 7. Silicon. (*) The minimum value depends on the electrode type.6 U 3. Because of their low strength. High Strength Bolts: which are made from high strength alloy steels. 2.M.A.W.25 – 8.95 Electrode: Medium Mn (1.8 or 10.A.) 3.9 bolts.12%) Flux: Finely powdered constituents glued together with silitales. All high-strength bolts carry markings on their heads to indicate the bolt grade. 8. and 27 mm.C.6 Electrode: Low Carbon Coating: Aluminium. R R 3.

8 3.9 9.0 6.0 5.0 5.8 8.8 4.8 6.Steel Bridges Table (2) (ECP 2001) Nominal Values of Yield Stress F yb and Ultimate Tensile Strength F ub for Bolts R R R R Bolt grade F yb (t/cm2) R R 4.6 3.2 5.0 10.0 6.8 4.0 F ub (t/cm2) R R 4.6 2.0 5.4 10.0 8.0 .4 4.0 4.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges CHAPTER 2 DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES .

Various kinds of bridge loads are shown in Fig. and earthquake). and other loads. the dead load can be easily calculated from the known or the assumed sizes of the superstructure components. as in the case of long span bridges. whereas the lateral loads are caused by environmental phenomena such as wind and earthquakes.1 INTRODUCTION Bridge structures must be designed to resist various kinds of loads: vertical as well as lateral. stringers. they are subjected to loads caused by the dynamics of moving loads. The self-weight of the superstructure consists of the deck. Therefore. In any case. wind. the major components of loads acting on bridges are dead and live loads. as in the case of short span bridges. such as longitudinal force and impact and centrifugal forces.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 2 DESIGN LOADS ON BRIDGES 2. 2. including the wearing surface.e. as a consequence.2 ROADWAY DESIGN LOADINGS a) Dead Load Dead load on bridges consists of the self-weight of the superstructure plus the weight of other items carried by the bridge such as utility pipes which may be carried on the sides or underneath the deck. Depending on the bridge type. . environmental loads (temperature. Generally. or it may be a small fraction of the total weight. 2. sidewalks. railings. Bridge structures serve a unique purpose of carrying traffic over a given span. cross girders. parapets. such as those arising from braking of vehicles and collision. curbs. Vertical loads are caused by the deadweight of the bridge itself and the live load. moving loads.. they are subjected to loads that are not stationary. and main girders. Also. the self-weight of the superstucture may be significant. i.1 and are described in the following sections.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges LOADS ON BRIDGES VERTICAL TRANSVERSAL LONGITUDINAL Dead Loads Live Loads Impact Wind Earthquake Lateral Shock Centifugal Wind Earthquake Braking Thermal Friction Fig. weights of anticipated future wearing surface and extra utilities the bridge has to carry.1 Design Loads on Bridges In the case of bridge decks consisting of reinforced concrete slabs. 2. the roadway is divided into traffic lanes of 3 m width. and sidewalks after the slab has hardened. in addition to the a. it is a common practice to apply the wearing surface and pour curbs. Two types of loads are specified in the Code for design: . other values and distributions are chosen in such a way that they produce maximum internal forces in bridge structures similar to those produced by real vehicles. Design live loads are usually specified by relevant design codes in the form of equivalent traffic loads. b) Live Loads Live loads on bridges are caused by the traffic crossing the bridge. parapets. the most critical lane for the design of a structural member is called the main lane. An important consideration in dead-load computation is to include.m. The weight of these additional components is usually referred to as the superimposed dead load. According to the Egyptian Code for design loads on roadway bridges. components. Some traffic loads represent the weight of real vehicles that can travel over the bridge.

It consists of a 60-ton truck in the main lane and a 30-ton truck in a secondary lane. b) For indirectly loaded structural members. The interaction of moving loads and the bridge superstructure results in dynamic amplification of the moving loads. c) For two-way slabs. It is applied on the traffic lanes and over the lengths that give the extreme values of the stress (or internal force) being considered. resulting in vibrations and increased stresses. as shown in Fig. L is taken equal to the short span length. whichever is greater. the dynamic effect of moving loads is considered in the design by increasing the static values of the main lane loading by the impact factor I computed as: I = 0. .67 t/m2 may be used instead of the 60-ton and 30-ton trucks for the design of main girders only. It consists of a 500 kg/m2 uniform load in the main lane in front and back of the main truck and 300 kg/m2 in the remaining bridge floor areas.33 t/m2 and 1. L is taken equal to the span length of loaded span or the cantilever length of loaded cantilevers. Consequently. which is taken next to the main lane. The locations of the main and secondary lanes are chosen so as to produce maximum effect on the member considered. an equivalent uniform load of 3.2 b.008 L > 0 (2. L is taken equal to the span length of the directly loaded member transmitting the load or the span length of the indirectly loaded member. For main girders with spans longer than 30 meters. 2.1) where L = loaded length of main traffic lane giving maximum effect and is evaluated as follows: a) For directly loaded structural members. The arrangement of wheel loads is shown in Fig. 2.40 – 0. P P P P U U ii) Uniform distributed load: This load simulates the effects of normal permitted vehicles.Steel Bridges i) Truck loads: This load is intended to represent the extreme effects of heavy vehicles. It may be continuous or discontinuous. This amplification was found to depend mainly on the natural frequency of the structure which is a function of its length.2a.

20 1.50 (a) Wheel Arrangement 60 T TRUCK = 6 x 10 T 30 T TRUCK = 6 x 5 T 300 kg/m2 Main Lane 0.50 0.60 1.50 6.50 1.50 0. 2.50 1.2 Live Loads on Roadway Bridges 3.00 3.00 1.00 Sec. 1. the prescribed live load and impact values on roadway bridges shall be reduced by 50 %.00 500 kg/m2 60 t Truck 500 kg/m2 Lane 300 kg/m2 30 t Truck 6.20 1.50 0.50 1.60 1. 3.40 0.50 2.00 300 kg/m2 300 kg/m2 (b) Loading Plan Fig.20 0.50 0.Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges For the assessment of the bridge fatigue strength.00 .

These forces develop as a result of the braking effort ( sudden stopping) .3. According to the Egyptian Code. Main Lane Fig. they are taken equal to 25 % of the main lane loading without impact. Curved bridges are therefore subjected to centrifugal forces applied by the vehicles that travel on them. in the direction of traffic. the body is subjected to a horizontal transversal force due to centrifugal acceleration and acts perpendicular to the tangent to the path. 2. According to the Egyptian Code. or the tractive effort (sudden acceleration). i.4.Steel Bridges c) Longitudinal Tractive Forces The term longitudinal forces refer to forces that act in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the bridge.. the vehicle’s inertia force is transferred to the bridge deck through friction between the deck and the wheels. 2. In both cases. These forces are applied to the road surface parallel to the traffic lanes as shown in Figure 2. The value of each force is computed from the equation: . these forces are taken as two concentrated forces applied horizontally spaced at 50 m at the roadway surface level at the bridge centerline as shown in Fig.e. with a maximum value of 90 tons.3 Braking Forces on Roadway Bridges d) Centrifugal Forces When a body moves along a curved path with a constant speed.

a uniform load of 500 kg/m2 acting alone shall be considered.2) A vertical load of 30 tons distributed on a roadway area of 6 m long and 3 m wide is assumed to act with each force.4 Centrifugal Forces on Curved Roadway Bridges e) Sidewalks Many highway bridges. When sidewalks are not separated from the highway traffic by an effective barrier (parapet height less than 35 cm). Sidewalks not protected from vehicles cross over (parapet height less than 35 cm) shall be designed for a single wheel load of 5 tons acting on a distribution area 30*40 cm. On these areas a uniform distributed load of 300 kg/m2 shall be considered in addition to the main bridge loads.Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges C = 3000 / (R + 150) Where C = centrifugal force. C 50 m C . The elements of the sidewalk shall also be checked for the effect of a vertical or horizontal concentrated load of 4 tons acting alone in the position producing maximum effect. P P P P Handrails for sidewalks that are protected from highway traffic by an effective barrier are designed to resist a horizontal distributed force of 150 kg/m applied at a height of 1m above the footway. in urban and non-urban areas. have sidewalks (footpaths) for pedestrian traffic. 2. Fig. ton R = radius of curvature. The working stresses for this case are increased by 25 %. m (2. Alternatively.

the sleepers. 75 % of the specified loads are used. Different live load positions shall be tried to arrive at the specific position giving maximum effect. L.3) Where L (in meters) = Loaded length of one track. For ballasted floors with a minimum ballast thickness of 20 cm. Train loads specified in the code are equivalent static loading and should be multiplied by appropriate dynamic factors to allow for impact. Consideration of the vertical stiffness is made by adopting formulae in which the dynamic factor is a function of the length. the dynamic effect shall be considered for the two critical tracks only. If two tracks are loaded at the same time. only 90 % of the specified loads for one track are used for both tracks. and the drainage system.3 RAILWAY DESIGN LOADINGS a) Dead Load Superimposed dead loads on railway bridges usually include the rails.Steel Bridges 2. Values of dynamic factors depend on the type of deck (with ballast or opendeck) and on the vertical stiffness of the member being analyzed. . According to the Egyptian Code of Practice. In case of four tracks or more. followed on one side only by an unlimited number of 80 ton loaded wagons. The value of I in this formula has a minimum value of 25 % and a maximum value of 75 %. For stringers L is taken equal to the stringer span. of the influence line for deflection of the element under consideration. or the sum of loaded lengths of double tracks. only 80 % of the specified loads are used. In case of three tracks. the ballast (or any other mean for transmission of train loads to the structural elements). impact effects of railway loads are taken into consideration by increasing the static values by the impact factor I computed as: I = 24 / (24+ L) (2. Two 100 ton locomotives with 80 ton tenders are to be assumed. For the main girders L is taken equal to the loaded length of one track for single track bridges or the sum of loaded lengthes of two tracks only in multiple track bridges. For bridges having multiple number of tracks. b) Train Loads Train loads for railway bridges correspond to Train-type D of the Egyptian Railways as shown in Figure 2.5. oscillation and other dynamic effects including those caused by track and wheel irregularities. For opendeck bridges values of dynamic factors are higher than for those with ballasted decks. For cross girders L is taken equal to the sum of loaded tracks. the value of I computed from the given formula shall be reduced by 20 %.

00 3.00 8.40 10.50 Fig.80 T WAGON 80 T TENDER 100 T LOCOMOTIVE 80 T TENDER 100 T LOCOMOTIVE 3.5 Live Loads on Railway Bridges (Train Type D) 8.40 10.00 .50 Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges 12. 2.

2. the bridge elements shall be designed for a centrifugal force “C” per track acting radially at a height of 2 m above rail level.4) C = centrifugal force in tons V = maximum speed expected on the curve in Km/hr R = radius of curvature in meters W = maximum axle load in tons. For bridges with more than two tracks. which equals 1/7 of the maximum live loads (without impact) supported by one track only. these forces are considered for two tracks only. Its value is obtained as: C = ( V2 / 127 R ) W Where (2. B/2 B/2 Fig. For double track bridges. the braking or tractive force on the second track is taken as one half the above value. . are considered as acting at rail level in a direction parallel to the tracks. Figure 2.6 Braking Forces on Railway Bridges d) Centrifugal Forces When the railway track is curved.6.Steel Bridges c) Longitudinal Braking and Tractive Forces These forces.

design shall be based on the greater effect due to the centrifugal forces or the lateral shock.7 Lateral Shock Forces on Railway Bridges . For elements supporting more than one track. 2. the bridge elements are designed for a single load of 6 ton (without impact) acting horizontally in either direction at right angles to the track at the top of the rail. For bridges on curves.Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges e) Lateral Forces From Train Wheels To account for the lateral effect of the train wheels. This force should be applied at a point in the span to produce the maximum effect in the element under consideration. only one lateral load is considered.7. 6t Fig. Figure 2.

4 OTHER LOADS ON BRIDGES a) Wind Loads The wind actions on a bridge depend on the site conditions and the geometrical characteristics of the bridge. Fig.8 Failure of a Suspension Bridge due to Wind loads . see Fig 2. 2. wind effects on bridges is very important and.8. The maximum pressures are due to gusts that cause local and transient fluctuations about the mean wind pressure. if not properly considered. Because steel bridges have a low span-to-weight ratios. can lead to failure.Steel Bridges 2.

Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges Design wind pressures are derived from the design wind speed defined for a specified return period. UNLOADED 200 kg / m2 200 kg / m2 100 kg / m2 LOADED 100 kg / m2 3. Figure 2. on the exposed area of the bridge. 2. The wind load shall be assumed to act horizontally at the following values: 1) When the bridge is not loaded by traffic: the wind pressure. on the exposed area of the bridge and the moving traffic.50 m above rail level in railway bridges.9.9 Design Wind loads on Bridges 100 kg / m2 3. Wind pressure during construction can be reduced to 70 % of the specified values.00 .00 m above the roadway level in highway bridges and 3. The exposed area of the bridge before the top deck slab is executed is taken equal to the area of two longitudinal girders. is equal to 100 kg/m2. is equal to 200 kg/m2 P 2) When the bridge is loaded by traffic: the wind pressure. P P Exposed area of traffic on bridges has the length corresponding to the maximum effects and in general a height of 3.50 Fig.

10b.2 x 10-5° C. If differential temperature is not represented by a single continous line from the top to the bottom surface. Fig. differences in temperature through the depth of the superstructure cause internal stresses if the structure is not free to deform. b) Differences in temperature (differential thermal actions) through the depth of the superstructure. Fig. 2.10 a. . simply supported beams. A differential temperature pattern in the depth of the structure represented by a single continous line from the top to the bottom surface does not cause stresses in statically determinate bridges.g. then thermal stresses are caused even in simple spans. 2. then stresses are set up inside the structure. Fig. but will cause stresses in statically indeterminate structures due to reatraints at supports.Steel Bridges b) Thermal Effects on Bridge Structures Daily and seasonal fluctuations in air temperature cause two types of thermal actions on bridge structures: a) Changes in the overall temperature of the bridge (uniform thermal actions). According to the Egyptian Code. Furthermore. bridge elements shall be designed for: a) a + 30° C uniform change of temperature. 2. The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel may be taken as 1. e.10 Thermal Loads on Bridges If the free expansion or contraction of the bridge due to changes in temperature is restrained. and b) a + 15° C difference in temperature through the superstructure depth. The mean temperature of the bridge shall be assumed at 20° C.

the force due to friction on the expansion bearings under dead load only shall be taken into account and the following coefficients of friction shall be used: a. The effect of shrinkage can thus be estimated as equivalent to a uniform decrease of temperature of 20° C. Where larger settlements are to be expected it may be necessary to design the bearings so that adjustments can be made.Chapter 2: Design Loads on Bridges c) Shrinkage of Concrete In principle.g. shrinkage effects are only taken into account when the effect is additive to the other action effects. For continuous beams the decisive settlements are differential vertical settlements and rotations about an axis parallel to the bridge axis. expansion (or contraction) of the beam . Generally. In such a case the calculations should indicate when adjustments have to be made. In composite girders the effect of concrete shrinkage is considered by using a modified value of the modular ratio that is equal to three times of the normal value. Sliding Bearings: In a continuous beam with a hinged bearing at the center and longitudinally movable bearings on both sides.03 0. e) Friction of Bearings It should be checked whether the unavoidable friction of bearings can induce forces or moments that have to be considered in the design of the structural elements. shrinkage gives a stress independent of the strain in the concrete.05 0. Roller Bearings: One or two rollers Three or more rollers Steel on Cast iron or steel 0. e. For earth anchored bridges (arch bridges.25 b. It is therefore equivalent to the effect of a differential temperature between concrete and steel. by lifting the bridge superstructure on jacks and inserting shims. According to the Egyptian Code. frame bridges and suspension bridges) horizontal settlements have to be considered. d) Settlement of Foundations The settlements of foundations determined by geotechnical calculations should be taken into account during design of the superstructure.

However. These forces are in horizontal equilibrium if a constant coefficient of friction is assumed. to take into account the uncertainty in the magnitude of frictional forces it may be reasonable to assume full friction in the bearings on one side of the fixed bearing and half friction on the other side.Steel Bridges induces symmetrical frictional forces. and they normally result in moderate axial forces in the main girders. .

Chapter 3: Design Considerations CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .

i. "limit design". and (c) isotropic.. i. These allowable stresses are predescribed by a building code or specification to provide a factor of safety against attainment of some limiting stresses. has the same physical properties at all points. The computed stresses are well within the elastic range. the material is linearly elastic. or service.e. (b) obeys Hook's low. A bridge design should satisfactorily accomplish the objectives of constructability.. and serviceability. Limit states is a general term meaning "those conditions of a . "load factor design". has the same elastic properties in all directions. loads do not exceed predesignated allowable values.e.. such as the minimum specified yield stress or the stress at which buckling occurs.e.. i.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3. "strength design". "load and resistance factor design (LRFD)".e. The working stress design philosophy has been the principal one used during the past 100 years. According to this philosophy. stresses are proportional to strains.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES The aim of design is that the bridge should sustain all loads and deformations liable to occur during its construction and use. Two philosophies of design are in current use. The other design philosophy is generally referred to as limit states design. safety. It is usually assumed that the material is (a) homogeneous. and more recently. a structural element is designed so that stresses computed under the action of working. The basis for structural design philosophies is the known stress-strain relationship of the material. Simply stated. This relatively recent term includes the methods commonly referred to as "ultimate strength design". a bridge design should permit safe structural erection as planned and be able to safely perform its intended function during its design life. i. "plastic design".

permanent deformation and cracking. when these parts are subjected to the most unfavourable conditions or combinations of the loads and forces according to the current Egyptian Code of Practice for Loads and Forces for Structural Elements.Chapter 3: Design Considerations structure in which the structure ceases to fulfill the function for which it was designed". The main sections of the code are summarized in this Chapter.1 GENERAL APPLICATION The following prescriptions. chapter 3 for fatigue. The structural safety shall be established by computing the stresses produced in all parts and ascertaining that they do not exceed the allowable (working) stresses specified herein.2. In applying the said prescriptions.2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL 3. Strength (i. Serviceability limit states are those concerned with the use of the structure.2.2 PRIMARY AND ADDITIONAL STRESSES 3. 6 for welded and bolted connections.2. Values of the basic allowable stresses for different cases are given in Egyptian Building Code for the Design of Steel Structures and Bridges (ECP 2001) chapter 2 for members.e.1 For the purpose of computing the maximum stress in a structure. fatigue. In limit states design. together with any other provisions stipulated in the special specifications. such as deflection. 3. buckling. fracture. and chapters 5.. overturning and sliding. safety) limit states are plastic strength. Deflections shall be computed and they shall in no case exceed the limits herein after specified. rather than in the service load range as is done for working stress design. are intended to apply to the design and construction of steel bridges and buildings. 3. the strength limit states are dealt with by applying factors to the loadings. vibration. Those states can be divided into the categories of strength and serviceability. approved scientific methods of design shall be used.2. This code follows the allowable stress design method in which the bridge elements (members and connections) are proportioned on the basis of design loads and allowable stresses for the materials under service conditions. the straining actions shall be calculated for two cases: . focusing attention on the failure modes (limit states) by making comparisons for safety at the limit state condition. The design philosophy followed throughout this book is based on the latest edition (2001) of the Egyptian Code of Practice for Steel Constructions and Bridges (ECP).

2 Stresses due to Wind Loads shall be considered as primary for such structures as towers. members shall. secondary stresses due to truss distortion shall be computed. secondary stresses and eccentricities. Settlement of Supports in addition to the Effect of Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete] 3. In ordinary welded. 3.2.3 SECONDARY STRESSES Structures should be so designed. bolted or riveted trusses without sub-panelling.2. Change of Temperature. . Where this ratio is exceeded or where sub-panelling is used. and the stresses shall in no case exceed the aforesaid allowable stresses by more than 20 %. be so designed that in no case the stresses due to case I exceed the allowable stresses specified in the present code. in the first instance. The design should then be checked for case II (primary + additional stresses). as far as possible.. Frictional Resistance of Bearings. Secondary stresses are usually defined as bending stresses upon which the stability of the structure does not depend and which are induced by rigidity in the connections of the structure already calculated on the assumption of frictionless or pin-jointed connections. fabricated and erected as to minimize.2. Case II: Primary and Additional Stresses due to: Case I + [(Wind Loads or Earthquake Loads). transmission poles.3 In designing a structure. or a decrease of 15% in the allowable stresses prescribed in this code shall be considered. 3.. Lateral Shock Effect. Braking Forces. wind bracing systems. etc. no account usually needs to be taken of secondary stresses in any member whose depth (measured in the plane of the truss) is less than 1/10 of its length for upper and lower chord members. Bending stresses in the verticals of trusses due to eccentric connections of cross-girders shall be considered as secondary. and 1/15 for web members.2.2.Steel Bridges Case I: Primary Stresses due to: Dead Loads + Live Loads or Superimposed Loads + Dynamic Effects + Centrifugal Forces.

For bracing members in bridges.2. would produce a stress in any part of structure in excess of 25 % above the allowable stresses specified in this code.Class 2.compact sections): Are those which can achieve the yield moment capacity without local buckling of any of its compression elements. Structural sections shall be classified (depending on the maximum width-thickness ratios of their elements subject to compression) as follows: 1. to bring the erection stresses within that limit. . as is necessary. bending or shearing) during the passage of the moving load shall be proportioned according to Chapter 3 of ECP 2001 which is summarized in section 3.2. (non. 2. 3. The limiting width to thickness ratios of class 1 and 2 compression elements are given in Table 3. the maximum allowable stresses shall not exceed 0.Class 1.3 of this Chapter.6.1 General Allowable stresses for structural steel shall be determined according to the grade of steel used. together with the wind pressure. 3.2. 3.85 of the allowable stresses specified in this code if the bridge has not been considered as a space structure. Stresses which are the result of eccentricity of connections and which are caused by direct loading shall be considered as primary stresses.5 ERECTION STRESSES Where erection stresses.2.6 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL 3. (compact sections): Are those which can achieve the plastic moment capacity without local buckling of any of its compression elements.1.4 STRESSES DUE TO REPEATED LOADS Members and connections subject to repeated stresses (whether axial. including those produced by the weight of cranes. such additional material shall be added to the section or other provision made.Chapter 3: Design Considerations The induced stresses in the floor members and in the wind bracing of a structure resulting from changes of length due to the stresses in the adjacent chords shall be taken into consideration and shall be considered as secondary.

Steel Bridges Table (3. (t=t f=t w ) 13 .1a) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Stiffened Compression Elements d tw tw d d tw d tw d tw h d=h-3t .

1b) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Stiffened Compression Elements F in t/cm y 2 .Chapter 3: Design Considerations Table (3.

1c) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Unstiffened Compression Elements Stress distribution in element c Stress distribution in element y .Steel Bridges Table (3.

Compact 2.1c) "Outstand flanges" 1.1d) Maximum Width to Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements Refer also to (Table 2.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Table (3. Non-Compact .

6.1 The allowable shear stress on the gross effective area in resisting shear is: q all = 0.6.26 40 mm < t 100 0. 3.2 Allowable Stress in Axial Tension F t R On effective net area: F t = 0. the whole cross section shall be designed as class-3 cross section.Steel Bridges 3.5 2. R R R R Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 q all (t/cm2) R R P P t  40 mm 0.3 1.4 1.35 3.2.Class 3.2 when: .6.1 R F t (t/cm2) 40 mm < t 100 mm 1.6.2.3.2.3.84 0.89 1. In addition.75 0. When any of the compression elements of a cross-section is classified as class-3.17 The effective area in resisting shear of rolled shapes shall be taken as the full height of the section times the web thickness while for fabricated shapes it shall be taken as the web height times the web thickness.3 Allowable Stress in Shear q all 3.6 2.0 R R P P 3.98 1. the shear buckling resistance shall also be checked as specified in Clause 3. (slender sections): Are those which cannot achieve yield moment capacity without local buckling of any of its compression elements.1 Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 t  40 1.2.58 F y ………………………… R R R R 3.2 F y ……….

34 / α2 kq = 5.3. b y R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 3.2 q = 0.5 – 0.6 Where α = d 1 / d & d 1 = spacing of transversal stiffeners 3.6.For stiffened webs: Kq d > 45 ………………….35 F y ) ……. λ q ≥ 1.3 tw Fy .2 Allowable Buckling Stress in Shear q b R Depending on the web slenderness parameter : d / tw λq = 57 R R Fy Kq ………………………………… 3.10 λq R R .8 < λ q < 1.Chapter 3: Design Considerations -For unstiffened webs: d 105 > ………………….4 tw Fy Where K q =buckling factor for shear R R kq = 4.35 F ) ………………….8 q b = 0.2.…… 3.…… 3.00 + 5.2 q b = (1.5 α > 1 …… 3.9 3.00 / α2 R R P P R R P P R R R R α < 1 …… 3.9 (0.………………… 0.35 F y ……….34 + 4.7 The buckling shear stress is : For λ q ≤ 0.625 λ q ) ( 0.8 3.

.11 P P F c (t/cm2) t  40 mm F c = (1. 3.000085λ2) F c = (2.0– 0.16 R .3– 0.13 ……3.58Fy − 0.6.6. the allowable compressive stresses shall be reduced by 40% from Fc in case the additional bending stresses due to eccentricity are not calculated.Steel Bridges 3.5 Allowable Stress in Bending F b R 2.1 – 0. In case of sections eccentrically connected to gusset plates (e.5.000075λ2) F c = (2.15 For compact and non-compact sections.5– 0. noncompact or slender section) compression members in which the shear center coincides with the center of gravity of the section and meeting all the widththickness ratio requirements of Clause 3.……………………….12 ……. 3.000125λ2) R R P P R R P P R R P P ….2.4 Allowable Stress in Axial Compression F c R R On gross section of axially loaded symmetric (having compact.3.6 – 0..2. while for slender sections.…. R R P P 3. one angle). R R R R F y 3.2. the full area of the section shall be used.3.6.4 – 0. unless a more accurate analysis is used.75) 10 4 R R λ2 ….g.64 ……….000065λ2) F c = (1.1 Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of “compact” sections symmetric about the plane of their minor axis: Fb = 0.1: For λ = slenderness ratio = k l/ r < 100 : Fc Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 R R = 0.14 For all grades of steel For λ = kl/r ≥ 100 : F c = 7500/λ2 …………………….. the effective area shall be used.58Fy − ( 0.000055λ2) F c =(1.6.000135λ2) P P R R P P R R P P 40 mm < t100 mm F c = (1.

For box sections: 84 L u < Fy b f 3.2.2 Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of doubly symmetrical I-shape members meeting the compact section requirements of .1.5. 2. M 1 /M 2 is the algebraic ratio of the smaller to the larger end moments taken as positive for reverse curvature bending.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 t  40 mm 1. d is the web depth and C b is given in Equation 3.54 1.6.14 R R P P In order to qualify under this section: 1. R R R R R R R R 3.76 2.38 1.18 Lu ≤ 1380A d Fy f Cb Where b f is the compression flange width.27.30 F b (t/cm2) 40 mm < t 100 mm 1.The laterally unsupported length (L u ) of the compression flange is limited by R R i.63 2.For other sections Lu ≤ 20b F f y 2.17 L u ≤ (137 + 84 M1 ) b f / Fy 2 M ii.The member must meet the compact section requirements of Table 3.

.64 F y ………………………. F bt is taken as follows: R R Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 2.5.6.2.4 : 1.18.5.17 or 3..58 F y : R R R R R R .… 3.72 F y ………………………… 3.58 ………………………. and bent about their minor axis.1 40 mm < t 1.3 Tension and compression on extreme fibers of rectangular tubular sections meeting the compact section requirements of Table 3.2.Compression F bc R F bt (t/cm2) R R P P t  40 mm 1.5.22 R Hence.3 1.23 and 3.2.4 Tension and compression on extreme fibers of box-type flexural members meeting the “non-compact” section requirements of Table 3.58 …………………………….25) with a maximum value of 0.…….Tension F bt R F bt = 0.5.1 – 3.6 2.1(c).5. and bent about their minor axis: F b = 0.19 R R R R 3.6. the allowable bending stress in compression F bc will be taken as the larger value from Equations 3.6.5 2.4 1. solid round and square bars.0 I.1(b).6.5 On extreme fibers of flexural members not covered by Clauses 3.2. R R Fy R R 3.2.24 or 3.20 R R R R 3. When the compression flange is braced laterally at intervals exceeding L u as defined by Equations 3.1(b): Fb = 0.6.Steel Bridges Table 2. R R R F y 3.21 3. solid rectangular sections bent about their minor axis: F b = 0.

For deep thin flanged sections.58 Fy ……….When 84 C Cb ≤ L u / rT ≤ 188 b .When L u / rT > 188 Fltb 2 Cb Fy .58 Fy ……….……3.. (distance between cross sections braced against twist. the lateral torsional buckling stress is governed by the buckling strength given by: a..58 Fy ………….24 Fltb 2 b.3..26 In the above Equations: Lu = Effective laterally unsupported length of compression flange = K.For shallow thick flanged sections..then : Fy Fy = ( 0.23 L u . the lateral torsional buckling stress can be computed more accurately as the resultant of the above mentioned two components as: 2 2 Fltb = Fltb1 + Fltb2 ≤ 0.……. K = Effective length factor (as given in Chapter 4 of Code) r T = Radius of gyration about minor axis of a section comprising the compression flange plus one third of compression web area (in cms) A f = (b f * t f ) Area of compression flange (in cm2) R R R R R R .3.…….64 − ( L u / rT ) 2 Fy 1.d / A f ii.58 Fy ……. or lateral displacement of the compression flange in cm).176x10 5 C b )Fy ≤ 0. for any value of L/r T .25 ( L u / rT ) 2 Alternatively.……………3.Chapter 3: Design Considerations i. then: = 12000 C b ≤ 0. the lateral torsional buckling stress is governed by the torsional strength given by: R R Fltb1 = 800 C b ≤ 0.

The effective R R width is calculated using a reduction factor ρ as b e = ρ b R R Where: ρ = ( λ p − 0.1..4 for unstiffened elements.58 Fy .1 shall be designed using the same allowable stresses used for noncompact sections except that the section properties used in the design shall be based on the effective widths b e of compression elements as specified in Table 3.3 3. Slender sections which do not meet the non-compact section requirements of Table 3.05 (M 1 /M 2 ) + 0.Steel Bridges D = Depth of web (in cm) Fy = Yield stress (t/cm2) t f = Compression flange thickness (in cm) P P R C b = Coefficient depending on the type of load and support conditions as given in Table 3.3 for stiffened elements and Table 3.… 3. When the bending moment at any point within the un-braced length is larger than the values at both ends of this length. Fltb = 800 ( L u .. R R R R R R II.75 + 1.15 − 0.Compression on extreme fibres of channels bent about their major axis and meeting the requirements of Table 3.05 ψ ) / λ p ≤ 1 and 2 …………….27 M1 M2 Where: (M 1 /M 2 ) is the algebraic ratio of the smaller to the larger end moments taken as positive for reverse curvature bending. (C b ) can be computed from the expression : R R R C b = 1.29 λ = normalized plate slenderness given by p b/t λ = p 44 F K y σ ……………………… 3..2.28 III. For cases of unequal end moments without transverse loads. R R R R R R R R R R ≤ 2.d / A f ) Cb ≤ 0.30 ..……3.3 (M 1 /M 2 )2 ………………. the value of (C b ) shall be taken as unity.

3 and 3. (see Table 3.4.2) Values of Coefficients K and C b R t . Table (3. b = Appropriate width. c for outstand flanges b for equal leg angles b or (b+h)/2 for unequal leg angles relevant thickness.1) as follows : R b b b b b b = d for webs = = = = = = b for internal flange elements (except rectangle hollow sections) b-3t for flanges of rectangle hollow sections.Chapter 3: Design Considerations K σ = Plate buckling factor which depends on the stress ratio ψ as shown in Tables 3.

5 1.30 0.00 1.04 1.07 1.00 2.5 1.35 1.0 0.00 1.5 1.30 1.13 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.90 1.70 1.50 Restrained 1.0 1.Steel Bridges Bending Moment Loading Daigram End Restraint About Y-axis Effective Length Factor K Cb Simple Fixed Simple Fixed Simple Fixed Simple Fixed Simple Fixed Simple Fixed Warping Restrained 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.10 .5 1.5 1.0 0.30 2.

05+ 16 2+ 0.15 .0.81 0 > )2 ] 0.78 ) -1 -1> >-2 Buckling k Factor 7.3) Effective Width and Buckling Factor for Stiffened Compression Elements For 1 > > -1: k f2 f1 1 4.2 1.4 b e b e2 = 0.29 2 23.05 p < 1 f1 f2 be b e1 b e2 = b b e1 b b e2 = 0.5+(1+ > -1 +9.9 5.5 b e = 0.98(1- )2 Stress Distribution = ( Effective Width b for e 2 )/ p -0.5 b e f1 f2 be = b b e1 b b e2 b e1 = 2 b /(5) b e1 b e2 = b e f1 bc b e1 b e2 b bt + f2 be = bc = b /(1- ) b e1 = 0.0 [(1+ 1> >0 8.6 be .112(1) 0 7.81-6.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Table (3.

34 Effective Width be for = ( p -0.15 -0.4) Effective Width and Buckling Factor For Unstiffened Compression Elements Stress Distribution 1 Buckling factor k 0.07 be 1 > > 0: c bc be be c 3.43 0.70 c 1 > > 0: be be bc c bt be Buckling factor k 0.05 0 > 1.6.1 2 p < 1 -1 23.2. the allowable crippling stress shall not exceed: .7-5 ) / >-1 +17.57 0.57-0.Steel Bridges Table (3.43 1> >0 0.85 0.21 +0.8 0 1.578 + 0. at the toe of the fillet.6 Allowable Crippling Stress in Web Fcrp Web crippling is a localised yielding that arises from high compressive stresses occurring in the vicinity of heavy concentrated loads. On the web of rolled shapes or built-up I-sections.

6..5 The crippling stress (fcrp) at the web toes of the fillets resulting from concentrated loads (R) not supported by stiffeners shall be calculated from the following Equations: for interior loads f crp = R ………………… t w ( n + 2k ) 3.33 t w ( n + k ) …………………… 3.75 Fy …………………………………….0 ……….34 Fbcy Fc Fbcx .7.7 40 mm < t 1.7 Combined Stresses 3.. Grade of Steel St 37 St 44 St 52 Fcrp (t/cm2) P P 3.1 Axial Compression and Bending Members subjected to combined axial compression (N) and simple bending moment (M) about the major axis shall be proportioned to satisfy the following interaction Equation: f f ca f bx + A 1 + by A 2 ≤ 1.9 2.1 2.Chapter 3: Design Considerations R n k n+2k n+k k R tw Fcrp = 0.2.6.2. 3.8 2.6 1.32 for edge loads f crp = R 3.31 t  40 mm 1.

85. with transverse lateral loading between supports.4 where the end moments M1 and M2 carry a sign in accordance with end rotational direction. .15. and to be taken according to the following: a.35 Cm = Moment modification factor.2..For members with moment restraint at the ends Cm = 0.5. = The Euler stress divided by the factor of safety for buckling in the x and y directions respectively (t/cm2).4 (M1/ M2) > 0. i. P P FEx = 7500 λx 2 .6 .3. ii. positive moment ratio for reverse curvature and negative moment ratio for single curvature (M2 > M1).85.4. Cm may be taken: i. = The allowable compressive stress. prescribed in Clause 3. fby Fbcx. A1 = A2 = 1.6. considering the member loaded in bending only as prescribed in Clause 3. as-appropriate. b.Fbcy FEx. prevented from sway.e. FEy = 7500 λy 2 ………………………. = The allowable compressive bending stresses for the x and y axes respectively.6. f f (1 − ca ) (1 − ca ) FEy FEx fca Fc fbx.For frames. otherwise: C my C mx A2 = A1 = .For frames permitted to sway. Cm= 0. c. = The actual bending stresses based on moments about the x and y axes respectively.For frames prevented from sway without transverse loading between supports Cm = 0.Steel Bridges For cases when fca/ Fc < 0.0.0.2.0.For members with simply supported end Cm = 1. FEy = Actual compressive stress due to axial compression.

and the equivalent stress shall be calculated as follows: fe = f 2 + 3q 2 ≤ 1. at member ends. .6.37 Where: fN = the tensile stress due to the axial tensile force (N)=N/Anet fM = the maximum tensile stress due to the bending moment (M).1 Fall ……………………………… 3. and forged steel subject to bending or compression.2.Chapter 3: Design Considerations d.7.8 Equivalent Stress fe Whenever the material is subjected to axial and shear stresses. the equivalent stress (fe) must not exceed the permitted stresses given in this code plus 10%.5 gives the allowable stresses in (t/cm2) in the parts of bearings and hinges made of cast iron.6. e. 3.0 …………………. the compressive bending stress alone shall be checked against the lateral torsional buckling stress.In addition. cast steel.36 F F F bcx bcy c 3.………… 3..2.1 Table 3.2. 3.g.2 Axial Tension and Bending Members subjected to combined axial tension "N" and bending moment "M" shall be proportioned to satisfy the following conditions: fN + fM ≤ 0.7 ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN BEARINGS AND HINGES 3. shall satisfy the following Equation: f f f ca + bx + by ≤ 1.58 Fy ……………………………………..7. P P These allowable stresses may be exceeded by 20% when the maximum combination of primary and additional stresses is taken into account. sections at critical locations.38 3. In addition.2.

1. Young's modulus (t/cm2).2. Maximum load on bearing (ton).2.90 3.80 2.5) Allowable Stresses in Parts of Bearings and Hinges Material Cast steel CST 55 Forged steel FST 56 Cast Iron CI 14: Tension Compression Primary Stresses (t/cm2) Bending Compression 1.2. assuming these bearings are subjected only to the primary stresses designated in Clause 3. the bearing pressure between a cylinder and a plane surface is calculated as follows: f max = 0. 3. the allowable bearing stresses (t/cm2) shall be as given below.50 P P . P P P P For fixed.423 EV  ………….Steel Bridges Table (3.00 6. P P Material 5B For Cast Iron For Rolled Steel For Cast Steel For Forged Steel Cl 14 St 44 CST 55 FST 56 Allowable Bearing Stress (t/cm2) 5.39 Where: fmax = = r = E = V = ℓ Maximum actual bearing pressure at the surface of contact (t/cm2).60 0.2 According to Hertz formula. when the surface of contact between the different parts of a bearing are lines or points and when their design is carried out according to Hertz formula.00 2. sliding.7. Bearing length (cm).00 P P 2B 4B 0. Radius of cylinder or sphere (cm).30 0.50 9.90 0. and movable bearings with one or two rollers.80 1.50 8.

40 t/cm2. the diameter (d) of the pins shall be given by the formula: d= Where: 4 V . ℓ = Length of pin (cm).ℓ d. The bearing pressure between pins made of cast or forged steel and the gusset plates shall not exceed 2. 3.095 0.Chapter 3: Design Considerations 3.4 When bearings are provided with cylindrical cast steel knuckle pins.055 0. P P . = Length of roller (cm).7.040 0. Allowable Reaction (ton) 0.2.ℓ d. V = Vertical load (ton).40 d = Diameter of pin (cm). the aforesaid allowable reactions shall be increased by 20%.ℓ In the case of movable bearings with more than two rollers. where the compressive force affecting the said rollers cannot be equally shared by all their parts.ℓ d.7.117 d.2.3 The allowable load V (ton) on a cylindrical expansion roller shall not exceed the following values: Material Rolled steel St 37 Rolled steel St 44 Cast steel CST 55 Forged steel FST 56 Where: d ℓ = Diameter of roller (cm). ……………………………… 3  3.

Fracture Mechanics concepts can be applied to arrive at the fatigue strength of different bridge components.4.Steel Bridges 3. 3. 3. cutting. see Fig 3. The stress concentration around the defects causes them. see Fig. and or welding. Elastic Yield Failure Fig. members and connections. (c) Failure Sometimes.3b at a fillet weld toe.3..3a for a plate with a hole and in Fig. In order to determine the design parameters that can prevent the occurrence of this brittle failure. or (c) break. It was found that this failure mode starts from the presence of very small defect and cracks in the member during fabrication due to rolling. This amount depends on the magnitude of applied loads (below or above the yield level) and on the repetitive and cyclic nature of the load.3 FATIGUE 3. certain types of steel members may fail suddenly in the form of brittle fracture.1: (a) deform elastically. e. 3.g.2. although initially undetected. Since steel is a ductile material. (b) Plastic. or (b) deform plastically.1 General A bridge member may respond to applied loads in one of the following three ways. however. Control of fatigue failure is then achieved through efficient design and detailing. drilling.1 Behaviour Stages: (a) Elastic. see Fig 3. The presence of these defects causes stress concentration around them as shown in Fig. failure of steel members is normally preceded by a considerable amount of elastic or plastic deformations. to increase in size and eventually propagate to failure when the member is subjected to a large number of stress cycles. . 3.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations a) Porosity / Slag Inclusion b) Lack of Fusion c) Weld Cracks Fig 3.2 Possible Defects Causing Fatigue Failure .

3b Stress Concentration at Fillet Weld Toe Fig 3.3a Stress Concentration in a Plate with Hole Fig 3.Steel Bridges Fig 3.3c Crack Initiation and Propagation .

does not exceed the allowable fatigue stress range given in this section. .Chapter 3: Design Considerations Fig 3.4 Cracks Causing Fatigue Failure due to Weld Defects This section presents a general method for the fatigue assessment of structures and structural elements that are subjected to repeated fluctuations of stresses. see definition below. Members subjected to stresses resulting from fatigue loads shall be designed so that the maximum stresses do not exceed the basic allowable stresses under static load conditions and that the stress range.

metallurgical effects. the welding procedure. and any post-welding improvement.2 DEFINITIONS Fatigue: Damage in a structural member through gradual crack propagation caused by repeated stress fluctuations. the size and shape of the maximum acceptable discontinuity. Design Life: The period in which a structure is required to perform safely with an acceptable probability that it will not fail or require repair.Steel Bridges 3. Fatigue Strength: The stress range determined form test data for a given number of stress cycles. Detail Category: The designation given to a particular joint or welded detail to indicate its fatigue strength. 3. fatigue crack shapes. Stress Range: The algebraic difference between two extreme values or nominal stresses due to fatigue loads.5. Constant Stress Cycles . see Fig.5a) Stress Definitions Related to Fatigue. residual stresses. Fig. This may be determined through standard elastic analysis. the loading condition. 3. Fatigue Limit: The maximum stress range for constant amplitude cycles that will not form fatigue cracks. The category takes into consideration the local stress concentration at the detail.3.

5b) Variable Amplitude Stress History Fig.3 BASIC PRINCIPLES RELATED TO FATIGUE 1.The differences in fatigue strength between grades of steel are small and may be neglected.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Fig.The differences in fatigue damage between stress cycles having different values of mean stress but the same value of stress range may be neglected. Very significant improvements in fatigue strength can be achieved by reducing the severity of stress concentrations at such points. 3.3. 3. 3. .5c) Various Patterns of Stress Variation 3. 2.Cracks generally occur at welds or at stress concentration due to sudden changes of cross-sections.

details should be precisely defined by the designer and should not be amended in any way without the designer’s prior approval. 3. shall be designed so that the maximum unit stress does not exceed the basic allowable unit stress given in the Code. Therefore. no attachments or cutouts should be added to any part of the structure without notifying the designer. Similarly.3.The detail category of the particular structural component or joint design. 5. . 8. In such cases. 7.8 times the values given in Table 3. 6. these compression regions are not subjected to fatigue failure.Members subjected to stresses resulting from wind forces only.Roadway Bridges: The fatigue loads used to calculate the stress range are 50% of the standard design live loads including the corresponding dynamic effect. 2.Cracks that may form in fluctuating compression regions are selfarresting. 2.Steel Bridges 4. 3. 3.1. the allowable stress ranges shall be limited to 0.Slotted holes shall not be used in bolted connections for members subjected to fatigue.3.The number of stress cycles.5 Fatigue Loads 1.2 or in Figure 3.When fatigue influences the design of a structure.Railway Bridges: The fatigue loads used to calculate the stress range are the full standard design live loads.Structures in which the failure of a single element could result in a collapse or catastrophic failure should receive special attention when fatigue cracks are a possibility. the fatigue load is the combined effect of the full railway live load and 60% of the traffic live loads.4 Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength The fatigue strength of the structural elements depends upon: 1.The applied stress range resulting from the applied fatigue loads. For bridges carrying both trucks and trains.

The effect of applied stress cycles is characterized by the maximum stress range (fsra).000.The number of constant stress cycles to be endured by the structure during its design life is given in Table 3. The maximum stress range can be computed from the applied fatigue loads using an elastic method of analysis. 4.6a) Number of Loading Cycles – Roadway Bridges Type of Road ADTT * P Major Highways and ≥ 2500 Heavily Traveled Main Roads < 2500 Local Roads and Streets * P P Number of Constant Stress Cycles (N) Longitudinal Transverse Members Members 2. 5.000 500. 3. Table (3.000 2.6b for railway bridges.6a for roadway bridges and Table 3.6 Fatigue Assessment Procedure 1.6a and 3. the stress range to be used in the fatigue assessment is the greatest algebraic difference between maximum stresses.000 100.000. The number of cycles given in Tables 3.3. 2. In welded details subjected to stress reversals.000 Over 2.000 ADTT = Average Daily Truck Traffic for 50 years design life .6b is subject to modifications according to the competent authority requirements. the effective stress range to be used in the fatigue assessment shall be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress range and 60% of the compressive portion of the stress range. changes in the most severe loading.In non-welded details or stress relieved welded details subjected to stress reversals. In some structures such as bridges and cranes. consideration should be given to possible changes in usage such as the growth of traffic.2 for the specified number of constant cycles and the particular detail category. etc. The fatigue loads should be positioned to give the maximum straining actions at the studied detail.Chapter 3: Design Considerations 3.The fatigue strength of a structural part is characterized by the allowable stress range (Fsr) which is obtained from Table 3.The fatigue assessment procedure should verify that the effect of the applied stress cycles expected in the design life of the structure is less than its fatigue strength.000.000 500.

When subjected to tensile fatigue loading.000 Class I Longitudinal flexural members and their connections.0 2.3 The classification is divided into four parts which correspond to the following four basic groups: Group 1: non-welded details.000 500.6 3.000 2.In detailing highway bridges for design lives greater than 50 years.000 500. the allowable stress range for High Strength Bolts friction type shall not exceed the following values: Number of Cycles N ≤ 20.000 500.5 P P .000.20 7.000. Class II Truss web members and their connections except as listed in class III Class III Transverse floor beams and their connections or truss verticals and subdiagonals which carry floor beam reactions only and their connections 6. plain materials.000.6b) Number of Loading Cycles – Railway Bridges Member Description Span Length (L) (m) L > 30 30 ≥ L ≥ 10 L < 10 Two tracks loaded One track loaded Two tracks loaded One track loaded Number of Constant Stress Cycles (N) 500. M 1. the fatigue loads should be increased by a magnification factor. M.000 200.15 1.000 20.Each structural element has a particular detail category as shown in Table 7. 8.Steel Bridges Table (3.000 < N Allowable Stress Range Fsr (t/cm2) Bolts Grade 8. Group 4: Orthotropic Deck Bridges. given by the following Table: No.8 Bolts Grade 10. of Years 50 80 100 120 Magnification Factor.9 3.6 2. Group 2: welded structural elements.10 1. with or without attachments.2 2.000 Over 2.9 2. or truss chord members including end posts and their connections. Group 3: fasteners (welds and bolts).00 1. and bolted plates.000 < N ≤ 500.000 over 2.

000 1.36 4.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Table (3.85 0.40 Over 2.56 0.000 Fig.1 10.71 0.12 0.1.32 0.000 A B B’ C D E E’ F 3B 500.000 1.72 10 A B 1 Stress Range 2 ) B' C F D E E' 0.00 1.000.52 2.000 Number of Constant Stress Cycles 10.49 0.000 100.000.53 1.41 0.42 2.52 1.000 100.48 1.11 0.000 2.000.68 1.77 2.000.26 1.45 1.68 1.91 0.7) Allowable Stress Range (Fsr) for Number of Constant Stress Cycles (N) Fsr (t/cm2) P P 100.70 0.12 0.52 2.92 1.30 3.02 0.000 1. Stress Range Versus Number of Constant Stress Cycles .89 0.18 0.65 0. 3.000.

Base metal at net section of fully tensioned high strength bolted bearing type connections 2. Base metal with sheared or flame cut edges with a surface roughness less than 50 2. 2. Base metal at net section of eye-bar head or pin plate. Base metal at net section of other mechanically fastened joints (ordinary bolts & rivets).Steel Bridges Table (3.1. 3. except axially loaded joints which induce out of plane bending in connected material. flame cut edges with a surface roughness less than 25 1.8) Classification of Details Group 1: Non-Welded Details Description 1. Illustration Class net section area net section area .3.2.1.2. Base metal at gross section of high strength bolted slip resistant (friction) connections. Base metal with rolled or cleaned surfaces.

A good fit between flange and web plates is essential and a weld preparation at the web edge such that the root face is adequate for the achievement of regular root penetration. Illustration Class B B B C D D C .1. 8. Base metal at zones containing copes in longitudinally welded Tjoints.3. Same as (4.start positions. or by partial penetration groove welds parellel to the direction of applied stress. 6. Base metal at toe of welds on girder webs or flanges adjacent to welded transverse stiffeners.2.5 7. Base metal in members without attachments.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Group 2: Welded Structural Elements Description 4.) with welds having stop . Base metal at zones of intermittent longitudinal welds with gap ratio g/h < 2. 4. built up plates or shapes connected by continuous full penetration groove welds or by continuous fillet welds carried out from both sides without start stop positions parallel to the direction of applied stress. built-up plates or shapes connected by continuous full penetration groove welds with backing bars not removed.1. 4. 5. Base metal in members without attachments. Base metal at continuous manual longitudinal fillet or full penetration groove welds carried out from one side only.

9.Steel Bridges Description 9.5 C D 10. Same as (9.1. Base metal and weld metal at full penetration groove welded splices (weld made from both sides) at transitions in width or thickness.10 of weld width. Same as (10. Same as (10.2. with welds ground to provide slopes no steeper than 1 to 2.2.5 with grinding in the direction of applied stress.1. 9. 10.) with slopes more than 1 to 2.10 of weld width. and with weld soundness established by radiographic or ultrasonic inspection.) to (10. Same as (9.2.3.) but with reinforcement not removed and less than 0.4. 10.1.) but with welds made from one side only. E .1. with grinding in the direction of applied stress and weld soundness established by radiographic or ultrasonic inspection. Illustration Class B C D B 10.3. Same as (10.) with reinforcement more than 0. Base metal and weld metal at full penetration groove welded splices ( weld made from both sides ) of parts of similar cross sections ground flush.) but with reinforcement not removed and less than 0.3.10 of weld width.1.2.

Base metal at members connected with transverse fillet welds. Base metal and weld metal at transverse full penetration groove welded splices on a backing bar.2. The end of the fillet weld of the backing strip is more than 10 mm from the edges of the stressed plate 11.2. t= thickness E E C D E .2 Base metal at ends of partial length welded cover plates wider than the flange without end welds. 12.1.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Description 11.1. with or without welds across the ends or wider than the flange with welds at the ends. Same as (15. t < 25 mm t > 25 mm 14. . Base metal at full penetration weld in cruciform joints made of a special quality weld. Same as (11. Base metal at ends of partial length welded cover plates narrower than the flange having square or tapered ends. Flange thickness < 20 mm Flange thickness > 20 mm 12.1. 15. t= thickness Illustration Class D E E or E Cat eg ory E E E .1) with partial penetration or fillet welds of normal quality. Base metal at axially loaded members with fillet welded connections. 15.1) with the fillet weld less than 10 mm from the edges of the stressed plate. 13.

17. R > 610 mm 610 mm > R > 150 mm 150 mm > R > 50 mm R < 50 mm Illustration Class D E C B C D E B C D E .type shear connector attached by fillet weld or automatic end weld. Base metal at details attached by full penetration groove welds subject to longitudinal loading with weld termination ground smooth. 19.) with transverse loading. and reinforcement removed. Base metal and attachment at fillet welds or partial penetration groove welds with main material subjected to longitudinal loading and weld termination ground smooth R > 50 mm R < 50 mm 18. Same as (19.2. Base metal at plug or slot welds. Base metal at stud. equal thickness.1. Weld soundness established by radiographic or ultrasonic inspection R > 610 mm 610 mm > R > 150 mm 150 mm > R > 50 mm R < 50 mm 19.Steel Bridges Description 16.1.

Base metal at detail attached by full penetration groove welds subject to longitudinal loading 50-mm< a <12t or 100 mm a >12t or 100 mm (t<25 mm) a >12t or 100 mm (t>25 mm) 21.5. Base metal at detail attached by fillet welds or partial penetration groove welds subject to longitudinal loading a < 50 mm 50 mm< a <12t or 100 mm a >12t or 100 mm (t<25 mm) a >12t or 100 mm (t>25 mm) Illustration Class C C D E D E E D E .2.2.4.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Description 19.) but reinforcement not removed R > 610 mm 610 mm > R > 50 mm 150 mm > R > 50 mm R > 50 mm 19.4. C D E E .) but with unequal thickness R > 50 mm R < 50 mm 19. Same as (19. Same as (19.3. Same as (19.) but with reinforcement not removed and for all R 20.

Rivets and ordinary bolts in shear. Shear on plug or slot welds. 28. 22. Shear stress on nominal area of stud-type shear connectors. High strength bolts in single or double shear (fitted bolt of bearing type).Steel Bridges Group 3: Fasteners (Welds and Bolts) Description 22.) 27. Weld metal of full penetration groove welds parallel to the direction of applied stress ( weld from both sides) 22. 25. E F F C D F . 23.1.1.2. 23. Illustration Class B C F D F .2. Transversally loaded fillet welds.3.(Failure in the weld or heat affected zone.1. Weld metal of partial penetration transverse groove weld based on the effective throat area of the weld.) but with weld from one side only.2 Weld metal of intermittent longitudinal fillet welds transmitting a continuous shear flow. E 24. 23. Same as (22. 27. Bolts and threaded rods in tension (on net area) .3 Weld metal at fillet welded lap joints.1 Weld metal of continuous manual or automatic longitudinal fillet welds transmitting continuous shear flow. 26.

( Bending stress range in the rib) t < 12mm 29. Illustration Class C D E D B C E D E . All welds ground flush to plate surface in the direction of stress.) with weld reinforcement < 0.( Bending stress range in the rib) 32.) t > 12mm 30.1. (Bending stress range in the rib) 32. Base metal at connection of continuous longitudinal rib to cross girder. Weld metal at fillet weld connecting deck plate to rib section.1.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Group 4: Orthotropic Deck Bridges Description 29. Slope of thickness transition < 1:4. 34. 34. (Bending stress range in the rib) 31. Weld metal at full penetration weld connecting deck plate to rib section. Base metal at continuous longitudinal rib with or without additional cutout in cross girder. Base metal at rib joints made of full penetration weld without backing plate.1. (Equivalent stress range in the cross girder web).1.1.2 33. Base metal at rib joints made of full penetration weld with backing plate. Same as (29. Base metal at separate longitudinal ribs on each side of the cross girder.2.2. Same as (32.2.

which in some cases are further subdivided where necessary for clarity. are necessarily representative of good design practice.7. The case study comprises an imaginary steel bridge. two forms of construction are shown with a box girder on the left hand side and a braced plate girder on the right hand side. etc. Examples of Weld Detail Group Classifications . The detailed figures indicate the direction of principal stress. connection of cross girders. and the potential crack location and direction. as shown in an exploded isometric view in Figure 1. this section presents a case study of a particular civil engineering structure. This imaginary structure is then subdivided as shown in Figure 1 into several close-up details in Figures 2 . In order to illustrate as many different details as possible.Steel Bridges 3.7 Examples of weld detail classifications In order to assist a designer in selecting the correct detail category.3. the category into which the detail should be classified according to European Code is shown as a number in a circle beside the detail. It is not suggested that these arrangements. they are presented for the purpose of illustrating a point of discussion. and shows how the details can be classified. there are differences between the two sides in bearing arrangement. nor even some of the details. Furthermore.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. 2: a. This detail should generally be avoided (it is usually better, and probably easier, to detail the longitudinal stiffeners passing through "mouseholes" in the transverse stiffeners). b. The category of 112 shown is the "standard" one for automatic fillet welding carried out from both sides, but containing stop-start positions. If it contained no stop-start positions it could be upgraded to category 125, or even 140 if a specialist inspection shows that the welds are free from significant flaws; conversely, if the fillet were placed manually, it would be downgraded to category 100. c. Stresses should be calculated using the gross section for slip resistant connections, or the net section for all other connections. The effects of eccentricity in the connection should be taken into account when calculating the stresses in a single-sided connection. d. This detail (at the termination of a longitudinal stiffener) may be treated for cracking in the main plate as a long (>100m) longitudinal attachment within the width of a plate with a non-load carrying weld. Note that the weld may also require checking in shear, with the stress range calculated from the weld throat area. e. The gusset plate attached as shown to the leg of the angle may be treated as a cover plate wider than the flange (with the leg of the angle representing the flange). Provided all plate thicknesses are 20mm or less, this is category 50* for cracking in the angle; this reduces to 36* if thicknesses exceed 20mm. The weld should be continued down the leg of the angle, and ground to remove undercut if necessary

Steel Bridges

Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. 2a: a & b These details show how cracks may grow in different directions in an area of complex geometry and stress distribution. Considerations are similar to Figure 2, note e, but the bearing plate > 20mm thick and so the category for plate cracking is reduced to 36*. c. See Figure 2, note b; as the weld to the bearing plate will almost certainly be placed manually, the lower category of 100 is used. d. The category of the plate edge depends on the method of production; if it is a rolled flat the category could be increased to 160, or if machine flame cut with subsequent machining to 140. The indicated category of 125 is for a machine flame cut edge without subsequent machining. It should contain no repairs by weld infill. e. As for Figure 2, note b. f. As for Figure 2, note c. g. The category of this weld has been reduced from the 71 or 80 shown for web stiffeners since the stiffener is shown flush with the edge of the plate

Steel Bridges

Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. 3: a. This is a rather poor detail, since because of the taper in the flange a good fit cannot be guaranteed above the backing flat; hence the low category of 50. b. At the top of the butt weld, provided the "reinforcement" does not exceed 0.1 times the width of the weld bead, the category is 90; up to 0.2 it would be 80. Run off pieces should also be used. (If the weld is ground flush the category could be 125 or higher). Normally there would be little point in making the category of the top surface much higher than that of the bottom, unless the eccentricity arising from the change of plate thickness results in a higher stress range at the top. c. The comparatively high category of this weld is only true for a gusset plate with a generous radius as drawn ( > 150mm, and also > (width of main plate)/3). The radius has to be formed by initial machining or gas cutting, with subsequent grinding of the weld area parallel to the direction of stress. If the radius < (width of main plate)/6 the category falls to 45*, and between the two limits above to 71. d. It should be noted that the weld should be held back 10mm from the end of the gusset. As it is a single sided connection, the effects of eccentricity should be considered. e. The calculation of the stress in the main plate requires care, and in a single sided application as shown may have to allow for eccentricity. f. This is a standard "bad" detail for increasing the area of a plate. The plates in the example are not thicker than 20mm so the category is 50*; above this thickness the category is reduced to 36*. Contrary to what may be thought, tapering the cover plate as shown, or rounding its end, does not, in itself, improve the detail; however, a special detail with tapering welds and chamfered cover plates, being developed by German Railways, may raise the category to 80. g. This is a two sided butt weld, with the surface ground flush. Significant quality control and inspection is required to permit the use of this high category. h. As for Figure 2, note d.

Steel Bridges

As Figure 3. d. note c. note g.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. b. As Figure 3. As for Figure 2. without backing flat and ground flush. Provided the difference in thickness is taken up by tapering the thicker member with a slope of not greater than 1:4. but it is a single sided weld without backing flat and because very high quality of execution and inspection is specified. this still qualifies as a category 112 weld. the category can be raised to 125. note g. c. This is a butt weld. . but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity occurs. 4: a. between plates of different thickness.

As for Figure 2. c. but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity occurs.Steel Bridges Notes on Fig. note c. 4a: a. note c. b. . This is the standard detail for fillet welds in shear. but as the connection is double sided no eccentricity occurs. The stress range should be calculated from the weld throat area. Note carefully that direction of crack is related to direction of stress. As for Figure 2. Note that crack begins from edge of washer.

note a. Some recent evidence suggests that out-of-plane flexure of the web plate at the termination of the stiffener could degrade this detail. note c. and the weld should be returned round the bottom of the stiffener. d. As for Figure 4a. may differ from hole to hole.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. 4b: a & b Are both as for Figure 2. Note that the stiffener should terminate at least 10mm above the flange. . but research continues on it. c. but note that the direction of stress. and hence the direction of cracking.

Steel Bridges .

. It is virtually impossible to give a category for such effects. This is the standard detail for corner welds of box girders. note d. Note that a good fit between flange and web is essential. d. c. This is the standard detail for the welding of diaphragms in box girders to the webs and flanges. and considerable experience is necessary. so that a one sided weld can be placed without blow through. 5: a. it is category 100. note b.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. As for Figure 2a. b. As the weld will be placed manually. e. As for Figure 4a. See Figure 2. In certain forms of construction and loading this weld is also prone to bending about its longitudinal axis due either to local traffic loading or distortional effects in the box girder. note a. If the thickness were greater the category would be reduced to 71. Note crack propagating across direction of principal tensile stress. where the diaphragm thickness is not greater than 12 mm.

Steel Bridges .

e & f These welds are very difficult to categorize and are not covered explicitly in Eurocode 3 Part 1. provided the special requirements in the table are met). b. Cracking in the parent plate from the toe of the weld may be checked at the higher category of 71 in the gusset plate or 90 in the flange. note c. See Figure 3. and so are category 36* as far as cracking from the root is concerned. the radius of the gusset plate is more severe than it appears and hence the weld falls into the lowest category. Details e and f are analogous to the cruciform detail. Furthermore. Detail d can be thought of as an incomplete penetration butt weld placed from one side only. It is similar. As for Figure 2. to the long attachment. d. 5a: a. the welds may also be subjected to flexural effects in the web and flange. Because the main plate (the flange of the box girder) is wide. and it is probably safe to use that category (50*). This weld is being stressed by flexure of the web plate and is not readily classifiable from the details in Eurocode 3 Part 1. and hence classified as category 36*. . however. Considerable caution should therefore be used in attempting to classify them. c.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. although the direction of stress is shown by arrows on the detail. note c. for this detail. of 45*.

Steel Bridges .

5 times the weld length. However. As this will be a machined plate. This is similar to the category at the end of lengths of intermittent fillet weld where the gap is less than 2. c. note b. As for Figure 5. Hence the category may be taken as 80. . Note crack propagating across direction of principal tensile stress. note a. As for Figure 4a. as there is a re-entrant corner. b. the high category of 140 may be used. stress concentrations will occur and the magnified stresses should be used in making the check. d. 5b: a.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig.

The weld connecting the shear studs is classified in Code with the shear stress calculated on the nominal cross section of the stud. c. d. As for Figure 4a. The effect of the shear connectors on the base plate is to cause a category 80 detail. b. note a. It would appear appropriate to classify it as the lowest category available. 6: a. This detail is clearly of a very low category and should not be used if the stress range is significant. .Steel Bridges Notes on Fig. 36*.

note b. the weld terminates at the plate edge. it should be positioned in an area of low stress fluctuation. This connection is effectively a welded transverse attachment with a nonload carrying weld. However. b. and so the detail is a worse category than in the table. d. note c. c. non-structural. detail can seriously degrade the fatigue capacity of the structure. Category 50 appears appropriate. . It should be pointed out from this how an apparently minor.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. This detail represents a butt weld on a permanent backing flat. As for Figure 2. 7: a. As for Figure 2. where the backing flat fillet weld terminates closer than 10mm from the plate edge. If it has to be used.

b. .Steel Bridges Notes on Fig. 7a a. These welds are similar to those associated with cracking in the parent plate from the toe of the weld in cruciform joints. This detail is effectively a gusset with zero plan radius and so falls into category 45*.

Chapter 3: Design Considerations Notes on Fig. . This is a detail which is not explicitly classified in Eurocode 3 Part 1. These welds are all effectively the worst possible cruciform details. Note that if the welds are made of sufficiently large section to avoid root cracking there are other mechanisms which may govern. It is close to the cruciform detail but probably rather less severe. 7b: a. b. An appropriate category is 50*.

This weld is likely to be placed manually . These welds are similar to those associated with cracking in the parent plate from the toe of the weld in cruciform joints. This detail is intended to represent what happens with a bolt in tension through an endplate.Steel Bridges Notes on Fig. note a. As for Figure 2a. 7c: a. b. d.see comments at note b for Figure 2. e. Note crack propagating across direction of principal tensile stress. As for Figure 4a. c. and . The category for the bolt itself is the low one of 36*. note d.

and that shear cracking in the weld should also be checked. f. detail g.Chapter 3: Design Considerations the stress in tension in it should be calculated using its stress area. Account should also be taken of any prying action resulting from flexing of the endplate. This is the standard category for web stiffeners where the thickness of the stiffener does not exceed 12mm and the welds do not come within 10mm of a plate edge. Whilst this detail is not explicitly covered in Eurocode 3 Part 1. Notes on Fig. c. b. Whilst this detail belongs in the relatively high category of 140 for a machine gas cut edge with all edge discontinuities removed. . the stresses should be calculated using the appropriate stress concentration factor for the radius which is used. However. Tests have indicated a somewhat lower category (50) is reasonable. and 45* is proposed. it should be noted. that the stress range in the bolt may be reduced substantially by appropriate preloading. Note that the weld termination should be held back at least 10mm from the plate edge. Note the specified rule for the calculation of the stress in the main plate. Note that where it occurs close to (but not actually at) a cope hole. h. d. compared with detail a above where terminating the weld actually at the cope hole requires use of category 71. This detail is equivalent to the standard one for cracking in the lap plates in a fillet welded lap joint. it shows a number of similarities to the "wide cover plate" detail. i. This detail is a straightforward instance of the end of an intermittent fillet weld. the "transverse attachment" is a load carrying plate. This detail is not explicitly covered in Eurocode 3 Part 1. As for Figure 3. and hence there are some similarities with the detail shown in Table 9. it permits use of the higher category of 80. e.8. hence the detail is not fully appropriate.4 (3). It is clear that a low category is appropriate. The weld is nonload carrying. The crack position in the endplate shown on Figure 7c should also be checked under the flexural stresses resulting from prying action. 7d: a. however. This is a straightforward instance of the detail for the ends of a continuous weld at a cope hole. This detail is equivalent to the standard one for cracking in the main plate at the end of a fillet welded lap joint. g.

Steel Bridges .

1 qall Compression Butt and K.1 Allowable Stresses for Butt (Groove) Welds The complete joint penetration groove weld is of the same strength on the effective area as the piece being joined.1 Fc 1. q // = the shear stress along the axis of the weld. 3.0 Ft 1.Permissible stresses for Fatigue loading: See section 3.0 qall Excellent Weld 1. .2 Allowable Stresses for Fillet Welds The stress in a fillet weld loaded in an arbitrary direction can be resolved into the following components: f ⊥ = the normal stress perpendicular to the axis of the weld.Permissible Stresses for Static Loading: Table (3. q ⊥ = the shear stress perpendicular to the axis of the weld. Ft .4. ii. For permissible stresses two values are considered.4 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELDED JOINTS 3. and qall are the minimum allowable compression. the second value for excellent welding where all welds are examined to guarantee the efficiency of the joint: i.7 Ft 1.9) Permissible Stresses for Static Loading in Groove (Butt) Welds Permissible Stress For Type of Joint Kind of Stress Good Weld 1. the first for good welds fulfilling the requirements of the specifications.Chapter 3: Design Considerations 3.4. tension.weld Tension Shear Where Fc .3.0 Fc 0. and shear stresses of the base metals.

6. 5..5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BOLTED JOINTS 3.4.1.6 up to and including grade 10. they shall be checked for the corresponding principal stresses.2 F u …………………………….5.5.4. 3. No pre. The design load shall not exceed the shear resistance nor the bearing resistance obtained from Clauses 6.The allowable shear stress qb for bolt grades 4. from grade 4. 3. 2 2 2 3.1..6 and 8.1 Shear Strength Rsh i.2.Steel Bridges These stresses shall be related to the size (s) of the legs of the isosceles triangle inscribed in the weld seam if the angle between the two surfaces to be welded is between 60O and 90O .1 STRENGTH OF NON-PRETENSIONED BOLTED CONNECTIONS OF THE BEARING TYPE In this category ordinary bolts (manufactured from low carbon steel) or high strength bolts.. 3. P P P P P P The permissible stresses Fpw for all kinds of stress for fillet welds must not exceed the following: All kind of stresses Fpw  0.9 can be used.8 shall be taken as follows: qb = 0. For this combination of stresses.2).41 Where Fu is the ultimate strength of the base metal (see section 1.1 and 6.25 Fub ………………………………………………. In case where welds are simultaneously subject to normal and shear stresses. 3.. an effective stress value feff may be utilized and the corresponding permissible weld stress is to be increased by 10 % as follows: feff = f⊥ + 3( q ⊥ + q // ) …………………………………………. When this angle is greater than 90O the size of the leg of the inscribed rectangular isosceles triangle shall be taken.3.43 .tensioning and special provisions for contact surfaces are required.42 The effective length of a fillet weld is usually taken as the overall length of the weld minus twice the weld size (s) as deduction for end craters.

n = Number of shear planes. min ∑ t …………………………………………. Where : As = The tensile stress area of bolt. 3.For bolts where the threads are excluded from the shear planes the gross cross sectional area of bolt (A) is to be utilized.47 Fu = The ultimate tensile strength of the connected plates.……………………………… 3.9.………………………………….d.8 .44 are to be applied only where the bolts used in holes with nominal clearances not exceeding those for standard holes as specified in Clause 6.2 of Code.For bolt grades 4. and 10. iv. 3.2. the allowable bearing stress Fb (t/cm2): P P 3.The values for the design of shear strength given in Equations 6.46 Where: = Allowable bearing stress.to center of bolts not less than 3d.8. 3..1. v.For the determination of the design shear strength per bolt (Rsh) . .5. As .Chapter 3: Design Considerations ii. ∑t ii.……………………………….8.2 Fub ……………….The bearing strength of a single bolt shall be the effective bearing area of bolt times the allowable bearing stress at bolt holes:Rb = Fb . the allowable shear stress qb is reduced to the following:qb = 0. d Min = Smallest sum of plate thicknesses in the same direction of the bearing pressure.2 Bearing Strength Rb i.n . Fb = Shank diameter of bolt.……….43 and 6.For distance center.5 d.45 Fb = α Fu Where: ………………….44 iii. 6. and for end distance in the line of force greater than or equal to 1. where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt:Rsh = qb . 5...

6 3.a R t.5d 1.3 Tensile Strength Rt When bolts are externally loaded in tension.50 Where: R sh.5 are given in Table 3.48) respectively.48 With Ftb = 0. the tensile strength of a single bolt (Rt) shall be the allowable tensile bolt stress (Ftb) times the bolt stress area (As) Rt = Ftb . As ………………………………………………. the following circular interaction Equation is to be satisfied:  R  sh.0 ≥ 2.49 3. and = The allowable shear and tensile strength of the fastener as previously given in Equations (6.5. .45) and (6.1. 3.1.…… 3.a  R t       2 ≤ 1 …………………………….33 Fub ……………………………………………… 3.10) Values of α for Different Values of End Distance End distance in direction of force ≥ 3d α 1.a R sh Rt = The actual shearing force in the fastener due to the applied shearing force.Steel Bridges As the limitation of deformation is the relevant criteria the α-values of Equation 6. = The actual tension force in the fastener due to the applied tension force.10 Table (3.4 Combined Shear and Tension in Bearing–Type Connections When bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension.8 ≥ 1.5d 0.5.a  R  sh       2 R +  t .0d 0.2 ≥ 2.

1 General In this category of connections high strength bolts of grades 8.5.5. The bolts are inserted in clearance holes in the steel components and then pretensioned by tightening the head or the nut in accordance with Clause 6. 3.3. while the bolt shank itself is subjected to axial tensile stress induced by the pretension and shear stress due to the applied torque.8 and 10.5 for class A surfaces.51 .5.3 where a determined torque is applied. ii.3). As = The bolt stress area.2 Design Principles of High Strength Pretensioned Bolts a) The Pretension Force The axial pretension force T produced in the bolt shank by tightening the nut or the bolt head is given by:T = (0. Any applied force across the shank of the bolt is transmitted by friction between the contact surfaces of the connected components.The friction coefficient between surfaces in contact is that dimensionless value by which the pretension force in the bolt shank is to be multiplied in order to obtain the frictional resistance PS in the direction of the applied force.9 are only to be utilized.2 HIGH STRENGTH PRETENSIONED BOLTED CONNECTIONS OF THE FRICTION TYPE 3. where the coefficient of friction µ should be taken as follows:µ = 0. µ = 0.2. Surface treatments are classified into three classes.5. b) The Friction Coefficient or the Slip Factor “µ” i.The design value of the friction coefficient depends on the condition and the preparation of the surfaces to be in contact.7) Fyb AS ………………………………………… Where: Fyb = Yield (proof) stress of the bolt material.2. 3. µ = 0. (see section 1.3 for class C surfaces. The contact surfaces will be firmly clamped together particularly around the bolt holes.Chapter 3: Design Considerations 3.4 for class B surfaces.

with any loose rust removed.6 and 1.8 or 10. .25 and 1. In class B: . The tests must ensure that the creep deformation of the coating due to both the clamping force of the bolt and the service load joint shear are such that the coating will provide satisfactory performance under sustained loading. = 1.Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and painted with an alkali-zinc silicate painting to produce a coating thickness of 50-80 µm. 0B .35 for case of loading I and II respectively for parts of bridges.Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and spray metallized with a Zinc based coating.Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit with any loose rust removed.05 for cases of loading I and II respectively for ordinary steel work.9 with a single friction plane is derived by multiplying the bolt shank pretension T by the friction coefficient µ using an appropriate safety factor γ as follows:PS = µ T / γ …………………………………………………. In class C: .Surfaces are blasted with shot or grit and spray metallized with Aluminum. c) The Safe Frictional Load (Ps) The design frictional strength for a single bolt of either grade 8.52 Where : T = Axial pretensioning force in the bolt.The friction coefficient µ of the different classes is based on the following treatments: In class A: . cranes and crane girders which are subjected mainly to dynamic loads. γ = Safety factor with regard to slip . no painting. = 1.Surfaces are cleaned by wire brushing.Steel Bridges iii. .If the coatings other than specified are utilized. tests are required to determine the friction coefficient. 3. or flame cleaning. iv. µ = Friction coefficient..

52 5.45 11.m Pretension Force (T) tons M12 M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M36 * For HSB grade 8.37&42-44 (µ=0.56 2.11 gives the pretension force (T) and the permissible frictional load (Ps) per one friction surface for bolts of grade 10.9*) Permissible Friction Load of One Bolt Per One Friction Surface (Ps) tons Ordinary Steel Bridges and Work Cranes St.9.36 9.2 Bolt Area (A) cm2 P Cases of Loading I 1.14 3.5 Cases of Loading II 2.8 16.52 4.b) = T(ext) / n ≤ 0.9 II 1.93 6. 50-55 (µ=0. 3.58 8.11 3.83 12..10 10.95 6.5 15.90 7.7 13.8 .6 I 1.94 9.66 5.6 14.95 3.85 4.1 0.09 4. 50-55 (µ=0.01 3.5 12 31 62 84 107 157 213 372 .b).1 22.9 35.1 19.32 2. the induced external tension force per bolt (Text.1 II 1.65 6.1 16.0 13. 1B Table (3.5 II 2.27 8.63 8.89 15.5 19.29 9.b) is to be calculated according to the following relation:T(ext.53 4.1 20. the above values shall be reduced by 30% In addition to the applied tensile force per bolt T(ext.3 51.22 8..6).84 1.2 I 1.37&42-44 (µ=0.82 5.3 Design Strength In Tension Connections Where the connection is subjected to an external tension force (Text) in the direction of the bolts axis.55 10.11 9.56 5.3 16.4 19.55 7.6 13.80 4. the bolt shall be proportioned to resist the additional induced prying force (P) (Fig.03 11.5) Required Torque (Ma) kg.17 7.11) Properties and Strength of High Strength Bolts (Grade 10.45 3.6 I 2.01 3.16 4.5.4) St.53 Where : n = The total number of bolts resisting the external tension force T(ext) . 3.89 11.8 24.06 10.17 5.71 7.61 8.5) St.57 2.65 3.92 4.22 10.25 11.69 3.77 5.06 8.10 7.13 2.73 7.71 7. 3.47 3.6 T ………………………………….4) St.03 3.37 5.96 6.59 5.2 28.Chapter 3: Design Considerations Table 3. Bolt Diameter (d) mm Stress Area (As) cm2 P 1.

56 .7.8 T 3.54 3.55 Qb ≤ T(ext.6 Prying Force The prying force (P) depends on the relative stiffness and the geometrical configuration of the steel element composing the connection. Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear and Bending Moment In moment connections of the type shown in Fig. the loss of clamping forces in region “A” is always coupled with a corresponding increase in contact pressure in region “B”.5.. 3.9 of ECP 2001 and hence the following check is to be satisfied: T(ext.b) γ ……………………………………….8T P= Prying force P= Prying force T ext Figure 3. The clamping force remains unchanged and there is no decrease of the frictional resistance as given by the following :PS = µ T / γ …………………………………………………….b P 0.4 Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear and Tension In connections subjected to both shear (Q) and tension (Text).b) + P ≤ 0. the design strength for bolt is given by the following formulae:µ (T – Text.8T T ext.8 T …………………………………………… 3.b P 0.5. 3.5. The prying force should be determined according to Clause 6.b) + P ≤ 0.Steel Bridges T ext. 3.

57 A M B Q Figure 3.M) + P ≤ 0.b) γ ……………………… 3.M) due to the applied moment (M) in addition to the prying force P that may occur.b. must not exceed the pretension force as follows:T(ext.Chapter 3: Design Considerations The induced maximum tensile force T(ext.b. 3.8T .8T …………………………………………….M) + P ≤ 0.7 Connections Subjected to Combined Shear and Bending Moment 3.58 Qb ≤ T(ext.b.b) + T(ext. the design strength per bolt is to be according to the following formulae:µ (T – Text.5. Tension.6 Design Strength in Connections Subjected to Combined Shear. and Bending Moment When the connection is subjected to shearing force (Q). a tension force (Text) and a bending moment (M).

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors CHAPTER 4 BRIDGE FLOORS .

4.1 INTRODUCTION The principal function of a bridge deck is to provide support to local vertical loads (from highway traffic.1. This is most likely to be the case when there are significant stresses from the overall structural actions in the same direction as the maximum bending moments from local deck actions. e. in structures with cross girders where the direction of maximum moment is along the bridge. . 5. 6. It may be necessary to take account of these combined actions when verifying the design of the deck. Contributing to the top flange of the longitudinal girders 3. Contributing to the top flange of cross girders at supports and. Figure 4. In addition to this.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 4 BRIDGE FLOORS 4. Acting as a diaphragm to transmit horizontal loads to supports. the overall structural actions may include: 2. railway or pedestrians) and transmit these loads to the primary superstructure of the bridge. Stabilizing stringers and cross girders in the transversal direction. Providing a means of distribution of vertical load between longitudinal girders.g. throughout the span. where present in twin girder and cross girder structures.

1 ROADWAY BRIDGE FLOORS Three main types of transverse structural systems may be used in roadway bridge floors: a) Slab b) Beam-Slab (slab with floor beams) c) Orthotropic plate floor .Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Fig 4.1 Structural Actions of a Roadway Bridge Deck 4.2.2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OF BRIDGE FLOORS Structural systems used in bridge floors vary according to the bridge usage as follows: 4.

the steel plate.Steel Bridges a) In the Slab cross-sections.2c.5 – 4 m. generally below 25m. Fig. gives a very efficient section in bending. 4. Fig 4.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: a) Slab Type Floor . the slab may act independently of the supporting beams (a very uneconomic solution for medium and large spans) or it may work together with the supporting beams (composite bridge deck). The composite action requires the shear flow between the slab and the girders to be taken by shear connectors as shown in Fig. In both cases.2a. a reinforced concrete deck slab about 20 to 30 cm thick is supported directly on the bridge main girders. where multiple girders are used for the longitudinal structural system at spacing of 2. Transversally. This system is economical for small spans. 4.2b. Fig. This system is generally adopted for medium spans below 80 m where the spacing of main girders exceeds about 4 m. which may be of open or closed section. a stiffened steel plate covered with a light wearing surface is welded on top of the main girder webs to provide a deck surface. c) In the Orthotropic Plate Deck. The deck plate. the ribs and the floor beams act together. the ribs are connected through the transverse floor beams (cross girders) yielding a complex grillage system where the main girders.2a. 4. The steel plate is longitudinally stiffened by ribs. 4. acting as the top flange of the main girders. b) In the Beam-Slab cross-sections. Fig. the deck slab is supported on longitudinal floor beams (called stringers) and /or transversal floor beams (called cross-girders).

for long span and moveable bridges.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Fig. 4. i.e. the biggest disadvantage of orthotropic steel plate decks is their high initial cost and the maintenance required. . 4. The latter are only adopted when deck weight is an important component of loading.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: c) Orthotropic Plate Floors When compared to concrete slab decks. Concrete decks are therefore usually more economic than orthotropic steel plates.2 Roadway Bridge Floors: b) Beam Slab Type Floor Fig.

8 meters. The sleepers are then supported on the bridge floor system.0 to 6.2. 4.0 meters. Fig. 4. Fig.Steel Bridges 3.5 to 1. spaced at 4.3 Railway Bridge Floors: a) Open Timber Floor . Fig. 4.3a. called stringers. and transversal beams. which may be of the open timber floor type.2 RAILWAY BRIDGE FLOORS Tracks of railway bridges are normally carried on timber sleepers which are 260 cm long and spaced at not more than 50 cm between centers. spaced at 1. called cross girders. or of the ballasted floor type.3b: a) The Open Floor type consists of longitudinal beams.

C. 4. slab which is supported on steel floor beams.. stringers and/or cross girders as shown in Fig.g.3 Railway Bridge Floors: b) Ballasted Floor .Chapter 4: Bridge Floors b) The Ballasted floor type consists of a 20 cm layer of ballast carried on an R. e. 4.3b: Fig.

1of ECP: Fbx = Fltb < 0.Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of doubly symmetrical I-shape members meeting the “compact” section requirements of Table 2.1) Allowable Stress in Bending Fb 1.1 t/cm2 P Usually Fltb is governed by: Fltb1 = 800 C b ≤ 0.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1 of ECP.592 t/cm2 P 4.304 t/cm2 P In order to qualify under this section: i.58 Fy = 2.35 Fy = 1.26 t/cm2 P .1.1.1) ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR STEEL St 52 (ECP 2001) 4.Steel Bridges 4.72 Fy = 2.Tension and compression due to bending on extreme fibers of “compact” sections symmetric about the plane of their minor axis: Fbx = 0.58 Fy L u .The member must meet the compact section requirements of Table 2.The laterally unsupported length (Lu) of the compression flange is limited by L u1 ≤ 20b F f L u2 ≤ 1380A d Fy f Cb y 2.d / A f 3.2) Allowable Stress In Shear: qall = 0.3.3. and bent about their minor axis: Fby = 0.Compression on extreme fibers of flexural members meeting the “noncompact” section requirements of Table 2. Note that most rolled sections satisfy these requirements. ii.64 Fy = 2.1(c) of ECP.

4. see section 2.5. Fig.2) DESIGN OF STRINGER CROSS SECTION Stringers are usually designed as beams simply supported on the cross girders. stringers in open railway bridge floors should be designed to carry the effect of the horizontal loads caused by the lateral shock of the running wheels. This effect causes double bending of the stringer cross section. a system of horizontal bracing.2 (f). Stringers may also be designed as continuous beams. The stringers are usually connected at their ends to the cross girder by two framing angles which are designed to transmit the maximum end reaction of the stringer to the cross girder. Fig. can be arranged between the stringers upper flanges to reduce the effect of lateral loads.4a. The maximum bending stress in the flanges or the maximum shear stress in the web usually governs the cross section size. Fig. 4. 4. a) Simple Stringer b) Continuous Stringer Fig.3.4b.4 Connection between Stringer and Cross Girder In addition to the effect of vertical loads.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors The effective area in resisting shear of rolled shapes shall be taken as the full height of the section times the web thickness while for fabricated shapes it shall be taken as the web height times the web thickness. 4. The maximum straining actions for design are computed from the load positions and load combinations producing the maximum effect on the member considered. Alternatively. called lateral shock bracing. . In this case the connection between the stringer and the cross girder is designed to carry also the negative moment at the stringer supports. This lateral load is transmitted from the rails to the sleepers and then to the upper flange of the stringer. 4.

The cross girders are usually connected at their ends to the main girder by two framing angles which are designed to transmit the maximum end reaction of the cross girder to the main girder. This effect causes double bending of the cross girder section. Alternatively. see Fig.3. 4. called braking force bracing. This lateral load is transmitted from the rails to the sleepers and then to the upper flange of the stringers and the cross girders. cross girders are usually designed as beams simply supported on the main girders. a system of horizontal bracing.6 Fig.5 Stringer (Lateral Shock) Bracings 4.Steel Bridges Fig. The maximum bending stress in the flanges or the maximum shear stress in the web usually governs the cross section size. 4. can be arranged between the stringers and the cross girders to eliminate the effect of longitudinal loads.6 Cross Girder (Braking Force) Bracings .3) DESIGN OF CROSS GIRDER CROSS SECTION Similarly. 4. Cross girders of open railway bridge floors are designed to carry the effect of the horizontal loads caused by the longitudinal braking forces.

1) EXAMPLE 1: ROADWAY BRIDGE FLOOR .Chapter 4: Bridge Floors 4.4 DESIGN EXAMPLES 4.4.

1) STRINGER Structural System: Beam supported on cross girders.10 t/m/ uniform load on stringer = 0.784 t P P P P P P 1.238 × (4.008 * L = 0.1.4-0.0 = 0.364 (L = Loaded Length of main traffic lane = 4.75 m.5) / 2 = 2.10 t/m2 Total D.2) Live Load & Impact: • Impact factor I = 0. Span = 4.238 t/m/ Dead Load Actions: QDL = 1.5m) Impact is applied to Main Lane Loads only • Maximum LL Reaction on Intermediate Stringer: Place 10t on stringer and add effect of 5 t @ 1 m: P = 10 * (1 + 0.0.50 m.4.65 t/m2 Own wt of stringer (assumed) = 0.05 × 2.55 t/m2 • 5 cm Asphalt = 0.75 + 0. 1) Straining Actions: • 22 cm Deck Slab = 0.1) Dead Load: MDL = 1.5= 0.364) + 5 × (1.1 = 1.75-1)/1.4 .L = 0.22 × 2.008*4.75 = 15.238 × (4.132 mt P P 1.5 = 0. Spacing = 1.Steel Bridges 4.783 t P P P P .5)2 / 8 = 3.65 × 1.

783 + 15.6 m: Mmax occurs at the middle section with one LL reaction load acting in the middle.4 m: Mmax occurs at the middle section with all three loads acting as shown.566 t .6 < Lst < 3.4 m: Mmax occurs with two LL reaction loads placed such that the stringer centerline bisects the distance between the resultant and one load.783 × (1.5) = 31.783 × (3/4.25 – 15. MLL & I = 23.5 = 29. For 2.592 mt • Loads position for Max Shear: Shear Force Notes: For L > 3.674 × 2.0 m: Qmax occurs at support with all three loads acting as shown: QLL&I = 15.783 × 1.5/4. For Lst > 3.5) + 15.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Loads position for Max Moment: Bending Moment Note: For Lst < 2.0 m: Qmax occurs at support with two loads acting on span For L > 3.

724 mt The total design shear on an intermediate stringer is: At support: Qdesign = 2.2 of Group 1 ECP) Check Shear: qy = Q / Aw net = 34.72 x 100 / 2.304 = 1420 cm3 --------.35 t 2) Design of Cross Section: 2.r.80 x32.3) Design Straining Actions: The total design moment on an intermediate stringer is: at middle section: Mdesign = 3.784 + 31.5 x 29.504 / (0.592)x100/1500 = 0. Zx = Mx / Fbx 32. and lateral torsional buckling requirements (compression flange supported by deck slab).2) Case of Continuous Stringer: i) Section at mid span : Mx = 0. to both local buckling requirements (being a rolled section).64 Fy = 2.724 m.566 = 34.26 t/cm2 (Assuming Class B detail under 2x106 cycles (Case 1.use IPE 450 Bending Stress: fbx = 32.t.26 t/cm2 OK 2.e.t.85 x 45 x 0.20 m.304 t/cm2 Req.94) = 0. Section is compact w.9984 t/cm2 < Allowable Stress Range = Fsr = 1.592 = 32.18 t/cm2 < 2.304 t/cm2 Check of Fatigue: Actual Stress Range = fsr =(0.72 x 100 / 1500 = 2. OK . Fbx = 0. (Maximum near middle) Qy = 34. i.72 = 26.132 + 29.Steel Bridges 1.504 t (Maximum at support) Design for Bending then check shear.1) Case of Simple Stringer: Straining Actions: Mx = 32..95 t/cm2 < 1.

925 t/cm2 < 2.G.436 t/cm2 > 1.. Lu2) i.20 x 100 / 2. (Usually Lu > Lu1.1) Dead Load Effect: Concentrated reaction from stringers = 2 × 2..e.95 t/cm2 < 1.54 m.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Section is compact (see above): Req.1 x 2. Fbx = 0.75 x 32. ii) Section at support : Mx = 0. 4.85 x 45 x 0.72 = 24.54 x 100 / (0. Use IPE 450: fbx = Mx / Zx net = 24. therefore the section is assumed non-compact for simplicity.85x1500) = 1. Zx = Mx / Fbx = 26.1.1 above.583 Fy = 2.31 N.5 m 1) Straining Actions: 1.4.2) CROSS GIRDER Structural System: Beam supported on main girders Span = 7 m.504 / (0.94) = 0.3 t/m/ .10 t/cm2.784 = 5.10 t/cm2 OK (Note: Net section properties were used to account for the moment bolted connection) Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 34.1 Fall = 2.1 = 2. Spacing = 4.568 t Own weight of Cross Girder (assumed) = 0.26 t/cm2 OK Equivalent Stresses due to combined shear and bending: fe = f 2 + 3q 2 ≤ 1.t. Use IPE 500.304 = 1137 cm3 Use IPE 400 Check is similar to case 2. Compression flange (being at the bottom) is laterally unsupported.

5 x 0.326 mt 1.5 – 5.3x 1.5) = 0.75 .331 t/m/ c) From Secondary Truck: P30 = 5+ 2 x 5x 3/4.568 ×1.5] = 0.5] = 0.0.328 {L = larger of 2 Lst (directly loaded members) or Lxg (indirectly loaded member)} Impact is applied to Main Lane only • Max LL Reactions on Cross Girder: a) From Main Truck: P60 = 10 x (1+0.402 t MDL = 11.328 x 0.667 T d) From Secondary Lane Uniform Load: w30 = 2 [ 0.Steel Bridges QDL = 3 × 5.5x1.3 × 7 / 2 = 9.4 .328) + 2 x 13. .5)2/2 = 21.75/4.70 × 3.568/2 + 0.15 t/m/ N.0.B.2) Live Load & Impact Effect: Impact I = 0.5 = 11.008 (2×4.3 × (3.: Uniform load on Lane Fractions on both sides of trucks is to be neglected.5 = 30.008 L = 0.4 × 0.75/4.28 x 3/4.987 t b) From Main Lane Uniform Load: w60 = 2 [ 0.

Chapter 4: Bridge Floors • Loads position for Max Moment: Mmax occurs at the middle with loads placed as shown: MLL & I = 96.326 + 96.74 t .88 = 118.88 mt • Loads position for Max Shear: Qmax occurs at support with loads placed as shown: QLL&I = 64.3) Design Straining Actions: The total design moment on an intermediate cross girder is: At the middle section: Mdesign = 21.24 = 73.206 mt And the total design shear on an intermediate cross girder is: At the support: Qdesign = 9.24 t 1.402 + 64.

r.206 x 100 / 2.e.35) = 1.304 t/cm2 OK Check of Fatigue: Actual Stress Range = fsr =(0.5 x 96.26 t/cm2 .157 t/cm2 < 2.use HEA 650 fbx = 118.Steel Bridges 2) Design of Cross Section: Straining Actions: Mx = 118. Zx = Mx / Fbx = 118.88)x100/5470 = 0.74 / (0.304 t/cm2 Req.00 t/cm2 < 1. and lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp flange supported by deck slab). i.2 of Group 1 ECP) Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 73.26 t/cm2 (Assuming Class B detail under 2x106 cycles (Case 1.304 = 5121 cm3 --------.206 m.886 t/cm2 < Allowable Stress Range = Fsr = 1.t.74 t (Maximum at support) Section is compact w.206 x 100 / 5470 = 2.64 Fy = 2. Fbx = 0.85 x 64 x 1. to both local buckling requirements (being a rolled section). (Maximum near middle) Qy = 73.

2) EXAMPLE 2: RAILWAY BRIDGE FLOOR .Chapter 4: Bridge Floors 4.4.

5x2) x(1+I) = 30.4 < L < 4.45 × (4.5)= 0.80 m.50 m.2) Live Load & Impact: • Impact factor I = 24/(24+ L) = 24/(24+4.5)2 / 8 = 1.25-12.45 t/m/ Dead Load Actions: QDL = 0.6 t/m/ of track = 0.2.842 (max 0. conn. ) = 0.4 m: Mmax occurs with single wheel on stringer For 3.15 = 0.5) / 2 = 1. Spacing = 1.139 mt 1.4 m: Mmax occurs with two wheels on stringer For L > 4. sleepers.Steel Bridges 4. 1) Straining Actions: 1. Span = 4.3 t/m/ of stringer Own wt of stringer (assumed) = 0.1) Dead Load: Track (rails.013 t MDL = 0.5 m) • Loads position for Max Moment: For L < 3.3 + 0.45 × (4.08 mt .75) (L = Loaded Length of track = 4.5/2)x2.1) STRINGER Structural System: Beam supported on cross girders.4.4 m: Mmax occurs with three wheels on stringer MLL & I = ((3x12.15 t/m/ uniform load on stringer =0.

775 m.9 + 21.46 t 1.5/4. ( at quarter point) Corresponding Mx = 0.t.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors • Loads position for Max Shear: For L > 3.5x2.t.5/4.3) Lateral Shock Effect: a) If No Stringer Bracing is used: My = 6 x 4 /4 = 6 m. ) .0 m: Qmax occurs at support with three loads acting as shown: QLL&I = (12. ( at middle) (Corresponding Mx = 25. ) b) If Stringer Bracing is used: My = 6 x 2 / 4 =3 m.5) x (1+I) = 36.t.5+12.875 = 22.5+12.5x.51 m.t.

583 Fy = 2.75x 100 / (721/2) = 1.847 + 1.1/2.2 of Group 1 ECP) Fatigue Check is UNSAFE: increase cross section Qy = 1.728 = 2.2 (Factor 1.219 mt My = 6.592 t/cm2 (Minor axis bending) Section HEB 400 fbx = 31..75 mt b) If Stringer Bracing is Used: Critical Section at Quarter Point Mx = 25.87 t/cm < 2.Steel Bridges 1.728 t/cm2 Total Stress Range = 0.5m).139 + 30.5.46 = 37.847 t/cm2 From My : Actual Stress Range = fsr =( 6.10 t/cm2 Fby = 0.26 = 1.94 m.87/2. My = 6. (carried by top flange only) Qy = 37. to lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp flange unsupported for Lun= 4.592 t/cm OK Combined Bending: fbx / Fbx + fby / Fby = 1.08)x100/3551 = 0.08 = 31.75 m. but not compact w.473 t .94 x 100 / 2880 = 1.10 t/cm2 OK 2 2 fby = 6.24 < 1 x 1.47 t Section is compact w.e.t.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads) Unsafe  then use HEB 450 Check of Fatigue: From Mx : Actual Stress Range = fsr =( 30.2x 1.10 + 1.t.1 t/cm2 < 2.r. Fbx = 0.75)x100/(781/2) = 1. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled section).72 Fy = 2.575 t/cm2 > Allowable Stress Range = Fsr = 1.013 + 36. i.4) Design Straining Actions: The total design moment on an intermediate stringer is: a) If No Stringer Bracing is Used: Critical Section at Middle Mx = 1.5) Design of Cross Section: 1.38 mt My = 3..r.1) Case of Simple Stringer without Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing: Straining Actions: Mx = 31.375 mt And the total design shear on an intermediate stringer is: At support: 1.592= 1.512 t/cm2 (Assuming Class B detail under 2x106 cycles (Case 1.

583 Fy = 2.304 t/cm2 Fby = 0.2) Case of Simple Stringer with Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing: Straining Actions: Mx = 28.283 t/cm2 < 2.592 t/cm2 OK Combined Bending: fbx / Fbx + fby / Fby = 1.75 m.4) = 0.552 m.495 t/cm2 < 2.. i.72 Fy = 2.t..259 t/cm2 < 1.304 t/cm2 OK fby = 3.26 t/cm2 1.10 t/cm2 OK . Check Shear at support: q = Q / Aw net = 37.85 x 45 x 1.5.t.495/2.e.25 x 100 / 1890 = 1.47 / (0.26 t/cm2 OK 1.t..47 / (0.283/2.r..3) Case of Continuous Stringer without Lateral Shock Bracing: i) Section near mid span: Mx = 0. (at quarter point) Qy = 37.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads) Check of Fatigue is similar to case above. and w.304 + 1.7 t/cm2 < 1.5.375 x 100 / (526/2) = 1. My = 3. Fbx = 0.144 < 1 x 1. Fbx = 0.375 m.5 m).10 t/cm2 Fby = 0.47t at support & Qy = 22.887 t/cm2 < 2.85 x 35 x 1.592 = 1.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 37. but not compact w r to lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp flange unsupported for Lun= 4. to lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp.325t at quarter point Section is compact w.8 x 31.e. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled section). My = 6.25 m.t.592 t/cm2 (Minor axis bending) Section HEB 400 fbx = 25.r.72 Fy = 2.r.64 Fy = 2.0) = 1.25 m by stringer bracing). flange supported at Lun= 2. (not affected by continuity) Section is compact w.552 x 100 / 2880 = 0.592 t/cm2 (Minor axis bending) Section HEA 360 fbx = 28. to both local buckling requirements (being a rolled section).94= 25. i.2 (Factor 1.

72 Fy = 2.171/2.10 + 1.e.4) Continuous Stringer with Lateral Shock (stringer) Bracing: i) Section at mid span: Mx = 0. Fbx = 0..60 m.375 x 100 / (616/2) = 1.47 / (0.980 t/cm2 < 1.174 t/cm2 < 2.375 m.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads) ii) Section at support : Mx = 0.r. and lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp.887/2. therefore the section is non-compact.955 m.145 <1x 1.096 t/cm2 < 2.t.94 = 23.64 Fy = 2. y therefore: Fbx = 0. to both local buckling requirements (being a rolled section).1 x 2. i. My = 0.5.304 t/cm2 Fby = 0.26 t/cm2 OK Equivalent Stresses: fe = f 2 + 3q 2 ≤ 1.2 (Factor 1.25= 22.592= 1.1 Fall = 1.955 x 100 / (0.931 < 1.872 t/cm2 < 2.31 t/cm2 1.592 t/cm2 (Minor axis bending) Section HEB 320 fbx = 22.2 accounts for additional stress of Case II loads) ..993 t/cm2 < 1.60 x 100 / 1930 = 1.872/2.10 t/cm2 fbx = Mx / Zx net =23.8 x 28.10 t/cm2 OK q = Q / Aw net = 37.t (at quarter point) Section is compact w.304 t/cm2 fby = 3.1 = 2.75 x 100 / (721/2) = 1.85 x 2400) = 1. Use HEB360: for Lu ≤ 20b F f = 316 cm.304 + 1.25) = 0.Steel Bridges fby = 6.85 x 36 x 1.592 t/cm2 OK Combined Bending: fbx / Fbx + fby / Fby = 0.75 x 31. flange supported at Lun=2 m by stringer bracing).47 t Compression flange (being at the bottom) is laterally unsupported. Qy = 37. My = 3.t.592 t/cm2 OK OK Combined Bending: fbx / Fbx + fby / Fby = 1.2 (Factor 1.171 t/cm2 < 2.096/2.592 = 0.583 Fy = 2.

3/2 – 2.15) = 1.G.30 m. (assumed) = 0.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 37.5 = 9 m) . Spacing = 4.727 (L = Loaded Length of tracks= 2 x 4.2) CROSS GIRDER Structural System: Beam supported on main girders Span = 5.198 t/cm2 < 1.9-0.50 m 2.85 x 32 x 1.26 t/cm2 ii) Section at support : See ((1.2.4.821 t MDL = 2.65)2/2= 4.3) ii) above.026 + 0.47 / (0.2) Live Load & Impact Effect: • Impact factor I = 24/(24+ L) = 24/(24+ 9)=0.026x0.3 × (2.6 mt 2. 4.1) Dead Load Effect: Concentrated reaction from stringers = 2 × 1.821 x 5.3 × 5.013 = 2.026 t Own weight of X.3 / 2 = 2.3 t/m/ QDL = 2.

5 + 2 x 12. (i.5}x (1.5 / 4.821 + 47.1 t Braking force is equally divided between cross girders: Braking force/ XG = 42.37 x 1.25x0.37 t So the total design moment on an intermediate XG is: Mdesign = 4.25x0.5 mt And the total design shear on an intermediate XG is: Qdesign = 2.191 t 2.33 = 50.90 mt Qmax occurs at support: QLL&I = 47.Steel Bridges • Reactions on Cross Girder: P = {12.1 /no of XGs = 42.5 x 2.5}x (1+I) = {12.1/7= 6.5 + 2 x 12.3) Braking Force Effect: a) If Braking Force Bracing is used: Braking force is carried by the braking force bracing without any bending in the Cross Girders.75/4.02 t .5 + 6.37t Mmax occurs at the stringer location MLL & I = 47.6 + 82.75/4.90 = 87. My=0) b) If No Braking Force Bracing is used: Total Braking Force on the bridge: B = Sum of train loads on bridge / 7 = 295 / 7 = 42.75 = 82.727) = 47.5 / 4.5 + 6.5 x 2.e.

flange unsupported for Lun=5.26 mt 2.498 t/cm2 < 1. Fbx = 0.use HEB 550 Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 50.75 = 5.191 t (at support) Section is compact w.r.02 / 2) x 1.4) Design of Cross Section: 2.192 / (0.592 t/cm2 OK OK Combined Bending: fbx / Fbx + fby / Fby = 1.716 t/cm2 < 1.2) With Braking Force Bracing: My is carried by axial forces in the braking force bracing with the XG subjected to Mx only: Req.166/2.535/2.166 t/cm2 < 2. Check Shear: q = Q / Aw net = 50.e.r.4. Zx = Mx / Fbx = 7. but not compact w.10 t/cm2 fby = 5.10 t/cm2 Fby = 0.26 t/cm2 .535 t/cm2 < 2.1) Without Braking Force Bracing: Straining Actions: Mx = 87.583 Fy = 2...26 m.192 / (0.26 t/cm2 OK 2.2 OK Check Fatigue as before.592 = 1.50 x 100 / 2.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors My = ( 6.85 x 55 x 1. to lateral torsional buckling requirements (comp. to local buckling requirements (being a rolled section).3 m).592 t/cm2 (Minor axis bending) Section HEB 600 : fbx = 87.5) = 0.85 x 79 x 1.72 Fy = 2.26 x 100 / (902/2) = 1.t. i.50) = 0.50 x 100 / 5700 = 1.4.50 m.074 <1. ( at stringer location) Qy = 50.10 + 1.t. My = 5.304 = 3798 cm3 --------.

60 9.85 Bolt 10.9 or 8.4. -ve Moment = 23.8 are normally used in bridge constructions.9 4. of shear planes.4.2 4.2 Design of Connection between Stringer and Cross Girder: Railway Bridge Floor Data: Stringer: Shear Force = 37.15 tmin 9.Steel Bridges 4.94 ult = 5.08 Friction Type Connections Bolt 8.4.1) Case of Simple Stringer: Connection is designed for the max shear of stringer using framing angles as shown:.20 18. Edge distance2 d.8 Fult) x tmin (n = no.1 Calculations of Bolt Resistance: High strength bolts of Grade 10.56 15. section is HEB 360. Connections may be designed as Bearing Type (easier in execution) or Friction Type (when slip is not allowed).Shear 6.3.17 4. F ≥ 2 t/cm ) For Friction Type Connections: Bolt Resistance = n x Ps Bolt Diameter M20 M22 M24 Bearing Type Connections RS.96 6.3) CONNECTIONS OF BRIDGE FLOOR BEAMS 4.8 3.28 7.955 m.9 (Bearing Type): . d= bolt diameter. Using M20 HSB Grade 10. Shear 12.82 5.t.3.32 tmin 9.47 t.98 tmin RD.. Cross Girder: HEB 600 2.37 4. Rshear = n x (Bolt area x Allowable bolt shear stress) = n x (π d2 /4) x 2 Rbearing = Bolt diameter x Allowable bearing stress x tmin = d x (0. For Bearing Type Connections: Bolt Resistance = Smaller of Rshear and Rbearing.04 Rbearing 8.

82= 7. of Bolts = 66.746 use 10 bolts M24 (Bearing Type) each side.e..64 ton = Rleast Number of bolts = Qt / Rleast = 37.617 cm Use tpl = 1.46 ton = Rsr Number of bolts = Qsr / Rsr = 36.Chapter 4: Bridge Floors a) Bolts between stringer web (tw = 1.2) Case of Continuous Stringer: Continuity is achieved by using top and bottom plates designed to transmit the flange force: C = T = M-ve / hstr = (0.32 x 1.91 = 4..1 = 66.43 = 5.46 / 4.77.43 ton = Rsr Number of bolts = Qsr / Rleast = 36.46 / 6.667 t Number of bolts = 62.53x0.25 cm) and angle legs: Double shear bolts Rb = 8.82=13.4 t = Rleast Number of bolts = Q / Rleast = 37.64 = 3.80 cm .45 x 0. 14 bolts M20 (Friction Type) Each Side) Compute Plate Thickness from: (30 – 4 x 2. Allowable stress range = 0.6) x t x 2. i.88 Use 4 bolts M24 (Friction Type) b) Bolts between angle legs and cross girder web: Single shear bolts on two sides: Fatigue governs the design Number of bolts = Qsr / Rsr = 36.8. 4 bolts M20 (Friction Type) Each Side) 2.08) / 0.3 bolts Fatigue Considerations: Case 27.47 / 10.36 = 62.54/4.17 too many Either use bolts with larger diameter or use Friction Type Joint: i) Use M24 bolts: Rsh = 2x3.46 / (3.53x0. of Bolts = 37.47 / 9. (Alternative Using Friction Type Bolts: No.8 Use 6 bolts M24 (Bearing Type) ii) Friction Type Joint: Rsh = 2 x 4.43 = 9.e.1 of Group 3 of ECP: for Class C.82 = 9.47/4. i.25 = 10.667 / 6.35 Use 12 bolts M24 (6 bolts each side) (Alternative Using Friction Type Bolts: No.4 = 3.91 = 6.91) = 11.54 which gives tpl = 1.91 t/cm2 Rsh = 2 x 2.46 = 8.75x30.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges CHAPTER 5 PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES .

Plate girders may be defined as structural members that resist loads primarily in bending and shear. Plate girders may also be used as long-span floor girders in buildings. as crane girders in industrial structures.1 General In section 1.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1. The cross section of the main girder used in any of these bridge types may be a solid web girder or a truss girder depending on the values of the design actions. arch bridges. 5. and as bridge girders in all types of bridges. They are characterized by thin webs. Early plate girders were fabricated by riveting. and suspension bridges.4. that are joined together to form I-shapes. Modern plate girders are normally fabricated by welding together two flange .1(a). cable stayed bridges. which are usually deeper than those of the deepest available rolled shapes. For short and medium spans.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 5 PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES 5. Although shaped similarly to the commonly used hot-rolled steel I-beams. solid web girders in the form of I-section or box section are usually used.2 Cross Sections of Plate Girders Several cross sections may be used for plate girders as shown in Fig.1. Fig. plate girders differ from them in that they are fabricated from plates. 5. which began to be widely used in the 1950s. 5. Such girders are capable of carrying greater loads over longer spans than is generally possible using standard rolled sections or compound girders. bridges were classified according to the structural systems of the main girder in the longitudinal direction into several types such as beam and frame bridges. These girders are usually fabricated from welded plates and thus are called "Plate Girders". Their flanges consisted of two angles riveted to the web ends and cover plates riveted to the outstanding legs of the angles. has significantly simplified the fabrication of plate girders.1. and sometimes angles. Structural welding.

3. Although not commonly used. 5. the designer has the freedom to use different grades of steel for different parts of the girder.1(c).1 Cross Sections of Plate Girders Because a plate girder is fabricated from individual elements that constitute its flanges and web. Furthermore. a significant advantage offered by a plate girder is the freedom a designer can have in proportioning the flange and web plates to achieve maximum economy through more efficient arrangement of material than is possible with rolled beams. highergrade steel St. a designer can reduce the flange width or thickness in a zone of low applied moment as shown in Fig. e. For example. in a zone of high shear. More unusual variations are adopted in special circumstances.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges plates and a web plate as shown in Fig. Also. “hybrid girders” with high strength steel in the flange plates and low strength steel in the web offer another possible means of more closely matching resistance to requirements.g. 52 might be used for zones of high applied moments while standard grade steel St. Equally. 37 would be used elsewhere. other variations are possible as shown in Fig. 5. This freedom gives a considerable scope for variation of the cross-section in the longitudinal direction. For example. Cover plates Flange plate Flange angles Web plate Web plate (a) Riveted (b) Welded (c) Delta Fig. . see Fig. 5. girders with variable depth.1(b).2. 5. the designer can thicken the web plate. 5..

2 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5. Under static loading.3 Plate Girder Bridge with Variable Depth 5.1 GIRDER DESIGN Any cross-section of a plate girder is normally subjected to a combination of shear force and bending moment. bending and shear strength requirements will normally govern most plate girder design. .2.Steel Bridges Welded Joint 1 4 60° 1 4 2 2 (a) Width (b) Thickness Fig. with serviceability requirements such as deflection or vibration being less critical. 5. The primary function of the top and bottom flange plates of the girder is to resist the axial compressive and tensile forces arising from the applied bending moment.2 Transition of Flange Plate Width and Thickness Fig. The primary function of the web plate is to resist the applied shear force. 5.

64*F y for compact sections and F b = 0.. h e = effective depth for flange.e. for plate girder roadway bridges the range may be extended to approximately L o /20 for non-composite plate girders and to L o /25 for composite plate girders. R R R R R R R R The equivalent flange area A e is made up of the actual area of one flange.4 Proportioning of Plate Girder Flanges Flange Stress: According to ECP 2001. A e = equivalent flange area.4(b): M = F e A e h e ……………………….58 * F y for non-compact sections. The moment resistance M w of the web can be defined by. However.… (5.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges The first step in the design of plate girder section is to select the value of the web depth. girders with laterally supported compression flanges can attain their full elastic strength under load. R R R R R R bf tf Fb Ae f e Ae fe w fw tw he d = hw M h fe f e Ae Ae fw (a) (b) (c) Fig. For railway bridges. see Fig. If the compression flange is not supported laterally. where L o is the length between points of zero moment. plus the part of the web area that contributes in resisting the applied moment. F b = 0. then appropriate reduction in the allowable bending stresses shall be applied to account for lateral torsional buckling as set in the Code. i.1) R R R R R R Where: F e = allowable bending stress at flange centroid.4 (c): R R R R . the girder depth will usually be in the range L o /12 to L o /8. 5. the effective flange area to resist the applied moment can be computed from the relation. Fig.. R R R R R R R R R R Having selected the web plate depth. 5. 5.

..................2.5 A w ) (2h w /3) = F w h w A w /6 ………………(5.... (5....... 5... (5.... From the above equation it can be seen that one sixth of the total web area can be considered as effective in resisting moment M w with lever arm h w and stress F w ........2) R R R R R R R R R R R R R R where A w = area of web and F w = maximum bending stress for web.5) R R R R R R The moment resistance of the girder can be expressed as M = F b Z x ......................A w / 6....... (5...... (5..... (5......... Substituting from Eqn...A w / 6 ........6 into Eqn...........7) R R R R R R Substituting from Eqn 5............. Eqn 5.8) R R R R R R R R R R By introducing a web slenderness ratio parameter.... (5.......A w / 6.............2 OPTIMUM GIRDER DEPTH An optimum value of the plate girder depth d which results in a minimum weight girder can be obtained as follows: Express the total girder area as: A g = d t w + 2 A f ..........9) R R R R R R P P A g is minimum when ∂ A g / ∂ d =0 which gives: R R R R d3 = 1..8 can be expressed as A g = 2 Zx / d + 2 d2 / 3 β ................ (5......6) R R R R Where Z x is the section modulus of the girder. the area required for each flange will be: R R R R R R R R R R A f = A e .......7 into Eqn...3) R R R R R R Substituting for A e from Eqn........5 gives: A g = 2 Zx / d + 2 Aw / 3 = 2 Zx / d + 2 d t w / 3 ............ (5............4) R R R R R R 5...5 Fw ) (0.. Consequently................. 5...Steel Bridges M w = (0............4 gives: R R A f = Z x / d ...5 β Zx .......1 gives: R R A f = ( M / F b d ) .........................................10) P P R R ................... 5................. β = d/t w . 5.

..2 ~ 0..... In most cases various forms of buckling must be taken into account.....e... has a high d/t w ratio. i.. Thus....3) 3 M / F .. Eqn 5. in designing a plate girder it is necessary to evaluate the buckling resistance of flange plates in compression and of web plates in shear and bending.. flange with a high b/t f ratio.. (5... (5...5 β M / F ..... the freedom afforded in material selection in plate girder design makes buckling a controlling design criterion....11) The value of β will normally lie in the range 100 to 150.13) Design Considerations: For efficient design it is usual to choose a relatively deep girder.....5 lists the different buckling problems associated with plate girder design..25 ~ 0.................. thin flanges... In contrast.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Substituting Z x = M / F b .. (5..... A brief description of each form is given below: ..... Such a web may be quite slender.... and may be subjected to buckling which reduces the section strength.. the above equation gives the optimum girder depth in meters as: d = ( 0... Figure 5. R R R R R R Design of plate girders therefore differs from that of rolled sections because the latter generally have thicker web and flange plates and thus are not subjected to buckling effects.....24 ) 3 M ....e.......58 F y this equation gives: R R R R d = ( 0. This obviously results in a deep web whose thickness t w is chosen equal to the minimum required to carry the applied shear...... The desire to increase weak axis inertia encourages wide.....12) P P For steel St.. i......... A similar conflict may exist for the flange plate proportions... thus minimizing the required area of flanges for a given applied moment...... With M expressed in meter-ton units and F in t/cm2 units..10 gives: R R R R d= 3 1.. 52 with F b = 0.. Such flanges may also be subjected to local buckling...

5 Plate Buckling Problems Associated with Plate Girders . 5.Steel Bridges a- b- c- d- e- f- Fig.

c) Local Buckling of the Compression Flange If the compression flange width-to-thickness ratio exceeds a limiting value. 5. see Fig. 5. This buckling form is known as web crippling. the compression flange may not receive enough support to prevent it from buckling vertically rather like an isolated strut buckling about its minor axis as shown in Fig.5d. the web will buckle in shear before it reaches its full shear capacity. This possibility may be eliminated by placing a suitable limit on d/t w .5c. the moment resistance of the cross section is reduced. The level of loading that may safely be carried before this happens will depend upon the exact way in which the load is transmitted to the web and the web proportions. Consequently.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges a) Shear Buckling of the Web Plate If the web width-to-thickness ratio d/t w exceeds a limiting value. R R e) Flange Induced Buckling of the Web Plate If particularly slender webs are used. This local buckling will reduce the girder’s load carrying resistance. 5.5e.5.5a. of the type shown in Fig. d) Compression Buckling of the Web Plate If the web width-to-thickness ratio d/t w exceeds a limiting value. 5. it will buckle before it reaches its full compressive strength as shown in Fig. 5. resulting from the diagonal compression associated with the web shear will form. the upper part of the web will buckle due to bending compression as shown in Fig. R R f) Local Buckling of the Web Plate Vertical loads may cause buckling of the web in the region directly under the load as shown in Fig. . This local buckling reduces the girder shear strength. R R b) Lateral Torsional Buckling of girder If the compression flange is not supported laterally the girder is subjected to lateral torsional buckling which reduces the allowable bending stresses.5f. Diagonal buckles.5b.

7. In order to study the effect of local buckling on the strength of the cross-section. width b. as the load increases and reaches a critical value. 5. as in the girder flange. see Fig. or non-uniform. it was shown that plate girders might be subjected to different forms of local plate buckling. The results are then used to study the effect of plate buckling on the strength of plate girders. Webs can be modeled as long plates with the two long edges as simply supported.7. see Fig. 5. The compression on the plate edge may be uniform.6 c.1 Theoretical Buckling Resistance Consider a uniformly compressed plate of thickness t. as in the girder web. . 5. and length a simply supported along its four edges as shown in Figure 5. Flanges can be modeled as long plates under uniform compression with one long edge assumed simply supported and the other long edge free. knowledge of the theory of buckling of rectangular plates is essential. 5.1 General In the previous section. Up to a certain load. In the following sections.3 INFLUENCE OF BUCKLING ON PLATE GIRDERS DESIGN 5. Further increase in load causes the plate to deflect laterally. a brief treatment of the buckling of plates is given.2 Buckling of Plates under Uniform Edge Compression 5. the plate remains compressed in its own plane.2. and the stress that causes it is called the critical buckling stress. 5. 5.3. resulting in the out-of-plane configuration shown in Fig.Steel Bridges Detailed considerations of these buckling problems will be presented in the following sections.3.3. However. the web plate may be subjected to shear stresses as shown in Fig. This phenomenon is referred to as plate buckling.6 a.6 b. In addition. the plane state of the plate becomes unstable.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges fc (a) Flange under Compression fc fc fc (b) Web under Bending q (c) Web under Shear q Fig. 5.6 Modeling of Plate Girder Components fx a w b fx Fig. 5.7 Buckling of Simply Supported Plate under Uniform Compression .

and the plate aspect ratio α = a/b. (5.... remain straight lines and normal to the deflected middle surface. (5..... initially normal to the middle plane... 7.....ν 2) = Elastic Modulus = 2100 t / cm2 = Plate thickness = Poisson’s ratio = 0.. the edge support conditions.. 4.............. Thickness “t” of the plate is small compared to its other dimensions.......... Slopes of the deflected middle surfaces are small compared to unity.3 P P P P P The solution of this equation gives the elastic buckling stress Fcr of the plate as: π2 E t Fcr = k c   2 12 (1 − υ )  b  2 = 1898 kc (t/b)2 .... Plate is perfectly plane and initially stress free... In-plane actions pass through its middle plane. Based on these assumptions. 5........ there exists a corresponding buckling stress and a buckled configuration........8 shows the dependence of kc on the ratio α for various .......Steel Bridges The value of this buckling stress can be determined by applying structural mechanics theories to study the behavior of the plate. 5..... 8. 6... (5..... Stresses normal to the thickness of the plate are of a negligible order of magnitude....14) D( 4 + 2 2 2 + ∂y 4 ∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂y where f x D E t ν R R = normal stress = plate bending rigidity = E t3 / 12(1 . homogeneous and isotropic. the governing differential equation of the plate buckling is expressed as: ∂ 2w ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w ) + tf x = 0 ..... For each value of m............ 5. Deformations are such that straight lines. Transverse displacements w are small compared to the plate thickness.............. 2.15) P P where kc = plate buckling factor which depends on the type of stress distribution.. Material is linear elastic... The assumptions used to solve this stability problem are those used in thin plate theory (Kirchhoff’s theory): 1. For the case considered it can be expressed as: kc = (m / α + α / m)2 ....16) P P where m = number of buckling half-waves in the longitudinal direction........... Fig...

The value of kc increases again as α increases. it is seen that kc is large for small values of α and decreases as α increases until α = 1 (i. square plate) when k reaches its minimum value of 4.. 5. Similar . for c Fig. has one half wave.e.8 Plate Buckling Coefficient kc under axial compression Referring to the curve for m = 1. two half waves.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges values of m. 2 . etc. The buckling mode for values of α < values 2 < α < 6 .

9 Buckling Configurations The above discussion applies to plates simply supported along their four edges. In a physical sense.Steel Bridges behavior is obtained for other values of m. kc = 4 may be considered as valid for all values of m and is used as the basis for design.9 shows examples of buckled configurations of the plate for m=1. .2. which are free along one longitudinal edge.g. 5. flange plates. Eqn. 5.9 d. Plate girder sections may comprise plates. e. 5. w a (a) m=1 b a (b) m=2 b ~b a (c) m=3 ~b w- w+ w- (d) Wave Pattern Fig. simply supported on all four edges and uniformly compressed along the shorter sides. Therefore. see Fig.5.425. 5. Solution of the governing differential equation under these boundary conditions yields the value of the plate buckling factor kc = 0. Fig..16 can be interpreted to mean that a plate. buckles in half – waves whose lengths approach the width of the plate. and supported along the other edges.

5.0 1 0 0.5. a plate buckles into multiple half-waves the length of P P P P P P . 5.0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Plate Slenderness Ratio (b/t) Fig.For a plate with simple supports.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Substituting the values of kc into Eqn.10 Critical Buckling Stress Fcr under Compression and/or Bending Analogy with buckling of Axially Loaded Columns: At this point. ( kc =4 ) Fcr = 7592 / (b/t)2 P P 2. it is instructive to compare and understand the differences between this buckling behavior of simply supported plates and that of axially loaded simply supported columns for which the critical load is given by: Pcr = π2 E I / L2. (kc =0. 5.425) Fcr = 807 / (b/t)2 P P Fig.For a plate with a free edge.425 2 k=4. The simply supported column buckles into one half-wave of length L and the value of the critical buckling load is inversely proportional to L2 and is independent of the column width.10 shows the relationship between Fcr and (b/t) according to these equations. because of the supports along the unloaded edges. 8 Critical Buckling Stress Fcr (t/cm2) 7 6 5 4 k=23. By contrast.9 (Bending) 3 k =0. the critical buckling stress is obtained as: 1.

2 Buckling of Plates under Linearly Varying Edge Compression The above results can be extended to cover the general case of a plate subjected to a linearly varying compressive stress.11 ...... ψ = -1.... The critical stress in the simply supported plate is inversely proportional to b2 and independent of its length a... 5.....Steel Bridges which approach the plate width b... the value of kσ is equal to 25.. -1 < ψ < +1..... where as the value ψ = -1 corresponds to the case of pure bending (σ2 = .. For the special case of pure bending.. The intermediate values...9. e.2. giving: ... The value ψ = 1 corresponds to uniformly distributed compressive stress. P P 5...... (5.....98 (1 ... ~(2/3)b w+ ww+ w=0 w- Fig...e..112 (1 − ψ ) + (1 + ψ ) 2 (for 1 > ψ >-1) ........11 Buckling of Plate due to Bending The critical elastic buckling stress for this case is expressed as: π2 E t Fcr = k σ   2 12 (1 − υ )  b  2 b ... correspond to combined bending and compression..ψ)2 P P (for -1 > ψ >-2).. (5.....σ1).... i....g. (5.18) And kσ = 5.17) where the value of the plate buckling factor kσ is given by: kσ = 16 (1 + ψ ) 2 + 0............ due to bending moment in the plane of the plate as shown in Fig.3.19) where ψ = σ2/σ1 = ratio of smaller stress σ2 to larger stress σ1 .... 5.

(5.. The half-wave length is equal to about 1.. (5........22 a) P kq = 5..34 / α2 P P α < 1 ...e.25 b for long simply supported plates.. length wise).20 is shown in Fig.10.. Fig... 5..9   = 45362   2 12 (1 − υ )  b  b 2 2 ..... the critical buckling shear stress can be expressed as: π2 E q cr = k q 12 (1 − υ 2 ) t t   = 1898 k q   .... As shown in Fig. 5.... 5..e..... These stresses are equivalent to tension and compression stresses that are equal in magnitude to the shear stresses but inclined at 45o.. The buckling mode is composed of multiple wave forms which are skewed with respect to the edges.. . This bend-buckling is somewhat different than the buckling of a uniformly edge-compressed plate in that the out-of-plane deformation in the tensile zone of the plate is zero (shown by w = 0).......Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges π2 E t t Fcr = 23.00 / α2 P α > 1 ....34 + 4.. (5.22 is shown in Fig.....22 b) A plot of the relationship between qcr and (b/t) according to Eqns. 5...........11 shows a typical buckling pattern of a plate initiated by bending of the plate...12(a) shows a plate under the action of edge shear stresses. 5. 5...11..... P P According to the elastic buckling theory.. 5......3 Buckling of Plates under Edge Shear Fig..20) A plot of the relationship between Fcr and (b/t) according to Eqn..... (5..........00 + 5.... the lengths of the buckling waves approach 2/3 b... depth wise) and in multiple half-waves longitudinally (i. 5. The compressive stresses may cause the plate to buckle as shown in Fig.. 5...21 and 5...... The plate buckles in a single half-wave transversally (i..12 (a)....2.3.21) b b 2 2 where kq is a shear buckling factor calculated from elastic buckling theory according to the plate aspect ratio α = a/b as follows: kq = 4..13 for different values of α....

25 b b w+ w- w+ (d) Wave Pattern Fig.Steel Bridges q q q q (a) Plate under Pure Shear (b) Element in pure shear q == == q q q q (c) Principal Stresses ~1. 5.12 Shear Buckling of Plates .

5 =1 =3 (b/t) Fig.13 Critical Buckling Stress due to Shear .Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges qcr =0. 5.

3. Elastic buckling governs the design.1 that are never fulfilled in real structures.1 Effect of Inelastic Behavior The first assumption of linear elastic behavior of the material is obviously not valid when the value of Fcr according to these equations exceeds the material yield strength Fy. If the material is considered to behave as linear elastic-ideal plastic.Steel Bridges 5.3. This behavior is typical for thick plate panels having low (b/t) ratios.2. 2.e.3 Resistance of Actual Plates The buckling theory described in the previous section is based on assumptions (1) to (8) of section 5.14. for low (b/t) values: Fcr ≥ Fy .. i. The consequences for the buckling behavior when each of these assumptions is not valid are now discussed.3.e. 5. two regions must be considered for establishing strength: 1. the buckling curve must be cut off at the level of the yield stress Fy as shown in Figure 5.14 Effect of Inelastic Behavior on Plate Buckling Accordingly. .3. Yielding governs the design. for large (b/t) values: Fcr < Fy . In this case failure is governed by yielding rather than buckling. i. 5. Fig.

.18....3. Plates in fabricated structures are likely to have some initial out-of-plane deviations...0 λW Fig.... while the horizontal line at Fcr = Fy represents the yield condition. these deviations will start growing in depth and thus cause additional stresses on the cross section. 5.. the areas adjacent . 5... the plate fails due to elastic buckling when λ >1 and due to yield when λ < 1.. Consequently.. The value λ = 1 represents the limit between elastic buckling and yield. it is convenient to define a plate slenderness parameter λ in terms of the ratio of the yield stress to the critical stress Fy/Fcr as: λ= Fy Fcr = Fy t k (1898)   b 2 b =   t Fy 1898 k . 5.. Residual stresses in rolled sections are mainly caused by uneven cooling after hot rolling..23) A plot of Fcr/Fy versus λ is shown in Fig.... Curve (a) represents the theoretical buckling curve defined by Eqn. As a result.. Shrinkage due to cooling of the hot areas is resisted by the remaining cold parts of the cross section.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges For design purposes...2 Effect of Imperfections and Residual Stresses The second and fourth assumptions of a plate without geometrical imperfections and residual stresses are also never fulfilled in real structures.. Fcr Fy B (a) 1. (5. Furthermore..3..15 Non-dimensional Buckling Curve 5.15.0 A 1.. When the plate is loaded. Plates in welded plate girders are subjected to high temperatures during flame-cutting and welding.. steel plates as well as rolled sections contain residual stresses.

and consequently the plate buckling strength..90 for Class 2 elements in bending.23 gives: Fy Fy b =   0.1... λo = 0..6 to 0. residual stresses do not cause any resultant axial force or bending moment on the cross-section.. As compressive and tensile residual stresses in the cross-section balance.74 for Class 2 elements in compression..... will be reduced.. 5.. 3..74 is used. λo = 0.15 using the appropriate value for the plate buckling factor k =0.2... ECP has adopted the following limiting values for the plate slenderness parameter: 1. Tests have shown that the reduction in plate buckling strength due to imperfections and residual stresses is most pronounced for plates with intermediate values of (b/t). the appropriate value of λ0 differs substantially from country to country. this effect is considered by using a reduced value of the limit plate slenderness λ0 < 1....425. For design purposes.. However. the elastic buckling stress may be calculated from Eqn. With further loading these yielded parts will not contribute any resistance to the cross section and thus the effective stiffness. Because of statistical variations in material properties and imperfections which are not sufficiently well known to be quantified accurately.Steel Bridges to the weld or flame cut are subjected to high tensile strains which may be several times the yield strain... Residual stresses are less important for plates subjected to shear or bending stress than plates under compression because the applied stresses and the residual stresses are likely to be of a different nature in different parts of the plates.. Furthermore.74 in Eqn..24) Fcr  t  1898 k ... 5.74 = . 5...3.80 for elements under pure shear. (5. to account for the reduction in buckling strength due to residual stresses and imperfections a reduced value of λ = λo = 0. These values can be used to calculate the limiting slenderness ratios of different parts in a plate girder section as follows: a)Limiting b/t Ratio for Flanges under Uniform Compression: The flange plate in a plate girder cross-section is essentially a uniformly compressed long narrow plate... those parts of the cross section where the residual stress is of the same nature as the applied stress will reach yield earlier... A review of the international design codes shows that λo varies approximately from 0.. and the rest of the cross-section is subjected to compression.... Substituting a value of k = 0... As shown in sec. λo = 0. 2.425 and λo = 0.9...

......Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges b   ≤ 21 /  t  lim Fy .27)  t  lim = 100 for St...23 gives: 0. 37........90 is used.. 5...3.....90 = Fy Fcr d =   t Fy 1898 x 23......17 using the appropriate value for the plate buckling factor k = 25. c)Limiting (d/t) ratio for Webs under Pure Shear: As shown in sec... limit... (5........9 .... 5......... 52...9 and λo = 0..m.... to account for the reduction in buckling strength due to residual stresses and imperfections a reduced value of λ = λo = 0.. As shown in sec.... the elastic buckling stress may be calculated from Eqn. 5.. = 122 for St. the flange is considered a “slender” element whose strength is affected by local buckling as explained in the next section. 37 Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the plate girder web exceeds the a...... α >> 1 which gives kq =5....26) which gives: d   ≤ 190 / Fy .. 52........... 5.3.m..21 using the value for the plate buckling factor k defined by Eqns.34........2....80 is used. Substituting a value of k = 25. 5. For a narrow long plate... the elastic buckling stress for a plate under pure shear may be calculated from Eqn...22.3.. the web is considered a “slender” element whose strength is affected by local buckling as explained in the next section... (5.... Furthermore.25) which gives: = 11 for St.2...9..... Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the plate girder compression flange exceeds the a........ 5... to account for the reduction in buckling strength due to residual stresses and imperfections a reduced value of λ = λo = 0..... Defining the plate slenderness parameter in shear λq as: ..... Furthermore..... = 15. b)Limiting (d/t) Ratio for Webs under Pure Bending: The web plate in a plate girder cross-section is essentially subjected to a linearly varying normal stress due to bending. (5....5 for St. limit..2.90 in Eqn....

Steel Bridges λq = Fy / 3 = q cr Fy / 3 t k q (1898)   d 2 .. 5. This equivalent uniform stress has the same peak stress and same action effect of the non-uniform stress distribution.3..... (5.34 and λo = 0.. the web is considered a “slender” element whose shear strength is affected by local buckling as explained in the next section....m...23 gives: d   ≤ 105 / Fy ....28) Substituting a value of kq = 5.. Tests have shown that the post-buckling strength is high for large values of (b/t) and very small for low values of (b/t).. As shown in the figure...17...... 37 Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of unstiffened plate girder webs exceeds the a... the non-uniform stress distribution can be replaced in design calculations by equivalent rectangular stress blocks over a reduced "effective width" be as shown in Fig.. 52... Unlike one dimensional structural members........ The additional load carried thus by the plate beyond its elastic buckling stress Fcr is termed the “post-buckling” strength....... (5.... 5. such as columns. 5.... the total section capacity will be the same.. This out-of-plane deflection violates assumption (5) of small displacements and causes the stress distribution to become non-uniform...3...80 in Eqn. limit.... However.3 Effect of Large Displacement: Fig. The stresses redistribute to the stiffer edges and the redistribution becomes more extreme as buckling continues... = 67 for St...16 shows typical behavior of a compressed plate loaded to its ultimate load. the stress distribution remains uniform as the loading increases until the elastic buckling stress Fcr is reached.. .29)  t  lim = 55 for St... the portion of the plate farthest from its side supports will deflect out of its original plane. In order to estimate the post-buckling strength.. The effective width of the element is computed from the condition that if the maximum stress is considered uniform over that width. 5.. compressed plates will not collapse when the buckling stress is reached....... Further increase in load beyond the elastic buckling load corresponding to the stress Fcr can be achieved before failure takes place....

5. Fy Low b/t Average Stress High b/t Average Axial Strain Fig. the effective width can be expressed in terms of the plate slenderness λp defined by Eqn. an "effective cross-section" is obtained from the original cross-section by deducting the ineffective areas where local buckling occurred. This design procedure is then the same used for sections not subjected to local buckling effect provided that the stresses are calculated using the effective section properties. 5.17 Effective Width Concept Definition of the "Effective Width": According to this procedure.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges By applying this model.23 as: .16 Actual Plate Buckling Strength f max f max b = b Straight line indicates uniform stress prior to buckling Fr c Post buckling strength bE /2 bE /2 (a) Actual Non-Uniform Stress (b) Equivalent Uniform Stress Fig. 5.

15 .......... e....g.Steel Bridges be = ρ * b... respectively. e. the reduction factor can be expressed in terms of the stress ratio ψ as: ρ = (λp ..1 and 5... and unstiffened elements.2 give the effective width of compression elements for the case of stiffened elements.......g..... 5....... An iterative process is not. therefore......18 Effective Cross Section for Girder in Bending For members in bending test results have shown that the effective widths may be determined on the basis of stress distributions calculated using the gross section modulus. necessary to compute the effective section properties.... e. Zx .....2) / λp2 P P For the general case where the plate is subjected to a linearly varying compression.. due to bending...... girder webs....0. eM Centroidal axis Non-effective zone Centroidal axis of effective section Figure 5....... girder flange..........0....... (5..05*ψ) / λp2 .31) P P Tables 5.............30) where ρ = reduction factor = (λp .. ...... (5..18.... even though the formation of "effective holes" in the compression parts will shift the neutral axis of the effective cross-section as shown in Fig.g.0.

4 b e b e2 = 0.6 be .Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Table (5.5 b e = 0.0.05+ 16 ) 2+ 0.05 p < 1 f1 f2 be b e1 b e2 = b b e1 b b e2 = 0.5+(1+ > -1 +9.0 [(1+ 1> >0 8.15 .5 b e f1 f2 be = b b e1 b b e2 b e1 = 2 b /(5) b e1 b e2 = b e f1 bc b e1 b e2 b bt + f2 be = bc = b /(1- ) b e1 = 0.112(10 7.98(1- )2 Stress Distribution = ( Effective Width b for e 2 )/ p -0.81-6.1) Effective Width and Buckling Factor for Stiffened Compression Elements For 1 > > -1: k f2 f1 Buckling k Factor 1 4.78 ) -1 -1> >-2 7.29 2 23.2 1.9 5.81 0 > )2 ] 0.

4.85 0.15 -0. see Figure 5. To determine the effective width of the web plate. . the stress ratio ψ may be based on the properties of the gross cross -section.07 be 1 > > 0: c bc be be c In determining the effective width of compression elements in a given crosssection. 3. This eccentricity should be considered when calculating the properties of the effective cross-section.1 2 p < 1 -1 23. Generally the centroidal axis of the effective cross section will shift by a distance. To determine the effective width of flange plate. the stress calculations shall take into account the additional moment Δ M= N * eN. When the cross section is subjected to an axial force.05 0 > 1.18.34 Effective Width be for = ( p -0. 2. e.70 c 1 > > 0: be be bc c bt be Buckling factor k 0. measured from the centroidal axis of the gross cross section.57-0. the stress ratio ψ may be obtained using the effective area of the compression flange but the gross area of the web.57 0.7-5 ) / >-1 +17.8 0 1. N.578 + 0.43 0.Steel Bridges Table (5. the following assumptions can be made: 1.21 +0.43 1> >0 0.2) Effective Width and Buckling Factor For Unstiffened Compression Elements Stress Distribution 1 Buckling factor k 0.

These limiting values are: . It shows the reduction in strength due to residual stress and imperfections for intermediate slender plates.For plates with low values of (b/t). 2.e. 5.. Fcr Fy 1.1 General It has been shown in the preceding section that the strength of plates is affected by local buckling when the plate slenderness ratio exceeds a limiting value. 5.For plates having higher values of (b/t). the strength is computed from the yield strength or the elastic buckling strength by applying the effective width concept to account for the stress reduction due to residual stresses and imperfections and the stress increase due to post-buckling. λ > λo. the strength is computed directly from the yield strength divided by the appropriate safety factor. The actual plate girder strength is therefore represented by: 1.4. Fig. region BC.4 ACTUAL STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDER ELEMENTS 5.0 A Yield B C D Post-Buckling Strength Elastic Buckling 1.19 summarizes the strength of actual plates of varying slenderness.19 Actual Plate Buckling Strength in Compression 5. region CD . and the increase due to post-buckling strength for slender plates. i.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges where eN = eccentricity of the centroidal axis when the effective cross section is subjected to uniform compression. λ < λo.0 λ Fig.

3. b) For the tension flange: Two checks have to be made: i) the maximum tensile stress should not exceed 0.1 and 5.3. as shown in section 3.Where the calculated compressive stress fbc equals the allowable bending stress Fbc. for plate girders without longitudinal stiffeners: a.2 Plate Girders Under Bending Moment: Plate girders subjected to the action of bending moment should be designed using the section modulus determined for the effective cross-sections as shown in section 5. This means that the bending stress computed from the familiar bending formula fb = Mx / Zeff should not exceed the allowable bending stress value: a) For the compression flange: the allowable bending stress is equal to 0.58 Fy ii) the maximum stress range due to live load application should not exceed the allowable fatigue stress range.m. the plate is considered a “slender” element whose strength is affected by local buckling.3. the thickness of the web plate shall not be less than: . According to ECP 2001.2.3 and Table 5.58 Fy if the flange is laterally supported otherwise lateral torsional buckling governs the design. limit.Steel Bridges b   ≤ 21 / Fy  t  lim d   ≤ 190 / Fy  t  lim i) For flange plate under uniform compression: ii) For web plate under pure bending: iii) For web plate under pure shear: d   ≤ 105 / Fy  t  lim Whenever the width–to–thickness ratio of the girder web plate or flange plate exceeds the a.4. This effect is considered in the design of plate girder sections as follows: 5.32) b.The web plate thickness of plate girders without longitudinal stiffeners (with or without transverse stiffeners) shall not be less than that detemined from: tw ≥ d fbc / 145 > d/120 …………………… (5.

5.33) t  40 mm d/120 d/110 d/100 If the assumed web thickness is not sufficient to resist buckling due to bending. the section strength can be increased by providing a thicker web. the stiffener subdivides the plate into smaller sub-panels. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the optimum location of one longitudinal stiffener is at 0. A more economic solution is usually achieved by limiting the web plate thickness to the minimum value required to resist the applied shear force.20.9 for a t s . In plate girders with practical proportions.2d from the compression flange. Therefore.5 as compared to 23.20 Web Plate with Longitudinal Stiffeners A longitudinal stiffener essentially forces the web to buckle in a higher mode by forming a nodal line in the buckled configuration. the plate buckling strength is increased by providing the web plate with longitudinal stiffeners as shown in Fig. ~ 15 %. while the web carries all the shear force and a small part of the moment. Analytically. The presence of this stiffener increases the plate buckling coefficient to 42. d/5 bs Elevation b1 Section Fig. the flanges carry most of the applied bending moment.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges tw ≥ d Grade of St 37 St 44 St 52 Fy / 190 ……………………………. If this thickness is not sufficient for bend-buckling. 5. thus increasing considerably the stress at which the plate will buckle. tw ≥ 40 mm < t  100 d/130 d/120 d/105 (5. increasing the web thickness to resist bend-buckling is not effective. ~ 85 %. with waves much shorter than those of the longitudinally unstiffened plate.

..4...e... e. a single longitudinal stiffener is usually not sufficient to prevent web buckling due to bending.....The web plate thickness of plate girders with longitudinal stiffeners (with or without transverse stiffeners). 5...35) b.3 Web Plates Under Pure Shear: The effect of residual stresses and imperfections on the shear buckling stress of plate girder webs is treated in a different manner....g. (5.34)  t  lim According to ECP 2001... The buckling strength of such webs is further increased by providing multiple longitudinal stiffeners in the region between the neutral axis and the compression flange..………………………... placed at d/5 to d/4 from compression flange...21 is divided by a suitable factor of safety to give the allowable buckling shear stress... Instead of considering an effective section for the buckled plate. This stress is empirically modified to allow for residual stresses and imperfections.. For plate girders with practical .… (5.. the critical buckling stress in shear as calculated from Eqn... 5....... i. the thickness of the web plate shall not be less than: tw ≥ d Grade of St 37 St 44 St 52 Fy / 320 …... depth larger than ~ 2... about 280 % increase in the elastic buckling stress. for Girders Stiffened Longitudinally: a..Steel Bridges longitudinally unstiffened web..5 meters.…... The corresponding slenderness limit for this case becomes: d   ≤ 320 / Fy .....36) tw ≥ 40 mm < t  100 mm d/218 d/200 d/175 t  40 mm d/206 d/191 d/168 For deep webs.Where the calculated compressive stress fbc equals the allowable bending stress Fbc..... shall not be less than that determined from: tw ≥ d fbc / 240 > d/240 ………………….... (5...

21 according to the value of α = d1/d and the slenderness parameter in shear λq as determined from Eqn. 5. This tension field anchors against the top and bottom flanges and against the transverse stiffeners on either side of the web panel.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges proportions. In this post-buckling range. d1 Fig. In this case.22 shows the development of tension field action in the individual web panels of a typical girder. the shear buckling factor kq. In the post-buckling range.21 Web Plate with Transverse Stiffeners Post Buckling Stress in Shear: For transversely stiffened girders where the transverse stiffener spacing lies within the range 1 < a/d < 3. d .28. The load-carrying action of the plate girder than becomes similar to that of the N-truss in Figure 5. Figure 5.22 b.21. as shown. This reserve arises from the development of "tension field action" within the girder. 5. 5. the resistance offered by the web plates is analogous to that of the diagonal tie bars in the truss. 5. whereby any additional shear load is carried by an inclined tensile membrane stress field. full account may be taken of the considerable reserve of post-buckling resistance. it loses its resistance to carry additional compressive stresses. Once a web panel has buckled in shear. a new load-carrying mechanism is developed. is computed from Eqn. an economic solution can be obtained in most cases by using a thin web stiffened transversally by stiffeners as shown in Fig. The total shear buckling resistance for design is calculated by adding the post-buckling resistance to the initial elastic buckling resistance.

... intermediate (0.... 5.....Steel Bridges Fig.......35 * Fy ......2.22 Tension Field Action in Plate Girders The calculation of the allowable shear buckling stress then depends.37) 2.0. 5...23) which represents a transition stage from yielding to buckling action with the shear strength being evaluated empirically from the following: qb = (1.625 λq ) (0...23.38) . 5.35*Fy) .. upon whether the web is: 1.. (5. region AB in Fig. region BC in Fig.5 ..8 < λ q < 1... (5.. thick (λq < 0........... as illustrated in Figure 5......23) in which case the web will not buckle and the shear stress at failure will reach the shear yield stress of the web material: qb = 0.......8 ..

(5..34 as: For (d/t) <159/ Fy : qb = [1.8 q 1...21 using a value of kq = 5.35Fy…. therefore.. For such a case.75 q y qb D Post Buckling Strength Elastic Bucling 1. region CD in Figure 5...35 Fy}………………..40) For (d/t) > 159/ Fy : qb = {119 / [ (d/t) Fy ] } {0..35 Fy] < 0.35*Fy) ..... 5.2. 5.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges 3.0 q Thick Thin webs webs Fig.(5....9 / λq ) (0.23) in which case the web will buckle before it yields and a certain amount of post-buckling action is taken into account empirically: qb = (0.5 – (d/t) Fy / 212] [0.41) The forgoing equations may require relatively thick webs making the resulting design uneconomic. qcr q cr q y = Fy 3 A B C 0. slender or thin (λq > 1. a key factor that ...8 > 0.2 q 0. the allowable buckling shear stress qb is obtained from the Eqn.8 2...(5....23 Buckling Shear Stress Web plate without transversal stiffeners: The web plate of a typically unstiffened plate girder has a large aspect ratio α. Effect of Longitudinal Stiffeners on Shear Buckling Both shear and bending strengths of a plate girder are increased by the presence of a longitudinal stiffener. Its location is.0 0..39) In all cases the calculated shear stress qact should not exceed the allowable buckling shear stress qb .

where the allowable bending stress is plotted on the vertical axis and the allowable buckling shear stress of the girder is plotted horizontally.. see Fig....5d from the compression edge of the web..2d and 0. 5. any cross-section of a plate girder will be subjected to bending moment in addition to shear.5d for shear....4 INTERACTION BETWEEN SHEAR AND BENDING In general. It is important to note that these criteria for location of the stiffeners are based on elastic buckling considerations. 5..24.2d has been adopted as the standard location for a longitudinal stiffener.. The interaction represents a failure envelope. (5.. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the contribution of the longitudinal stiffener placed at 0....2d to the shear buckling stress is relatively small and is usually neglected.....4.... This combination makes the stress conditions in the girder web considerably more complex...Steel Bridges affects both..0.... The stresses from the bending moment will combine with the shear stresses to give a lower buckling load... The equation representing this interaction diagram is: Fb = [ 0.8 ..2d from the compression flange for bending and 0.42) . In bridge design practices.36 (qact / qb)] Fy ...... Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the optimum location of one longitudinal stiffener is at 0. Fig. The longitudinal stiffener may be more effective in contributing to the ultimate strength of the plate girder under combined bending and shear if placed somewhere between 0...... The interaction between shear and bending can be conveniently represented by the diagram shown in Fig.24 Effect of Longitudinal Stiffeners on Shear Buckling 5. 5.. 0. with any point lying on the curve defining the co-existent values of shear and bending that the girder can just sustain..25..

In region AB. and sometimes of varying widths. The resisting moments of the girder with several selected flange plate areas are calculated. the applied shear stress is high (= qb) then the allowable bending stress is reduced to 0. Since the total design moment varies along the girder span.25 Interaction between Shear and Bending 5. In the intermediate region BC the allowable bending stress is reduced linearly from 0. the applied shear stress qact is low (< 0.44 Fy C D Shear Stress 0. 2.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges The interaction diagram can be considered in 3 regions. flange plates of varying thicknesses. The above values of the resisting moments are super-imposed on the graph of the total design moment.6 q b qb Fig. 5. Fig.58 Fy A B Bending Stress 0. Theoretical locations at which flange-plate thickness or width may be changed along the girder length can be determined as follows. 0.44 Fy to allow for the high shear. 5.58 Fy to 0. may be butt welded to provide a section strength that closely approximates the variation in bending moment.5 Flange Plate Curtailment: Welded girders offer more flexibility than design with rolled sections.26(a): 1.6 qb) and the girder can sustain the full bending stress Fb based on the effective width beff for the compression flange At the other extreme of the interaction diagram in region CD. .44 Fy. This plot is then used to determine the required length of each size flange plate.

5. . Fig. the flange is usually made from three plates of two sizes. the wider plate must taper into the narrower plate with the same slope or with a radius of 60 cm.26 Curtailment of Flange Plates The actual changes in flange plate thickness or width are made near theoretical locations.Steel Bridges Z3 M3 M2 M1 (a) Moment of Resistant Diagram Z2 Z1 60° 1 4 2 2 (b) Transition in Thickness Welded Joint 1 4 (c) Transition in Width Fig.26(c). 5.60 % of the span. design codes require a uniform transition slope between the offset surfaces not exceeding 1 in 4.26(b). 5. When flange plates of different thicknesses are butt-welded. Although a minimum steel weight results from such changes. a center plate covering 40 . If plates of different widths are joined. Fig. an excessive number of changes should be avoided since the cost of making and testing the necessary butt welds increases the over-all cost of the fabricated girder. and two plates butt-welded to the center plate. For a simple span.

the next step in the design of plate girder bridges is to design various details needed to arrive at a complete bridge. 3. Bearings. 5. 2. Splices Lateral Bracings.27 Horizontal Shear Flow between Web and Flange .27 as follows: act Q act Fig. This weld should be designed to transmit the horizontal shear flow between web and flange plate at any point along the girder plus any load applied directly to the flange. Connection between web and flange plates. Shear Effect: The effect of horizontal shear flow between the web and the flange can be considered with reference to Fig. 5. 5. 4.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges 5.6 DESIGN DETAILS Having designed the main girder to resist the action of applied loads. Stiffeners.7 FLANGE-TO-WEB CONNECTION: The connection between the flange plate and the web plate is usually executed using fillet welds on both sides of the web plate. These details include: 1. 5. These details are governed in the next sections.

...45) Direct Load Effect: In deck bridges where the wheel loads are transmitted to the girder web through the direct contact between the girder flange and the web.. weld size s ≥ τ act / 2 qw ... the flange-toweb weld is also subjected to a vertical load in addition to the horizontal shear stress. I = moment of inertia about neutral axis.... then the weld size s can be calculated from the equation: weld strength = qw * (2 s) ≥ τ act ...... If the allowable shear stress in welds is qw..........43) Where Q act = shear force.. the train wheel load may be assumed distributed over 1... (5... Sf = first moment of area of flange about neutral axis...28 Direct Load Effect on Flange-to-Web Weld .. (5. For flanges carrying ballasted decks................ 5.. the truck wheel load (10 ton) plus impact is distributed over a length of 1 meter..........e..........44) i....Steel Bridges Horizontal shear/unit length = shear flow τ act = Q act Sf / I........ The direct load in railroad deck bridges.......... w / m' w R Fig...... is taken as the train wheel load (12......... where sleepers rest on the top flange.....5 ton) plus impact distributed over one meter..5 meter. (5..... In roadway deck bridges.

...... 5........26c............. A flange may comprise a series of plates joined end-to-end by full penetration welds. or c) adding cover plates at regions of high moment............46) and the weld size is computed from: s > τ R / 2 qw .. The “theoretical end” of the cover plate .. see Fig......... (5... 5. Fig. the cross-section of the main girder is usually changed along the bridge length according to the structural requirements.26b b) varying the width of the flange plates. Three schemes can be used to accomplish changes in the flange plate areas: a) varying the thickness of the flange plates...... Welds connecting a cover plate to a flange should be continuous and capable of transmitting the horizontal shear between the cover plate and the flange... Proper connection in the region of cover plate cut-off presents a some what special case of the previous procedure... 5..... Fig.. 2........ Fig.... of t1 or t2) (mm) < 10 10-20 20 ..47) The calculated weld size (s) should satisfy the following requirements: 1... If the external direct load per unit length of flange is w.. shear stresses.....30 30-50 50-100 Cover-plated sections: Size s (mm) ≥4 ≥5 ≥6 ≥8 ≥10 t2 t1 For economic design.m........28: τ R = τ 2 + w 2 . the resultant shear on the weld shall be... The maximum size of fillet weld should not exceed the thickness of the thinner plate to be welded..... 5...29. (5.. The minimum size of fillet welds as related to the thickness of the thicker part to be joined is shown in the following table: t (max..Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges The effect of these external loads should be superimposed on the a.

...... (5..e.... Weld strength = q w x(2 s) > qc ...... This distance can be calculated as follows......e... ∆P2 = P2 = f A * A 2 ≤ q w * s * ( 2∆x ) .Steel Bridges is the section at which the stress in the flange without that plate equals the allowable stress....51) f A ∆x = A 2 ...29: x 2 1 B A Fig........... (5.. i..... (5..48) where S c= first moment of area of cover plate about neutral axis........52) 2 s qw ....... Welds connecting the cover plate to the flange within the terminal distance should be of sufficient size to develop the computed stress in the cover plate at its theoretical end................................ 5....e....29 Weld at Cover Plate End Let point A be the theoretical end of the cover plate A2 with a girder having a continuous flange A1...................... see Fig.... (5.......... The size of weld connecting the cover plate to the flange plate can be computed from shear flow considerations as: Horizontal shear / unit length = qc= Q x Sc / I ....................50) Let ∆x be the terminal distance of the cover plate extending from point A to point B......... 5. weld size = s > qc / 2 q w.49) i...... The shear force between the cover plate and the flange is equal to the resultant force in the cover plate..... (5... The “terminal distance” is the extension of the cover plate beyond the theoretical end..... i...

...Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges 5..30 Web Plate with Longitudinal Stiffeners The primary function of the longitudinal stiffener is to increase the bend buckling strength of the web plate. it should be sufficiently stiff to maintain a longitudinal node in the buckled web.. (5. In order for these stiffeners to effectively perform these functions..30. a longitudinal stiffener.. they should be adequately designed as shown in the following sections: 5..... Fig..... it was found that different types of stiffeners were needed to increase the buckling strength of plate girder webs... To perform this function efficiently.... should be attached to the web at a distance d/5 from the inner surface of the compression flange measured to the center of the stiffener when it is a plate or to the gage line when it is an angle. and they may be cut at their intersection with the transverse stiffeners when both are provided on the same side of the web. a longitudinal stiffener must meet the following requirements: 1. 5. longitudinal stiffeners were used to increase the bend-buckling strength while transverse stiffeners were used to increase the shear buckling strength.. For this reason.. In particular..1 Longitudinal Stiffeners Where required.. ((d/t) > 190/ Fy ).....8.........53) P P t s ..... the stiffener should be proportioned so that it has the following minimum value of its inertia: I ≥ 4dw tw3 .4..... d/5 bs Elevation b1 Section Fig..... They need not be continuous. Longitudinal stiffeners are usually placed on one side of the web..8 STIFFENERS: In section 5...... Because the resistance to bend buckling is increased as a consequence of higher buckling mode owing to the presence of a longitudinal stiffener... 5.

5. ...e. P 2...5. 5.…… (5.35Fy … (5..35 Fy] < 0..1 Cross Sections Transversal stiffeners are usually fabricated of plates welded to the girder web. should be used where dw / tw exceeds the value given in Eqn. d   ≤ 105 / Fy . Fig.....e. it must meet the width-thickness limit of non-compact compression elements. cm4. its inertia should not be less than dw tw3... 5..e. 5. P P If a second longitudinal stiffener is needed at the neutral axis..8. i.56) 5. They may be used in pairs (one stiffener welded on each side of the web) with a tight fit at the compression flange..3..8...... When a concentrated load is applied on the plate girder flange.31....... when ((d/t) > 320/ Fy ). To avoid local buckling of the stiffener... (5... of longitudinal stiffener about the edge in contact with web.22... see 5.. These stiffeners are designed as bearing stiffeners.5 – (d/t) Fy / 212] [0.. i... bs/ts ≤ 21 / Fy 3.Steel Bridges where I = moment of inertia...35 Fy} ………. i.2..54)  t  lim or when the actual shear stress exceeds the allowable shear stress given by Eqn. The computed bending stress in the stiffener should not exceed the allowable bending stress for the stiffener steel.55) For (d/t) > 159/ Fy : qb = {119 / [ (d/t) Fy ] } {0.8.....2 Transverse stiffeners Transverse stiffeners...29.....30: For (d/t) <159/ Fy : qb = [1. transverse stiffeners in pairs are required to prevent crippling in the web immediately adjacent to the concentrated load..

Transverse stiffeners need not be in bearing with the tension flange. transverse stiffeners may be made of single plates welded to only one side of the web plate. In this case they must be in bearing against the compression flange (to prevent its twisting) but need not be attached to the compression flange to be effective. Transverse stiffeners should not be welded to the tension flange to avoid fatigue problems.7.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Fig 5. but they should be terminated within a distance of four to six times the web thickness from the tension flange. In some cases a stiffener may be used as a connecting plate for a cross frame or a lateral support (see sec. When only single stiffeners are used. In such cases. attachment of the stiffener to the compression flange may be necessary and the connection should be adequately designed to transmit the lateral force developed at the connection. 5. which could result in out-of-plane movement in the welded flange-to-web connection.31 Transverse Stiffeners Alternatively. see sec. 5. it is usual to place them on the inside face of the web for aesthetic reasons. .10 bridge bracings).

Welding of the stiffener across the compression flange provides stability to the stiffener and holds it perpendicular to the web.8dw. bs/ts ≤ 21 / Fy 3. For situations where the stiffener serves as the attachment for lateral bracing.2. such welding provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange of the girder. In addition.35 Fy qb − 1) Q act . Transverse stiffeners should be designed as a compression member with a buckling length of 0.Steel Bridges 5. Stiffeners should project a distance bs from the web of: a) at least bf / 4. where bf is the flange width and b) at least (dw / 30 + 5) cm for stiffeners on both sides of the web.65 ( 0. i. .. Qact actual shear force at stiffener location. 2. 5. cm. the weld to the compression flange should be designed to transmit a force that equals 1 percent of the compression force in the flange..57) where qb = allowable buckling stress . …………………………. A part of the web equal to 25 times the web thickness may be considered to act with the stiffener area in the design of the intermediate stiffener. Intermediate transverse stiffeners should be designed to resist a force Cs equal to: Cs = 0. 4. it must meet the width-thickness limit of compression elements. The connection between the transverse stiffener and the web should be designed on the stiffener design force such that the weld in either the upper or the lower thirds of the stiffeners should transform the design force. the stiffener must meet the following requirements: 1. or (dw/30 + 10) cm for stiffeners on one side only.e. To perform this function efficiently.(5. where dw is the girder depth.8. To avoid local buckling of the stiffener.2 Design Considerations: The primary function of the transverse stiffener is to increase the shear buckling strength of the web plate.

. Fig. Intermediate stiffeners should be terminated not closer than 4 times the web thickness from the tension flange. The function of these stiffeners is to distribute reactions or concentrated loads into the web to create web shear. the distance between stiffener-web connection and face of tension flange should not exceed 6 times the web thickness.33.8. Such locations are: a) end bearings and intermediate supports of plate girders where the bottom flanges receive the reactions.3 Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners. are required where concentrated loads are to be transmitted to the web through flanges. In situations where the stiffener has to be connected to the tension flange.5. Fig 5. 5. however.3.32. see section 3. b) points of concentrated loads applied to the top girder flange. To prevent web crippling. Additionally they prevent the possibility of local crippling and/or vertical buckling of the web.32 Welding of Transverse Stiffener to Tension Flange 5. the weld is made parallel to the tensile stress direction as shown in Fig.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Welding of stiffeners perpendicular to the tension flange should be avoided because a severe fatigue condition may be created.

Steel Bridges

Section

Elevation

12 tw

End

6 tw

End

6 tw

25 tw 12.5 tw 12.5 tw

Intermediate (a) TWO Plates

Intermediate (b) FOUR Plates

Fig 4.33 Bearing Stiffeners To effectively perform these functions, bearing stiffeners should be sufficiently stiff against buckling. Therefore, it is preferred to have bearing stiffeners consisting of plates provided in pairs (i.e., placed on both sides of the web), and their connection with the web should be designed to transmit the entire reaction to the bearings. They must bear firmly on the flanges (i.e., fit tightly against the loaded flanges) through which they receive the reaction (or the concentrated load), and extend as far possible to the outer edges of the flanges. The ends of bearing stiffeners must be milled to fit against the flange through which they receive their reactions.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges To provide space for continuous fillet welds at the girder web-flange connection, the side corner on one edge of the stiffeners must be clipped to ensure tight fit against the flange. This results in a reduced contact area between the stiffener and the loaded flange. This reduced contact area of the stiffener should be adequate to transmit the reaction without exceeding the permitted bearing stress on either the flange material or the stiffener material. Design Considerations: Bearing stiffeners are designed as concentrically loaded columns. A portion of the web extending longitudinally on both sides of the bearing stiffeners is considered participating in carrying the reaction. Depending on the magnitude of the reaction to be transmitted, the design may require two (one on each side of the web) or four or more stiffeners (symmetrically placed about the web). The cross sectional area of the fictitious column is defined as follows: 1. when two stiffener plates are provided, the column section consists of the two stiffener plates and a centrally loaded strip of the web equal to 12 tw for bearing stiffeners at girder ends and 25 tw for bearing stiffeners at interior supports 2. If there are four or more stiffener plates, the column section consists of the areas of all stiffener plates and a centrally loaded strip of the web plate whose width is equal to that enclosed by the stiffener plates plus a width equal to 12 tw for bearing stiffeners at girder ends and 25 tw for bearing stiffeners at interior supports. a) Buckling Check: The actual compressive stress in the fictitious column should not exceed the allowable buckling stress of the stiffener cross section considered to act as a column with a buckling length of 0.8 dw. The radius of gyration of the section is computed about the axis through the center of the web. b) Compression Check: The compressive stress in the stiffener plate alone should be less than the allowable stress in compression for the stiffener steel. c) Bearing Check: The calculated stress on the actual contact area between the stiffener and the bottom flange should not exceed the allowable bearing stress. According to ECP: F bearing = 2 F t , where Ft is the allowable tensile stress of the material.

Steel Bridges Connections of bearing stiffeners to the web should be designed to transmit the concentrated load, or reaction, to the web 5.9 SPLICES: Apart from the simplest of bridges, with relatively short spans, the main girders of bridges are made up of elements connected together in the fabricating shop. For example, a plate girder is normally fabricated by welding together top and bottom flanges, web plates and stiffeners. Normally, as much of the fabrication as possible is carried out in the fabricating shop as shown in Fig. 5.34.

Fig. 5.34 Plate Girder Assembly Sequence

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges However, due to the reasons given below, most bridges consist of a number of sub-assemblies connected together at site. Consequently, site connections, referred to as splices, are required between sections of the main girders where these cannot be delivered to site and erected in one piece. Splices for girders should be avoided whenever possible. However, there are conditions when splicing of girders is unavoidable. One is the available length of plates and shapes; another is the length limit imposed by the transportation facilities from the fabricating shop to the site of the structure. Occasionally, the capacity of the erecting crane may set the maximum weight of one piece to be handled. The maximum length of plates obtainable from local mills is 6 meters while the maximum length of rolled shapes is 12 meters. Transportation facilities vary greatly with local conditions. Where good highways lead from the fabricating shop to the site, special arrangement can be made to transport long and heavy pieces. Where direct railroad transportation is used, the length of the pieces is governed by tunnel and bridge clearances, especially on curves. Sometimes it is a matter of balancing the extra cost of splice against the additional cost of transporting heavier and longer pieces. The location of splices has a major influence on the economics of the design, fabrication and erection of bridges. In addition, the detailing of splices influences the fatigue and corrosion resistance of a bridge. The designer must always, from initial concept through design and analysis to final detailing of the bridge, keep the connections in mind. At all stages he must know where the connections will be, how they will be designed and detailed, how they will be fabricated and when they will be fitted together. The relative position and orientation of the elements to be joined can make the difference between a straightforward, effective connection and one that is difficult to design, detail, fabricate and erect. It is for this reason that the connections should be considered at an early stage in the design process. 5.9.1 TYPES OF SPLICE There are two basic methods of making splices. Welding, using butt welds or fillet welds, and bolting, see Fig. 5.35. Where the main elements of the splice can be connected together with full strength butt welds, the design is simple and the effect of any loss of section due to the bolt holes does not arise.

Steel Bridges

a) Welded Splice

b) Bolted Splice Fig. 5.35 Plate Girder Splices When making a decision as to whether welding or bolting is to be used, the following are some of the points that should be considered:

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Aesthetics: Butt-welded connections are normally less obtrusive than bolted connections. Access: Adequate and safe access is required for both methods of connection; but protection from wind and rain is also required for satisfactory welding. Temporary support: The support of the member while the connection is being made has to be considered. This is particularly significant in a welded splice, where the location and alignment of the elements to be spliced must be maintained during welding. This often requires the use of temporary erection cleats and, if these are welded, the effect of the welding needs to be taken into account when making any fatigue checks (even if they are removed after erection). Corrosion: Particular care is required to ensure that the corrosion protection prevents rusting between the plates in a bolted connection and that the weld area is properly cleaned before painting in a welded connection. Both types of connection should then perform adequately as far as resistance to corrosion is concerned. Details: Bolted cover plate splices take up additional space, compared with butt welded splices. This could be a problem, for example, where deck plates are fixed to top flanges, particularly when a relatively thin wearing surface is to be applied to the deck plates. Cost: The cost of the various options should also be taken into account when making decisions regarding the type and position of connections. 5.9.2 Welded Splices: Welded Splices are usually made in the fabricating shop and therefore are called Shop Splices. The locations of these splices are usually dictated by the available plate lengths. Web and flange plates are usually spliced in the workshop by full penetration butt welds of the V-type, Fig. 5.36. For thicker plates, usually above 20 mm, a double V weld is used to reduce the amount of welding and to balance the welding on both sides and thus eliminating angular distortions. In large girders, web and flange plates may be formed of plates of various widths or thicknesses that are butt-welded together along both transverse and longitudinal seams. When plates of different thicknesses are butt-welded, design codes require a uniform transition slope between the offset surfaces not

Fig. 5. the wider plate must taper into the narrower plate with the same slope or with a radius of 60 cm.36(a).36 Welded Splices All details of welding procedures should be arranged to minimize distortion and residual stresses. particularly field welds. All important welds. 5.36(b). should be inspected by one of the following weld inspection methods: . flange splice flange splice Double V Weld 60° web splice Welded Joint 1 4 1 4 2 2 (a) Transition in Thickness (b) Transition in Width Fig 5.Steel Bridges exceeding 1 in 4. Fig. If plates of different widths are joined.

lack of Surface must be smooth. Will detect surface and subsurface cracks to ~ 2 Requires relatively smooth mm depth with proper Magnetic surface. preserved on clear plastic tape. Detects porosity. fusion. Penetrant Deep weld ripples and scratches open to surface. most Detects surface imperfections Visual (VT) economical. (DPT) may give false indications.2 % of thickness to register. give false indications. Can scan almost any commercial thickness. The location of field splices is usually dictated by length limits imposed by the available transportation facilities. drilled hole. Particularly only. Will detect tight cracks. magnetization. good for single pass. Slag. slag. 5.3 Bolted Splices Splices made in the field are called Field Splices and are usually made using bolts because of the difficulty sometimes encountered in field welding. voids. Detects cracks in any orientation. Can detect a favorably Operator must be qualified. irregularities.3 Characteristics of Common Weld Inspection Methods Inspection Characteristics and Limitations Method Applications Most common. Ultrasonic oriented planar reflector Exceedingly coarse grains will (UT) smaller than 1mm. Detects must occupy more than ~ voids. Particle Careless use of magnetization Indications can be (MT) prods may leave false indications.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Table 5. lack 1. permanent record. Radiation hazards. Radiographi of fusion. Detects surface imperfections Dye only. Only cracks partial to impinging c (RT) Film negative is beam register. or by weight limits imposed by the capacity of the erecting cranes. inclusions. calibrated.9. . Regularly calibrate on 1 Certain geometric configurations ½ mm dia. Equipment must be frequently lamellar tears. give false indication of flaws.

bearing bolts in normal (2mm) clearance holes are not generally used for splices in bridges. The pretensioning of the bolts also improves their fatigue life and prevents the nuts working loose due to vibration. Fig. In most splices the deformation associated with slip into bearing would be unacceptable. .4 DESIGN The most straightforward procedure for the design of a splice is to consider the load paths by which the forces are transmitted through the splice. there must be no weak or missing links. in close tolerance holes. fitted bolts. since this avoids the need to match and ream the holes. Splices should be designed to carry the maximum bending resistance of the girder section and the actual shear force at the splice location. 5.e. Fig.37 Example of Bolted Splice 5.37. The load paths must be sufficient to carry all the applied forces. Generally HSFG bolts are used.Steel Bridges Untorqued.. They should be as direct as possible.9. To avoid the slip. 5. moments and shears. The load paths must be complete and in equilibrium. or High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts are required. i.

It follows that the moments and forces supplied by a computer program for the design of the members may not be sufficient for the design of the connections. and web splices are most efficiently located at points of small shear. 3. 6. 7. In general.Avoid severe stress concentrations.When the bridge girder is continuous. If this is not possible. 2. Most bolted web splices.1 Bolted Web Splice The girder web transmits primarily shearing stresses. the effect of any eccentricity should be considered in the design.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges The following points must be considered in the design and detailing of splices: 1. the smaller section should be used in calculations. the effects of any eccentricity should be taken into account in the design.9. although practical requirements may dictate otherwise. are controlled by minimum dimension requirements rather than stress computations. except those for very heavy girders. two splice plates are usually employed one on each side of the web. the splices are usually positioned near to where the inflection point (zero moment) would be if the bridge were subjected to uniform loading.The centroidal axes of members (and elements of members) should intersect wherever possible. the shear force to be spliced in the web is much smaller than the shear capacity of the web. For example. This is particularly important where fatigue could be a problem. where there is a change of flange plate thickness.Care is required to ensure that the worst combinations of moments and forces that can occur at the splices are used for their design. The maximum moment (and shear) that the splice can be subjected to under the possible loading patterns must be determined. 8. 5.When a section changes at a splice location. the splice plates must have not less than the minimum thickness.Wherever practicable. 4.When shims or packs are needed. 5.4. and must be extended . They are not necessarily the moment and forces used for the design of the members. the centroidal axis of the splice material should coincide with the centroidal axis of the elements joined. If it is not possible. it is essential that the surfaces of the packs or shims comply with the requirements assumed for the faying surfaces in the design.When friction type bolts are to be used. for example. adequate clearances must be provided to allow the use of suitable tightening tools.

.9. The flange splice plates transmit the moment couple across the splice in axial tension or compression. where I w and I g = net moments of inertia of web and girder. and into the girder flange by double shear on bolts. flange splices should be located at sections other than those of maximum moment... When a web splice is to transmit a pure shear Q (without any moment at the splice location)....38. The splice is then designed to resist a shear force Q plus a bending moment Ms = Q * e + Mw..... there is a moment M at the splice section.. neglecting the eccentricity.. If... with an eccentricity e. see Fig. Splice Plate Design: The net section of the splice plates is designed to carry the flange force T.. (5...2 Bolted Flange Splice Girders flanges carry normal stresses due to bending moment. and therefore whenever possible.58) Flange couple C = T = Mf / d .. for economy of material..... 5......Mw .. A check is then made of the resulting force in the extreme bolt and the bending stress in the splice plate....... 5.... is obtained as: Mw = M I w / I g ......... In all cases the net section through the splice plates must provide the required area to resist the shear and the required section modulus to resist the bending moment safely.. In addition to shear Q............ respectively.. the design is often made for a direct shear Q. 5..... This means that the bolts should be designed to transmit load Q.... (5.........38b: Bolt Design: Flange splice moment = Mf = M .....Mw ... the bolt resistance R is known........... The flange splice is designed to carry that portion of the total design moment not carried by the web splice.Steel Bridges the entire depth of the girder from flange to flange. the bolts should be designed to resist a force Q applied at the centroid of the bolt group... .. and the required number of bolts is simply Q/R.... (5. Fig....59) Number of splice bolts = T / Rleast . then the portion of the total moment carried by the web must be transmitted by the web splice..4... This moment ..50) where Rleast is the bolt resistance. In this case for a given bolt diameter... When the depth d of the web is much greater than the eccentricity e...

b) Longitudinal loads caused by braking and thermal effects.10 BRIDGE BRACINGS A bridge is actually a space structure that not only carries the vertical gravity loads to the supporting piers and abutments.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Outside Plate M Outside Plate Q Splice Elevation (a) One Gauge Line (b) Two Gauge Lines Flange Splice Fig 5. seismic and centrifugal loads. but also resists: a) Transversal loads caused by wind. Inside Plate e Fill as required .38 Bolted Splice of Plate Girder 5.

39 Bridge Bracings 5. main girders and bracing systems. the effect of transversal loads due to wind on bridge elements is presented. The wind load is assumed to be carried to the bridge supports as follows: Upper Bracing Cross Frame Lower Bracing Fig. cross girders. The diagonal members may be single or double diagonals. In this case the bracing truss is needed only temporarily during erection before the slab hardens. or may be of the K.39.10.10. 5. The flanges serve as the chords of the lateral bracing truss. and are connected together by the cross girders plus a system of diagonal members. In general it may consist of Upper.type. the slab may be assumed to act as a horizontal diaphragm transmitting wind loads to the span ends. and Transversal bracing as shown in Fig. 5. . The effect of vertical loads on bridge elements has been presented in the preceding sections. such as stringers. In this section. In a deck bridge provided with a deck slab. Lower. 5.2) In deck bridges a) The wind load on the upper half of the web of the exterior girder as well as that on the live load on the bridge is assumed to be carried by a horizontal bracing truss in the plane of the top flange to the span ends.40. see Fig.1 Transmission of Wind Loads The horizontal wind pressure on the bridge is assumed to be transmitted to the bridge supports using suitable systems of bracings. 5.Steel Bridges The analysis and design of the bridge is usually simplified by breaking it down into planar and linear components.

Furthermore.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges (a) single diagonals (b) double diagonals (c) K-bracing Fig. Lateral bracings are normally located near the bottom flanges. 5. 5. b) intermediate inverted U-frames (Fig.41).42). In such regions. wind load on the bottom flange may be transmitted to the upper plane using: a) intermediate cross frames (Fig. They should be placed in all bays. Intermediate cross frames and diaphragms should be spaced at intervals up to 8 meters. The angle of cross frame diagonals with the vertical should not exceed 60 degrees. 5. or c) intermediate diaphragms (Fig. the top flange is subjected to compression in regions of positive moments and therefore must be braced to prevent its lateral buckling.3) In Through bridges Neither cross bracings nor top lateral bracing can be used in most cases of through plate girder bridges.40 Lateral Bracing Truss Systems b) The wind load on the lower half of the web of the exterior girder of a deck bridge is usually much smaller in value than that on the top flange (being the unloaded chord) and thus may not need a complete lateral truss. 5. According to ECP 2001.5. these intermediate systems facilitate erection and serve also to brace the compression flange of the girder. These flanges thus also serve as the chords of the lateral bracing truss. In order to transmit the end reactions of upper bracings to the bridge supports.44. Cross frames should be as deep as practicable.43) In addition. The brackets should be attached securely to the top flanges of the bridge .0 % of the total axial stress in the flange in that panel. the top compression flange should be stiffened against lateral deformation with solid web knee brackets as shown in Fig. and are connected together by the floor beams plus a system of diagonals. end cross frames are provided at the bridge ends and over interior supports.10. 5. in addition to the shear from specified lateral forces. Instead. lateral bracing of the compression flange of deck girders should be designed for a transverse shear in any panel equal to 2.

5.Intermediate U. They should be as wide as clearance permits and should be extended to the top flange of the main girder.41 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges .Intermediate Diaphragms Bracket .43 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges .42 Cross Bracing for Deck Bridges . 5. 5.frames Fig.Steel Bridges cross girders and to stiffeners on the main girders.Intermediate Cross frames XG Bracket Fig. Fig.

5. S b Y X Y Sec S-S w / m' Bracket X b R S MS S XG Fig. When the bracket is also used to support the compression flange against lateral torsional buckling. it should be designed to carry additionally a stability force that is equal to 2 % of the flange compression force.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges These knee brackets are designed to carry the share of wind loads on the bridge main girder and the moving live load (truck or train).44 Knee Bracket for Through Bridges .

see Fig. and this is usually accomplished by a pin.Steel Bridges 5. b) A hinged bearing will permit rotation of the member ends.allow movement (translation along and/or rotation about any set of axes) of one part of the bridge in relation to another. Movements caused by bending strains arise from the rotation of the member around the hinged bearing that is always located at a distance from the neutral axis of the member. This can be achieved by using any of the following bearing types: 5. 5. the use of such a bearing is usually limited to sites having very strong rocky soils.756*500 = 378 ton.1 TYPES OF BEARINGS Bearings may be classified according to their deformation behavior into three basic types: a) fixed bearings. Typical applications of this type of bearings are found at supports of arch bridges and sloping leg frames bridges. a) A fixed-end bearing completely restrains the member end from translation and rotation. each permitting a particular movement. The main sources of movements in a bridge are due to temperature changes and axial and bending strains arising from applied loads. It is capable of supplying a vertical and a horizontal reaction plus a restraining moment. an axial stress of E α ΔT = (1.transfer forces from one part of the bridge to another. it is not recommended to fully restrain a bridge against temperature movements.2*10-5) *2100*30 = 0. . a complete bearing usually consists of several components. Hinges carrying heavy vertical loads are normally provided with lubrication systems to reduce friction and ensure free rotation without excessive wearing. 2. Considering the expense of fixing a heavy steel member at the ends.756 t/cm2 is induced in the girder. c) expansion bearings. In general.11. The corresponding restraining force required is 0. b) hinged bearings.11 BRIDGE BEARINGS Bearings are needed in bridges to fulfill the following functions: 1. This becomes obvious if we consider a steel plate girder of cross sectional area 500 cm2.45. If this girder is subjected to a 30o C rise in temperature and is restrained from expanding axially. usually from the superstructure to the substructure. the sum of which is the total freedom required. P P P P P P P P To achieve the required degrees of freedom of movement. Neither the girder nor its supporting structure can carry such a force.

5. Sliding type bearings are used only for short spans and small loads since they cause high friction forces between the sliding plates. Rollingtype bearings achieve their translational movement by using cylindrical rollers. 5. Fig.5.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Fig.46 Roller Bearings Bearings may also be classified according to the material used in their fabrication into: a) steel bearings.45 Examples of Hinged Bearing c) Expansion bearings permit movement as well as rotation of the superstructure.46. see Fig. A brief description of each of these types is given next. . They are usually provided in two forms: the sliding type and the rolling type. b) elastomeric bearings.

.11. The curved surface may be cylindrical or spherical to permit rotation about one or more axes. 5. ii) Rocker Bearings Rocker bearings consist primarily of a curved surface in contact with a flat or curved surface and constrained to prevent relative horizontal movement. 5. Gearing or some other form of guidance should be provided to ensure that the axis of the roller is maintained in the desired orientation during the life of the bearing.47. Transversal lateral loads may be transmitted by flanges on the ends of the pin.Steel Bridges 5. but can be used in conjunction with roller bearings to provide rotation and translation.47. Multiple cylinders on the other hand require another element such as a rocker or a knuckle bearing to permit rotation. see Fig. They can also permit rotation by the rolling of one part over another. This type of bearing permits rotation by the sliding of one part on the other. see Fig.47. iv) Leaf Pin Bearing Leaf bearings consist of a pin passing through a number of interleaved plates fixed alternatively to the upper and lower bearing plates.2 STEEL BEARINGS i) Roller Bearings Roller bearings consist essentially of one or more steel cylinders between parallel upper and lower plates. 5. see Fig. iii) Knuckle Pin Bearing Knuckle pin bearings consist of a steel pin housed between an upper and a lower support each having a curved surface which mates with the pin.47. see Fig. 5. Roller bearings with a single cylinder can permit translation parallel to the longitudinal bridge axis and rotation about a horizontal axis in the transversal direction. Rocker bearings on their own do not permit translation and are usually used at the fixed end of a bridge to complement roller bearings. They permit only rotational movements.

5.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Fig.47 Steel Bearings: Roller . Knuckle Pin. Rocker. and Leaf Pin .

Elastomeric bearings are available in two basic forms. the design of these bearing types is usually taken from their manufacturer's certified design tables.11.Plain elastomeric pads which are single unreinforced pads of elastomer of relatively thin section. 1.Steel Bridges 5. and 5. Because these calculations depend largely of the properties of the rubber used. 5.3 ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS The main component of elastomeric bearings is a rubber pad that distributes the loads from the superstructure to the substructure and uses its material flexibility to accommodate the rotation and longitudinal movement of the superstructure. 5. ii) polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) also known as Teflon. one surface of which moves relative to the other.48.49.48 Deformation of Elastomeric Bearing Under Load The rubber used is either natural rubber or synthetic rubber (neoprene). Because of their relative simplicity and minimal fabrication effort. 2. and steel plate thicknesses. Two main types of reinforcements are used: i) steel. Translational movement is accommodated by shear in the elastomer. number of elastomeric layers and their corresponding thicknesses. Rotational movement is accommodated by the variation in compressive strain across the elastomer as shown in Fig. elastomeric bearings are now widely used in new bridges. A steel reinforced elastomeric bearing consists of discrete steel thin plates strongly bonded between adjacent layers of elastomer as shown in Fig.50. a) Original b) Shear c) compression d) rotation Fig. . The design of this type of bearings consists of finding the plan dimensions.Reinforced elastomeric pads comprising one or more layers of elastomer bonded to reinforcing plates in sandwich form. 5.

wide range of working temperatures and low coefficient of friction. . 5.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Fig.49 Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Pad Fig. one of a group of plastics remarkable for their extreme chemical resistance. 5. A PTFE bearing incorporates fabric pads with PTFE-stainless steel sliding interface to permit large translational movements. These features make PTFE an ideal material for bearings. The design of these bearings also depends largely on the properties of the fabric used. and therefore is usually taken from their manufacturer's certified design tables.50 Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing The other type of reinforced elastomeric bearings uses PTFE which is a fluorocarbon polymer.

. For fixed..4 DESIGN OF STEEL BEARINGS 5...50 ..50 9..... sliding and movable bearings with one or more rollers..11...1 ROLLER BEARINGS i) Roller Design: The maximum contact stress (f in t/cm2) between a roller and a flat surface is given by the following Hertz formula: P P f= EV 2πr (1 − υ 2 )L = 0.. cm E = modulus of elasticity of steel.... t/cm2 υ = Poisson’s ratio of steel L = roller length... even exceeding the ultimate tensile strength of the material....11. the allowable contact stresses shall be as given below when the surface of contact between the different parts of a steel bearing is a line: Material Cast Iron Rolled Steel Cast Steel Forged Steel Cl St CST FST 14 44 55 56 Allowable Contact Stress (t/cm2) P P 5..50 8.Steel Bridges 5..4.. (5.423 EV .00 6..61) Lr Where V = reaction in tons r = radius of roller. it is permissible to use a high allowable stress... cm P Since the contact stress is confined and limited to a small area.

... E = 2100 t/cm2.51.. In bearings consisting of only one roller...... see Fig.040 d*L Cast Steel CST 55 0.51 Roller Bearing with Single Roller It is recommended to use a single roller bearing made of special high tensile alloy steels.5 t/cm2.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Thus for bearing rollers made from structural steel St 44. 5...... the round surface accommodates the rotation as well as the longitudinal movement..52... 5...... 5. However... resting on flat plates. For other materials the following values are used: Material Allowable Reaction V(ton) Rolled steel St 37 0.......095 d*L Forged Steel FST 56 0. for bearings employing more than two rollers. using f = 6.. the maximum permitted design loads given above for single rollers should be reduced by 20 % to allow for uneven loading of the rollers caused by dimensional differences... Furthermore. With two or more rollers. (5.52..........62) where d is the diameter of roller in cms. bearings containing multiple cylinders of normal quality steels can be used.30 the above equation gives: P P P P V = 0. Fig... an independent pin must be provided to allow end rotation of the bridge due to bending deflection. and υ = 0.0550 d * L .117 d*L Fig. 5. see Fig.

ii) Base Plate Design: The rollers are seated on a base plate which distributes the vertical load to the concrete abutment or pier. P P P P . The area of this plate is computed from the allowable bearing stress on the concrete which is 70 kg/cm2 for concrete C250 and 110 kg/cm2 for concrete C350. Such rollers should be symmetrical about the vertical plane passing through the centre and the width should not be less than one-third of the diameter or such that the bearing contact doesn’t move outside the middle third of the rolling surfaces when the roller is at the extreme of its movement. 5. as shown in Fig. The anchor bolts connecting the base plate to concrete are designed to transmit any transversal or longitudinal frictional forces resulting from movements.53. 5. In some rare cases these bolts are designed to carry tension when the bearing is subjected to negative reactions.Steel Bridges Fig.52 Roller Bearing with Multiple Rollers To save space between rollers. they can be flat sided.

V = vertical load in ton.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Fig. If the pin is made of cast steel.54 Hinged Bearing .2 HINGED BEARINGS The design of hinged bearings is similar to that for a roller bearing except that the contact stress used for the pin design is computed from Hertz formula for the case of bearing between two cylinders. 5. the diameter is given by: d = 1. 5.53 Roller Bearing with Flat Sided Rollers 5.11.334 V/L where d = diameter of pin in cm. 5.4.54 Fig. L = length of pin in cm. An example of a hinged bearing is shown on Fig.

) (t) (m.58 × 3. d: An estimate of the girder depth is obtained from Eq.58 Fy ≅ (0.5 m 2 Use d = 2. 5.55.25 ~ 0. The deck is carried by four main girders spaced at 1.) 0 385 0 115 25 700 25 1200 In this chapter. A composite design of the main girder is presented at the end of chapter 6. The straining actions on an intermediate main girder due to dead loads and live loads plus impact at the critical sections are shown in the following table: Action Load Case Dead Load DL1 Add.12.1 t/cm2. Dead Load DL2 Live Load LL+I Sum At Support 6 m from support Q M Q M (t) (m.3) 3 P P d = ( 0. plan.00 m wide median and two 1.10 → 2.) 62 0 35 250 18 0 10 75 100 0 60 460 180 0 105 785 Mid section Q M (t) (m. the required girder depth is d = (0. 5.25 ~ 0. and a cross-section of the bridge is shown in Fig.t.t.Steel Bridges 5.t.75 meters center-to-center. The bridge cross section provides for a clear roadway having two 3-m-wide traffic lanes in addition to 1.5 m side walks.12 as: M Fb Assuming Fb < 0. The bridge deck consists of a 22 cm reinforced concrete slab covered by an 8 cm asphalt wearing surface.6) = 2. the main girder shall be designed as non-composite. 5.3) 3 1200 = 2. An elevation.2) Main Girder Design i) Girder depth.12.12 DESIGN EXAMPLE 5. The bridge is to be designed according to the Egyptian Code of Practice ECP2001 using steel grade ST.25 cm .1 GENERAL The following example illustrates the application of the design principles presented in this chapter to the design of a two-lane plate girder roadway bridge. The span measures 27 m between the centers of bearings. 52.

G. Stringer PL.24x500 PL. .G.55 Bridge Arrangement for the Design Example Hl Br HINGED BEARING BRG. 36x600 Main Girder 6x4500 =27000 FLOOR PLAN XG ST AT INTERMEDIATE CROSS GIRDERS 4@1750=7000 XG ST AT BRIDGE ENDS CROSS SECTION Fig. STIFF. X. STIFF. STRINGER HEB 360 STRINGER HEB 360 CROSS GIRDER HEB 600 FIELD SPLICE SPLICE FIELD ROLLER BEARING 6000 15000 6x4500=27000 BRIDGE ELEVATION Main Girder 9000 4@1750=7000 X.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges INT. BRG. 5. STIFF.

transverse stiffeners may be omitted if the actual shear stress does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eqns. Stiffener spacing d1 is controlled by: a) cross girder spacings = 4.74 > 1.35 Fy) With the actual shear stress given by qact = Q / (d * t).25 m.27 i..50 m b) aspect ratio α =d1/d = ~ 1 A suitable value for d1 would be 2.e. t = 1.6 ) = 2. then Aspect ratio: α = d1 / d = 225/225 = 1 P P Buckling Coefficient Kq = 4 + 5. usually an uneconomic solution.25 m iii) Check of web buckling due to shear: Using transversal stiffeners at a distance d1 = 2.4 57. the minimum thickness for a web without transverse stiffeners is obtained from: t2 = Q / (41.4. 5.34 2 = d/t 57.59 Fy gives: qb = ( 119 / (d/t) Fy ) (0.41.65 Fy ) P P Substituting Q = 180 at support gives: t2 = 180 / 41.40 .2 9. 5.3.34 λq = Fy / 3 t K q (1898)   d 225 / 1. tw: According to section 5. or a smaller value t = 14 mm with transverse stiffeners.34 / α2 = 9.51 cm P P Either use t = 16 mm (next even integer) without transverse stiffeners.34 .34 Fy Kq Plate Slenderness = 3.6 = 1.65 3. Usually d/t > 1.Steel Bridges ii) Web thickness.

4 i.167/ 60 = 3.25 6 Assume flange width bf = (0. 5.65 Fy ) P P Substituting t = 1.4 cm gives Q = 154 t.7: Af = (M / (Fb d)) – Aw / 6 = 1200 225 × 1. to Eqn. 52: bf / 2ft < 21 / 3.) 225 × 1. Note that transverse stiffeners are always used at cross girder locations where the concentrated reaction of the cross girder is transmitted to the main girder.56 cm Provide two 600 × 36 mm flanges.e. Web Plate is safe against buckling due to shear at support Since shear decreases away from support.35 × 3.571 t / cm 2 < q b ( O. the location where the transverse stiffeners are not needed can be found from the unstiffened web equation: t2 = Q / (41.74 Actual Shear Stress: q act = 180 = 0.. This value is located at ~ 2 m from the support so that the transverse stiffener is only needed between the support and the first cross girder.25 for st.6 = 11 .167 cm 2 2 × 2. Check the b/t ratio for compression flange local buckling acc. iv) Flange Plate From Eqn.4 − = 214.K . 5.9 × ( 0.652 t / cm2 1.6) = 0.3) d = (48 ~ 72) cm Use bf = 60 cm and calculate the required flange thickness as: tf = 214.2 ~ 0.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Buckling Shear Stress: qb = 0.

for non-compact flange Check d/t ratio for web buckling due to bending acc.74 < 320 / 3..4 (225)3 / 12 + 2 * (60 × 3. 5.34.5 = 177.998 t/cm2 P P a) Check of Bending Compression: Since the girder compression flange is supported laterally by deck slab.333 < 11 O.27 for st. the allowable bending stress in compression Fb = 0.42)2 = 0. Note that.6 = 100 actual d / t = 225 / 1. .3)2 = 6973232 cm4 Modulus Zx = 6973232 / 116.K.Steel Bridges actual bf / 2tf = 600 / (2× 36) = 8. according to Eqn. to Eqn.714 > 100 i.4 = 160.641 t/cm2 P The allowable lateral torsional buckling stress is computed as: Lu /rt = 2700/15.10 t/cm2. 52: d / t < 190 / 3.6 = 168.65. no need for another longitudinal stiffener at d/2 since d/t = 160.e. P P Girder is safe in bending compression The lateral stability of the girder during erection (before the deck slab hardens) should be also checked. First longitudinal stiffener at d/5 = 225/5 = 45 cm from compression flange (top).381 t/cm2 P P P Since fDL > Fltb then the girder must be supported laterally during erection using upper wind bracings.6) (114.583 Fy = 2.1 = 60062 cm3 P P P P P P Actual bending stress fb = Mmax / Zx = 1200 × 100 / 60062 = 1. v) Check of Bending Stresses: Section properties: Inertia Ix = 1.42 Fltb = 12000 / (177. For this case: Dead load bending stress fDL = 385*100/ 60062 = 0. web is slender It is therefore necessary to use longitudinal stiffeners to prevent web buckling due to bending. 5.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges b) Check of Bending Tension: i) Allowable tensile stress = 0.583 Fy = 2.10 t/cm2
P

Girder is safe in bending tension ii) The girder tension flange should also be checked for Fatigue: Straining Actions for fatigue: According to ECP, live loads on roadway bridges are reduced by 50% for fatigue assessment; i.e. MLL+I = 0.5 ×700 = 350 mt Actual stress range fsr = fmax - fmin =0.5 * fLL+I fsr = 350 × 100 / 60062 = 0.583 t/cm2
P

The allowable fatigue stress range (Fsr) is obtained as follows: * From ECP Table 3.1.a: ADTT >2500, Number of cycles = 2 ×106 Detail Class = B′ (case 4.2 of Table 3.3)
P

Table 3.2 gives

Fsr = 1.02 t/cm2 > fsr (O.K.)
P P

Girder is safe against Fatigue vi) Curtailment of Flange Plates The girder section has been designed to carry the maximum moment at the point of mid span. As the moment decreases away from that point, the girder section can be reduced accordingly. The section at maximum moment is usually taken to cover ~ 40 – 60 % of span, i.e., 10.8 – 16.2 meters. Assume that the section covers the middle 15 meters and find the reduced section to cover the end 6 meters from each support where the bending moment value is 785 m.t. and the shear value is 105 ton. By similar calculations the reduced section has a flange plate of 500*24 mm. The moment of inertia of the reduced section is 4431667 cm4. Note that this section is subjected to the combined action of shear and bending. The actual shear stress is 105 = 0.333 t / cm 2 < 0.6 * q b = 0.6 * 0.652 = 0.391 q act = 225 × 1.4 Therefore no reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. The actual bending stress is fb = Mmax / Zx = 785 × 100 / 38570 = 2.035 t/cm2
P P P P

< Fb = 0.583 Fy = 2.10 t/cm2.
P P

Steel Bridges 5.12.3 FLANGE -TO-WEB WELD: Each flange shall be connected to the web by a fillet weld on each side. These welds must be designed to resist the horizontal shear between the flange and the web as follows: * Shear Effect: Q = maximum shear force (at support) = 180 t S = Static moment of flange = 50 * 2.4 * (112.5+1.2) = 13644 cm3 Shear force / unit length = τ = QS/I = 180 * 13644 / 4431667 = 0.554 t/cm'
P

* Direct Load Effect The effect of direct load on top flange of deck bridges is calculated assuming the maximum wheel load (10 t) plus impact (40 %) is distributed on a 1 m width;i.e., w = P / 1 m = 10*1.4 /1 = 1.4 t/m = 0.14 t/cm' The resultant shear flow is thus given by

τ R = τ 2 + w 2 = (0.554) 2 + (0.14) 2 = 0.572 t/cm'
The allowable weld stress qw is equal to 0.2 Fu, i.e., qw = 0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cm2. Using this value, the required weld size is computed from
P P

s = τR / 2qw = 0.572 / (2 * 1.04) = 0.274 cm * Fatigue Considerations: The allowable fatigue stress range, Fsr according to ECP Table 3.2, for a weld detail D (case 23.1 of Table 3.3) and 2 * 106 cycles is 0.71 t/cm2. The actual stress range is
P P P P

τ sr = 0.5* QLL+I * S / I = 0.5*100 * 13644 / 4431667 = 0.154 t/cm'
The resultant shear stress range is thus given by
τ R = τ 2 + w 2 = (0.154) 2 + (0.14) 2 = 0.208 t/cm'

The required weld size from fatigue considerations is s = τ sr / 2 Fsr =0.208 / (2 * 0.71) = 0.146 cm

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges This value is smaller than the value computed from shear stress considerations so that fatigue does not govern the design. Furthermore, both values are less than the 6 mm minimum size permitted for a 24 mm thick flange plate according to ECP. Therefore, use 6 mm fillet weld. 5.12.4 STIFFENERS 5.12.4.1 End Bearing Stiffener at Support: A pair of bearing stiffeners should be provided at each end to transmit the end reaction to the supports. The stiffener is designed as a compression member as follows: Reaction = 180 t Using a stiffener plate on each side of web:
h 225 +5= + 5 = 12.5 cm 30 30 50 1.4 = 24.3 cm max. width x ≤ − 2 2

min. width: x ≥

Try width bs= 20 cm minimum thickness from b/t < 21 / Fy = 11 for St. 52 t ≥ 20 / 11 = 1.82 cm Try ts = 2 cm

a) Check bearing area at stiffener ends: Bearing area = 2 *(20 - 2) * 2 = 72 cm2
P

Bearing stress =

180 = 2.5 t/cm2 72
P P

< fbearing = 2 * Fb = 4.2 t/cm2
P

b) Check column action: Area A = 12 * 1.4 + 2 * 20 * 2 = 103.92 cm2
P P P

2

Interia I = 2 (2*20+1.4)3 / 12 = 11826 cm4
P P P

i = I / A = 10.688 cm,

Lb = 0.8 * 225 / 10.688 = 16.84 i
P P P

Fpb = 2.1 - 0.000135 (16.84)2 = 2.062 t/cm2 fact = 180 / 103.92 = 1.739 t/cm2 < Fpb
P P

Steel Bridges c) Design of weld between stiffener and web: Stiffener-web welds must be capable of carrying the end reaction of 180 t. With fillet welds on opposite sides of each stiffener, four lines of welds are used. They extend the total length of stiffeners. Thus, Total weld length = 4 * (225 - 2 * 2) = 944 cm. Average shear on weld = 180 / 944 = 0.191 t/cm'. Weld size required to carry the end reaction is, with allowable weld stress of 0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cm2,
P P

s=

0.191 = 0.183 cm 1.04

This, however, is less than the 5 mm minimum size of weld required for a 20 mm thick stiffener plate. Therefore, use 5 mm fillet weld. 5.12.4.2 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners: Intermediate transverse stiffeners will be provided at d1 = 2.25 m as required to resist buckling due to shear. Using a single stiffener on the inside of each girder. The design of the first intermediate stiffener adjacent to the end bearing is as follows: a) Stiffener Size: min. width: bs ≥
h + 10 = 17.5 cm 30

max. width: bs ≤ 50 / 2 - 1.4/2 = 24.3 cm Use bs = 20 cm. Min. thickness to resist local buckling = 20/11 = 1.818 cm Use stiffener plate 200 * 20 mm. b) Strength Requirements: Shear force at the stiffener location = 150.7 t Force carried by stiffener = Cs = 0.65 (
0.35 Fy qb − 1) Q act .

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges
C s = 0.65 ( 0.35 * 3.6 − 1) 150.7 = 96.4 t 0.635
P P P

Column area = 20 * 2 + 25 * 1.42 = 89 cm2 Interia I = 2 (20)3 / 3 = 5333 cm4
P P P

i = I / A = 7.74 cm,

Lb =0.8 * 225 / 7.74 = 23.256 i
P P P

fpb = 2.1 - 0.000135 (23.256)2 = 2.027 t/cm2 fact = 96.4 / 89 = 1.083 t/cm2 < fpb
P P

c) Weld between Stiffener and Web Welding between the stiffener and the web plate in either the upper or lower thirds of the stiffener should be designed to transmit the design force Cs. Weld length = (225/3) * 2 = 150 cm (2 for weld on both sides) Weld Force / unit length = 96.4 / 150 = 0.642 t/cm' With allowable weld stress of 0.2 * 5.2 = 1.04 t/cm2, the required weld size required to carry this force is,
P P

Weld size = 0.642 / (1.04) = 0.617 cm use 7 mm weld. Note that, for fatigue reasons, the weld and also the stiffener, is stopped at ∼ 60 mm from the tension flange. 5.12.4.3 Longitudinal Stiffener: One longitudinal stiffener will be welded to the web at d/5 = 45 cm from the compression flange. Assume: width = 20 cm and thickness = 2 cm as calculated for the transverse stiffener, then: Iact = 2 * 203 / 3 = 5333 cm4
P P P

Imin = 4 dw tw3 = 2470 cm4 < Iact
P P P P

O.K.

Therefore, use a 200 * 20 mm plate for the longitudinal stiffener.

Steel Bridges

Details of Stiffener Attachments

5.12.5 BOLTED SPLICE A bolted field splice will be executed at 6m from the support. The design shear and moment at the splice location are: Shear Force: QDL = 45 t QLL+I = 60 t Total Shear = 105 t Bending Moment: M DL = 325 mt M LL+I = 460 mt Total Moment = 785 t The value of the bending moment to be used for the design of splice is the moment capacity of the cross section, which is computed for the smaller section at the splice as follows: Gross moment of inertia Ig = 4431667 cm4 Gross section modulus Zg = 38570 cm3 Bending moment capacity Mnet = 38570 * 2.1 /100 = 810 mt
P P P

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges 50 4x100 100 4x100 50 PL. Using three columns of M 24 High Strength Friction Type bolts of grade 10.24x500 500 200 100 50 50 100 PL. In addition to this moment. the web splice also carries the design shear at the splice location and the moment due to the eccentricity of the shear force. 5.500x16 2 Plates 16x400x810 Top & Bottom 24 36 PL. 36x600 600 1 PLAN 4 50 100 200 100 50 PL.500x16 50 ELEVATION 2 Plates 16x500x1000 Top & Bottom SIDE VIEW Fig.10mm 20@100=2000 2 Plates 10x600x2100 PL. the design is checked as follows: 36 .200x16 24 50 50 50 100 100 100 PL.56 . see Fig. 5.200x16 2 Plates 16x200x1000 Top & Bottom 2PL.9 at a vertical pitch of 10 cm (21 rows) and a horizontal pitch of 10 cm.56 BOLTED FIELD SPLICE a) Web Splice: The web splice carries a bending moment equal to the total design moment on the section multiplied by the ratio of the moment of inertia of the web to the moment of inertia of the entire section.

6 t The allowable bolt resistance for M 24 friction type high strength bolt acting in double shear is equal to 2 * 6. Therefore.t.75 m. i) Check of Bolt Resistance: Bolt force due to shear = Shear / Bolt Number = 105 / 21*3 = 1.3722 P P P P = 10.53 t/cm2 < 2.519)2 + 10. Gross Inertia Ig = 2 * (1 * 2103 / 12) = 1774667 cm4 P P P Bending Stress = 25864 * (210/2) / 1774667 = 1.t.Steel Bridges Moment of inertia of web Iw = 1. the design is safe.88 t.667+0.t.89 m.667 t Bolt force due to moment : ∑ x2 = 21*(52+152+252)= 18375 P P P P P P P P ∑ y2 = 2*3*(102+202+302+402+502+602+702+802+902+1002)= 231000 P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P ∑ d2 =18375 + 231000 = 249375 cm2 P P P Hl component = Ms * y / ∑ d2 = 25864 * 100 / 249375 = 10.25 t/cm2 < 1.4*2253 /12 = 1328906 cm4 P P P Moment of inertia of girder section Ig = 4431667 cm4 P Moment carried by web Mw = Mdes * Iw / Ig = 242.89 + 15.15 = 15.26 t/cm2 P P P .75 = 258.1 t/cm2 P P P P Shear Stress = 105 / (2*210*1) = 0.64 m.372 t P P Vl component = Ms * x / ∑d2 = 25864 * 5 / 249375 = 0.519 t P P Resultant shear force /bolt = √ (1.94 = 13. Total moment on web splice Ms = 242. ii) Design of Splice Plate: Assume two splice plates 10 * 600 * 2100 mm. Eccentricity moment Me = Q * e = 105 * 0.

94 ) = 18. of M 24 double shear bolts = 252 / ( 2*6.11 / 2. ii) Splice Plates: area required = 252 / 2.89 = 567. and into the girder flange by double shear on M 24 High Strength Friction Type bolts of grade 10. Flange force = 567.11 m.9.25 = 252 t (This value can also be calculated from the flange strength as 50*2. The flange splice plates transmit the moment couple across the splice in axial tension (at bottom) or compression (at top).Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges b) Flange Splice: The flange splice carries that portion of the total moment not carried by the web plate.4*2.t.1 = 252 t) No.1 = 120 cm2 assume one outside plate 16 * 500 = 80 cm2 plus two inside plates 16 * 200 = 64 cm2 Area provided = 80+64 = 144 cm2 P P P P P P P P .15 bolts Use 5 rows * 4 bolts each = 20 bolts. i) Flange Bolts: Design moment on flange splice = 810 – 242.

56. The wind loads on the bridge are transmitted to the bridge supports as follows: 1. 5. it is more economical to transmit these loads to the deck level using intermediate knee brackets at each cross girder working with the cross girders as inverted U-frames.Wind loads on the lower half of the main girder can be carried directly by a system of lower horizontal lateral bracings to the bridge bearings.Wind loads on the upper half of the main girder and deck slab during erection are carried directly by an upper horizontal lateral bracings to the bridge ends.6 BRIDGE BRACINGS: Wind loads on the Bridge 200 kg / m2 P a) Unloaded Case: wind pressure = 200 kg/m2 100 kg / m2 b) Loaded Case: wind pressure = 100 kg/m2 P P Bracing Systems and Transmission of Wind Loads: Since the bridge has a deck slab.00 . during erection. 3.12.After the slab hardens.Steel Bridges 5. an upper bracing is needed to support the compression flange laterally and to carry wind loads on the bridge before the slab hardens. 2. see Fig. it will carry all wind loads on the bridge after erection and thus no upper horizontal lateral bracings are needed. However. 100 kg / m2 3. wind loads on the moving trucks (height = 3 m) and the bridge main girder and deck slab (case of loaded bridge) are carried directly by the concrete slab to the bridge ends. However.

Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges 4. see Fig. S-S 200 END BRACKET AT GIRDER ENDS XG ST PL. 200 200 XG s s ST s s WEB SEC.56 Transversal Bracing Systems .56. 5. 5.2250x14 4 @ 1750 = 7000 CROSS FRAME AT GIRDER ENDS (ALTERNATIVE TO END BRACKET) Fig.End brackets (or end cross frames) shall be provided at the bridge ends to transmit wind reactions at the deck level to end bearings located at the lower level. S-S INTERMEDIATE BRACKET AT CROSS GIRDERS 300 XG s s ST s s WEB SEC.

9 t/m’ Max moment on bracket section s-s (cross girder section HEB600) Mmax = 0.9 * (2. Main Girder X.G. Design of Upper Bracings: Hl Br X.Design of Intermediate Brackets (at each cross girder): Wind pressure q = 200 kg/m2 (Unloaded Bridge governs) P P Wind load ω = 0.t.Steel Bridges 1.5 = 0. Flange: Pl 200*12 Centroid at 14 cm from web.24x500 Main Girder 6x4500 =27000 Stringer .25-0.G.6)2 /2 = 1.225*100* 14 / 2624 = 0.654 t/cm2 < 2.225 m. 7000 PLAN OF UPPER BRACINGS PL. Iy = 2624 cm4 Bending Stress fb = 1.2 * 4.1 t/cm2 P P P P P 2. P P P P Assume Section: Web: PL 200*16.

case of unloaded bridge governs Joint load (at each bracket) = 0.8 cm from web. Design of End Bracket (at Bearings): End brackets carry wind reactions from upper level to bearings at lower level.1 t/cm2 O..09/(2*19.8 / 7505 = 1.107 t/cm2 < Fbuck O. assume 2 L 100*100*10 Diagonal Length = √4.885 / (2*sin θ) = 4.1875 *100* 19.332 t/cm2 fa = C/A = 4.52 + 72 = 8.295 = 6. i.00) = 2.K.e.5 = 1. Force (in first diagonal) = C = T = 6. Assume Section: Web: Pl 300*16 .45*10) = 138.1*4.885 ton Tan θ = 7 / 4.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Upper bracing carries wind load on bridge during erection.09 ton Design for Compression. For loaded bridge: Joint load W = 0.9 * (2.6)= 6.30) = 2.2) = 0.632 t/cm2 < 2. Compare wind loads for the two cases of unloaded and loaded bridge and design for the critical case which is the loaded one here.25-0. 5 = 7.t.67 P P < 140 for bridge bracings P Fbuck = 0.5 t End reaction Rw= 3 * 2.85*{7500 / (138.75 * 832 / (0.67)^2 } = 0.265 Max.K P P P P P P . Iy = 7505 cm4 P Bending Stress: fb = 6.25+0.5/2 ) * (2.25+0.295 ton End Reactions Rw = 3 * 2.5555 θ = 57. Flange: Pl 200*12 Centroid at 19.1875 m. P P 3.30+3.5 t Max moment on bracket section s-s: Mmax = ( 7.32 m P P P P Lb / i = 0.5*(2.

6 BEARINGS Each main girder transmits its end reactions to piers through one expansion bearing at one end and one hinged bearing at the other end.12. P P i) Roller Bearing: The expansion bearing incorporates a flat sided roller to permit the required movements and a base plate to distribute the load to the concrete foundation as shown: 500 300 20 15 3 Keeper Plate 3 200 160 70 70 200 ? 20 PINTLE 400 ROLLER 50 GROUT 75 250 400 75 500 ELEVATION 400 SIDE VIEW 500 300 100 4 ANCHOR BOLTS ? 25 mm 100 BASE PLATE . Both bearings are fabricated from forged steel. The roller bearing should be designed to permit movements resulting from variations of temperature between ± 30 oC. and to allow rotation of the girder ends under live loads.Steel Bridges 5.

the compressive stress in the 40cm-long web is: fp = 180 = 0.Chapter 5: Plate Girder Bridges Roller Design: The roller length is taken equal to the bottom flange width minus 5 cm clearance each side.33 cm to resist overturning. which distributes the 180 tons load to the concrete pier.117*d*40 Roller Diameter d ≥ 38. Net area of the plate = 180 * 1000 / 110 = 1636 cm2. Select b = 16 cm The 160-mm-thick roller web rests on a steel base plate while its curved top bears against the girder bottom flange.117* d * l 180 = 0.9 cm. min. P P P P Use base plate 40*50 cm Thickness of plate must be large enough to keep bending stresses caused by the bearing pressure within the allowable. By Hertz formula for forged steel.00 t/cm2 16 * 40 P P P P Reaction = Allowable compression for forged steel according to ECP Base Plate: The rocker is seated on a base plate.cm M= 2 . Thus. the base pressure is: p= 180000 = 90 kg/cm2 40 * 50 P The bending moment in the middle of a 1 cm wide strip of plate (at the bearing point) is: 90( 20) 2 = 18000 kg. For a width of 40 cm . Allowable bearing stress on the C350 concrete is 110 kg/cm2.cm = 18 t.281 t/cm2 < 2. V = 0. Hence. Under dead load and live load plus impact. length of plate = 1636 / 40 = 40.46 cm Use d = 40 cm Use flat sided roller with width b > d/3 = 40/3 =13.

Steel Bridges With the basic allowable stress Fb= 0.69.72*3.35=2. the thickness of base plate required is: P P P P t= 6M 6 * 18 = = 6. ii)Hinged Bearing: The same detail is used for the hinged bearing except that the roller bottom is welded to the base plate to prevent translation as shown below: 300 200 20 160 70 75 250 400 75 HINGED BEARING .72*Fy = 0. Fb 2.35 t/cm2 for thicknesses > 40 mm and Fb =0.412 t/cm2 for ST 52 (Fy=3.412 say 7 cm Use a base plate 400 * 70 mm by 500 mm long.72 Fy for rectangular section bent about their minor axis ).

Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 239 CHAPTER 6 COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES .

1.240 Steel Bridges CHAPTER 6 COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES 6. it became practical to provide mechanical connectors between concrete and steel to resist the horizontal shear which develops during bending.1 Composite Action Steel structures supporting cast-in-place reinforced concrete slab construction were historically designed on the assumption that the concrete slab acts independently of the steel in resisting loads. Fig 6. Composite action is developed when the concrete deck and the supporting steel girder are integrally connected so that they deflect as a single unit. This neglect was justified on the basis that the bond between the concrete deck and the top of the steel girder could not be depended upon. . No consideration was given to the composite effect of the steel and concrete acting together. with the wide use of structural welding.1 GENERAL 6.1. However.

wherein if friction between the slab and the girder is neglected the girder and slab each carry separately a part of the load. 6. Since friction is neglected. 6. There are two neutral axes. consider first the noncomposite girder of Fig.3. . its lower surface is in tension and elongates.1 Composite Deck Bridges In developing the concept of composite behavior. Thus a discontinuity will occur at the plane of contact. no relative slippage occurs between the slab and girder and the resulting strain diagram is shown in Fig. 6. while simultaneously they act on the upper surface of the girder to elongate it. Under this condition a single neutral axis occurs which lies below that of the slab and above that of the girder. The strain distribution corresponding to this case is shown in Fig. When the slab deforms under vertical loads.2. When complete interaction between the slab and girder is developed by the introduction of mechanical connectors.6.2. while the upper surface of the girder is in compression and shortens.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 241 Fig. only vertical internal forces act between the slab and girder. one at the slab mid surface and the other at the girder centroid. Horizontal forces (shears) are developed that act on the lower surface of the slab to compress and shorten it.

2 Stress and Strain Distributions in Non-Composite Girders Fig.242 Steel Bridges Fig.3 Stress and Strain Distributions in Composite Girders . 6.6.

2.1. Reduction in steel weight. the negative moment region will have a different stiffness because the cracked concrete slab in tension is not participating. lies generally between 16 and 22. 3. Shallower steel girders.1 Steel Girder Composite construction is more economic when the tension flange of the steel section is larger than the compression flange. Assuming full composite action. . In continuous bridges. h. While there are no major disadvantages to using composite construction.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 243 6. or when the live load is of long duration. in composite design. some limitations should be recognized.2 COMPONENTS OF COMPOSITE GIRDERS 6. These two points shall be dealt with in later sections. 6. A weight saving in steel between 20 to 30 % is often possible by taking full advantages of composite action. The stiffness of the composite bridge is substantially greater than that of the concrete floor with its supporting steel girders acting independently. The increased stiffness considerably reduces the live load deflections. Also. Such a weight reduction in the supporting steel girders permits the use of a shallower section which is better from the traffic clearance point of view. Normally the concrete slab acts as one-way plate spanning between the supporting girders.2 Advantages and Disadvantages: The basic advantages resulting from composite design are: 1. The ratio of the girder span. For limited girder depth.2. L. an additional use is made of the slab by its action In a direction parallel to and in combination with the supporting steel girders. L/h may exceed 22 provided that deflection due to live load without impact does not exceed the allowable value specified by the Code as L/800. providing high overload capacity. to the girder overall depth including concrete slab. long-term deflection caused by concrete creep and shrinkage could be important when the composite section resists a substantial part of the dead load. The net effect is to greatly increase the moment of inertia of the floor system in the direction of the steel girders. Increased stiffness. the strength of the section greatly exceeds the sum of the strengths of the slab and the girder considered separately.

2.244 Steel Bridges Fig. The slab may rest directly on the steel girder or on concrete haunch to increase the moment of inertia of the composite section. the minimum thickness shall be 20 cm. channels and angle connectors as will be discussed in details in section 6. . 6. There are several types of the shear connectors such as: anchors. hoops. The minimum accepted value for the characteristic cube concrete strength.2. block connectors. the value of f cu shall not be less than 400 kg/cm2. It is also possible to use formed steel deck with the deck ribs oriented parallel or perpendicular to the steel girder. The concrete slab may also be prestressed. Thickness: The thickness for the deck slab shall not be less than 16 cm.4. f cu . 6.3 Shear Connectors Since bond strength between concrete slab and steel girder is not dependable. If the slab is subjected directly to traffic with no wearing surface. For deck slabs subjected directly to traffic (without wearing surface) .4 Composite Section Parameters 6. mechanical shear connectors must be provided.2 Concrete Slab Concrete: The concrete used for composite construction shall comply with the current Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. They are connected to the top flange of the steel girder and embedded in the concrete slab to transmit the longitudinal shear and prevent any slippage between the concrete slab and the steel girder. is 300 kg/cm2 for bridges. studs. 6. see Fig.4.

5 Effective Width Concept For design purposes. 6.1 Effective Width In ordinary girder theory the bending stress is assumed constant across the girder width and is calculated from the bending formula. Referring to Fig. an effective width is used in place of the actual width. Since the composite girder has a wide top flange. plate theory indicates that the stress in the concrete slab is not uniform across the girder width. 6. so that the ordinary girder theory can be used.5. 6.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 245 6. the stress is maximum over the steel girder and decreases nonlinearly as the distance from the supporting girder increases.3. ECP defines the portion of the effective width of the concrete slab on each side of the girder centerline b EL or b ER as the smaller of the following values. see Fig. f = M * y / I. Fig.6: . Similarly to the treatment of T-sections in reinforced concrete design. The effective width of the slab b E is computed from the condition that b E times the maximum stress f c equals the area under the nonlinear stress curve.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: 6.

7 Effective Spans for Continuous Beams . L/8. 6. the effective slab width b E shall not exceed the smaller of 1/12 of the span length of the girder or six times the thickness (t) of the slab neglecting haunch.6 Effective Width of Concrete Slab The span lengths to be used in continuous beams are shown in Fig. Fig. 3. If the two adjacent spans in a continuous beam are unequal. the distance to the slab edge.7. Six times the thickness (t) of the slab neglecting haunch. 6. Fig.(center-to-center of supports). One half the distance to the center-line of the adjacent girder. 6. b. One-eighth of the girder span. b* (for exterior girders) For girders having a slab on one side only. the value of b E to be used in calculating bending stresses and longitudinal shear in the negative moment regions shall be based on the mean of the values obtained for each span separately.246 Steel Bridges 1. 2. 4.

It should be noted that this cover plate. is considered to be effective only when the top flange is in compression. 6. the following section properties can be calculated. the value of the modular ratio n varies with the concrete grade as follows: Table (6.. As a result. E c (t/cm2) 220 240 280 310 Modular Ratio. In continuous girders. lv = Moment of inertia of transformed section @ its own central axis v – v. A c = Cross-sectional area of slab only. being concrete.2 Computation of Section Properties The section properties of the composite section can be computed by the transformed section method. A r = Cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement. where n is ratio of the steel modulus of elasticity E s to the concrete modulus of elasticity E c . the concrete slab in the composite section is transformed into an equivalent steel area. the concrete modulus varies according to the concrete grade. Referring to Fig.7. the concrete slab is in tension and thus composite action does not exist. While as the steel modulus is equal to a constant value at 2100 t/cm2. A s = Cross-sectional area of steel girder. Ic = Moment of inertia of effective slab @ its own central axis c – c.1) Recommended Values of the Modular Ratio (n) Concrete Characteristic Cube Strength. n 10 9 8 7 With this transformation. the concrete area is reduced by using a reduced slab width equal to b e /n.3. In contrast to reinforced concrete design where the reinforcing steel is transformed into an equivalent concrete area. Av = Cross-sectional area of transformed section = As + Ac / n . = Is + As * ev2 + (Ic + Ac * yc2 ) / n . f cu (kg/cm2 ) 250 300 400 ≥ 500 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. Consequently. Is = Moment of inertia of steel girder @ its own central axis s – s. the composite girder may be considered as a steel girder to which has been added a cover plate on the top flange.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 247 6.

In this case the steel girder. acting .3. Two different methods of construction may be used: Case I: Without Shoring: The simplest construction occurs when the steel girders are placed first and used to support the concrete slab formwork.248 Steel Bridges Fig. ignoring concrete in tension and assuming no slippage between the steel girder and concrete slab.3 Stress Calculations Bending stresses in the composite section (steel girder. and longitudinal reinforcement) shall be calculated in accordance with the elastic theory. concrete slab.7 Composite Section Properties Section Moduli: Steel Section: Upper Steel Lower Steel Zus = Is / yus Zls = Is / yls Composite Section: Upper Steel Z'us = Iv / y'us Lower Steel Z'ls = Iv / y'ls Upper Concrete Z'uc = Iv / y'uc 5. The actual stresses that result in the composite section due to a given loading depend on the manner of construction. 6.

the wet concrete and 'its own weight.10a. wearing surface) and live loads.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 249 noncompositely.. Referring to Figs. Fig. supports the weight of the forms. 6.8 Unshored Construction . the section will act compositely to resist dead loads placed after concrete curing (e. the stresses in steel and concrete are computed as: fus = MD / Zus + ML / Z'us flS = MD / Zls + ML / Z'ls fuc = ML / ( n * Z 'uc ) where MD= bending moment due to dead load and ML =bending moment due to additional dead load and live load plus impact. 6. Once the forms are removed and concrete has cured. Such construction is said to be without temporary shoring or unshored.8 and 6.g.

the steel girders may be supported on temporary shoring. the steel girder. the shores are removed and the section acts compositely to resist all dead and live loads. 6. This system is called shored construction.10b. forms. the stresses in steel and concrete are computed as follows: fus = ( MD + ML ) / Z 'us fls = ( MD + ML ) / Z'lS fuc = ( MD + ML ) / n Z 'uc . After curing of concrete. and wet concrete are carried by the shores. In such a case. Referring to Fig.250 Steel Bridges Case II: With Shoring Alternatively.9 and 6.

The maximum bending stresses in the concrete slab shall not exceed the allowable limits permitted by the Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. the composite section shall be exempt from such requirements. During construction. the compression flange must satisfy local buckling and lateral torsional buckling requirements. neglecting any concrete slab contribution. The compression flange of the steel girder and its connection to the web must be designed for the shear flow calculated for the composite section. After construction.10 illustrates the distribution of bending stresses for composite girders constructed with or without shoring. The steel web alone shall resist vertical shear stresses of composite girder. Maximum bending stresses in the steel section shall comply with the allowable bending stresses of the used materials. . 6.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 251 Fig. however.9 Shored Construction Figure 6.

e.252 Steel Bridges Fig. concrete does not behave as an elastic material. concrete is a plastic material subjected to progressive permanent deformation under sustained loads.11. see Fig. For a constant permanent load the creep will vary from 1 to 4 times the elastic deformation under the same load. This permanent deformation is known as creep. Case II. 6.3. Account must be taken of the fact that concrete is subject to creep under long-time loading (i.1 Influence of Creep i) General: For the usual concrete dead loads.4 Design for Creep and Shrinkage If shoring provides support during the hardening of concrete. 6. Moving loads have little effect. Actually. .e. dead load) and that shrinkage will occur. which may be neglected.11. i. the total deflection will be a function of the composite section properties. It is known that only permanent loads causing compressive stresses in concrete produce creep. Low concrete stresses produce very little plastic flow.4. 6. as they do not last long. The amount of creep varies with the magnitude of the permanent compressive stresses.10 Stress Distributions in Composite Sections 6. 6.3. see Fig.

12. . the concrete dead load is carried by steel alone thus no appreciable creep. the basic relationship between deformation & constant stress is : ε = (fc / Ec) / (1 + φ) where φ = elastic expansion / creep expansion and ε = strain. The creep of concrete depends on the curing conditions of the concrete at the time the stresses are applied. If the erection is done by case II. the entire dead load is carried by the composite section causing creep.11 Creep in Concrete Creep in composite beams causes tensile stresses in concrete. 6. Fig. 6. see Fig.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 253 Fig. on the intensity and duration of their effect. on the quality of the concrete and the degree of humidity of its surroundings. 6. compressive stresses in the top flange and relatively small tensile stresses in the bottom flange of the steel beam.12 Effect of Creep and Shrinkage on Composite Sections ii) Design for Creep: The influence of creep is different according to the method of erection of the composite beam. Assuming that deformation of the concrete with creep is directly proportional to the prevailing stress and assuming a uniform modulus of elasticity EC.If the erection is done by case I.

the stresses in the composite section may be computed neglecting creep.13c . 6. 6.4. However.3.0003. for case II. Due consideration of this phenomenon by appropriate method of calculation is recommended. Fig. . a 30oc uniform variation of the overall temperature of the structure is assumed. 6. Such difference in temperature of steel and concrete will create internal stresses similar to those due to shrinkage and creep. Similar to the effect of creep. internal stresses in concrete and steel independent of external loads will be produced.3. The ultimate shrinkage strain in concrete shall be estimated to be equal to 0. Therefore the top of the concrete slab and other levels through the depth of the girder shall be assumed as shown in Fig.5 Design For Temperature Effect The variation of temperature shall be assumed according to the Egyptian Code of Practice for Calculating Design Loads and Forces on Structures. Therefore the maximum concrete stress should be determined by neglecting creep. stresses in the composite section are computed using a modular ratio 3n for all dead loads and using a modular ratio of n for live loads. Concrete stresses in composite beams are reduced by creep. similar to the effect of creep. Due consideration shall be given for the fact that although the coefficient of thermal expansion for both steel and concrete is identical. as to get more stresses in the steel section in agreement with the phenomena of creep. In general. These stresses result from the jump of temperature at the area of contact between steel and concrete. the shrinkage of concrete creates internal tensile stresses in the concrete slab.254 Steel Bridges Hence for case I.2 Shrinkage If the concrete slab is restrained from shrinkage by the steel girders.14. compression in the top flange and tension in the bottom flange of the steel beams. the coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete is only about 2 % of that of the steel. 6.

The deflection allowable limit due to live load without impact is equal to L/800. 6. 6.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 255 Fig. Case I.14 Stress Distribution due to Effect of Temperature 6. However. Case II.6 Deflections If the construction is shored during construction. if the construction is not shored.13 Temperature Distribution Fig. .3. the total deflection will be the sum of the dead load deflection of the steel girder and the live load deflection of the composite section. the composite section will support both the dead load and the live load deflections.

2) less deflection. see Fig. In continuous span bridges. remain active within an effective width of the slab. 3) Fewer number of bearings. Simple beam spans has the advantages of: 1) simpler analysis and design.256 Steel Bridges 6. Fig.15 Composite Cross-Section at Interior Supports . the slab does not contribute to the resistance of the cross section. Accordingly. Continuous span construction has the advantages of: 1) less steel weight. However. 3) no stresses due to support settlement. 6. The usual bridge structure has three or more spans with the intermediate spans 20 % to 30 % longer than the end spans.7 Composite Construction in Continuous Span Bridges i) General: When the total bridge length is sufficiently long to require multiple spans. 2) less field splices leading to faster erection. 6. the designer can either select a series of simple spans or he can use continuous spans. A two-span continuous bridge has only slight economy over simple spans. the designer has to study the advantages of both systems and decide accordingly.3. the top concrete slab is subjected to tensile stresses in the negative moment regions. Before a system is selected for a particular bridge.15. benefit can be taken from the presence of the slab by considering that the longitudinal reinforcement bars.

4. This. Also. ii) Design Considerations: The area of reinforcement bars within the effective width is added to the steel section of the negative moment region. the horizontal shear force at the interface between the concrete slab and the steel girder shall be transferred by shear connectors.2 Connector Capacity Ideally. the connector should be stiff enough to provide the complete interaction. the distribution of the shear connectors should be such that more connectors are used at high shear locations. 6..Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 257 This effective width is related to the length of the negative moment region as shown in Fig.e.4 SHEAR CONNECTORS 6. 6. In negative moment regions. Instead. the lower flange of the steel girder is subjected to compression and therefore should be checked against lateral and local buckling provisions. since the shear force varies along the girder length. throughout simple spans and positive moment regions of continuous girders.1 Horizontal Shear Force The horizontal shear force transferred by the connector shall be computed at the interface between concrete and upper flange of the steel girder utilizing the virtual section properties. would require that the connectors be infinitely rigid. 6.3. . In the negative moment regions. Geometrical properties of both steel section only and the composite section are calculated and then used to check the bending stresses as explained before in section 6. to obtain a fully composite section.4.3. Friction between the concrete slab and the steel girder can not be depended upon to provide the required interface shear strength. 6. no slip at the interface. see section 6. This horizontal shear must be resisted so that the slip between both materials at the concrete-steel interface will be restrained. shear connectors shall be provided when the reinforcing steel embedded in concrete is considered as part of the composite section. as shown in Fig.18.3.16 to Fig. 6. i.7.7. however.

g. To design the connector. If the spacing between the connectors is equal to "e". For shored construction. The value of Rsc . then the total horizontal shear to be transmitted by one connector along a pitch “e” is : e * τc = e * (Q Ac yc / Iv ) This value should be less than the allowable load the connector can carry.e. e. In the following section. the connectors may be designed to carry the shearing forces due to live loads only. Rsc.4. unshored construction.. i. for one connector.. the connector spacing e can be calculated as: e = Rsc * Iv / (Q Ac yc) Thus the pitch “e” is inversely proportional to Q and the connectors are to be arranged closer to each other at the supports and at bigger intervals near the middle of the girder. In addition. it is recommended to design the connector to carry shearing forces due to half the dead load in addition to the live load. e * (Q Ac yc / Iv ) < Rsc From this equation. But to allow for shrinkage and creeping effects and to give better security against slip. different types of shear connectors used in composite construction are described. denoted by Rsc.258 Steel Bridges 6. it applies to the calculation of the allowable horizontal shear load. the connectors are to be designed to carry the shearing forces due to dead and live loads.3 Connector Design If the dead load stresses are carried by the steel section. the longitudinal shearing force per unit length of the girder is calculated as: τc = Q Ac yc / Iv where: Ac = Area of concrete section without haunches yc = Distance between central axis of concrete section and that of the composite section.

4 Connector Types Various types of such connectors are shown in Figures 6.Anchors and hoops (Fig. 6. The most common types are the anchor and hoop connectors.Development length and concrete cover of anchors shall be based on the allowable concrete bond stresses as per the Egyptian Code of Practice for the Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.18. Rw. Where diagonal tension can occur in both directions. connectors pointing in both directions should be provided.16 thru 6. provided by the connector connection to the girder flange.Hoop connectors (diameter = φ shall satisfy the following: L ≥ 4r concrete cover ≥ 3 φ r ≥ 7.The allowable horizontal load for each leg of anchors and hoops shall be computed as follows: Rsc = 0.4. 6.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 259 computed from the following formulas shall not exceed the allowable horizontal load. d. and the stud connectors.1 Anchors and hoops a. the block connector.16) designed for longitudinal shear should point in the direction of the diagonal tension.5φ c. 6. α = Angle in the vertical plane between anchor or hoop and the girder upper flange.4.4.58 As Fys cos β / (1 + sin2 α) ½ ≤ Rw Where As = Cross sectional area of anchor or hoop Fys = Yield stress of anchor or hoop material β = Angle in horizontal plane between anchor and longitudinal axis of the girder. . b. the angle and channel connectors.

e.The allowable horizontal load (Rbe) transmitted by bearing can be computed from the following Equation: . b.16) Anchor & Hoop Shear Connectors 6.4. The front face shall not be wedge shaped and shall be so stiff that uniform pressure distribution on concrete can be reasonably assumed at failure. c.260 Steel Bridges Figure (6. a.17) such as bar.The height of T-sections shall not exceed ten times the flange thickness or 150 mm. d. The height of the connectors shall not exceed 15 times the web thickness nor 150 mm.Block connectors shall be provided with anchoring devices to prevent uplift of concrete slab.2 Block Connectors Block connectors (Fig.4. channel section and horseshoe can be used as shear connectors. whichever is the least. whichever is the least.The height of horseshoe connectors shall not exceed 20 times the web thickness nor 150 mm.Channel sections shall be hot rolled with a web width not exceeding 25 times the web thickness. T-section. 6.The height of bar connectors shall not exceed four times its thickness. whichever is the least. f.

6.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 261 Fig.17 Block Shear Connectors .

shall be computed from the following Equation: Rsc = 0. Fig.5tw) Lc ( fcu Ec ) 1/2 ≤ Rw where: tf .3 η A1 fcu Where η = (A2/A1)1/2 ≤ 2 A1 = Area of connector front face A2 = Bearing area on concrete. . The allowable horizontal load per connector can be computed from the following: Rsc = Rbl + 0.18. provided that due account shall be taken of the differences of stiffness of the block connector and the anchors or hoops. Lc = connector length.17) to the rear face of the adjacent connector. shall be taken as the front area of the connector. Only parts of A2 falling in the concrete section shall be taken into account. 6. for one channel shear connector. cm. g.Block connectors shall be provided with anchors or hoops sharing part of the horizontal load supported by the connector. Rsc.3 Channel Shear Connectors The allowable horizontal load.12 ( tf + 0. enlarged at a slope of 1:5 (see Fig.4. tw = flange and web thicknesses.4. cm. A1.262 Steel Bridges Rbl = 0. 6.7 Rh ≤ Rw Where Ran = Horizontal load supported by anchor Rh = Horizontal load supported by hoop 6.5 Ran ≤ Rw And Rsc = Rbl + 0.

whichever is the smaller. And fcu in kg/cm2 .4.cm.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 263 Fig. tc = Width of the outstanding leg of the angle connector. cm.18 Channel Shear Connectors 5.19). The length of an angle connector shall not exceed 300 mm (Fig.4 Angle Connectors The height of the outstanding leg of an angle connector shall not exceed ten times the angle thickness or 150 mm. 6.4. 6. The allowable horizontal load for an angle connector shall be computed as follows: Rsc = 4 Lc tc3/4 fcu2/3≤ Rw where Lc = Length of the angle connector .

The length of the bar on each side of the angle connector standing leg shall be computed based on the allowable bond strength of concrete following the provisions of the Egyptian Code of Practice for Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure. 6. .19 Angle Shear Connectors It is recommended to provide a bar welded to the angle to prevent uplift of the concrete slab.264 Steel Bridges Fig. cm Fys = Yield stress of the bar. kg/cm2 Rsc = Allowable shear load for one angle connector.45 (Rsc / Fys)1/2 Where Φ = Diameter of the bar. the minimum diameter of the bar shall be computed from the following: Φ ≥ 0.

If stud connectors are placed in a staggered configuration. after installation. The nominal diameter of the stud head shall not be less than one and half times the stud diameter. Within ribs of formed steel decks. Fig. 6. 6. see Fig. (Fig. 6.5 Stud Connectors Despite this wide range of connector types.20 Automatic Welding of Stud Shear Connectors The length of the stud connector shall not be less than four times its diameter.20 and 6. The value of ds shall not exceed twice the thickness of the steel girder top flange. 6. and (4ds) transverse to the longitudinal axis of the supporting composite girder .4.4.21.22). the minimum permissible spacing is 4ds in any direction.21 shows a typical shear stud before and after welding. These machines allow operators to weld approximately 1000 studs per day.20.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 265 6. 6. ds. The stud can be forge welded to the steel section in one operation using a special hand held welding machine. Except where formed steel decks are used. . the stud connector. has now become the primary method of connections for composite beams. the minimum center-to-center spacing of studs shall be (6ds) measured along the longitudinal axis of the girder . Fig. ds. Fig. the minimum transversal spacing of stud central lines shall be 3ds.

6. 6.21 Stud Shear Connectors Fig.266 Steel Bridges Fig.22 Minimum Spacing of Stud Connectors .

In order to ensure adequate embedment of shear connectors in concrete slab. the minimum concrete cover on top of the connector shall not be less than 20 mm.4.58 Asc Fy where: Asc = Cross sectional area of stud connector. the sides of the haunch should lie outside a line drawn at maximum of 45o from the outside edge of the connector.3 Placement and Spacing Except for stud connectors. Rsc. b.2 Concrete Cover a. The maximum center-to-center spacing of connectors shall not exceed the least of the following: • 60 cm • Three times the total slab thickness (do) • Four times the connector height including hoops or anchors.1 Connection to Steel Flange The connection between the shear connectors and the girder flange shall be designed to resist the horizontal shear load acting on the connector.5 General Requirements for Shear Connectors 6. 6. section 6.5. do.5.4.4.Except for formed steel slab. On the other hand. for one stud connector shall be computed from the following formula: Rsc = 0. if any. . the connector shall have at least 50 mm of lateral concrete cover. The lateral concrete cover from the side of the haunch to the connector should be not less than 50 mm.4. 6.4.17 Asc ( fcu Ec ) ½ ≤ Rw ≤ 0. the minimum center-to-center spacing of shear connectors shall not be less than the total depth of the slab including haunch. cm2 Fy = The yield stress of stud steel connectors 6.5.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 267 The allowable horizontal load.4.

e. or plates. Besides minimizing grout loss during casting of concrete.23 End Closure for Concrete Slab .4. 6.g. 6.268 Steel Bridges However. End closures have to be fixed to the steel girders before casting the concrete slab.4. channels. as shown in Fig. 6. angles. Fig. the maximum spacing of connectors may be exceeded over supports to avoid placing connectors at locations of high tensile stresses in the steel girder upper flange. 6.5.5 Concrete Slab Edges Concrete slab edges shall be provided with end closures. end closures enhance the shear connectivity between concrete slab and steel girders at zones of maximum shear forces.23. End closures also help in resisting forces arising from shrinkage and creep.4 Dimensions of Steel Flange The thickness of steel flange to which the connector is fastened shall be sufficient to allow proper welding and proper transfer of load from the connector to the web plate without local failure or excessive deformations.5. The distance between the edge of a connector and the edge of the girder flange to which it is welded should not be less than 25 mm .

5 m 3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm governs Total effective width bER + bEL = 150 + 132 = 282 cm .391 cm Is = 3953428 cm4 Zus = 27571 cm3 Zls = 45965 cm3 b) Effective Slab Width: For the right girder: bER = b* = 150 cm (Side Walk Slab) bEL = smaller of: 1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.2) = 16.5 DESIGN EXAMPLE: The design example presented in chapter 5 is used here to illustrate the method of design of composite plate girders.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 269 6. The example uses the same values of the straining actions at the middle section.4375 m 2) Spacing /2 = 7/2 = 3. The selection of the girder cross section is essentially a trial-and-error procedure in which a trial section is assumed and used to check the resulting stresses in both steel and concrete: The following section is assumed: a) Web 2250 × 14 b) Top Flange 400 × 12 (bf / 2tf = 40 / (2 ×1.667 > 21 / f y = 11 No problem since flange is prevented from local buckling by deck slab) c) Bottom Flange 600 × 32 Section properties are then computed for the following cases: a) Steel section only: Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Yus = 143.

533 = 0. rT= 8 cm Lu/rT = 450 / 8 = 56.1 t/cm2 (compression flange is laterally supported by deck slab) b) Due to D.453 Checks: 1.062 2.144 Fus = 700 × 100/195465 = 0.396 Fus = 115 × 100/79809 = 0.358 1.L.838 Fls = 115 × 100/59720 Fuc = (115 × 100/65200) *(1000/27) = 6.899 Lower Steel (+) Upper Concrete 2 t/cm kg / cm2 Fls = 385 × 100/45965 = 0 for non-shored construction = 0.5 m.396 t / cm2 compression flange is laterally supported by upper bracing with Lu = 4.193 Fls = 700x100/65933 Fuc = (700/141619) *(1000/9) = 54.092 61.Compression at Upper Steel : a) Total stress: Fus = 1.92 = 1.899 < Fb = 2. only Fus = 1.270 Steel Bridges c) Composite section with n = 9 (Fcu = 300 kg / m2) Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Y'us = 57.186 cm Iv = 7836139 cm4 Z′us = 79809 cm3 Z′ls = 59720 cm3 Zuc = 65200 cm3 Check of Bending Stresses: a) Non-Shored Construction: Load DL 1 DL 2 LL + I Total Upper Steel (-) t/cm2 Fus = 385 × 100/27571 = 1.862 cm Iv = 11309956 cm4 Z′us = 195465 cm3 Z′ls = 65933 cm3 Zuc = 141619 cm3 d) Composite section with n = 3 × 9 = 27 (Effect of Creep) Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Y'us = 98.25 .

92 = 83.229 + 54.10 t/cm2 fsr = 0.899 t/cm2 Upper Steel Lower Steel Upper Concrete: fuc=50000*1000 / (65200*27) + 70000*1000 / (141619*9) = 28. Tension at Upper Steel : a) Total Tension: b) Fatigue fls = 2.3) Table 3.a: ADTT >2500. 2.358 = 0.K.58 Fy = 1.453 < 70 kg/cm2 b) Shored Construction: DL1 + DL2 LL + I fus= 50000 / 79809 + 70000 / 195465 = = 0.531 < Fsr = 1.062 = 1.323 kg/cm2 Code recommends to neglect creep in computing concrete stresses: Upper Concrete: fus=50000*1000 / (141619*9) + 70000*1000 / (141619*9) = 39.837 + 1.176x10 5 C b Fus < FLTB O.985 t/cm2 fls = 50000 / 59720 + 70000 / 65933 = = 0.062 = 0.2 of Table 3.149 kg/cm2 Note that shored construction results in decrease of steel stresses and increase in concrete stresses.626 + 0. .403 + 54.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 271 L u / rT ≤ 188 Fltb 2 = ( 0.1. Number of cycles = 2 ×106 Detail Class = B′ (case 4.2 gives Fsr = 1.64 − Cb Fy = 99 )Fy ≤ 0.955 t/cm2 ( L u / rT ) 2 Fy 1. Compression on Upper Concrete: Concrete fuc = 61.5 × 1.92 = 94.02 t/cm2 {The allowable fatigue stress range (Fsr) is obtained as follows: * From ECP Table 3.092 < Fb = 2.02 t/cm2 > fsr } 3.

210 t/cm' .29 t ii) Stud Connection Capacity: The allowable stress range in shear on the nominal area of the stud (case 26 of table 3.3 t/cm2 Ec = 240 t/cm2 Rsc = 0.808 t governs τsr = (0.52 t OR = 0..e.4)2 = 4.5 × 62+ (18 + 100) = 149 tons The shear / unit length is τ = Qc Sc / Iv Where Sc = first moment of area of the concrete slab about the neutral axis of the composite section = Ac * yc = (282 × 22/9) * (57. Rw = Shear range / stud = π / 4 (2.272 Steel Bridges Design of Shear Connectors Assuming non-shored construction.5 * QDL1 + (QDL2 + QLL+I) = 0.862+11) = 47469 cm3 τ = 149 × 47469 / 11309956 = 0.4)2 × 0.2.300 × 240)1/2 = 6.52 cm2 Fcu = 300 kg / cm2 = 0.4 = 1. i.58 ASC Fy ≤ Rw using φ 24 mm studs.17 × 4.625 t / cm' a) Stud Connecters: i) Stud Capacity: The allowable load of one stud connector is computed as: Rsc = 0.52 (0.58 Asc × Fy = 6.17 Asc (fcu Ec)1/2 ≤ 0.4 t/cm2 according to table 3.3) is equal to 0. Asc = π / 4 (2.5 × 100) ×47469 / 11309956 = 0. the shear force to be carried by the connectors at the support is: Qc = 0.

3 × 200)1/2 = 24 t However.3) × 20 (0.41 t/cm2 Assuming 2 x 20 cm length of 5 mm weld.4 cm) b) Channel Connector: The allowable load on one channel connector is calculated from: Rsc = 0.846 cm Use studs at 20 cm (check: e ≥ 6d = 14.2 → τsr = 0.808 × 3/ 0.21 = 39.05 cm Use Channel C12 spaced at 30 cm.21 = 25.12 (1 + 0.5 × 0.2 t Connector Spacing = 8. the design is usually governed by the fatigue capacity of the welded connection between the channel and the top flange computed as follow: According to Case 24 of table 3.Chapter 6: Composite Plate Girder Bridges 273 Using 3 studs per row: Spacing e ≤ R/τsr = 1.3 → Fatigue Class E′ From Table 3. .2/0. then Rw = 2 × 20 × 0.41 = 8.

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges CHAPTER 7 BOX GIRDER BRIDGES .

With the development of electric welding and precision flame cutting.their flanges can be made much wider. For medium span bridges. The scope of application of such designs could cover the medium span range from about 45 m to 100 m. Design and construction techniques already popular and common for plate girder bridges can be utilized to produce box girder bridges of clean appearance whilst maintaining relative simplicity and speedy construction procedures. very long unsupported spans can be adopted. The problems of lateral torsional buckling.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 7 BOX GIRDER BRIDGES 7. box girders offer an attractive form of construction. It is now possible to design large welded units in a more economical way. and if a bridge is to be erected by cantilevering.they possess torsional stiffness. these properties can also make box girder bridges simpler in principle to erect. and 2. the structural possibilities increased enormously. . thus solving the problem of providing a large steel area within a narrow width of plate. do not arise. As well as being advantageous in the completed condition of the bridge. Until 1940 the structural possibilities for box girders were limited. plates and riveted connections.1 INTRODUCTION Box girders have two properties which can offer substantial advantages in certain circumstances over plate girders: 1. most bridge girders were assembled from rolled sections. for example.

1 : 1. The prime effect this has on global bending behavior is to share the vertical shear more equally between the web plates.2.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 277 A bridge box girder consists of. box girders behave more efficiently – there is less need to design for peak load effects which occur on only one plate girder at a time. vertical or inclined. see Fig. 3. 7. 4. 7. As a result. Fig. see Fig. 2.the use of inclined webs provides an efficient aerodynamic shape which is important for long span bridges. and lighter diaphragms or cross bracings at distances of about 2. bending stresses in the flange plates are also more evenly shared.5 times the construction depth. such as: i. Box girders. a concrete deck or an orthotropic steel deck serving as the top flange. in addition.1 Components of a Box Girder Clearly. stiff diaphragms or cross bracings at supports. the feature which differentiates the behavior of box girder bridges from plate girder bridges is the much greater torsional stiffness of the closed section. have other advantages over plate girders which make their use attractive. Web plates. a stiffened plate as a bottom flange. ii.a much neater appearance since the stiffening can remain invisible inside the box. . Consequently upon this equal sharing. 7.

For railway bridges the ratios should be smaller. Fig. The following table gives the economic span limits for roadway bridges: U U Simple span Continuous spans Composite concrete deck 20 – 100 30 – 140 Orthotropic deck 70 – 120 100 – 250 The longest span so far is 300 m achieved in 1974 by costa de silva bridge in Rio de Janeiro. It is possible to reduce the depth. 7.3 are limited to bridges of fairly narrow width (although some very wide shallow single boxes have been used in long span suspension bridges which are outside the scope of this book). if necessary. . The above ratios are valid for roadway bridges. say 15 and 20.Steel Bridges Fig. 7. twin or multiple box girders.2 Box Girder Section for Long Span Bridges Usual Span Ranges: Box girders are suitable for longer span than plate girders and allow larger span-to-depth ratios. single box forms. The span to depth ratio will normally be around 20 to 25 for simple girders and around 25 to 35 for continuous girders. Generally. at the expense of additional steel.2 CROSS SECTION ARRANGEMENTS Box girder bridges can be constructed with single. 7.

3 Box Girder Bridge Sections with One Box . 7.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 279 Fig.

whilst perfectly practical to design and fabricate. Multiple boxes are needed for wider roads. and an orthotropic steel deck if it is over 200 m. rather than transversally between the lines of the box webs. merely common practice). can cause problems in transport). and between 20 m and 33 m for twin boxes with cross girders between them and cantilevers outside the outer webs. so that the deck slab works longitudinally. If the deck is of concrete. interconnected by cross girders which are usually fabricated plate girders and having also fabricated plate cantilever brackets projecting beyond their outer webs (Fig. The use of separate structures for the two lanes of a dual lane bridge ensures that even if one superstructure is damaged or even destroyed the bridge can continue to be used whilst it is being repaired or replaced. The deck can either be of reinforced concrete or of orthotropic stiffened steel plate. it will act compositely with the main box girders and also with the transverse plate girders and cantilevers.4). Using these figures gives total bridge widths of between 8 m and 14 m for a single box with cantilevers either side. . it forms parts of the flanges of the boxes. Between these limits consideration should be given to either form of construction. these are not absolute limits. Cantilever brackets would normally be made between about 3 m and 5 m long. Alternatively. An alternative solution to two lane bridges involves carrying each lane on its own individual single box girder. Such a layout has a number of advantages in addition to overcoming the problem of fitting a cross girder accurately between two longitudinal girders present in plate girder bridges. by diverting two way traffic on to the remaining structure. As general guidance. boxes much in excess of 4 m in width. if of steel plate. and cross girders between 10 m and 15 m in length (again. The most usual layout for bridges of medium span consists of two longitudinal box girders.Steel Bridges Typical width of the boxes themselves would be between about 2 m and 4 m although both wider and narrower boxes have been used (it is common practice for the box to be made complete in the fabricator's works in order to minimize site assembly. It must always be remembered that special considerations may require the use of a particular type of deck outside the suggested span ranges quoted above. a reinforced concrete deck would be used if the bridge span is less than about 150 m. wide roads can be carried on twin box sections with cross girders. of course.7.

the top flange plates are stiffened orthotropically to carry traffic wheel loads as well as acting as the top flange of the box girder.4 Box Girder Bridge Sections with Two Boxes When a reinforced concrete slab is used for the deck. When the bridge deck is steel. Shear connectors are arranged on the top of these flanges to ensure composite action. . These flanges need to be stabilized laterally by upper horizontal bracing during construction. In this case separate (and relatively small) flange plates are provided at the top of each web. the steel girders may be closed box sections or may be open sections (U – shaped) which are closed when the slab is cast. This stiffening usually takes the form of longitudinal trapezoidal ribs supported at regular intervals by transverse beams.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 281 Fig. 7.

Local analysis of the deck slab is usually carried out separately from the global analysis. the use of nonvertical webs should be avoided since this combination would give rise to extremely awkward detailing problems. and 2.A symmetrical component with both webs subjected to two equal vertical loads. The symmetric component causes the box girder to be subjected to: 1.2 Bending. Whilst this is probably the commonest cross-section.3. 7. it is necessary to use computer analysis.Steel Bridges In the descriptions above it has been implicitly assumed that the steel boxes themselves are of rectangular cross-section. torsion and distortion The general case of an eccentric load applied to a box girder may be resolved into two components.An anti-symmetrical component with the two webs subjected to two equal and opposite forces forming a couple. . For proper and efficient evaluation of bending and torsion effects.5: 1.distortion from bending if the girder section is open The anti-symmetric component causes the box girder to be subjected to: 1.distortion from torsion. 7. there is no reason in principle why the webs should be vertical.1 Structural Analysis A global structural analysis of the bridge is usually required in order to establish the maximum forces and moments at the critical sections of the bridge under the variety of possible loading conditions.3. see Fig. If the depth of the web varies according to the bending moment requirements. In some cases of very large boxes this provides an expedient by which a two lane deck maybe carried on a single box. and could sometimes result in ugly appearance of the bridge 7. many boxes from the smallest to the largest have had sloping webs.3 BEHAVIOUR OF BOX GIRDER BRIDGES 7.shear stresses from torsions 2.shear and bending in a vertical plan 2. The loading on the deck may be transferred to the webs through deck slab action or through cross girders inside the box bearing on transverse stiffeners on the webs.

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 283 Fig.5 Effect of Eccentric Loading on Box Girder Sections: . 7.

7.1 Shear Lag Phenomenon When the axial load is fed into a wide flange by shear from the webs. the flange distorts in its plane and plane sections do not remain plane. This phenomenon is known as "Shear Lag". Shear lag can be allowed for in the elementary theory of bending..6 Actual Bending Stress Distribution in a Box Girder. shear lag effects have to be taken into account for the verification of stresses.Steel Bridges 7. since it causes the longitudinal stress at a flange/web intersection to exceed the mean stress in the flange.e. i. plane sections do not remain plane. the distribution of the bending stresses is non-uniform because the flange distorts in its own plane. In very wide flanges. . 7. This effective flange breadth depends on the ratio of width to span. by using an effective flange breadth (less than the real breadth) such that the stress in the effective breadth equals the peak stress in the actual flange. 7.7. Fig.6. 7.4 Effect Bending Bending moments produce longitudinal normal stresses in the box girder given by: M f = xy Ix Since box girders contain wide flanges. especially for short spans. The resulting stress distribution in the flange is not uniform as shown in Fig. see Fig.4.

For continuous girders. and the type and position of loading.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 285 Fig. b) b e = kψb for portions projecting beyond an outer web. or in the case of a cantilever beam. measured along the mid-plane of the flange plate. k = (1 – 0. the effective widths are obtained separately for the individual equivalent simple spans between the points of inflection. Fortunately. in most situations the span/breadth ratio is not sufficiently large to cause more than 10-20% increase in peak stress.7 Effective breadth for shear lag effects The effective width is a function of the ratio of the span L to the width b of the box. on account of shear lag. between the support and the free end.15b/L). According to British Standards BS5400 : 3/2000: width b e should be taken as follows: U U RB RB The effective a) b e = ψb RB RB for portions between webs: where b = half the distance between centers of webs measured along the mid-plane of the flange plate. the cross-sectional area of the stress carrying stiffeners. . L = span of a beam between centers of support. 7. RB RB where b = distance from the free edge of the projecting portion to the centre of the outer web.

a = 0 if there are no stiffeners on the flange within the width b in the span direction. The value of ψ at an interior support should be taken as the mean of the values obtained for adjacent spans.95 0.40 0.38 0. otherwise: a= sectional area of flange stiffeners in width b sectional area of flange plate in width b Values of ψ for intermediate values of b/L and a and for intermediate positions in the span may be obtained by linear interpolation. Table 7.98 0.28 0.16 0.17 0.32 0.00 1.44 0.96 0.52 0.1 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for simply supported beams Mid-span a=0 a= 1 1.09 b/L 0.60 0.70 0.15 0.12 Quarter span a=0 a=1 1.61 0.77 0.89 0.38 0. the values of ψ given in these may be adopted for all sections in the span.17 0.22 0.75 1.27 0.66 0.20 0.18 0.50 0.30 0.97 0.47 0.36 0. For the purpose of calculating deflections of beams.Steel Bridges ψ = appropriate effective breadth ratio taken from Tables 7.12 0.40 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.84 0.10 0.28 0. For end spans of continuous beams the effective breadth ratios may be obtained by treating the end span as a propped cantilever of the same span.12 0.00 .50 0.81 0.67 0.93 0.16 0.3 for uniformly distributed loads.77 0.1 – 7.62 0.35 0.11 Support a=0 a=1 1.00 0.46 0.00 1.25 0.00 1.20 0.98 0.22 0.32 0.

90 0.2 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for interior spans of continuous beams Mid-span a=0 a=1 1.12 0.95 0.00 0.00 1. 3.70 0.24 0.48 0.Shear in web.Bending compression in web.18 7.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 287 Table 7.20 0.07 0.00 1.61 0.40 0.52 0.17 0. 2.00 0.14 Quarter span near fixed end a=0 a=1 1.00 1.52 0.33 0.60 0.27 a=1 1.96 0.10 0.25 0.20 0.85 0.13 0.91 0.44 0.42 0.Axial compression in compression flange.24 0.00 0.00 1.40 0.00 Table 7.88 0.00 1.15 0.07 0.18 0.16 0.07 Support a=0 a=1 1.75 1.18 a=1 1. web and flange plates of a box girder must satisfy the requirements of ECP code for local plate buckling resulting from: 1.50 0.14 0.68 0.09 0.14 0.10 0.38 0.86 0.62 0.09 Quarter span a=0 a=1 1.35 0.92 0.35 0.20 0.76 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.38 0.31 0.76 0.38 0.10 0.2 Effect of Local Buckling In addition.84 0.00 0.00 a=0 1.00 0.00 0.72 0.00 0.08 0.21 0.55 0.30 0.75 0.76 0.58 0.00 1.32 0.4.86 0.30 0.20 0.00 0.77 0.30 0.23 0.68 0.00 1.30 0.00 1.00 1.11 0.27 Free end a=0 1.00 1.41 0.05 b/L 0.52 0.27 0.10 0.08 0.40 0.34 0.28 0.85 0.82 0.00 0. .18 0.22 0.15 0.11 0.06 0.50 0.05 0.50 0.75 1.3 – Effective breadth ratio ψ for cantilever beams Fixed end b/L 0.40 0.42 0.60 0.38 0.00 0.

52) and. 52 RB RB RB RB  d w  190  Either :  t 〉 F  w y 1. 52)  w y .Steel Bridges 7.2.15 − 0.05 ψ ) / λ2 p RB RB b e = ρ b.provide longitudinal web stiffeners at d/5 from compression flange such that:  d w  320    t  ≤ F (= 168 for st. b/t 44 ( ψ = 1) λp = Fy / k σ 7.  w y If Use another stiffener at d/2 such that  d w  370    t  ≤ F (= 195 for st.58 f y gives d w /t w = 100 for st.1 Local Buckling of Compression Flange: The compression flange is non-compact if elements and b 21 for unstiffened elements ≤ t Fy b 64 ≤ t Fy for stiffened If (b/t) exceeds these limits then either: (1) provide longitudinal flange stiffeners to satisfy these requirements.2 Web Buckling due to Bending : Web is non-compact in pure bending (ψ = -1 ) if: dw 190 ≤ tw Fy RB RB RB RB For the case F all = 0. if need .4. or (2) base design on effective width b e calculated as follows : RB RB ρ = (λ p − 0.4.2.

5 d/t = 70 this gives : q b = 1.35 Fy = 0.4.9 113.5 − (d / t ) Fy / 212 = 119 (0.625 λ q ) 0.base design on effective width d e calculated as follows: RB RB de = ρ d c = ρ d / 2 ρ = λ p − 0.2) ( λ q 〉 1.8 〈 λ q 〈 1. 52 RB RB If d/t 〉 105 Fy then reduce allowable shear stress to q b given by : q b = (1.6 d/t  =  23.4   ( )   for st .35 Fy ) for for d ≤ 159 / Fy t d 〉 159 / Fy t .9 ( 0.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 289 Or 2.35 Fy ) (d / t ) Fy ( ) (0.35 Fy ) λq λq = d/t 57 Fy kq ( α 〈 1) (α 〉 1) ( 0. 52   7.34 + 4 / α 2 For vertically unstiffened webs : (α >> 1) k q = 5.2.3 Web Buckling due to Shear: Web is non-compact in shear if For the case q all = 0.5 − 0.35 F y RB RB RB dw 105 ≤ tw Fy RB d/t = 55 for St. (ψ = − 1) λp = d/t 44 Fy / k σ .9) λp = d/t 44  3.05Ψ / λ 2 p . (k σ = 23.34 / α 2 = 5.2) Where: k q = 4 + 5.34 λq = λq d/t Fy 132.15 − 0.

where the allowable bending stress is plotted on the vertical axis and the allowable buckling shear stress of the girder is plotted horizontally.6 q b qb Fig. RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB 0. In region AB.4.Steel Bridges 7.44 Fy C D Shear Stress 0. At the other extreme of the interaction diagram in region CD.58 F y to 0.6 q b ) and the girder can sustain the full bending stress F b based on the effective width b eff for the compression flange. The equation representing this interaction diagram is : ( t Fb = [0. any cross-section of a box girder will be subjected to bending moment in addition to shear. the applied shear stress is high (=q b ) then the allowable bending stress is reduced to 0. with any point lying on the curve defining the co-existent values of shear and bending that the girder can just sustain. This combination makes the stress conditions in the girder web considerably more complex. The interaction between shear and bending can be conveniently represented by the diagram shown in Fig.8 − 0.58 Fy Bending Stress A B 0. In the intermediate region BC the allowable bending stress is reduced linearly from 0.3 Combined Shear & Bending In general. The interaction represents a failure envelope.44 F y to allow for the high shear. 7.3 6q a c / q b )] Fy The interaction diagram can be considered in 3 regions.44 F y.8. The stresses from the bending moment will combine with the shear stresses to give a lower buckling load. 7.8 Interaction between Shear and Bending . the applied shear stress q act is low (< 0.

In addition. they are usually either directly under each web or just inside the line of the webs.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 291 7. whose effects depend on the behavior of the structure between the point of application and the nearest positions where the box section is restrained against distortion.9. However. see Fig. bearings will be provided. torsion is in fact resisted in a box section by a shear flow around the whole perimeter. statically in equilibrium. 7. they are particularly effective where concentrated eccentric effects are introduced. 7. as shown in Figure 7. 7.5 simply as a force couple. Between points of support. pure torsion and distortion. At supports. The couple should therefore be separated into two parts. .5 Effect of Torsion The torsion component is shown in Figure 7. may be provided to limit the distortional effects of eccentrically applied loads. a diaphragm (or at least a stiff ring frame) will be required to resist the distortional effects consequent in transmitting the torsion from the box to a pair of bearing supports. a stiffened diaphragm will be needed to resist the reaction and to distribute the force to the webs. see Fig. Where a pair of bearings is provided. Fig.10. bearing support stiffeners will be required on the web. The distortion component comprises an internal set of forces.9 End Bearings of a Box Girder In some cases only a single bearing is provided. To resist forces reacting on the bearings as a result of the bending and torsion components. intermediate transverse web stiffeners may be provided to develop sufficient shear resistance in a thin web. Intermediate cross-frames may also be provided to facilitate construction.5. Intermediate diaphragms or cross frames. such as from a cantilever on the side of the box.

10 Diaphragms and Cross Frames in Box Girders 7. The shear flow produces shear stresses and strains in the walls and gives rise to a twist per unit length. This shear flow (force/unit length) is constant around the box and is given by q = T/2A. (In Figure 7.5. unless there is sufficient symmetry in the section as shown in Figure 7.11. However. . it is less well appreciated that this pure torsion of a thin walled section will also produce a warping of the cross-section. Ө which is given by the general expression : θ= T 4A 2 G ds T or . 7. where T is the torque and A is the area enclosed by the box.Steel Bridges Fig. the torque is resisted by a shear flow which acts around the walls of the box. For a single cell box.5 the torque is QB/2 and the shear flow is Q/4D). θ = ∫t GJ where J is the torsion constant.1 Torsion and Torsional Warping The theoretical behavior of a thin-walled box section subject to pure torsion is well known and treated in many standard texts.

it is conservative to ignore the warping shear stresses and use the simple uniform distribution. This restraint of warping gives rise to longitudinal warping stresses and associated shear stresses in the same manner as bending effects in each wall of the box. warping is fully restrained in the middle by virtue of symmetry and torsional warping stresses are generated. 7. Similar restraint occurs in continuous box sections which are torsionally restrained at supports. . the occurrence of yield at the corners and the consequent relief of some or all of these warping stresses would not reduce the torsional resistance. But since the longitudinal stresses do not actually participate in the carrying of the torsion. The longitudinal effects are. They need to be taken into account when considering the occurrence of yield stresses in service and the stress range under fatigue loading. Because maximum combined effects usually occur at the corners. The shear stresses effectively modify slightly the uniformity of the shear stress calculated by pure torsion theory. In simple terms.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 293 Fig.11 Warping of a Rectangular Box subject to Pure Torsion. For a simple uniform box section subject to pure torsion this warping is unrestrained and does not give rise to any secondary stresses. a box is supported and torsionally restrained at both ends and then subjected to applied torque in the middle. But if for example. a little plastic redistribution can be accepted at the ultimate limit state and therefore there is no need to include torsional warping stresses in the ultimate limit state checks. on the other hand greatest at the corners. usually reducing the stress near corners and increasing it in mid-panel.

(Cross bracing or a plated diaphragm would be even more effective).Steel Bridges 7. it tends to resist the distortion of the cross section by 'sway bending' of the form shown in Figure 7. consider a simply supported box which is subject to a point load over one web at mid-span. If torsion is not applied in this manner. or when point loads can occur anywhere along the beam such as concentrated axle loads from vehicles. But such restraint can only be provided at discrete positions.5. the stiffer the frame the less the distortion of the cross section.12 Distortion of Box Girder with Stiff Corners or Cross-Frames . When the load is distributed along the beam. Provision of such diaphragms or frames is practical. the distortional effects must be carried by other means. at supports and at positions where heavy point loads are introduced. Figure 7. If a flexible intermediate cross-frame (a ring stiffener without any triangulated bracing in its plane) is placed at the point of application of the load.12. a diaphragm or stiff frame might be provided at the position where the force couple is applied to ensure that the section remains square and that torque is in fact fed into the box walls as a shear flow around the perimeter. there is no tendency for the cross section to change its shape. To illustrate how distortion occurs and is carried between effective restraints.5. by forces exactly equal to the shear flow in each of the sides of the box. and indeed necessary. Obviously.2 Distortion When torsion is applied directly around the perimeter of a box section. The diaphragm or frame is then subject to a set of distortional forces as shown in Figure 7.

Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 295 The bending of cross-frames and the walls of a box. produces transverse distortional bending stresses in the box section. It must be emphasized that distortional effects are primary effects – they are an essential part of the means of carrying loads applied other than at stiff diaphragms – and they should not be ignored. The BEF model is used as the basis for the rules in Appendix B of BS 5400 Part 3 for calculating distortion and warping stresses in box girders. representing the transverse distortional bending resistance. The behavior has been demonstrated to be analogous to that of a beam on an elastic foundation. In general the distortional behavior depends on interaction between the two sorts of behavior. as a result of the distortional forces. This Appendix is shown in the next section. the warping and the transverse distortional bending. U U . BEF.

t.Steel Bridges 7. Web Plate Thickness: The minimum thickness for a web without transverse stiffeners is obtained from: t2 = Q / (41. The same roadway is carried by two box girders as shown below: 1500 2150 7000 2700 2150 1500 320 220 25 1450 25 The example uses the same values of the straining actions as shown next: Action Load Case Dead Load DL1 Add.t. Dead Load DL2 Live Load LL+I Sum At Support Q M (t) (m..1 Web Plate Design: Web Plate Height: The web plate height shall be assumed at 148 cm which corresponds to an inclined web plate length of 150 cm (standard plate width).) 62 0 18 0 100 0 180 0 Mid section Q M (t) (m.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE: The design example presented in chapter 5 and chapter 6 is used here to illustrate the method of design of composite box girders.65 3. 1480 .065 cm PP P Use t = 12 mm (next even integer) without transverse stiffeners. each web carries Q = 180/2 = 90 ton (at support).6 ) = 1.e.65 Fy ) PP P Since the total shear force is carried by two webs.135 i. This gives: t2 = 90 / 41.) 0 385 0 115 25 700 25 1200 7.6. t = 1.

Web Plate is safe against buckling due to shear at support .Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 297 Check of web buckling due to shear: Allowable Buckling Shear Stress = q b = ( 119 / (d/t) Fy ) (0.K .2) Fy ) (0.e.2 i.) 146 × 1.632 t/cm2 RB RB RB RB PP P Actual Shear Stress: q act = 90 = 0.35 F y) = 0.35 F y) RB RB RB RB q b = ( 119 / (150/1..514 t / cm 2 < q b ( O.

4375 m 2) Spacing /2 = 2.Steel Bridges 7.5 /8 = 3.35 m 3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm governs RB RB U U Total Effective Slab Width = (150 + 107.2) = 12.075 m governs 3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm RB RB U U b EL = smaller of: 1) Span/8 = 27.5 /8 = 3.4375 m 2) Spacing /2 = 2.15/2 = 1.5 > 21 / f y = 11 (No problem since flange is prevented from local buckling by deck slab) RB RB RB RB c) Bottom Flange 1500 × 22 Section properties are then computed for the following cases: U a) Steel section only: Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Y us = 99.70/2 = 1.5 /8 = 3.2 Main Girder Design: The section properties of the proposed cross section are as follows: The following section is assumed: a) Two Webs 1500 × 12 b) Top Flange 300 × 12 (b f / 2t f = 30 / (2 ×1.075 m governs 3) 6 ts = 6 * 22 = 132 cm RB RB U U RB RB U U For the interior web: b ER = smaller of: 1) Span/8 = 27.5) + (107.336 cm I s = 2360156 cm4 Z us = 23759 cm3 Z ls = 49310 cm3 RB RB RB RB PP P RB RB PP P RB RB PP P b) Effective Slab Width: For the exterior web: b ER = b* = 150 cm (Side Walk Slab) b EL = smaller of: 1) Span/8 = 27.5+132) = 497 cm .15/2 = 1.6.4375 m 2) Spacing /2 = 2.

10 PP P RB RB RB RB 1.1 t/cm2 (compression flange is laterally supported by deck slab) RB RB U U RB RB U U PP P b) Due to D.125 F us = 700 × 100/258941 = 0. r T = 8 cm L u /r T = 450 / 8 = 56.998 PP P RB RB RB RB RB RB U Upper Concrete kg / cm2 = 0 for non-shored construction F us = (115 × 100/67656) *(1000/27) = 2.620 t / cm2 U U PP P Assume compression flange is laterally supported by upper bracing with L u = 4.956 U U 53.575 F us = (700/152206) *(1000/9) = 51. only Fus = 1.25 RB RB RB RB RB RB RB RB L u / rT ≤ 188 Cb Fy = 99 .L.Compression in Upper Steel : a) Total stress: F us = 2.781 F ls = 115 × 100/64985 = 0.372 cm I v = 8123595 cm4 Z′ us = 258941 cm3 Z′ ls = 70153 cm3 Z uc = 152206 cm3 RB RB RB RB PP P RB RB PP P RB RB PP RB RB PP P d) Composite section with n = 3 × 9 = 27 (Effect of Creep) Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Y' us = 60.620 F us = 115 × 100/92908 = 0.5 m.016 PP P RB RB RB RB RB RB U U Lower Steel (+) t/cm2 F ls = 385 × 100/49310 = 0.676 U Checks: 1.016 < F b = 2.896 cm I v = 5608461 cm4 Z′ us = 92098 cm3 Z′ ls = 64985 cm3 Z uc = 67656 cm3 RB RB RB RB PP P RB RB PP P RB RB PP RB RB PP P Check of Bending Stresses: a) Non-Shored Construction: U Load DL 1 DL 2 LL + I Total U U Upper Steel (-) t/cm2 F us = 385 × 100/23759 = 1.177 F ls = 700x100/70153 = 0.270 2.Chapter 7: Box Girder Bridges 299 c) Composite section with n = 9 (F cu = 300 kg / m2) RB RB PP P Centroid Intertia Section Moduli Y' us = 31.

302 0 32.58 Fy = 1.3 Comparison between Different Designs: The following table shows a comparison between the total weight of steel needed for the bridge according to the three designed presented in Chapter 5 using non-composite plate girders.998 = 0.2 of Table 3.499 < F sr = 1. Number of cycles = 2 ×106 Detail Class = B′ (case 4.02 t/cm2 RB RB RB RB PP P RB RB {The allowable fatigue stress range (F sr ) is obtained as follows: * From ECP Table 3.K.Composite Box Girder 2250*14 Flanges 600*36 600*36 400*12 600*32 15. RB RB 2.1.02 t/cm2 > f sr } PP P RB RB U U PP P RB RB 3.596 39. not present in the third case.6.955 t/cm2 U U F us < F LTB O. The comparison shows that the composite box girder solution uses the least weight followed by the composite plate girder solution. Tension in Upper Steel : a) Total Tension: f ls = 1.302 .176x10 5 C b RB RPBP P )Fy ≤ 0.122 2(1500*12) 2(300*12) 1500*22 32. and in Chapter 7 using composite box girders.261 23. Compression in Upper Concrete: f uc = 53. Section Weight of Main Girder 31.5 × 0.596 47.a: ADTT >2500.665 Weight of Floor Beams Total Weight Web 1.956 < F b = 2.64 − ( L u / rT ) 2 Fy 1. It should be note that the total weight of the first two cases should include the weight of the stringers and cross girders.2 gives F sr = 1.10 t/cm2 RB RB RB RB PP P b) Fatigue f sr = 0.526 15.Steel Bridges Fltb 2 = ( 0.3) Table 3.676 < 70 kg/cm2 RB RB PP P 7.Non-Composite 2250*14 Plate Girder 2.Composite Plate Girder 3. in Chapter 6 using composite plate girders.

Chapter 8: Truss Bridges CHAPTER 8 ______________________________________________________________ TRUSS BRIDGES .

except in some few special cases. 8. Ideally. This increased depth gives more rigidity to the bridge and results in reduced deflections.2. In a typical truss. A truss bridge has thus two major structural advantages: (a) the primary member forces are axial loads. see Fig. the centroidal axes of all members are straight and concurrent at the joints. most members are rigidly connected at the joints. Because the truss is loaded only at the joints. Bending moments are generally small and have a minor effect on the axial forces. all member bending moments should be close to zero. . where the girder flanges are replaced by the truss chords and the web plate is formed by an open system of web members.Steel Bridges CHAPTER 8 TRUSS BRIDGES 8. 8.1 TRUSS TYPES & CHARACTERISTICS 8. a condition that can only be achieved by using frictionless pins at the joints.1 GENERAL A truss is essentially a triangulated assembly of straight members. A truss may be used to replace a girder in several cases: as a simply supported or continuous girder. In practice.1. resulting in small moments which are usually neglected. however. as an arch.1 and Fig. applied loads are resisted primarily by axial forces induced in the truss members. A planar truss may be regarded as a deep girder. or in the deck of a suspension or a cable-stayed bridge. (b) the open web system allows a greater overall depth than in an equivalent solid web girder.

8.1 Applications of Trusses in Bridges .Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 313 Fig.

Steel Bridges Fig. 8.2 Examples of Truss Bridges .

(d) the two main truss systems. (g) additional intermediate sway frames distributing the transverse wind loads to the lateral systems and keeping the system stable during erection.1.3 Components of a Through Truss Bridge . (f) end sway frames transmitting the reactions of the lateral bracing systems to the bridge supports. (b) longitudinal stringers directly supporting the deck slab. (e) lateral bracing systems in the planes of the upper and lower chords. 8.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 315 8. This upper bracing provides rigidity. called portal frames. (a) a deck slab or similar structural system. Fig.3. stabilizes the compression chord. For through trusses. and carries the main part of the wind loads to the bridge end sway frames.2 TRUSS BRIDGE COMPONENTS A truss bridge of conventional design consists of the following parts. a system of upper wind bracings is always provided. These end frames are designed as rigid frames to transmit the load from the upper bracing to the bridge supports. see Fig. (c) cross beams at truss panel points carrying the load from the longitudinal stringers. 8.

An alternative is to subdivide these trusses as shown in Fig.4 d): The economic height-span ratio is about one-sixth to one-eighth.4 b): Where the chords carry the bending in tension and compression and the diagonals carry the shears. This alignment results in a slight increase in the fabrication cost which is offset by material savings. 8. (2) Warren Truss (Fig.4 c) Truss Chords may be placed on a curved alignment to carry part of the shear and to reduce the forces in the diagonals. The vertical members carry only panel loads. according to loading and span length. accommodate the required truss depth. A better solution may be obtained by using K-trusses to keep the desired inclinations. (4) Subdivided Panels ( Fig. 8. P P (5) K – Truss (Fig. both the warren and Pratt trusses will result in long panel length if the diagonal inclination remains about 45o.3 TRUSS FORMS The most common forms of bridge trusses are: (1) Pratt or N-Truss (Fig. truss height also increases. and also limit the strength span. . (3) Trusses with Curved chords (Fig.1.4 d. 8.4 a): In this system the diagonals are always subjected to tension while the verticals carry the shear in compression only. This case can represent an advantage since the shorter members carry the compression. 8. Thus.4 e:) Subdivided trusses develop high secondary stresses. 8. also in tension and compression. 8.Steel Bridges 8. With increasing span lengths.

1.1. Because of the lighter live loads for .Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 317 "a" N-Truss "b" Warren Truss d= (0. 8. For continuous trusses a depth-span ratio of 1 : 12 should be satisfactory. experience has shown that a depth-span ratio of 1 : 6 to 1 : 8 yields economical designs.4.7) d span 7 "c" Truss with Curved Chord "d" Subdivided Truss "e" K-Truss Fig.4 SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS 8.1 Truss Depth For simple span trusses.4 Common Forms of Trusses used in Bridges 8.5-0.

The following assumptions are usually made: 1. trusses with loads acting between joints. Trusses generally are economical for railway bridges with spans greater than 45 m.2. and trusses with member height more than one tenth of the member length. The resulting forces in the truss members are axial compression and tension.2 Economic Truss Spans Truss bridges are generally comparatively easy to erect because light equipment often can by used. trusses seldom can be economical for roadway bridges with spans less than about 130 m. 2.Members are connected at their ends by hinges. involve different factors. Railway bridges.1 Determination of Member Forces: Structural analysis techniques may be applied to the bridge system to find the effect of applied loads and forces acting on the truss members. If trusses are used for roadway bridges. where L = bridge span.4.2 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS 8. Special design considerations are outlined next. trusses are rarely used. the additional bending moment induced due to member curvature should be calculated.In case of a curved member. 4. Load cases that yield maximum straining actions should be considered carefully. Assembly of bolted joints in the field is relatively costly. 3. because of the heavier loading. 8. however.Steel Bridges roadway bridges. which may offset some of the savings in steel. Members are then designed using the allowable stress method. Consequently. 8. .1. The truss depth shall be sufficient to limit the elastic deflections due to live load without impact to L/600 for roadway bridges and L/800 for railway bridges and L/300.Loads are applied at the truss joints. somewhat shallower truss depths may be used.Secondary stresses due to joint rigidity and bending moments due to own weight are neglected expect in trusses with subdivided panels.

I-sections are usually used for light web members. 8. 8. If design permits.5: (a) Box sections made of plates or rolled sctions by welding.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 319 8. Box sections are usually used for chord members and heavy web members. Bolted connections with gusset plate shall require the existence of temporary erection openings in the box section to allow for bolt tightening.5 Common Shapes of Bridge Truss Members .2. see Fig. either rolled or built up. (b) l-sections. b b Top Chord Bottom Chord b Diagonals and Verticals b Fig.2 Cross Section Shapes for Truss Members: Members for bridge trusses generally consist of. These openings shall be closed after the truss erection. use of I-sections for chord members results in much easier connections. Box sections present some difficulties in their connection with gusset plates.

it will generally be found economic to use parallel chords to keep fabrication and erection costs down.3 Tension Chord Members Tension members should be as compact as possible. the ideal disposition of material will be one that produces a section with radii of gyration such that the ratio of effective length to radius of gyration is the same in both planes. box sections would be preferable for ease of maintenance but open sections may well prove cheaper. 8.g. Secondary stresses should be avoided as far as possible by ensuring that the neutral axes of all intersecting members meet at a single point. e. It should be possible to achieve a net section about 85% of the gross section by careful arrangement of the bolts in the splices. a greater depth is often required at the piers. The effective length for buckling in the plane of the truss is normally not the same as that for buckling out of the plane of the truss.3 GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES 8.2 Compression Chord Members These members should be kept as short as possible and consideration given to additional bracing if economical. but depths have to be large enough to provide adequate space for bolts at the gusset positions.3. The width out of the plane of the truss should be the same as that of the verticals and diagonals so that simple lapping gussets can be provided without the need for packing. in both vertical and horizontal planes.Steel Bridges 8. However. This means that fracture at the net section will not govern for common steel grades. This effect can be further complicated in through trusses where horizontal bracing may be provided at mid panel points as well as at the main nodes. As with compression members.1 Geometry For short and medium spans. depending on the arrangement of upper bracings. In other words. When making up the section for the compression chord. 8. the member is just as likely to buckle horizontally as vertically. for long continuous spans. cross girders will be deeper than the bottom chord and bracing members may be attached to only one flange of the chords.3. This will not always be possible. .3.

This arrangement prevents the truss looking overcomplex when viewed from an angle.4 Vertical and Diagonal Members These members should be all the same width normal to the plane of the truss to permit them to fit flush with or to be slotted inside the top chord (where the top-hat section is used) and to fit flush with the bottom chord. This fact can make welded members more economic. this is usually overruled by the economies of the deck structure where a constant panel length is to be preferred. the design of these members is governed by slenderness ratio conditions. particularly on the longer trusses where the packing operation might add a significant amount to the erection cost. it is desirable to keep all diagonals at the same angle. but packs will probably be required to take up the rolling margins.3 to carry wind and other lateral loads acting on the bridge. However. In addition. 8. The bridge truss chords act as the chords of the lateral system.3. seismic loads. This reduction may mean that some members are understressed. Similar intermediate portal or cross frames are used to provide space rigidity to the bridge and help in distributing lateral loads. even if the chords are not parallel. transversal bracing should be provided at truss ends to transmit lateral loads from lateral bracing systems to the bridge supports. it is often advantageous to consider the cross bracing acting in tension only and the neglect its resistance to compression. These lateral bracing systems are also effective in providing lateral supports to the main truss compression chords. particularly for the lightly loaded members. It is often possible to use rolled sections. Because of the long unbraced lengths of these members. the width of the diagonals in the plane of the truss should be reduced away from the supports by about 75 mm per panel.5 Wind Bracings Truss bridges should be provided with top and bottom lateral bracing systems as shown in Fig. and centrifugal forces. In practice.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 321 8. These transversal bracings take the form of portal frames for through bridges and cross frames for deck bridges. Forces to be considered in bracing design include wind. . however.3. In general. 8. Aesthetically.

4 DESIGN OF TRUSS MEMBERS 8. 2.2 Slenderness Ratios: The maximum allowable slenderness ratios “L/i”. Bottom chord is usually symmetrical about x and y axes. Top chord is symmetrical about y-axis.Steel Bridges 8. 3.4. “h” is usually the same for top and bottom chord members. as per the Egyptian Code of Practice are as follows: Railway 90 160 Roadway 110 180 Bracing 140 200 Hanger --300 Compression Tension 8.1 Selection of Member Dimensions: 1.3 Minimum Plate Thickness: The minimum plate thickness to be used is as follows: w 21 ≤ t FY ( Unstiffened Element ) & w 64 ≤ t FY (Stiffened Element ) where w is the plate width from the points of fixation (welds or bolts) . Start the design with the members with maximum forces.4. Member height “h” and distance between gussets “b” can be selected as follows: h b Panel Length 12 − 15 3 5 = ( − ) h 4 4 = ≤ Panel Length 10 “b” should be constant for all members. 8.4.

5 Buckling Length of Truss Bridge Members: i) According to the Egyptian Code of Practice for determination of the buckling length of truss bridge members: .000085   i L 2.4 1.000065   i L 1.6 − 0. 37 St.4.000135   i 2 2 2 8.6 2.4 − 0.1 7500 L   i 2 L 1.4 Allowable Stresses: According to the Egyptian Code of Practice for the allowable stresses of Tension and Compression Members: Grade of Steel Tension Member 0B Allowable Stresses (t/cm2) Compression Member P P 1B L 〉 100 i L 〈 100 i St.1 − 0.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 323 8. 52 1.4. 44 St.

7 The Member 0.25 the distance Member Length between lateral between U bracing members frames or 0.75 Truss Span 0.85 The Member Length 0.85 The distance between intersection with Main Chords ii) For Pony Trusses: For a bridge truss where the compression chord is laterally restrained by U-frames composed of the cross girders and verticals of the trusses.85 The 0.Steel Bridges Buckling Length of Truss Bridge Members Member Effective Buckling Length L e In-Plane Out-of-Plane Compression Compression Chord Laterally Chord Unbraced Braced 0.7 The distance between intersection with Main Chords 0.85 The 1. the effective buckling length of the compression chord (ℓ b ) is R R .0 The Member Length Member Length Length R 3B 2B Chord Members Single Web System Multiple Web System Web System 0.85 The distance 1.

Iy = The moment of inertia of the chord member about the Y-Y axis shown in Figure 4. The unit load is applied only at the point at which δ is being calculated. δ = The flexibility of the U-frame: the lateral deflection near the midspan at the level of the considered chord’s centroid due to a unit load acting laterally at each chord connected to the U-frame.6 Lateral Restraint of Pony Truss Chords by U-Frame The U-frame is considered to be free and unconnected at all points except at each point of intersection between cross girder and vertical of the truss where this joint is considered to be rigidly connected. a = The distance between the U-frames (cm). The direction of each unit load shall produce a maximum value for δ (cm).2 (cm4).5 ⋅ R R 4 E ⋅ Iy ⋅ a ⋅ δ ≥ a Where. E = The Young’s modulus (t/cm2).Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 325 ℓ b = 2. δ may be taken from: δ= 3 d1 3EI1 + d 2B 2 2EI2 . P P Y Unit Force Unit Force d1 1 d2 1 2 Y Figure 8. In case of symmetrical U-frame with constant moment of inertia for each of the cross girder and the verticals through their own length.

I 1 = The second moment of area of the vertical member forming the arm of the U-frame about the axis of bending. 8. d = The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the centroidal axis of the cross girder of the U-frame.Steel Bridges Where: d = The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the nearest face of the cross girder of the U-frame.8 t/cm2) P P Panel = 83 − 66 ⇒ 80 − cm 12 − 15  3 5 b =  −  h = 52 − 87 ⇒ 70 − cm 4 4 1250 ≅ 695 cm 2 A req . 100 where C is the average compression force in the top chord members intersecting the vertical member.8 h= .1 Design a top chord member for a roadway bridge for the following data: Design Force = -1250 Tons (Compression) Member Length = 1000 cm Buckling Length L x = L y = 0. I 2 = The second moment of area of the cross girder about the axis of bending . 52 R R R R Selection of Member Dimensions: (Assume member stress = 1. R R The verticals of the pony truss are designed to carry a bending moment in addition to the normal forces induced due to regular loads. The bending moment is estimated as: C M= H.4. and H is the distance between the top chord and the top of the cross girder at the vertical member.85 × 1000 = 850 cm Steel Grade St.4 DESIGN EXAMPLE: 8. B = The distance between centres of consecutive main girders connected by the U-frame. = 1.

85 × 1000 = 850 cm R R R R Use section similar to top chord: A net ≈ 0.85 x 703.777 t / cm 2 < Fbuck ⇒ 703. Choose 2. 800 × 24 Pl.091 t / cm 2 〈 2.85 Agross f act = 1250 = 2.7 75 ≥ = 2.1 t / cm 2 0.44 800 700 Section Properties and Stress Check: i x ≈ 0.4 < 100 28 Fbuck = 2.4 × a = 28 cm − Ly iy = 850 = 30.44 .075 cm.4.4) 2 = 1.976 t / cm 2 f act = 1250 = 1.4 cm 33. 652 × 22 Area (cm2) 176 384 143.1 − 0.44 P P Top Flange Web Bottom Flange 703.44 Safe 8.7 Try the following section: Pl.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 327 Min Thickness : Flange : Web : tf ≥ tw 70 = 2.2 cm 33. Choose 2.000135 ( 30.255 cm .4 × h = 32 cm i y ≈ 0. 800 × 22 2 Pl.2 Design a bottom chord member for a roadway bridge for the following data: Design Force = + 1250 Tons (Tension) Member Length = 1000 cm Buckling Length L x = L y = 0.

85 × 700 = 595 cm Total member depth = b = 70 cm R R R R Trial Section : Web Flange 660 x 20 = 132 2x300 x 20 = 120 Total Area = 252 cm2 P   i x ~ 28    L x = 495 = 17. of cycles = 5 x 10 2 Detail Class = B Fsr = 1.714 t / cm2 〈 f pb o . f pb = 2.3 Design a diagonal member for a roadway bridge for the following data: Design Force = . 8.1 − 0.k .7   i 28   x i y ≅ 0.4. .772 t / cm 2 f act = 180 / 252 = 0.000135 * 99.80 t / cm 2 o.588 t / cm 2 0.k .17 6 = 〈 110 o .k .2 x 30 = 6 cm Ly iy 595 = 99.7 × 700 = 490 cm L y = 0.Steel Bridges Fatigue Check : FDL = 300 t FLL+ l = 950 t      950 = 1.44      f sr = for : No.85 x 703.180 Tons (Compression) Member Length = 700 cm Buckling Length L x = 0.17 2 = 0.

12 cm2 P P ly iy = 595 / (0.7 × 700 = 490 cm L y = 0. 8.85 × 700 = 595 cm Trial Section : Web 676 x 12 = 81.7. 8.2 x 30 ) = 99. A net ≈ 0. Fig.12 = 130.152 cm 2 f act = 250 / 130.85 x 153.12 R R R R Flange 2x300 x 12 = 72.152 = 1.4.4 Design a diagonal member for a roadway bridge for the following data: Design Force = + 250 Tons (Tension) Member Length = 700 cm Buckling Length L x = 0.k .1 o . 8.7 Bolted Truss Joints .2 〈 180 o .00 Total Area = 153.1 Truss Joints Members of bridge trusses are usually connected by gusset plates at the joints where members meet.5 DESIGN OF TRUSS CONNECTIONS 8.92 t / cm2 〈 2.5.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 329 8.k . Connections are usually made by bolting the members to gusset plates on both sides of the cross section as shown in Fig.

The chord joint is effected by providing cover plates. The node is. the point at which there is a joint in the chord as well as being the connection point of the web members. They should be so disposed. as to transfer the load in proportion to the respective parts of the section (Figure 8. At the nodes of a truss where the web members are connected to the chords.9a).8 Bolted Truss Joints with Splice outside Joint (b) If the chord members are spliced at the joint. . chord members are usually spliced outside the joints. They are usually bolted to the chord webs and the web members fit between them (Figure 8. The web members are connected to the chords by vertical gusset plates. 8. with respect to the cross-section of the member. the gusset plates at this location will be subjected to heavy stresses because it transmits the entire amount of the chord forces. there is a change in load in the chord which necessitates a change in its crosssection area. In this case. the main portion of the force is transferred directly within the chord.9b). and only the difference of the chord forces is carried through the gusset. 8. At every truss joint. therefore.Steel Bridges The usual gusset plate thickness is 14-20 mm. This arrangement if often used to relieve the gusset plate of any excessive load. Fig.8. working lines of the intersecting members should meet at one point to avoid eccentric loading. see Fig. Force transmission through the gusset plates at a truss joint may be achieved in one of the following two ways: (a) If the chord member runs continuous through the joint.

The joint is designed to carry the coexistent load in the lesser loaded chord plus the horizontal component of the load in the adjacent diagonal.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 331 Fig. In compression chords which have . 8.9 Bolted Truss Bridge Connections The gusset plates form the external web cover plates. Since they work in the dual capacity of cover plate and web connector. their thickness takes this into account. The load from the other diagonal is transferred to the more heavily loaded chord through the gussets alone.

Packing plates may be required to accommodate the difference in height of gussets and cross girders (Figure 8. An advantage occurs in erection as the web connections can be made before the next chord is erected.9e). Unsupported edges of gussets should be such that the distance between connections does not exceed about 50 times the gusset plate thickness (Fig. The web members are then all narrower than the chords and the chord splice is offset from the node. If this is unavoidable. the edge should be stiffened. They are connected to the chords by gussets bolted to the chord flanges exactly as the main web members are connected to the main joint gussets.3 Lateral Bracing Connections The axes of the lateral systems should be in the same planes as those of the truss chords. and that elsewhere some of the load has been transferred to the other parts of the joint and more bolt holes can be tolerated.2 Cross Girder Connections They are quite straightforward. For long and medium spans. design codes allow up to 75% of the compressive load to be carried through the abutting ends. 8.9a). 8.5. This requirement is met in 2 of the 3 types of lateral members and connections described below: i.5.9d is preferable to that of Figure 8. At the connections of all tension members and elements. 8. Sometimes the gusset is formed by shop-welding a thicker shaped plate to the chord in place of the chord web. the lateral members are frequently made from two rolled channel sections connected by lacing to give an overall depth the same as the chords. The 2 or 4 rows of bolts in the cross girder end plate are made to correspond with the equivalent central rows of bolts in the gusset. In connecting rectangular hollow sections the method shown in Figure 8. Connections of web members to gussets are quite straightforward and special treatment such as the use of lug angles is rarely required.Steel Bridges fitting abutting ends in contact.9c. If necessary remember that the critical net section is usually at the ends of the section or the centre of the cover plates. care has to be taken in the arrangement of bolt holes to ensure that the critical net section area of the section is not so small that fracture will govern. .

They can be connected by a gusset to the upper or lower chord flange. angles "back-to-back". the bearing surfaces may be milled for full contact and direct load transfer. On short spans single laterals often suffice. Full penetration butt welding of the V or X type is usually used for shop splices. Splices made in the shop are dictated by the available plate lengths. and (c) capacity of the erecting cranes. 8. . Note.5. iii. Splices are usually designed to carry the maximum strength of the spliced parts computed from: S max = A net x F t R R R R R R R R (Tension) R = A gross x F c R (Comp. laterals consisting of two rolled angles arranged toe to toe in "star" formation and with intermediate battens are often ideal.) Member splices made with shear plates require a complete design of load transfer from the spliced parts through splice plates. Splices made in the field are preferably made using high strength bolts. for compression members bearing against each other at the splice location. On the other hand. as the moments due to eccentricity are small. For medium spans.4 MEMBER SPLICES Splices of bridge truss members are needed because of the limitations imposed by: (a) the available length of plates and shapes. They are connected to the chords by gussets positioned at the chord axis (Figure 8.Chapter 8: Truss Bridges 333 ii.9f). (b) length limits imposed by the transportation facilities. but separated by a small gap should never be used because of maintenance problems.

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