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Notes
A Selection of Short Stories
Prepared by:
Iftikhar Hussain Rizvi
Class:
Roll No.:
Ph: 0300 6150661
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Breakfast
The Happy Prince
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The New Constitution
Take Pity
Ifitkharrizvi@yahoo.com
The Happy Prince
Name:
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Table of Contents:
I. The Killers…………………………………………….. 3
II. Rappaccini’s Daughter……………………………. 5
III. The New Constitution…………………………….. 9
IV. Breakfast……………………………………………….11
V. Take Pity…………………………………………………13
VI. The Happy Prince…………………………………….16
VII. Araby……………………………………………………..19
VIII. The Tell Tale Heart………………………………..21
IX. The Necklace………………………………………….23
X. The Duchees and the Jewler……………………25













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1:
By
Earnest Hemingway
Introduction:
“The Killer” is a beautiful short story written by Earnest Hemingway. Hemingway’s
stories are often full of suspense, action and mystery. Symbolism is another chief quality of his
stories. This story is about the intended ( را ﮯ ﮦدا ) murder of a person named Ole Anderson
by two professional killers Al and Max. The writer has beautifully highlighted ( '-- - ں' '-·´ )the
inevitability ( ·''- - · - - ) of death. Though, no one is killed in the story, yet the story creates an
atmosphere of fear in the minds of reader. In short, in a simple manner the writer has been
able to achieve the desired result.
QNo1:
“The Killer” is a powerful short story. Do you agree?
Or
Bring out the horror and suspense in the story.
Answer:
The Killer is a powerful short story, which is full of suspense and horror. Al and Max are
two professional killers who come to Hennery’s lunch room to kill Ole Anderson. Both of
them look mysterious by their behaviour. Hotel staff takes them to be wicked persons. They
order the food after great delay. This causes great anxiety for the hotel staff. Their dealings
with the hotel staff shows that something dangerous is going to happen.
After taking food, Al takes Sam, the cook, and Nick Adams, the count boy, to the kitchen
and ties them. He puts towels in their mouths also. At that moment, the hotel staff comes to
know about their dangerous plan that they are here to kill Ole Anderson, who is expected to
be there by 6 pm. Moreover, they order George not to entertain anybody, saying that the cook
is off today. With the passage of time their anxiety increases. At 7, they realize that Ole is not
coming today and they leave the place. But, they say that they will kill Ole just to oblige their
friend. After their departure Nick goes to Ole Anderson and tells him the whole story. But, he
does not pay any attention to it. Nick returns to the hotel with a fear of expected murder.
To conclude, we may say that although the murderers are not able to kill Ole, yet they
are able to create an atmosphere of horror. Moreover, the writer has been able to create
horror and suspense from the beginning till the end.
QNo2:
What is symbolic significance of the whole story?
Or
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Symbolism always plays an important role in Hemingway’s stories.
Discuss with reference to the story “The Killer”.
Answer:
Symbolism is an important element of Hemingway’s stories. “The Killer” is a fine
example of his great work. He has used symbolism quite artistically in this story. The different
characters and lunch room in the story have great symbolic significance.
“Al” and “Max” symbolize those criminals who are busy in mal-practices ( ے·- م'´ ) just for
money or for some other evil purposes. “Nick”, “George”, and “Sam” symbolize common
people who are working hard to earn their livelihood ( زور . ﭨور ), whereas, Ole Anderson
stands for such people who are struggling hard for peace, but they are getting nothing. Such
people are fed up of their lives and are ready to face death. Finally lunch room, it symbolizes
such public places which are open for all sorts of people. Even the idea of short story is quite
symbolic that the death is inevitable.
In short, the story can be called symbolic as it gives much more meanings than what
appear on the surface.
QNo3:
Ole is the main character of the story. Discuss.
Or
The writer has been able to delineate ( - - ن' '-·´ ) man’s courage and
determination through Ole Anderson.
Answer:
“Ole Anderson” is the main character around whom the whole story revolves. His
character becomes a source of attention for the reader from the start of the story. Though, he
is only discussed till the end of the story yet he is there to enhance the anxiety of the reader. Al
and Max are there to kill him. Basically, he is a Swede (`او ﮯ-ﮨر '´ نﮉ-·-) heavy weight prize
fighter, quite tall and muscular. The reader does not know much about him till the end. We
even don’t understand why the killers want to kill him.
“Ole Anderson” has lost all his interest in life and is ready to face death. When Nick tells
him about the killers, he does not bother. It is just because, he is fed up of running from death.
But, now he feels that it is useless to run away from death.
In short, “Ole Anderson” is a representative of those people who work hard for peace
but getting nothing. Moreover, through his character writer has been able to delineate man’s
courage and determination.
QNo4:
Al and Max played a very important role in the story. Prove.
Or
Do you think without Al and Max Hemingway would not have been able to get
desired result in the story?
Answer:
Al and Max are two important characters of the story. They become a source of fear and
horror for the hotel staff as well as the reader. In fact, it is their entrance in the lunch room
that starts the whole drama. They behave rudely (ﮟ--زا--ا ب-ﮩ-·-=) with the hotel staff and ask
about Ole Anderson in a strange manner. In fact, they are professional killers who want to kill
Ole Anderson just to oblige their friend. They are cruel persons who are ready to kill anybody
for nothing.
Al and Max have similar personalities. Both are dressed alike and both have aggressive
temperament (جا·-). Al is the one who ties Nick and Sam in kitchen, while Max asks George
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harshly not to entertain anybody. However, in the end, they return back without completing
their mission but they leave behind an atmosphere of fear and horror.
In short, it can be said without Al and Max’s characters the writer would not have been
able to get desired result.
QNo5:
Describe the disorder and lawlessness (---·-'·`) of American Society.
Answer:
Law and order is the problem of the whole world, and American Society is no exception.
Good and bad people are found everywhere. But, there are some personal, psychological and
social reasons, which breed crime in a society. In advanced countries like America, much
freedom is given in all most all the walks of life. So some criminal minded people try to take
undue advantage of this liberty. The killers in the story “The Killer” also represent the same
faction of the society, who just for a petty (- '·-·-) reason i.e. to oblige their friend want to
commit a deadly sin. That shows how ruthlessly they are violating the laws of the society. How
freely they enter a restaurant and make the staff their hostages, even in broad day light. They
have no fear of police, any law agency or even authorities. Anderson points out that there is no
use of going to the police. Though, American society is considered a flag bearer of the moral
values, yet the situation here is not better than developing countries.
To conclude it can be said, that “The Killer” highlights that the American Society is not a
heaven as it looks to the people of developing countries. In short, the story testifies the
disorder and lawlessness of the American Society.













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2.
By
Nathanial Hawthorne Nathanial Hawthorne Nathanial Hawthorne Nathanial Hawthorne
Introduction:
“Rappaccini’s Daughter” is written by “Nathanial Hawthorne”. It is basically a
fantasy, full of suspense and mystery. It is story of a crazy scientist named Rappaccini. He
loves science more than humanity. In order to get scientific knowledge, he adopts evil ways
and even doesn’t hesitate to sacrifice his daughter. In short, this story gives us a message that
the evil instincts in man can make science a very lethal and deadly weapon for humanity.

QNo1:
“Rappaccini’s Daughter” is a fantasy in which a great scientist cares
more for science than for mankind. Is it really so?
Or
“Rappaccini has an obsession (ن·-=) about scientific research but his
innate ('-= ، --ا---) selfishness drives him in wrong direction”. Discuss?
Or
“Rappaccini’s Daughter” is a science fiction (-'ﮩ´ تﮍ+' .- ، ہ-'-·ا). Do
you agree?
Answer:
“Rappaccini’s daughter” can definitely be called a science fiction and a fantasy. A
fantasy is story is in which some fictional elements are presented, that cannot happen in real
life. The story is about such incidents, which cannot happen in real life. This story is about a
crazy scientist Rappaccini, who cares more for scientific research than humanity. He adopts
evil ways to get power. He develops a formula by which he makes his daughter poisonous.
The story starts with the arrival a young boy Giovanni in Padua University. He stays
there in an old house, beside which there is a garden which is full of strange flowers and
plants. It is basically Rappaccini’s garden, where he has planted poisonous plants.
One day, Giovanni witnesses Rappaccini working in the garden, wearing gloves and
protecting his mouth and nose. Whereas, his daughter Beatrice is touching and smelling
flowers to her will. However, Prof. Baglioni, his father’s friend, warns him about Rappaccini
and his daughter. But, Giovanni ignores his advice and starts meeting with Beatrice. Soon
both of them fall in love with each other. Though, both of them love each other, yet neither of
them touches each other.
It is strange that Rappaccini does not stop them from meeting. In fact, he is planning to
develop a poisonous generation through them. One day, Baglioni warns Giovanni, that he is
also becoming poisonous. Baglioni gives him an antidote (ر'-·هز ، ق'-·-) to cure Beatrice.
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Giovanni goes to Beatrice and gives her the medicine. She drinks it and dies in front of her
lover and her father.
In the end, we can say without any doubt that the story is a science fiction and fantasy,
as it is full of such characters and events which cannot happen in real life. Apart from that
though Rappaccini has an obsession for scientific research, yet his selfishness drives him in
wrong direction. In short, he cares more for scientific research than mankind and even his
daughter.
QNo2:
Beatrice falls to a victim of the frantic (ہ-`''-) obsession of her father.
Discuss.
Or
The writer has used Beatrice to bring out the evil lying in such
scientist as Rappaccini. Justify.
Answer:
“Beatrice” is the heroine of the story. She is the poor victim of her father’s obsession.
She is the main character around whom the whole story revolves. She is daughter of
Rappaccini. He has brought her up among poisonous plants, which has made her poisonous
also. However, she is very innocent and charming. A boy Giovanni falls in love with her and
soon both start meeting each other. Though, Giovanni does not touch or embrace her
throughout the story, yet he also becomes poisonous from her breath. In fact, Rappaccini was
planning to develop a poisonous generation through them. Giovanni brings an antidote to get
rid of her from her poisonous nature, but she dies by drinking that liquid. Thus, her sacrifice
proves her innocence and her love for Giovanni.
In the end, it can be said that Beatrice gives a message of love to humanity. Moreover,
she gives a warning to those cruel scientists who prefer scientific research to the sacred
aspect of humanity. In short, she is a victim of her father’s obsession and through her the
writer has brought out the evil laying in scientists like Rappaccini.
QNo3:
How does Giovanni become poisonous?
Or
Giovanni tries his level best to get rid of Beatrice from her
poisonous nature, but in vain.
Or
Is Giovanni responsible for the death of Beatrice?
Answer:
Giovanni, a young man, is the hero of this story. He has come to study at the
“University of Padua”. He stays there in an old house beside which there is a strange garden
belonging to Rappaccini. One day, he saw Beatrice, Rappaccini’s daughter in the garden. He
falls in love with her at first sight. However, from Baglioni he comes to know about her
poisonous nature. But, he starts meeting with her in the garden. Soon, both of them fall in love
with each other. But, Beatrice forbids him from touching and plucking any of the flowers. She
also does not allow him to touch her. However, Rappaccini allows them to meet. Actually,
through them he wants to develop a poisonous generation. But, Giovanni does not have any
knowledge about this. By Baglioni, he comes to know that he has also developed poisonous
nature. Baglioni gives him an antidote to cure Beatrice, but she dies by taking it. Giovanni,
unable to understand the whole situation, considers himself responsible for her tragic death.
However, it is not he, but Rappaccini, who is responsible for Beatrice’s tragic death.
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QNo4:
Compare and contrast Dr. Rappaccini and Prof. Baglioni.
Or
Do you find forces of good and evil working at the same time in the
story?
Or
Dr. Rappaccini stands for the destruction of mankind where as Prof.
Baglioni plays the role of savior of the mankind.
Answer:
Dr. Rappaccini and Prof. Baglioni are the two main characters of the story. They play
opposite roles in the story. If one stands for the destruction of mankind, the other is savior of
mankind. Both of them are learned scientists but have different natures altogether. One is
crazy for scientific research and is not interested in humanity, while the other has great faith
in love and brotherhood and wants to save humanity.
Dr. Rappaccini has invented poisonous plants to overpower others. He not only makes
his daughter poisonous but her lover Giovanni also. Through their relationship he wants to
develop a poisonous generation. But, he fails in his plane and his daughter dies in front of him,
making him repent later.
On the other hand, Prof. Baglioni is a good natured human being. He helps others and
relieves them of any suffering. He warns Giovanni to stay away from Rappaccini and his
daughter. But, when he comes to know about Giovanni’s love for Beatrice, he tries to help
them by giving an antidote. This shows his love for humanity.
In the end, we can say that Dr. Rappaccini and Prof. Baglioni are real representatives
of evil and good natures which are working at the same time in the world. If one wants to
destroy mankind other tries to save it.
QNo5:
How does Prof. Baglioni come to know that Giovanni has fallen into fearful
hands of Dr. Rappaccini?
Or
How does Prof. Baglioni come to know that Giovanni has also developed
poisonous traits?
Answer:
Prof. Baglioni is an old friend of Giovanni’s father, to whom he brings a letter of
introduction. He is aware of Dr. Rappaccini’s mad love for science and Beatrice’s terrible
qualities. One day, he stops Giovanni on the way. He judges that Giovanni has fallen in love
with Beatrice. He forbids Giovanni to have any contact with Beatrice. While they are talking,
Dr. Rappaccini passes nearby and looks at Giovanni in a strange way. Prof. Baglioni at one
concludes that Giovanni has become the subject of his new experiment. He tries to warn
Giovanni against Dr. Rappaccini’s intention.
“He has seen you. He must have seen you.
I know that look of his Signor Giovanni.
Upon my life you are the subject of Dr. Rappaccini’s experiment.”
Afterwards, he pays a visit to Giovanni and recognizes the same terrible smell that
comes from Dr. Rappaccini’s plants. He also guesses that Giovanni’s breath has also become
poisonous and he must have acquired that poison from Beatrice. Hence, in that way Prof.
Baglioni comes to know that Giovanni has fallen into fearful hands of Dr. Baglioni and has
become poisonous.
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QNo5:
Describe the first encounter between Beatrice and Giovanni.
Or
How Giovanni falls in love with Beatrice?
Answer:
Just like most of the fiction stories, a love affair has been presented in the story
“Rappaccini’s Daughter”. Giovanni, a young man from south Italy, comes to study at
“University of Padua”. He stays there in an old house, whose one window opens into the
garden below. One day, he sees a beautiful girl tending ('-·´ ل'+- ہ+´-د) the plants. He is spelled
bound ('-'= ﮦر ر·=--) to see such a simple and innocent beauty. Ever since, he wishes to meet
her in the same garden. He buys some fresh flowers and throws them at her feet. He requests
her to wear, which she accepts with thanks.
Afterwards, he falls in love with her, as he remains absorbed in her thoughts for many
days. One day, old Lisabetta guesses his feelings and tempts him that she can lead him to a
private entrance of the garden. This was his first meeting with Beatrice. The frequent
meetings between Beatrice and Giovanni strengthen their love for each other. Though, later
Giovanni knows that he has also become poisonous due to her breath, yet he keeps on loving
her.



















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3- THE NEW CONSTITUTION
By
Saadat Hassan Manto
Introduction:
“Saadat Hassan Manto” is greatest Urdu writer of Pakistan. “The New Constitution”
deals with imperialism (--''- ´ --='- ·--·- ´ ہ--'=·-) and strong feelings of hatred of the
Indians against British before partition. “Ustad Mangu” is an example of Indians who hated
British and wanted freedom at any cost. In short, this story shows the condition of Sub-
Continent before partition.
QNo1:
“The New Constitution” proves that the Indians hated the English
and wanted to be free at any const.
Or
Saadat Hassan Manto’s “The New Constitution” proves imperialism
was hated in Sub-Continent.
Or
“The New Constitution” made Ustad Mangu to think that his human
rights as a citizen of the Sub-Continent would be accepted. Did his
expectation come true? Discuss in the light of this story.
Answer:
The story is about those days when British were ruling over India. They were mal-
treating ('-·´ =·'- ا·-) the people of India. Ustad Mangu, a poor tongawalla, also hates British
for ruling over their country. He even doesn’t hesitate to abuse them as white mice, white
monkeys or lepers ( هڑ·´ ﮦدز ). His hatred is quite clear the way he has a row with a Gora a year
ago.
Though, Ustad Mangu is uneducated man, yet he has lot of information about different
things by hearing the discussion of his passengers. One day, he hears from a passenger that a
new constitution is going to be imposed on 1
st
of April, 1935. This was great news for him. He
thinks that good days are near and considers that English will exit their country on that
particular day. He impatiently starts waiting for that day.
On 1
st
April, he gets up early in the morning, decorates his Tonga and comes out in
search of the expected change. But, to his astonishment, there is no change all around. During
his roaming ('-·+- ---- ﮯ-), he meets the same Gora with whom he has a row a last year. The
Gora wants to go to the bazaar of dancing girls to which Mangu demands five rupees. The
Gora gets angry at this demand. In his frustration, Mangu starts fighting with him. While,
considering it the last day for the British to rule, he beats the Gora. In the result, he is arrested
for his misbehavior and then he comes out of his illusion.
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To conclude, we can say that the writer has commendably been able to present the
hatred of even common Indians against imperialism before partition. In short, the story
shows the emotions of intense dislike of even simple uneducated people of India against
British rulers.
QNo2:
Mangu is the best spokesman of Manto the writer of this story.
Prove it.
Or
Mangu is representative of those Indians who have no soft corner
for the English. Prove.
Answer:
Ustad Mangu, the central figure of this story, is typical representative of those poor and
illiterate people of India, who hated the English from the core of their hearts. He hates the
English for their anti humanitarian laws. One day, he listens about the imposition of new
constitution. He thinks that on that particular day the English will leave his country. He hopes
that this day will bring new era in the history of India.
He hates the British to such an extent that he even doesn’t hesitate to abuse them. He
calls them white monkeys, white mice, leper and even bastards (-ا·=،د`وا ·-'='-). He hates
slavery and wants the English to leave their country as soon as possible. His famous words
“Look at them……. Came to the house to fetch a candle and before you knew, they have
taken it”, clearly reflects his attitude towards the English. On the day of imposition of new
constitution, he even beats a Gora and is arrested.
To conclude, it can be said that Mangu is a real representative of those Indians who
had no soft corner for the English. In short, he is best spokes man of the writer.
QNo3:
Describe the scuffle ( ،'-·´'´هد »´هد اﮍ'+= ) between Ustad Mangu and
Gora Sahib.
Or
Ustad Mangu represents the poor masses struggling for freedom
where as Gora sahib represents authorities. What is result of their
confrontation?
Answer:
Ustad Mangu is central figure of this story. He is a tanga walla. He loves his country and
hates British from the core of his heart. He is representative of those people who wanted to
get rid of slavery at any cost. On the other hand, Gora sahib represents the cruel British who
had been ruling over India for years against the will of Indians. They were mal treating the
poor Indians.
One day, Ustad Mangu comes to know about the imposition of new constitution on the
1
st
April. He thinks that English will leave on that particular day. But, to his astonishment
nothing happens like this. In his frustration, he has a row with a Gora and beats him. In the
result, he is arrested.
In short, this scuffle shows that Mangu is real representative of poor Indians who
wanted to get freedom at any cost while Gora sahib represents the authorities, not willing to
give any hope of freedom to common man.


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Qno4:
In “The New Constitution”, Ustad Mangu is at the best a half wit.
Elaborate.
Or
How was Mangu disillusioned about the new constitution?
Answer:

The last scene of the story is the best display of Ustad Mangu’s half-wit. This scene is
actually ironical, because it did not actually happen as was expected by Mangu. But, he had to
face the consequences just because of his ignorance. As Ustad Mangu was an uneducated and
simple fellow, he could not judge the new act. He anxiously waited for the 1
st
April and at last
it came. He got up early in the morning, decorated his tonga and went out on the road in the
search of some change. But, everything had the same old outlook. He was expecting the new
constitution as something like some famous leader, who would come out among the crowd of
people and police. Then, he found the same Gora with whom he had a row last year. He had
abused Mangu in drunken state. Now, keeping in mind the new constitution, Mangu decided
to settle the score (ہ-'´÷ ہ'--). The Gora wanted to go to the bazaar of dancing girls, for which
Mangu demanded five rupees. The Gora got angry at this demand and struck hard on
Mangu’s thigh. Mangu flared up and attacked the Gora with merciless blows. The Gora
shouted for help, two policemen came and Mangu was arrested. Mangu was saying to the
crowed,
“Those days are gone friend, when we were good just good for nothing. There is new
constitution, understand.”
But, the policemen corrected his misunderstanding saying,
“What rubbish are you talking? What new constitution? It is the same old
constitution you fool.”
In short, it can be said that the last scene of the story is an example of irony and
Mangu’s half wit.











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4 44 4- -- -Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast
By
John Steinbeck
Introduction:
“Breakfast” is a highly moralizing and inspiring short story written by “John
Steinbeck”. The story is about a poor family. This family is living a miserable life, yet they are
quite contented with it. They have no complaints (--'´- ،ﮦ·´-) or resentment ('-ار'-،ہ-=)
against anybody. In short, the story highlights the contentment of poor people in a very
artistic style.
QNo1:
Breakfast presents the picture of a poor family willing to work
happily for a little better living. Discuss.
Or
Wealth does not produce real happiness; it is purity of living which
produce happiness. Discuss with reference to this story.
Or
Hospitality does not require a heap of wealth; it is a matter of heart.
Discuss with reference to this story.

Answer:
This story is basically about writer’s meeting with a poor family. This family is living in
natural surroundings and is leading a contented life. He happens to meet them one morning.
He is walking slowly among the mountains and sees a tent nearby. He goes near it and realizes
that a poor family is living there. A young lady is nursing a baby as well as making breakfast.
As fire is burning, the writer went near it to get some warmth. The scenery there was really
marvelous.
In the meantime, a young man along with an old man comes out of the tent. They are
wearing dungarees. They stand still for a while and enjoy the morning light of the sun.
Suddenly, they see the writer and greet him. Soon, the lady gives them breakfast. The young
man thanks God and Christ for blessing them with such a food. The old man invites the writer
to have breakfast with them to which he readily agrees. They even thank God several times
while eating which moved the writer. They tell the writer that they are working in cotton
fields and having good time for last 12 days. They offer the writer to work with them in cotton
fields. But, the writer thanks them for their offer and hospitality. However, though a lot of time
has passed since that incident, yet the memory of this incident always brings peace and
simplicity in writer’s life.
In the end, it can be said that though the poor family is living a miserable life, yet they
have no signs of frustration among them. They are happy as they have adopted the habit of
contentment. Moreover, it shows that hospitality does not require heaps of wealth, it is matter
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of heart. In short, wealth does not bring peace in life it is purity of living which produces real
happiness.
QNo2:
“That’s all I know, of course some of the reasons why it was
pleasant…...” says writer in the end. What does it means?
Or
Why was writer so excited at the end of the story?
Or
What do the different animate (را--'=) and inanimate (ن'=ﮯ-) figures
of the story symbolizes?
Answer:
This story is basically about a poor family who are living a miserable but contented life.
The behaviour of the poor family creates an everlasting impression on writer’s mind. These
very words which are spoken by the writer at the end of the story clearly show his respect and
affection for that family. Moreover, these lines also show that he saw something charming
there. Actually, it was natural surroundings and contented life of the poor family which makes
him to say this.
These lines have some symbolic meanings as well. The natural atmosphere, the light of
the sun and the stove and reflection of light in old man’s eyes symbolize hope, contentment
and sacredness ('·-´'-،س---). Moreover, the hospitality and sincerity of the poor family makes
a pleasing effect on the writers mind. In short, these lines clearly show the writer’s inner
feeling and have great symbolic significance as well.
QNo3:
Do you think that simplicity and purity in living have any place in
our rushed life?
Or
What idea does the writer give about true happiness? How can it be
easily achieved?
Or
Does the story teach any moral lesson?

Answer:
“Breakfast” is a story about a poor family living a miserable but contented life. Though
the members of that family are living a poor life, they have no complaints or resentment
against anybody. They thank God even for a poor living. This story also gives an idea of true
happiness and its achievement. Moreover, it shows that in this age of materialism living such a
contented life is really worth praising. We learn from the story that simplicity and
contentment are keys to true happiness. However, it can only be achieved by adopting simple
ways of life. Artificiality in life actually hampers the real beauty. The poor family is happy
because they have adopted habit of living a contented life. This is the idea of true happiness
and moral of story, which the writer wants to convey through this story.
QNo4:
How does the family behave with the writer?
Or
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Do you think that writer’s meeting with the poor family was really
worth mentioning and unforgettable?
Answer:
Like the answer of QNo1.


















5-TAKE PITY
~ 16 ~

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By
Bernard Malamud
Introduction:
“Take Pity” is written by “Bernard Malamud”. This story is basically about an
undaunted (·-'د،رڈ ہ-) confident and courageous woman named Eva. She, after the death of her
husband, makes great efforts to earn livelihood for herself and for her two daughters. But, she
refuses every offer made to her in the form of charity, even it is offered by a close friend of her
husband.
QNo1:
Did Rosen take pity on Eva or loved her? Why was he so upset at her
miserable plight (م'=-ا،ل'=)?
Or
“Take pity” is a story of determination and self-respect. Discuss.
Or
“Take pity” emphatically (ﮯ- ﮯ--·=روز·-) highlights the strength of
man against the odds (تاو'-- م-=،ق··) of life. Justify.
Or
What are the ways in which Rosen tried to help Eva in Take pity by
Bernard Malamud? Do you feel that he loved her?
Answer:
There are two main characters in the story; Rosen, a sympathetic salesman and Eva, a
lady full of self-respect and confidence. Eva’s husband has died due to business tension. After
his death Rosen advises her to take insurance money and leave that place. But, she ignores his
advice and tries to improve the condition of her business. However, all her efforts end in
smoke and she is left with nothing. Rosen cannot bear her and her daughters’ such miserable
condition and gives them something to eat. He again asks her to do some job but she refuses
again. Then, he proposes her, considering that marriage will bring some comfort in her life.
But, she rejects this offer also.
Now, Rosen starts sending her 20 dollars with a fake name, in return of a loan taken
from her husband. But, she does not accept it also. Now, he writes a will, leaving everything for
Eva and her daughters and tries to commit suicide. But, police save him. However, one day
when he is telling this whole story to his friend, a knock is heard outside the window. His
friend opens the window. Rosen is shocked to see Eva standing outside the window with open
arms. But, Rosen considering it too late shuts down the window to show his resentment.
In the end, it can be said that it is story of self respect and determination as Eva tries
her level best to improve her condition and does not accept help of anybody. Moreover, all the
efforts of Rosen to help Eva show that actually he is not making charity but he loves Eva.

QNo2:
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The end of the story is really enigmatic (ح·=-´ﮯ-·-،ﮦ--÷-) and
perplexing (`اوﮯ--د·´ نا·-=). Prove.
Or
Are you satisfied with the end of the story?
Answer:
This story ends in a very enigmatic and perplexing manner, leaving much for the reader
to think. The last scene of the story is, when Rosen sees Eva standing outside of the opened
window with open arms. Actually, Rosen is telling his whole story to his friend, when his
friend suddenly opens the widow. Rosen is shocked to see Eva standing there outside with
open arms. Perhaps, she is resentful (ﮦدرز'،ﮦ--=-ر) for her previous behaviour with Rosen and
now wants to accept his proposal. But, it is too late for Rosen. Being insulted so many times,
now he has repulsive attitude for her. It was he, who sincerely tried his best to help her. But,
she in her over confidence rejected his all suggestions and efforts. Rosen’s behaviour clearly
shows that he loves her but she considers it charity.
Hence, Rosen’s rejection and anger seems quite justified. In short, the end of the story
though is a bit enigmatic and perplexing, yet is quite justified.
QNo3:
Do you judge Eva as a brave, courageous and iron willed lady or a
selfish, egoist and adamant (لد -=-) lady, who ruins herself and her
children for make-belief bravery?
Or
Eva is representative of dignity, honour, self depending and never
bending anyone for charity. Discuss.
Answer:
Eva is the central figure of the story. Her behaviour throughout the story is quite
confusing for the reader. She is an embodiment (ہ--=-،ر'ﮩ=ا '-=) of courage, determination
and self-confidence. Eva, after the death of her husband, is not ready to accept anybody’s help.
Rosen tries his level best to help her, but she, in her over confidence and firm faith in her hard
work, refuses all his efforts. Her determination and courage is really praiseworthy. But, she in
her over-confidence rejects all offers of help, even of kind hearted Rosen. Though, Rosen’s
behaviour with her clearly shows that he loves her, yet she rejects his proposal to marry her
also. Though, she realizes her mistake in the end, but it is too late for Rosen and he rejects her.
In the end, we may say that Eva is an embodiment of courage and determination but
her behaviour with Rosen shows that she is a bit selfish, egoist and adamant by nature.
QNo4:
Rosen represents a sympathetic and humanistic point of view. It
will be unjust to say that his attitude towards Eva was selfish and
debased ( ´و·-'ﮯ-،'-·´ .-'ذ '-· ). Discuss.
Or
Is Rosen a self-sacrificing and considerate ( ل'-= '´ مار' ﮯ´ ںوروا
`اوﮯ-+´ر) person?
Answer:
Rosen’s character is very important and interesting. By nature, he is very sympathetic,
sincere and loving person. After the death of Eva’s husband, he tries his level best to help her.
When he feels that Eva is not ready to accept his help, he even proposes her for marriage. He
considers it a possible way of improving her miserable condition. When, he fails this time also,
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at last, he prepares a will. Now, leaving everything for her and her two daughters, he tries to
commit suicide. However, all his efforts to help Eva show that he is sympathetic and sincere
fellow. He has great love and respect for her. But, she ignores everything and even does not
hesitate to insult even such a nice fellow. Though, in the end she realizes her mistake, yet it is
too late for Rosen and he rejects her.
To conclude, it can be said that Rosen is a sincere and lovable person. He represents a
sympathetic point of view and it will be unjust to say that his attitude towards Eva was selfish
and debased.
Qno5:
The story is a tussle between two noble passions, sincerity and self-
respect. Discuss.
Or
What kind of moral lesson do you get from the story?
Answer:
By reading the whole story, we are greatly impressed by the sincerity of Rosen and self-
respect and firm resolution of Eva. These two passions should be basic ingredient of a man’s
nature. The story does teach a moral lesson and that is to have the charitable feelings for
depressed ones (س·-'-،سادا) as Rosen had. On the other hand, we also learn the lesson that one
should face the circumstances bravely, how much unfavorable they may be, as Eva did.
We should also have these two passions, without any hidden motives. Rosen made a lot
of sincere attempt just to help the poor family. He didn’t have any personal interests. Similarly,
Eva rejects all his offers of help just because of self-respect, not because of her ego. So we can
see a little bit of a tussle between these two passions. But, at the end, sincerity triumphs over
self-respect. At the end, we see Eva standing outside Rosen’s window with open arms. We
cannot say she gave in ('-'= ر'ﮨ --ﮨ) to bad circumstances, rather, she had been convinced of
Rosen’s sincerity. In short, we can say that these two passions are the outcome of the whole
story.









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By
Oscar Wild
Introduction:
“The Happy Prince” is one of the finest fairy tales written by “Oscar Wild”. Though, the
story is written in a fairy tale atmosphere, yet it describes bitter realities of life. However, it is
more than just a fairy tale. It gives us a serious lesson that the main purpose of man in life is
not to serve himself alone, but to serve humanity also.
QNo1:
Discuss “The Happy Prince” by Oscar Wild as a fairy tale.
Or
In the story “The Happy Prince” love and sacrifice are saving forces.
Discuss.
Or
Oscar wild has thrown light upon apathetic (''-ا`،لد ﮦد·-) modern
age and its bitter realities through “The Happy Prince”. What do you
think?
Or
When The Happy Prince was alive he did not know the meanings of
weeping, but after death he sacrificed everything and burst into tears.
Why?
Answer:
“The Happy Prince” is one of the finest fairy tales written by “Oscar Wild”. The story is
full of such details that can happen in a fairy world only. The story is about a Prince, who led a
life of comfort when alive. He does not know anything about the harsh realities outside the
palace. However, after his death his statue is erected on a high column in the centre of the city.
The statue is all covered with gold leaves, whereas blue sapphires (ت··'-،»'--) are fixed in place
of eyes and a red ruby is displayed in sword hilt (ہ--د'´را·'-). From that high place, the Prince
can watch the miseries of the poor. Hence, he is not happy anymore and weeps all the time.
One day, a Swallow happens to sit between his legs and by chance a tear fells on it. It
asks the Prince the reason of his weeping. The Prince tells him his entire story. After knowing
the reason, the Swallow decides to help the Prince. The prince asks it to give the ruby of his
sword hilt to a poor woman, whose child is suffering from fever. The Swallow does the same
and the Prince is happy to see its result. Next morning the Prince stops the Swallow again and
asks it to give the sapphire of his one eye to a poor dramatist. It does as is asked by the
Prince. The next day, the Prince gives the sapphire of his other eye to a poor match selling
girl. Now, the Swallow realizing that the Prince has blinded himself for suffering humanity
decides to remain with him. It distributes all the gold leaves of his statue among the poor. In
winter, it cannot bear the cold and dies. Now, the statue is in a bad condition, the mayor of the
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city orders to remould the statue into his own statue. When the statue is melted, the lead heart
does not melt. Hence, it is thrown on the heap, where the dead body of the Swallow is already
laying. Later the God asks His angels to bring two most precious things of the city. The angels
take the broken heart and the dead Swallow. God really praises them for their choice.
In the end, it can be said that love and sacrifice are the saving forces. Apart from that all
the details given by the writer can only happen in a fairy tale. In short, the writer has tried to
highlight the modern age and its bitter realities.
QNo2:
The Happy Prince though dead, is still helpful to the suffering
humanity. How?
Answer:
The happy Prince is the main character of the story. He led a happy life when he was
alive. After his death his statue is erected on a high column in the center of the city. Now, he
can watch the miseries of the poor people. He is no more happy now. His statue is all covered
with gold leaves and costly stones are fixed there in place of his eyes and on sword hilt. With
the help of a Swallow the Prince distributes all the leaves of his body, the costly stones of his
eyes and sword hilt among the poor. In this way, he blinds himself for the suffering humanity
and at last his statue is melted. The Swallow also tries its level best to help the happy Prince
in his that sacred mission.
To conclude, it can be said that the Happy Prince seems to have a sensitive heart. His
sacrifices are symbol of doing something for suffering humanity. In this way, though dead, he
is still helpful for suffering humanity.
QNo3:
Swallow also has a lot to do in propagating the main theme of the
story. Discuss.
Answer:
The Swallow, a simple and innocent bird, has a lot to do in propagating ('-·´ --ار،'-`-+-)
the main theme of the story. The writer has used it as a helper of the Happy Prince. One day, it
happens to sit under his feet and a tear fells on it. She comes to know about the reason of his
weeping. It is quite impressed with the behaviour of the Happy Prince. Though, it has to go to
Egypt, but it decides to remain with the prince to help him in his sacred mission
The Swallow gives away the costly stones of his body to the poor. It distributes also the
leaves of his body among the needy and the poor. Though, it knows that the snowfall is going
to begin, it sacrifices its life for the sake of suffering humanity. However, it gets reward from
God for it’s that act of virtue. The angels take its body along with the lead heart of the Happy
Prince to God, considering it the most precious thing of the city.
Hence, Swallow has to do a lot in propagating the main theme of the story.
QNo4:
What was the result of the sacrifices of the happy Prince and the
Swallow?
Or
It is true that sacrifice of wealth; health and life win pleasure of the
God?

Answer:
From the answer of QNo1.
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Qno5:
Towards the end of the story, the mayor of the city calls the Happy
Prince little better than a beggar. Why?
Answer:
“The Happy Prince” is a story which not only gives us a moral lesson to help the needy
and the poor, but also reveals the moral lapses of Oscar Wild’s age. The whole story is full of
satirical elements. The writer has tried to satirize different people for their moral deficiencies
(ﮨ'-·´ ،-´). One of them is lust for reputation. At the end of the story, when the mayor comes
where the statue of the Happy Prince is fixed, he is surprised to see that the Happy Prince is
no more beautiful. All his gold leaves has been pulled and he looks very drab (ا-+-). Here, the
mayor says that “the Happy Prince is little better than a beggar”. He says this because he
wants that his own statue should be now fixed in the place of the Happy Price. Here, now the
writer wants to criticize human beings lust for reputation, when the councilors begin to fight
that their statue should be fixed there. Here the writer is totally justified in his satire. When
the prince was alive and had gold all over his body everyone liked him, including the mayor
who portends of having an artistic taste. Actually, he is not so but only pretends. Now, when
the prince looks drab, the mayor says that he is little better than a beggar just to show that he
has an artistic taste.














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7
By
James Joyce
Introduction:
“Araby” is one the most interesting stories written by “James Joyce”. This story
presents a conflict between the world of dreams and realities. The story is basically about a
boy who falls a victim of his disillusionment (ہ'ازا '´ »هو), but faces a defeat in the hands of the
merciless world. In short, this story teaches the reader to observe the world with open eyes.
QNo1:
“Araby” by James Joyce is a story of conflict between the subjective
('='·،---،-اذ) feelings of a boy and objective ( -=،.د'- -- ) realities of the world.
Do you agree?
Or
“The story combines in itself a world of reality and unreality”.
Discuss.
Or
Anguish and anger of disillusionment are outcome of the whole
story. Discuss.
Answer:
“Araby” is one of the most interesting stories written by “James Joyce”. The story is
about a young boy, who is living with his uncle and aunt. He plays with his friend at the back of
the street. As, he reaches the age of adolescence (-ا·=ز'='،-=·'-), he realizes that he has fallen
in love with his friend’s sister. But, in his shyness (م·-،ب'==), he is unable to disclose it to her.
Now, he starts living in the world of dreams. Moreover, he does not get a chance to express his
love to her and if he gets one, he does not have courage to do so. Incidentally, one day she
meets him in the street. She asks him, has he seen Araby bazaar? In excitement, he promises
to go there and bring some gift for her.
After that, he starts dreaming about bringing gift for her, and hence, getting a chance to
express his love to her. Though, his uncle gives him permission to go to bazaar on week end,
but the uncle forgets to come home soon on that day. The boy waits for him all the day. But,
the uncle reaches home at 9.00 p.m. The boy gets frustrated, he gets just a florin and reaches
bazaar at about 9.50 p.m. Up till that time the bazaar is almost closed. Moreover, he is not left
with much money to buy something, as he has spent some money on transport and some on
entrance fee to bazaar. He stands outside a stall of vases for some time, thinking about his
helplessness. He is feeling disgusted at the wash out of his dreams.
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In the end, it can be said that the story combines in itself the world of realities and
unrealities. Moreover, it shows a conflict between the subjective feelings of a boy and
objective realities of the world.
QNo2:
What were the feelings of the young boy about his beloved?
Answer:
“Araby” is one of the most interesting stories written by “James Joyce”. This story
presents love of a young boy for a girl. He falls in love with the sister of his friend. Initially, he
could not understand what it really meant. However, he attracted towards the girl in a
passionate (ش·=·-) manner and used to lose in her dreams. He used to watch her walking and
talking to others. The boy, just beginning to feel the charm of youth, was getting mad in her
love. He even wept for her love, but did not have courage to face her. Her personality was like
an obsession for him. He often tossed all the night in his bed, dreaming about her physical
beauty. He also lost interest in his study and girl became the only object of his life. Such was
intensity of his love for girl. But, actually, he was living in the world of dreams and illusions. At
the end of the story his dreams are shattered ('-'=·+´-) and he came to know what the real
world is.
In short, though the boy was living in a dream world, yet his love for the girl was very
much sincere.
QNo3:
“The young boy is a typical representative of those young people
who fall a victim of their own illusions and aspirations (وزر' -'ﮩ--ا),
without comprehending the harsh world”. Prove.
Or
Does the boy represent the feelings and aspirations of every young
boy?
Answer:
The young boy is the hero of this story. In fact, he is typical representative of young
generation of modern society. He, like all young boys of his age is very passionate and
sentimental. He falls in love with his friend’s sister, but is unable to disclose it because of
shyness. He simply watches her movements and physical beauty. By chance, he meets her and
promises to bring a gift for her from Araby bazaar.
He reaches the bazaar late and faces the disappointment and anguish of his life. His visit
to bazaar proves futile, as he is unable to fulfill his promise with the girl. At that moment, he
comes to know that the real world is quite different from the dream world. In fact, the young
boy is real representative of his own class, who are ignorant of the bitter world outside. They
are simple and innocent people, hoping their dreams would come true in this world. In short,
the young boy do represents the feelings and aspirations of every young boy.



8-
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Edger Allen Poe
Introduction:
“Edgar Allen Poe” is a famous American poet, short story writer and critic. He is known
as one of the originators of detective stories. His stories are often full of horror, terror and
psychology abnormalities. In his stories, the events take an abrupt turn (ڑ·- --'÷ا) and take the
reader completely in the grip of horror (--هد) and terror (ف·=) and present story is a fine
example of his great work. This is story of a murder of an old man by a murderer and then his
arrest. Actually, this story tells us that when a man do something wrong his conscience (·---)
haunts him and does not allow him to take rest.
Q.No1:
Why and how did the narrator of the story confessed his crime?
Or
How was the murderer caught?
Or
“He could not help confessing ('´- ﮦر ہ- ·-·- ﮯ-'-) his crime. It was in fact his inner
voice from which no guilty person can escape.” Discuss.
Or
“The police officers were chatting, while the murderer’s condition was
becoming worst.” Why?
Answer:
The narrator of the story planned and executed the murder of the old man with great
care and cleverness. For seven nights, he failed to complete his plan. But, on eighth night when
he entered his victim’s room he found his vulture (ه-') like eye wide opened. He went mad. He
jumped on the old man, dragged ('÷-+´) him on the floor and killed him. Then, he cut his body
into pieces and buried them under the planks (ﮯ-=-) of the wooden floor. He carefully collected
the blood into a tub.
When, he had finished his work, there was no sign or clue of the murder, in the room.
Just then, he heard a knocking at the street door. He opened it himself with light heart. Three
policemen entered and told him that a shriek (--÷) had been heard in the building. They had
come to investigate ('-·´ .----).
He told them that it was he who shrieked in the dream. He helped them in searching the
building and even took them to the old man’s room and told them that he had gone out in the
country (·ﮨ'- ﮯ- ·ﮩ-). They seemed satisfied that nothing foul had been played in the building.
As, he sat chatting with them pleasantly, he heard sound of a beating heart coming from
the place where the dead body was buried. None of the police officer seemed to hear it. He
tried to ignore it, but the noise steadily (--ر---) increased. At last, he could not bear it more,
started behaving strangely and confessed his crime.
~ 25 ~

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Q. No.2:
How and why did the hero of the story kill the old man?
Answer:
The killing of old man by the hero of the story cannot be justified. He killed the old man
just because; he did not like his vulture like eye. When, he is arrested by the police, he
narrated the whole events of his crime. While describing his cunning (ﮯ- .ر'--·ه) action, he
said that he completed his plan very wisely. He said that the old man never wronged or
insulted him. He also said that he didn’t kill him in any kind of greed, but only that he didn’t
like old man’s vulture like eye. Whenever, he saw it, his blood ran cold. He had feelings of
repulsion (تر'-=،ت·--). So, he decided to kill the old man just to get rid of ('-'- ار'´ﭩ+÷) his that
hateful eye.
He said that for seven nights, he went to old man’s room, but he could not kill the old
man because his hateful eye was closed. But, on the eighth night, when he went to old man’s
room, the old man was awake. He waited for old man to sleep. Then, thinking that the old man
might have slept, he threw dim light on him. To his great horror, the old man was sitting with
his eye open. He got furious. He dragged the old man on the floor and pulled the heavy bed
over him. The old man shrieked only once and then died. In this way the hero killed the old
man very cleverly.
Q.No3:
Do you think that the hero was suffering from some kind of psychological
disorder?
Answer:
First Paragraph from 2
nd
question +
The events of the story clearly show that the hero of the story was suffering from some
kind of psychological disorder or abnormality. It is horrible to think that he killed the old man
just because he did not like his vulture like eye. Actually, such a brutal (»=ر ﮯ-) act cannot be
expected from any sane person. It was better for him that if he did not like his eye just not look
at it. To kill and then to mince the old man’s body and even listening the heart beats is clear
indication of his abnormality and definitely he was suffering from some kind of mental
disorder.
Q. No.4:
Describe the elements of horror that found in the story “The Tell Tale Heart”.
Answer:
Introduction +
The story is full of elements of horror and terror. The events of 8
th
night are more
horribly described. On the eighth night, when the murderer opened the door, he felt that the
old man was awaking. After that a long period of anxiety followed. Perhaps the looming ( '-´ﭩ'
ا·ﮨ) danger was awaking the old man. The murderer waited for old man to sleep. The whole
environment was full of awe (رڈ،ف·=) and horror. To hear a little noise, the old man tried to
console himself that there might be some wind in the chimney or some mouse crossing the
floor. After a long painful waiting the murderer thought that the old man might have slept. But,
he was awaking and on seeing his vulture like eye the murderer got furious (='---=،»ﮨ·-) and
killed the old man. Murder of the old man, mincing ('-·´ ہ--·) of his body into pieces, tickling
sound of old man’s heart and pricking ('--د --'´-،'-·+-÷) of the killer’s heart are all the elements of
horror.
In short, there is horror in every detail of the story.
~ 26 ~

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9-

Introduction:
“Maupassant” is one the greatest short story writers of France. He is well known for
his realism and characterization and “The Necklace” is a fine example of his work. This story
is about human vanity (ڈـــــــ). Matilda is central character of the story. She herself tells
that there is a very narrow margin between safety and disaster. In short, she is punished for
her vanity.
Q. No1:
Narrate the story of “The Necklace” in your own words.
Answer:
This is a story of a clerk named Loisel and his young beautiful wife Matilda. Matilda
loved fine clothes and expensive jewelry. She could not buy these things but nothing could
stop her from dreaming about them, and making her life miserable.
One day, her husband got an invitation to a party at a Minister’s residence. He hoped
that it would make her happy. But, she refused to go, because she had no fine dress and
jewelry. Her husband bought her a new dress. She borrowed a beautiful necklace from a rich
friend, Madam Frostier.
At party, she was greatly admired by the men of high social status. She danced with
prominent and rich men. It was the happiest night of her life. When, she returned home with
her husband, they discovered that the necklace had been lost.
Mr. Loisel borrowed thirty-six thousand francs from friends and money lenders. They
brought a new necklace and gave it to Madam Frostier. Now, the husband and wife began
working hard to pay back their debt. Matilda had to do all domestic work herself. Mr. Loisel
had to work part time. Hard work told upon their health and they grew old before time. It took
them ten years to pay the debt.
Then one day, Matilda met Madam Frostier by chance. She told her the story of her
misfortune. She was dumb-founded to hear that Madam Forester’s necklace was made of
artificial diamonds and it was worth five hundred francs only.
Q. No2:
“This story shows that ornaments are weakness of women all over the world.”
Do you agree?
Or
Write a character sketch of Matilda.
Or
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What were Matilda’s dreams?
Answer:
Matilda is the heroine of this short interesting story. The story is a fine work of G.D.
Maupassant. He has shown that how vanity may ruin the whole life of a person. Matilda was
a very pretty and charming young lady. But, she was very vain and proud. Though, she was
born to a poor family yet dreamt of palaces, jewelry and luxury life. She was of the view that
God had done injustice with her by placing her in a poor family. She was fond of parties.
Matilda was not happy by marrying with a poor clerk. She had to live in a small
apartment, but always dreamt of palaces. Her poverty always had tortured her and she was
not satisfied with her position. She had a desire that people should worship her as a Princess.
She behaved snobbishly (ª+-'--´رو·=) in the company of rich people. But Matilda had to pay
very heavily for her pride and vanity.
To conclude, it can be said that the character of Matilda makes one thing very much
clear that whether it is east or west, ornaments are weakness of women all over the world.
Q. No 3:
Write a note on Mr. Loisel, husband of Matilda.
Answer:
Though, the story “The Necklace” does not highlight Mr. Loisel very much, yet we do
find little hints about that poor man.
Mr. Loisel is a short stature man of simple taste. He is a petty clerk in the Ministry of
Education. He knows his social status and is contented with it. He has no ambitions and
dreams, and does not run after shadows. He is not unhappy while living in a small and poorly
furnished apartment. He enjoys his humble living.
Mr. Loisel loves his wife. He tries his level best to make her happy. He managed an
invitation of a Minister’s party, with great difficulty. He thinks that the opportunity of
spending a night with high, class people will make her happy. He gives her his entire savings
to buy a new dress for party. But, he is not able to buy expensive jewelry for her. At party, he
waits in a small room, while his wife enjoys the party to her extent.
Mr. Loisel faces the consequences of the loss of the borrowed necklace. But, that poor
fellow does not utter a single word of complaint. He borrows the 36,000 francs and replaces
the lost necklace, in order to save his wife’s honour. This man really loves his wife.
Q. No 4:
What is the moral of the story?
Or
The story is a proof of Maupassant’s great technique of presenting realities of
life. Discuss?
Answer:
Introduction +
This story has deep moral in it. It shows that we should always be contented with our
living conditions. We should try to improve our living conditions, but should never show off
what we don’t have. Apart from that, dreaming of a life of luxury might bring ruin. Those who
live in cottages and dream of palaces might come to grief. In short, “try to live in your means”,
may be the single sentence moral of the whole story.




~ 28 ~

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10- The Duchess and the Jeweler
By
Virginia Woolf
Introduction:
“Virginia Woolf” is a famous English novelist and short story writer. “The Duchess
and The Jeweler” is written in such a beautiful literary prose that it deserves to be praised.
From the start till the end the whole story is full of beautiful words, phrases and sentences,
which is a hallmark (-'-- »ﮨا،---·-= ں'-'--) of Virginia Woolf. This story shows that how a
Duchess makes fool of a jeweler. Actually, this story narrates that how the English high ups
descended morally.
Q. No.1:
“The characters of the Duchess and Oliver depict loss of faith in human
values.” Discuss.
Or
Oliver was an experienced person, yet he was fooled by the Duchess. How and
why?
Or
After reading the whole story, do you think that Oliver Bacon was suffering
from some kind of inferiority complex?
Answer:
Oliver Bacon was a famous jeweler. He was a very poor boy, who once sold stolen dogs
and cheap watches. Despite now, he was the owner a big jewelry shop, he was not satisfied
with himself and wanted to have a wonderful and extra-ordinary deal. One morning, a
Duchess came to meet him. She opened a leather bag and put ten pearls on the table. She
wanted to sell these pearls. Oliver knew that the Duchess had once cheated him by selling
false diamonds. So this time he didn’t want to be deceived. He was about to ring the bell and
get the pearls checked, but the Duchess proved a bit too clever for him.
She said to the Jeweler that the Prime Minister was holding a party where Diana would
also be present. She invited him to attend the party. Diana was the Duchess’s daughter whom
the jeweler loved. He lost in Diana’s thoughts and wrote a cheque for twenty thousand
pounds. He forgot his mother’s advice, “Oliver, Have sense! Don’t be a fool.” He once again
became that poor boy who was impressed by the rich.
He wished to have a long week end with Diana. The Duchess once again made fool of
him and sold false pearls. To have the company of Diana and the rich people was his
weakness. Actually, he was suffering from inferiority complex. The Duchess took benefit of his
weakness and deceived him.
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In short, it can be said, that both the characters were mean and cheaters. Perhaps, they
show writer’s loss of faith in human values.
Q. No.2:
“The Duchess and The Jeweler” actually mentions the change in the English
society.” Discuss.
Or
Give a picture of the social life presented in this story.
Answer:
Virginia Woolf is a famous English novelist and short story writer. In this story, she
has presented the picture of English society in her age. The story shows a change in the social
life of that period. These were the times when the high-ups were coming down. The moral
values were on decline. This also show that the common people were becoming rich where as
the rich were becoming weak not only economically but morally also. Actually, the rich were
idle and they considered it their right to rule the people. They led a life of luxury but did
nothing to earn for themselves. Hence, they had to adopt foul means to maintain themselves.
The Duchess was a good example of such high-ups.
On the other hand, common people were getting education and working hard to change
their conditions. In the result, they were earning money and their standard of living had
improved. They cared a little for the so called high ups. The writer has brought out the strong
influence of lust for wealth. The jeweler collected the heaps of wealth by foul means. The
whole life of jeweler shows his hard struggle and sharp practices in gathering wealth.
In short, the whole story brings before us the changes through which the society of
Virginia Woolf’s time was going.
Q. No. 3:
Write a character sketch of Oliver Bacon.
Answer:
Oliver Bacon is the central character of this story. He is a famous, rich and the most
successful jeweler of London. He is living in a beautiful and well furnished house. He has
servants to serve him. Though, he has passed his youth, yet is in good health and is very active
in his business.
In his early life, he was very poor and sold watches and stolen dogs. But, now he is the
owner of a jewelry shop, in the most expensive area of London. This all show that he is a hard
working man. Although, he is a very successful man now, yet still he wants to rise higher.
Actually, he wants to fulfill his mother’s dream who wanted to see him the most successful
man of Britain.
Despite, now he is a rich man, he is suffering from inferiority complex and wants to get
rid of his past. He wants to develop relations with the gentry to overcome his inferiority
complex. The Duchess is aware of his weakness and takes advantage of it.
In short, he is a greedy kind of person who is hungry for money and status.
Q. No 4:
Write a character sketch of the Duchess.
Answer:
The Duchess in the story belongs to the highest and richest class in the English society.
But, with the passage of time, like other people of her class, she started coming down
economically and morally.
~ 30 ~

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Her appearances show that she likes to wear good dress and is very careful about her
outwardly looks. But, she is a fat woman and even the expensive clothes are not able to hide
her fatness. This also shows that she is an idle like woman and does not work at home.
Her face is real mirror of her moral corruption. She is there in the shop of jeweler to
fool him. Although, the jeweler is aware that she is a cheater, yet she is able to deceive him
once again. This shows her cleverness. The way she takes the advantage of the weaknesses of
the jeweler shows that she knows very well that how to exploit others weaknesses.
In short, she is a morally corrupt and mean woman, who even does not hesitate to use
the name of her daughter to deceive the jeweler.