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SOLIDS CONTROL & WASTE MANAGEMENT
4th EDITION Published by Brandt / EPI ™
1st Edition © 1982 2nd Edition © 1985 3rd Edition © 1995 4th Edition © 1996
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the U.S.A.
This Handbook was written by the Technical Services staff of Brandt/EPI to provide a basic understanding of effective mechanical removal of drilled solids and management of drilling wastes. Based on sound theoretical concepts, this Handbook is a practical working tool. It is designed for use by anyone needing to optimize drilling efficiency: drilling engineers, supervisors, tool pushers, mud engineers, derrick hands, service personnel and others. This 4th edition of the Handbook provides updated sections on equipment and techniques, and includes new information on waste processing systems, including downhole injection, solidification/ stabilization, water clarification, and other site remediation techniques. We would appreciate any suggestions for improving future editions of the Handbook. Please address your comments to: Brandt/EPI Technical Group P.O. Box 2327 Conroe, TX 77305 TEL: FAX: (713) 756-4800 (713) 756-8102
Thanks, Mike Montgomery Manager, Technical Group Brandt/EPI
...................................................................7 LCM-2D Mud Conditioner ...............................................................................1 4......1..................2 3.......10 3............................................3 ATL-1000 ...3.......................5 3.........38 Auxiliary Equipment.............................................2 Products and Services ........8 iii ..................................................................1.......3.........1 1................................................................7 Tandem Screen Separator ..................................4 ATL-CS................................................4......1 Company Profile....43 Unitized Systems....................14 Mud Cleaners/Conditioners..............51 2..............................3 LCM-2D ........1 3..............29 Hydrocyclones ...............................................4...............................................................3................2 4.......................................................4.............................................5 Linear Motion Shakers.............49 High Efficiency Solids Removal Systems....................11 3...................4..............1 4..........12 3..................................................................................................4 LCM-2D/CM2 .......................................................................................................................................4 Functions of Drilling Mud ...........................................1 3...................................6 ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner ....4............................14 3...........1.....................................................5 ATL Drying Shaker.......................................4........................2............................................2 Business Relationship............0 DRILLING MUD AND MUD SOLIDS ......................................................3.....................33 Desilters..........................................................................2 Properties of Drilling Mud ........4.......................................................5 SDW-25 Drying Shaker..................................................................................................3....3..................3..........4...........................................6 3....................21 Separation by Settling and Centrifugal Force.......3 Certification.........................................................0 BENEFITS OF SOLIDS REMOVAL BY MECHANICAL SEPARATION ..............1............................................................................................................................3........4............3 3................................................................4...........3...........................................................8 Reduced Total Solids ..............TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1..............1 4.........................30 Desanders................................................................4.48 Rig Enhanced Systems....1 2...........3.............13 3....1 2.........................2.......9 3.............................7 Standard Screen Separator .....4..0 MECHANICAL SOLIDS CONTROL AND RELATED EQUIPMENT ................4.....1 Scope of Services..................................................4 3.............................................................4.2 1...............................................3.......6 Orbital Motion Screen Separators ............8 Mud Cleaners ...................................................7 3...........................50 Basic Arrangement Guidelines.................................................................4..................................................4 Types of Drilling Muds.........................4...................35 Decanting Centrifuge..3....2.................3 ATL-1200 .............4.............3....3 Separation by Vibratory Screening ......1..2 Particle Classification and Cut Point.............................................................8 3.......................4..........0 BRANDT/EPI™ PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ..28 Sand Trap ...........................................4............................7 4.....................................................................2 3............................................................................................................................................................................4 Personnel Resources...................................................................3 1..........3..........1 Reduced Dilution Requirements ...................................1 The Nature of Drilled Solids ......1 1...............4............3................3...................1 4.............4...............................15 4....6 Shale Shakers ..................6 ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner......................................4........................................
.................................................................................................................................................................9 PT Screen Panels ..17 Remediation Management Services .............................................................................11 SC-1 Decanting Centrifuge ................................................................................17 Technical & Engineering Services......................4..............1 Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge.........................4........C..C.....4..C.........................................................................................................................................................................15 Mud Agitators...........13 Dewatering Units ...............5 Solids Control Performance Evaluation ...............14 Vacuum Degassers..........1 Density of Common Materials .................4.............................................................................................................4...........6 Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency ...................................4.................D.......4.....................................4....................................4.......10 Mud Engineering Data Conversion Constants and Formulas........11 Centrifuges .......4...............B............C.............................4...............................................D.......................D.................15 4.....................................................................................................................12 HS 3400 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge ...............11 4...4................4.................4..D.4.............................10 Hook-Strip Screen Panels...........................C...3 Selecting Size and Number of Agitators ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................11 SC-4 Decanting Centrifuge .....14 4..4..................10 Desanders...18 APPENDICES Glossary ..................4...........................D.................9 Pinnacle™ Screen Panels .B.................................A..............................4......15 Integrated Systems...............7 4.....................4....................................9 4.4........7 Brandt/EPI™ Sales & Service Locations ..................................................................13 Roto-Sep Perforated Rotor Centrifuge .4....................12 4..4....2 Mud Solids Calculations Standard Calculations.......................2 Hole Capacities .............................................................4.....10 Hydrocyclone Units .........................................6 Equipment Selection Pre-well Project Checklist...........1 Screen Cloth Comparisons .......4...............................B..........................12 HS 5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge ................................................................................................4................................13 4.......................................................................................................................................................9 BlueHexSM 3HX Screen Panels ..............................................................17 Trenchless Technology Processing Systems..................................4.8 iv ...............................16 Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing Systems.................4.......................................................................17 Live Oil Systems...............................................................................4 Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge ....................................8 4...............................................................................2 Brandt/EPI Equipment Specifications.......16 4...17 Screen Panels...............4....................................................................................................10 Desilters..........5 Solids Content Chart ..................................................B.................................................................................................3 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates ............................................................................................................C.......................16 Closed Loop Processing Systems ..........10 4..........................12 SC 35HS High Speed Decanting Centrifuge.....................14 Filtration Units ..15 Portable Rig Blowers ..4 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates............................................................................................B.....................................................................
Drilling mud protects and supports the walls of the wellbore. Allow removal of cuttings by the surface system. any discussion of solids control would be incomplete without establishing an understanding of the nature of mud solids — their size. Suspend cuttings while circulation is interrupted (e. Similarly. Among these are: 1. Support the wall of the hole. during trips). Drilling mud moves the formations’ solids cut by the drill bit from the bottom of the hole to the surface. 3. a brief outline of the general characteristics of drilling mud is included to establish the basic relationships between drilling mud and solids control. 10.1. 1.1 Mud is the common name for drilling fluid. While it is outside the scope of this handbook to offer a detailed discussion of drilling fluids. Transmit hydraulic horsepower to the bit. thus reducing the potential for costly blowouts. 5. shape and composition. The mud has a plastering effect on the walls of the hole and helps prevent the walls from caving in. 9. 2. electric logs. 4.. Carry the drilled solids from the bottom of the hole to the surface. 7. Secure accurate information from the well (cuttings samples. the following are generally considered most important: 1. 3.1 FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID The mud system in a drilling operation performs many important functions. Removal of cuttings from the wellbore is essential in order to continue drilling. causing an enlarged hole or leading to stuck pipe.g. Drilling mud must withstand the pressure exerted by the formations exposed in the hole. etc. 6.). Help support the weight of the drill string. oil and water that are exposed while drilling.0 DRILLING MUD AND MUD SOLIDS 8. Clean beneath the bit. 2. 1. Control pressure within the formation being drilled. Cool the bit and lubricate the drill string. Of the ten functions listed. The pressure exerted by the mud against the formations helps the driller control the pressure created by the gas. .
Drilling mud cools the bit and lubricates the drill string.2 Although individual mud solids can range in size from less than one micron to larger than a human fist. ITEM Cement Dust (Portland) Talcum Powder Red Blood Corpuscles Finger Tip Sensitivity Human Sight Human Hair Cigarette (diameter) One inch DIAMETER IN MICRONS 3-100 µ 5-50 µ 7. This new terminology has not yet. The unit of measurement generally used to describe particle size is the micron (µ). silt or clay content. This content is important to remember because solids control practices will affect the average particle size and the concentration of solids in specific size ranges which may greatly affect mud properties and drilling operations. but unfortunately not without introducing some element of confusion. material from the inside surface of the hole and materials that are added to control the chemical and physical properties of the mud. gained universal acceptance. recommended certain terminology for mud solids particle size in an attempt to minimize this confusion. Additional solids enter the well bore by sloughing from the sides of the open hole. too small to be seen with the human eye. or approximately 0.00003973 of an inch. 1.2 THE NATURE OF DRILLED SOLIDS Mud solids include particles that are drilled from the formation.400 µ Figure 1-1 Micron Size Range of Common Materials Drilling mud is obviously a major factor in the success of any drilling program. Figure 1-1 provides a list of common items and their size in microns. the average particle size is less than 35–40 microns. such as weight material. however. in API Bulletin 13C published in 1974. This function is important in drilling because it increases the useful life of bits and the drill string. These problems significantly increase drilling expense and time. The API Committee on Standardization of Drilling Fluid Materials. and the key to any effective mud system is good solids control. . To relate this unit of measurement in more familiar terms. sand. 1. Drilled solids’ particles are created by the crushing and chipping action of rotary drill bits.4. A micron is one thousandth (0. Mud solids may be conveniently grouped according to micron size range. Note: The various sizes of solids particles in a particular drilling mud are referred to as the mud’s cuttings.001) of a millimeter.5 µ 20 µ 35-40 µ 30-200 µ 7520 µ 25.
are generally harder and more abrasive than barite. Figure 1-3 illustrates the degradation of drilled solids in a mud system. needle shaped. Specific surface area. limestone. as it relates 1. which are not as hard as most drilled solids. To be destructive. particles must be sharper and harder than the material they are to abrade. are generally less abrasive than similarly-sized drilled solids.6. silt and clay (or colloidal size) will be used throughout this handbook. shale or other formations. as they are the most readily recognized in the field. These terms will refer to size classification only. Barite particles. cuttings. etc.3 . Other weighting materials.The more commonly used classifications shown in Figure 1-2. CLASSIFICATION Cuttings Sand Silt Clay PARTICLE SIZE (Diameter in Microns) Larger than 500 µ 74-500 µ 2-74 µ Smaller than 2 µ Figure 1-2 Common Field Terminology of Particle Size Abrasiveness of mud solids is determined by particle shape and hardness. not to material composition. bentonite particles are grouped with clay (smaller than 2 microns). Most barite particles are in the same size group as silt (2–74 microns). platelets. cubic. It is important to note that commercial solids (such as barite or bentonite added for weight and viscosity) are also affected by solids control equipment. sand. Figure 1-3 Mechanical Degradation of Drilled Solids Particles smaller than 15–20 microns have much less abrasive effect on drilling equipment. but their classification in regard to solids control usually depends on particle size since their specific gravity is assumed to be approximately 2. The main body of the particle becomes less abrasive with wear as the most abrasive corners continue to degrade down through the silt size to approximately 15–20 microns. Drilled solids come in various shapes such as round. drilled solids particles are continuously reduced in size by abrasion with other particles and by the grinding action of the drill pipe. such as hematite. according to size. Note: Drilled solids can originate from sand. From the time they enter the well until they reach the surface.
0 µ 1.500 composed of clays that easily disperses into the mud produce relatively more viscosity increase and will have “wetter” separations in removal by equipment than formations that produce larger sized solids. the relative effect of the water coating increases.345 3. Formations DENSITY (MUD WEIGHT) Density is a measure of the weight of the mud in a given volume. most of which are measurable and are affected by solids control.0 µ 5.33 lbs/gal) and pressure gradient in psi/1000 ft (water = 433 psi/1000 ft) or pounds per cubic foot (water = 62.725 17. Figure 1-4 lists examples that show surface area greatly increases per unit of mass: 1) as particle size decreases. 160 117.0 µ 0.3 of this Handbook. the greater is the viscosity. The higher the relative specific surface area. Bentonite disperses easily into colloidal solids and also absorbs much more water than most solids types.1 µ 0. As the particle size decreases toward the colloidal size.435 11. and is frequently referred to as mud weight. the more water adsorbed. The more surface area.1 µ Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz SQUARE FEET PER POUND 2.4 . Figure 1-5 Effect of Specific Surface Area on Viscosity 1. The instrument consists of a constant volume cup with a lever arm and rider calibrated to read directly the density of the fluid in lbs/gal (water = 8. is another important concept. EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL PARTICLE DIAMETER TYPE (Microns) PARTICLES 5. and 2) as particles become less spherical in shape. Surface area adsorbs or “ties-up” water. as Figure 1-5 illustrates.3 PROPERTIES OF DRILLING MUD The ability of a drilling fluid to perform its functions depends on various properties of the mud. Specific surface area refers to the surface area per unit of weight or volume. The instrument used to measure density is the mud balance (see Figure 1-6).250 171. Figure 1-4 Effect of Particle Size and Shape on Surface Area 1.4 lbs/ft). The specific surface area has a pronounced effect on viscosity. Hence bentonite builds viscosity at relatively low concentrations.0 µ 1. Viscosity and other mud properties are discussed in Section 1.to various shapes and sizes of solids.
The solids are 2. Low gravity solids have an average specific gravity of 2. its viscosity.5. The person measuring the viscosity fills the funnel with a sample of mud and allows it to VISCOSITY Viscosity measures the mud’s resistance to flow as a liquid and is one of the key physical properties of mud. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.0.6 times the weight of the same volume of water.Figure 1-6 Mud Balance The density of the mud is related to the specific gravity of the fluid. A material twice as dense as water would have a specific gravity of 2. Increasing the amount of solids or exposed surface area in a mud increases its resistance to flow as a liquid and therefore increases Figure 1-7 Marsh Funnel and Cup 1.6. Viscosity is routinely measured with a Marsh Funnel and Mud Cup at the drilling site (see Figure 1-7). A material half as dense as water would have a specific gravity of 0.0.5 . Specific gravity is the ratio of a materials density to the density of water.
funnel viscosity is recorded in seconds per thousand ccs or seconds per liter. Gel strength is also measured with a viscometer and expressed in lbs/100 ft 2 . that is. Internationally. gel strength is sometimes measured in dynes/cm2. Typically. In practical terms. YIELD POINT Yield point is the part of flow resistance that measures the positive and negative inter-particle. gel strengths are reported for initial and 10-second gel strength. For example. Internationally. forces within a mud. GEL STRENGTH Gel Str ength is a function of a mud’s inter particle forces and gives an indication of the amount of gelation that will occur after circulation ceases and the mud remains static for a period of time. shape. as the amount of drilled solids in a mud increases. Internationally. Yield point is measured with a viscometer and expressed in lbs/100 ft 2. and number of particles. plastic viscosity depends on the size. PLASTIC VISCOSITY A mud’s Plastic Viscosity is the portion of a mud’s flow resistance caused by the mechanical friction between the suspended particles and by the viscosity of the continuous liquid phase. or attractive. gelation structures that gain strength over time.rotational viscometer (Figure 1-8) and is expressed in centipoise (grams per centimeter-second). Plastic viscosity is measured with a SOLIDS CONTENT The solids content is the volume percentage of the total solids in the 1. yield point is sometimes measured in dynes/cm2. the plastic viscosity also increases. The funnel viscosity recorded is in seconds per quart.6 . Figure 1-8 Rotational Viscometer (VG Meter) flow through the tip of the funnel container while measuring the time in seconds that it takes to fill the mud cup to the one quart level. A large deviation of these two figures may indicate progressive gels.
7 SAND Sand is any particle larger than 74 . The filter cake builds up a barrier and reduces the amount of the liquid that enters the formation and is lost from the mud. Some formations allow the liquid in the mud to seep into them. Therefore. The amount of solids that does not pass through the screen is measured as percentage by volume and is recorded as perFigure 1-10 cent sand. Sand Content Set FILTRATION Filtration and wall-cake building are actions that the drilling mud carries out through and on the walls of the hole. the low gravity solids can be determined without a retort by weighing the mud and referring to a solids content chart. leaving a layer of mud solids on the wall of the hole. the sand content of a mud is simply the amount of solids too large to pass through a US Test Sieve 200-mesh screen. If the mud does not contain oil or weight material. such as barite or hematite. This is determined with a sand content set (see Figure 1-10) by washing a measured amount of mud through the 200-mesh screen in the kit. To determine the solids content of a mud containing weight material. This process is referred to as filtration. The difference is the percentage of solids by volume contained in the drilling mud and is recorded as percentage solids. 1. a mud container in the retort is filled with a measured volume of mud (see Figure 1-9). The mud is then heated to boil off the liquid. or fluid loss. microns when referring to solids control separation. The total solids from the retort and mud weight are used to calculate the low and high gravity solids content.Figure 1-9 Retort (Mud Still) mud. This layer of mud solids is called filter cake or wall-cake. The instrument used to measure the fluid loss due to filtration is a filter press (see Figure 1-11). The percentage of the liquid distilled off is measured in a glass cylinder and subtracted from 100%.
and other properties that affect drilling mud performance. alkalinity. precipitate. including measurements of pH. Examination of the filter paper will indicate how the solids will plaster the wall of the hole and affect fluid loss. Some of these chemical properties can be controlled through various mud additives that thicken. calcium 1. salt content. The mud filtration property is recorded in units of cubic centimeters (ccs) or milliliters (ml) per 30 minutes. chlorides. and as “weighted” or “unweighted” muds. it makes dispersants more effective and reduces corrosion.8 . emulsify. The person using the filter press places a mud sample in the instrument on top of a piece of filter paper and brings the pressure up to 100 pounds per square inch. and water is commonly available in most places. disperse. expense is usually reasonable. The amount of fluid flowing from the sample in 30 minutes is measured in milliliters. Oil-base Mud contains either natural oil or synthetic oil as the continuous liquid phase and is used for maximum hole protection. For example. Oilbase mud and synthetic oil mud are usually much more expensive than water-base mud and therefore are only used when there is a specific CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Chemical Properties is a broad category. thin.Figure 1-11 Filter Press content. caustic soda can be added to some saltwater mud in order to maintain a high pH level. 1.4 TYPES OF DRILLING MUDS Drilling fluids are generally categorized as “water-base” or “oilbase”. Water-base Muds contain water as the liquid phase and are used to drill most of the wells in the world because they are relatively simple. The cake thickness is recorded in units of 1/32s of an inch. lubricate or otherwise adjust the mud depending on specific drilling needs. Chemical changes such as these are used to fine tune drilling muds.
System recommendations for specific applications are covered in detail in Chapter 4. Chemically-Treated Mud 1. 5. It may contain some commercial clay. Weighted Mud refers to any mud which has barite or barite substitutes added to increase density. These muds normally have a density greater than 10. Water-Base Mud (WBM) A. the loss of fluids along with the drilled solids may be economically insignificant. Either water-base or oil-base mud can be used as “weighted” mud. Solids control techniques will vary considerably depending on the type of mud being used. Saltwater Mud 1. Unweighted Mud refers to any mud which has not had barite added. such as to keep the hole from swelling or caving in. The solids in weighted mud consist of drilled solids from the hole. Lightly Treated Chemical Mud Highly Treated Chemical Mud Low Solids Mud Polymer Mud Calcium Treated Mud Sea Water Mud Saturated Salt Mud D. Oil-Base Mud (OBM) A. The solids in unweighted mud consist of drilled solids from the hole.0 lbs/gal. made up of water and natural solids from the formation being drilled. sophisticated solids control techniques must be utilized to minimize overall costs. plus commercial clays. II. Here is a list of the most common mud types.0 lbs/gal. allowing simple solids control techniques. In addition. or to reduce friction and prevent stuck pipe in very crooked or high angle holes. environmental costs of haul-off and disposal may require sophisticated solids control techniques. This mud type normally has a density of less than 10. plus barite. with many unweighted water-base muds. followed by a brief description of each type: I. 4. “True” Oil Base B. 1. Spud mud is usually an unweighted water-base mud. Synthetic (SBM) SPUD MUD Spud Mud is used to start the drilling of a well and continues to be used while drilling the first few hundred feet of hole. 2.need. 3. Natural mud C. plus commercial clays added to control fluid loss and viscosity. especially oil-base mud. Invert Emulsion C. 2. In the case of mud that contains expensive chemical additives and/or barite. added to increase viscosity and improve wall-cake building properties. Spud Mud B. For example.9 .
Low solids muds are usually expensive to maintain because the solids. Lightly Treated Chemical Mud is usually unweighted water-base mud. water-base mud that contains larger amounts of chemicals. It is absolutely essential that all solids removal equipment operate at maximum effectiveness in order to maintain the desired low level of solids at a reasonable cost.NATURAL MUD Natural Mud (sometimes called “native” mud) is usually unweighted water-base mud which contains mostly drilled solids. the lower the solids content in the mud. such as sloughing or caving of the walls of the hole.10 erties. chemical. and density. Often. Of all the water-base mud types. Highly Treated Chemical Mud is usually weighted. Some bentonite and small amounts of chemicals may be used to improve filter cake quality and help prevent hole problems. Chemical muds are often treated with lignosulfonates or lignite and are therefore commonly called “lignosulfonate mud” or “lignite” mud. It is used where minor hole problems are expected. polymers. Polymers are very expensive and . Bentonite is usually added to help control viscosity and fluid loss. in order to prevent these problems. and barite to maintain strict control of viscosity. designed to control viscosity and fluid loss. Barite (weight material) may be added to increase density. As mud density is increased and potential hole problems (such as stuck drill pipe) become more of a risk. Generally speaking. These muds are used where moderate to severe hole problems are expected or high down-hole pressures occur. these are the most expensive to maintain. bentonite. Low Solids Muds are water-base mud containing less than ten percent (10%) drilled solids. fluid loss. natural mud is used to drill the first few thousand feet of hole. This mud is used where more severe hole problems are expected. chemical prop1. and fluid loss properties have to be kept very close to prescribed levels. the removal of drilled solids by mechanical solids control equipment becomes increasingly important. Polymer Muds are special types of low solids mud which contain synthetic materials. where only minor hole problems are expected. CHEMICALLY TREATED MUD Chemically Treated Mud is waterbase mud which contains chemicals to control physical and chemical properties. This mud is often the next mud type used after spud mud. 1–5% is a normal range. additives. the faster the bit will drill.
which have lime or gypsum added. Fresh water may be used to clean the screens. This mud type is often used to drill through salt formations so the fluid will not dissolve the salt formation. 1. Calcium Treated Muds are normally used to prevent shale type formations from swelling or sloughing – problems which could lead to stuck pipe or a ruined hole. greatly enlarged holes would result.often difficult to screen when a high viscosity fluid is used. only sea water is used for dilution. especially in shale type formations. An invert mud can be formulated with mineral oil or other low environmental risk oil substitutes when needed. If fresh water mud is used. They may be weighted or unweighted. They may be weighted or unweighted. Calcium Treated Muds are special water-base muds.11 . When sea water mud is being used. “TRUE” OIL-BASE MUD “True” Oil-base Mud contains a liquid phase with ninety to ninetyfive percent (90–95%) diesel oil and five to ten percent (5–10%) water emulsified within the oil. “True” oil-base muds provide good hole protection. These muds are used offshore and in bay areas where fresh water is not readily available. It is important to be aware of the use of salt mud because screen INVERT EMULSION MUD Invert Emulsion Mud is oil-base mud in which the liquid phase is sixty to ninety percent (60–90%) diesel oil with ten to forty percent (10–40%) water emulsified within the oil. SALTWATER MUD Saltwater Muds contain a high concentration of salt. Sea Water Muds contain sea water as the continuous phase and. Invert emulsion muds provide good hole protection and are the most commonly used oil mud. and also increase drill string lubrication. Saturated Salt Muds (sometimes called brine fluids) contain as much salt as can be dissolved in the water phase. water and chemicals are used together to control viscosity and fluid loss. usually. usually leading to hole trouble. usually weighted. only sea water should be used to rinse or wash the screens in solids control equipment. These muds often use asphaltic type materials suspended in the liquid for controlling viscosity and fluid loss. blinding can occur when salt dries and cakes on the solids control equipment. In this mud. but it must be used very carefully because too much fresh water can upset the chemical balance of this mud.
SBMs share several advantages with traditional oil-base muds. straight internal olefins (IO). and other additives to produce a stable. and reduced eye and respiratory irritation. describes any oil-base mud that has a synthesized liquid base.. vegetable oils. Currently. and ethers. $200–400 /bbl. SBMs are expensive. offshore environmental requirements and may be discharged under WBM protocols. SBMs also provide additional health and safety benefits — higher flash points. Some common synthetic base fluids include linear alphaolefins (LAO). The major benefit of SBMs over traditional OBMs is the reduced environmental impact of cuttings and liquid mud. SBMs and cuttings meet U. good hole cleaning. polyalphaolefins (PAO). This base fluid is then combined with viscosifiers. and reduced torque. esters.SYNTHETIC OIL MUDS The term “Synthetic-Based Mud”. depending on the oil/water ratio. including excellent wellbore stability. and to control mud maintenance costs.S. useful drilling fluid. excellent cuttings integrity. Proper solids removal and liquid recovery techniques must be used to maintain desired fluid properties and drilling rate. or SBM. improved drilling rates. weighting material. 1.12 . The alternatives to mechanical solids control — dilution and whole SBM additions — are prohibitively expensive when compared to the cost of proper solids control equipment. lower vapor production.
and lost returns. hydraulics. it is almost always less expensive than trying to combat them with chemicals and dilution. 2. However. drilling rates. The volume and type of solids present in drilling mud exert a considerable influence over mud treating costs. . thereby reducing overall drilling costs. kicks. can decrease drilling efficiency due to lost time for pump repairs.1 INTRODUCTION Of all the problems that could conceivably occur during the drilling of a well. The higher the drilled solids content. The greatest impact of the solids is seen in reduced ROP. If mud solids are not properly controlled. Continued recirculation of drilled solids produces serious mud problems because recirculated solids will gradually be reduced in size. drillers have been trying to combat high solids content through the use of settling pits. the lower the penetration rate.2. The benefits of solids removal by mechanical separation can best be seen in terms of two outcomes: 1) reduced total mud solids and 2) reduced dilution requirements. on every well. and the possibility of differential sticking. the mud’s density can increase above its desired weight and the mud can get so thick that it becomes extremely difficult or even impossible to pump. If drilled solids can be removed mechanically. The smaller the solids become. The primary reason for using mechanical solids control equipment is to remove unwanted drilled solids particles from the mud in order to prevent drilling problems and reduce mud and waste costs.0 BENEFITS OF SOLIDS REMOVAL BY MECHANICAL SEPARATION 2. every day. Drilled solids decrease the life of a mud pump’s parts and thus. Solids control is one of the most important phases of mud control — it is a constant issue. mud contamination from drilled solids is a certainty. These solids adversely affect the performance characteristics of the mud and can lead to a multitude of costly hole problems.1 REDUCED TOTAL SOLIDS The presence of large amounts of drilled solids in a drilling mud usually spells trouble for the drilling operation. the more they negatively influence mud properties and hydraulic performance. Since the earliest days of the oilfield.
in turn results in larger particles also remaining in suspension. the greater the dilution required. Every barrel of dilution water (or oil) added requires an additional amount of chemicals.some drilled solids are so finely ground that they tend to remain in suspension.2 REDUCED DILUTION REQUIREMENTS A common method of trying to offset the build-up of drilled solids is the addition of more liquid. However. It should be noted that chemical treatment alone will ultimately result in high solids content and uncontrollable mud properties. barite or other materials in order to maintain desired mud properties. Thus the driller. oil must be used for dilution — which can become extremely expensive. A variety of devices (which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3 of this handbook) are available which mechanically separate the solids particles from the liquid phase of the mud. Effective solids control permits viscosity and density to be kept within desired levels. The lower the drilled solids content to be maintained. depending on the particular situation and equipment used. dramatically increases the life of pump parts and drill bits. can regulate to a fine degree the amount and size of solids particles that are removed or maintained in any given drilling mud. Effective solids removal by mechanical separation can maintain a minimum solids level in drilling . In the case of an oil-base mud.2 2. it is important to note that dilution is expensive. This results in increased mud viscosity and gel strength which. Such control of mud solids through mechanical separation allows the mud to perform its drilling-related functions and avoids the downhole problems caused by excessive solids contamination. and promotes faster penetration — all of which decrease the time and expense of drilling. Thus. thereby reducing the percent of total solids in the mud. Solids control equipment was developed in order to more effectively remove unwanted solids from drilling mud. This is known as dilution and does not remove cuttings but reduces (or dilutes) their concentration in a drilling mud. the approach of removing cuttings through settling alone is of limited practical value. The most effective approach is to use mechanical solids control equipment to remove as much of the drilled solids as possible before they are incorporated into the mud system and then treat what is left with appropriate amounts of chemicals and dilution. 2.
The same procedure can be used to show reduced dilution requirement in weighted mud. drilling usually proceeds more slowly and less drilled solids are removed per hour.1 9.5 8.7 8. $440 per hour adds up to a very significant cost savings.8 9.5 9.5 4.2 9.7 9.3 .0 8. For example.2 8.2 2. suppose a drilling engineer required that no more than 5% solids were to be maintained in an unweighted mud. However. If solids control equipment were removing 1 ton (2000 lbs) of solids per hour.4 10. the mud treating costs would be reduced by approximately $440 per hour! Over the life of a drilling operation.7 12. each barrel of mud would contain about 45 pounds of drilled solids.0 9.7 9. if the solids control equipment were removing even a pencil-sized stream of solids which would amount to 44 pounds per POUNDS OF 2.9 9.mud and greatly reduce the need for dilution.6 8. then the equipment would save 2000 ÷ MUD WEIGHT (LBS/GAL) TO BE MAINTAINED 8.7 3.4 7. When heavily — weighted muds (16–18 lbs/gal) are being used. if approximately 5% drilled solids are allowed in the mud.2 5.6 9.3 9.0 DRILLED SOLIDS PERCENT BY VOLUME 1.4 9. If the chemicals and additives were worth only $10 per barrel.6 SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS PER BARREL OF MUD 11 18 25 32 38 45 52 59 66 73 79 86 93 100 107 114 BBLS OF WATER REQUIRED TO DILUTE 1 TON SOLIDS AND MAINTAIN MUD WEIGHT 182 111 80 63 53 44 38 34 30 27 25 23 22 20 19 18 Figure 2-1 Dilution Ratio Chart 2.9 10.8 8.4 45 = 44 barrels of dilution per hour. then each barrel of mud still contains roughly 44 pounds of drilled solids. These materials are expensive — mud costs can be 10% of the total cost of drilling a well. Therefore.7 6.0 11. The chart shows that at 5%.0 2.2 11. The Dilution Ratio Chart (Figure 2-1) can be used indirectly to approximate the amount of dilution that can be eliminated by use of solids removal equipment.0 5. Reducing the need to dilute the mud can drastically decrease the cost of having to purchase mud products such as weight material (barite) and chemicals.
Heavy reliance on dilution to control solids content can result in the addition of so much extra liquid that the volume of mud exceeds the capacity of the active mud pits. If properly used. With the high cost weighted mud (usually a minimum of $30 per barrel). If the maximum amount of drilled solids were reduced to 3%. Over an average operation of 20 hours per day. Solids removal by mechanical separation can achieve the benefits of low solids content and at the same time significantly reduce the many costs associated with dilution. Oil is obviously much more costly than water. The expense of the dilution liquid is a major factor in considering the advantages of reduced dilution requirements. In such a system the liquid phase can be recycled — which can be critical in special applications such as when using oil-base or polymer muds. the solids removal equipment would be saving at least $30 per hour. When this happens.4 discarding of excess mud. Instead of throwing away valuable mud additives. The disposal of “waste” mud can also be a significant factor in overall dilution costs. the cost savings would double to approximately $1200 per day. In these cases the cost of hauling the liquid waste away for disposal is also avoided.hour. these can be salvaged and returned to the active mud system. then 44 ÷ 44 = 1 barrel of dilution saved per hour. whole mud (including all of the expensive additives) must be discarded into waste or reserve pits. The size of the active and waste pits themselves can be reduced due to smaller capacity requirements. especially offshore. solids control equipment can virtually eliminate waste liquid mud through a “closed mud system”. but water also can be expensive if it has to be trucked into a remote drilling location. or where environmental concerns prohibit disposal of liquid waste materials. DRILLED SOLIDS . Appropriate use of solids control equipment in place of dilution lessens the volume of the mud system and can usually eliminate the 2. this represents a savings of approximately $600 per day.
Most solids control systems include several pieces of equipment connected in series. operated. To reach this goal. the better. Each stage of processing is partly dependent upon the previous equipment functioning correctly so as to allow the next stage to perform its role. a properly operating shale shaker or centrifuge typically removes 1 barrel or less of mud with each barrel of solids. 2) Efficiency of liquid conservation. Also to operate effectively. Both aspects should be considered. the higher the removal efficiency. The higher the solids fraction of the waste stream. Since the size of drilled solids varies greatly — from cuttings larger than one inch in diameter to sub-micron size — several types of equipment may be used depending upon the specific situation. The . 3.0 MECHANICAL SOLIDS CONTROL AND RELATED EQUIPMENT overall results of solids removal can be monitored by the use of flow meters to determine the actual mud volume built.1 INTRODUCTION The goal of modern solids control systems is to reduce overall well costs by prompt. The greater percentage of drilled solids removed. The efficiency of the solids control system can be evaluated by comparing the final volume of mud accumulated while using the equipment to the volume of mud that would result if drilled solids were controlled only by dilution. The fundamental purpose for solids removal equipment is just that — remove drilled solids. and maintained properly. The end result is reduced mud and waste disposal costs. each type of equipment must be sized. efficient removal of drilled solids while minimizing the loss of liquids. Most remaining equipment delivers a lesser degree of dryness than do the shakers or centrifuges. each piece of equipment will remove a portion of the solids. a desilter usually does well at removing solids but at the cost of significant losses of liquid. The efficiency of solids removal equipment and/or systems used can be evaluated in two ways: 1) Efficiency of drilled solids removal. either by screening or centrifugal force. For example. Each type of equipment is designed to economically separate particles of a particular size range from the liquid.3. By contrast. installed. sometimes 80% of the volume of the waste stream will be liquid.
Sometimes a screen is used below a hydrocyclone to “dry-out” the cone’s discharge to minimize the loss of fluid. On a weighted mud. The first piece of equipment used to separate the solids from the mud is usually a vibrating screen or series of screens. the equipment downstream will soon lose efficiency or fail completely. and hydrocyclones with a cone diameter of less than 6 inches are called desilters. The cuttings that are larger than the mesh openings are removed by the screen but carry an adhered film of mud. The final step may be to remove the ultrafine silt and clay-sized solids with the use of a decanting centrifuge. Equipment commonly utilized and the effective removal range for each are listed in Figure 3-1. If a location must be “pitless”.Should one piece of equipment fail. The second step is to remove the sand-sized.1 PARTICLE SIZE AND CUT POINT Modern drilling rigs may be equipped with many different types of mechanical solids removal devices depending on the application and requirements of a particular project.2 . two centrifuges may be used in series: the first to salvage barite. Hydrocyclones with a cone diameter of 6 to 12 inches are called desanders. The hydrocyclone and vibrating screen device is called a mud cleaner or mud conditioner. Each device has a specific function in the solids control process. The screen mesh should be sized to prevent excessive losses of whole mud over the end screen. These units should normally be sized to process 125% of the maximum flow rate used to drill. then the screens are essential to minimize the liquid waste volume. silt sized and larger clay particles that were not removed in the shakers by using hydrocyclones. the second to remove fine solids and reclaim the valuable liquid phase. 3. 3.
and density.3 . Mechanical solids control equipment classifies particles based on size. is given as a range of the particle size removed.Figure 3-1 Particle Diameter and Ideal Equipment Placement CUT POINT Notice the removal range. in the area labeled “A”. Particles to the right of the cut point curve. It is typical to refer to particles as being either larger than the cut point of a device (oversize) or smaller than the cut point (undersize). shape. rep3. The cut point curve represents the amount of solids of a given size that will be classified as either oversize or undersize. or Cut Point. Figure 3-2 shows a typical cut point curve.
Figure 3-2 Typical Cut Point Curve
resent the removed, oversize solids. Particles to the left of the curve, in the area labeled “B”, represent the undersize solids returned with the whole mud. Particular interest is given to three points along the cut point curve, the D50, the D16, and the D84. Given these three points, the removal characteristics of screens, hydrocyclones, or other devices can be compared. The D50, or median cut point, is the point where 50% of a certain size of solids in the feed stream will be classified as oversize and 50% as undersize. The D16 and D84 are the
points where 16% and 84%, respectively, of the solids in the feed stream will be classified as oversize. These two points are statistically significant because they are one standard deviation from the D50 in a normal distribution. An “ideal” classifier (the dashed line) would show very little difference between the D50, D16 and D84. Separation Efficiency is a measure of the D50 size relative to the number of undersize particles that are removed or oversize particles that are not removed. The higher the separation efficiency, the lower the
Figure 3-3 Separation Curve
false classification. An example will assist in understanding this concept. Figure 3-3 shows the cut point curves for two screens, each with the same D50. Curve No.1 is almost vertical with a small tail at each end. This results in a very sharp, distinct cut point. Almost all particles larger than the cut point are rejected, with very few undersize solids. Almost all particles smaller than the cut point are recovered, with very few oversize particles included. Curve No. 2 is an S-shaped curve with a large tail at each end. Even though the D50 is the same as for Curve No.1, the D16 and D84 are very
different. Many solids larger than the D50 are returned with the undersize solids and many solids smaller than the D50 are discarded with the oversize solids. If curves number 1 and 2 in Figure 3-3 illustrate typical removal gradients for two different types of oilfield shale shakers screens, we can draw conclusions about separation performance. The area between the curves marked “A” represents solids Screen No.1 removes and Screen No. 2 returns. Likewise, the area marked “B” represents solids recovered by Screen No.1, but discarded by Screen No. 2. This is not to say that Screen No.1
is “better” than Screen No. 2, or vice versa; it simply illustrates that two devices with similar “cut point” (as measured by the D50 alone) may perform very differently. As an example, consider solids removal from a weighted drilling fluid using vibrating screens. An effective solids control program for weighted mud should remove as many undesirable, sandsized solids as practical, while retaining most of the desirable, siltsized barite particles. Referring back to Figure 3-3, Screen No. 2 would return all the sand in area “A” that Screen No.1 would catch, and Screen No. 2 would remove the siltsize material in area “B” (including all weighting material) that Screen No.1 would recover. Therefore, in a weighted mud, Screen No. 2 would not perform as well as Screen No.1. Further, if the area to the right of both curves (representing total mass solids removal) were calculated, Screen No.1 could prove superior in terms of mass solids removal. As shown by this example, it is important to view “cut point” as a continuous curve, rather than a single point. This concept is equally true with screens, hydrocyclones, centrifuges, or any other separation equipment — the relative slope and shape of the cut point curve are more important than a single point on the curve.
3.2 SEPARATION BY SCREENING
One method of removing solids from drilling mud is to pass the mud onto the surface of a vibrating screen. Particles smaller than the openings in the screen pass through the holes of the screen along with the liquid phase of the mud. Particles too large to pass through the screen are thereby separated from the mud for disposal. Basically, a screen acts as a “go–no go” gauge: Either a particle is small enough to pass through the screen opening or it is not. The purpose of vibrating the screen in solids control equipment is to transport the cuttings off the screen and increase the liquid handling capacity of the screen. This vibrating action causes rapid separation of whole mud from the oversized solids, reducing the amount of mud lost with the solids. For maximum efficiency, the solids on the screen surface must travel in a predetermined pattern — spiral, elliptical, orbital or linear motion — in order to increase particle separation efficiency and reduce blockage of the screen openings. The combined effect of the vibration and the screen surfaces result in the separation and removal of oversized particles from drilling mud.
or tensioned. usually of different mesh (reinforced by coarser backing cloth). mounted on a screen panel. Layered screens have two or more fine mesh screen cloths.SCREENING SURFACES Screening surfaces used in solids control equipment are generally made of woven wire screen cloth. Figure 3-4 Pretensioned Screen Today. To increase screen life. and 2) Pre-tensioned screen panels. Most manufacturers limit themselves to one support grid opening 3. The pre-tensioned panel is then held in place in the bed of the shaker. The screen cloths are pulled tight. in both directions during the fabrication process for proper tension on every screen. Similar panels have been used on mud cleaners since their introduction. screen cloth (reinforced by coarser backing cloth) mounted on a screen panel. in many different sizes and shapes. This extra backing protects the fine screen from being damaged and provides additional support for heavy solids loads. With the advent of modern.7 . pre- tensioned screen panels have extended screen life and justified the use of 200-mesh screens at the flowline. These screens will have openings that vary greatly in size and shape. Screens may be constructed with one or more Layers. These screens will have openings that are regular in size and shape. especially in the 120–200 mesh range. fine screens may be reinforced with one or more coarse backing screens. The following characteristics of screen cloth are important in solids control applications. The cloth may also be bonded to a thin. The panels consist of a fine screen layer and a coarse backing cloth layer bonded to a support grid (Figure 3-4). manufacturers have incorporated two design changes: 1) A coarse backing screen to support fine meshes. linear-motion shakers. but earlier shakers did not possess the engineering design to allow their use successfully. finemesh. The screens equipped with a perforated plate may be available with several sizes options for the perforation to allow improved performance for a given situation. Non-layered screens have a single layer. The most important advance has been the development of pretensioned screen panels. perforated metal sheet.
Figure 3-5 Eight Mesh Screen SCREEN CLOTH There are several types of wire cloth used in the manufacture of oilfield screens. The most common of these are Market Grade and Tensile Bolting Cloth. Since screen Figure 3-6 Screen counter and Magnified View of Screen mesh 3. Both of these are square mesh weaves. Tensile bolting cloths use smaller diameter wire and have a higher Conductance. A screen counter is useful in determining screen mesh (see Figure 3-6). Mesh is defined as the number of openings per linear inch. depending on the application. Mesh can be measured by starting at the center of one wire and counting the number of openings to a point one inch away. Brandt / EPI™ provides screen panels with a variety of openings to allow rig personnel to choose the desired mechanical support and total open area (translating to more liquid flow).8 . differing in the diameter of wire used in their construction. The opening size is typically 1” for maximum mechanical support. Market grade cloths use larger diameter wires and are more resistant to abrasion and premature wear. Figure 3-5 shows a sample 8 mesh screen.size to reduce inventory and production costs.
For example. Figure 3-7 shows a screen with a 1/2 inch opening. the longer the screen cloth will last. normally the larger the diameter of the wire used in the weaving process. a 4 mesh screen made of thin wire has a greater percent of open area than a 4 mesh screen made of thick wire (see Figure 3-8).9 . in larger screen openings. The greater the wire diameter of a given mesh screen. it’s the size of the openings in a screen. Screens of the same mesh may have different sized openings depending on the diameter of the wire used to weave the screen cloth.072 Wire 50.Figure 3-7 One-half Inch Opening selection is a compromise between screen life. that determines the size of the particles separated by the screen. the smaller the particles that will pass through the screen. Smaller diameter wire results 4 Mesh: . not the mesh count. PERCENT OPEN AREA Percent Open Area is the amount of the screen surface which is not blocked by wire. both types are in wide use. liquid capacity.7% Open Area Figure 3-8 Percent of Open Area 4 Mesh: . The higher the percent of open area of a screen the greater its theoretical throughput. Also.2% Open Area 4 Mesh: .080 Wire 46. and particle separation.0% Open Area 3. Remember. Open area can OPENING SIZE Size of Opening is the distance between wires in the screen cloth and is usually measured in fractions of an inch or microns.063 Wire 56. with larger particles passing through the screen. the less open space between the wires. The larger the diameter of the wire.
much larger than the OBLONG MESH Figure 3-9 Shape of Opening 3. This is due to the random and wide variety of openings present. Screens with a different number of horizontal and vertical wires per inch produce SQUARE MESH oblong — or rectangular — shaped openings and are referred to as Rectangular (or Oblong) Mesh screens. For example. For example. Use of a single number in reference to a screen usually implies square mesh.10 . The higher the conductance of a screen. The choice of any particular screen cloth therefore involves a compromise between throughput and screen life. This screen has oblong openings measuring 1040 x 193 microns. Calculating the percent open area for layered screens is difficult and inaccurate. but at the sacrifice of screen life. SHAPE OF OPENING Shape of Opening is determined by the screen’s construction. a 60 x 20 screen has 60 openings per inch in one direction and 20 openings per inch in the other direction. Oblong mesh screens are generally labeled with two numbers. “20 mesh” usually identifies a screen with 20 openings per inch in either direction. Conductance of a screen is an experimental measure of the flow capacity of a screen. a 60 x 20 mesh screen is often called an “oblong 80” mesh.be increased for a given mesh by using smaller diameter wire. It has become common industrial practice to add the two dimensions of an oblong mesh screen and refer to the sum of the two numbers as the mesh of the screen. This is illustrated in Figure 3-9. Screens with the same number of horizontal and vertical wires per inch produce square-shaped openings and are referred to as Square Mesh screens. For example. the greater its flow capacity.
A coarser screen should be used only as a temporary solution until the particular formation responsible for near-size particle generation is passed. openings smaller than a “square 200” mesh screen (74 x 74 microns). Changing to a finer mesh screen often presents a better. In a similar fashion. is most frequently encountered on fine screen shakers.11 EQUIVALENT SCREEN MESH Screen manufacturers now compare different types of screen through charts. while present to some degree on rig shakers fitted with coarser screens.OBLONG MESH SQUARE MESH B-20 B-40 B-60 B-80 B-100 B-120 S-16 S-30 S-40 S-50 S-60 S-80 Figure 3-10 Equivalent Screen Sizes square openings of a “square 80” mesh screen (177 x 177 microns). SCREEN PLUGGING AND BLINDING Screen Plugging and Blinding. If the mesh openings plug with near-size particles or if the openings become coated over. These screens are referred to as “equivalent”. but the shape of the cut point curve discussed earlier is not as sharp or distinct. The “oblong 80” will allow much larger. more permanent solution. the actual opening size and shape of a layered screen is a combination of the multiple screen layers and will produce a wide variety of opening sizes and shapes. In actual field use. irregularly-shaped particles to pass through its openings than the 80 x 80 square mesh screen. such as the one shown in Figure 3-10. the conductance and screen life of the oblong mesh screens is noticeably higher than the equivalent square mesh screen. However. a layered screen will often be designated by a single number. the “layered 210” mesh screen will remove some solids smaller than 74 microns.g. The oblongmesh screens listed in the left-hand column remove similar sized solids as the square-mesh screens listed in the right-hand column. e. This implies a screen with . Screen blinding is caused by 3. Therefore. but sometimes requires changing screens to a coarser or finer mesh. the throughput capacity of the screen can be drastically reduced and flooding of the screen may occur. “layered 210” mesh. Plugging can often be controlled by adjusting the vibratory motion or deck angle. but will also allow some particles larger than 74 microns to pass through the screen openings.
usually associated with an increase in percent solids by volume and/or increase in mud weight. As a general rule. because of differences in operating characteristics. Mud Weight. Screen life can be maximized by following these general precautions: • Keep screens clean. • Do not operate shakers dry. mud type. the finer a screen’s mesh. This wash-down may simply be a high pressure water wash. Drilling rate affects screen capacity because increases in drilled solids loading reduce the effective screen area available for mud throughput. Higher viscosities generally associated with oil-base and invert emulsion mud usually result in lower screen throughput . Figure 3-11 shows the relationship of mud weight. weight and viscosity. screen mesh — all affect throughput to some degree. pipe dope or asphalt blinding). Drilling rate. Screen life of fine mesh screens varies widely from design to design. for every 10% increase in viscosity. varies widely depending on shaker model and drilling conditions. Stiff brushes should not be used to clean fine screens because of the fragile nature of fine mesh screen cloth. even under the best of conditions. bit type. a solvent (in the case of grease. • Handle screen carefully when installing. Increased viscosity. and screen mesh on shaker capacity. viscosity. SCREEN CAPACITY Screen Capacity. 3. has a markedly adverse effect on screen capacity. the lower its throughput.12 Figure 3-11 Shaker Capacity v. or the volume of mud which will pass through a screen without flooding. formation type. in general (but not always). The mesh of the screen in use is also directly related to shaker capacity because. • Keep screens properly tensioned. • Do not overload screens. or a mild acid soak (in the case of blinding caused by hard water). Viscosity. there is a 2–5% decrease in throughput capacity. and Screen Mesh Mud type also has an effect on screen capacity.sticky particles in viscous mud coating over the screen openings or by the evaporation of water from dissolved solids or from grease and requires a screen wash-down to cure.
increases cuttings dryness.13 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCREEN PANELS To increase screen capacity without increasing the size or number of shale shakers. As a result. most commonly dual or triple units. Past the fluid end point. The purpose for this practice is to provide standards for screen labeling of shale shaker screen cloths. Some mud components such as synthetic polymers also have an adverse effect on screen capacity. Multiple units. capacities on fine screen shakers can range from 50 to 800 GPM. a three-dimensional screen tends to “channel” the drilled solids and increases solids bed depth and the amount of liquid carried off the screen surface. in API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 13E (RP13E). MAY 1. Due to the many factors involved in drilling conditions.than would be possible with a waterbase mud of the same mud weight. with scalping shakers installed upstream from the fine screen shakers. The procedures recommended for labeling allow a direct comparison of separation potential. no fine mesh screen can offer a standard throughput for all operating conditions. similar to the surface of a pleated air filter or oil filter. STANDARDIZATION Standardization of screen cloth designations has been recommended by the API committee on Standardization of Drilling Fluid Materials. and decreases fluid loss. usable screen area of a screen panel by corrugating the screen surface. can also increase throughput. Using a flat screen at the discharge end of the shaker eliminates channeling. THIRD EDITION. 3-D screen panels are most effective when installed as the submerged. feed-end screen on linear-motion shakers to take full advantage of the additional screen area. three-dimensional screen panels are available. 1993. Pinnacle™ shaker screens: • Provides even distribution of fluid across the screen surface • Eliminates unwanted fluid loss near the screen edges • Improves dryness of solids discharge • Allows the use of finer screens 3-D screen panels increase the . and the amount area available for screening. Cascade shaker arrangements. mud characteristics and features of certain models. can be used for higher throughput requirements. The API screen labeling includes of the following: 3. the ability to pass fluid through a screen. The design of these 3-D.
Modern. The term “Cut” point is not the same as the traditional cut point. and will continue to be. The “Cut” point allows a ranking of a screen’s separation potential that can be used to compare screen performance. The API separation potential is reported in the terms of three “Cut” points. Conductance defines the ease of passage of a fluid through a piece of wire cloth.14 These designations give the end user a more accurate assessment of solids removal capability and liquid throughput capacities of competitive screens. the shale shaker. relatively simple devices capable of running only the coarsest screens to the models of today. • Linear. “unbalanced” design • Circular. Under constant conditions. composition and other data required by the manufacturer. It may include the type of screen panel. The shale shaker. “balanced” design. Without proper screening of the drilling fluid during this initial removal step. The area available for screening is the net unblocked area. available for fluid passage through the screen panel.3 SHALE SHAKERS The first line of defense for a properly maintained drilling fluid has been. D16.1. Manufacturer’s designation. The Manufacturer’s designation contains the individual company’s procedures for naming their screens. has played a prominent role in oilfield solids control schemes for several decades. Separation Potential and Flow Capacity. in various forms. a shale shaker has a flow capacity that depends upon screen conductance and area. This evolutionary process has taken us through three distinct eras of shale shaker technology and performance as shown in Figure 3-12. 3. Conductance is calculated from the mesh count and wire diameters of the screen. These eras of oilfield screening development may be defined by the types of motion produced by the machines: • Elliptical. Shakers have evolved from small. Transmittance is the product of conductance times panels area. “straight-line” design . Three values (D50. high-performance shakers of today are able to use 100 mesh and finer screens at the flowline in most applications. reduced efficiency and effectiveness of all downstream solids control equipment on the rig is virtually assured. 2. 3. Flow capacity is the rate at which a shaker can process mud and solids. 3. and D84) imply the opening sizes and variation in opening size of the screen. in square feet.
Optimum screening with these types of shakers is usually in the 30–40 mesh (400–600 micron) range. C. Linear motion provides superior cuttings conveyance and is able to operate at an uphill slope to provide improved liquid retention. The next generation of machine. produces a balanced. The newest technology produces linear. elliptical motion machines have a downward slope as shown in Figure 3-12. It is usually inexpensive to operate and simple to maintain. Unless it is replaced by a fine screen shaker. This motion is developed by a pair of eccentric shafts rotating in opposite directions.15 . RIG SHAKERS The rig shaker is the simpler of two types of shale shakers. or straight-line. However. the downward slope reduces fluid retention time and limits the capacity of this design. motion. B.Figure 3-12 Shale Shakers The unbalanced. introduced into the oilfield in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Better conveyance and longer fluid retention allow the use of 200 square mesh (74 micron) screens. such as 80–100 square mesh (150–180 micron) screens. This slope is required to properly transport cuttings across the screen and off the discharge end. The consistent. the rig shaker should be the first piece of solids control equipment that the mud flows through after coming out of the hole. shale shakers are typically separated into two categories: Rig Shakers and Fine Screen Shakers. motion. 3. circular vibration allows adequate solids transport with the basket in a flat. Figure 3-12. horizontal orientation. A rig shaker (also called “Primary Shale Shaker” or “Coarse Screen Shaker”) is the most common type of solids control equipment found on drilling rigs. as shown in Figure 3-12. or circular. This design often incorporates multiple decks to split the solids load and to allow finer mesh screens. Today. A.
16 • • Skid with built-in mud box (sometimes called a “possum belly”) and a bypass mechanism. Screen sizes commonly used with rig shakers range from 10 to 40 mesh. 3. • A low-thrust horizontal vibrator mechanism. capacity of rig shakers can vary from 100–1600 GPM or more. The area to the right of each line represents solids that are larger than the mesh size and would be removed from the mud. In Figure 3-14. using eccentric weights mounted above. dual decks and dual units in parallel to provide more efficient solids separation and greater throughput. • Vibration supports to isolate the screen basket from its skid. In this graph the area to the left of each line represents solids which are smaller than that mesh size. Figure 3-14 shows the particle sizes separated by these mesh screens. Depending on the particular unit and screen mesh used. the screen basket. These would pass through the screen and would not be removed. Some designs have utilized dual screens. or central to. Method of tensioning screen sections.MUD TANK (POSSUM BELLY) MOTOR VIBRATOR ASSEMBLY BELT GUARD SCREEN BASKET ASSEMBLY LIQUID and FINE SOLIDS DISCHARGE CHUTE COARSE SOLIDS DISCHARGE Figure 3-13 Rig Shaker components Standard rig shakers generally have certain characteristics in common (see Figure 3-13): • Single rectangular screening surface — usually about 4’ x 5’ in size. the area to the .
Instead of the conventional rig shaker for use from top hole to total depth. A fine screen shaker can be installed on the rig in one of four ways: 1.17 . if it is of a design capable of using coarse screens as well as fine screens. This means that a 10 mesh screen will remove all particles larger than 1910 microns — it doesn’t matter if they are the size of BBs. fine screen shakers are preferred. this area is unlimited. FINE SCREEN SHAKERS The fine screen shaker is the more complex and versatile of the two types of shale shakers. Figure 3-15 shows the range of particle sizes separated by the screens commonly used with fine screen shakers. 3. marbles or baseballs — they will be removed and discarded by a 10 mesh screen. Fine screen shakers remove cuttings and other larger solids from drilling mud. They are versatile pieces of equipment and can operate on all types of mud. Rig shakers are generally adequate for top hole drilling and for shallow and intermediate depth holes when backed up by other solids control equipment. because it is limited by the size of the page. but are designed for greatly improved vibratory efficiency over simple rig shakers. For deeper holes and when using expensive mud systems. In actual usage.Figure 3-14 Particle Removal by Rig Shaker Screens right of the 10 mesh line is confined. They are constructed to vibrate in such a way that they can use screens as fine as 150–200 mesh and still give reasonable screen life.
D & E) have two or more screen sections acting as one large screen so that no cuttings can fall between them. 3. 4. Because fine screen shakers have a wide variety of designs. Units with screens placed in parallel (Figure 3-16 C. with all mud passing over one screen of uniform mesh. The various designs are differentiated by screen orientation and shape. since the coarsest mesh section determines the unit’s screening ability.Figure 3-15 Fine Screen Shaker Particle Separation 2. thus keeping the rig shaker available as a “scalping shaker”. . Replacing the rig shaker after top hole is completed.18 screen or screens in the unit. Downstream from the rig shaker to accept fluid after it passes through the coarse screen shaker (requires secondary pump). This type of shaker requires efficient vibrator mechanisms to function properly under all possible drilling conditions and requires high throughput (Conductance) per square foot of screen cloth. Screen Orientation and Shape refers to the arrangement of the 3. screen tensioning mechanism. All screen sections should be the same mesh. placement and type of vibrator and other special features. Placed in series with the rig shaker by tapping into the flow line with a “Y”. Screens are usually rectangular and may be single screens or multiple screens placed in series or in parallel. as shown in Figure 3-16. Single deck. they have few characteristics in common. single screens (Figure 3-16 A & B) are the simplest design.
Figure 3-16 Shaker Screen Configurations 3. Hook strip screens are made without a rigid frame and can prematurely fail if installed and allowed to operate with uneven tension.19 . • • • SCREEN TENSIONING MECHANISMS Shakers are designed to use either a hookstrip or a rigid panel screen. The operating theory is that the top screen will remove some of the cuttings from the mud to take part of the load off the bottom screen and thereby increase overall screening efficiency. but the following steps may apply: • Inspect the supports and ten- • • sion rails to be sure they are in good condition and clean Position the panel on the deck and inspect the screen to be sure it lays flat Install both rails loosely to the hookstrip Push one side of the screen against the positioning blocks. with the finer screen being the controlling mesh size.Shakers with screens stacked in series (Figure 3-16 F) have a coarse screen above a finer screen. and fully tighten the screen against these blocks Evenly tighten the tension bolts on the other side Torque to the manufacturer’s recommended setting Rigid panel screen installation should proceed as per the manufacturer’s instructions. if present. The shaker manufacturer’s instructions for screen installation should be followed. Panel screens can usually be installed or replaced much quicker than a hookstrip screen since the cloth is already pretensioned and the mechanical devices lock the panel with much less manual effort.
Most modern shakers utilize linear motion vibration with the vibrator mechanism mounted above the screen bed. fine screen shakers require the same minimum maintenance as rig shakers while making a trip: • Wash down screens. In addition. This will reduce solids loading on downstream hydrocyclones and screens. • Dump and clean possum belly. This is especially true when expensive mud systems are used.20 . normally to progressively finer mesh screens over the course MAINTENANCE Because of their greater complexity and use of finer mesh screens. All will occur more frequently on fine screen shakers than on coarse mesh rig shakers. include the following: • Use the finest mesh screen capable of handling the full volume from the flow line under the particular drilling conditions.VIBRATOR MECHANISMS Vibrator Mechanisms vary widely in design and placement and greatly affect the throughput efficiency of fine screen shakers. improving their efficiency. although a few are hydraulically operated. more than justify the higher operating cost. • Check screen tension. Besides periodic lubrication. This generally allows the use of an uphill sloped screen deck. One important advantage of linear motion is positive conveyance of cuttings across the screen surface even when the surface is at a positive angle. In some units the vibration-inducing eccentric weights are separated from the drive motor. but most units have a fixed vibratory motion. • Shut down shaker when not drilling to extend screen life. frequent checks must be made for screen plugging and blinding. GENERAL GUIDELINES General rules in operating shale shakers — whether coarse screen rig shakers or fine screen shakers — which have not already been mentioned. screen flooding and broken screens. fine screen shakers generally require more attention than rig shakers. while in others the eccentric weights and motor form an integral assembly. Several screen changes. their more effective screening capabilities 3. Nonetheless. the nature of the vibratory motions can be easily modified to take advantage of specific solids-conveying characteristics. In some units. greatly increasing throughput capacity and cuttings dryness. Most vibrators are electrically operated.
4 MUD CLEANERS AND MUD CONDITIONERS In many cases. The combination of hydrocyclones and linear-motion vibrating screens is called a Mud Conditioner to differentiate these machines from earlier mud cleaners. The most familiar combination sep- arator is the Mud Cleaner or Mud Conditioner (Figure 3-17).21 . The process capacity is limited by screen capacity and its ability to discard “dry” solids. allows the use of additional hydrocyclones and higher. and are able to effectively process 400–600 GPM. Traditional mud cleaners use multiple 4” or 5” cyclones. ask your local Brandt / EPI™ representative for copies of the latest Product Bulletins. water should not be used on the screen surface while drilling. For a more complete analysis of different types of screens and shakers. in turn. combinations of vibratory screening and settling/ centrifugal force are used together to provide an effective separation. are quite common.• • • of the hole. all mud should be screened. These devices use a combination of desilting hydrocyclones and very fine mesh vibrating screens (120–400 mesh) to remove fine drilled solids while returning valuable mud additives and liquids back to the active mud system. mounted over a vibrating screen. Water sprays tend to wash smaller cuttings through the screen which would otherwise be removed by their clinging to larger particles (piggy-back effect). (Dump them into the sump or waste pit. 3. Mud conditioners often combine both desander and desilter cones mounted above the screen deck to take 3. This. With the introduction of linear motion vibrating screens.) Except in extenuating circumstances (such as the presence of lost circulating material). Mud cleaners were developed in the early 1970s to remove fine drilled solids from weighted mud without excessive loss of barite and fluid. Unless water sprays are absolutely necessary to control screen blinding. Large cuttings which settle in the mud box (possum belly) of the shaker should never be dumped into the mud system. This includes make-up mud hauled in from other locations. overall process capacities. the capacity of the mud cleaner screen has been greatly increased. They have also proved valuable tools in closed systems and other “dry” location” applications.
the remaining solids. including most barite in a weighted system. Drilled solids larger than the screen openings are discarded. The cut point and amount of mass solids removed by a mud cleaner/ conditioner depends primarily on the mesh of the fine screen used. usually 1000–1500 GPM. the solids and liquid exiting the bottom of the cyclones are directed onto a fine screen. Instead of simply discarding the underflow. feed mud is pumped into the mud cleaner/conditioner’s hydrocyclones with a centrifugal pump. Unweighted OBM Figure 3-17 Mud Cleaners and Mud Conditioners 3.22 . The overflow from the cyclones is returned to the mud system. After removal of large cuttings with a shaker.full advantage of the higher process capacity. performance and economics will vary with machine and drilling variables. Whenever the application requires finer screens than the existing shaker can handle 2. pass through the screen and are returned to the mud system. when compared to mud cleaners. and reduce the overall size and weight of the unit. APPLICATIONS Mud cleaners/conditioners should be considered in these applications: 1. Since there are many designs of mud cleaners/conditioners available. Figure 3-18.
6. plus transportation. 4. rig modifications. 5. 2) Replace the existing shakers with more efficient units or 3) Add a mud cleaner/conditioner downstream from the existing shakers. plus fuel) is necessary 3. In many instances (even with modern fine screen shakers). but a thorough study of the capital cost (the actual cost of new equipment.23 . a finer separation is required than can be provided with existing shakers. The question to answer becomes how to achieve the necessary level of screening at the lowest cost. Expensive polymer systems When the cost of water is high Unweighted WBM with high disposal costs and/or environmental restrictions When use of lost circulation material requires bypassing the shaker Workover and completion fluid Mud cleaners/conditioners are simply a bank of hydrocyclones mounted over a fine-mesh screen.Figure 3-18 Particle Removal by Mud Cleaner Screens 3. 7. and installation) and the operating cost (screens and other expendables. The alternatives are: 1) Add additional similar shakers to handle the flow rate. Any of these may be correct.
mud cleaners/conditioners can achieve efficient solids removal while returning most liquid back to the active mud system. whenever a vacuum truck must haul normal full-flow desilter waste. These systems are being used increasingly in areas where liquid mud waste must be hauled a significant distance and is subject to a high disposal fee. In a closed system. since most of the solids are removed in semi-dry form by the mud cleaner/conditioner screen. 3. On the other hand. underflow from the mud cleaner/conditioner . the use of mud cleaner/conditioners may be indicated downstream of linear motion shakers. The mud cleaner/conditioner is used to discard drilled solids in semi-dry form which is classified as legal landfill in most areas and is subject to economical dry-haul disposal techniques (dump truck or portable waste containers). Vacuum truck loads often can be reduced to a small fraction of those required with full-flow desilting. Use of ultrafine screens (200 to 325 mesh) significantly improves solids control in any high-value fluid system. the screen underflow from the mud cleaner/conditioner is often diverted to a separate steel waste pit for vacuum truck disposal. This approach to dry-solids disposal can be carried further by using a centrifuge with a mud cleaner/conditioner to form a “closed” system which eliminates discarding of any fluid. but since a vacuum truck can only carry a limited amount of sand because of the over-the-road weight restrictions. because of the cut points produced by some “modern” layered screens. Compared to desanders and desilters. the waste must be diluted with rig water to reduce density.to make the proper choice. Also. and expensive vacuum truck waste disposal from steel pits is the alternative.24 When used for this purpose. The operator is then billed for the haulage of a vacuum truck load comprised largely of rig water. An increasingly important application of mud cleaners/conditioners is the removal of drilled solids from unweighted water-base mud in semi-dry form. whose cyclone underflow may be as much as 15 bbl/hr or more. the remaining solids in the screen underflow are dilute enough to be hauled away without watering them back. Salvage of the liquid phase of an unweighted drilling mud often costjustifies use of a mud cleaner/ conditioner when the fluid phase of the mud or disposal is expensive. This may seem counterproductive. This system is commonly used in areas where environmental restrictions prohibit the use of earthen reserve pits.
INSTALLATION Installation of the mud cleaner/conditioner is made downstream of the shale shaker and the degasser. and allow larger volumes of fluid to be cleaned at a faster rate. The drilled solids. In order to reduce costs associated with this expensive task. where the drilled solids are separated out and discarded. Another mud cleaner/conditioner application is the clean up of workover and completion fluids. a coarse top screen is used to pre-screen the mud and remove the lost circulation material. mud additives and liquid phase pass through the top screen onto the lower. a mud cleaner running one or two ultrafine screens (200 over 325 mesh) can be used to remove most of the solids before they reach cartridge type filters.screen is diverted to a holding tank and then centrifuged. the shale shaker is bypassed and drilled solids build up rapidly in the mud. This material is discharged back into the active system for recirculation downhole. semi-dry solids and return of liquid to the active system. Use of a two-deck mud cleaner/conditioner allows salvage of the LCM while minimizing the increase in solids content. (Most mud cleaner/conditioners are designed to also function as desilter on unweighted mud by rerouting the cone underflow or by removing or blanking off the screen portion of the unit. The cleaned mud then flows back into the mud system and is re-blended with the salvaged lost circulation materials. reduce downtime in changing filters. Within the mud cleaner/conditioner. which results in disposal of very fine. One special mud cleaner/conditioner application is the use of a double-deck unit for salvage of coarse lost circulation material (LCM). minimizes dilution. The mud cleaner/conditioner may then be used to replace or augment the rig’s desilter during top hole drilling.) Follow these guidelines when installing mud cleaner/conditioners to allow peak efficiency: 3. This application can significantly reduce filter replacement costs. Usually when running LCM. The same pump used to feed the rig’s desander or desilter is often reconnected to feed the mud cleaner/conditioner when weight material is added. necessitating a high level of dilution and new mud. finer mesh screen.25 . eliminates vacuum truck services for disposal of liquid mud. and meets environmental constraints when drilling within ecologically sensitive areas. Such a system virtually eliminates the need for reserve pits.
• Screen throughput is reduced by increased solids content and viscosity. 3. When using mud conditioners that have both desander and desilter cones.• • • • • • • Size the mud cleaner/conditioner cyclones to process 110–125% of the full circulating flow rate. resulting in flooding and high mud additive losses. Take the mud cleaner/conditioner suction from the compartment receiving fluid processed by the degasser (Weighted Muds). It is often desirable to modify the performance characteristics of the cones to decrease the amount of ultra fines in the cone underflow. • Operate mud cleaners/conditioners within the limits of the screen capacity. Position the mud cleaner/conditioner on the pit high enough so the overflow manifold will gravity-feed fluid into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°. A mud cleaner/conditioner with a cyclone throughput of 800 GPM is of little value if the cone underflow exceeds the screen capacity. Multiple feed points on the screening surface minimize use of the available screen area and reduce overall capacity and efficiency. Avoid vertical overflow discharge lines from hydrocyclones. • Feed the cone underflow to the screen at a single point. use a separate feed pump for the desander cones and another feed pump for the desilter cones. Keep all lines as short and straight as possible. remember these fundamentals: • Operate mud cleaners/conditioners continuously on the full circulating volume to achieve maximum drilled solids removal. GENERAL GUIDELINES To operate mud cleaner/conditioners at maximum efficiency. The desilter cone suction should be from the desander discharge compartment. The cyclone underflow plays a critical role in overall mud cleaner/conditioner efficiency. Install a guard screen with approximately 1/2” openings at the suction to prevent large trash from entering the unit and plugging the cones.26 . The desander cone suction should be from the degasser discharge compartment. This minimizes near-size screen plugging and barite loss due to “piggy-backing”.
One exception to this is the mud conditioner. Follow these general guidelines for correct mud cleaner/conditioner operation: • Run the mud cleaner/conditioner continuously while drilling and for a short period of time while making a trip for “catch-up” cleaning. The following example illustrates the point: Earlier mud cleaner designs with 12–16 cones over a single screen bed have not proven to be practical: the ultra-fine mesh screens simply cannot handle the underflow volume from the cones. then rinse the screen with water or oil sprays before shutting down the screen portion of the unit.) Select the number of cones to be operated and the particular mesh screen to be used according to drilling conditions. A technique for measuring and calculating these values is given in Appendix B of this handbook. a linear-motion shaker coupled with a manifold of properly designed hydrocyclones yields a high-performance Mud Cleaner/ Conditioner with sufficient capacity for even the largest drilling rigs. or finer. screens on shakers since these screens can also remove appreciable amounts. use the finest mesh screen possible (to process the full circulating rate) and size the number of cones accordingly. The total amount of drilled solids in the discarded material. • Shut down the feed pump(s) before turning off the vibrating screen portion of the mud cleaner/conditioner. along with the ratio of barite to drilled solids. In some cases. operate the cones with a spray rather than a rope discharge. As a general rule. In some instances. Permit the screen to clear itself. more than one mud cleaner/conditioner will be needed. a number of cones will have to be blanked off in order for the desired screen mesh to be used.• • • Do NOT judge screen efficiency simply on the basis of cuttings dryness or color. must be determined to correctly evaluate economic performance. (Note: This technique is also important when using 100–mesh. This is just as important with a mud cleaner/conditioner as with desilters and desanders. • For peak efficiency.27 . 3. This may involve an experimental determination of the number of cones and screen mesh to optimize performance. • Start up the shaker portion of the mud cleaner/conditioner before engaging the feed pump(s).
These devices utilize Stoke’s Law as the basis for their operation. If a cone is flooding. When a significant amount of barite is added to increase mud weight.5 SEPARATION BY SETTLING AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Using vibrating screens to remove drilled solids from mud uses only one characteristic of solids particles — their size. MAINTENANCE Maintenance of mud cleaners/ conditioners generally combines the requirements of desilters and fine screen shakers: • Periodic lubrication • Check screen tension • Inspect the screen to ensure it is free of tears. and 2) the resultant reduction in barite discard outweighs the resultant reduction in drilled solids discard. This must be determined experimentally on a case-bycase basis. Another factor which affects separation is particle density. If a cone bottom is plugged. Use low-volume sprays on the screen surface to reduce “piggy-backing” only if 1) this liquid addition to the mud is permissible. shut down the mud cleaner/conditioner for one or two full circulations. and dried mud before start up • Shut down unit when not circulating to extend screen life • Check feed manifold for plugging of cyclone feed inlets • Check cyclones for excessive wear and replace parts as necessary 3. adding a small stream of cleaned mud from the hydrocyclone overflow (reflux) provides the same reduction in “piggy-backing” without reducing the overall efficiency of the unit. This relationship may be stated in its simplest form as: In some cases. the feed is partially plugged or the bottom of the cone may be worn out. Solids control devices which take advantage of both particle size and particle density speed up the settling process by application of centrifugal force.28 . 3. since a plugged cone allows solids to return to the mud system. unplug it with a welding rod or similar tool. holes. This permits the fresh barite to thoroughly mix with the system and reduce losses over the screen. Stoke’s Law defines the relationship of factors governing the settling velocity of particles in a liquid.• • • Check cones regularly for bottom plugging or flooding.
3. and centrifuges all utilize this principle in their operation. High density solids settle more quickly than low density ones. usually the first compartment of the first pit in the mud system. A shale shaker would normally sit on top of the sand trap and discharge into it. sand traps should have a top weir over which mud can flow into the next compartment. Sand traps can serve an important role in solids control by protecting downstream equipment against the results of torn shale shaker screens or by-passed shakers by removing large particles which could plug cyclones or other equipment downstream.• • • Larger particles (of the same density) settle more rapidly than smaller ones. In normal operation they also play a minor solids removal role by settling out a portion of the coarse drilled solids which pass through the shaker screen. Settling pits are often large and require closure or remediation.29 . Settling pits simply use the force of gravity to separate solids. hydrocyclones. Normally. greatly reduces the waste water remediation treatment costs. There is no way to speed up this natural settling process other than reducing the viscosity of the fluid. The reduction in waste mud achieved through efficient solids control Figure 3-19 Cutaway View of Sand Trap 3. The larger and/or heavier a solid is. or flocculating the solid particles with the addition of chemicals. the faster it will settle through fluid in a settling pit.6 SAND TRAPS A sand trap (Figure 3-19) is a settling tank. a Settling pits. High acceleration and low viscosity speed up the settling rate.
and a quick-opening. a cyclone is a miniature settling pit which allows very rapid settling of solids under controlled conditions. quick-closing dump valve or gate so that settled solids can be discharged with minimum fluid loss. which make them easy to use and maintain. Hydrocyclones are important in solids control systems because of their ability to efficiently remove particles smaller than the finest mesh screens.30 . A hydrocyclone (see Figure 3-20) CLEANED DRILLING MUD (OVERFLOW) FEED NOZZLE VORTEX FINDER DRILLING MUD DRILLING MUD MOVES INWARD AND UPWARD AS SPIRALLING VORTEX SAND AND SILT. designed to speed up the LIQUID DISCHARGE settling process.7 HYDROCYCLONES Hydrocyclones (also referred to as cyclones or cones) are simple mechanical devices. In some highly sensitive environments. DRIVEN TOWARD WALL AND DOWNWARD IN ACCELERATING SPIRAL SAND AND SILT (UNDERFLOW) Figure 3-20 Hydrocyclone 3. In essence. They are also uncomplicated devices. without moving parts.slanted bottom. the extra liquids lost from dumping the sand trap cannot be allowed and the desander suction is arranged to allow processing of the sand without creating a lot of liquid waste. Feed energy is transformed into centrifugal force inside the cyclone to accelerate particle settling in accordance with Stoke’s Law. 3.
rather than with the cyclones themselves. Light. and weigh less. Newer designs are made entirely of polyurethane. Design features of cyclone units vary widely from supplier to supplier. fine solids and the liquid phase of the mud tend to spiral inward and upward for discharge through the liquid outlet. the coarser its cut point and the greater its throughput. This measurement refers to the inside diameter of the largest. Manifolding may orient the cyclones in a vertical 3. if you are not able to properly size your centrifugal pump to create 75 feet of inlet head to your set of cyclones. and a feed nozzle on the side of the body near the cylindrical (top) end of the cone. Typical cyclone throughput capacities are listed in Figure 3-21. a larger opening at the top for liquid discharge through an internal “vortex finder”.31 . The size of oilfield cyclones commonly varies from 4” to 12”. Centrifugal pumps are constant energy (head) devices and not constant pressure devices. and are less expensive. In the past. it is highly recommended that you contact the Technical Services Staff at Brandt / EPI™ for assistance. cylindrical section of the cyclone. pressure varies with mud weight. Although centrifugal pump theory and sizing exercises are beyond the scope of this text. last longer. Most well designed oilfield cyclones operate most efficiently when 75 feet of inlet head (±5 ft) is applied to the cone inlet. Drilling mud enters the cyclone using energy created by a centrifugal feed pump. and no two manufacturers’ cyclones have identical operating efficiency. cyclones were commonly made of cast iron with replaceable liners and other wear parts made of rubber or polyurethane to resist abrasion. Manifolding multiple cyclones in parallel can provide sufficient capacity to handle the required circulating volume plus some reserve as necessary. more errors in hydrocyclone applications are made with centrifugal pumps. Remember. The velocity of the mud causes the particles to rotate rapidly within the main chamber of the cyclone.consists of a cylindrical/conical shell with a small opening at the bottom for underflow discharge. Heavy. Centrifugal pumps must be properly sized for cones to operate efficiently. coarse solids and the liquid film around them tend to spiral outward and downward for discharge through the solids outlet. capacity or maintenance characteristics. In general — but not always — the larger the cone. Feed head is constant regardless of mud weight.
both solids and liquid aspects of removal must be considered. The length and angle of the conical section (and the ratio of cone diameter to cone length). as it does not affect cyclone performance. the size and shape of the feed inlet. and the size and adjustment means of the underflow opening all play important roles in a cyclone’s effective separation of solids particles. larger particles have a higher probability of reporting to the bottom underflow (apex) opening. The internal geometry of a cyclone also has a great deal to do with its operating efficiency.) CUT POINT (MICRONS) 4Ó 5Ó a cyclone is to discard maximum abrasive solids with minimum fluid loss.D.D. Operating efficiencies of cyclones may be measured in several different ways. (A simple technique for comparing the efficiencies of two cyclones is given in Appendix B of this handbook. the size of the vortex finder. while smaller particles are more likely to report to the top (overflow) opening.) CAPACITY (GPM) FEED PRESSURE (PSI) 4Ó 5Ó 6Ó 8Ó 10Ó 12Ó 50Ð75 70Ð80 100Ð150 150Ð250 400Ð500 400Ð500 30Ð40 30Ð40 30Ð40 25Ð35 20Ð30 20Ð30 Figure 3-21 Hydrocyclone Capacities position or nearly horizontal — the choice is one of convenience.32 .CONE SIZE (I.) In a cyclone. Figure 3-22 shows the approximate cut point ranges for cyclones used with unweighted water-base 6Ó 8Ó 10Ó 12Ó 15Ð20µ 20Ð25µ 25Ð30µ 30Ð40µ 30Ð40µ 40Ð60µ Figure 3-22 Hydrocyclone Capacities 3. The most common method of illustrating particle separation in cyclones is through a cut point curve. but since the purpose of CONE SIZE (I.
Desanders are primarily used to 3.mud and operated at 75 feet ±5 feet of inlet head. the smaller the cone.8 DESANDERS Desanders are hydrocyclones larger than 5” in diameter (6”. the underflow from hydrocyclones can be screened or centrifuged to recover the free liquid. A cone operating in spray discharge will remove a significantly greater amount of solids than a cone in “rope” discharge. ROPE DISCHARGE Hydrocyclones should not be operated in rope discharge because it will drastically reduce the cone separating efficiency. increasing the size of solids actually separated by the cyclone. While a spraying cyclone appears to discharge more fluid. 10” or 12” ID). increasing any of these factors will shift the cut point curve to the right. In a rope discharge. the smaller size particles the cone will separate (see Figure 3-24). cannot exit freely from the underflow. In contrast. Rope Discharge by the inner spiral reporting to the overflow. mud weight. and become caught 3. feed NO CROWDING AT THE APEX CROWDING AT THE APEX SPRAY DISCHARGE ROPE DISCHARGE Figure 3-23 Spray v. if the solids are too dry. Solids which otherwise would be separated are forced into the overflow stream and returned to the mud system. percent solids. The amount of fluid in the cone underflow is important. HYDROCYCLONE CUT POINT Particle separation in cyclones can vary considerably depending on such factors as feed head. and properties of the liquid phase of the mud. This type of discharge can also lead to plugged cones and much higher cyclone wear. By itself. Generally. the benefits of more efficient solids removal and less cone wear outweigh the additional fluid loss. the cut point does not determine a cyclone’s overall efficiency because it ignores the liquid loss rate. they can cause “roping” or “dry-plugging” of the underflow. 8”.33 . a cyclone operating with a spray discharge (see Figure 3-23) gives solids a free path to exit. the solids become crowded at the apex. In cases where a dry discharge is required. Generally speaking.
Desanders are installed downstream from the shale shaker and degasser.34 Keep all lines as short and straight as possible with a minimum of pipe fittings. follow these general recommendations: • Size the desander to process 110–125% of the total mud circulation rate. 3. The partially clean mud is discharged into the next pit downstream.Figure 3-24 Particle Removal by Desander Cyclones (200 Mesh Screen Included for Comparison) remove the high volumes of solids associated with extremely fast drilling of a large diameter hole. The desander removes sand sized particles and larger drilled solids which have passed through the shaker screen and discards them along with some liquid into a waste pit. This will reduce loss of head on the feed line and minimize backpressure on the overflow discharge line. • • • INSTALLATION When installing a desander. Do not reduce the diameter of the overflow line from that of the overflow discharge manifold. The overflow discharge line should not be installed in a vertical position — doing so may cause excessive vacuum on the discharge header and pull solids . Direct the overflow line downward into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°.
Too low a feed head decreases efficiency. Operating desanders at peak efficiency is a simple matter. This makes it an important device for reducing average particle size and removing 3. desanders are not generally cost effective when an oil-base mud is in use. Position the underflow trough to easily direct solids to the waste pit. Use of desanders is normally discontinued when expensive materials such as barite and polymers are added to a drilling mud. Here are a few fundamental principles to keep in mind: • Operate the desander unit at the supplier’s recommended feed head (usually around 75 feet). Install a low equalizer line to permit backflow into the desander suction.9 DESILTERS A desilter uses smaller hydrocyclones (usually 4” or 5” ID) than a desander and therefore generally removes smaller particles. Preventive maintenance minimizes downtime.• • • through the cyclone overflow. and repairs are simpler between wells than during drilling. MAINTENANCE Maintenance of desanders normally entails no more than checking all cone parts for excessive wear and flushing out the feed manifold between wells. since most desanders are relatively uncomplicated devices. Keep the end of the discharge line above the surface of the mud to avoid creating a vacuum in the line. reducing the cyclone’s efficiency. The smaller cones enable a desilter to make the finest particle size separation of any full flow solids control equipment — removing solids in the range of 15 microns and larger (Figure 3-25). Similarly. because the cones also discard a significant amount of the liquid phase. because a desander will discard a high proportion of these materials along with the drilled solids. Large trash may collect in feed manifolds which could cause cone plugging during operation. • Check cones regularly to ensure the discharge orifice is not plugged.35 . • Operate the desander with a spray rather than a rope discharge to maintain peak efficiency. 3. while excessive feed head shortens the life of cyclone wear parts. • Run the desander continuously while drilling and shortly after beginning a trip for “catch-up” cleaning.
36 • • Take the desilter suction from the compartment receiving fluid processed by the desander. and the individual cone throughput capacities are less than desander cones. Do NOT use the same pump to feed both the desander and desilter. Keep all lines as short and straight as possible. . Here are some fundamentals for installing desilters: 3. If both pieces of equipment are to be operated at the same time. The cyclones in desilter units operate on the same principle as the cyclones used on desanders. They simply make a finer cut. Multiple cones are usually manifolded in a single desilter unit to meet throughput requirements. • • INSTALLATION Installation of desilters is normally downstream from the shale shaker. Install a guard screen with approximately 1/2” openings at the suction to the desilter to prevent large trash from entering the unit and plugging the cones.Figure 3-25 Particle Removal by Desilter Cyclones (200 Mesh Screen Included for Comparison) abrasive grit from unweighted mud. degasser and desander. they should be installed in series and each should have its own centrifugal pump. Desilters should be sized to process 110–125% of the full rig flow rate. sand trap. and should allow ample space for maintenance.
This is generally between 70–80 feet of head. If a cone bottom is plugged. since a plugged cone allows solids to return to the mud system. Position the underflow trough to easily direct solids to the waste pit. Appendix C includes a chart to calculate the pounds per hour of solids generated for a range of hole size and rate of penetration. Keep the end of the discharge line above the surface of the mud to avoid creating a vacuum in the line. • Check cones regularly for bottom plugging or flooding. GUIDELINES To operate desilters at maximum efficiency. If the drilling rate is slow and the amount of solids being drilled is only a few hundred pounds per hour. Never operate the desilter cones with a rope discharge since a rope underflow cuts cone efficiency in half or worse. Operating efficiencies of competitive desilters vary widely according to differences in design features. The 3. Too much energy will result in excessive cone wear. then the desander may be turned off (to save fuel and maintenance costs) and the desilter may be used to carry the total desanding/desilting load.37 Running a desander ahead of a desilter takes a big load off the desilter and improves its efficiency. the feed is partially plugged or the bottom of the cone may be worn out. If a cone is flooding.• • • • Position the desilter on the pit high enough so the overflow manifold will gravity-feed fluid into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°. Install a low equalizer line for backflow to the desilter’s suction compartment. and increases wear on cones. • Run the desilter continuously while drilling and also for a short while during a trip. Appendix B for comparing two desanders will work to compare the efficiencies of competing desilters operating on the same rig. unplug it with a welding rod or similar tool. causes cone plugging. Remember — no vertical overflow discharge lines. Use enough cones and adjust the cone underflow openings to maintain a spray pattern. follow these basic guidelines: • Operate the cones with a spray discharge. • Operate the desilter unit at the supplier’s recommended feed head. The same technique described in .
38 . These early units were adapted from existing industrial decanting centrifuges. unless another device (centrifuge or mud cleaner/conditioner) is used to “deliquor” the cone underflow. This may generally be done between wells unless a malfunction occurs while drilling. A desilter will discard an appreSCROLL ciable amount of barite.10 DECANTING CENTRIFUGE Centrifuges for oilfield applications were first introduced in the early 1950s. desilters are not normally used with oil-base mud. a perforated rotor type machine was developed which SCROLL FEED CHAMBER BOWL WEIRS FEED PIPE DRILLING MUD SOLIDS DISCHARGE HOLLOW SHAFT LIQUID DISCHARGE Figure 3-26 Decanting Centrifuge 3.extra cleaning during the trip can reduce overload conditions during the period of high solids loading immediately after a trip. Keep the shale shaker well maintained — never bypass the shaker or allow large pieces of material to get into the active system. MAINTENANCE A desilter’s smaller cyclones are more likely than desander cones to become plugged with oversized solids. Desilters are therefore not recommended for use with weighted mud. The feed manifold should be flushed between wells to remove trash. 3. so it is important to inspect them often for wear and plugging. since hydrocyclones discard some absorbed liquid along with the drilled solids. because barite particles fall within the silt size range. In the mid1960s. Similarly.
the increased use of low-solids mud and environmental dewatering applications require higher process volumes. In addition. Decanting centrifuges operate on the principle of exposing the process fluid to increased “Gforces”. A rotating bowl creates high G-forces and forms a liquid pool inside the bowl. where the scraping motion of the conveyor blades moves them toward the solids discharge ports. is pumped into the conveyor hub through the feed tube. This speed differential conveys and discharges solids from the machine. or beach. These solids are pushed by a screw conveyor across a drainage deck. centrifugal force pushes the feed mud out the feed ports into the bowl.39 . coarse particles in the mud are forced against the inner surface of the bowl. causing them to rotate at slightly different rates. greater clarification and solids capacity. free liquid from separated solids. As the conveyor rotates. A gearbox is used to rotate the conveyor and bowl at slightly different speeds (slower or faster). A decanting centrifuge consists of a conveyor screw inside a rotating bowl. Commonly called “barite recovery” centrifuges. called the beach. Today. This speed differential is required to convey and discharge solids. A drainage deck. thus accelerating the settling rate of solids in the fluid. forming a layer. or removes. Dewatering actually takes place on the beach. and additional fine solids removal. SEPARATION PROCESS A Decanting Centrifuge is so named because it Decants. Proper system selection is the first step to effective solids control. The heavy. The bowl and conveyor are rotated at speeds between 1500 and 4000 rpm depending on bowl diameter. Equipment selection is decided by site specific requirements. A gear box changes the relative speed of the conveyor to the bowl. the centrifuge is even more important part of solids control. see Figure 3-26.does not perform like a pure decanter. is where dewatering of the solids actually takes 3. these early designs were limited in capacity and application. This rotation develops centrifugal force sufficient to settle solids along the inner surface of the bowl wall. Mud. The larger solids settle against the bowl wall. with the decanted solids discharged through a series of underflow ports. (sometimes diluted with water). The free liquid and finer solids flow toward the larger end of the centrifuge and are removed through the effluent overflow weirs.
but it is mechanical rotation rather than fluid head which induces the centrifugal force required to accelerate the particle settling rate.25 tons/hour to 8 tons/hour. and 24”. meters and controls. Bowl sizes in common oilfield applications include diameters of 14”. In unweighted mud applications. The deliquified solids are then discharged through a series of underflow ports. usually 2–5 microns. feed slurry pump.place. In weighted mud applications. Centrifuges make the finest cut of any separation device used on the rig. in order to maintain satisfactory separation efficiency. WEIGHTED MUD APPLICATIONS The classic application of centrifuges while drilling takes advantage of their ability to make a very fine cut — on the order of 5–10 microns — when treating weighted water-base mud. Residence time of fluid in the bowl and a more “gentle” separation environment differentiate separation in a centrifuge from that of a cyclone.40 required to compensate for increasing viscosity. fine solids tend to remain in suspension in the pools between the conveyor flights and are carried out the overflow ports along with the liquid phase of the mud. generally associated with increasing mud weight. including dilution liquid. power source. the liquid fraction from the decanter (or the lighter slurry fraction from the perforated cylinder . In this application. Solids tonnage rates range from 1. skid. Larger 24” diameter units generally have the highest liquid throughput and solids tonnage capacity. feed mud capacity can range from 25–250 gpm. In field operation. liquid and solids collection hoppers. raw mud and dilution liquid connections. the decanting centrifuge is fitted with a housing over the bowl. Dilution liquid is 3. The raw mud feed rate is substantially decreased as mud weight increases. The operating principle is similar to that of the cyclone. To remove these colloidal solids. Total liquid throughput may be as high as 40 GPM. depending on unit capability and fluid requirements. The light. feed mud capacity rarely exceeds 25 GPM. 15”. 18”. centrifuges are used intermittently to process a small portion of the volume circulated from the well bore to reduce the amount of colloidal-sized and improve the flow properties of the mud. Viscosity can be effectively controlled by discarding a relatively small amount of colloidal size solids and replacing the discarded liquid with fresh make-up water.
The sandsize and silt-size semi-dry solids fraction from the decanter (or the heavier slurry fraction from the perforated cylinder centrifuge) is returned to the active system. Sufficient working space should be provided for routine maintenance and operating adjustments to the centrifuge. which discharges damp solids. The overflow (liquid/colloidal solids) gravity-feed down a constantly sloping chute or pipe to waste. The amount of replacement bentonite may be calculated exactly from mass balance equations. “Under-centrifuging” simply will not achieve the desired reduction in viscosity. the decanting centrifuge is used to dewater the 3. This again relates to the standard purpose of the centrifuge — to control viscosity by removal of colloidal size particles. as the economics of operation are greatly reduced under these circumstances.centrifuge) is discarded. suction for a centrifuge mud feed would be taken from the same pit or compartment which receives the discharge from a mud cleaner/conditioner. With either type of machine. The centrifuge underflow (solids) should be discharged to a wellstirred spot in the pit for thorough mixing with whole mud before the solids have a chance to settle out in the bottom of the pit. and the machine’s operation should be stopped when viscosity reaches the established minimum. Viscosity will normally creep up when centrifuges are shut down due to the size degradation of mud solids. Operation of centrifuges in this application is generally intermittent rather than continuous. hence the need for restarting the unit. bentonite and chemicals must be added back to the mud system.41 . which discharges a pumpable slurry. The maximum and minimum limits should be established as part of the overall mud program. Ideally. Installation of a centrifuge is usually downstream from all other solids control equipment. Both over-centrifuging and under-centrifuging should be avoided. As part of a “closed loop”. Centrifuges should be run when viscosity reaches the operator-established maximum. and of lesser importance with a perforated cylinder centrifuge. This is especially important with a decanter. the underflow discharge should not be too close to the rig pump suction. but a good rule of thumb is to add about one sack of bentonite per hour of centrifuge operation. When centrifuging a weighted mud. Other applications of decanting centrifuges have become more important in recent years because of the decanter’s ability to remove free liquid from the solids discharge.
especially if 1) the mud has been brought in from another location and may contain a large amount of fine drilled solids. operated either in parallel or in series. strips out the solids and discards them. decanting centrifuges are operated in series. WEIGHTED OIL-BASE MUD APPLICATIONS In weighted. flocculants.42 . The main difference of centrifuge use in these applications versus their use for viscosity control in weighted mud is the continuous use of the centrifuge and the routing of the two discharge streams. A second unit. As part of a “closed loop”. hard drilling with a gradual buildup of ultra-fine solids is anticipated or 3) the liquid mud phase is valuable. especially with synthetic oil muds. Chemical enhancement (through the use of coagulants. Multiple centrifuges are not uncommon. while the liquid and colloidal solids fraction is returned to the mud system. liquid fraction being routed to a holding tank (rather than being discarded as in a classic weighted mud application). returning the effluent to the active system. and other chemicals) is becoming more popular as an economical way to reduce dilution requirements and overall waste volume for haul-off and disposal. often a higher capacity machine. This process is not as effective as a single unit for viscosity control — a large portion of the colloidal size solids are returned to the active mud system in the effluent stream of the second unit — but the effluent stream from the first unit is too valuable to discard. The first unit returns the coarse solids fraction (weight material ) to the active system. oil-base mud applications.under-flow from hydrocyclones and remove ultra-fine particles from the active mud system. with the light. Usually the coarse solids fraction is discarded and the base fluid is retained for reuse. 2) slow. Decanting centrifuges are becom3. UNWEIGHTED MUD APPLICATIONS In the classic weighted mud application the solids discharge (containing the majority of the weighting material) is returned to the mud system. The coarser solids fraction is discarded in dry form. The liquid effluent (containing the majority of the colloidal size solids) is discarded. larger high capacity (75–250 GPM) decanting centrifuges (and sometimes standard centrifuges) are used to maximize fine solids removal. ing more popular for processing unweighted oil mud.
These devices usually carry mud from a downstream compartment and spray it at high velocity into an upstream compartment to keep solids suspended. • Remember to turn the feed and dilution water off before the machine is stopped. However. Centrifuges are relatively easy to operate. by mechanical solids control equipment. but they require special skills for repair and maintenance. the true mixing effect of mud guns tends to be localized around the point where the nozzle spray discharges. • Start up the centrifuge before starting the mud feed pump and dilution water feed. rotate the bowl or cylinder by hand to be sure it turns freely. Agitators use an electric motor to drive impeller blades which flow the mud in a pattern throughout the tank. but a few universal principles apply to almost all centrifuges: • Before starting a centrifuge. Suspension of the solids prevents their settling and keeps them in the active mud system so that they can be separated MECHANICAL AGITATORS Mechanical Agitators (see Figure 3-28) provide more thorough mixing of pits without the problems associated with mud guns. MUD GUNS For many years Mud Guns (see Figure 3-27) were used as the sole means of agitation.OPERATING PROCEDURES Operating procedures will vary from model to model. Rig maintenance of centrifuges is limited to routine lubrication and speed adjustment of the unit. • Set the raw mud and dilution feed rates according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (usually variable with mud weight). 3. since each nozzle may add 100— 200 GPM of mud into the tank above and beyond the normal flow from the well. 3.43 .11 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT AGITATION/MIXING All compartments in an active mud system other than the sand trap must be agitated in order to suspend solids and maintain a consistent mixture throughout the surface system. leaving dead spots in other areas of the tank. Mud guns also increase the load on downstream solids Figure 3-27 Mud Gun control equipment.
cy when pumping gas-cut mud, and the cones will not function properly if feed head fluctuates or if there is gas in the incoming mud. Also, recirculation of gas-cut mud is dangerous and could result in a blowout, since the density of gascut mud is lighter than the mud weight that should be maintained in the well bore. There are three basic methods of degassing which can be utilized separately or in combination. The three degassing techniques are: atmospheric, vacuum and cyclonic.
Figure 3-28 Mechanical Agitator
Given proper tank design, agitator sizing, and impeller placement, this method of agitation prevents settling, enhances the efficiency of solids removal devices, and maintains a well blended mud system.
After passing through a shale shaker and a sand trap, all drilling mud should be directed through a degasser, see Figure 3-29. Degassers are often essential to the solids removal process to ensure the proper performance of hydrocyclones used in downstream solids control devices. The centrifugal pumps that feed the cyclones have difficulty maintaining their efficien-
Atmospheric Degassers sit in the mud tank and consist of an elevated spray chamber and a submerged centrifugal pump. The gas-cut mud is pumped to the spray chamber at high velocity through a disc valve. The mud strikes the inside wall of the spray chamber with enough force to drive most of the entrapped gas out of the mud. The removed gas is usually discharged to atmosphere at pit level and the degassed mud returned to the active system. These devices are simple to operate and maintain, but their effectiveness is often limited by the ability of the centrifugal pump to handle gas-cut mud. A second method of degassing is provided by the use of a vacuum.
Figure 3-29 Degassers
Vacuum-type Degassers separate gas bubbles from drilling mud by spreading the gas-cut mud into thin layers and then drawing off the gases with a vacuum pump. The mud is usually thinned by flowing it over a series of baffles or plates. Vacuum degassers are normally skid-mounted and installed on top of the mud tanks. Some models incorporate more than one degassing technique within a single unit. For example, one
degasser spreads the mud into thin sheets through centrifugal force, sprays the mud onto an impact shield for residual gas separation, and draws off the gases with a vacuum pump.
Actual placement of the degasser and related pump will vary with the design of the degasser, but these recommendations may be used as a general rule: • Install a screen in the inlet pipe to the degasser to keep large
objects from being drawn into the degassing chamber. Locate the screen about one foot above the pit bottom and in a well-agitated spot. There should be a high equalizer line between the suction and discharge compartment. The equalizer should be kept open to allow backflow of processed mud to the suction side of the degasser. Route the liquid discharge pipe to enter the next compartment or pit below mud level to prevent aeration. Install the gas discharge line to safely vent the separated gas to atmosphere or to a flare line.
Check all fittings for air leaks. If the unit uses a hydraulic system, check it for leaks, proper oil level, and absence of air in the system.
A drying shaker, or dryer, is a vibrating screen separator used to remove free liquid from cuttings prior to discharge and recover the liquid for re-use. Drying shakers are usually installed to process the cuttings discharged from primary scalping and/or fine screen shakers. A typical drying shaker is a linearmotion, multi-screen unit, with a feed hopper in place of the traditional back tank. Drying shakers are optimized to provide maximum retention time and cuttings dryness. Large hole sizes or high penetration rates may require more than one drying shaker to provide acceptable cuttings dryness and liquid recovery. Shale shakers are often the cause of excess mud loss during drilling operations, primarily due to screening too fine for drilling conditions and the design of some shakers. This mud loss can greatly increase mud costs and site clean-up costs, especially when oil-base muds, OBM, or synthetic-base muds, SBM, are used. One characteristic of SBM is the increased amount of liquid retained on the cuttings, compared to WBM or conventional OBM.
Maintenance of degassers varies considerably depending on make and model. In general, the following guidelines apply: • Check to make sure the suction screen is not plugged. • Routinely lubricate any pumps and other moving parts and check for wear. • Keep all discharge lines open and free from restrictions, such as caused by solids buildup around valves. • If the degasser utilizes a vacuum, keep it at the proper operating level, according to the manufacturer’s recommended range for the mud weight and process rate.
Given a screen length of 24 inches and operation at 4 Gs. while at 7 Gs the conveyance rate is about 5 inches per second. Oil content on cuttings is primarily a function of retention time on the screen surface and the exposure of the cutting to the vibrational force of the shaker. Feed to the drying shaker should be through open hopper sized to eliminate solids build-up or plugging. the conveyance rate is close to 1 inch per second. Recent field studies indicate this is not necessarily true. At 4 Gs. screen deck length and deck angle will greatly influence cuttings dryness. Screen deck length determines the distance a cutting must travel prior to discharge and deck angle influences retention time — the longer the screen deck and the steeper the deck angle. However.5° to 5° to increase retention time and maximize cuttings dryness.5 to 8 Gs. the greater the retention time. Field tests indicate the optimum dryer design provides about 4–5 Gs of force.The drying shaker is designed to expose wet drilled cuttings to an additional vibrating screen surface and separate some of the bound liquid coating the surface of the solids. Prevalent thinking was that the additional impact force provided by the higher G-force would improve cuttings dryness. The liquid is then returned to the active system or transferred to a storage tank for future use. The G-force greatly affects the speed at which cuttings move from the feed end of the screen surface to the discharge end. with a deck design that is flat at the feed end to reduce cuttings grinding and maximize usable screen area. The discharge screens should be sloped uphill at 2. INSTALLATION • Locate the drying shaker(s) at a lower level from the main linear shakers and other solids control equipment.47 . a cutting will take approximately 24 seconds to travel from the feed end of the screen to the discharge end. longer screen decks may not fit the available space and too steep a deck angle will result in cuttings grinding and unacceptable build-up of fine solids. Increasing the G-force to 7 G’s reduces the exposure time to 6 seconds and will actually increase the amount of oil remaining on the cuttings! Since the amount of oil remaining on the cutting is a function of exposure time. DRYING SHAKER DESIGN The first drying shakers were “high-G” units. operating at 6. Cuttings should be 3.
reduce liquid loss. The mesh of the screens on the drying shaker should be close to. desilter. piping. These “unitized” systems maximize solids control efficiency.• • • * • • evenly deposited as close to the feed end of the drying shaker as possible to maximize usable screen area and cuttings dryness. or finer than.12 UNITIZED SYSTEMS Since 1976.48 . The discharge end screen should be a flat screen panel to minimize cuttings bed depth and maximize liquid recovery. desander. ease transportation and installation. the decanting centrifuge may be eliminated. The liquid recovered from the drilled cuttings will contain base fluid. 3. plus any solids finer than the screen mesh of the drying shaker. the screens on the main shakers to prevent the re-introduction of separated solids to the active system. In some installations. Pinnacle™ screen panels at the feed end of the dryer to usable increase screen area. Components of unitized systems can vary depending on manufacturer and the particular drilling application. The recovered liquid should be processed through a decanting centrifuge to remove ultra-fine solids before the mud is returned to the active system or storage tank. Adjust screen deck angle design to properly convey solids. motors and accessories. Desilting requirements are usually met by blanking off the screens on the mud clean- 3. and prevent cuttings grinding. degasser. pumps. The middle screen panel may be either a 3-D or flat panel. and often provide a very high efficiency system for ecologically sensitive drilling sites. but most include one or more of the basic separation devices installed in series: fine screen shaker. mud cleaner/conditioner. but only after careful consideration of cuttings size and their effect on fluid properties. including all supporting tanks. several solids control manufacturers have developed complete packages of skid-mounted solids control devices. and centrifuge. depending on deck angle and desired fluid end point. Use three-dimensional. Provide slides or conveyors to direct “dry” cuttings to solids collection bins or discharge chutes Supply a flooded pump suction in the liquid collection tank for transfer by pump to the desired storage or processing tank.
and make the electrical and water connections. along with the custom requirements of operators and increasing emphasis on environmental impact. However. connect a discharge line from the unitized system into the rig suction pit. Normally the only installation required for these units is to feed the flow line from the well into the shale shaker. Suppliers of both systems commonly provide 24 hour on-site service for all components in the system. are properly sized to provide the greatest degree of efficiency in the smallest amount of space.49 . RESs utilize as much of the existing rig equipment and tanks as possible to simplify installation. which greatly improves overall efficiency and simplifies maintenance procedures from the driller’s standpoint. are properly sized to provide the greatest degree of efficiency in the smallest amount of space. Considering the 3. Sand traps and agitators are also standard equipment in most units (See Figure 3-30). In well-designed systems. reduce equipment cost. all pieces of equipment. have created another type of system — the Rig-Enhanced System. including pumps and motors.Figure 3-30 Brandt/EPI™ ISCS unitized System er/conditioners and operating them as desilters as appropriate. Rig-Enhanced Systems (RES) are designed so all pieces of equipment. and allow further customization of a system for a specific application. Like the unitized systems. including pumps and motors. The suction pit remains a necessary part of the surface system in order to provide mud volume capacity and as a place for mixing-in mud additives.13 RIG ENHANCED SYSTEMS Recent advances in shaker design. 3. Piping is engineered for optimum fluid handling with the shortest practical suction and discharge lines.
These systems combine the equipment found in Section 3. the smallest particles (colloidal sized) usually remain with the liquid phase of the mud. Solids handling techniques include washing cuttings to remove excess chlorides or residual oil. etc. is to limit waste discharge to disposable solids and clear water. with a 50–55% Solids Discharge Concentration. “closed loop” systems minimize drilled solids remaining in the drilling fluid.12 with chemicallyenhanced solids removal and specialized solids handling techniques. 3. that is. Solids Removal Efficiency of 75–95% is typical. on-pit attention and supervision. as rig wash water. while the larger particles — sand. Here are a few guidelines to keep in mind: • Fines stay with the liquid. “closed loop” systems have many applications other than environmental ones. In addition to their primary goal. including clear brines. The water is often recycled on location for building new mud. or used for irrigation. Pretreatment can include pH adjustment. Proper installation and operation are equally important. This system provides best results when combined with constant. — are removed from the liquid. these systems will be used more often in the future. The benefit of a “closed loop” system comes from increased solids removal efficiency with unweighted fluids.50 solidification. and drilling problems. . often called “closed loop” systems. 3. Enhanced solids removal is accomplished with chemical addition to “pre-treat” the fluid prior to screening or centrifugation. A “closed loop” system often includes multiple shale shakers and centrifuges to achieve a high efficiency of performance in the large upper hole sections of the well where wastes and circulating volumes are the greatest. Therefore. or cuttings discharge into water tight containers for transport to approved waste facilities.importance of solids control in deep drilling and the growing concern over environmental impact of mud waste disposal. and reduced discharge volume with weighted fluids. This performance has proven extremely effective in environmentally sensitive areas or whenever cuttings and liquid mud must be hauled from the location prior to disposal. cuttings. or similar treatment. This reduces dilution requirements.14 HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLIDS REMOVAL SYSTEMS The goal of high efficiency solids removal systems. flocculation/coagulation. waste volume.
Never try to make a single device remove all particle sizes — it is better to allow each device to remove its particular size range within an overall solids control system.15 BASIC ARRANGEMENT RULES Mechanical solids control is the most cost-effective method to control drilled solids. Special winterizing measures — a shed around the pits. operate it RIGHT! 3. The benefits of proper solids control are discussed in detail in Section 2. each device removes progressively smaller particles. Proper solids control requires: • Proper planning before the well begins 3.51 .• • • • • • • • Size each piece of full-flow solids control equipment. install it. — may be required in areas of extreme cold in order to ensure proper functioning of the solids control equipment. Never install a 90° elbow or • • • • • valve within 5 feet of suction of a centrifugal pump. as this will drastically reduce the life of the pump. steam lines. the cause is improper installation. Keep all piping as short and straight as possible. volume from mud guns. preferably by mechanical agitators. Each piece of solids control equipment should discharge into the next compartment downstream from where its suction is taken. etc. to handle 110–125% of circulating volume (in order to handle backflow within compartments. except the centrifuges. drains in pumps. etc.). Use only as many cones on a mud cleaner/conditioner as required to meet flow capacity. Often when a solids control device fails to perform. All compartments other than the sand trap should be agitated. as it should. Size it. Install equipment in proper sequence: as the mud moves downstream. Always use the finest mesh screen possible that will meet throughput and screen life requirements. cyclones should emit a spray discharge rather than a rope discharge. Remember size constraints and possible sloshing and spillage in rough seas when designing offshore systems. in order to extend screen life and to avoid flooding the screen. not equipment malfunction. For maximum efficiency.
except the sand trap. installation.. Arrangement – Each piece of solids control equipment must be arranged so that the suction is taken from a compartment upstream of the discharge compartment.e. 3. Use a separate centrifugal pump for each hydrocyclone device (do not use the same pump for more than one piece of equipment). In other words. should be well stirred. If mud guns are used they should be arranged so that no flow bypasses the solids control equipment. If it is not then mud is bypassing the equipment. Compartment Mixing – To provide a uniform solids load to the equipment each compartment. then mud is flowing downstream through the equalizer. There should be only one button to push to begin the pump and the discharge valve opened slowly to begin operation of the solids control unit. Dedicated Feed Pumps – Manifolding pumps and equipment so that multiple configurations are available depending on valve positions is always a mistake. Agitators are preferable. the flow through compartment equalizers should always be from the discharge to the suction.52 . • • • Upstream Flow Through Equalizer – If the flow into the suction compartment is greater than the rate of flow processed by the equipment. i. there must be a wall or division with an equalizer opening between the suction and discharge. even if it is boards placed in the tank temporarily. and operation of available equipment Routine monitoring of fluid properties to optimize performance Sequential Treatment – It follows from previous recommendations that the solids control equipment should be arranged so that each piece of equipment removes successively finer solids.• • • • • Proper selection. Proper system selection is the first step to effective solids control. Equipment selection is decided by site-specific requirements.
3 Certifications: Quality products and services are our priority. and service of solid/liquid separation systems.1 . Emphasis on quality and innovative solutions has established Brandt/EPI as a performance-oriented company with strong bottom-line focus. Through its parent 4. 4.2 Business Relationships: We believe in long-term partnerships with clients and vendors. manufacture. production. and industrial applications.0 Equipment and Services for Solids Control and Waste Management On-site Technical Support Pilot Studies Project Proposals Process Recommendations Project Installation and Start-Up System and Equipment Design Site Remediation Services Bioremediation Dewatering Systems Landfarming Pond Closures Slurrification and Injection Sludge Fixation Soil/Sand washing Waste minimization Water Treatment COMPANY PROFILE 4. and place strict emphasis on providing cost-effective products and services to meet the needs of our clients. We have the technical expertise to provide engineering services.4. our employees. Brandt/EPI personnel have been providing industry with solid solutions to separation and remediation problems. and site remediation services for exploration. Our diversified experience and proven track record allow us to offer a wide range of project capabilities including: Equipment and Systems Vibrating Screen Separators Hydrocyclone Separators Centrifugal Separators Dewatering Units Filtration Units Integrated Systems Other Products Technical and Engineering Services Equipment Recommendations 4. related equipment. and proprietary technologies to our clients throughout the world.1 Scope of Services: Brandt/EPI™ specializes in the design. For over 20 years. system design and operation. and the community. regulatory agencies.
a positive working environment. safe performance and innovative solutions to client needs. Our professionals are experienced in solid/liquid separations. Brandt/EPI and its affiliated companies have over 400 operations and technical support personnel strategically located in local service centers throughout the world. pulp and paper. Services. High-performance screen separators. stone dewatering. H2S.company. and the financial capabilities to develop long-term relationships with clients. We have successfully closed over 1. Brandt/EPI also provides quality replacement screen panels with a wide range of screen cloth for all screen units. Brandt/EPI maintains several corporate certifications including ISO 9001. chemical processing. and others. ASME. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Brandt/EPI specializes in field-proven separation systems for a variety of applications. hydrocyclones. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and finance. suppliers. This expertise provides the ability to offer a wide variety of products and services. Gos-Standard and Gosgortechnadzor. environmental law. API. Offshore Operations. Many personnel hold industry certifications in HAZWOPER. Society of Petroleum Engineers. petroleum geology. site remediation. Brandt/EPI also maintains a wide network of technical experts through participation in industry organizations such as the American Petroleum Institute. and municipal sludge. 4. and centrifuges are available as separate units or as components of custom-designed systems. Process Safety. DNV. American Association of Drilling Engineers. and CPR.4 Personnel Resources: Brandt/EPI has established a reputation for professional. Brandt/EPI provides a full range of site remediation services through our own operations and in partnership with Remediation Management. clay processing. consistent. 4. design engineering.2 . Inc. National Utility Contractors Association.000 surface pits to Louisiana Rule 29-B standards or better in over eighteen years of site remediation. These include exploration and production. petrochemical. International Association of Drilling Contractors. and sub-contractors.
With the feed end 4. compact unit that routinely out-performs larger shakers.ft.8 sq. but has a full 35.5 Linear Motion Screen Separators ATL-1000 Screen Separator The ATL-1000 combines a tandem screen arrangement and linear motion with a ramp-slope screen deck and flat Blue Hex SM screen panels (38-450 mesh) to maximize solids separation in a single. With the feed end screens flat.system (-5° to +5°). compact unit that routinely out-performs larger shakers. Figure 4-1 ATL-1000 Linear Motion Screen Separator ATL-1200 Screen Separator Designed for smaller drilling rigs and workover units. and screen changes are quick with the exclusive screen latches. The ATL-1000 is only 93” from end to end.3 . the ATL-1200 combines the performance of the ATL-1000 Separator with a lower weir height in a single. of screen area. The ramp-slope design allows the feed end screens to be operated downhill with the discharge end screens flat for maximum conveyance of sticky solids. A singlemotor/sealed gearbox drive system reduce downtime and maintenance costs. Deck angle is easily adjusted with the pinned jacking Figure 4-2 ATL-1200 Linear Motion Screen Separator 4. Multiple units can be used to increase capacity. The ramp-slope design allows the feed end screens to be operated downhill with the discharge end screens flat for maximum conveyance of sticky solids. the discharge end screens tilt uphill to improve cuttings dryness and increase capacity without the excessive pool depths found with other designs. The flat (no crown) screen deck reduces liquid loss down the sides of the screens and maximizes usable screen area. The flat (no crown) screen deck reduces liquid loss down the sides of the screens and maximizes usable screen area.
and screen changes are quick with the exclusive screen latches. Figure 4-3 LCM-2D Linear Motion Screen Separator 4. other designs.7 sq. the ATL-CS combines the fine screening ability of a single-deck ATL-1200 with the circular motion of the proven Tandem Screen Separator into a unit with the lowest weir height of any highperformance cascade separator.ft. The dual Vibra-motor drive system is simple. higher process volumes. the discharge end screens tilt uphill to improve cuttings dryness and increase capacity without the excessive pool depths found with other designs. The ATL-1200 measures only 93” from end to end. and minimum maintenance. efficient. Multiple units may be used to increase capacity.ft. A single-motor/sealed gearbox drive system reduce downtime and maintenance costs. 33. but has a full 25. The rampslope screen deck provides a horizontal feed screen and an inclined discharge screen for maximum solids separation without the excessive pool depths found on Figure 4-4 ATL-CS Cascade Screen Separator Linear Motion Cascade Screen Separators ATL-CS Cascade Separator The ATL-CS is designed to screen fine. Multiple units can be used to increase capacity. modular unit.screens flat. screen deck includes a unique dewatering screen panel and a small-footprint design.0 sq. sticky clays at high flowrates in a single. of screen area. LCM-2D Screen Separator The LCM-2D Separator (patent pending) is designed for maximum screening efficiency from 30 to 250 mesh. and requires no maintenance. Typically constructed from corrosion-resistant stainless-steel. The adjustable angle (+5° to -10°).4 . Deck angle is easily adjusted with the pinned jacking system (-5° to +5°).
modular unit. the recovered fluid may be centrifuged before it is returned to the active system.5 . sticky clays at high flowrates in a single. If desired. Multiple units may be used to increase capacity.ft. “high-G” designs due to longer retention time on the screen surface and less liquid retained on the cuttings. The recovered fluid is captured in an agitated tank and is returned to the active system by an integral centrifugal pump.The ATL-CS provides a total of 65 sq. of screen area and uses rugged hook-strip screens on the scalping decks and Blue Hex SM screen panels on the lower deck to improve efficiency and reduce screen costs. If desired. Pump operations are automatic and controlled by a float valve switch mechanism. area is 56. Total screen Figure 4-6 ATL Drying Shaker 4.ft. The LCM-2D Cascade uses the same screens on the upper scalping deck and the lower linear unit to reduce screen inventories and costs. combination stainless/carbon steel or full carbon steel construction are available. The ATL Dryer has proved to be superior to larger.3 sq. Figure 4-5 LCM-2D Cascade Linear Motion Screen Separator LCM-2D Cascade Separator The LCM-2D Cascade (patent pending) combines the fine screening ability and simplicity of the LCM-2D with a circular motion scalping shaker to screen fine. Cuttings and fluids from the primary rig shakers are fine screened by an adjustable linear screen deck resulting in drier solids and cleaner reclaimed base mud. Linear Motion Drying Shakers ATL Drying Shaker The ATL Drying Shaker is a compact “low-G” drying shaker. The lower “G” forces also cause significantly less particle size degradation of the cuttings. Multiple units may be used to increase capacity.
6 Figure 4-8 ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner . Mud 4.3 sq. of screen area. or as a three-stage separator with both desander and desilter cones to provide up to 1500 GPM process capacity in a single unit. Two separate feed pumps are used to provide proper fluid processing through the cones. ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner Figure 4-7 SDW-25 Drying Shaker SDW-25 Drying Shaker In cases where additional screen area or higher G-forces are desired. The cone underflow from both the desander and desilter may be processed through a fine mesh.Conditioners may be configured as a two-stage separator with either desander or desilter cones only. The most popular models are described here. screen to remove fine solids and minimize Linear Motion Mud Conditioners Mud Conditioners combine the fine screening ability and small footprint of Brandt/EPI’s linear motion separators with Brandt/EPI’s proven hydrocyclone separators to remove fine solids from weighted muds and to minimize waste volumes from unweighted muds. and has 33.ft. The independent dual-motor drive system eliminates pulleys. other configurations are also available. Deck angle is easily adjusted with a hydraulic jacking system. The SDW-25 is a four-panel version of the proven family of ATL linear motion separators. the SDW-25 Dryer provides screening to 500 mesh. The ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner is a three-stage separator rated at 1000 GPM. or gearboxes to simplify operation and maintenance. The ATL-16/2 has two desander cones and sixteen desilter cones mounted over an ATL-1200 linear motion screen deck. 120-325 mesh. belts.
If desired.ft. especially sticky clays. ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner The ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner is a two-stage separator rated at 1680 GPM.0 sq. A centrifugal feed pump is Figure 4-10 LCM-2D Mud Conditioner LCM-2D Mud Conditioner The LCM-2D Mud Conditioner combines the fine screening ability and simplicity of the LCM-2D linear motion separator (patent pending) with Brandt/EPI’s proven hydrocyclone separators to remove fine solids from weighted muds and to minimize waste volumes from unweighted muds.ft. If desired. Total screen area is 25. Figure 4-9 ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner 4.ft.or three-stage separations up to 1680 GPM in a single unit.liquid waste volume.screen to remove fine solids and minimize liquid waste volume.0 sq. the cone underflow may be discarded directly to waste.7 . The horizontal screen deck and circular motion provide excellent conveyance of solids. 120-325 mesh . Total screen area is 25. The cone underflow may be processed through a fine mesh. Tandem Screen Separator The dual-deck Tandem Screen Separator is designed to process high volumes between 20 and 120 mesh.7 sq.6 Orbital Screen Separators used to provide proper fluid processing through the cones. the cone underflow may be discarded directly to waste. The LCM-2D Mud Conditioner may be configured with desander and/or desilter hydrocyclones to provide either two. Total screen area is 33. High capaci- 4. The ATL-2800 has twentyeight desilter cones mounted over an ATL-1200 linear motion screen deck.
Mud Cleaners Brandt/EPI Mud Cleaners are a field-proven. Junior units are available for workover and similar operations. A rugged. elliptical motion to provide years of trouble-free operation.Figure 4-11 Tandem Screen Separator ty and efficient separation are achieved because the top screen separates large solids from the mud and improves the separating performance and screen life of the bottom screen. and triple units. dual. 30 to 50 mesh or larger. low maintenance requirements and quiet. and triple units. dual. Their horizontal screen deck and circular motion provide excellent conveyance of solids. Tandem Separators are available in single. Standard Separators are available in single. especially sticky clays. The reliability. two-stage separator designed to process up to 600 GPM over a single basket. single motor design is combined with unbalanced. dependable operation have made these machines industry standards for over 20 years. low to moderate capacities of materials requiring coarse screen separations. The reliability. The standard separator may also be used as a scalping shaker to reduce equipment costs. Junior units are available for workover and similar operations.8 . low maintenance require- Figure 4-12 Standard Screen Separator Standard Screen Separator The single-screen Standard Separator is designed to process Figure 4-13 Mud Cleaners 4.
The support grid also prevents small tears from spreading across the entire screen surface. 12. The wirecloth is factory pre-tensioned for longer screen life. Finally. chemicals. blinding and contamination from process fluids. 16. or 20 Desilter Cones. Pinnacle™ screens may also improve performance on scalping shakers and other orbital shakers 4. The result is longer screen life and . dependable operation have made these machines industry standards for over 20 years. propagation of tears. This design increases usable screen area and reduces liquid loss along the sides of screen panels. Mud Cleaners are available in single or dual units and with one or two pre-tensioned (PT) screen decks.and multi-layer configurations.7 Screen Panels Blue HexSM Screen Panels Brandt/EPI’s exclusive Blue Hex screen panels are flat — there is no crown. Pinnacle™ Three-dimensional Screen Panels* Pinnacle™ screen panels offer up to 40% more screening area without increasing the overall size of the screen panel or adding additional shakers. Blue HexSM screen panels eliminate the leading SM more efficient solids separation. 4. similar to the design of a pleated air filter has several advantages: • Provides even distribution of fluid across the screen surface • Eliminates unwanted fluid loss near the screen edges • Improves dryness of solids discharge • Allows the use of finer screens. the bonding process results in a screen panel that is impervious to degradation from high temperatures. This concept. Mud Cleaners are available with 10.9 Figure 4-14 Blue HexSM Screen Panels causes of screen failures — screen flex.ments and quiet. it can be easily repaired with Brandt/EPI’s exclusive screen plugs. When a tear does occur. Blue HexSM screens are available in single. These screens use a rigid support frame and grid to eliminate screen flex and sag. improper tensioning. or oils. usually 2–3 mesh sizes finer The increased usable screen area of Pinnacle™ screens is best utilized when combined with flat screen panels on linear motion shaker with an uphill basket slope.
1000 GPM. from 84 mesh to 250 mesh. fixed solids discharge apex for maximum solids removal. and the latest.10 Figure 4-15 Desander . They incorporate superior involute feed entry. equivalent to 50-140 mesh cloths are also available. Hook-Strip Screen Panels Brandt/EPI™ also supplies a full line of hook-strip screens available in single-layer or multi-layer configurations. pretensioned and bonded to a metal frame for strength and long screen life. proprietary oblong or rectangular weaves. and may be manufactured from square-mesh market grade or tensile bolting cloths. * Pinnacle is a trademark of Advanced Wirecloth. and 1500 GPM models. 4. a molded-in ceramic insert may be specified. leak-proof performance. Urethane screens. Inc. PT screens are available from 80 mesh to 325 mesh. preferred flanged design for tight. PT Screen Panels PT screen panels are used on Brandt/EPI™ Mud Cleaners. For extremely abrasive conditions. resistance to abrasion. 1-3/4” and 1-1/2” apex sizes are also available. Each desander cone is 12” diameter with a 2-1/8” diameter. and standard Victaulic® connections. Brandt/EPI™ Desanders offer excellent high temperature tolerance. 4. These features make them a popular choice for retrofit of existing units. all-polymer construction. Hook-strip screen panels are available from 8-mesh to 500mesh. in market grade and tensile bolting cloths.when used in offshore (floater) applications to reduce the effects of swell and heave. and low-cost replacement.8 Hydrocyclone Units Desanders Available in 500 GPM. Pinnacle™ screen panels are available for most popular fine screen shakers in several combinations of screen layers and mesh size. This two-panel screen consists of one or more layers of fine-mesh screen cloth. high-conductance weaves for special applications.
Each desilter cone is 4” diameter with an adjustable solids discharge apex for maximum solids removal. and variable pond depth orifices. These features make them the preferred choice for both contractors and operators. Brandt/EPI™ Desilters offer excellent high temperature tolerance. resistance to abrasion. all-polymer construction. all units include safety shut-down devices. hardfaced solids discharge ports.9 Centrifuges Brandt/EPI™ offers several models of reliable. For safe operation.Desilters Available to process 60 gpm to 1440 gpm. viscosity control (barite recovery) for weighted muds. They incorporate involute feed entry. Figure 4-18 Decanting Centrifuge 4. preferred flanged designs for tight. and low-cost replacement. and dual centrifuge systems for synthetic oil base muds and other critical applications. and heavy-duty guards over all rotating components. leak-proof performance.11 . high-performance centrifuges to meet your two-phase liquid/solid separation requirements — fine solids removal from unweighted muds. explosion-proof electrics. Figure 4-16 Desilter SC-1 Decanting Centrifuge Figure 4-17 Desilter Cone The SC-1 centrifuge has an 18” x 28” bowl and is designed primarily for barite recovery from fluids 4. All Brandt/EPI™ decanting centrifuges can be used in both unweighted and weighted mud applications. and standard Victaulic® connections. hard-faced conveyor feed ports and scroll flight tips. All units feature high capacity contour bowls. All desilter cones have a molded-in ceramic insert to reduce wear and extend the life of the cone.
The SC-4 is also an excellent dewatering centrifuge and barite recovery centrifuge due to its 59:1 gearbox. The HS3400 is available in allelectric. hydraulic main drive. SC-4 Decanting Centrifuge The SC-4 centrifuge has a 24” x 40” bowl and a double-lead conveyor designed for maximum solids tonnage removal (up to 8 TPH) and process rates up to 250 gpm for unweighted muds.5” bowl and is 4. reliable performance.weighing up to 26 ppg. longer life. the HS3400 decanting centrifuge has become the industry standard for high-speed performance and reliability. Figure 4-19 HS3400 Centrifuge with Electric Drive HS3400 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge For applications that require high-speed. Stainless steel construction and sintered tungsten carbide wear tiles provide years of trouble-free operation. Top recommended bowl speed is 3250 RPM. The HS3400 has a 14” x 49. an electric back drive to vary conveyor/bowl speed ratio is available as an option. The SC-1 can also process up to 150 gpm of unweighted muds. The all-electric drive provides simple. If desired.12 Figure 4-20 HS3400 Centrifuge with Hydraulic Drive SC-35HS Decanting Centrifuge The SC-35HS decanting centrifuge is designed for better high-speed performance. designed for ultra fine solids removal from unweighted muds at process rates up to 160 GPM and 5 TPH. and less maintenance than competitive . The hydraulic drive systems offer additional separation versatility and flexibility to optimize solids/liquid separation over a wide variety of drilling conditions. removing up to 6 tons per hour (TPH) of low gravity solids. high G-force separations. or all-hydraulic (main and back drive) configurations.
500 RPM. and greater settling area in a smaller. higher solids capacity (6 TPH). and the bowl/ conveyor differential is also adjustable between 1 RPM and 100 RPM. the HS5200 has a 16” x 49. Figure 4-23 HS-5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge Roto-Sep Centrifuge The Roto-Sep Centrifuge is a perforated rotor design to remove undesirable fine solids from weighted drilling fluids. or all-hydraulic (main and back drive) configurations. Top recommended speed is 3. the SC-35HS centrifuge’s 15” x 48” contour bowl and the proprietary gearbox provide several advantages — higher “G-forces at a given speed.5” contour bowl and high torque drive system for higher . capacity and sharper separations — up to 250 GPM and 8 TPH. The SC-35HS is available in all-electric. thus allowing the unit to be located a 4.Figure 4-21 SC-35HS Decanting Centrifuge designs. the Roto-Sep provides slurrified solids. higher flowrates (up to 180 GPM). The rotating separation chamber increases solids settling rate to remove these fine solids and recover barite with up to 92% efficiency. Compared to other “highspeed designs. Main bowl speed is infinitely variable up to the maximum 4200 RPM. Stainless steel construction and tungsten carbide wear tiles provide years of trouble-free operation. finer separations. Based on the proven HS3400 design. The HS5200’s all-hydraulic drive system can be easily adjusted for optimum performance in all fluid processing conditions. Stainless steel construction and tungsten carbide wear tiles along the entire scroll length provide years of trouble-free operation. more compact footprint. hydraulic main drive.or trailer-mounted units. Available in skid.13 HS-5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge The HS5200 is a “third-generation” high-speed decanting centrifuge capable of 4000 Gs and 4200 RPM operation.
Figure 4-26 Inside the DWU-250 4. portable system that includes all mixing and polymer aging tanks. weatherized container enclosure. from simple. skid-mounted metering pump and tank modules. The DWU-250 is used with one or more decanting centrifuges as part of the ChemicallyEnhanced Dewatering process.10 Dewatering Units Brandt/EPI offers several models of dewatering units. controls. The DWU-250 is a self-contained.11 Filtration Units The Brandt/EPI Super-Flo™ filtration system is a DE (diatomaceous earth) unit designed for clear filtrate quality. and higher efficiency. metering pumps. The Super-Flo filtration unit is available in electric or diesel/pneumatic power models. 4. The unique tubular elements provide maximum flow in minimum space. and the more effective pre-coat and cleaning cycles increase throughput and reduce downtime. to the DWU-250 Dewatering Unit. piping and connection points. faster cycle times. including tropic or Arctic conditions. The DWU-250 may be equipped with climatized laboratory and office areas.Figure 4-24 Roto-Sep Centrifuge distance away from the solids return tank and simplifying installation.14 . and quality check points in a modular. Figure 4-25 Self-contained DWU-250 Figure 4-27 Filtration Unit 4.
dependable service.12 Vacuum Degassers The DG-5 (500 gpm) and DG-10 (1000 gpm) vacuum degassers have been rated by an independent study as the best-performing degassers for drilling fluid service. H 2S-rated vacuum pump provides positive removal of gas. Interior parts are treated to resist corrosion. a rugged. lowprofile. low-efficiency methods. worm/worm gear drive for higher efficiency. and smooth vibration-free operation.15 4. There is no remixing of mud and gas as found in other. Brandt/ EPI agitators use a single-reduction. with flat or canted . efficient blowers especially for improved comfort and safety on drilling rigs. simplifies proper agitator sizing and selection. 4. Their low profile minimizes headroom requirements and provides stability and safety. The Agitator Sizing Chart for Drilling Muds.Figure 4-28 Vacuum Degasser impeller blades for complete mixing action. and provide maximum release and removal of entrained gas by flowing the gas-cut fluid in very thin sheets across a series of stacked plates. another Brandt/EPI innovation. and is located in Appendix D. While an eductor jet removes the degassed mud. These degassers are compact. Figure 4-29 Mud Agitator 4. 4. Designed to meet applicable OSHA specifications.14 Portable Rig Blowers Brandt/EPI developed these quiet.13 Mud Agitators Brandt / EPI MA Series mechanical agitators are available from 3 HP to 25 HP.
wall-mounted. To ensure safe operation. product classification systems.16 .000 cfm. remote areas.15 Integrated Systems Closed Loop Processing Systems All Brandt / EPI™ equipment can be integrated into systems designed for specific applications. Blowers are available in floormounted. and other waste reduction/management systems. providing excellent results in land and offshore installations. Brandt / EPI Closed Loop Mud Systems (CLMS) are customdesigned for your specific application. We have over 20 years’ experience designing. heavy-gauge safety guards and explosion-proof electrics. and 40. Figure 4-31 Closed Loop Mud System 4. processing plants.4. Available in three sizes — 15. manufacturing. or hangermounted units. 25.000 cfm — Brandt/EPI Blowers move high volumes of air with minimal noise or vibration. in-plant installations. A typical CLMS may include Figure 4-30 Portable Rig Blower these blowers are used to disperse potentially dangerous gasses and bothersome insects.000 cfm. and operating systems for “Closed Loop” processing of drilling fluids. environmental. Brandt / EPI equipment is currently in service throughout the world. all blowers feature non-sparking aluminum blades. dewatering systems. and economic needs. cuttings wash systems. based on operational. and site remediation projects.
or water-base drilling fluids — are also readily available. Mud Conditioner. we have successfully closed over 1. ranging from small diameter fiber-optic cable installations to large natural gas pipeline projects. and Decanting Centrifuge. The integrated degasser (not shown) is specially designed to remove large amounts of entrained gas safely and effectively. Dual centrifuge installations for special applications — such as weighted oil base muds and synthetic oil. and tank configuration. The Brandt/EPI “Live Oil” System is a modular tank system. mixing equipment. Water and oil are separated and recovered in separate tanks for future re-use or transportation. provides a full range of site remediation services throughout the world. both drilling and workover. a Brandt/ EPI company.000 surface pits to Louisiana 4. We have also provided systems and operators for horizontal wells to neutralize underground contamination plumes and other environmental remediation projects.17 Figure 4-32 Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing System . 4. complete with pressure control and solids separation equipment. type and number of fluid processing equipment. Their modular design makes it easy to select the total mud volume. Trenchless Technology Processing Systems Brandt/EPI CLMS are also rapidly becoming the preferred choice for Trenchless Technology Mud Systems. All compartments are mechanically agitated to prevent settling of weighting materials and maintain a homogenous fluid mixture. Drying Shakers. Live Oil Systems Brandt/EPI offers a proprietary system to process three-phase solids/water/oil separations when drilling underbalanced through producing zones.one or more primary Screen Separators.16 Remediation Management Services Remediation Management Services. Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing Systems CT Processing Systems are designed for the specific requirements of coiled tubing operations. In over eighteen years of site remediation. We have successfully completed over 75 trenchless projects in North America.
4. labor. related equipment. chemicals. but other styles may be requested. onsite testing and analytical data. All equipment can be supplied in full carbon steel. tanks. depending on project and client requirements.17 Technical and Engineering Services Brandt/EPI™ offers a full range of technical and engineering services to ensure optimum application and performance of separation and other. transfer pumps and related equipment. Explosion-proof electrical components are standard. Figure 4-33 Site Remediation Services Rule 29-B standards or better. site closure. and other documentation. power source. and necessary state or federal permits. Techniques available include: • Closed loop mud systems • Chemically Enhanced Dewatering • Landfarming / landspreading • Bioremediation • Cuttings slurrification and injection systems • Sludge stabilization and fixation • Soil/sand washing • Surface pit closure • Waste minimization • Water treatment • Construction equipment • Pump rental • Water Discharge Permit No.18 . Call your local Brandt/EPI representative for a quotation. 4. reports. carbon/stainless steel combination. These services range from periodic. or full stainless steel in a variety of finishes and colors. 5259 Each service typically includes all necessary excavation equipment. process equipment. Technical and engineering services include: • Project pre-planning • Rig surveys • Project recommendations • On-site system operation and maintenance • Brandt’s exclusive RECAP™ Report (Removal Efficiency Cost Analysis Program) • CAD-based engineering • PC-based particle size analysis • Pilot testing • Technical education and training Any Brandt/EPI™ product may be custom-manufactured to meet your project requirements. on-site inspections to complete design proposals and continuous on-site technical support.
..........................D............A.....................................6 Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency ...........B..............3 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates ............................................................................7 Brandt/EPI™ Sales & Service Locations ...........................B...................................................................B..........................APPENDICES Glossary .................10 Mud Engineering Data Conversion Constants and Formulas ................5 Solids Content Chart .2 Hole Capacities ..............................................C.......5 Solids Control Performance Evaluation ...............................6 Equipment Selection Pre-well Project Checklist .............................................................1 ..C.......................................3 Selecting Size and Number of Agitators ....................D............................4 Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge ....1 Density of Common Materials.B............................................D..................................................................C........................1 Screen Cloth Comparisons ..............................................................C.............8 A...C........................................................................................................................................B..............................2 Mud Solids Calculations Standard Calculations....C.................................D......2 Brandt/EPI™ Equipment Specifications .......1 Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge....D...............................4 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates.................................................................................
amplitude would be one-half of the total movement of the major axis of the ellipse. AIR CUTTING See Preferred Term: AERATION AIR LOCK A condition causing a centrifugal pump to stop pumping due to a ball of air (or gas) in the impeller center that will not let liquid enter (usually caused by aeration). amplitude would be the radius of the circle. thus one-half stroke. APEX See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING. API SAND Solids particles in a drilling fluid that are too large to pass through a U.API Bul D11 * IADC Mud Equipment Manual ANTIFOAM A substance used to prevent foam by greatly increasing the surface tension. It is a function of the plastic viscosity and the yield point. In the case of a vibrating screen with circular motion. See related term: SAND CONTENT. AMPLITUDE + The distance from the mean position to the point of maximum displacement. See related term: MESH. it can be very harmful. Compare: DEFOAMER. APERTURE + An opening. APPARENT VISCOSITY The viscosity a fluid appears to have on a given instrument at a stated rate of shear. If not selectively controlled. AXIAL FLOW* Flow from a mechanical agitator in which the fluid first moves along the axis of the impeller shaft (usually down A ADSORBED LIQUID The liquid film that adheres to the surfaces of solids particles which cannot be removed by draining. PLASTIC VISCOSITY.S. AERATION* The mechanical incorporation and dispersion of air into a drilling fluid system. and YIELD POINT. See related term: STROKE. In the case of straight-line motion or elliptical motion. Standard 200 Mesh Screen (74 micron openings). the clear opening between wires. even centrifugal force.GLOSSARY LEGEND + API Bul 13C . In a screen surface.2 . APEX VALVE See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING. See also: VISCOSITY. A.
See related terms: COATING. flow diverters to direct screen underflow to either side of the skid and mountings for vibration isolation members. BENTONITE A hydratable colloidal clay. PLUGGING. BLADE See Preferred Term: FLUTE. BLOWOUT An uncontrolled escape of drilling fluid. BOTTOM FLOODING The behavior of a hydrocyclone when A. See related term: DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE. BALANCE DESIGN (Hydrocyclone) A hydrocyclone designed so it can be operated to discharge solids when there are solids to separate. and reds to black.toward the bottom of a tank) and them away from the impeller. BED * Shale shaker support member consisting of mounting skid. used in drilling fluids to create viscosity. supported by vibration isolation members connected to the bed. used for increasing the density of drilling fluids. BEACH Area between the liquid pool and the solids discharge ports in a decanting centrifuge or hydrocyclone.3 . B BACKPRESSURE + The pressure opposing flow from a solids separation device.2 average specific gravity. gas. The barite mineral occurs in many colors from white through grays. BALANCE POINT * (of a Hydrocyclone) That adjustment at which exactly no liquid will discharge at the underflow opening. or frame with or without bottom. yet any greater opening at all would result in some liquid discharge. See related term: GEL. BASKET That portion of a shale shaker containing the deck upon which the screen(s) is mounted. BARREL (API) A unit of measure used in the petroleum industry consisting of 42 U. BARITE. API standards require a minimum of 4. BOTTOM (Cyclone) See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING. greens. or water from the well caused by the formation pressure being greater than the hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. BARYTES Natural barium sulfate. according to the impurities. but will automatically minimize liquid discharge when there are no separable solids. oil. largely made up of the mineral sodium montmorillonite. BLINDING + A reduction of open area in a screening surface caused by coating or plugging. gallons. BALANCE (as a Hydrocyclone)* To adjust a balanced design hydrocyclone so that it discharges only a slight drip of water at the underflow opening.S.
CASCADE Fluid movement on a single deck. A. CENTIPOISE (cp) A unit of viscosity equal to 1 gram per centimeter-second. drill pipe. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A device for moving fluid by means of a rotating impeller which spins the fluid and creates centrifugal force. See related term: WALL CAKE.4 . CERAMICS A general term for heat-hardened clay products which resist abrasion: used to extend the useful life of wear parts in pumps and cyclones. C CAKE THICKNESS The measurement of the thickness of the filter cake deposited by a drilling fluid against a porous medium most often following the standard API filtration test. BOUND LIQUID See Preferred Term: ADSORBED LIQUID.the underflow discharges whole mud rather than separated solids. or orifice used to restrict a rate of flow or discharge. CAPACITY The maximum volume rate at which a solids control device is designed to operate without detriment to separation. specifically: a device rotated by an external force for the purpose of separating materials of various specific gravities and/or particle sizes or shapes from a slurry to which the rotation is imparted primarily by rotating bowl. BOWL + The outer rotating chamber of a decanting centrifuge. CHOKE * An opening. and back again to the suction pit. CENTRIFUGE A centrifugal separator. bit.005 cp. See related term: SLOUGHING. Cake thickness is usually reported in 32nds of an inch. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR + A general term applicable to any device using centrifugal force to shorten and/or to control the settling time required to separate a heavier mass from a lighter mass. The viscosity of water at 20°C is 1. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE + That force which tends to impel matter outward from the center of rotation. See related terms: FEED CAPACITY. CAVING * Caving is a severe degree of sloughing. See related term: G-FORCE. CIRCULATION The movement of drilling fluid from the suction pit through pump. multiple screen sloping shale shaker basket which flow is parallel to screens. aperture. usually expressed in gallons or barrels per minute. CIRCULATION RATE The volume flow rate of the circulation drilling fluid. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY. annular space in the hole. The time involved is usually referred to as circulation time.
Natural clay particles are commonly (but not limited to) a hydrous silicate of alumina. CONVEYOR A mechanical device for moving material from one place to another. a hollow hub with flutes designed to move the coarse solids out of the bowl. CUTTINGS Small pieces of formation that are the result of the chipping and crushing action of the bit. Commonly used as a synonym for “clay. Clay minerals are essentially insoluble in water but disperse into extremely small particles as a result of hydra-small particles as a result of hydration.CLAY-SIZE. A. DEFLOCCULATION Breakup of flocs of gel structures by use of a thinner or dispersant. grinding.5 . CYCLONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. CROWN The curvature of a screen deck or the difference in elevation between its high and low points. D DECANTING CENTRIFUGE + A centrifuge which continuously removes solids that are coarse enough to be separated from their free liquid. CONTAMINATION The presence in a drilling fluid of any foreign material that may tend to harm the desired properties of the drilling fluid. COARSE (Solids) + Solids larger than 2000 microns in diameter. or velocity effects. In a decanting centrifuge. COATING A condition wherein undersize particles cover the openings of a screening surface by virtue of stickiness.” CONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. formed by the decomposition of feldspar and other aluminum silicates. CONTINUOUS PHASE The fluid phase of a drilling mud. See related term: BLINDING. DECK The screening surface in a shale shaker basket. Field practice is to call all solids removed by the shaker screen “cuttings. See related term: MEDIAN CUT. CLAY (Particles) Any solids particles less than 2 microns in diameter. CUT POINT A general term for the effectiveness of a liquid-solids separation device expressed as the particle size that is removed from the feed stream at a given percentage under specified operating conditions. COLLOIDAL (Solids) Particles so small that they do not settle out when suspended in a drilling fluid.” in spite of the fact that such solids may include sloughed materials and may be smaller than the screen openings. either water or oil.
The conditions essential for sticking require a permeable formation and a pressure differential across the filter cake and drill string. DISPERSE * To separate in component parts. grams per liter (g/l).6 . DILUTION RATIO * Ratio of volume of dilution liquid to the volume of raw mud in the feed to a liquid-solids separator. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (Hydrocyclone) The difference between the inlet and outlet pressures measured near the inlet and outlet openings of a hydrocyclone. It may be vibrating or stationary. and specific gravity.). DISCHARGE SPOUT OR LIP Extension at the discharge area of a screen. pounds per square inch per thousand feet of depth (psi/1000 ft. DILUENT Liquid added to dilute or thin a drilling fluid. DEGASSER A device that removes entrained gas from a drilling fluid. Compare: ANTIFOAM. DIRECT-INDICATING VISCOMETER See VISCOMETER. Dispersion increases the specific surface are of solids resulting in an increase in viscosity and gel strength.” DESAND To remove the API sand from drilling fluid.DEFOAMER Any substance used to reduce or eliminate foam by reducing the surface tension. DIRECT INDICATING. DISPERSION (of Aggregates)Disintegration of aggregates. DISPERSANT Any chemical which promotes dispersion of particles in a fluid. DESILTER A hydrocyclone capable of removing most particles larger than 15-20 microns from a drilling fluid. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (Wall) STICKING Sticking which occurs because part of the drill string (usually the drill collars) becomes embedded in the filter cake. Bentonite disperses by hydration into many smaller pieces. DENSITY Matter measured as mass per unit of volume expressed in pounds per gallon (lbs/gal). DILUTION WATER Water used for dilution of water-base drilling mud. resulting in a non-uniform distribution of pressure around the circumference of the pipe. DILUTION Increasing the liquid content of a drilling fluid by addition of water or oil. DESILT To remove most particles larger than 15-20 microns from a drilling fluid. Density is commonly referred to as “weight. A. DESANDER A hydrocyclone capable of removing the API sand (particles greater than 74 microns) from a drilling fluid.
DRILLING IN The operation during the drilling procedures at the point of drilling into the producing formation. See related term: MUD. EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL DIAMETER (ESD) + The theoretical dimension usually referred to when the sizes of irregularly shaped small particles are discussed.DIVIDED DECK + A deck having a screening surface longitudinally divided by partition(s). DRILLING RATE The rate at which hole depth progresses. EFFLUENT See Preferred Term: OVERFLOW. usually resulting in severe plugging. DRY PLUG The plugging of the underflow opening of a hydrocyclone caused by operating with a dry bottom.7 . EFFECTIVE SCREENING AREA The portion of a screen surface available for solids separation. ELEVATION HEAD The pressure created by a given height of fluid. A. DRILLED SOLIDS Formation particles drilled up by the bit. expressed in linear units per unit of time (including connections) as feet/minute or feet/hour. DRILLING MUD OR FLUID A circulating fluid used in rotary drilling to carry cuttings out of the hole and perform other functions required in the drilling operation. ELASTOMER Any rubber or rubber-like material (such as polyurethane). See related term: LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS. They may be oil-in-water or water-in-oil types. DYNAMIC The state of being active or in motion. DRY BOTTOM Referring to a hydrocyclone. opposed to static. See related term: PENETRATION RATE. See related term: HEAD. E EDUCTOR A device using a high velocity jet to create a vacuum which draws in liquid or dry material to be blended with drilling mud. an adjustment of the underflow opening that causes a dry beach. DOUBLE FLUTE + The flutes or leads advancing simultaneously at the same angle and 180° apart. EMULSION A substantially permanent mixture of two or more liquids which do not normally dissolve in each other. DRILLING OUT The operation during the drilling procedure when cement is drilled out of the casing before further hole is made or completion attempted. EMULSIFIER or EMULSIFYING AGENT A substance used to produce an emulsion of two liquids which ordinarily would not mix.
See related term: WALL CAKE. dependent upon particle size. tube. FEED OPENING See Preferred Term: INLET. and other variables. Two types of fluid filtration occur in a well: dynamic filtration while circulating.These dimensions can be determined by several methods. FEED HEAD The pressure (expressed in feet of head) exerted by the drilling fluid in a header. electrical resistance. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY. viscosity. and upstream of. FEED HEADER + A pipe. or FEED SLURRY A mixture of solids and liquid entering a liquid-solids separation device. or conduit to which two or more hydrocyclones are connected and from which they receive their feed slurry. FINE SCREEN SHAKER A vibrating screening device designed for screening drilling fluids through screen cloth finer than 40 mesh. FEED CAPACITY * The maximum feed rate that a solids separation device can effectively handle. or other obstructive items which are in the hole and would interfere with drilling. FILTRATION RATE See FLUID LOSS. FILTER CAKE The suspended solids that are deposited on a porous medium during the process of filtration. FILTER CAKE THICKNESS A measurement of the solids deposited on filter paper in 32nds of an inch during the standard 30-min. such as: settling velocity. A. mud and solids to be separated. junk. and static filtration when at rest. including dilution liquid if used. See related terms: CAPACITY. such as the standard API fluid loss test. FINE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 44-74 microns. F FEED. FEED CHAMBER + The part of a device which receives the mixture of diluents. particle concentration. API filter test. FEED PRESSURE + The actual gauge pressure measured as near as possible to. See related term: HEAD. FISHING Operations on the rig for the purpose of retrieving sections of pipe. FILTER PRESS A device for determining fluid loss of a drilling fluid. collars. and light reflection. It may also refer to the solids deposited on the wall of the hole. See related term: PARTICLE SIZE. FILTRATION The process of separating suspended solids from their liquid by forcing the latter through a porous medium. This term also refers to the cake deposited on the wall of a hole. the inlet of a device.8 .
For standard API filtration-test procedure. FOAM A light frothy mass of fine bubbles formed in or on the surface of a liquid. Gel strength A. GEAR UNIT + On a centrifuge. such as most electrolytes and certain polymers. In drilling fluids.9 . FORMATION DAMAGE Damage to the productivity of a well resulting from invasion into the formation by mud particles or mud filtrate. GEL A term used to designate high colloidal. GEAR RATIO + On a decanting centrifuge. FUNNEL VISCOSITY The time. FLUID LOSS Measure of the relative amount of fluid loss (filtrate) through permeable formations or membranes when the drilling fluid is subjected to a pressure differential. See related terms: MARSH FUNNEL. such as bentonite and attapulgite clays. usually caused by entrained air or gas. see API RP 13B. FLOODING The effect created when a screen or centrifuge is fed beyond its capacity.FLIGHT + On a decanting centrifuge. for a quart (or liter) of drilling mud to flow out the bottom of a Marsh Funnel. Flooding may also occur on a screen as a result of blinding. or non-parallel association of clay platelets. G GAS-CUT (Mud) Drilling fluid containing entrained gas. APPARENT VISCOSITY. FREE LIQUID The layer of liquid that surrounds each separate particle in the underflow of a hydrocyclone. flocculation results in thickening gelation. viscosity-building commercial clays. The thickness of this film depends upon the cyclone and the viscosity of the fluid. FLOCCULATING AGENT A substance. FLOCCULATION Loose association of particles in lightly bonded groups. FLUTE The curved metal blade wrapped around a shaft as on a screw conveyor in a centrifuge. a reduction device connected to the rotating bowl and driving the conveyor at a slightly different rate. GEL STRENGTH The ability or the measure of the ability of a colloid to form gels. one full turn of a spiral helix. high-yielding. the ratio of the outer bowl speed to the difference in speed between the outer bowl and the screw conveyor. such as a flute or blade of a screw-type conveyor. that causes flocculation. normally expressed as the number of revolutions of the outer bowl for a given difference of one complete revolution between the outer bowl and the screw conveyor. in seconds. Used in the field as a rough measure of apparent viscosity.
GUMBO * Any relatively sticky shale formation encountered while drilling. Motor nameplate horsepower is the maximum steady load that the motor can pull without damage.8 m/sec/sec). GUNNING THE PITS Agitation of the drilling fluid by means of mud guns. dispersion and disintegration into colloidal particles. See related Term: LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS. HOPPER See MUD HOPPER.000G etc. HOOK STRIPS + The hooks on the edges of a screen section which accept the tension member. G-FORCE * The acceleration of gravity (32. ft. 3G.10 . but others such as iron oxides are also used.2 which are added to a drilling fluid specifically to increase mud density. Multiplied acceleration due to centrifugal force is usually expressed as 1G. Drilling fluid is pumped tangentially into a cone and the rotation of the fluid provides centrifugal force to separate particles by mass weight . HYDROCYCLONE SIZE * The maximum inside working diameter of the cone part of a hydrocyclone. Barite is the most common. 2G. usually results in swelling. 9. HYDROCYCLONE A liquid-solids separation device which utilizes centrifugal force to speed up settling. Commonly used to refer to the pressure put out by a centrifugal pump. INITIAL The measured initial gel strength of a fluid is the maximum reading (deflection) taken from a direct-reading viscometer after the fluid has been allowed to sit for 10 minutes.2 ft/sec/sec. 11. GEL STRENGTH. I INERTIA * That force which makes a moving particle tend to maintain its same direction. HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS Solids whose specific gravity is greater than 4.the heavier solids being separated from the light solids and liquid. It is a measure of the same interparticle forces of a fluid as determined by the yield point under dynamic conditions. HYDRATION The act of a substance to take up water by means of absorption and/or adsorption. HORSEPOWER A measure of the rate at which work is done.is a pressure unit usually reported in lbs/100 sq. INHIBITED MUD A drilling fluid having a aqueous phase with a chemical composition that tends to retard and even prevent (inhibit) appreciable hydration (swelling) or dis- A. H HEAD The height (in feet) of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure.
crude.persion of formation clays and shales through chemical and/or physical means. are called inhibitors when purposely added to mud so that the filtrate from the drilling fluid will prevent or retard the hydration of formation clays and shales. LOW SOLIDS MUDS Low solids muds are unweighted water-base muds containing less than 10% drilled solids (1-4% is a normal range). L LEAD In a decanting centrifuge. LIGNOSULFONATES Organic drilling fluid additives derived from by-products of sulfite paper manufacturing process from coniferous woods. INLET The opening through which the feed mud enters a solids control device. or coarsely permeable beds. INTERMEDIATE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 250-2000 microns. LIQUID-CLAY PHASE See Preferred Term: OVERFLOW LIQUID DISCHARGE See Preferred Terms: OVERFLOW (Hydrocyclones).11 . usually in cavernous. evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole. fissured. Commonly used as dispersants and anti-flocculants. They are used whenever it is desirable to increase penetration rate. LIQUID * Fluid that will flow freely. UNDERFLOW (screens). A. the slurry conducting channel formed by the adjacent walls of the flutes or blades of the screw conveyor. or some other oil is the continuous phase. such as salt and calcium sulfate. LOST CIRCULATION The result of whole mud escaping into a formation. INHIBITOR (mud) Substances generally regarded as drilling mud contaminants. INVERT OIL-EMULSION MUD An invert emulsion is a water-in-oil emulsion where fresh or salt water is the dispersed phase and diesel. LOW SILT MUD An unweighted mud that has all the sand and high proportion of the silts removed and has a substantial content of bentonite or other water-loss-reducing clays. In large quantities. See related term: FREE LIQUID. See INHIBITOR (mud). may be used for fluid-loss control and the shale inhibition. Water increases the viscosity and oil reduces the viscosity. takes the shape of its container. LIQUID FILM The liquid surrounding each particle discharging from the solids discharge of cyclones and screens. LOST CIRCULATION MATERIALS (LCM) Materials added to drilling fluid to control mud loss by bridging or plugging the lost circulation zone.
MEDIAN CUT * In separating solids particles from a specific liquid-solids slurry under specified conditions. the lower solids content in a mud. MUD BALANCE A beam-type balance used in determining mud density. For example. Typical S. the faster a bit can drill. solids or slurries from one or more sources can be fed to or discharged from a solids separation device. See related term: FUNNEL VISCOSITY. MESH EQUIVALENT As used in oilfield drilling applications.12 . or stir fluids by means of a rotating impeller blade. MUD BOX The feed compartment on a shale shaker into which the mud flow line A. MASS The effective weight of a particle.G. MESH COUNT The count is the term most often used to describe a square or rectangular mesh screen cloth. MECHANICAL AGITATOR A device used to mix. knife edge and counterweight.. M MANIFOLD (Cyclone) A piping arrangement through which liquids. lost circulation materials. while a designation such as 70 x 30 mesh indicates a rectangular mesh. MUD Mud is the term most commonly given to drilling fluids. Sieve number which has the same size opening as the minimum opening of the screen in use.6. i.In general. is 2. a 200 mesh screen has 200 openings per linear inch. the effectiveness of the separation device expressed as the particle size that reports 50% to the overflow and 50% to the underflow. except barite or other commercial weighting materials. MESH The number openings per linear inch in a screen. LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS Drilled solids of various sizes.e.S. MARSH FUNNEL An instrument used in the field to determine funnel viscosity of a drilling fluid. rider. MEDIUM (solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 74-250 microns. the U. commercial colloids. MICRON (µ) A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a millimeter. graduated beam with constantvolume cup. MUD ADDITIVE Any material added to a drilling fluid to achieve a particular purpose. blend. A mesh count such as 30 x 30 (or often 30 mesh) indicates a square mesh. lid. used for circulating out cuttings and many other functions while drilling a well. all solids in drilling fluid. considering both its specific gravity and particle size. used as a measure of particle size. salts. It consists primarily of a base.
with or without dilution. 70 x 30 mesh has 70 wires per inch in one direction and 30 wires per inch in the other direction. generally considered as plus or minus 25% of the opening. MUD MIXING DEVICES The most common device for adding solids to the mud is by means of the mud hopper. MUD ENGINEER One versed in drilling fluids whose duties are to manage. Also called Backtank or Possum Belly. MUD CONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. usually including 1-5% water emulsified into the system. and downstream venturi. MUD PUMPS See RIG PUMPS. electric stirrers. It usually consists of a mud jet. mechanical agitators. MUD PIT Earthen or steel storage facilities for the surface mud system. Some other devices for mixing are: eductors. For example.discharges. blending and stirring the mud pits. and chemical barrels. MUD SCALES See MUD BALANCE.13 . O OBLONG (Mesh) Screen cloth having more wires per inch in one direction than in another. implement. N NEAR SIZE The material very nearly the size of a screen opening. Mud pits which vary in volume and number are of two types: circulating and reserve.) OIL-BASE MUD A drilling fluid containing oil as its liquid phase. for introduction into a liquid-solids separator. (Also called “rectangular” mesh. and maintain the various types of oilwell mud programs. MUD FEED + Drilling fluid. and from which the mud is either fed to the screens or is bypassed. Mud testing and conditioning is normally done in the circulating pit system. an open top hopper. MUD HOUSE A structure at the rig to store and shelter sacked materials used in drilling fluids. MUD STILL See RETORT. Used for mixing. MUD HOPPER * A device used for mixing mud chemicals and other products into a fluid stream. A. MUD GUNS A system of pumps and piping in which drilling mud is pumped through nozzles at a high velocity. mud guns. MUD CLEANER A solids separation device which combines several manifolded hydrocyclones and a fine mesh vibrating screen to remove valuable mud additives and liquids to the active mud system.
PERFORATED CYLINDER CENTRIFUGE + A mechanical centrifugal separator in which the rotating element is a perforated cylinder (the rotor) inside of and concentric with an outer stationary cylindrical case. PLASTICITY The property possessed by some solids.OPEN AREA See PERCENT OPEN AREA. a pipe into which two or more hydrocyclones discharge their overflow. usually expressed in microns. PERCENT OPEN AREA Ratio of the area of the screen openings to the total area of the screen surface. particularly clays and clay slurries. See related term: SIEVE ANALYSIS. that is. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION + The fraction or percentage of particles of various sizes or size ranges. PERMEABILITY Normal permeability is a measure of the ability of a formation to allow passage of a fluid. PLUGGING (Screen Surface) The wedging or jamming of openings . plastic viscosity is found by subtracting the 300-rpm reading from the 600-rpm reading. i. feet/minute or feet/hour. When using a direct-indicating viscometer. OVERFLOW HEADER * In hydrocyclone operation. PENETRATION RATE The rate at which the drill bit peneA. PERFORATED ROTOR + The rotating inner cylinder of the perforated cylinder centrifuge. in a given situation.e. See related term: DRILLING RATE. type. of changing shape or flowing under applied stress without developing shear planes or fractures. OVERLOAD + To feed separable solids to a separating device at a rate greater than its solids discharge capacity. PARTICLE SURFACE AREA See SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA. OVERFLOW The discharge stream from a centrifugal separation device that contains a higher percentage of liquids than does the feed. expressed in linear units. OVERSIZE (Solids) Particles. it deforms without breaking.. and size of solids present in a given fluid. that can be separated from the liquid phase by centrifugal force or which will not pass through the openings of the screen in use. a small piece of solid material.14 trates the formation. P PARTICLE In drilling mud work. See related term: EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL DIAMETER. PLASTIC VISCOSITY Plastic viscosity is a measure of the internal resistance to fluid flow attributable to the amount. PARTICLE SIZE Particle diameter.
preventing passage of undersize material. Also called “mud still”. and other volatile material in a mud to determine oil. RATE OF PENETRATION See PENETRATION RATE. toughness and resiliency.. causing those that can exit to form a slow-moving. especially abrasion. high pressure pumps used to circulate drilling fluid through the hole. rope-like stream. ROPE DISCHARGE The characteristic underflow of a hydrocyclone operating inefficiently and so overloaded with separable solids that not all the separated solids can crowd out the underflow opening. POOL The reservoir or pond of fluid. RIG SHAKER A general term for a shale shaker using coarse mesh screen. before dilution. or slurry. A. water. POLYURETHANE A high performance elastomer polymer used in construction of hydrocyclones for its unique combination of physical properties. that is to be processed by solids removal equipment.15 . Usually applied in connection with a descriptive term. See related term: HEAD. heavy. control fluid loss and maintain other desirable mud properties. RECTANGULAR OPENING (Screen Cloth) See OBLONG MESH. RIG PUMPS (or Mud Pumps) The reciprocating.in a screening surface by particles. RETORT An instrument used to distill oil. and total solids content in volume-percent. RAW MUD Mud. overflow ports. RETENTION TIME (Screen) + The time any given particle of material is actually on a screening surface. positive displacement. POLYMER A synthetic mud additive used to maintain viscosity. i.e. formed inside the wall of hydrocyclones and centrifuges and in which classification or separation of solids occurs due to the settling effect of centrifugal force. RHEOLOGY The science that deals with deformation and flow of matter. RETENTION TIME + (Centrifugal Separators) The time the liquid phase is actually in the separating device. feed ports. etc. PRESSURE HEAD * Pressure within a system equal to the pressure exerted by an equivalent height of fluid (expressed in feet). R RADIAL FLOW * Flow from a mechanical agitator in which fluid moves away from the axis of the impeller shaft (usually horizontally toward a mud tank wall). water. See related term: BLINDING. PORTS + The openings in a centrifuge for entry or exit of materials.
SCROLL See Preferred Term: FLUTE. SHALE Stone of widely varying hardness. SHEAR (Shearing Stress) An action. and compaction that is formed of clay-sized grains. SCREEN CLOTH A type of screening surface. These fluids may also include native solids. SAND CONTENT The sand content of a drilling fluid is the insoluble solids content retained on a 200-mesh screen.(Also referred to as “rope” or “rope underflow. A fluid is circulated through the drill pipe to flush out cuttings and perform other functions. See related term: WIRE CLOTH. RPM * Revolutions per minute. They are washed. S SALT-WATER MUDS A drilling fluid containing dissolved salt (brackish to saturated). SCREENING A mechanical process which accomplishes a separation of particles on the basis of size.16 . SAND TRAP The first compartment and the only unstirred compartment in a welldesigned mud system. through their acceptance or rejection by a screening surface. A.as in particles within a mud. SIEVE See Preferred Term: TESTING SIEVE. intended as a settling compartment to catch large solids which may get past the shale shaker. SHALE SHAKER A general term for devices which use a vibrating screen to remove cuttings and other large solids from drilling mud. and labeled as to the depth. which causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of a body to slide relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact . SETTLING VELOCITY The velocity a particle achieves in a given fluid when gravity forces equal the friction forces of the moving particle. oil.”) ROTARY DRILLING The method of drilling wells that depends on the rotation of a drill bit which is attached to a column of drill pipe. and/or such commercial additives as clays. woven in square or rectangular openings. This test is an elementary type in that the retained solids are not necessarily silica and may not be altogether abrasive. SCREENING SURFACE The medium containing the openings for passage of undersize material. SAMPLES Cuttings obtained for geological information from the drilling fluid as it emerges from the hole. resulting from applied forces. dried. etc. color. starch. It is usually expressed as the percentage bulk volume of sand in a drilling fluid.
The total suspended and dissolved solids content is commonly expressed in percent by volume. SPUDDING IN The starting of the drilling operations of a new hole. SPRAY DISCHARGE The underflow of hydrocyclones when not overloaded with separable solids. SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA The effective surface area per unit of weight of some sample or grouping of particles of matter. wetting along internal bedding planes. the rotor rpm of a perforated cylinder centrifuge. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY The maximum rate at which a liquidsolids separation device can discharge solids without overloading. usually expressed in RPM or CPM. or swelling of formations caused by fluid loss. barite. SOLIDS DISCHARGE + That stream from a liquid-solids separator containing a higher percentage of solids than does the feed. calcium.17 . drilled formation cuttings. SOLIDS + All particles of matter in the drilling fluid. SIZE DISTRIBUTION See Preferred Term: PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. i. high angle of repose. SLOUGHING A situation in which portions of a formation fall away from the walls of a hole. SLURRY A mixture or suspension of solid particles in one or more liquids.e. etc. A certain portion of dispersed clays and barite falls into this particle size range as well as drilled solids. and magnesium. SPEED + The frequency at which a vibrating screen operates.SIEVE ANALYSIS A measurement of particle size and percentage of the amount of material in various particle size groupings. It can be a valuable indicator of the amount of liquid certain particles can attract and retain on their surface. including both the dissolved and the suspended (or undissolved) solids. the bowl rpm of a decanting centrifuge. square meters per gram. or acres per pound. SILT Materials whose particle size generally falls between 2 microns and 74 microns. etc. SPECIFIC GRAVITY The weight of a particular volume of any substance compared to the weight of an equal volume of water at a reference temperature. Examples of dissolved solids are the soluble salts of sodium. as a result of incompetent unconsolidated formations. See related term: PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION.. A. The suspended-solids content may be a combination of high and low specific gravity solids and native or commercial solids. usually expressed in units of area per units of weight such as square feet per pound. See related term: CAVING. SOLIDS CONTENT The total amount of solids in a drilling fluid as determined by distillation.
SPUD MUD The fluid used when drilling starts at the surface. TOTAL DEPTH (or TD) The greatest depth reached by the drill bit. That property of a fluid which causes it to build up a rigid or semirigid gel structure if allowed to stand at rest.18 TEST SIEVE A cylindrical or tray-like container with a screening surface bottom of standard aperture. etc. SPURT LOSS * The flux of fluids and solids which occurs in the initial stages of any filtration before pore openings are bridged and a filter cake is formed. TOTAL HEAD * The sum of all heads within a system (Total Head = velocity head + pressure head + elevation head. . SURGE LOSS See Preferred Term: SPURT LOSS. See general term: SOLIDS DISCHARGE.) that are added to a drilling fluid to reduce the viscosity and/or thixotropic properties. UNDERFLOW (Hydrocyclone) The discharge stream from centrifugal separators that contains a higher percentage of solids than does the feed. casing. or other devices inadvertently become lodged in the hole. STROKE The distance between the extremities of motion.. lignins. SUMP A pit or tank into which a fluid drains before recirculation or in which wastes gather before disposal. STUCK A condition whereby the drill pipe. SWABBING When pipe is withdrawn from the hole in viscous mud or if the bit is balled.) U ULTRA-FINE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 244 microns. often a thick bentonite lime slurry. THIXOTROPY The ability of a fluid to develop gel strength with time. etc. THRUST The force that pushes on the mud as on a shale shaker screen. tetraphosphates. THINNER Any various organic agents (tannins. TENSION RING A rigid hoop surrounding a stretched screen cloth used for maintaining screen tension and mounting the screen to a shaker frame. yet can be returned to a fluid state by mechanical agitation. See related term: AMPLITUDE. viz. a low pressure is created below the bit.) and inorganic agents (pyrophosphates. lignosulfonates. the diameter of a circular motion. T TENSIONING + The stretching of the screening surface within the vibrating frame. A.
The overflow exits from the separating chamber through the vortex finder. equal to an equivalent height of static fluid. UNWEIGHTED (Mud) A drilling fluid which has not had significant amounts of high gravity solids added and whose density and whose density is generally less than 11 pounds per gallon. V VELOCITY HEAD * Head (relating to pressure when multiplied by the density of the fluid) created by the movement of a fluid. VORTEX + A cylindrical or conical shaped core of air or vapor lying along the central axis of the rotating slurry inside a hydrocyclone.G. VISCOSITY The internal resistance offered by a fluid to flow. in a given situation. The usual speeds are 600 and 300 rpm. W WALL CAKE The solid material deposited along the wall of the hole resulting from filtration of the fluid part of the mud into the A. DIRECT-INDICATING Commonly called a “V-G meter. METER See VISCOMETER. UNDERFLOW HEADER + A pipe. hence the name.” The instrument is a rotational-type device powered by means of an electric motor or handcrank. VORTEX FINDER A hollow cylinder extending axially into the barrel of a hydrocyclone. The greater this resistance. See related terms: APPARENT VISCOSITY. VENTURI * Streamlining up to a given pipe size following a restriction (as in a jet in a mud hopper) to minimize turbulence and pressure drop. plastic viscosity. or will pass through the openings of the screen in use. VISCOMETER. This phenomenon is attributable to the attractions between molecules of a liquid. and is a measure of the combined effects of adhesion and cohesion to the effects of suspended particles. and gel strengths of drilling fluids. remain with the liquid phase when subjected to centrifugal force. VIBRATING SCREEN A screen with motion induced as an aid to solids separation. tube. or conduit into which two or more hydrocyclones discharge their underflow. yield point. and is used to determine the apparent viscosity. V. DIRECT-INDICATING.UNDERFLOW (Screen) The discharge stream from a screening device which contains a greater percentage of liquids than does the feed. and the vortex is centered in the hydrocyclone by the hole in the vortex finder. PLASTIC VISCOSITY. UNDERSIZE (Solids) Particles that will. See API RP 13B for operational procedures.19 . and to the liquid environment. the greater the viscosity.
This material is most commonly barite but can be galena. WATER-BASE MUD The conventional drilling fluid containing water as a the continuous phase. respectively. This resistance is due to electrical charges located on or near the surfaces of the particles. usually by the addition of weight material. A. is determined by the direct-indicating viscometer by subtracting the plastic viscosity from the 300-rpm reading. weight refers to the density of a drilling fluid.formation. YIELD POINT The resistance to initial flow.6). a term used to define the quality of a clay by describing the number of barrels of a given centipoise slurry that can be made from a ton of the clay. WEIGHT MATERIAL Any of the heavy solids (specific gravity of 4. The values of the yield point and thixotropy.3 or more) used to increase the density of drilling fluids. etc. representing the stress required to start fluid movement.20 . are measurements of the same fluid properties under dynamic and static states. See related term: DILUTION WATER. WIRE CLOTH + Screen cloth of woven wire. WETTING The adhesion of a liquid to the surface of a solid. WORKOVER FLUID Any type of fluid used in the workover operation of a well. WEIGHT UP * To increase the weight of a drilling mud. reported in lbs/100 sq. limestone is also called a weight material (even though its specific gravity is 2. WALL STICKING See Preferred Term: DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE STICKING. This is normally expressed in lbs/gal or specific gravity. FILTER CAKE. Y YIELD As applied to drilling mud. WEIGHTED (Mud) A drilling fluid to which heavy (over 4. See related terms: CAKE THICKNESS. In special applications. See related term: DENSITY.3 specific gravity) solids have been added to increase its density. WATER FEED + Water to be added for dilution of the mud feed into a centrifugal separator. WEIGHT (Mud Weight) In mud work. The Bingham yield value. ft.
(pipe OD)2] * 0.00097 • Approximate capacity of hole in bbl/1000 ft = (diameter of hole)2 • Approximate pipe displacement.STANDARD CALCULATIONS I. CIRCULATION DATA • Pump output in bpm = bbl/stroke * strokes/minute • Annular velocity in fpm = pump output (bpm * 100) annular volume (bbl/100 ft) • Bottoms up in minutes = annular volume (bbl) pump output (bpm) • Hole cycle in minutes = pump output (bpm * 100) pump output (bpm) • Mud cycle in minutes = total volume (bbl) pump output (bpm) B.6 • Hole volume in bbl = [hole capacity(bpf) * depth(ft)] .1 .capacity and displacement of drill pipe • Total Volume = hole volume + pit volume II. bbl/100 ft = Weight of pipe (lb/ft) * 0. MUD VOLUME • Capacity of annulus in bbl/ft = [(hole size)2 .pipe displacement (bbl) • Annular volume in bbl = hole volume .0364 • Pit volume in cu ft = Length * Width * Depth • Pit volume in bbl = cu ft 5.
34) OR 7.00097 • Pounds per foot = bpf * 910. without weighting material Vs = 7. Ignore if salt content is less than 10. Volume percent solids in freshwater muds.Vw Vs 2.7 IV. Sa = (12 * Dm) .8.2 C.65) B.III. add 0.(Vwc * Sw) (100-Vwc) B.6) * 3.2 . Drilled Solids Per Foot of Hole • Barrels per foot = (hole size + washout)2 * 0. Freshwater muds Sa = (12 * Dm) .62. Average specific gravity of solids in WBM 1.5 • Correct for oil: For each 1% of oil.3% solids by volume. Low weight muds without barite • Percent solids by volume = (mud weight .1 to % solids by volume • Correct for NaCl: For each 10. SOLIDS DETERMINATION A. deduct 0.5 * (Dm . Weighted Muds • Percent by volume desired solids = (mud weight .55) B. Convert Cl ppm to salt ppm (* 1.5 * (Dm . SOLIDS CONTROL EVALUATION CALCULATIONS A.000 ppm.water weight) * 7.000 ppm salt.
typically 60 CECds = CE of drilled solids. Volume percent solids in freshwater muds containing barite.(100 * Sm) (Shg .69 * (MBTm) Vlg Vben = Vlg * (CECa . Volume percent in muds containing oil > 1% or salt > 10. = 5.G.2 Vb = (Sa . in ppg MBTm = Methylene Blue Test. Volume percent solids in freshwater muds containing hematite. corrected for chlorides = Volume percent barite (50% = 50.625 Vlg = Vsc . S.Vb D.Vh E.CECds) Terms: CECa = Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC).G.2. corrected for chlorides = Volume percent water = Volume percent water.6) * Vsc * 0.50) = Volume percent hematite = Volume percent high gravity solids = Volume percent low gravity solids = Volume percent total solids = Volume percent solids.3 . average Shg = Specific gravity of high gravity solids Slg = Specific gravity of low gravity solids Sm = Specific gravity of mud So = Specific gravity of oil Sw Swc Vb Vh Vhg Vlg Vs Vsc Vw Vwc = Specific gravity of water = Specific gravity of water. S. typically 10 Cl = Total Chlorides. in lbs/bbl Sa = Specific gravity of solids. not .000 ppm Vlg = [(Vw * Swc) + (Vo * So) + (Vsc * Shg)] .0 Vh = (Sa-2. = 4.CECds) (CECben . in mg/l Dm = Mud density. Bentonite and reactive clay correction CECa = 7. average CECben = CEC of bentonite. corrected for chlorides B.6) * Vsc * 0.Slg) F.417 Vlg = Vsc .C.
3) * 1450 = R (12. or staying the same? 1.3) * 1450 = Total Solids Removed in #/hr R D = Density of slurry in #/gal. is solids removal rate increasing. Use the following equations to calculate the rate of solids removed in pounds per hour.8.3 = Density of Water 2.e. (D . i. 3. Use a one-quart container and wristwatch to determine how many seconds (R) it takes to collect one quart of slurry from a cyclone underflow or a screen discharge.4 .8. Use a mud balance to obtain the density (D) of the slurry in pounds per gallon. decreasing.Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge Note: This method is only a quick approximation of solids removal rate and should be used only for unweighted muds or where quick comparisons need to be made on a mud system to see what results when conditions change.3 .8. R = Rate of solids slurry discharge in sec/qt 8.3 #/gal R = 8 sec (D . Example: D = 12..3) * 1450 = 8 4 * 1450 = 725 #/hr 8 B.
(8. Total pounds per hour Solids Removed = [D . 3. A. Retort the sand slurry to determine the volume fraction solids (Vs) and the volume fraction liquids (V1) Use the following equations to calculate the rate of solids removed in pounds per hour.34 • Vs) C.Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge 1. Lbs/hr Barite = Total #/hr solids . Use a mud balance to obtain the density (D) of the sand slurry in pounds per gallon. Use a one-quart container and wristwatch to determine how many seconds (R) it takes for one quart of solids to be discharged.(8.3 .6 D.ASG 1.34 * V1)] 900 R B.34 * V1)] (8. Lbs/hr Low Gravity Solids = Total #/hr solids * weight % LGS E.5 . 2. Weight % Low Gravity Solids = 4. 4.#/hr LGS D = Density of solids slurry in #/gal R = Rate of removal in sec V1 = Volume fraction liquid Vs = Volume fraction solids ASG = Average Specific Gravity LSG = Low Gravity Solids B. Average Specific Gravity of Solids = [D .
Feed Rate. This appendix describes a method to compare the cost of dilution versus mechanical removal. Ve = ? Effluent Density.0 ppg B.0 ppg = 9. Vu = ? Underflow Density.0 ppg Effluent Rate. This method may be used to determine economic efficiency of any type of solids control equipment. Du = 17.6 .SOLIDS CONTROL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION There are several methods used to determine economic performance./bbl = $600 Determine the economic performance.0 Underflow Rate. Example: Given: Feed Rate Underflow Density Feed Density Effluent Density Total Low Gravity Solids Mud Cost Disposal Cost Equipment Cost per Day = 30 gpm = 17. It utilizes the concept of a dilution factor (the amount of mud required to maintain a given solids concentration for every barrel of solids that remain in the mud) to determine dilution requirements.0 ppg = 10. Df = 10.0 ppg = 6% = $15. Vf = 30 gpm Feed Density./bbl = $10. Note: Effluent is defined as the process stream returned to the active mud system. The underflow is defined as the waste stream removed from the mud system and discarded. De= 9.
75 Underflow Density.0 * 30) = (17. Df * Vf = (Du * Vu) + (De * Ve).0 * (30-X)] = 300 = 17X + 270 . Ve = 26.0 ppg B.9X 30/8 = X X = 3. 2) Calculate the Low Gravity Solids Removed per minute.0 ppg Effluent Rate.0 * X) + [9. & let X = Underflow Rate.75 gallons per minute Underflow Rate Volume = 26. Df = 10.25 gallons per minute Effluent Rate Volume (30 . De= 9.7 . compared to dilution 4) Calculate economic benefits 1) Determine the Effluent and Underflow Volume Rates. 3) Calculate the equipment effectiveness & cost.75) Feed Rate.X) = (30 .0 Underflow Rate. Vu (10.25 Effluent Density. Vu = 3. Vf = 30 gpm Feed Density.1) Determine the Effluent and Underflow Volume Rates.3. Du = 17.
05 = 48.04/1.75 * ./min.X = 1.2) Calculate the Low Gravity Solids Removed per minute.44/./bbl.6X = 1.65 or 65% solids in underflow b) Calculate the low gravity solids removed: 3. * 60 min.6X + 1 .6) + (1-X) = 2.65 = 2.0 ppg fluid is the desired fluid.750 per hour is Equivalent Dilution Cost B.04 1. 2. It contains 5% solids. compared to dilution a) Dilution: Assume the 9.)/ 42 gal. a) Calculate the low gravity solids in the underflow: Let X = the decimal fraction low gravity solids 17/8. The equivalent dilution required to treat the solids removed is the volume removed divided by the desired fraction of solids. = 70 bbls per hour equivalent dilution Dilution Cost = Volume * (Mud Unit Cost + Disposal Unit Cost) Cost: $ = 70 * ($15 + $10) $1.8 .8 or 49 gallons per minute dilution required to match the machines effectiveness or (49 gal.04 X = X(2.44 gallons of low gravity solids removed per minute 3) Calculate the equipment effectiveness.33 2.6 = ./hr.
b) Mechanical Treatment Cost =[Liquid Volume Lost * (Mud Unit Cost + Disposal Unit Cost)] + Equipment Cost 3.65) (1.3 X 60 min/hr)/ 42 gal/bbl Cost: $ $71. Removal compared to Dilution Therefore.75) $ in ( ) = Savings.75 X (1-.679 per hour! B.9 . prompt and continuous removal of drilled solids will save $1.25 .85 X ($15 + $10) ] + $600/24 = Cost to Remove the LGS 4) Calculate the economic benefits $ $ $ = (cost to remove) .25 = 1. in this example.85 bbl/hr liquids removed = [ 1.750 = $(1.3 gallons of liquids removed per minute OR = 1.$1.678.(cost to dilute) = $71.
CASE #1: When DUF1 = DUF2 CASE #2: When VUF1 = VUF2 CASE #3: When one cone has higher DUF and higher VUF. Then higher DUF = Greater Efficiency. then that cone is operating at significantly greater efficiency. B. since more solids (and less liquid) are being removed in the same underflow volume. since a greater volume of solids is being removed at the same liquid/solids ratio. Note: When none of the above conditions occur. See Appendix A.Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency Assuming Identical: Mud Feed Volume Feed Pressure Where: D V UF = = = Density Volume Rate Underflow Then higher VUF = Greater Efficiency. or for specific numerical accuracy.10 .
.ppg (pounds/gallon) ppg (pounds/gallon).0 1 Gallon of Water ..bar psi......................................609 ..........07 ..kg/cm2 kg/m.......62..............................85 .....4 ..... ft........................Conversion Constants and Formulas A....kg/m3 ppb (pounds/barrel) ...........0.....................................................................54 .................945 ppb 1 Barrel (42 Gallons) ............................0......454 .........................01 ......0......psi/ft bbl (barrels) .............kPa (kilo-Pascals) psi.......3 psi Clay (SG=2...................0...................................................................kg/liter pcf (pounds/cubic feet) ......................8............................43...............................................kP/m sp gr ...305 ...................pcf (pounds/cubic feet) sp gr ............. of Water.gal bbl .......................km (kilometers) ft (feet) ...................34 .............00379 ......5).............7.......m (meters) in............42....8 .....4 lb 1 Barrel (42 gallons) of Water.......................................................kg/m3 psi/ft ...895 ...................gal gal (gallons)..........kg/m3 ppg (pounds/gallon) .....16.............................5............................34 lb 1 cu............8.......6146 cu ft 1 Cubic Foot ...5.................615 ..................1...........350 lb 100’ Column of Water Exerts Hydrostatic Pressure of................22............kg/m3 ppg ................................ (inches).......................1 ...........0...7...................157 .........069 .........2..........m3 ft3 ...... Conversion Constants Specific Gravity (SG) Water ...............0 ....................................02 .....62............................. Conversion Formulas MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN sp gr (specific gravity) ............0.......................48 gal B............................0................cm (centimeters psi (pounds/in2)................................................................2...........................................875 ppb Barite (SG=4........................kg (kilograms) miles...................6..............48 ......................................0.......................7) ...................0283 ........................3) ............119..........................................ft3 (cubic feet) ft3 (cubic feet) ...kPa/m C....1506 ppb Calcium Carbonate (SG=2..0 .......m3 (cubic meters) bbl ...................0..........m3 lb (pounds)..........1000........................1.......052 ...............1198 ........................61 .....0................
33 54.5 2.9 20.84 2.7 3.Density of Common Materials Specific Gravity of Common Materials (Average) MATERIAL Barite Bentonite Calcium Carbonate Cement Clays.0 42.3 18.2 8.3 21.7 7.1 11.0 24.4 2.3 2.8 2.0 23.4 2.0 6.2 2.2 .2 2.6 PPG 35.5 26.9 1.8 5.7 21.5 95. Drilled Solids Diesel Oil Dolomite Fresh Water Galena Gypsum Iron Iron Oxide Lead Limestone Salt Sand (Silica) SP GR 4.6 0.0 22.1 19.3 7.2 65.7 PPB 1506 840 945 1120 911 294 1016 350 2272 806 2730 1785 3990 980 769 911 C.
0722 .37 2.0335 .86 1.79 1.1096 .72 1.68 3.56 Formula: Volume (Barrels) = (Hole Diameter in Inches)2 * Length in Feet 1029.0364 .0307 .2 .59 1.0459 .60 6.06.47 1.00097 C.0947 .88 2.3 .03 3.0350 .45 2.1769 .0410 .0583 .87 12.41 1.0219 .22 2.0876 .49 27.53 2.12 3.93 2.43 8.(Length in Feet) * 0.92 1.1456 .0899 .2112 .0734 .0528 .6563 CAPACITY (GPF) .29 1.0564 .Hole Capacities HOLE DIAMETER (INCHES) 4 3/4 5 5/8 5 7/8 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 3/8 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 3/8 8 1/2 8 5/8 8 3/4 9 1/2 9 5/8 9 7/8 10 5/8 12 1/4 13 1/2 14 3/4 17 1/2 26 CAPACITY (BPF) .98 4.12 7.0442 .0681 .0701 .78 3.2973 .94 3.0426 .53 1.0379 .44 OR (Hole Diameter in Inches)2 * .
4 .Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates C.
5 .Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates C.
SOLIDS CONTENT - % BY VOLUME
Solids Content Chart
at W er
a Gr vit y li So
s tu ing Lo
o in G uds olids er M s Wat m ield sC of F minimu ds & e lid Soli ang So vity te R Gra ima h rox Hig App ing t us ten Con lids So
on od C
0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 MUD WEIGHT - LBS/GAL 17 18 19
Pre-well Project Checklist
Well Design: Where is the well being drilled? What type of well is it — wildcat, development, injection, etc. What problems are anticipated? What are the hole size, casing points, and washout factors? What is the expected rate of penetration? What type bit? What is the mud program? Are there any environmental restrictions? What rig is being considered? Any anticipated hole problems?
Equipment and Vendor Capability:
What size and type of solids need removal? What equipment is already installed? What is its process rate and expected removal efficiency? Are there sufficient mud compartments? Is the equipment installed properly? What additional equipment is needed? What is expected downtime? What are the power and fuel requirements? What rig modifications are required? What is vendor experience and safety record? Is H&S Plan available? Where is the location? Where is the local stock/service base? What on-site spares are required? How many additional people are required? Do they need housing or meals? What personal protective equipment is required?
What are the preferred mud treatment and disposal options? What are preferred cuttings treatment and disposal options? Is analytical testing required? What is the mud cost? What is the equipment acquisition and installation cost? What is the expected operating cost? What is the expected disposal and site remediation cost? What are the expected savings?
Screen Cloth Comparisons
SCREEN CLOTH TYPE
MARKET GRADE CLOTH
10x10 20x20 30x30 40x40 50x50 60x60 80x80 100x100 120x120 150x150 200x200 250x250 325x325 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 94 105 120 145 165 200 230 24 38 50 70 84 110 140 175 210 250 45 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 180 200 230 265 310
SEPARATION POTENTIAL, IN µ D16 D50 D84
1678 839 501 370 271 227 172 136 114 102 72 59 43 1011 662 457 357 301 261 218 175 160 143 116 104 84 72 508 317 234 171 131 107 86 66 57 51 270 216 184 158 145 112 92 78 62 52 47 39 35 1727 864 516 381 279 234 177 140 117 105 74 62 44 1041 681 470 368 310 269 224 180 165 147 119 107 86 74 715 429 324 234 181 151 118 95 81 72 353 274 240 208 186 142 120 107 85 69 60 50 45 1777 889 531 392 287 241 182 144 120 108 76 63 45 1071 700 483 379 319 277 230 185 170 151 122 110 88 76 824 528 390 274 223 185 143 113 100 85 379 301 267 221 192 154 131 117 93 77 69 55 51
CONDUCTANCE IN KD/MM
49.68 15.93 8.32 4.89 2.88 2.40 1.91 1.44 1.24 1.39 0.68 0.78 0.44 0.93 24.33 11.63 7.94 5.60 5.25 3.88 2.84 2.77 2.51 2.03 1.86 1.49 1.30 20.69 11.86 6.77 4.73 3.62 3.00 2.38 1.86 1.67 1.45 9.81 7.66 5.75 5.01 4.08 3.00 2.53 2.15 1.82 1.55 1.27 0.96 0.82
TENSILE BOLTING CLOTH
EXTRA FINE CLOTH, 3-LAYERED
HIGH CONDUCTANCE CLOTH, 3-LAYERED
LXWXH LBS 93x71x64 93x71x49 93x77x87 93x77x74 120x69x62 120x80x80 141x69x62 79x72x52 79x64x44 4.000 7. A = adjustable O = overslung screens. triple.000 2. P = pre-tensioned panel Total screen area.25 DIMENSIONS WEIGHT.9/4. G = gear box.9 2 WEIR HEIGHT 43 40 79 67 52 70 32 38 36. and quad available Dual units available COMMENTS Scalping deck. E = unbalanced elliptical number of screen panels in each deck.100 8.4 4.2 2.7 33. beginning with the top screen basket.865 1. C = circular.9/4. multiply area X 1.9/2. F = flat H = hook strip screen.7 20/20/33.4 4 4.4 B = belt. U = underslung screens.300 4. also available as drying shaker Low profile ATL Cascade tandem over ATL Low profile cascade shaker Dewatering deck (patent pending) Cascade version of LCM-2D L = linear.7 20/20 20 Screen Type Screen Area Vibrator G-Force G G B/G B/G C B/C B B B G-FORCE 4. beginning with the top deck F = fixed. If Pinnacle® screens are used. beginning w/ top deck.Brandt/EPI Vibrating Screen Separators MODEL ATL-1000 ATL-1200 ATL-CS ATL-CS/LP LCM-2D LCM-2D/CS LM-3 Tandem Standard Motion Screens/deck Screen Angle Deck Type MOTION L L C/L C/L L C/L L C E DECKS 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 2 1 SCREENS/ DECK 1/3 3 1/1/3 1/1/3 3 1/1/3 3 1 1 SCREEN ANGLE A A F/F/A F/F/A A F/F/A A F F DECK TYPE O/F F O/U/F O/U/F O O/U/F O U/U U SCREEN TYPE H/P P H/H/P H/H/P P H/H/P P H H SCREEN VIBRATOR AREA. C = canister direct drive Total acceleration.800 Dual.2 4.2 4.750 5.200 9. SQ FT 10.385 5. D.8/25 25 20/20/25 20/20/25 33.5-6.3 .5-6.2 4.
P = pre-tensioned panel Total screen area.4 Brandt/EPI Liquid Recovery Shakers MODEL ATL-Dryer SDW-Dryer Motion Screens/deck Screen Angle Deck Type MOTION L L DECKS 1 1 SCREENS/ DECK 3 4 SCREEN ANGLE A A DECK TYPE F F SCREEN TYPE P P SCREEN AREA. beginning with the top deck F = fixed.2-7. beginning w/ top deck.5-6. .3 Screen Type Screen Area Vibrator G-Force G G G-FORCE 4.2 4. E = unbalanced elliptical number of screen panels in each deck. G = gear box. N.335 1000 gpm.A. two-stage mud conditioner 1000 gpm. If Pinnacle® screens are used.4 40 40 52 115x77x93 122x77x92 130x80x90 7. SQ FT VIBRATOR 25 33. beginning with the top screen basket.2 2. three-stage mud conditioner D. A = adjustable O = overslung screens.500 6. C = circular. DIMENSIONS WEIGHT.500 7.4 B = belt. U = underslung screens. LXWXH LBS 93x77x49 134x78x66 7. C = canister direct drive Total acceleration.2 4.7 G G C 4.A.0 WEIR HEIGHT N. F = flat H = hook strip screen.300 COMMENTS includes liquid recovery tank and pump includes liquid recovery tank and pump L = linear.500 8.Brandt/EPI Mud Conditioners ATL-16/2 ATL-2800 LCM-2D MC L L L 1 1 1 3 3 3 A A A F F O P P P 25 25 33. three-stage mud conditioner 1680 gpm. multiply area X 1.
9 Fixed.390 3.060 DIMENSIONS. SQ. Similar design to DG-5. available in 4-32 cone units 12. available as 1. VACUUM RANGE GPM INCHES HG 500 1.2 3. LXWXH 88x54x62 100x60-x77 Drive WEIGHT.69” 495 66 D.29 max 7-20 . emptied by jet pump E = electric.125” to 0.956 32. available in 1. 1.900 COMMENTS Rated top performing unit in comparative degasser test conducted by Amoco Production Research.125” apex Adjustable 0. VJ = vacuum.000 7-20 . IN 9.5 . upright or canted header configuration Two piece cone. INCHES INLET TYPE Circular involute Rectangular involute CONSTRUCTION Poly Poly w/ ceramic liner UNDERFLOW ADJUSTMENT FEET HEAD 75 75 FLOW RATE. LBS 2.75”. and 2. or 3-cone units.5”. 2. H = hydraulic Brandt/EPI Hydrocyclones MODEL Desander Desilter DIAMETER.29 max BAFFLE AREA. larger capacity. GPM COMMENTS Three piece cone.Brandt/EPI Degassers MODEL DG-5 DG-10 Type TYPE VJ VJ NOMINAL FLOW.
0/30 3250/2100 18.500 7.0 17.105 7. 5 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity High capacity. 8 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Rugged high speed decanter.0/25 9.5 Contour SS Rotating Assy CS = Carbon steel. MUD WT/GPM 9. H = hydraulic 7.0/10 4000/3181 2000/852 9.500 SC-4 HS3400 24x40 14x49.0/25 9.0/30 18. LBS LXWXH 103x46x32 3.0/150 9.0/150 120x61x60 2500/1331 12. dewatering 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Excellent all-purpose centrifuge.0/160 98x69x46 2400/1145 12.0/70.0/250 95x69x40 2500/1420 3000/2045 3500/2784 4000/3636 4200/4000 E = electric.0/175 12.100 6. viscosity control 4 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Barite recovery.720 . high speed decanter. 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity 8 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity 116x53x61 130x66x63 4.0/150 10. viscosity control 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Barite recovery.200 4.0/45 3000/1917 15.5 Contour Contour CS SS E E H 1150-1950 1750-4000 1750-4000 59:1 52:1 Variable SC-35HS 15x48 Contour SS E H H 1750-3250 1750-3250 1750-4000 59:1 Variable Variable HS5200 16x49.0/20 3500/2435 18. SS = Stainless steel Drive 1150/451 135x62x93 1350/621 1950/1296 1750/609 9.920 111x63x61 4.0/20 2000/909 9.700 COMMENTS Barite recovery.0/75 2900/1672 15.0/90 12.Brandt/EPI Decanting Centrifuges MODEL SC-1 CF-1 BOWL SIZE.6 BOWL TYPE Contour Contour 18x28 18x28 ROTATING ASSY CS CS DRIVE E E SPEED RANGE.0/20 9.0/30 18. viscosity control 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Unweighted muds.0/60 16.0/250 DIMENSIONS WEIGHT.0/60 16. RPM 1350-2000 1600-2000 GEARBOX RATIO 80:1 40:1 BOWL/CONVEYOR DIFFERENTIAL Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Variable/ single lead Fixed/ single lead Variable/ single lead Variable/ single lead RPM/ G-FORCE 1350/466 2000/1022 1600/654 1650/696 2000/1022 1350/466 2250/1294 1400/668 2000/1363 SC-2 CF-2 18x30 24x38 Contour Contour CS CS E E 1350-2250 1400-2000 59:1 80:1 CAPACITY. IN D.
Example: Agitators are required for a 10-foot-wide tank. to maintain weighting materials in suspension for a 12 lbs/gal mud: Find the tank width (10 ft) and the recommended corresponding impeller diameter (36 in) on the graph.7 . This particular application will require a 7.5-hp size Brandt Agitator for each 10 feet of tank length — a total of three 7.5-hp agitators. This impeller size is correlated to the mud weight and the required horsepower. D. Simply follow a horizontal line from the impeller diameter to the curve showing the heaviest anticipated mud weight. A recommended impeller diameter is shown across the left side. 30 feet long. Now locate the nearest vertical line to the right of this point and note the required horsepower at the top of the graph.Selection of Agitator Size and Number Select the right size agitator by first locating the tank width on the right side of the graph. From the intersection of the mud weight curve and the impeller diameter. locate the nearest vertical line to the right and note the horsepower at the top of the graph. Follow a horizontal line from the impeller diameter to the curve of the given mud weight (12 lbs/gal mud — use the curve on the next higher mud weight).
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