Oracle Concepts and Architecture Database Structures. 1.

What are the components of Physical database structure of Oracle Database?. ORACLE database is comprised of three types of files. One or more Data files, two are more Redo Log files, and one or more Control files. 2. What are the components of Logical database structure of ORACLE database? Tablespaces and the Database's Schema Objects. 3. What is a Tablespace? A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together. 4. What is SYSTEM tablespace and When is it Created? Every ORACLE database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM, which is automatically created when the database is created. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database. 5. Explain the relationship among Database, Tablespace and Data file. Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces One or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace. 6. What is schema? A schema is collection of database objects of a User. 7. What are Schema Objects ? Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database's data. Schema objects include tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database triggers, procedures, functions packages and database links. 8. Can objects of the same Schema reside in different tablespaces.? Yes. 9. Can a Tablespace hold objects from different Schemes ? Yes. 10. what is Table ? A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns. 11. What is a View ? A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query attached to it. (The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.) 12. Do View contain Data ? Views do not contain or store data. 13. Can a View based on another View ? Yes. 14. What are the advantages of Views ? Provide an additional level of table security, by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows and columns of a table. Hide data complexity. Simplify commands for the user. Present the data in a different perpecetive from that of the base table. Store complex queries. 15. What is a Sequence ? A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database's tables. 16. What is a Synonym ? A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit. 17. What are the type of Synonyms? There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public. 18. What is a Private Synonyms ? A Private Synonyms can be accessed only by the owner. 19. What is a Public Synonyms ? A Public synonyms can be accessed by any user on the database. 20. What are synonyms used for ? Synonyms are used to : Mask the real name and owner of an object. Provide public access to an object Provide location transparency for tables,views or program units of a remote database. Simplify the SQL statements for database users. 21. What is an Index ? An Index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows,which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table. 22. How are Indexes Update ? Indexes are automatically maintained and used by ORACLE. Changes to table data are automatically incorporated into all relevant indexes. 23. What are Clusters ? Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together. 24. What is cluster Key ? The related columns of the tables in a cluster is called the Cluster Key. 25. What is Index Cluster ? A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key. 26. What is Hash Cluster ? A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a hash function to the row's cluster key value. All rows with the same hash key value are stores together on disk. 27. When can Hash Cluster used ? Hash clusters are better choice when a table is often queried with equality queries. For such queries the specified cluster key value is hashed. The resulting hash key value points directly to the area on disk that stores the specified rows. 28. What is Database Link ? A database link is a named object that describes a "path" from one database to another. 29. What are the types of Database Links ? Private Database Link, Public Database Link & Network Database Link. 30. What is Private Database Link ? Private database link is created on behalf of a specific user. A private database link can be used only when the owner of the link specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or in the definition of the owner's views or procedures. 31. What is Public Database Link ? Public database link is created for the special user group PUBLIC. A public database link can be used when any user in the associated database specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition. 32. What is Network Database link ? Network database link is created and managed by a network domain service. A network database link can be used when any user of any database in the network specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition. 33. What is Data Block ? ORACLE database's data is stored in data blocks. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical database space on disk. 34. How to define Data Block size ? A data block size is specified for each ORACLE database when the database is created. A database users and allocated free database space in ORACLE datablocks. Block size is specified in INIT.ORA file and cann't be changed latter.

35. What is Row Chaining ? In Circumstances, all of the data for a row in a table may not be able to fit in the same data block. When this occurs , the data for the row is stored in a chain of data block (one or more) reserved for that segment. 36. What is an Extent ? An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtained in a single allocation, used to store a specific type of information. 37. What is a Segment ? A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure. 38. What are the different type of Segments ? Data Segment, Index Segment, Rollback Segment and Temporary Segment. 39. What is a Data Segment ? Each Non-clustered table has a data segment. All of the table's data is stored in the extents of its data segment. Each cluster has a data segment. The data of every table in the cluster is stored in the cluster's data segment. 40. What is an Index Segment ? Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its data. 41. What is Rollback Segment ? A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to temporarily store "undo" information. 42. What are the uses of Rollback Segment ? Rollback Segments are used : To generate read-consistent database information during database recovery to rollback uncommitted transactions for users. 43. What is a Temporary Segment? Temporary segments are created by ORACLE when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution. When the statement finishes execution, the temporary segment extents are released to the system for future use. 44. What is a Data File ? Every ORACLE database has one or more physical data files. A database's data files contain all the database data. The data of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the data files allocated for a database. 45. What are the Characteristics of Data Files ? A data file can be associated with only one database.Once created a data file can't change size. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace. 46. What is a Redo Log ? The set of Redo Log files for a database is collectively known as the database's redo log. 47. What is the function of Redo Log ? The Primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data. 48. What is the use of Redo Log Information ? The Information in a redo log file is used only to recover the database from a system or media failure prevents database data from being written to a database's data files. 49. What does a Control file Contain ? A Control file records the physical structure of the database. It contains the following information. Database Name, Names and locations of a database's files and redolog files. ,Time stamp of database creation. 50. What is the use of Control File ? When an instance of an ORACLE database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery. 51. What is a Data Dictionary ? The data dictionary of an ORACLE database is a set of tables and views that are used as a read-only reference about the database. It stores information about both the logical and physical structure of the database, the valid users of an ORACLE database, integrity constraints defined for tables in the database and space allocated for a schema object and how much of it is being used. 52. What is an Integrity Constrains ? An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define a business rule for a column of a table. 53. Can an Integrity Constraint be enforced on a table if some existing table data does not satisfy the constraint ? No. 54. Describe the different type of Integrity Constraints supported by ORACLE ? NOT NULL Constraint - Disallows NULLs in a table's column. UNIQUE Constraint - Disallows duplicate values in a column or set of columns. PRIMARY KEY Constraint - Disallows duplicate values and NULLs in a column or set of columns. FOREIGN KEY Constrain - Require each value in a column or set of columns match a value in a related table's UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY. CHECK Constraint - Disallows values that do not satisfy the logical expression of the constraint. 55. What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and PRIMARY KEY constraint ? A column defined as UNIQUE can contain NULLs while a column defined as PRIMARY KEY can't contain Nulls. 56. Describe Referential Integrity ? A rule defined on a column (or set of columns) in one table that allows the insert or update of a row only if the value for the column or set of columns (the dependent value) matches a value in a column of a related table (the referenced value). It also specifies the type of data manipulation allowed on referenced data and the action to be performed on dependent data as a result of any action on referenced data. 57. What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEY integrity constraint ? UPDATE and DELETE Restrict - A referential integrity rule that disallows the update or deletion of referenced data. DELETE Cascade - When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows are deleted. 58. What is self-referential integrity constraint ? If a foreign key reference a parent key of the same table is called self-referential integrity constraint. 59. What are the Limitations of a CHECK Constraint ? The condition must be a Boolean expression evaluated using the values in the row being inserted or updated and can't contain subqueries, sequence, the SYSDATE,UID,USER or USERENV SQL functions, or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM. 60. What is the maximum number of CHECK constraints that can be defined on a column ? No Limit. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE : 61. What constitute an ORACLE Instance ? SGA and ORACLE background processes constitute an ORACLE instance. (or) Combination of memory structure and background process. 62. What is SGA ? The System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contains data and control information for one ORACLE instance. 63. What are the components of SGA ? Database buffers, Redo Log Buffer the Shared Pool and Cursors. 64. What do Database Buffers contain ?

What are the values that can be specified for OPTIMIZER MODE Parameter ? COST and RULE. RECO – Recover. and loaded into memory once) 115. It is a shadow process created automatically to facilitate communication between the user and the server process. 86. What is Execution Plan ? The combinations of the steps the optimizer chooses to execute a statement is called an execution plan.Packages and Database Triggers.System Monitor. CKPT . What are the different types of PL/SQL program units that can be defined and stored in ORACLE database ? Procedures and Functions. 71. What is the effect of setting the value 'FIRST_ROWS' for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command ? This value causes the optimizer to use the cost-based approach for all SQL statements in the session regardless of the presence of statistics and to optimize with a goal of best response time. What does LGWR do ? Log Writer (LGWR) writes redo log entries generated in the redo log buffer of the SGA to on-line Redo Log File. 68. A trigger can be used to enforce transitional constraints where as a declarative integrity constraint cannot be used.LCK9) are used for inter-instance locking.. What is Shared SQL Area ? A Shared SQL area is required to process every unique SQL statement submitted to a database and contains information such as the parse tree and execution plan for the corresponding statement. When does LGWR write to the database ? LGWR writes redo log entries into an on-line redo log file when transactions commit and the log buffer files are full. What is a Parallel Server option in ORACLE ? A configuration for loosely coupled systems where multiple instance share a single physical database is called Parallel Server. What are the advantages of having a Package ? Increased functionality (for example. Will the Optimizer always use COST-based approach if OPTIMIZER_MODE is set to "Cost'? Presence of statistics in the data dictionary for atleast one of the tables accessed by the SQL statements is necessary for the OPTIMIZER to use COST-based approach. PMON . What is Shared Pool ? Shared Pool is a portion of the SGA that contains shared memory constructs such as shared SQL areas. What is the effect of setting the value of OPTIMIZER_MODE to 'RULE' ? This value causes the optimizer to choose the rule_based approach for all SQL statements issued to the instance regardless of the presence of statistics. What are the uses of Database Trigger ? Database triggers can be used to automatic data generation. 107. Snnn .Database Writer. 119. What is the effect of setting the 'RULE' for OPTIMIER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ? This value causes the optimizer to choose the rule-based approach for all SQL statements in a session regardless of the presence of statistics. What is SAVE POINT ? For long transactions that contain many SQL statements. The changes made by the SQL statements of a transaction become visible to other user sessions transactions that start only after transaction is committed. 85. 82. therefore. The security domains of all users granted the group's role automatically reflect the changes made to the role. What is the function of Optimizer ? The goal of the optimizer is to choose the most efficient way to execute a SQL statement. 75. 109. 113. What is a Procedure ? A Procedure consist of a set of SQL and PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform a set of related tasks. 79. DATA ACCESS 90. 102. The least recently used data is written to the data files first. . 66.Log Writer.update to. What do Redo Log Buffers contain ? Redo Log Buffer stores redo entries a log of changes made to the database.When Does DBWR write to the database ? DBWR writes when more data needs to be read into the SGA and too few database buffers are free. These transactions are eventually recovered by SMON when the tablespace or file is brought back on-line SMON also coalesces free extents within the database to make free space contiguous and easier to allocate. and customize complex security authorizations. This allows the option of later rolling back all work performed from the current point in the transaction to a declared savepoint within the transaction. 104.FIRST_ROWS and RULE. 111. it does not guarantee all data in a table conforms to the rules established by an associated trigger. 81. enforce complex Integrity constraints. What is Server Process ? Server Process handle requests from connected user process. LGWR . What are the differences between Database Trigger and Integrity constraints ? A declarative integrity constraint is a statement about the database that is always true.A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application. 87. A server process is in charge of communicating with the user process and interacting with ORACLE carry out requests of the associated user process. 93. 114. What is the effect of setting the value "ALL_ROWS" for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command ? This value causes the optimizer to the cost-based approach for all SQL statements in the session regardless of the presence of statistics and to optimize with a goal of best throughput. PROGRAMMATIC CONSTRUCTS 110. This allows specific control of a user's privileges in any given situation.global package variables can be declared and used by any proecdure in the package) and performance (for example all objects of the package are parsed compiled. A trigger does not apply to data loaded before the definition of the trigger. SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use). Otherwise the OPTIMIZER chooses RULE_based approach. What are the use of Roles ? REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES . 92. What are functions of PMON ? Process Monitor (PMON) performs process recovery when a user process fails PMON is responsible for cleaning up the cache and Freeing resources that the process was using PMON also checks on dispatcher and server processes and restarts them if they have failed. At timed intervals. What does COMMIT do ? COMMIT makes permanent the changes resulting from all SQL statements in the transaction. parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ? The Optimizer chooses Cost_based approach and optimizes with the goal of best throughput if statistics for atleast one of the tables accessed by the SQL statement exist in the data dictionary. 99. 76.Dispatcher and LCKn – Lock. 73. 117. Define Transaction ? A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user.Check Point. What is a Multi-threaded Server Configuration ? In a Multi-threaded Server Configuration many user processes share a group of server process.. 70. 78.Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group. variables and other package constructs together as a unit in the database. What is the function of ARCH ? Archiver (ARCH) copies the on-line redo log files to archival storage when they are full. What is Database Trigger ? A Database Trigger is procedure (set of SQL and PL/SQL statements) that is automatically executed as a result of an insert in. What is function of RECO ? RECOver (RECO) is used to resolve distributed transactions that are pending due to a network or system failure in a distributed database. 101. Otherwise OPTIMIZER chooses RULE-based approach. What is PGA ? Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. What is the effect of setting the value "CHOOSE" for OPTIMIZER_GOAL. What is User Process ? A user process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program.. ARCH – Archiver. or delete from a table. 95. DATABASE SECURITY 118. 96. What are the two types of Server Configurations ? Dedicated Server Configuration and Multi-threaded Server Configuration. What does ROLLBACK do ? ROLLBACK retracts any of the changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction. 80. Dnnn . What is the function of Lock (LCKn) Process ? Lock (LCKn) are used for inter-instance locking when the ORACLE Parallel Server option is used. 91. What is the maximum number of Lock Processes used ? Though a single LCK process is sufficient for most Parallel Server systems upto Ten Locks (LCK0. What is RULE-based approach to optimization ? Choosing an executing planbased on the access paths available and the ranks of these access paths. 112. Name the ORACLE Background Process ? DBWR . 74. ARCH is active only when a database's redo log is used in ARCHIVELOG mode. 94. 98. What is Read-Only Transaction ? A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of each query executed in the transaction are consistant with respect to the same point in time. DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT .the local RECO attempts to connect to remote databases and automatically complete the commit or rollback of the local portion of any pending distributed transactions. APPLICATION AWARENESS . What are the different approaches used by Optimizer in choosing an execution plan ? Rule-based and Cost-based. 105. What Does DBWR do ? Database writer writes modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the data files. 103. 72. When does a Transaction end ? When it is committed or Rollbacked. 89. 77. 106. What is difference between Procedures and Functions ? A Function returns a value to the caller where as a Procedure does not.ALL_ROWS. SMON .Process Monitor. What is COST-based approach to optimization ? Considering available access paths and determining the most efficient execution plan based on statistics in the data dictionary for the tables accessed by the statement and their associated clusters and indexes. audit data modifications. intermediate markers or savepoints can be declared which can be used to divide a transaction into smaller parts. What are the factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an Optimization approach ? The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter Statistics in the Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command hints in the statement. What is a Package ? A Package is a collection of related procedures. What are the functions of SMON ? System Monitor (SMON) performs instance recovery at instance start-up. 88. What is Cursor ? A Cursor is a handle ( a name or pointer) for the memory associated with a specific statement. What is Dedicated Server Configuration ? In a Dedicated Server Configuration a Server Process handles requests for a Single User Process. 69. 97. It can also contain modified data that has not yet been permanently written to disk.. What are the values that can be specified for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ? CHOOSE. 65. DBWR also writes when CheckPoint occurs.Server. 67. only the privileges of the role need to be modified. 83.Database buffers store the most recently used blocks of database data. 108. A constraint applies to existing data in the table and any statement that manipulates the table. SMON of one instance can also perform instance recovery for other instance that have failed SMON also cleans up temporary segments that are no longer in use and recovers dead transactions skipped during crash and instance recovery because of file-read or off-line errors. What are Roles ? Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles. How many Dispatcher Processes are created ? Atleast one Dispatcher process is created for every communication protocol in use.When the privileges of a group must change. What is the function of checkpoint(CKPT)? The Checkpoint (CKPT) process is responsible for signaling DBWR at checkpoints and updating all the data files and control files of the database. functions. 116. What is the function of Dispatcher (Dnnn) ? Dispatcher (Dnnn) process is responsible for routing requests from connected user processes to available shared server processes and returning the responses back to the appropriate user processes. 100. In a multiple instance system (one that uses the Parallel Server). 84.

What is dictionary cache ? Dictionary cache is information about the databse objects stored in a data dictionary table.Additional/Special Rollback segments. 148. What is Full Backup ? A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files. What is Object Auditing ? Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user. DATA2. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to track the rows that have been updated in the master table. Resolving any pending distributed transactions undergoing a two-phase commit at the time of the instance failure. 8. What is Two-Phase Commit ? Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction. 16. What is clusters ? Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster. This will create all definitions into newfile. SMON (System MONito) PMON (Process MONitor) LGWR (LoG Write) DBWR (Data Base Write) ARCH (ARCHiver) CKPT (Check Point) RECO Dispatcher. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Data Base Administration Introduction to DBA 1. 15. What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA) ? It is area in memory that is used by a Single Oracle User Process. 122. other instances that are started in parallel mode can also mount the database. The on-line redo log files are used in cyclical fashion. 13.sql. a Prepare Phase and a Commit Phase. What is Parallel Server ? Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU environments) 3. 126.0 and Ver 7. yet has been recorded in the on-line redo log. What is meant by recursive hints ? Number of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hints. 133. Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing.views etc. one or more control files.120. What is Distributed database ? A distributed database is a network of databases managed by multiple database servers that appears to a user as single logical database. TOOLS . 144. Dictionary Cache Buffers. What is a SNAPSHOT LOG ? A snapshot log is a table in the master database that is associated with the master table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table comman (Ver 7.Indexes for tools table.sql. the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction. How will you swap objects into a different table space for an existing database ? Export the user. What is a cluster Key ? The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. 145. Shared SQL pool). 143. 128. What is Auditing ? Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use. 147. DATA . indexes and clusters DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in INIT. What is Tablespace Quota ? The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace. User Process with associated PGS. 21. It holds the most recently requested structural information between users. What are the different Levels of Auditing ? Statement Auditing.. 4.Standard operational tables. .Tools table. What is Archived Redo Log ? Archived Redo Log consists of Redo Log files that have archived before being reused. DATABASE OPERATION. LOGICAL & PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE OF DATABASE. The server that access the database consists of SGA (Database buffer. When a segment is dropped its extents are reallocated and are marked as free.). the corresponding redo entries temporarily stores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an on-line redo log file by the background process LGWR. If the ratio is greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE. What are the steps involved in Database Shutdown ? Close the Database.Temporary purpose tablespace TEMP_USER . Redo log buffers. What is a Schema ? The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema. It has two phase.Static tables used for standard operations INDEXES .0 only) area.The global coordinator (initiating node) ask a participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction. USERS . BACKUP AND RECOVERY 137. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database.Data dictionary tables. Describe two phases of Two-phase commit ? Prepare phase . What is meant by free extent ? A free extent is a collection of continuous free blocks in tablespace. What is a profile ? Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user. if all participants cannot prepare. What is Restricted Mode of Instance Startup ? An instance can be started in (or later altered to be in) restricted mode so that when the database is open connections are limited only to those whose user accounts have been granted the RESTRICTED SESSION system privilege.Standard Operations Rollback Segments. Whenever a transaction is committed. RBS1.Indexes for Standard operational tables. What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ? It consists of one or more data files. Drop necessary objects. What are the advantages of operating a database in ARCHIVELOG mode over operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode ? Complete database recovery from disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the size. The data of all databases in the distributed database can be simultaneously accessed and modified. What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for table replication ? Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs 134. Dictionary cache. 7. 6. What is Partial Backup ? A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short of a full backup. one or more rollback segments. 123. List the Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA) of Oracle database ? or How can we organise the tablespaces in Oracle database to have maximum performance ? SYSTEM . 132. What is default tablespace ? The Tablespace to contain schema objects created without specifying a tablespace name. What is a SNAPSHOT ? Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table. Snapshot logs are used in updating the snapshots based on the master table. 11. 12. So that they can be used in roll forward operations during database recoveries. 20. It holds the most recently requested structural information about the database.0) 5. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically. User objects (table. Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a database is started in parallel mode. These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally. 141. 121. 139. Mount the Database and Open the Database. 19. they will first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will write into files frequently. 149. Before writing them into the redo log files. Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. 124. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file. including the contents of rollback segments. What is a data segment ? Data segment are the physical areas within a database block in which the data associated with tables and clusters are stored. 138. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster. 10. 129. one or more tablespaces. Releasing any resources (locks) held by transactions in process at the time of the failure.indexes. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA? Due to insufficient Shared SQL pool size. The process can be shared by all users. What are the steps involved in Database Startup ? Start an instance. 146.0 ? The System Global Area in a Oracle database is the area in memory to facilitates the transfer of information between users. 131. INDEXES1 . What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle Database ? An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. Can Full Backup be performed when the database is open ? No. TEMP . What is Statement Auditing ? Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects. How to prevent unauthorized use of privileges granted to a Role ? By creating a Role with a password. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users. taken while the database is open or shut down.User tablespace.WhatisOn-lineRedoLog? The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line redo files that record all committed changes made to the database. What is Database Buffers ? Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the data blocks that are read from the data segments in the database such as tables.Indexes of static tables used for standard operations. What is Privilege Auditing ? Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects. changes made to one member of the group are made to all members. The structure is Database buffers. 142. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTED DATABASES 130. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter we can optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache. What is Mirrored on-line Redo Log ? A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of on-line redo log files physically located on separate disks. 2.sql after altering the tablespaces. What is a Database instance ? Explain A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files.RBS2 . How will you force database to use particular rollback segment ? SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs_name. Import from the backup for the necessary objects. Redo Log Buffer and Shared SQL pool (ver 7. 136. Perform import using the command imp system/manager file=export. What is Log Switch ? The point at which ORACLE ends writing to one online redo log file and begins writing to another is called a log switch. What is a deadlock ? Explain . RBS . Dismount the Database and Shutdown the Instance. Run the script newfile. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small. What is meant by redo log buffer ? Change made to entries are written to the on-line redo log files. What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile ? The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user's session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user's session the amout of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of idle time for the user's session the allowed amount of connect time for the user's session.ORA decides the size. 140. What are the steps involved in Instance Recovery ? R_olling forward to recover data that has not been recorded in data files. on-line redo log files and control file that constitute ORACLE database and the parameter. The Database contains multiple users/schemas. What is a Shared SQL pool ? The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the Shared SQL Pool.dmp indexfile=newrite. What is a SQL * NET? SQL *NET is ORACLE's mechanism for interfacing with the communication protocols used by the networks that facilitate distributed processing and distributed databases. Rolling back transactions that have been explicitly rolled back or have not been committed as indicated by the rollback segments regenerated in step a. 125. MEMORY MANAGEMENT 9.Temporary tablespace for users. 135. What is SGA ? How it is different from Ver 6. 17. even if there is a failure) Commit Phase . Data dictionary Tables. 127. only that Instance can mount the database. 14. What are the different modes of mounting a Database with the Parallel Server ? Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a database does so in exclusive mode. two or more redo log files. 18. Online database backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. It is used in Clint-Server and Server-Server communications.If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared. Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. TOOLS1 .

What are disadvanteges of having raw devices ? We should depend on export/import utility for backup/recovery (fully reliable). or cluster: . This prevents other user using Rollback segments. 58. All of the basetables and views for the database's dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE. Backing up and restoring the database. PCTEREE (% of free space for row updation in future) 26. How will you monitor the space allocation ? By quering DBA_SEGMENT table/view.Rollback Segment Dropped. %s . When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner.If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables. 41. It may fail if remote database is having any problem. How can we plan storage for very large tables ? Limit the number of extents in the table Separate Table from its indexes. Peform the reference the manually immdiately locking the master tables. How will you enforce security using stored procedures ? Don't grant user access directly to tables within the application. 34. modify init. This can be achieved by creating group of log files together. Create a Second Rollback Segment name R0 in the SYSTEM tablespace. It should be created before creating snapshots. sub-query or snashot of operations. The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup.ora file. how much % should leave free for managing row updations etc.name. We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log.0 they are read only. When will be a segment released ? When Segment is dropped. Transaction Begins. When truncated (TRUNCATE used with drop storage option). snapshots ? A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses. The Data dictionary table for space management are updated. Creating roles and assigning provies to roles. DB_DOMAIN . add 10 % additional space to calculate the initial extent size for a working table. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS . What is the use of ANALYZE command ? To perform one of these function on an index. . so that LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members of the current on-line redo log group. The RBS checks to see if it is part of its OPTIMAL size. We can join tables in snopshots by creating a complex snapshots that will based on the master tables. Once it found an extent is in use then it forced to acquire a new extent (No. Inserts of. 2. What are the roles and user accounts created automatically with the database ? DBA . If possible it performs a FAST refresh. 66. What is the functionality of SYSTEM table space ? To manage the database level transactions such as modifications of the data dictionary table that record information about the free space usage. Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads . LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path. It will be used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations. 60. Also optionally LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS. 25.indexes). Ensuring compliance with Oralce license agreement. Differentiate simple and complex. 57.ora file and Start database) Create other tablespaces (RBS) for rollback segments.Log sequence number not padded.Must set to a text string of no more than 8 characters and it will be stored inside the datafiles. What are the various type of snapshots ? Simple and Complex. How can we reduce the network traffic ? Replictaion of data in distributed environment.to delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary. 59. Managing primary database structures (tablespaces).Rollback Segment available but not on-line. How free extents are managed in Ver 6. Row Header. OFF-LINE .Rollback Segment off-line. Backup the database. 56. After arriving the calculation. %T Thread number lef-zero-paded and %t . What is the role of PCTFREE parameter is Storage clause ? This is used to reserve certain amount of space in a block for expansion of rows. MANAGING DISTRIBUTED DATABASES. What are roles ? How can we implement roles ? Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure. If any one group fails then database automatically switch over to next group.Hits Misses)/ Logical Reads. What is user Account in Oracle database ? An user account is not a physical structure in Database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges. 63. The global database name is identified by setting these parameters (DB_NAME & DB_DOMAIN) CONTORL FILES . 43. I/O will be improved because Oracle is byepassing the kernnel which writing into disk. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database spaces ? DBA_FREE_SPACE. What is the OPTIMAL parameter ? It is used to set the optimal length of a rollback segment.Contains data but need recovery or corupted. Allocate Sufficient temporary storage. RBS extents. FAST . 3.table. Calculate the number of blocks and bytes required for the table. 46. how much can be extended next.It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using this username. What are the minimum parameters should exist in the parameter file (init. This reduces I/O load on the main set of disks. What is a trace file and how is it created ? Each server and background process can write an associated trace file. 68. 47. What are the options available to refresh snapshots ? COMPLETE . SYSTEM user account . Calculate the total average row size. Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh. How to implement the multiple control files for an existing database ? Shutdown the databse.to identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster. Copy one of the existing control file to new location. What is meant by Redo Log file mirrorring ? How it can be achieved? Process of having a copy of redo log files is called mirroring. AVAILABLE .0 ? Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6. 35.Physical Reads . 52.Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no. Calculate the average number rows that can fit in a block. Disk Corruption will be very less. ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS . Calculate the available dataspace per data block Calculate the combined column lengths of the average row. Start up a new instance and mount but do not open the databse. 69. How does Space allocation table place within a block ? Each block contains entries as follows. 54. Start up the databse. Switch the databse's archiving mode. What is snapshots ? Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distribute database at specified time intervals. 38. What is use of Rollback Segments In Database ? They allow the database to maintain read consistency between multiple transactions. 55. 42.row date (multiple rows may exists). Using remote procedure calls. Backup the databse. Multiple copies of control files are advisable. 37. How will you create multiple rollback segments in a database ? Create a database which implicitly creates a SYSTEM Rollback Segment in a SYSTEM tablespace. of rows per block? PCTFREE parameter Row size also reduces no of rows per block. 50. 5. How can you enable automatic archiving ? Shut the database. Maintain archived data on tape.It is string that specifies the network domain where the database is created.List of control filenames of the database.To determine the no of buffers in the buffer cache in SGA. 32.e. 64. In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it automatically switchover to place of failed disk. How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination ? By setting the following values in init. NEEDS RECOVERY . Controlling and monitoring user access to the database. What is the significance of having storage clause ? We can plan the storage for a table as how much initial extents are required. Managing primary objects (table. updates to and deletes of rows as well as columns larger than a single datablock. It is possible to use raw devices as data files and what is the advantages over file. 28.Contains data from an unresolved transaction involving a distributed database.The DBA role will be assigned to this account. What are the database administrators utilities avaliable ? SQL * DBA . It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. of extents is based on the optimal size) 31. In ver 7. 24. When will the data in the snapshot log be used ? We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i. . Restart the database. 29. This can be used for tuning the database. What dynamic data replication ? Updating or Inserting records in remote database through database triggers. . RBS chooses its oldest inactive segment. If name is not mentioned then default name will be used. Each Rollback Segment entry must be completed within one rollback segment. 4. An entry is made in the RES header for new transactions entry.0. How can you Enforce Refrencial Integrity in snapshots ? Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use. Transaction Completes. How will you estimate the space required by a non-clustered tables? Calculate the total header size. 30.This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. 27. it dumps information about the error to its trace. List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment to expand into another extend. what is snapshot log ? It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot.0 23. The advantages over file system files.views.ora) ? DB NAME .22. 51. Monitoring and optimising the performance of the database. Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init. system files ? Yes.LICENSE_SESSION_WARNING and LICENSE_MAX_USERS. Fixied block header. None is available. When an internal error is detected by a process or user process. The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used. can cause fragmentation an chained row pieces. Using snapshots to replicate data. How will you monitor rollback segment status ? Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view. What are the steps to switch a database's archiving mode between NO ARCHIVELOG and ARCHIVELOG mode ? 1. It degrades performance. Edit Config ora file by adding new control file. Free extents are periodically coalesces with the neighboring free extent in Ver 7. 49. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S Log sequence number and is zero left paded. Perform any operating system specific steps (optional). 61.List of rollback segments an ORACLE instance acquires at database startup.. Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support. 67. instead we can use dd command which is less flexible and has limited recoveries.Thread number not padded). What is hit ratio ? It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is handling requests for data. Improved performance because most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O request to use the shadow set of files instead of the main set of files. DBA_DATA_FILES. SYS user account . Trailling nulls and length bytes are not stored..It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables. What is a Rollback segment entry ? It is the set of before image data blocks that contain rows that are modified by a transaction. How the space utilisation takes place within rollback segments ? It will try to fit the transaction in a cyclic fashion to all existing extents. Planning for backup and recovery of database information. Shutdown the database instance. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. Deactivate Rollback Segment R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments. DBA_SEGMENTS. 40. A single rollback segment can have multiple rollback segment entries. FORCE . Transaction acquires blocks in an extent of RBS The entry attempts to wrap into second extent. 44. Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system. 39. 36. 62. .to validate the structure of the object. Enrolling users and maintaining system security.Tables are completly regenerated using the snapshot's query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced. 70.To determine number of operating system processes that can be connected to ORACLE concurrently. 33. PARTLY AVAILABLE .Rollback Segment is on-line. List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the estimations ? The space used transaction entries and deleted records does not become free immediately after completion due to delayed cleanout. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users. so that the RBS must extent.0 and Ver 7. redo log files and control files and control file while database creation. Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database. IN USE . What are the responsibilities of a Database Administrator ? Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and application tools. PROCESSES . Make new rollback segment available (After shutdown. A complex snapshots contain atleast any one of the above.ora file. Oldest inactive segment is eliminated. 45. 65. Variable block header. Why query fails sometimes ? Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger transactions entry loads. Assign each role to group of users.role Contains all database system privileges. INVALID . DATABASE SECURITY & ADMINISTRATION 48. it should be not be already available ) After giving table privileges.Default value.to collect statisties about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary. What is advantage of having disk shadowing/ Mirroring ? Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of disk failure. A single transaction may wipeout all avaliable free space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. When Shrink (RBS only). What is a Control file ? Database's overall physical architecture is maintained in a file called control file. SQL * Loader . The value should be 5 (background process) and additional 1 for each user. JOINs. CONNECT BY clauses.

Key-function. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2 ? What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type ? CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length. While specifying master/detail relationship between two blocks specifying the join condition is a must ? True or False. What is the use of ROWS option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether rows should be imported. 13. e. What is the use of FULL option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether full databse export should be performed.VARCHAR2. What is ROWID ? ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a table. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table ? Using ROWID. Commited block sometimes refer to a BASE TABLE ? True or False. 28. select empno. Where the integrity constrints are stored in Data Dictionary ? The integrity constraints are stored in USER_CONSTRAINTS. 75. Incremental . What are the different kind of export backups ? Full back . starting from nth postion of string1. the flag indirects whether a record will be stores data dictionary tables recording the export. What is the use of INDEXES option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether indexes on tables will be exported. ename from emp where. 79. . 6. blockno. Explain UNION. For this the ARCHIVELOG mode should be enabled. What is the use of ROWS option in EXP command ? Flag to indicate whether table rows should be exported. It is not possible to use LONG column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause. What is the use of GRANT option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be imported. 99. Maximum of five save points are allowed. System Control : ALTER SYSTEM. All data files. Only if you access next value in the session. What are the types of TRIGGERS ? 1. 81. To add a column with NOT NULL constraint. What is a database link ? Database Link is a named path through which a remote database can be accessed. 26. 11. 91. What is a transaction ? Transaction is logical unit between two commits and commit and rollback. What are the different types of key triggers ? Function Key. What are the types of SQL Statement ? Data Definition Language : CREATE. 16.Joining two tables by equating two common columns. What is the Subquery ? Subquery is a query whose return values are used in filtering conditions of the main query. 18.DATE. What are the advantages of VIEW ? To protect some of the columns of a table from other users. What are the different methods of backing up oracle database ? . Navigational Triggers. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATE.ora file (Optional) 76. 9. Equi Join . redo log files.Cold Backups . can not be rolled back. FORMS 3. current value can be accessed. What are the data types allowed in a table ? CHAR. 97. What is the use of FILE option in EXP command ? To give the export file name. the table must be empty.DROP. BLOCK 5.0 BASIC 1. 5. What is a join ? Explain the different types of joins ? Join is a query which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables.returns all rows selected by either query. 3. Oracle based interactive application. What is a logical backup ? Logical backup involves reading a set of databse records and writing them into a file. What is the use of RECORD option in EXP command ? For Incremental exports.REVOKE.RAW. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ? Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second.0 ? No.EXPLAIN PLAN & SELECT. 10. Because SYSDATE format contains time attached with it.Hot Backups (Archive log) 74.NO AUDIT & COMMIT. 83. 2. It is not possible. it generates its minimum value. We need to take. All control files. UNION ALL . rownumber are the components of ROWID. CONSTRAINTS 12.returns all distinct rows selected by either query. 7.NUMBER. 92.What is the use of FILE option in IMP command ? The name of the file from which import should be performed. 7. How will you a activate/deactivate integrity constraints ? The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled by ALTER TABLE ENABLE constraint/DISABLE constraint.String2(n. What are the benefits of distributed options in databases ? Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit. 80. To hide complexity of calculations. Deleted records can be rolled back or committed. 25. 89.DELETE. What is ON DELETE CASCADE ? When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified ORACLE maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values if a referenced primary or unique key value is removed. DELETE allows the filtered deletion. What is correlated sub-query ? Correlated sub_query is a sub_query which has reference to the main query.All Data files.INCREMENTAL. What are the usage of SAVEPOINTS ? SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into smaller parts. Transactional Control : COMMIT & ROLLBACK. What is a Trigger ? A piece of logic that is executed at or triggered by a SQL *forms event. SQL PLUS STATEMENTS 1. MINUS . Sequence name NEXTVAL. Data Manipulation Language : INSERT.MINUS. MANAGING BACKUP & RECOVERY 73. 78. 4.e.Only affected tables from last incremental date/full backup date. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE ? TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i. Explain Connect by Prior ? Retrives rows in hierarchical order. Key-startup. 93. 3. What is cold backup ? What are the elements of it ? Cold backup is taking backup of all physical files after normal shutdown of database. 8. 77.LOCK TABLE. SUBSTR (String1 n. All Archive log. To hide complexity of a query. It is 18 character long. 22. 20. 90. What is the use of INCTYPE option in EXP command ? Type export should be performed COMPLETE. Key-others. 8. What is the use of CONSTRAINTS option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether constraints on table need to be exported. For CHAR it is 255 and 2000 for VARCHAR2. The following files need to be backed up. What is the use of SHOW option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether file content should be displayed or not. 94. Database uses a two phase commit. After pan ascending sequence reaches its maximum value. NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot generate more values after reaching its maximum or minimum value.LONG and LONG RAW. FRM (Executable File). will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ? It won't. Self Join Joining the table with itself. Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR ? INSTR (String1. What is the use of ANALYSE ( Ver 7) option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether statistical information about the exported objects should be written to export dump file. 23.What is an SQL *FORMS ? SQL *forms is 4GL tool for developing and executing. Value is 'Y' or 'N'. What is hot backup and how it can be taken ? Taking backup of archive log files when database is open. 19.Logical Backups . 95. and trigger name will be TLOGS name). How do you control the constraints in forms ? Select the use constraint property is ON Block definition screen. . What is the use of OWNER option in EXP command ? List of table accounts should be exported. After a descending sequence reaches its minimum. UNION . Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes under what conditions ? A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert. 98.TRUNCATE.(m)).The init. VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces. What is the use of TABLES option in EXP command ? List of tables should be exported. True. What are the pre requisites ? To modify datatype of a column.m) SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1. Session Control : ALTERSESSION & SET ROLE. 96. Non-Equi Join . 85. To Modify the datatype of a column the column must be empty. The search begins from nth position of string1. What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence ? CYCLE specifies that the sequence continues to generate values after reaching either maximum or minimum value. 10. 4.All Control files. If 'N' only DDL statements for the databse objects will be created. It enables rolling back part of a transaction.Complete database. What is the use of INDEXES option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether import should import index on tables or not. What is the use of COMPRESS option in EXP command ? Flag to indicate whether export should compress fragmented segments into single extents. Transaction Triggers. How to access the current value and next value from a sequence ? Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value ? Sequence name CURRVAL. 2.All on-line redo log files. Can we create two blocks with the same name in form 3. What is the use of GRANT option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether grants on databse objects will be exported or not.. If an unique key constraint on DATE column is created. What is an Integrity Constraint ? Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values to a column in a table. What is use of LOG (Ver 7) option in EXP command ? The name of the file which log of the export will be written. What is the use of IGNORE option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether the import should ignore errors encounter when issuing CREATE commands.g.Joining two tables by equating two common columns. False. 72. 21.UNION ALL.The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters. 6. 84. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table ? Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY ? Only one LONG columns is allowed. Cumulative backup . If this is set to 'N' then only DDL for database objects will be exectued. 17.UPDATE. 100. 27. What is the maximum size of a form ? 255 character width and 255 characters Length. Outer Join . INTERSECT ? INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both queries. to add a column with NOT NULL constrain. it generates its maximum. Export utility is used for taking backup and Import utility is used to recover from backup.including all duplicates. What is the use of CONSISTENT (Ver 7) option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether a read consistent version of all the exported objects should be maintained.ALTER.Only affected table from the last cumulative date/full backup date. . 9. 88. (The table name created will be MLOGS_tablename.Joining two tables in such a way that query can also retrive rows that do not have corresponding join value in the other table. 86. INSTR returns the position of the mth occurrence of the string 2 in string1. What is the use of RECORD LENGTH option in EXP command ? Record length in bytes. 15. update and delete is not possible. . . Name the two files that are created when you generate the form give the filex extension ? INP (Source File).If a View on a single base table is manipulated will the changes be reflected on the base table ? If changes are made to the tables which are base tables of a view will the changes be reference on the view. 14. 24. 82. Database triggers fire on DELETE.CUMULATIVE. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ? Name of the parameter file to be passed for export. 87. 2. What is Referential Integrity ? Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that restrict the values of one or more columns of the tables based on the values of primary key or unique key of the referenced table.

Identify package function from the following ? 1. Form-fatal 7. How can you execute the user defined triggers in forms 3. What are the triggers associated with a check box? Only When-checkbox-activated Trigger associated with a Check box.current_field gives name of the field. Character. Error_Code is a package proecdure ? a.cursor_field ? 1. ON-VALIDATE-FIELD. Control Blocks.Restricted i. 32. User Exits : 50. 53. State the order in which these triggers are executed ? POST-FIELD.Unrestricted. 2. Form-failure 6. What is the difference between keystartup and pre-form ? Key-startup trigger fires after successful navigation into a form. What is an Alert ? An alert is window that appears in the middle of the screen overlaying a portion of the current display. 45. What is the difference between restricted and unrestricted package procedure ? Restricted package procedure that affects the basic basic functions of SQL * Forms. How do you trap the error in forms 3. Error_Code 2. 51. True. 35. 31. What is the difference between ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a POSTCHANGE trigger ? When you changes the Existing value to null. 30. Execute Query – Restricted f. b. Alert : 59. KEY-NEXTFLD.cursor_block 6. etc. Call(formname) 43. ON-INSERT b. false False.current_field and system.cursor_field gives name of the field with block name. 02. It cannot used in all triggers execpt key triggers. A base table block is one that is associated with a specific database table or view. If you want to examine the values of global variables and other form variables. 22. How many pages you can in a single form ? Unlimited. it will fire. What is Post-Block is a a. pop-up pages. 38.. 58. Transaction Trigger. 36. User-Exit c. What do you mean by a page ? Pages are collection of display information. Exit_form – Restricted h. List the system variables related in Block and Field? 1. False a. 26. when the field Validation status New or changed. What does an on-clear-block Trigger fire? It fires just before SQL * forms the current block. Navigational Trigger. POST-QUERY fires 10 times. Built-ins Browser. BLOCK 05. PACKAGE PROCEDURE & FUNCTION 29. 56. Up e. MMB 3. What is the difference between a POST-FIELD trigger and a POSTCHANGE trigger ? Post-field trigger fires whenever the control leaving from the filed. such as constant text and graphics.0 01.ON-INSERT & POST-INSERT. Execute-query 8.g. the On-validate field trigger will fire post change trigger will not fire. What the PAUSE package procedure does ? Pause suspends processing until the operator presses a function key 42. Can we use GO-BLOCK package in a pre-field trigger ? No. What Enter package procedure does ? Enter Validate-data in the current validation unit. When the form is running in DEBUG mode. What are the design facilities available in forms 4. True b.cursor_field 7. System. true or false. Property Sheets. Explain types of Block in forms4. These keys refered as key F0 through key F9. System. 18. FORMS 4. 38. Call-Query d. What is a Check Box? A Check Box is a two state control that indicates whether a certain condition or value is on or off. What are the unrestricted procedures used to change the popup screen position during run time ? Anchor-view. 33.ON-VALIDATE-FIELD. that link into the SQL * forms executable. Key trigger c. 21. Menu Editor. PRE-INSERT PRE-INSERT.current_value 5. What do you mean by a block in forms4.displaying and manipulating records. 24. Up – Restricted e. 11. False True. Radio Group. Anchor_View 9. What are the types of Pop-up window ? the pop-up field editor. What is a Package Procedure ? A Package proecdure is built in PL/SQL procedure. You can attach Key function triggers to 10 keys or key sequences that normally do not perform any SQL * FORMS operations. Check box. Message_Code 40.0 ? using On-Message or On-Error triggers. Library. Two popup pages can appear on the screen at a time ? a. 46. a. Unrestricted package proecdure. 23.delete or update respectively. 16. 55. Break .g. Message – Restricted g. When will ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger executed ? It fires when a value in a field has been changed and the field status is changed or new and the key has been pressed.11. What is the difference between an ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a trigger ? On-validate-field trigger fires. System. Display item. PLL -----PL/SQL Library Module Binary.current_block 3. 13.current_field 4. Error-text 5. What are the different types of Package Procedure ? 1. True b. System. System. A query fetched 10 records How many times does a PRE-QUERY Trigger and POST-QUERY Trigger will get executed ? PRE-QUERY fires once. System. A control block is a block that is not associated with a database table. 10. 49. EXIT_FORM is a restricted package procedure ? a. Execute-Query f. Call 4. True. 41. System.last_record variable is of type a.FMB ----. 06.Form Module Binary. when the following 3 triggers are defined at the smae block level ? a. What SYNCHRONIZE procedure does ? It synchoronizes the terminal screen with the internal state of the form. PL/SQL Basiscs of PL/SQL . on-validate field trigger will not fire. The display state of a check box is always either "checked" or "unchecked". 34. Deleting a page removes information about all the fields in that page ? a.0? Block is a single mechanism for grouping related items into a functional unit for storing.Menu Module Binary. Image item. Non-ORACEL user exits. b. Navigational Trigger. or that Oracle forms can navigate to by executing a navigational built-in procedure. Call – unrestricted b. 48. Restricted package procedure. User Exit – Unrestricted c. Can we use a restricted package procedure in ON-VALIDATE-FIELD Trigger ? No. Chart item. What is a Layout Editor? The Layout Editor is a graphical design facility for creating and arranging items and boilerplate text and graphics objects in your application's interface. Can you change the color of the push button in design time? No. List the Types of Items? Text item. What package procedure is used for calling another form ? Call (E. 19. Form_Failure 4. ExitFrom h. Is a Keystartup trigger fires as result of a operator pressing a key explicitly ? No.ON-DELETE and ON-UPDATE TRIGGERS ? These triggers are executes when inserting. The value recorded in system. PLL. Popup Window : 57. Postfield-trigger whenever the control leaving form the field. 25.0 ? Execute_Trigger (trigger-name) 26. Name in is a package function and returns the contents of the variable to which you apply. Boolean c. What is an User Exits ? A user exit is a subroutine which are written in programming languages using pro*C pro *Cobol . 15. Message_code 1. SYSTEM VARIABLES 47. pop-up list of values. 2. What are the type of User Exits ? ORACLE Precompliers user exits. What is the usuage of an ON-INSERT. Give the sequence in which triggers fired during insert operations. What package procedure command you would use in your trigger text ? Break.What is the significance of PAGE 0 in forms 3. What is a Navigable item? A navigable item is one that operators can navigate to with the keyboard during default navigation. b. 20. OCI (ORACLE Call Interface). 03. 17. When does an on-lock trigger fire ? It will fires whenever SQL * Forms would normally attempt to lock a row. For Eg.Object Lists. Unrestricted package procedure that does not interfere with the basic functions of SQL * Forms it can be used in any triggers.deleting and updating operations are performed and can be used to change the default function of insert. Move-View. POST-FIELD.POSTCHANGE.0? Default Block facility. System. Call_query – Unrestricted d. 14. Number b. What is the difference between keystartup and pre-form ? Key-startup triigger fires after successful navigation into a form. False a. Page : 52. PL/SQL Editor. 28. Write the Abbreviation for the following File Extension 1.block_status 2. 08. At the time of execute-query post-chage trigger will fire.0? Base table Blocks. If the field status is valid then any further change to the value in the field will not fire the on-validate-field trigger.POST-CHANGE and KEY-NEXTFLD. 09.field_status. Host (sqlplus)) 44. MMB ----. System. Break 3. Pre-form trigger fires before enter into the form. 54. Menu. POST-INSERT c. Give the Types of modules in a form? Form. Error_Text 3. List item. What do you mean by a pop-up window ? Pop-up windows are screen areas that overlay all or a portion of the display screen when a form is running. 1. What is the difference between NAME_IN and COPY ? Copy is package procedure and writes values into a field. User Area item. Tables Columns Browser. Boolean. Layout Editor. Post . Post-change trigger fires at the time of execute-query procedure invoked or filed validation status changed.0 ? Hide the fields for internal calculation. 04. What is the difference between a Function Key Trigger and Key Function Trigger ? Function key triggers are associated with individual SQL*FORMS function keys. FMB 2. Break a. What ERASE package procedure does ? Erase removes an indicated global variable. Pre-form trigger fires before enter into the form. True b. ITEMS 07. Post i. When is PRE-QUERY trigger executed ? When Execute-query or count-query Package procedures are invoked. How does the command POST differs from COMMIT ? Post writes data in the form to the database but does not perform database commit Commit permenently writes data in the form to the database. What package procedure used for invoke sql *plus from sql *forms ? Host (E. Message g. 2. 37. Resize –View. Classify the restricted and unrestricted procedure from the following. What is the difference between system. True. Form_Fatal 5. Call b. 27. 12. Error-Code 2. instead of inserting a row in a table an existing row can be updated in the same table.

c. What is a list item? It is a list of text elements. 21. 18. and resize the window. These attributes are proceded with SQL for Implict Cursors and with Cursor name for Explict Cursors. Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in cursors ? WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE. o. True if no rows are featched. 13. TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE.g. TOO_MANY_ROWS..to check whether cursor has fetched any row. % FOUND . ename from emp. 26. A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through parameters or may not return at all. INVALID_CURSOR. o. Before Row o. What is a cursor ? Why Cursor is required ? Cursor is a named private SQL area from where information can be accessed. The frame provides a way to intract with the window. BEGIN PACKAGE NAME. What are the datatypes a available in PL/SQL ? Some scalar data types such as NUMBER. What are the two parts of a procedure ? Procedure Specification and Procedure Body.. 39. What are the display styles of list items? Poplist. % NOT FOUND . OTHERS. FORMS4..IN-OUT parameters. 35. END LOOP. 13. E. e_rec emp% ROWTYPE. 29. What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE RECORD ? % ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a entire row of a table or view. The types are Predefined and user_defined. Procedures. What are the return values of functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM ? SQLCODE returns the latest code of the error that has occured. an application program such a PRC *C. Usages are Audit data modificateions. CHAR. The cursor having query as SELECT .ename emp ename %type). User_Source and User_error. Datatypes PL/SQL 5. What is an Exception ? What are types of Exception ? Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block. Operators cannot navigate to a display item or edit the value it contains. How many types of database triggers can be specified on a table ? What are they ? Insert Update Delete. the data type of a variable changes accordingly. reusability and Better Performance. PROGRAM-ERROR. Need not know about variable's data type ii.g. Database Triggers 16. BOOLEAN.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters). Write the order of precedence for validation of a column in a table ? I. procedure and functions are stored ? User_objects. EXECUTE PACKAGE NAME. it affects logical transaction processing. ii. No element in the list is highlighted. END. What is a package ? What are the advantages of packages ? Package is a database object that groups logically related procedures. loop Fetch C1 into eno.k. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name. For triggers related to INSERT only NEW. TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns columns of different table or views and variables.k.ename. Information. can be thought of as an empty frame. o. After Statement o. 14. What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION ? A FUNCTION is alway returns a value using the return statement.k. varying number of parameters is called overloading of procedures. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN. o.) is local variable declarations BEGIN Executable statements. 40.column_name values only available. What are the types of visual attribute settings? Custom Visual attributes. Log events transparently. DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX. PACKAGE NAME.k. What are two virtual tables available during database trigger execution ? The table columns are referred as OLD. Stored procedure or anonymous block b. Anonymous blocks or nested blocks can be used in PL/SQL. What are the components of a PL/SQL Block ? Declarative part. what is a display item? Display items are similar to text items but store only fetched or assigned values. What is Overloading of procedures ? The Same procedure name is repeated with parameters of different datatypes and parameters in different positions. Maintain replicate tables. They can be declared and used. 37. What is PL/SQL ? PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters) variable := PACKAGE NAME. sal := calculate_sal ('a822'). variable := PACKAGE NAME. Give the structure of the procedure ? PROCEDURE name (parameter list. Named Visual attributes. end. The cursor having query as SELECT.empno% type. Maintainability and one time compilation. What is a stored procedure ? A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function. DBMS_OUTPUT put_line 36. Tlist. Is it possible to use Transaction control Statements such a ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ? It is not possible. Enforce complex business rules Derive column values automatically. Easier Applicaton Design. eg.column_name. VALUE_ERROR. 38. Explain the two type of Cursors ? There are two types of cursors. Implement complex security authorizations. What is a radio Group? Radio groups display a fixed no of options that are mutually Exclusive . 19. then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement. How many maximum number of radio buttons can you assign to a radio group? Unlimited no of radio buttons can be assigned to a radio group 17. 27. 6. INVALID_NUMBER. Reusability. LOGON_DENIED. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Explain how procedures and functions are called in a PL/SQL block ? Function is called as part of an expression. STORAGE_ERROR. PRO* COBOL. What is Raise_application_error ? Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger. 20. What are the PL/SQL Statements used in cursor processing ? DECLARE CURSOR cursor name.PROCEDURE if the procedures does not have any out/in-out parameters. conditional branching. What are the components of a PL/SQL block ? A set of related declarations and procedural statements is called block. 25.deptno from emp. 2. PL/SQL uses Implict Cursors for queries.column_name values only available. The advantages are : I.k. Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ? In the standard package. Executable part and Execption part. done using Integarity Constraints. 33. EXEC SQL EXECUTE b. Some composite data types such as RECORD & TABLE. end loop.. does not get closed even after COMMIT/ROLLBACK. 15. DATE. What will happen after commit statement ? Cursor C1 is Select empno. User can select one out of n number of options..column_name and NEW. Begin open C1. Cursors 9. What is a window? A window. oracle error number) 24. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations. The advantages of packages are Modularity. What happens if a procedure that updates a column of table X is called in a database trigger of the same table ? Mutation of table occurs. Give the structure of the function ? FUNCTION name (argument list .. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.k. 10. A function can not be called.k. Exception : 22.k.. 17. If WHEN clause is specified. c. For triggers related to DELETE only OLD. Name the tables where characteristics of Package. For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD. SQL *PLUS a. e.column_name NEW. VARCHAR2. the trigger fires according to the retruned boolean value. o. What is a database trigger ? Name some usages of database trigger ? Database trigger is stored PL/SQL program unit associated with a specific database table. I & ii. What are the differrent types of windows? 15.FUNCTION NAME (arguments). % ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a entire row of a table or view or columns selected in the cursor. What is the basic structure of PL/SQL ? PL/SQL uses block structure as its basic structure. 14.-----commit. including the ability to scroll.DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. CLOSE cursor name. True if rows are featched.Modularity. SQLERRM returns the relevant error message of the SQLCODE. cursor c1 is select empno. 7. move. LONG. Default visual attributes. .What triggers are associated with the radio group? Only when-radio-changed trigger associated with radio group.opens a cursor.. What is a cursor for loop ? Cursor for loop implicitly declares %ROWTYPE as loop index. Implict Cursor and Explicit Cursor. done using Database triggers.k.. 18. 22. o. ZERO_DIVIDE. How packaged procedures and functions are called from the following? a. can you change the default value of the radio button group at run time? No.k.... 19. o. What is difference between a Cursor declared in a procedure and Cursor declared in a package specification ? A cursor declared in a package specification is global and can be accessed by other procedures or procedures in a package. After Row o. e. NO_DATA_FOUND. 4. 32. PL/SQL tables use a primary PL/SQL tables can have one column and a primary key. % ROWCOUNT . procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement calculate_bonus ('A822').. 8. What is a visual attribute? Visual Attributes are the font. If the database definition of a column in a table changes. Exit When C1 %notfound. 30. 11. What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the advantages of using these over datatypes? % TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a database column to that variable.g. 16.k.OUT. 31. byitself .) Return datatype is local variable declarations Begin executable statements Exception execution handlers End. 28. 20. color and pattern characteristics of objects that operators see and intract with in our application. Exception. The content of the window ie. What is PL/SQL table ? Objects of type TABLE are called "PL/SQL tables". 23. No text Item displayed in the list item. A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the procedure that can not be accessed by other procedures. exception handlers end. Cursors are required to process rows individually for queries returning multiple rows. NOT_LOGGED_ON.to check whether cursor has featched any row. Visual Attributes. END EXEC. 12. e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE. If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified.column_name values only available. Before Statement o.k. OPEN cursor name. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. FOR UPDATE gets closed after COMMIT/ROLLBACK. what is displayed inside the frame is determined by the canvas View or canvasviews displayed in the window at run-time. Window 21. FETCH cursor name INTO or Record types. What are advantages fo Stored Procedures / Extensibility. Some of Predefined execptions are. which are modelled as (but not the same as) database tables. What are the modes of parameters that can be passed to a procedure ? IN.number of rows featched/updated/deleted.What are two parts of package ? The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY..1. if you use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger.FUNCTION NAME (arguments). What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL ? %ISOPEN . 3. fetches rows of values from active set into fields in the record and closes when all the records have been processed. Functions & Packages .. 34. FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal. Hiding.0 12. As triggers are defined for each table.to check whether cursor is open or not. o. What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ? The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error.

Set_alert_property.effective_Date. Create a parameter list to execute the add parameter built_in procedure to add one or more parameters list. what are the different objects that you cannot copy or reference in object groups? objects of differnt modules.0? A fetch from a long raw database column PL/Sql assignment to executing the read_image_file built_in procedure to get an image from the file system. When_window_closed. vertical toolbar. New_form or run_product built_in procedure and include the name or id of the parameter list to be passed to the called form. Set_lov_property 53. Set_canvas_property. Image_zoom 59. and not available in forms 3. At run-time. Non query record group 47. Can you have more than one content canvas view attached with a window? Yes.fmb . move_window. 23. Magic FORMS4. Separator. What are the triggers associated with the image item? When-Image-activated(Fires when the operator double clicks on an image Items).form module binary . when-window-deactivated. System. Image_and. 02. must be displayed in a specfic window. what ia an object groups? An object group is a container for a group of objects. including user named procedures. List the built-in routines for the controlling canvas views during runtime? Find_canvas. What buil-in routines are used to display editor dynamicaly? Edit_text item. 15. Hide_View. What are the built_in used to trapping errors in forms 4? Error_type return character. system editors. What are the built-in routines is available in forms 4.a collection of menus and menu item commands that together make up an application menu library module . Is it possible to attach same library to more than one form? Yes . What are modal windows? Modal windows are usually used as dialogs. program units. generated library file comparable to a fmx form file. hide_window. What is an Alert? An alert is a modal window that displays a message notifies the operator of some application condition 33. 29. What are modalless windows? More than one modelless window can be displayed at the same time. On most GUI platforms. show_editor LOV 40. Each window you create must have atleast one content canvas view assigned to it. set the console window form property to the name of any window in the form. Error_code return number. What are the different window events activated at runtimes? When_window_activated. and have restricted functionality compared to modelless windows. another object groups. Modal windows 09. Show_view Alert 32. 04. Name of the functions used to get/set canvas properties? Get_view_property. User_defined editors. secondary window.. 12. How image_items can be populate to field in forms 4. Populate_group(Function).a collection of objects and code routines Menu modules . What is the built-in used to get and set lov properties during run-time? Get_lov_property. Yes. What are the display styles of an alert? Stop.0? Default editor. Destroy_parameter_list. check boxes. 06. individual block dependent items. 28.Radio. 10. Stacked canvas views obscure some part of the underlying content canvas view. Parameter 54. whenwindow-resized 26. Can you attach an lov to a field at run-time? if yes. Get-Canvas_property.lib. Give built-in routine related to a record groups? Create_group (Function). Page. 05. radio groups. you define an object group when you want to package related objects. Delete_group_row(Procedure).a collectio of user named procedures. operators can see only those items that have been assiged to a specific canvas. Replace_content_view. Create_group_from_query(Function). set_window_property. Yes. The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for source controlling your library files. What are the two ways to incorporate images into a oracle forms application? Boilerplate Images. canvas views 03.0? When-window-activated. What is the remove on exit property? For a modelless window. Dbms_error_text return char 60. Can a root window be made modal? No. Page 0? Page . Explain about horizontal. How do you display console on a window ? The console includes the status line and message line. The library lib file is a plat form specific. in term. and or often shown and hidden programmatically. get_window_property. Image_items 56. Check. 57. Get_view_property. horizontal toolbar. Scroll_view. Dbms_error_code return no. stacked canvas views. and you cannot chage the console assignment at runtime. When_window_resized. What is an Lov? A list of values is a single or multi column selection list displayed in a pop-up window 41. Can you attach an lov to a field at design time? Yes. On some platforms for example operators cannot resize. just under its menu bar. functions & packages 52. Delete_parameter. note 34. modelless windows can also be layered to appear either in front of or behind other windows.0 for the following.5 object groups 01. Vertical tool bar canvas views? Tool bar canvas views are used to create tool bars for individual windows Horizontal tool bars are display at the top of a window. set_parameter_attr 55..suppress_working 50. images etc. Set_group_Char_cell(procedure) 48. What built-in is used for showing the alert during run-time? Show_alert.. System. 37.0 supports? Plain. or "stacked" on the content canvas view assigned to that same window. System Date_threshold. Stacked View. lines. set console window to Null. functions and packages that can be called from other modules in the application 18. System. 11.. What is a record Group? A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a simillar column/row frame work to a database table 46. What are different types of modules available in oracle form? Form module . the calling form must perform the following steps in a trigger or user named routine excute the create_parameter_list built_in function to programatically. To specify that the console should be displayed. List system variables available in forms 4. show_View 25.) and boilerplate objects that operators see and interact with as they run your form. Set_item_proprety 43. How many windows in a form can have console? Only one window in a form can display the console. What are the different type of a record group? Query record group. Can you attach an alert to a field? No 35. Explain about stacked canvas views? Stacked canvas view is displayed in a window on top of. Modules 27.pll. resize_window. What built-in is used for changing the properties of the window dynamically? Set_window_property Canvas-View 27. Vertical Tool bars are displayed along the left side of a window 07. List the editors availables in forms 4. A stacked view differs from a content canvas view in that it is not the base view for the window to which it is assigned 31. 54. What is the content view and stacked view? A content view is the "Base" view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed. How do you pass the parameters from one form to another form? To pass one or more parameters to a called form. 36. Set_view_property. List the windows event triggers available in Forms 4. Each canvas views displayed in a window. You can also create a window that has manipulate contant canvas view. Within this triggers. Error_text return char. To include the console. What is the built_in routine used to count the no of rows in a group? Get_group _row_count System Variables 49.) that operators interact with us they run your form . and so on. and operators can navigate among them if your application allows them to do so . 14. so that you copy or reference them in another modules. Explain the following file extention related to library? .0? Raise form_trigger_failure 61.Root window.event_window.Canvas-view null.pld. 39. scroll or iconify a modal window. explain about content canvas views? Most Canvas views are content canvas views a content canvas view is the "base" view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed.) and boilerplate objects (boxes.cordination_operation. give the build-in name. Execute the call_form.event_window to determine the name of the window for which the trigger fired. Add_group_row(Procedure). What is relation between the window and canvas views? Canvas views are the back ground objects on which you place the interface items (Text items). Each canvas. System. what are different types of canvas views? content canvas views. Can you change the alert messages at run-time? If yes. What is the built-in function used for finding the alert? Find_alert Editors 38. check boxes. Give the equivalent term in forms 4. What is a canvas-view? A canvas-view is the background object on which you layout the interface items (textitems.Canvas-View Page 0 . you can examine the built in system variable system. What are the types of canvas-views? Content View.0? A library is a collection of Pl/SQL program units. 13.0. Create_Parameter_list. and is displayed at the bottom of the window to which it is assigned.0 to create and manipulate a parameter list? Add_parameter. 30. List the buil-in routine for controlling window during run-time? Find_window. Set_view_property Windows 07. List some built-in routines used to manipulate images in image_item? Image_add.fmx .0? System. Static record group. Delete_group(Procedure).form module executable Record Group 45. What is the built-in used for showing lov at runtime? Show_lov 44. Populate_group_with_query(Function).effective_date system variable is read only True/False False 51. What are the different modals of windows? Modalless windows. when-window-closed. radio groups etc. The library pll files is a portable design file comparable to an fmb form file. Add_group_column(Function). 08. give the name of th built-in to chage the alert messages at run-time. 42. Get_parameter_attr. it determines whether oracle forms hides the window automatically when the operators navigates to an item in the another window. 24. Get_parameter_list. What is a library in Forms 4. At run time only one of the content canvas views assign to a window is displayed at a time. What are the menu items that oracle forms 4. What is a predefined exception available in forms 4. What are the default extensions of the files careated by forms modules? . When_window_deactivated. When-imagepressed(fires when the operator selects or deselects the image item) 58. Image_xor. Caution. Image_subtract.

Oracle Forms returns a message to the opertor. had lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. What is the difference between boiler plat images and image items? Boiler plate Images are static images (Either vector or bit map) that you import from the file system or database to use a grapical elements in your form. I) TRUE II)FALSE II) FALSE 65. SET_GROUP_DATE_CELL(procedure). What are built-ins used for Processing rows? GET_GROUP_ROW_COUNT(function). What is a Query Record Group? A query record group is a record group that has an associated SELECT statement. ADD_GROUP_ROW (procedure). The definition of an image item is stored as part of the form module FMB and FMX files. Auto-Query. detail with two masters 25. What are the different types of Record Groups? Query Record Groups. Oracle Forms compares the current value of the text item to the values in the first column displayed in the LOV. validation succeeds.number. RESET_GROUP_SELECTION(procedure). and title. 52. 54.mouse_button_pressed. When a form is invoked with call_form. Find_column(function) 64. Whereas the edit_textitem built_in needs the input focus to be in the text item before the built_in is excuted. POPULATE_GROUP(function) POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY(function). GET_GROUP_DATE_CELL(function). Whar are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Cascade? Cascading On-Clear-Details. 46. system. CREATE_GROUP_FROM_QUERY(function). What is a Non Query Record Group? A non-query record group is a group that does not have an associated query. EDIT_TETITEM independent of any particular text item. Oracle Forms navigates internally to the detail block and flushes the obsolete detail records. Open_form('Stocks '. 84. the LOV is not displayed. What are the built-in used for getting cell values? Get_group_char_cell(function). image items can be either base table items(items that relate directly to database columns) or control items. What is a Static Record Group? A static record group is not associated with a query. rather. System. system. What are the Coordination Properties in a Master-Detail relationship? The coordination properties are Deferred. 53. PARAMETER name = '' or :block. Data Parameters 73. What is the basic data structure that is required for creating an LOV? Record Group. The relationship between the blocks reflects a primary key to foreign key relationship between the tables on which the blocks are based. Use the add_group_column function to add a column to record group that was created at a design time? False.active. GET_GROUP_NUMBET_CELL(function) 62. Can you pass data parametrs to forms? No. 44. What are the default extentions of the files created by menu module? . set_lov_property 51. Image Items 76. 57. Set_group_selection(procedure). On-PopulateDetails 26. mouse down & mouse up events. SET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL(procedure). 42. What are different types of images? Boiler plate images. 74. position. or DATE provided that the total number of column does not exceed 64K. On-Populate-Details. IMAGES 75. such as company logos and maps Image items are special types of interface controls that store and display either vector or bitmap images. GET_GROUP_SELECTION_COUNT(function). How do you reference a Parameter? In Pl/Sql. you define its structure and row values at design time. when invoke the mulitiple forms with open form and call_form in the same application. On-Clear-Details. State any three mouse events system variables? System. What is a record group? A record group is an internal Oracle Forms that structure that hs a column/row framework similar to a database table. What are the built-ins used for Getting cell values? GET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL (function). mouse click. Get_group_number_cell(function) 62. State Record Groups 55. What are the built_ins used the display the LOV? Show_lov.mouse_button_shift_state. How do you create a new session while open a new form? Using open_form built-in setting the session option Ex. What are the different defaust triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Non-isolated? Non-Isolated(the default) On-Check-Delete-Master. Oracle Forms issues a SELECT statement to repopulate the detail block with detail records associated witjh the new master record. Isolate. Any attempt to navigate programatically to disabled form in a call_form stack is allowed? False 81. record groups are separate objects that belong to the form module which they are defined. What are the built-ins that are used for setting the LOV properties at runtime? get_lov_property. What are the built-ins that are used to Attach an LOV programmatically to an item? set_item_property. 69. The records in query record group are the rows retrieved by the query associated with that record group. What is the "LOV of Validation" Property of an item? What is the use of it? When LOV for Validation is set to True. state whether the following are true/False 80. but whose structure and values can be modified programmatically at runtime. . What is the Maximum allowed length of Record group Column? Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters. 77.item = PARAMETER Parameter name 71. How do you call other Oracle Products from Oracle Forms? Run_product is a built-in. What are the built-ins used for finding object ID functions? Find_group(function). New_form. 45. 22. You can reference and set the values of form parameters using bind variables syntax. 43. Reset_group_selection(procedure). What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to isolated? Isolated On-Clear-Details. Used to invoke one of the supported oracle tools products and specifies the name of the document or module to be run. GET_GROUP_SELECTION(function).a master block and a detail block.pl/sql library module binary Master Detail 21. NUMBER. If the value in the text item does not match one of the values in the first column of the LOV. What are the two phases of block coordination? There are two phases of block coordination: the clear phase and the population phase. Pre-delete 28. What are the different Parameter types? Text Parameters. What is the maximum no of chars the parameter can store? The maximum no of chars the parameter can store is only valid for char parameters. What is the use of image_zoom built-in? To manipulate images in image items. and processing continues normally.mmb. 67. unlike database tables. During the population phase. COPY 'built-ins to indirectly set and reference the parameters value' Example name_in ('capital parameter my param'). FIND_COLUMN(function) 64. What are the trigger associated with image items? When-image-activated fires when the operators double clicks on an image item when-imagepressed fires when an operator clicks or double clicks on an image item 78. Oracle Forms displays the LOV and uses the text item value as the search criteria to automatically reduce the list. Llike other items that store values. Data parameters are used to pass data to produts invoked with the run_product built-in subprogram.mmx 20 What are the default extension of the files created by library module? The default file extensions indicate the library module type and storage format . What are the Built-ins used for sending Parameters to forms? You can pass parameter values to a form when an application executes the call_form.'Parameter my_param') 72. get_item_property. If the called product is unavailable at the time of the call. but no image file is actualy associated with an image item until the item is populate at run time. Ex.pll . On-Populate-Details 29. These operations are accomplished through the execution of triggers. 24. What are parameters? Parameters provide a simple mechanism for defining and setting the values of inputs that are required by a form at startup. Get_group_selection_count(function). (by setting the LOV_NAME property) 50. What are the Built-ins to display the user-named editor? A user named editor can be displayed programmatically with the built in procedure SHOW-EDITOR. These Properties determine when the population phase of block coordination should occur.mouse_item. However.mouse_record . What are the built-ins used for processing rows? Get_group_row_count(function). which can be upto 64K. DELETE_GROUP_ROW(procedure) 60. 48. NonQuery Record Groups. system. PARAMETERS 66. data types. true or false? False. Non-isolote 26. Copy ('SURESH'. What are the built-ins used for Creating and deleting groups? CREATE-GROUP (function). The columns in a query record group derive their default names.What are the built -ins used for Modifying a group's structure? ADD-GROUP_COLUMN (function).date that you define at design time. you can specify editor attributes such as windows display size. 65. mouse up. and they remain fixed at runtime. the clear phase. Whenever the validation event occurs. Use the Add_group_row procedure to add a row to a static record group 1. What is the difference between SHOW_EDITOR and EDIT_TEXTITEM? Show editor is the generic built_in which accepts any editor name and takes some input string and returns modified output string.session). Open_form or Run_product. UNSET_GROUP_SELECTION(procedure) 63.mouse_canvas. DELETE_GROUP(procedure) 59. List_values 49. 47. What is coordination Event? Any event that makes a different record in the master block the current record is a coordination causing event. No parameters default to 23Bytes and Date parameter default to 7Bytes. When do you use data parameter type? When the value of a data parameter being passed to a called product is always the name of the record group defined in the current form. What is a master detail relationship? A master detail relationship is an association between two base table blocks. 70. 58. Unset_group_selection(procedure) 63. 56. Form parameters are variables of type char. Does oracle forms issues a save point? True Mouse Operations 83.19. LONG. Use the ADD_GROUP_ROW procedure to add a row to a static record group I) TRUE II)FALSE I) FALSE 61. Get_group_selection(function). How do you reference a parameter indirectly? To indirectly reference a parameter use the NAME IN. During. 23. Use the ADD_GROUP_COLUMN function to add a column to a record group that was created at design time. Get_group_date_cell(function). What is the User-Named Editor? A user named editor has the same text editing functionality as the default editor. What are the different types of Delete details we can establish in Master-Details? Cascade. but. An open form can not be execute the call_form procedure if you chain of called forms has been initiated by another open form? True 82. If the value in the text item matches one of the values in the first column of the LOV. 68. What are the built-ins used for finding Object ID function? FIND_GROUP(function). What is an LOV? An LOV is a scrollable popup window that provides the operator with either a single or multi column selection list. What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves? Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down. SET_GROUP_SELECTION(procedure). WORKING WITH MULTIPLE FORMS 79. becaue it is a named object. What are Most Common types of Complex master-detail relationships? There are three most common types of complex master-detail relationships: master with dependent details master with independent details. How many number of columns a record group can have? A record group can have an unlimited number of columns of type CHAR. SET_GROUP_NUMBER_CELL(procedure) 61.

External activation VISUAL Attributes & property clauses 89. Unlike the pop list or the text list style list items.A lexical reference can be created using & before the column or parameter name. What is WHEN-Database-record trigger? Fires when oracle forms first marks a record as an insert or an update. What is the difference between object embedding & linking in Oracle forms? In Oracle forms. the named visual attribute settings take precedence. 12. 95. $$date$$ retrieves the current operating system date. lov can have one or more columns. 117. 87.The post-database-commit trigger fires after oracle forms issues the commit to finalished transactions. 16. Pre-query trigger fires before pre-select trigger. property clause assignments cannot be changed programatically. Can a property clause itself be based on a property clause? Yes 92. 18. When an object is inheriting from both a property clause and named visual attribute. To execute row from being displayed that still use column in the row which property can be used? Format trigger. What is the use of break group? . An object based on a property can inherit the setting of any property in the clause that makes sense for that object. 90. Form Build-ins 93. create_timer. What is the advantage of the library? Library's provide a convenient means of storing client-side program units and sharing them among multipule applications. but can not be subsequently edited in the designer. when one form invokes another form by executing call_form. 101. functions and packages. Is it possible to insert comments into sql statements return in the data model editor? Yes. 22. What is synchronize? It is a terminal screen with the internal state of the form. What is pop list? The pop list style list item appears initially as a single field (similar to a text item field).menu. What is difference between open_form and call_form? when one form invokes another form by executing open_form the first form remains displayed.the operator will be prompted to save them before the new form is loaded. 7. Once you create a property clause you can base other object on it. 24. What are the types of calculated columns available? Summary. 86. The post-form-commit trigger fires after inserts. 105. Text_list. Ex. 88. What are built-ins associated with timers? find_timer.That is. 104. Library support dynamic loading-that is library program units are loaded into an application only when needed. f45gen module=old_lib. A list item can have only one column. ex. What is strip sources generate options? Removes the source code from the library file and generates a library files that contains only pcode. 23. What are the different styles of actvation of ole Objects? In place activation. 113. Formula. What is system. What is an OLE? Object Linking & Embadding provides you with the capability to integrate objects from many Ms-Windows applications into a single compound document creating integrated applications enables you to use the features form . any windows that belong to the calling form are disabled.updates and deletes have been posted to the database but before the transactions have been finalished in the issuing the command.What use of command line parameter cmd file? It is a command line argument that allows you to specify a file that contain a set of arguments for r20run. 108. 102. If a break order is set on a column would it effect columns which are under the column? No. What is the difference between OLE Server & Ole Container? An Ole server application creates ole Objects that are embedded or linked in ole Containers ex. What is term? The term is terminal definition file that describes the terminal form which you are using r20run. When the operator selects the list icon. 25. What is the use of place holder column? A placeholder column is used to hold a calculated values at a specified place rather than allowing is to appear in the actual row where it has to appeared. 118 What is the use of transactional triggers? Using transactional triggers we can control or modify the default functionality of the oracle forms. With which function of summary item is the compute at options required? percentage of total functions. When you can call library program units from triggers menu items commands and user named routine. 5. 116. pattern proprities that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application interface. When the text list contains values that can not be displayed. after the database commit occures. strip_source YES output_file 112. What is forms_DDL? Issues dynamic Sql statements at run time. What are the sql clauses supported in the link property sheet? Where startwith having. 91. you write in the modules to which you have attach the library. This can significantly reduce the run-time memory requirements of an applications. 17. What is the purpose of the product order option in the column property sheet? To specify the order of individual group evaluation in a cross products. What is trigger associated with the timer? When-timer-expired. What is new_form built-in? When one form invokes another form by executing new_form oracle form exits the first form and releases its memory before loading the new form calling new form completely replace the first with the second. 107.Can a formula column be obtained through a select statement? Yes. 13. Ole servers are ms_word & ms_excell. 2. What is a property clause? A property clause is a named object that contains a list of properties and thier settings. Is it possible to set a filter condition in a cross product group in matrix reports? No. Is it possible to disable the parameter from while running the report? Yes 4. when a library attaches another library .What are the vbx controls? Vbx control provide a simple mehtod of buildig and enhancing user interfaces. On_clear_details. 21. What is use of term? The term file which key is correspond to which oracle report functions. but before the statement is actually issued. What are the master-detail triggers? On-Check_delete_master.the called form is modal with respect to the calling form. 110. It updates the screen display to reflect the information that oracle forms has in its internal representation of the screen. a list of available choices appears. 111. 3. The pre-query trigger fires just before oracle forms issues the select statement to the database after the operator as define the example records by entering the query criteria in enter query mode.Display items are generaly used as boilerplate or conditional text. 20. property clauses can contain this and any other properties. What are the important difference between property clause and visual attributes? Named visual attributes differed only font. 15. color.coordination_operation? It represents the coordination causing event that occur on the master block in masterdetail relation. and linked objects are references from a form module to a linked source file. Combo box 103. REPORTS 1. What is a library? A library is a collection of subprograms including user named procedures. 8. what are difference between post database commit and post-form commit? Post-form commit fires once during the post and commit transactions process.Can a formula column refered to columns in higher group? Yes. 27. 26. Invokes a 3Gl programe by name which has been properly linked into your current oracle forms executable. delete_timer 115.pll userid=scott/tiger. 109. What is the difference between $$DATE$$ & $$DBDATE$$ $$DBDATE$$ retrieves the current database date. you can attach it to any other form. Embedded objects become part of the form module. The trigger fires as soon as oracle forms determines through validation that the record should be processed by the next post or commit as an insert or update. What are the different file extensions that are created by oracle reports? Rep file and Rdf file. 106. the combo box style list item will both display fixed values and accept one operator entered value. including server side pl/SQl and DDL Triggers 97. and operators cannot navigate to them until they first exit the called form.The controls can use to obtain user inputs and display program outputs. What are the default parameter that appear at run time in the parameter screen? Destype and Desname. color & pattern attributes.grides and knobs. oracle forms is an example of an ole Container. If there are changes pending in the first form. Where is the external query executed at the client or the server? At the server. 98. What are visual attributes? Visual attributes are the font. What is a Text_io Package? It allows you to read and write information to a file in the file system. 14. If the maximum record retrieved property of the query is set to 10 then a summary value will be calculated? Only for 10 records. From which designation is it preferred to send the output to the printed? Previewer. On_populate_details 99. OLE containers provide a place to store. What is a timer? Timer is a "internal time clock" that you can programmatically create to perform an action each time the timer expires.or library modules. and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored. What is a text list? The text list style list item appears as a rectangular box which displays the fixed number of values. 100. c generally occurs only when the operators modifies the first item in the record. 10.OLE 85. and after the operator attempts to navigate out of the item. allowing the operator to view and select undisplayed values.program units in the first library can reference program units in the attached library. What is an User_exit? Calls the user exit named in the user_exit_string.and operators can navigate between the forms as desired. What is a difference between pre-select and pre-query? Fires during the execute query and count query processing after oracle forms constructs the select statement to be issued. What is lexical reference?How can it be created? Lexical reference is place_holder for text that can be embedded in a sql statements.pl/sql statements a bind reference can be careated using a (:) before a column or a parameter name. What are display items? Display items are similar to text items with the exception that display items only store and display fetched or assigned values. What is the use of hidden column? A hidden column is used to when a column has to embedded into boilerplate text. What is a combo box? A combo box style list item combines the features found in list and text item. What are the difference between lov & list item? Lov is a property where as list item ias an item. How can a break order be created on a column in an existing group? By dragging the column outside the group. 96. 114. 19.The resulting file can be used for final deployment. What are the different display styles of list items? Pop_list. 6. What is bind reference and how can it carate? Bind reference are used to replace the single value in sql. Which parameter can be used to set read level consistency across multiple queries? Read only.vbx control where originally develop as extensions for the ms visual basic environments and include such items as sliders. You can change the appearance of objects at run time by changing the named visual attributes programatically . Placeholder column. 11. 9. Once you create a library. display and manipulate objects that are created by ole server applications.Where is a procedure return in an external pl/sql library executed at the client or at the server? At the client. a vertical scroll bar appears. 94.

If yes. of records that are to displayed is not known before. that we lose more money if the production system is down. Just test the waters to what is acceptable. what diff. 65. I. 67. setting up of parameters in reports 2. Sure. What is an anchoring object & what is its use? An anchoring object is a print condition object which used to explicitly or implicitly anchor other objects to itself. 46. 41. 50. I get up at 5:00am to get into work and get some quiet time to read up on new trends or you help coach your son/daughter's soccer team.NonOracle user exits. How is link tool operation different bet." Make sure you wrap up a few good days into "today" and talk about them. 32. The logical page is the size of one page of the actual report as seen in the Previewer. of physical pages needed to print one logical page. have grown up in a command line era where the GUIs never seemed to work. of queries in the data model. the modeling of business needs within the database. What is your typical day like? If you spend enough time on question 1. Navigator pane. the people that you meet and talk with daily to answer adhoc questions about database use. report 2. 57. 3." Just ask your development staff or VP of engineering how much time and money is lost if development systems are down. I was a true command line and vi bigot. How is it possible to select generate a select ste. Use SQL trace facility. You get the picture.0 and 2. Before form. REPORT TRIGGERS. interpreter pane. 79. What you should also throw into this answer are the meetings that you attend to provide direction in the database arena. Can a repeating frame be careated without a data group as a base? No. 55.0 and 2. Atleast how many set of data must a data model have before a data model can be base on it? Four. I had to learn everything about most aspects of the database environment I was working in and thus became a nuts-n-bolts DBA.0 reports 2. What other parts of your organization do you interact with and how? Again. That is output by the printer.Source pane. 76. 52. Is it possible to split the printpreviewer into more than one region? Yes. Between page. Thus. Writing select statement.What are the two types views available in the object navigator(specific to report 2. Before report. 62. 28. What is a physical page ? & What is a logical page ? A physical page is a size of a page. The tools-n-props DBA is mostly the opposite of a nuts-n-bolts DBA. take note that you may have an issue and the interviewer might also be already getting tired of the interview process. Now the answer. Which of the two views should objects according to possession? view by structure. What is the main diff. CROSS PRODUCTS AND MATRIX REPORTS 71. For a field in a repeating frame. If the interviewer starts to pull you back to "job" related issues. If two groups are not linked in the data model editor. do not go to personal.The join defined by the default data link is an outer join yes or no? Yes." And that is how I would answer this question. you can talk about the index you rebuilt.0 & Reports 2. There was high complexity in systems and not much good documentation on how things worked. What are three panes that appear in the run time pl/sql interpreter? 1. After form . 38. I would explain myself as a combination of the two. 49. these are all good and great and you should convey that you understand the day-to-day operational issues. Yes. Personally. 51. 66. These are not good or bad groups but something I like to think about when talking to DBAs. reports automatically resizes the parent when the child is resized. and why you want to work for this particular company. How can a cross product be created? By selecting the cross products tool and drawing a new group surrounding the base group of the cross products. What are the two ways by which data can be generated for a parameter's list of values? 1. the monitoring of system and session waits that were occurring. 36. After form . Interpreter pane 70. understand the . Ok you may be saying. What are the various methods of performing a calculation in a report ? 1. Is it possible to have a link from a group that is inside a cross product to a group outside ? (Y/N) No. 40.5 the first field is selected and the link tool is then used to link the first field to the second field. or & of physical page no.MESSAGE function DBA 1.5 parameter form. Why is it preferable to create a fewer no.What is the diff. reports 2 & 2. 2. 2. They want to get the job done with the least amount of intervention from having to figure out what everything is doing behind the scenes. 45. Because for each query. Reports 2. 75. for the query in the query property sheet? By using the tables/columns button and then specifying the table and the column names. 29.5 when the query is applied? While both reports 2. this is a loaded question and almost begs for you to answer it with "What DBA activities do you LIKE to do on a daily basis?. What is the diff. After report. convey that to the interviewer and you won't get anyone to disagree with you unless your company sells software or there are million dollar deals on the table that are expecting the next release of your product or service. 58. can the source come from the column which does not exist in the data group which forms the base for the frame? Yes. or the space you added to a data file.5 create the parameter. 48. Is it possible to link two groups inside a cross products after the cross products group has been created? No. Between page. Does a Before form trigger fire when the parameter form is suppressed. 30. and I know you are. If a parameter is used in a query without being previously defined. if there are pictures of his/her family. 5. 60. How can a group in a cross products be visually distinguished from a group that does not form a cross product? A group that forms part of a cross product will have a thicker border. Does a grouping done for objects in the layout editor affect the grouping done in the datamodel editor? No. 3. Why is a Where clause faster than a group filter or a format trigger? Because. What does the term panel refer to with regard to pages? A panel is the no. To display the page no. 2.5 is object oriented. 2.5 SPECIFIC ISSUES. How can a text file be attached to a report while creating in the report writer? By using the link file property in the layout boiler plate property sheet. Do user parameters appear in the data modal editor in 2. 33. an object cannot be moved outside its parent in the layout.How is possible to restrict the user to a list of values while entering values for parameters? By setting the Restrict To List property to true in the parameter property sheet. After report. What is the diff. 4. 68. 54. 63.A break group is used to display one record for one group ones. the ease at which things can be accomplished without knowing much about the database. How can a square be drawn in the layout editor of the report writer? By using the rectangle tool while pressing the (Constraint) key. in a where clause the condition is applied during data retrieval than after retrieving the data. 35. exist betw. What are the three types of user exits available ? Oracle Precompiler exits. Never in my database carrier have I distinguished between "development" and "production. 43. 69. for each page on a report what would be the source & logical page no. report has to open a separate cursor and has to rebind. If you get to this question consider yourself in trouble. What are the ways to monitor the performance of the report? Use reports profile executable statement. 56. 37.5? No. this question will never be asked. Explain to the interviewer that both systems are equally important to the operation of the company and both should be considered as production systems because there are people relying on them and money is lost if either one of them is down. Also. Use a calculated / summary column in the data model. 42. if you go to the office of the interviewer please notice the surroundings. Just because the question stipulates "today" do not take "today" to mean "today. How can I message to passed to the user from reports? By using SRW. do not say you like deep-sea fishing. What are the two panes that Appear in the design time pl/sql interpreter? 1. He/she is a DBA who typically hates a GUI environment and prefers the command line to execute commands and accomplish tasks. 61.how? By the use anchors.5? Report 2. This question also begs you to ask the question of "What typical DBA activities are performed day to day within X Corporation?" 2. A repeating frame is used to display a set of records when the no. 72. But if you have been apprehensive to opening up and explaining yourself. If there is a fly-fishing picture on the wall. Using static values. What is the frame & repeating frame? A frame is a holder for a group of fields. 44. 39.5 gives a message that a bind parameter has been created. 34. Is it possible to center an object horizontally in a repeating frame that has a variable horizontal size? Yes. Again. A nuts-n-bolts DBA is the type that likes to figure out every little item about how the database works. precompiler exits & Oracle call interface? By using the statement EXECIAFGET & EXECIAFPUT. do not get caught up in the "typical" day-to-day operational issues of database administration. bet. 64.5? LOVs can be attached to parameters in the reports 2. 53. 59. Is it possible to modify an external query in a report which contains it? No. Times have changed and the GUIs are very reliable.0 the link tool has to be selected and then two fields to be linked are selected and the link is automatically created. 74. What is an user exit used for? A way in which to pass control (and possibly arguments ) form Oracle report to another Oracle products of 3 GL and then return control ( and ) back to Oracle reprots. 47. How can a button be used in a report to give a drill down facility? By setting the action asscoiated with button to Execute pl/sql option and using the SRW. What DBA activities did you to do today? Wow. when confine mode is on and when it is off? When confine mode is on. In 2. At what point of report execution is the before Report trigger fired? After the query is executed but before the report is executed and the records are displayed. 77. having been in this business for over 20 years. execute and fetch data. How can values be passed bet. Do you consider yourself a development DBA or a production DBA and why? I take this as a trick question and explain it that way. You really need to forget all your hang-ups and start explaining what it is that you like to do as a DBA. they like the feel of a GUI. I would continue with the theme of question 1 if you are cut short or this question is asked later in the interview process. 78. if you have exhausted question 1 and 2 you may never get to this question. Which of the above methods is the faster method? performing the calculation in the query is faster.Source pane. 31. Are you a nuts-n-bolts DBA or a tools-n-props DBA This question begs for me to give definition around the terms I basically group DBAs into. when Flex mode is mode on and when it is off? When flex mode is on.5)? View by structure and view by type . Is the After report trigger fired if the report execution fails? Yes. You are going to have to reel this interviewer back into the interview process or you might not get to the true technical question part of the interview.? & physical page no.While multiple related records in other group can be displayed. What is the hierarchy between them? Two group that is above are the left most rank higher than the group that is to right or below it. bet. Oracle call interface. Give the sequence of execution of the various report triggers? Before form . What are the triggers available in the reports? Before report. report 2. Just note that this question is not all geared toward the day-to-day operational issues you experience as a DBA. and the extra time you spend early in the morning or late at night to get the job done. it is probably a good idea to venture down the personal path. What are the two repeating frame always associated with matrix object? One down repeating frame below one across repeating frame. Since the question did not stipulate "on the job" I would throw in a few items like.5? In Reports 2. A nuts-n-bolts DBA like to feel in control of the database and only feels comfortable at the command line and vi as an editor. This question also gives you the opportunity to see if they want to know about you as an individual. Perform the calculation in the SQL statements itself.Run_report function. 73. REPORT 2. Can a field be used in a report wihtout it appearing in any data group? Yes. Ok. It is really a continuation of question 1 to try and get you to open up and talk about the type of things you like to do.

52. 13. 53)How much database size does the Oracle recommend that one should have. It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the size of rollbacks. Table functions are designed to return a set of rows through PL/SQL logic but are intended to be used as a normal table or view in a SQL statement. Materialized views are objects that are reduced sets of information that have been summarized. Where would you look for errors from the database engine? In the alert log. 44. How can you gather statistics on a table? The ANALYZE command. Faster access to data blocks in a table. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. Use the describe command or use the dbms_metadata. or aggregated from base tables. 39. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. 9. What does coalescing a tablespace do? Coalescing is only valid for dictionary-managed tablespaces and de-fragments space by combining neighboring free extents into large single extents. ORACLE_HOME located beneath ORACLE_BASE is where the oracle products reside. a function will return a single value. how would you view the errors? SHOW ERRORS 47. Setting GLOBAL_NAMES dictates how you might connect to a database. and execute permissions on a UNIX directory.The database is opened 16. edit and delete files and subdirectories in the directory. If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db_cache_size command. 20. enable the foreign key constraint. 19. How do you add a data file to a tablespace? ALTER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ADD DATAFILE <datafile_name> SIZE <size> 40. TNSNAMES. 3. As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks. Explain the use of table functions. 31. Technical Oracle 1. How do you resize a data file? ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE <datafile_name> RESIZE <new_size>. A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. and what would you recommend ? 57) What was the most dificult technical obstacle you encountered during the last tweleve months Technical . 33. 10.sql 18. Explain materialized views and how they are used. How can you enable a trace for a session? Use the DBMS_SESSION. . I too am slowly slipping over to the dark side of GUI administration.g. what background process cleans up after it? PMON 30. 17. You have just compiled a PL/SQL package but got errors. 4. What command would you use to encrypt a PL/SQL application? WRAP 24. Explain what partitioning is and what its benefit is. 41. 14. Explain the read.UNIX Every DBA should know something about the operating system that the database will be running on. The SYSTEM tablespace. Write allows you to create. 6. 23. Give the reasoning behind using an index. What is the difference between the SQL*Loader and IMPORT utilities? These two Oracle utilities are used for loading data into the database. stipulating where on disk all the data files where and then issue the recover command with the using backup control file clause. drop the table. re-create the table. Explain the difference between a FUNCTION. Explain the difference between $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_BASE. The best answer is to refer to the utility which Oracle released which makes it unnecessary to do ANALYZE TABLE for each Table individually. which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete. The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any point in time. 48. How would you determine who has added a row to a table? Turn on fine grain auditing for the table. on the other hand. Explain the difference between ARCHIVELOG mode and NOARCHIVELOG mode and the benefits and disadvantages to each. What is the difference between a TEMPORARY tablespace and a PERMANENT tablespace? A temporary tablespace is used for temporary objects such as sort structures while permanent tablespaces are used to store those objects meant to be used as the true objects of the database. Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table. What view would you use to look at the size of a data file? DBA_DATA_FILES 42. in Windows the event viewer 28. These groupings of contiguous data blocks are called extents. What background process refreshes materialized views? The Job Queue Processes. How would you go about generating an EXPLAIN plan? Create a plan table with utlxplan. 5. In addition. The delete command. 45.'By generating SQL to ANALYZE TABLE table_name COUNT STATISTICS by querying Oracle System Catalogues (e. Use the explain plan set statement_id = 'tst1' into plan_table for a SQL statement Look at the explain plan with utlxplp. & Timed Statistics 27. is a DML operation. 34. When creating a user. grouped. How do you list the files in an UNIX directory while also showing hidden files? ls -ltra 2. 37. Explain the difference between a data block. more manageable pieces. Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. 12. Give two examples of how you might determine the structure of the table DEPT. You should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message.get_ddl package. How would you determine the time zone under which a database was operating? select DBTIMEZONE from dual.ora file to a spfile? Issue the create spfile from pfile command. Name three advisory statistics you can collect. They are also used to pipeline information in an ETL process. Name two files used for network connection to a database. . Ask 'How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?' A bad answer is count them (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name) A good answer is :. How do you switch from an init. 50. and how did you solve them ? 56) What are third-party tools have you used in your DBA career. Describe what redo logs are. and is this the default ? 54) What is the largest and smallest sizes of databases you have worked upon? 55) What errors did you hit during your most recent database recovery. 38. ORACLE_BASE is the root directory for oracle.ORA and SQLNET. PROCEDURE and PACKAGE. A package on the other hand is a collection of functions and procedures that are grouped together based on their commonality to a business function or application. since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk. 21. Where in the Oracle directory tree structure are audit traces placed? In unix $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit. 8. Segment Level Statistics. How would you go about bringing up this database? I would create a text based backup control file. What column differentiates the V$ views to the GV$ views and how? The INST_ID column which indicates the instance in a RAC environment the information came from. The difference is that the import utility relies on the data being produced by another Oracle utility EXPORT while the SQL*Loader utility allows data to be loaded that has been produced by other utilities from different data sources just so long as it conforms to ASCII formatted or delimited files. Redo logs are logical and physical structures that are designed to hold all the changes made to a database and are intended to aid in the recovery of a database. 11. Partitioning is a method of taking large tables and indexes and splitting them into smaller. When a user process fails. Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it. A function and procedure are the same in that they are intended to be a collection of PL/SQL code that carries a single task. 46. A data block is the smallest unit of logical storage for a database object. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode. What UNIX command will control the default file permissions when files are created? Umask 4. How would you do this without affecting the children tables? Disable the foreign key constraint to the parent. The questions here are related to UNIX but you should equally be able to answer questions related to common Windows environments. Ask 'How would you identify the bottlenecks in Database performance ?' The answer is to examine the Oracle Execution Plan.Instance startup STARTUP MOUNT . While a procedure does not have to return any values to the calling application. 29. Explain the difference between a hot backup and a cold backup and the benefits associated with each. All the extents that an object takes when grouped together are considered the segment of the database object. Fact tables and dimension tables. A table is classified as a parent table and you want to drop and recreate it. They are typically used in data warehouse or decision support systems. and to make sure that the appropriate Indexes exist and are used by the Oracle Optimizer.SET_SQL_TRACE or Use ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE. What view would you use to determine free space in a tablespace? DBA_FREE_SPACE 43. write. NOARCHIVELOG mode is basically the absence of ARCHIVELOG mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any point in time. STARTUP NOMOUNT . 26. How would you force a log switch? ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE. an extent and a segment. You have just had to restore from backup and do not have any control files.sql. and can generally get the job done quicker for individuals new to database administration. How would you determine what sessions are connected and what resources they are waiting for? Use of V$SESSION and V$SESSION_WAIT 32. USER_TABLES or ALL_TABLES). What type of index should you use on a fact table? A Bitmap index. Give two examples of referential integrity constraints.environment they are installed on. What command would you use to create a backup control file? Alter database backup control file to trace. A primary key and a foreign key. 2. 15. Buffer Cache Advice. try to convey that you are aware of some tasks that require you to be a nuts-n-bolts DBA. Explain the use of setting GLOBAL_NAMES equal to TRUE. If you find yourself as a tools-n-props DBA. How can you rebuild an index? ALTER INDEX <index_name> REBUILD. How would you go about increasing the buffer cache hit ratio? Use the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v$db_cache_advice table. ARCHIVELOG mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any point in time. Give the two types of tables involved in producing a star schema and the type of data they hold. 1. 7.sql or utlxpls. Read allows you to see and list the directory contents. 22. what permissions must you grant to allow them to connect to the database? Grant the CONNECT to the user. This variable is either TRUE or FALSE and if it is set to TRUE it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking. 25. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables. How do you execute a UNIX command in the background? Use the "&" 3. 36. Explain an ORA-01555 You get this error when you get a snapshot too old within rollback. 49. NOARCHIVELOG mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly.The database is mounted STARTUP OPEN .ORA 51. You could use Logminer or Streams 35. Give two methods you could use to determine what DDL changes have been made. Name a tablespace automatically created when you create a database.

d] None of the above Ans : C 33. triggers and form level procedures. For instance. b] Data validation at entry line. 8. What is SQL*FORMS a] SQL*FORMS is a 4GL tool for developing & executing Oracle based interactive applications. Which of the folowing is TRUE for a ERASE packaged procedure 1] ERASE removes an indicated Global variable & releases the memory associated with it 2] ERASE is used to remove a field from a page 1] Only 1 is TRUE 2] Only 2 is TRUE 3] Both 1 & 2 are TRUE 4] Both 1 & 2 are FALSE Ans : 1 35. Good luck! Oracle DBA 1. Size of Tablespace can be increased by a] Increasing the size of one of the Datafiles b] Adding one or more Datafiles c] Cannot be increased d] None of the above Ans : B 37. b] False Ans : False 10. Ans : C 8. b] LOG_BUFFER. if they are looking for a DBA to run their databases in RAC environments. how do you install Oracle software on UNIX. What is the difference between a MESSAGEBOX and an ALERT a] A messagebox can be used only by the system and cannot be used in user application while an alert can be used in user application also. d] USER_EXIT Ans : D 30. c] blocks. This would allow you to brush up on particular environments and not be caught off-guard. Why is it better to use an INTEGRITY CONSTRAINT to validate data in a table than to use a STORED PROCEDURE ? a] Because an integrity constraint is automatically checked while data is inserted into or updated in a table while a stored procedure has to be specifically invoked b] Because the stored procedure occupies more space in the database than a integrity constraint definition c] Because a stored procedure creates more network traffic than a integrity constraint definition Ans : A 19. b] For application sharing. 6.ora parameter file DB_BLOCK_SIZE. We can create SNAPSHOTLOG for [DBA] a] Simple snapshots. Constraints cannot be exported through EXPORT command a] True. Can an Integrity Constraint be enforced on a table if some existing table data does not satisfy the constraint a] Yes b] No Ans : B 42. What is the maximum size of the page ? a] Characters wide & 265 characters length b] Characters wide & 265 characters length c] Characters wide & 80 characters length d] None of the above Ans : B 25. It is very difficult to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users using the roles a] True. Ans : A 32. c] DB__BLOCK_SIZE. SNAPSHOT is used for [DBA] a] Synonym. These following parameters are optional in init. A set of Dictionary tables are created a] Once for the Entire Database b] Every time a user is created c] Every time a Tablespace is created d] None of the above Ans : A 39. c] System server. tape and CPU activity. A Database Procedure is stored in the Database a] In compiled form b] As source code c] Both A & B d] Not stored Ans : C 45. All datafiles related to a Tablespace are removed when the Tablespace is dropped a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 36. Databases overall structure is maintained in a file called a] Redolog file. b] False Ans : False 7. SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT is used to create user objects in a particular Tablespace a] True. Which of the following is not an reason for the fact that most of the processing is done at the server ? a] To reduce network traffic. c] Responding to user events. Give the command to display space usage on the UNIX file system. LGWR process writes information into a] Database files. c] SQL*FORMS is a reporting tool d] None of the above. c] Both A & B. Give two UNIX kernel parameters that effect an Oracle install SHMMAX & SHMMNI 10. d] All the above. Basically. b] A client/server model increases developer. I hope that these interview questions were not too hard. Ans : C 20. b] Table space. 5. d] None of the above Ans : D 18. The system variable that records the select statement that SQL * FORMS most recently used to populate a block is a] SYSTEM. pages. d] None of the above Ans : B 4. d] EXIT_FORM Ans : D 31. d] All of the above. b] MESSAGE. Dedicated server configuration is . b] A alert can be used only by the system and cannot be use din user application while an messagebox can be used in user application also. What is the difference between a LIST BOX and a COMBO BOX ? a] In the list box. Datadictionary can span across multiple Tablespaces a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 40.LAST_RECORD b] SYSTEM. a] Only 1 is TRUE b] Only 2 is TRUE c] Both 1 & 2 are TRUE d] Both are FALSE Ans : B 27. In a CLIENT/SERVER environment. b] Data file. b] A document window can be moved outside the application window while a dialog window cannot be moved c] A dialog window can be moved outside the application window while a document window cannot be moved Ans : C 12. Explain iostat. What is a trigger a] A piece of logic written in PL/SQL b] Executed at the arrival of a SQL*FORMS event c] Both A & B d] None of the above Ans : C 34. c] Shared_Pool_Size. b] FMR & FDX. Take a close look at the requirements for any job and try to extract questions that they may ask from manuals and real life experiences. fields only.CURSOR_FIELD d] SYSTEM. fields. set up disks. ENQUEUE resources parameter information is derived from [DBA] a] Processes or DDL_LOCKS and DML_LOCKS. d] Only blocks. What is a DATABLOCK a] Set of Extents b] Set of Segments c] Smallest Database storage unit d] None of the above Ans : C 41. disk. b] GUI's can display multiple applications in multiple windows c] GUI's provide more user interface objects for a developer d] None of the above Ans :D 16. Netstat reports on the contents of network data structures. For the following statements which is true 1] Page is an object owned by a form 2] Pages are a collection of display information such as constant text and graphics. you should try to determine what hardware and software they are using BEFORE you get to the interview. b] blocks. c] EXECUTE_QUERY. kernel parameters. b] Processes. c] INP & FRM. A column defined as PRIMARY KEY can have NULL's a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 43. POST-BLOCK trigger is a a] Navigational trigger b] Key trigger c] Transactional trigger d] None of the above Ans : A 22. vmstat and netstat. c] Control file. A database trigger doesnot apply to data loaded before the definition of the trigger a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : A 46. the user is restricted to selecting a value from a list but in a list box the user can type in a value which is not in the list d] None of the above Ans : A 17. disk and tape I/O activity. Can a DIALOG WINDOW have scroll bar attached to it ? a] Yes. Remember these are "core" DBA questions and not necessarily related to the Oracle options that you may encounter in some interviews.0 a] FMB & FMX. Identify the RESTRICTED packaged procedure from the following a] USER_EXIT. Name the two files that are created when you generate a form using Forms 3. b] False Ans : False 11. How would you change all occurrences of a value using VI? Use :%s/<old>/<new>/g 9. fields. b] SQL*FORMS is a 3GL tool for connecting to the Database.CURSOR_RECORD c] SYSTEM.Execute gives you the previous read/write permissions plus allows you to change into the directory and execute programs or shells from the directory. What does DLL stands for ? a] Dynamic Language Library b] Dynamic Link Library c] Dynamic Load Library d] None of the above Ans : B 21. Which of the following is TRUE for the SYSTEM VARIABLE $$date$$ a] Can be assigned to a global variable b] Can be assigned to any field only during design time c] Can be assigned to any variable or field during run time d] None of the above Ans : B 29. Transactions per rollback segment is derived from [DBA] a] Db_Block_Buffers.LAST_QUERY Ans: D 23. What is difference between a DIALOG WINDOW and a DOCUMENT WINDOW regarding moving the window with respect to the application window a] Both windows behave the same way as far as moving the window is concerned.. Which of the following is TRUE for the ENFORCE KEY field a] ENFORCE KEY field characterstic indicates the source of the value that SQL*FORMS uses to populate the field b] A field with the ENFORCE KEY characterstic should have the INPUT ALLOWED charaterstic turned off a] Only 1 is TRUE b] Only 2 is TRUE c] Both 1 and 2 are TRUE d] Both 1 and 2 are FALSE Ans : A 24. df -lk 7. which of the following would not be done at the client ? a] User interface part. c] Redolog files. b] No Ans : B 15. b] Complex snapshots. the difference between a soft link and a hard link? A symbolic (soft) linked file and the targeted file can be located on the same or different file system while for a hard link they must be located on the same file system. Which of the following packaged procedure is UNRESTRICTED ? a] CALL_INPUT. pages only. Ans : C 26. the user is restricted to selecting a value from a list but in a combo box the user can type in a value which is not in the list b] A list box is a data entry area while a combo box can be used only for control purposes c] In a combo box. d] Dynamic data replication Ans : D 2. b] Control files. Ans : C 6. Briefly. b] CLEAR_BLOCK. c] To implement business rules centrally. Multiple Tablespaces can share a single datafile a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 38.s productivity c] A client/server model is suitable for all applications d] None of the above. b] False Ans : False 9. and run orainst. The packaged procedure that makes data in form permanent in the Database is a] Post b] Post form c] Commit form d] None of the above Ans : C 28. Ans : A 5. A FORM is madeup of which of the following objects a] block. c] An alert requires an response from the userwhile a messagebox just flashes a message and only requires an acknowledment from the user d] An message box requires an response from the userwhile a alert just flashes a message an only requires an acknowledment from the user Ans : C 13. Iostat reports on terminal. d] None of the above Ans : D 14. PROCESSES a] True. c] BREAK. Which of the following is not an advantage of GUI systems ? a] Intuitive and easy to use. A Transaction ends a] Only when it is Committed b] Only when it is Rolledback c] When it is Committed or Rolledback d] None of the above Ans : C 44. Vmstat reports on virtual memory statistics for processes.. Which of the following is not an advantage of a client/server model ? a] A client/server model allows centralised control of data and centralised implementation of business rules. d] Neither A nor B Ans : A 3.

What is built_in Subprogram ? a] Stored procedure & Function b] Collection of Subprogram c] Collection of Packages d] None of the above Ans : D 87. A CONTROL BLOCK can sometimes refer to a BASETABLE ? a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 89. Find the ODD one out of the following a] OPEN b] CLOSE c] INSERT d] FETCH Ans C 63. What type of file is used for porting Forms 4. Can we pass RECORD GROUP between FORMS ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 81. A Stored Procedure is a a] Sequence of SQL or PL/SQL statements to perform specific function b] Stored in compiled form in the database c] Can be called from all client environments d] All of the above Ans : D 55.5 ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 101. Can we use GO_BLOCK package in a PRE_TEXT_ITEM trigger ? a] Yes b] No Ans : B 94.dname%type. Which is not part of the Data Definiton Language ? a] CREATE b] ALTER c] ALTER SESSION Ans : C 75.SAL ) will retrieve a] 3500. Does the Database trigger will fire when the table is TRUNCATED ? a] Yes b] No Ans : B 68. When do you get a . :SYSTEM. Update. What SYSTEM VARIABLE is used to refer DATABASE TIME ? a] $$dbtime$$ b] $$time$$ c] $$datetime$$ d] None of the above Ans : A 83. What is a RADIO GROUP ? a] Mutually exclusive b] Select more than one column c] Above all TRUE d] Above all FALSE Ans : A 104. Is it possible to Enable or Disable a Database trigger ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 59. Declare fvar number := null. Identify the Odd one of the following statements ? a] Poplist b] Tlist c] List of values d] Combo box Ans : C .Many user processes b] Many server processes . Declare a number := 5. Can MULTIPLE DOCUMENT INTERFACE (MDI) be used in Forms 4.Many user processes Ans : C 47.6) will return a] ALWAYS b} S ALWA c] ALWAYS Ans : C 69. b] NUM1. Which of the following statement is false a] Any procedure can raise an error and return an user message and error number b] Error number ranging from 20000 to 20999 are reserved for user defined messages c] Oracle checks Uniqueness of User defined errors d] Raise_Application_error is used for raising an user defined error. SUBSTR(SQUARE ANS ALWAYS WORK HARD. will it accept the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ? a] Will b] Won't Ans : B 78. What is a Built_in subprogram ? a] Library b] Stored procedure & Function c] Collection of Subprograms d] None of the above Ans : D 103. procedures and packages d] Collection of PL/SQL procedures & triggers Ans : C 92.Please check the Correcness of this Answer ( The correct answer is 2 ) 90. Which of the following is TRUE 1] Host variables are declared anywhere in the program 2] Host variables are declared in the DECLARE section a] Only 1 is TRUE b] Only 2 is TRUE c] Both 1 & 2are TRUE d] Both are FALSE Ans : B 50. Can we use a RESTRICTED packaged procedure in WHEN_TEXT_ITEM trigger ? a] Yes b] No Ans : B 93. Can you copy the PROGRAM UNIT into an Object group ? a] Yes b] No Ans : B 100. Begin if a > b AND a < c then a := c * a. PL/SQL supports datatype(s) a] Scalar datatype b] Composite datatype c] All of the above d] None of the above Ans C 60. Is it possible to modify a Datatype of a column when column contains data ? a] Yes b] No Ans B 73. b number := null. Create b] Drop.5 ? a] Generating form b] Executing form c] Save form d] Run form Ans : C 102.'0123456789') will return a] 333234 b] 333333 c] 234333 d] None of the above Ans : A 71. Which of the following does not affect the size of the SGA a] Database buffer b] Redolog buffer c] Stored procedure d] Shared pool Ans : C 48. When a form is invoked with CALL_FORM does Oracle forms issues SAVEPOINT ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 97. NUM2 number. Is it possible to use Transactional control statements in Database Triggers ? a] Yes b] No Ans : B 58. SHOW_ALERT function returns a] Boolean b] Number c] Character d] None of the above Ans : B 82. Is it possible to open a cursor which is in a Package in another procedure ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 57. svar number := 5 Begin goto << fproc>> if fvar is null then << fproc>> svar := svar + 5 end if. End.One user process d] Many server processes . Comment c] Insert.'BL') will return a] JACK AND BLUE b] BLACK AND JACK c] BLACK AND BLUE d] None of the above Ans : C 70. End. Which of the following is not correct about User_Defined Exceptions ? a] Must be declared b] Must be raised explicitly c] Raised automatically in response to an Oracle error d] None of the above Ans : C 54. Which of the following is not correct about the "TABLE" datatype ? a] Can contain any no of columns b] Simulates a One-dimensional array of unlimited size c] Column datatype of any Scalar type d] None of the above Ans : A 62. Which of the following is not correct about an Exception ? a] Raised automatically / Explicitly in response to an ORACLE_ERROR b] An exception will be raised when an error occurs in that block c] Process terminates after completion of error sequence.. If an UNIQUE KEY constraint on DATE column is created.EXE file Ans : C 95. The Data Manipulation Language statements are a] INSERT b] UPDATE c] SELECT d] All above Ans : D 76. EMPNO ENAME SAL A822 RAMASWAMY 3500 A812 NARAYAN 5000 A973 UMESH 2850 A500 BALAJI 5750 Use these data for the following Questions Select SAL from EMP E1 where 3 > ( Select count(*) from Emp E2 where E1. What will be the value of 'a' after execution ? a] 50 b] NULL c] 5 d] None of the above Ans : C 67..One user process c] One server process . GET_BLOCK property is a a] Restricted procedure b] Unrestricted procedure c] Library function d] None of the above Ans : D 88. List of Values (LOV) supports a] Single column b] Multi column c] Single or Multi column d] None of the above Ans : C 91.DATE varaible is a] Read only b] Read & Write c] Write only d] None of the above Ans : C 84.5750 Ans : A 72.PLL extension ? a] Save Library file b] Generate Library file c] Run Library file d] None of the above Ans : A 86.2500 b] 5000.0 ? a] Run_Report built_in b] Call_Report built_in c] Run_Product built_in d] Call_Product built_in Ans : C 85. Which of the following is not correct about Cursor ? a] Cursor is a named Private SQL area b] Cursor holds temporary results c] Cursor is used for retrieving multiple rows d] SQL uses implicit Cursors to retrieve rows Ans : B 64. Ans : C 53. REPLACE('JACK AND JUE'.14. Can we attach the same LOV to different fields in Design time ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 98. What built-in subprogram is used to manipulate images in image items ? a] Zoom_out b] Zoom_in' c] Image_zoom d] Zoom_image Ans : C 80. d] date1 date := sysdate Ans : B 51. What does a COMMIT statement do to a CURSOR a] Open the Cursor b] Fetch the Cursor c] Close the Cursor d] None of the above Ans : D 49. How can you CALL Reports from Forms4. c number := 10. Ans : C 56. What is Library in Forms 4. What are the different events in Triggers ? a] Define. When is a .2850 c] 2850. Which of the following is not correct about a View ? a] To protect some of the columns of a table from other users b] Ocuupies data storage space c] To hide complexity of a query d] To hide complexity of a calculations Ans : B 74. into b] Update c] Create d] Delete Ans : C 65. How do you pass values from one form to another form ? a] LOV b] Parameters c] Local variables d] None of the above Ans : B 99. Which of the following is NOT VALID is PL/SQL a] Bool boolean.'0123456789ABCDPQRST'.FMX file c] .'J'. Delete d] All of the above Ans : C 79.5 ? a] READ_IMAGE_FILE b] GET_IMAGE_FILE c] READ_FILE d] GET_FILE Ans A 96.FMB file extension is created in Forms 4. What will be the value of svar after the execution ? a] Error b] 10 c] 5 d] None of the above Ans : A 52. d] A Procedure or Sequence of statements may be processed. TRANSLATE('333SQD234'.5 applications to various platforms ? a] . What built_in procedure is used to get IMAGES in Forms 4. What do you mean by CHECK BOX ? a] Two state control b] One state control c] Three state control d] none of the above Ans : C . What is the Result of the following 'VIK'||NULL||'RAM' ? a] Error b] VIK RAM c] VIKRAM d] NULL Ans : C 66. Which of the following is NOT VALID in PL/SQL ? a] Select . end if.EFFECTIVE.a] One server process .5750 d] 5000. c] deptname dept.SAL > E2.0 ? a] Collection of External field b] Collection of built_in packages c] Collection of PL/SQl functions. Find the ODD datatype out a] VARCHAR2 b] RECORD c] BOOLEAN d] RAW Ans : B 61.FMT file d] .FMB file b] .5000. EMPNO ENAME SAL A822 RAMASWAMY 3500 A812 NARAYAN 5000 A973 UMESH A500 BALAJI 5750 Using the above data Select count(sal) from Emp will retrieve a] 1 b] 0 c] 3 d] None of the above Ans : C 77.

With which function of a summary item in the COMPUTE AT option required ? a] Sum b] Standard deviation c] Variance d] % of Total function Ans : D 115. Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views.*/) d] All the above Ans : D 111. File mounted. Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1. Concurrent access is not possible. Instance started & file mounted d] Files mounted. 7. Security Problems. Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction. In other words. Define the "integrity rules" There are two Integrity rules. How is the data structure of System R different from the relational structure? Unlike Relational systems in System R. What is E-R model? This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of relationship among these objects. SNAPSHOTS cannot be refreshed automatically a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 127. constructing and manipulating the database for various applications. 13. What is Data Model? A collection of conceptual tools for describing data. Hence accounts for logical data independence. It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that it is possible to build a Relational System that can be used in a real life environment to solve real life problems. 5. structure of table and the constraints laid on it. 10.. Formula & Place holder columns d] Summary. View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database. 24. What is extension and intension? Extension . Two types of Data Independence: Physical Data Independence: Modification in physical level should not affect the logical level.. .. describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data. Providing multiple user interfaces. Providing backup and recovery. Enforcing integrity constraints. Data isolation. If the maximum records retrieved property of a query is set to 10. 26. 16. 14. 15. built and populated with data for a specific purpose. What are the different file extensions that are created by Oracle Reports ? a] . What is DDL (Data Definition Language)? A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL.INI b] ODBC. 19. Domains are not supported. 21. An object contains values stored in instance variables with in the object. The following parameters are optional in init.v2. Sequence of events takes place while starting a Database is a] Database opened. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. which describes the entity. Kind of COMMENT statements placed within SQL statements ? a] Asterisk(*) in column ? b] ANSI SQL style statements(.. What is a Database system? The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system. 6. NOARCHIEVELOG parameter is used to enable the database in Archieve mode a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 130. If two groups are not linked in the data model editor. 29. A2. . What is a view? How it is related to data independence? A view may be thought of as a virtual table. It is very difficult to grant and manage common priveleges needed by different groups of database users using roles a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 132. What is VDL (View Definition Language)? It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema. vn).RDF file c] . What is DBMS? It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database. The status of the Rollback segment can be viewed through a] DBA_SEGMENTS b] DBA_ROLES c] DBA_FREE_SPACES d] DBA_ROLLBACK_SEG Ans : D 133.REP file & . …. Formula & Place holder columns Ans. data relationships data semantics and constraints. What is an Entity type? It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes. Place holder & Procedure column b] Summary. The ability to modify the schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the next higher level. SMON process is used to write into LOG files a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 125. SYSTEM TABLESPACE can be made off-line a] Yes b] No Ans : B 123. Entity Integrity: States that “Primary key cannot have NULL value” Referential Integrity: States that “Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or should be Primary Key value of other relation.: D 120.It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. Instance started b] Instance started. What is database? A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. Thus the view can insulate users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database. A relation is defined as a set of tuples. Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional. 17. What is the appropriate destination type to send the output to a printer ? a] Screen b] Previewer c] Either of the above d] None of the above Ans : D 112. What is Weak Entity set? An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key. What file is read by ODBC to load drivers ? a] ODBC. representing some aspect of real world and which is designed.. What is an Extension of entity type? The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into an entity set. What is an ALERT ? a] Modeless window b] Modal window c] Both are TRUE d] None of the above Ans : B 106. In other words.105. What is System R? What are its two major subsystems? System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San Jose Research Center. Difficult in accessing data.DLL c] ODBCDRV. System Relational Data System. Disadvantage in File Processing System? Data redundancy & inconsistency. Constraints cannot be exported through Export command? a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 131.. Describe the three levels of data abstraction? The are three levels of abstraction: Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored. PROCESS a} TRUE b] FALSE Ans : B 129.It is a constant value that gives the name. What is an Entity set? It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database. How many no of columns can a RECORD GROUP have ? a] 10 b] 20 c] 50 d] None of the above Ans D 109. An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. tn). Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. The User can set Archive file name formats a] TRUE b] FALSE Ans : A 128. What is Relationship set? The collection (or set) of similar relationships. Intension . For a field in a repeating frame..) c] C-Style comments (/*. This is time dependent. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes. that is.INI d] None of the above Ans : A RDBMS 1. can the source come from a column which does not exist in the datagroup which forms the base of the frame ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 116.. Can we create an LOV without an RECORD GROUP ? a} Yes b] No Ans : B 108. EXP command is used a] To take Backup of the Oracle Database b] To import data from the exported dump file c] To create Rollback segments d] None of the above Ans : A 126. Advantages of DBMS? Redundancy is controlled. What are the types of Calculated columns available ? a] Summary.0 d] None of the above Ans : A 113. 20. 27. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity... What is degree of a Relation? It is the number of attribute of its relation schema. What is an Entity? It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence. 28. Instance started & Database opened Ans : B 122. with performance at least comparable to that of existing system. Data integrity.ora parameter file DB_BLOCK_SIZE. what is the hierarchy between them? a] There is no hierarchy between unlinked groups b] The group that is right ranks higher than the group that is to the left c] The group that is above or leftmost ranks higher than the group that is to right or below it d] None of the above Ans : C 121. What is TERM ? a] TERM is the terminal definition file that describes the terminal from which you are using R20RUN ( Reports run time ) b] TERM is the terminal definition file that describes the terminal from which you are using R20DES ( Reports designer ) c] There is no Parameter called TERM in Reports 2. 4. 23. Is it possible to Disable the Parameter form while running the report ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 118. 18.. NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve 12.RDF file & . What is Data Independence? Data independence means that “the application is independent of the storage structure and access strategy of data”. Research Storage. Its two subsystems are. Each tuple is an ordered list of n-values t=(v1. Database mounted & Database opened c] Database opened. What is degree of Relationship type? It is the number of entity type participating.What are the SQL clauses supported in the link property sheet ? a] WHERE & START WITH b] WHERE & HAVING c} START WITH & HAVING d] WHERE. 3. Oracle precompiler translates the EMBEDDED SQL statemens into a] Oracle FORMS b] Oracle REPORTS c] Oracle LIBRARY d] None of the above Ans : D 110. Can an Alert message be changed at runtime ? a] Yes b] No Ans : A 107. Enforcement of entity integrity is optional. t2. START WITH & HAVING Ans : D 119. 2. . there is no stored file that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary. In other words it is general-purpose software that provides the users with the processes of defining. Logical Data Independence: Modification in logical level should affect the view level. Unauthorised access is restricted. ENQUEUE_RESOURCES parameter information is derived from a] PROCESS or DDL_LOCKS & DML_LOCKS b] LOG BUFFER c] DB_BLOCK_SIZE d] DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS Ans : A 124. 8. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. then a summary value will be calculated a] Only for 10 records b] For all the records retrieved c] For all therecords in the referenced table d] None of the above Ans : A 114. t3..RDF file d] None of the above Ans : C 117. What is an attribute? It is a particular property. 25. Referential integrity is not enforced 11. a table that does not really exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table. What is Relationship type? Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a given set of entity types. What is Relationship? It is an association among two or more entities. These bodies of code are called methods.RDX file & . 9. What is a Relation Schema and a Relation? A relation Schema denoted by R(A1..RPX file b] . What is Object Oriented model? This model is based on collection of objects. 22. Explicitly we can assign transaction to a rollback segment a] TRUE B] FALSE Ans : A 134. Procedure & Formula columns c] Procedure.

retrieving. 40. Storage Management. Control files. 53. Columns from the subquery cannot be referenced anywhere else in the parent query. What is durability in DBMS? Once the DBMS informs the user that a transaction has successfully completed. variables that range over the underlying domains instead of over relation. All three sets of files must be present. indivisible) values. An RDBMS maintains its own list of authorized users and their associated privileges. 67. What is Query evaluation engine? It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler.. where X and Y are both subsets of R. . R3. Security. Minimizing insertion. If the subquery is executed for each row of the parent. X is a Super-key of R. Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. over R in which the left side is key of R. DEDUCE.CNUM) 69.. In other words. What is Data Storage . 50. This language may specify the mapping between two schemas.30. All the files are binary. A correlated subquery can be easily identified if it contains any references to the parent subquery columns in its WHERE clause. X must be a candidate key.. What is 2NF? A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. one of following is true. What is meant by query optimization? The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization. are used to bring back a set of rows to be used by the parent query. 34. The primary difference between SQL and other conventional programming languages is that SQL statements specify what data operations should be performed rather than how to perform them. Memory resident table. and the data dictionary. 61. 32. E. This means the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y. if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key. 38. 51.g. or nested queries. What is SDL (Storage Definition Language)? This language is to specify the internal schema. There is no set of sound and complete inference rules for JD. and securing data. X is a super key. What is RDBMS KERNEL? Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel. When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal? Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side. Redo logs. QUEL. What are the different phases of transaction? Different phases are. 33. Natural Key: When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key. its effects should persist even if the system crashes before all its changes are reflected on disk. What are the unary operations in Relational Algebra? PROJECTION and SELECTION. What is a Phantom Deadlock? In distributed deadlock detection. We cannot replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A where Y is a proper subset of X and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to F. 72. provides access to them. 58. 76. Rn} that holds R. How do you communicate with an RDBMS? You communicate with an RDBMS using Structured Query Language (SQL) 78. specifies the following constraint on any relation r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4 should also exist in r with the following properties t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X]. What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)? This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data model. and manages space usage within its tablespace structures 74. Without these files. What is Fully Functional dependency? It is based on concept of full functional dependency.. Table indexing. QUEL The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i. Define SQL and state the differences between SQL and other conventional programming Languages SQL is a nonprocedural language that is designed specifically for data access operations on normalized relational database structures. What is DML Compiler? It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand. 65. It is also called data dictionary. dispatches and schedules user requests. By taking checkpoints. These are Database files.A JD {R1. 73. 66. Compound Key: If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct. Distribution Control. 45. Then this is known as developing an artificial key. controls locking for concurrent resource usage. 62. Language Processing.g. 56. ILL.CNUM = ORDER. Not only RDBMS takes care of locating data it also determines an optimal access path to store or retrieve the data 76. What is Relational Algebra? It is procedural query language. its primary functions are storing. What is the job of the information stored in data-dictionary? The information in the data dictionary validates the existence of the objects.g. E. What is Relational Calculus? It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases proposed by E.e. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. this is called a correlated subquery. What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation? Atomicity: Either all actions are carried out or none are.g. Rn} is said to hold over a relation R if R1.Definition Language? The storage structures and access methods used by database system are specified by a set of definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-definition language. 64. This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time or Setoriented. and maps the actual physical storage location. deletion and modification. E. Name the buffer in which all the commands that are typed in are stored ‘Edit’ Buffer 71. Rn is a lossless-join decomposition of R . . one the following is true.e. This information is stored in a collection of relations maintained by the system called metadata. if there is one. 42. 41. the delay in propagating local information might cause the deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not really exist. DBMS ensures this by undoing the actions of incomplete transactions. R2. Redo Phase. 68. How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-oriented relational calculus The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i. 35. Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how to get those data. Which part of the RDBMS takes care of the data dictionary? How Data dictionary is a set of tables and database objects that is stored in a special area of the database and maintained exclusively by the kernel. What are the primitive operations common to all record management systems? Addition. Brief theory of Network. compound and natural key? Partial Key: It is a set of attributes that can uniquely identify weak entities and that are related to same owner entity. Transaction Control. . t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y]. 63. What is 1 NF (Normal Form)? The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple. 54. either stand alone or compound is available. What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented? The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records in a single DML statement. It is used when we need to express a relationship among relationships. We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency that is equivalent to F. This property is called durability. The following example demonstrates a non-correlated subquery.. then it is called the natural key. It is sometime called as Discriminator. Such situations are called phantom deadlocks and they lead to unnecessary aborts. Users should not have to worry about the effect of incomplete transactions. Alternate Key: All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys. What is "transparent DBMS"? It is one. information about every relation and index that it contains. designed specifically for controlling data access. 57. What is Multivalued dependency? Multivalued dependency denoted by X Y specified on relation schema R. Inverted list indexing. 60. What is 5NF? A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1. What do you mean by Correlated subquery? Subqueries. X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R. Name the three major set of files on disk that compose a database in Oracle There are three major sets of files on disk that compose a database. The join dependency is implied by the set of FD. The most important of these are the database files where the actual data resides. 37. What is join dependency and inclusion dependency? Join Dependency: A Join dependency is generalization of Multivalued dependency. What is Record-at-a-time? The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a set of records. 59. Inclusion Dependency: An Inclusion Dependency is a statement of the form that some columns of a relation are contained in other columns.. open. and available to Oracle for any data on the database to be useable. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation. it can be executed once for the parent query or it can be executed once for each row returned by the parent query. What is 4NF? A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X Y that holds over R. artificial. Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS I/O. 77. Are the resulting relations of PRODUCT and JOIN operation the same? No. A functional dependency X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more. Analysis phase. deletion and update anomalies. The control files and the redo logs support the functioning of the architecture itself. 79. Codd. Depending on how the subquery is written. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)? A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional constraint that for every FD X A. which is the software. R2. Aggregation: A concept which is used to model a relationship between a collection of entities and relationships. Memory Management.. 44. 46. 49. which consists of the system-level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database You might think of an RDBMS as an operating system (or set of subsystems). 36. manages memory caches and paging. Undo phase. t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z]. What is system catalog or catalog relation? How is better known as? A RDBMS maintains a description of all the data that it contains. where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ].. variable whose only permitted values are tuples of that relation. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA.F. This retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time. R2.. . What is Functional Dependency? A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R. Hierarchical schemas and their properties Network schema uses a graph data structure to organize records example for such a database management system is CTCG while a hierarchical schema uses a tree data structure example for such a system is IMS. the DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes. which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user. Logging and Recovery. 52. Ri = R for some i. E. What is a checkpoint and When does it occur? A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. 47. A is a prime attribute of R. 39. 70. What is Domain-Key Normal Form? A relation is said to be in DKNF if all constraints and dependencies that should hold on the the constraint can be enforced by simply enforcing the domain constraint and key constraint on the relation. you cannot access the database. What is a query? A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a data base. Artificial Key: If no obvious key. Process Control. alternate. What do you mean by flat file database? It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages.. then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a compound key. 55. What is normalization? It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties Minimizing redundancy. PRODUCT: Concatenation of every row in one relation with every row in another. What is DDL Interpreter? It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata. Types: Binary search style indexing. then the last resort is to simply create a key.. A foreign key constraint is an example of inclusion dependency. B-Tree indexing. What is indexing and what are the different kinds of indexing? Indexing is a technique for determining how quickly specific data can be found. Lock Management 75. by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. What is Lossless join property? It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas after decomposition. The query language can be classified into data definition language and data manipulation language. 48. What are partial.. 43. 31. Select * From CUST Where '10/03/1990' IN (Select ODATE From ORDER Where CUST. What is 3NF? A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD X A either of the following is true. and the database administrator might have to recover some or all of the database using a backup. It has no cross-file capabilities but is user-friendly and provides user-interface management. JOIN: Concatenation of rows from one relation and related rows from another.

These utilities are Export and Import. So different means of backing up database must be used — the hot backup. Use of this mechanism enables execution to continue if the error is not severe enough to cause procedure termination. If there are no more executable statements in the block.the string should be in double quotes d) Error . redo logs. What is Transaction Manager? It is a program module. SMON (System Monitor). A good example of a stand-alone procedure is one written in a SQL*Forms application. but it should be done only when the database is first created. control returns to the caller. Two blocks can have the same block address if they are in different database files. The database is restored to the most consistent state without any loss of committed transactions. 100. control files and log files. Each Oracle block is numbered sequentially for each database file starting at 1. In terms of accessing and using the data in the tables and other objects. updated. These types of procedures are not available for reference from other Oracle tools.the string in single quotes 'NORTH' and 'SOUTH' c) Error . Of these the first three are known as Amstrong Rules. . After the exception handler executes. The exception handler must be defined within a subprogram specification. the tables (and other objects) for all the user accounts can go in one database file—but that's not an ideal situation because it does not make the database structure very flexible for controlling access to storage for different users. X Z} then X YZ. Reflexive rule : If Y is subset or equal to X then X Y . This block header has a minimum size. What is database Trigger? A database trigger is a PL/SQL block that can defined to automatically execute for insert. Errors cause the program to raise an exception with a transfer of control to the exception-handler block. and inserts the data If Export and Import are used as a means of backing up and recovering the database. and PMON (Process Monitor). which contains the row The row within the block (because each block can hold many rows). To further ensure calling the proper procedure. Increasing the Oracle block size can improve performance. WY Z} then WX Z. The Import utility reads the file produced by an export. Once the user has indicated that he/she wants to back up the tablespace files. Updating tables from join a) i & ii b) ii & iii c) i & iii d) ii & iii (a) i & iii because theta joins are joins made on keys that are not primary keys. Select 'NORTH'. which manages the allocation of space on disk storage and data structure used to represent information stored on a disk. 97. this it is not in 3NF. PL/SQL does not look only at the referenced name. The combination of the SGA and the Oracle background processes is known as an Oracle instance 81. Control Files :The control files and redo logs support the rest of the architecture. System-Defined Exceptions: Exceptions internal to PL/SQL are raised automatically upon error. What is Buffer Manager? It is a program module. In the case of non-data loss failure. The cold backup is not an available option. Once assigned (when the row is first inserted into the database). This is a straight file copy. RAISE ot_failure. 88. 87. Within this exception is the RAISE statement that transfers control back to the ot_failure exception handler. the combination of which uniquely identifies the physical storage location of the row. A dominant entity is the entity a) on the N side in a 1 : N relationship b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship c) on either side in a 1 : 1 relationship d) nothing to do with 1 : 1 or 1 : N relationship (b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship 95. to resolve a procedure or function call. the number (or location) of the files is immaterial. 103. Oracle database file number. The data and control structures in the SGA are shareable. What are database files. Another limitation of stand-alone procedures is that they are compiled at run time. Exception Name Oracle Error CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN ORA-06511 DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX ORA-00001 INVALID_CURSOR ORA01001 INVALID_NUMBER ORA-01722 LOGIN_DENIED ORA-01017 NO_DATA_FOUND ORA-01403 NOT_LOGGED_ON ORA-01012 PROGRAM_ERROR ORA-06501 STORAGE_ERROR ORA-06500 TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE ORA-00051 TOO_MANY_ROWS ORA-01422 TRANSACTION_BACKED_OUT ORA-00061 VALUE_ERROR ORA-06502 ZERO_DIVIDE ORA-01476 In addition to this list of exceptions. What are the four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to be useable The four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to be useable include DBWR (Database Writer). and all the Oracle background processes and user processes can use them. Thus the given FDs is in 1NF. B. which ensures that database. How are exceptions handled in PL/SQL? Give some of the internal exceptions' name PL/SQL exception handling is a mechanism for dealing with run-time errors encountered during procedure execution. where neither C is a Key nor B is a prime attribute. What are stored-procedures? And what are the advantages of using them. C} hence AC is the primary key. If a data loss failure does occur. User accomplishes this by naming an exception as in the following example: ot_failure EXCEPTION. The ROWID is used internally in indexes as a quick means of retrieving rows with a particular key value. Application developers also use it in SQL statements as a quick way to access a row once they know the ROWID 84. The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode for the hot backup option. In mapping of ERD to DFD a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD b) entity in DFD is converted to attributes of an entity in ERD c) relations in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to processes in DFD d) relationships in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to flows in DFD (a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD 94. Union or Additive rule: If {X Y. 90. I Determining X+. or deleted. A stored procedure executes the SQL commands and returns the result to the client. What are Armstrong rules? How do we say that they are complete and/or sound The well-known inference rules for FDs. 93. more than one files are used. out_msg := g_out_msg. For any one table. putting the database on different disk drives. given set of FDs F 1. PL/SQL uses cursors for all database information accesses statements. Table below gives a complete list of internal exceptions. which slows execution. Spurious tuples may occur due to i. 92. You must have at least one database file but usually. Along with the RDBMS software. 85.the ORDER BY clause. Pseudo Transitive rule : If {X Y. The following is an example of a subprogram exception: EXCEPTION when NO_DATA_FOUND then g_out_status_code := 'FAIL'. Transitive rule: If {X Y. the entire block is not available for holding data. PL/SQL internal exceptions. Name two utilities that Oracle provides. the redo logs record all changes to the user objects or system objects. and delete statements against a table. Since ORDER BY clause cannot be used in UNIONS 96. the only option available in the event of data file loss is restoring all the files from the latest backup. The database files hold the actual data and are typically the largest in size. Theta joins iii. Algo. although you typically have more than one to guard against loss. NO_DATA_FOUND is a system-defined exception. If a cold backup is performed. it never changes until the row is deleted or the table is dropped. closure for X. remains in a consistent state despite system failures and concurrent transaction execution proceeds without conflicting. For finding the minimal key it is required to find the closure that is the set of all attributes that are dependent on any given set of attributes under the given set of functional dependency. Stored procedures are database objects that perform a user defined operation. Tables derived from the ERD a) Are totally unnormalised b) Are always in 1NF c) Can be further denormalised d) May have multi-valued attributes (b) Are always in 1NF 91. that the files of the tablespace are to backed up. Redo Logs: Any database must have at least two redo logs. The language supports the use two types of cursors. The control file records the name of the database. The database files are fixed in size and never grow bigger than the size at which they were created. Every time you add a new database or redo log file to the database. The Export utility dumps the definitions and data for the specified part of the database to an operating system binary file. however.ORDER BY clause (d) Error . Oracle can apply the information in the redo logs automatically without intervention from the DBA. he/she can use the operating system to copy those files to the desired backup destination. Set Old X+ = X+ 3. What is cold backup and hot backup (in case of Oracle)? Cold Backup: It is copying the three sets of files (database files. Oracle takes up some space to manage the contents of the block. In this case. What is Oracle Block? Can two Oracle Blocks have the same address? Oracle "formats" the database files into a number of Oracle blocks when they are first created—making it easier for the RDBMS software to manage the files and easier to read data into the memory areas. 98. there are twelve events for which you can define database triggers. LGWR (Log Writer). Regardless of the block size. control returns to the block in which the handler was defined. Augmentation rule: If X Y then XZ YZ. usually from the disk directly to tape. Prefacing a procedure or function name with the package name fully qualifies any procedure or function reference. If any type of failure occurs. and the synchronization information to ensure that all three sets of files are always in step. and control file) when the instance is shut down. This technique of raising the exception is used to invoke all user-defined exceptions. Oracle provides two utilities that you can use to back up and restore the database. including making changes to the data. 105. Issue a SQL command to indicate to Oracle. The best you can do is recover the database to the time when the export was last performed. provide functions for the user processes—functions that would otherwise be done by the user processes themselves Oracle database-wide system memory is known as the SGA. A database trigger can call database procedures that are also written in PL/SQL. They are called complete because using these three rules we can generate the rest all inference rules. What is Authorization and Integrity manager? It is the program module. Any database must have at least one control file. You must shut down the instance to guarantee a consistent copy. Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic. CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'E' Order By CUSTOMER The above is a) Not an error b) Error . which tests for the satisfaction of integrity constraint and checks the authority of user to access data. which contains the block with the rows. the system global area or shared global area. The ROWID consists of the following three components. the information is recorded in the control files. but it can grow. What is File Manager? It is a program module.80. 86. A B C is a set of attributes. update. 102. What are stand-alone procedures? Procedures that are not part of a package are known as stand-alone because they independently defined. all the changes made to the database cannot be recovered since the export was performed. The count and data types of formal parameters are also considered. All work performed on the database since the last backup is lost. 83. What are cursors give different types of cursors. the changes recorded in the redo logs can be used to bring the database to a consistent state without losing any committed transactions. What is ROWID? The ROWID is a unique database-wide physical address for every row on every table. How many of these files should a database have at least? Why? Database Files. or backing up and restoring just part of the database. which is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main memory and deciding what data to be cache in memory. Explicit. Implicit. the location of the database and redo logs. CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'N' Order By CUSTOMER Union Select 'EAST'. Set X+ = X 2. Depending on their sizes. Further B is not functionally dependent on key AC thus it is not in 2NF. on a tablespace-by-tablespace basis. What is Storage Manager? It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in database. 101. The redo log files are fixed in size and never grow dynamically from the size at which they were created. The block size should be a multiple of the operating system block size. the date and time it was created. the exception name is ot_failure. PL/SQL also attempts to resolve any procedure or function calls in locally defined packages before looking at globally defined packages or internal functions. These Oracle blocks are the smallest unit of storage. What is an Oracle Instance? The Oracle system processes. there is a catch-all exception named OTHERS that traps all errors for which specific error handling has not been established. you can use the dot notation. Oracle block address. Hot Backup: Some sites (such as worldwide airline reservations systems) cannot shut down the database while making a backup copy of the files. Does PL/SQL support "overloading"? Explain The concept of overloading in PL/SQL relates to the idea that you can define procedures and functions with the same name. Bad normalization ii. the lost database files can be restored using the hot backup and the online and offline redo logs created since the backup was done. How can you find the minimal key of relational schema? Minimal key is one which can identify each tuple of the given relation schema uniquely. 82. Y Z} then X Z. which are use for backup and recovery. also known as Oracle background processes. These are the journals for the database. They are sound because it is enough if a set of FDs satisfy these three. recreates the definitions of objects. Code associated with this handler is written in the EXCEPTION specification area as follows: EXCEPTION when OT_FAILURE then out_status_code := g_out_status_code. Since C B is a FD given. 89. The trigger can e defined to execute once for the entire statement or once for every row that is inserted. Decomposition rule : If X YZ then X Y. application programs and queries submitted to the system. A stored procedure can have a set of compound SQL statements. The users can continue to make full use of the files. 104. User-Defined Exceptions: PL/SQL enables the user to define exception handlers in the declarations area of subprogram specifications. 99. The functional dependency is as follows AB -> B AC -> C C -> B a) is in 1NF b) is in 2NF c) is in 3NF d) is in BCNF (a) is in 1NF since (AC)+ = { A.

EXISTS. TROUBLETHETROUBLE 18. JOB (VARCHAR2(9)). 18. 15. How old is the oldest male programmer? 23. '**'). SELECT COUNT(*) FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'F'. SOME. dependency preservation states that the closure of the union of the projection of F on each decomposed relation Ri is equal to the closure of F. SPLACE (VARCHAR). Retroactive and Simultaneous Update. TRUNCATE TABLE EMP. 24. What are the wildcards used for pattern matching? for single character substitution and % for multi-character substitution 8. DNAME (VARCHAR2(14)). Find out the number of copies which should be sold in order to recover the development cost of each package. CCOST – Course Cost. What will be the output of the following query? SELECT REPLACE(TRANSLATE(LTRIM(RTRIM('!! ATHEN !!'. What do you understand by dependency preservation? Given a relation R and a set of FDs F. ENAME (VARCHAR2(10)). SELECT AVG(SAL) FROM PROGRAMMER.'YES'. 19.DOJ)/12) "EXPERIENCE" FROM PROGRAMMER. Simulatneous Update: The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes effective in real world . 26.e. Compute (K – A)+ with respect to F b. SELECT PNAME. then all the rows or rows satisfying the condition will be copied to the new table. 20. 1200 SQL – QUERIES I.' || PNAME || ' . The null values in the commission column will be replaced by 0 and added to salary. Display the details of packages for which the development cost has been recovered. 31.'PASCAL') AND PROF2 NOT IN ('C'. CREATE TABLE NEWTABLE AS SELECT * FROM EXISTINGTABLE WHERE 1=2. 29. 26. 12. SOLD (NUMBER) Table 3 : PROGRAMMER PNAME (VARCHAR).has ' || TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.2)). given set of FDs F 1. Which function is used to find the largest integer less than or equal to a specific value? FLOOR 28. What is the use of DESC in SQL? Answer : DESC has two purposes. What is the use of CASCADE CONSTRAINTS? When this clause is used with the DROP command. How many programmers studied at Pentafour. Display the lowest course fee. PROF2 (VARCHAR). What is the average course fee? 19. SELECT PNAME FROM STUDIES WHERE COURSE = 'PGDCA'.'PASCAL') OR PROF2 IN ('C'. DCOST (NUMBER). TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. SAL (NUMBER(7. Answer : NO Explanation : The query checks whether a given string is a numerical digit. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM STUDIES WHERE COURSE = 'DCA'. If the WHERE condition is true. SELECT * FROM SOFTWARE WHERE SCOST*SOLD-DCOST > 5000. 17. What will be the output of the following query? SELECT DECODE(TRANSLATE('A'.'!'). SELECT SUM(SCOST*SOLD-DCOST) FROM SOFTWARE GROUP BY DEVIN HAVING DEVIN = 'C'. Which system table contains information on constraints on all the tables created? USER_CONSTRAINTS 14. What is the highest number of copies sold by a package? 5. SCHEMAS Table 1 : STUDIES PNAME (VARCHAR). SAL (NUMBER) LEGEND : PNAME – Programmer Name. Display the details of packages whose sales crossed the 5000 mark. 2.SCOST FROM SOFTWARE WHERE SCOST IN (SELECT MAX(SCOST) FROM SOFTWARE GROUP BY PNAME). Who are the programmers who celebrate their birthdays during the current month? 26. DELETE FROM EMP. 22. 25. AS SELECT command Explanation :To copy only the structure. 14. Retroactive Update: The updates that are applied to database after it becomes effective in real world . SELECT * FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE PROF1 IN ('C'. 6. LOC (VARCHAR2(13) Table 2 : EMP EMPNO (NOT NULL . 27. SCOST (NUMBER).'1234567890'. 9.DOJ)/12) || ' years of experience' “Programmer” FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'F'. Here the table name starts with an '&' symbol. What are the privileges that can be granted on a table by a user to others? Insert. 30. a parent table can be dropped even when a child table exists.Which is the subset of SQL commands used to manipulate Oracle Database structures.'C++'). select. SELECT TRUNC(AVG(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. The disadvantage in this type of join is that there SQL 1. Set K to R that is make K a set of all attributes in R 2. 16. SELECT MAX(SCOST) FROM SOFTWARE GROUP BY DEVIN HAVING DEVIN = 'VB'. DEVIN (VARCHAR). How many people draw 5000 to 7500? 30. TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. 19. 21.'C++'. Which date function is used to find the difference between two dates? MONTHS_BETWEEN 21. How many programmers have done the DCA course. State true or false. What operator tests column for the absence of data? IS NULL operator 4.5678. 7.'PASCAL'). HIREDATE (DATE). NUMBER(4)). How many female programmers are there? 27. 11. PROF1 (VARCHAR). How many programmers studied at PRAGATHI? 17.For each FD Y Z in F and if Y belongs to X+ then add Z to X+ 4. 2. Calculate the experience in years for each programmer and display along with their names in descending order. '1'. 20. 14. Display the names and date of birth of all programmers born in April. delete. references. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM STUDIES WHERE CCOST BETWEEN 10000 AND 15000. but TRUNCATE operation cannot be rolled back. 3.DOB)/12) "AGE". 10. DEPTNO is a foreign key. MGR (NUMBER(4)). SELECT PNAME. 8. ages and experience of all programmers. Hence DELETE operation can be rolled back. SELECT CEIL(DCOST/SCOST) FROM SOFTWARE. Display the details of those who don’t know C. What are the languages known by the male programmers? 28.1. 'AN'. What is the value of ‘comm’ and ‘sal’ after executing the following query if the initial value of ‘sal’ is 10000? UPDATE EMP SET SAL = SAL + 1000. including tables? Data Definition Language (DDL) 2.DOJ)/12) FROM PROGRAMMER ORDER BY PNAME DESC.'MON') = TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. C++ or Pascal. 6. SCOST – Software Cost. COURSE (VARCHAR). DEPTNO (NUMBER(2)) MGR is the empno of the employee whom the employee reports to.'TROUBLE') FROM DUAL. 32. SELECT PNAME. COMM = SAL*0. DEVIN – Developed in. Display the names of those who have done the PGDCA course. ((PR1(F)) U … U (PRn(F)))+ = F+ if decomposition is not dependency preserving. DCOST – Development Cost. alter. DOB (DATE). How many packages were developed in Oracle ? 16. What is the advantage of specifying WITH GRANT OPTION in the GRANT command? The privilege receiver can further grant the privileges he/she has obtained from the owner to any other user. execute. SELECT * FROM SOFTWARE WHERE PNAME = 'RAKESH'. SELECT TRUNC(MAX(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. What are the different types of JOIN operations? Equi Join: This is the most common type of join which involves only equality comparisions. What is the price of costliest software developed in VB? 15. What command is used to get back the privileges offered by the GRANT command? REVOKE 12. COMM (NUMBER(7. then some dependency is lost in the decomposition.SELECT 'Mr. ANY are operators in SQL. For each attribute A in K a. SELECT * FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE PROF1 NOT IN ('C'. 13. How many programmers don’t know C and C++? 22. State true or false. SELECT PNAME. Proactive Update: The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real world . 4. update. 12.'MON'). SELECT COUNT(*) FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SAL BETWEEN 5000 AND 7500.II Determining minimal K for relation schema R.0) FROM EMP. II . SELECT COUNT(*) FROM STUDIES WHERE SPLACE = 'PRAGATHI'. and then executes it? RUN 7. SELECT AVG(CCOST) FROM STUDIES. SELECT MIN(CCOST) FROM STUDIES. 20. List all the employees who have at least one person reporting to them.DOB)/12)) FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'F'. Will the outputs of the above two commands differ? Both will result in deleting all the rows in the table EMP.'C++') AND PROF2 NOT IN ('C'. 28.'*'. DOJ (DATE). Why does the following command give a compilation error? DROP TABLE &TABLE_NAME. 2. What does the following query do? SELECT SAL + NVL(COMM. Variable names should start with an alphabet. SELECT PNAME FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE TO_CHAR(DOB.TITLE. It is used to describe a schema as well as to retrieve rows from table in descending order. Which command displays the SQL command in the SQL buffer. What is the average salary? 29. 7. SELECT * FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE PROF1 NOT IN ('C'. 8.'1111111111'). True 9.. <>. Display the details of programmers knowing C.. How much revenue has been earned through the sale of packages developed in C. This displays the total salary of all employees. What command is used to create a table by copying the structure of another table? Answer : CREATE TABLE . Display the details of software developed by Rakesh. index. SCHEMA : Table 1 : DEPT DEPTNO (NOT NULL . 107. Which command executes the contents of a specified file? START <filename> or @<filename> 5. 5. 31. SELECT AVG(SCOST) FROM SOFTWARE WHERE DEVIN = 'ORACLE'.2)). SELECT * FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE PROF1 = 'C' OR PROF2 = 'C'. 15. 23. 9.'PASCAL'). 3. 'NO' ). 10. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM SOFTWARE WHERE DEVIN = 'ORACLE'. What is the parameter substitution symbol used with INSERT INTO command? & 6.DOB)/12)) FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'M'. Explanation : The query SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME DESC will display the output sorted on ENAME in descending order. Display the costliest package developed by each programmer. 108. 16. SPLACE – Study Place. What is meant by Proactive. the WHERE clause of the SELECT command should contain a FALSE statement as in the following. '!'). Produce the following output for all the male programmers KEYS: 1. What is the difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE commands? TRUNCATE is a DDL command whereas DELETE is a DML command.TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.'C++'. 23. . What is the average age of female programmers? 24. 32. Which system tables contain information on privileges granted and privileges obtained? USER_TAB_PRIVS_MADE. What operator performs pattern matching? LIKE operator 3. QUERIES 1. i. 25. SELECT DISTINCT(PROF1) FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'M'. What is the output of the following query? SELECT TRUNC(1234. NUMBER(2)). USER_TAB_PRIVS_RECD 13. 11. 17. SEX (CHAR). How many programmers paid 10000 to 15000 for the course? 18. True 10. !=. comm = 1000 25. 22. 13. TITLE (VARCHAR). SELECT MAX(SOLD) FROM SOFTWARE. PROF1 – Proficiency 1 QUERIES : 1. What is the use of the DROP option in the ALTER TABLE command? It is used to drop constraints specified on the table. 27. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until Old X+ = X+ Algo. DOB FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE DOB LIKE '%APR%'.-2) FROM DUAL. ^= all denote the same operation. SELECT * FROM SOFTWARE WHERE SCOST*SOLD >= DCOST. WHERE clause can be used with DELETE and not with TRUNCATE. List the employee details if and only if more than 10 employees are present in department no 10.DOJ)/12) || ' years of experience' “Programmer” FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'M' UNION SELECT 'Ms. If (K – A)+ = R then set K = (K – A)+ 106. Find out the selling cost average for packages developed in Oracle. Display the names. SELECT * FROM STUDIES WHERE SPLACE = 'PENTAFOUR'. 4. 24.' || PNAME || ' . all 11. sal = 11000. How many programmers know either C or Pascal? 21.has ' || TRUNC (MONTHS_BETWEEN (SYSDATE. CCOST (NUMBER) Table 2 : SOFTWARE PNAME (VARCHAR).

COUNT(EMPNO) "NO. 14. 5. 15.DEPTNO = F. Write a correlated sub-query to list out the employees who earn more than the average salary of their department. 3. 13. 4. . HIREDATE). 14.EMPNO. SELECT ENAME. KEYS: 1. 15.15) "RECENTLY HIRED" FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE != (SELECT MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP). MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB. 12. SAL FROM EMP A WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT(SAL)) FROM EMP B WHERE A. OF EMPLOYEES" FROM EMP GROUP BY TO_CHAR(HIREDATE. HIREDATE.DEPTNO). SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO IN (SELECT DEPTNO FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO HAVING COUNT(EMPNO)>10 AND DEPTNO=10). 2.MGR. that already exist) in the EMP table.SAL FROM EMP E WHERE SAL > (SELECT AVG(SAL) FROM EMP F WHERE E.SAL<=B.'YYYY') "YEAR". 8.3. 6. which are inserted. List all the employees who do not manage any one. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE EMPNO IN ( SELECT EMPNO FROM EMP MINUS SELECT MGR FROM EMP).ENAME "EMPLOYEE". MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO). SELECT A. 7.SAL). Write a query to display a ‘*’ against the row of the most recently hired employee. SELECT ENAME "EMPLOYEE". LPAD('*'.ENAME) FROM EMP A. SELECT * FROM EMP A WHERE A. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE (DEPTNO. 8. 6.0)))) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO). 13. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL > ( SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING JOB = 'MANAGER' ). 12. SELECT JOB. B. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL > ( SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO HAVING DEPTNO=20). SELECT ENAME. SELECT ENAME. SELECT DEPTNO. 10. List the details of the employee earning more than the highest paid manager. EMP B WHERE A.MGR=B. or SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE EMPNO IN (SELECT MGR FROM EMP). 4.EMPNO = B.15) "COMPENSATION" FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO HAVING SUM( 12*(SAL+NVL(COMM.0))). HIREDATE. EMP B WHERE A. 5. 11. SELECT TO_CHAR(HIREDATE. List the employee details whose salary is greater than the lowest salary of an employee belonging to deptno 20. 10. SELECT DISTINCT(A. List the name of the employees with their immediate higher authority.ENAME "REPORTS TO" FROM EMP A. 9.TO_CHAR(TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE. Find the nth maximum salary. Write a query to list the length of service of the employees (of the form n years and m months). 7.EMPNO IN (SELECT EMPNO FROM EMP GROUP BY EMPNO HAVING COUNT(EMPNO)>1) AND A. List the highest salary paid for each job. Select the duplicate records (Records. 9. In which year did most people join the company? Display the year and the number of employees. Find the most recently hired employee in each department.'YYYY') HAVING COUNT(EMPNO) = (SELECT MAX(COUNT(EMPNO)) FROM EMP GROUP BY TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.12)))||' MONTHS ' “LENGTH OF SERVICE" FROM EMP. LPAD(SUM(12*(SAL+NVL(COMM. "RECENTLY HIRED" FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE = (SELECT MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP) UNION SELECT ENAME NAME.HIREDATE)/12))||' YEARS '|| TO_CHAR(TRUNC(MOD(MONTHS_BETWEEN (SYSDATE.0))) = (SELECT MAX(SUM(12*(SAL+NVL(COMM. LPAD(' '.'YYYY')). HIREDATE) IN (SELECT DEPTNO.ROWID!=MIN (ROWID)). Which department has the highest annual remuneration bill? 11.

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