B-GL-382-004/FP-001

TRAINING

CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT
(ENGLISH)
(Supersedes B-GL-318-018/PT-001 dated 1992-08-24.)
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

B-GL-382-004/FP-001

TRAINING

CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT
(ENGLISH)
(Supersedes B-GL-318-018/PT-001 dated 1992-08-24.)
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

OPI: DAT

2007-02-03

Close Quarter Combat

WARNING USE OF THIS MANUAL 1. The techniques in this manual are basic techniques for most close combat fighting. Instructors shall teach the techniques in this manual rather than their own individual styles. 2. Techniques in this manual can cause serious injury or death. Training of these techniques will be conducted in strict accordance with approved basic level, unit level and instructor level training plans. 3. Throughout this manual the term opponent refers to any enemy, belligerent, subject or person opposing the soldier.

i

Close Quarter Combat

FOREWORD GENERAL 1. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Close Quarter Combat is issued on the authority of the Chief of Defence Staff. 2. This publication, dated 2007-02-03, is effective upon receipt and supersedes B–GL–318–018/PT–001 Close Quarter Combat change 2 dated 1992-08-24. 3. The NDID for the French version of this publication is B–GL–382–004/FP–002.

4. Any loss or suspected compromise of this publication, or portions thereof, must be reported in accordance with A-SJ-100-001/AS-000 Security Orders for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces, Chapter 34. SCOPE 5. This manual covers basic close quarter combat fighting, bayonet fighting, and use of force training. 6. This publication is the sole reference for close quarter combat training in the Army. As such, it is intended for the use of qualified Close Quarter Combat Instructors. CHANGES 7. Comments and suggestions for changes should be forwarded through the usual channels to DAT. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2007.

iii

Close Quarter Combat RECORD OF CHANGES Identification of Change Change No Date Date Entered Signature v .

B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Identification of Change Change No Date Date Entered Signature vi B-GL-382-004/FP-000 .

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................24 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................17 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT STANCES ...................................42 Head Tear Down .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. TAKEDOWNS AND BREAKFALLS Hip Throw ..............................................1 EFFECTS OF COMBAT STRESS............Close Quarter Combat TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD……...........................................29 THROWS .........................38 SECTION 3 TAKEDOWNS......................................................52 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 COUNTERS TO THROWS/TAKEDOWNS .......11 PRESSURE POINTS OF THE BODY ..............47 Single Leg Takedown....................................... v CHAPTER 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 PRINCIPLES OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT CONTINUUM OF FORCE .........13 STRIKING SURFACES .............36 Leg Sweep .....................................................................................22 BASIC MOVEMENT ......................................................50 Rear Takedown .......................................................................................................................................................30 Shoulder Throw............................................................42 Compression Takedown ..............................................................................45 Double Leg Takedown ....................................54 BREAKFALLS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 Turning Throw ..........................................11 VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY ........... iii RECORD OF CHANGES...................................................49 Leg Hook Takedown.....................................4 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT RANGE BANDS ....................................................................................................................................................................55 vii ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 3 THROWS.............................................................................................................54 REAR BREAKFALLS ......

............................................................63 Forward Rolls........................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Lying .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 Balance .............................................................................................................72 Roundhouse Kick ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Reverse Punch .....................................................72 Snap Kick .......................................78 Thrust Kicks ....................................................................................................................65 Lying ...................................86 Punches.........................61 Squatting.....84 SECTION 2 MID-RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES .............................................................55 Sitting ....................72 Chambering the Leg ...................................................................................................................................................58 Standing............................................................................................................................................................60 SECTION 7 FRONT BREAKFALLS ...........................................................65 Squatting....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................93 Heel Palm Strikes ....................................................66 Standing..............................................................62 Standing.....................................................................................................72 Methods of Delivery..................................................................................................................64 SECTION 8 SIDE BREAKFALLS .......................................82 Back Kick ........................71 Kicking Theory ..............................................................80 Side Thrust Kick....................................................................................80 Front Thrust Kick ..................................................95 viii ...................................................................................................................................................67 CHAPTER 4 SECTION 1 STRIKING TECHNIQUES AND COUNTERS LONG RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES ...............57 Squatting.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Straight Punch ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Kneeling ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Lunge Punch...............................

118 Defence Against Head Butts ..............................116 Leg Block ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Lower Block....................................................123 Air Choke ...........................................................................................................................................................................100 Head Butt...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................121 CHAPTER 5 CHOKES AND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS/CHOKES SECTION 1 CHOKES...........................................Hammer Fist ..........................................................................................................123 Grips ...................................................................................................................104 Vertical Elbow Strikes ................................................................................................................................................................100 Hook ....................................................100 Uppercut .........................................96 Knife Hand/Ridgehand........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Cross Collar Choke ..........................................................................109 Horizontal Knee Strike.................................................................104 Horizontal Elbow Strikes ..........................................................127 Rear Chokes ..................................111 Closing the Distance...................102 Eye Gouge ..................................107 Knee Strikes .........114 High Guard................................................123 Blood Choke........................................................................................................................126 Trachea Choke....................................112 Lead and Rear Hand Parries........................................................................................................................................................................103 Elbow Strikes ..........................................................................................................................112 Hook Block .111 SECTION 4 DEFENSIVE AND COUNTER-ATTACK TECHNIQUES ..............110 Stomp Kick..............................................................................................................................................................................117 Double High Blocks .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Front Choke..................................108 Forward Knee Strike .................................128 ix ......................................98 SECTION 3 CLOSE RANGE TECHNIQUES ...........................

........................................................137 Headlocks ............................................................................................................................................................158 Counters to Wrist Grabs ............................................................177 x .......................................................................................................................................................................................138 Side Head Lock ......................................130 Rear Choke 3 .....155 Full Nelson .159 One-Handed Wrist Grab............................172 CHAPTER 6 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 NON-LETHAL TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION....................................163 Counter to Front Chokes or Grabs ..................163 Counters to Rear Chokes....................................................................................................171 Counter to a Two Hand or Cross Collar Choke ...............................................................................................................................................................................................142 Front Headlock...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................160 High Two-Handed Wrist Grab ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 Rear Choke 2..................................................................................................154 Front Under Hand Bear Hug ..................................................................................170 Counter to Front Chokes—Two Hands..................................................................137 Follow-up Techniques....................................................................................................138 Side Headlock With Punching .........................................135 SECTION 2 COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS................................................................................................................................................................148 Underhand Rear Bear Hug ....................................................157 Counters to Full Nelson......................................................................170 Counter to Front Chokes or Grabs—One Hand .........148 Overhand Rear Bear Hug .........................................................................................................151 Front Overhand Bear Hug ..159 Low Two-Handed Wrist Grab.....................................................................177 Escort Position............................................................................................................................176 LEVEL 2 PASSIVE RESISTANT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................132 Guillotine Choke ......................162 SECTION 3 COUNTERS TO CHOKES .....175 LEVEL 1 COMPLIANT .........................................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Rear Choke 1...........................................................................................................................146 Bear Hugs ..........131 Side Choke .................................................................

...............................194 Kneeling Handcuffing ..206 SECTION 5 LEVEL 4 ASSAULT .................................................................................................................................................................................204 Restraint Removal .....................................................205 Soft Hand Striking Techniques ..........207 Enhanced Pain Compliance Techniques .........................................213 Iron Wristlock Takedown.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 Prone Handcuffing ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................198 Rear Control Position ..........................Head Control Position ..........................................................................................214 Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons .......................................................................................................216 Non-Lethal Impact Weapons ............181 Reverse Wristlock ............................208 Basic Wristlock Takedown ....................180 Wristlocks...........220 xi ................................................................................................................................................................................................216 Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray.....................................................202 Standing and Escorting a Restrained Opponent ...................................183 Come-Along Wristlock .....................................................206 Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons ...............207 Defensive Techniques .........207 Striking Techniques...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................179 Compliance Techniques ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................184 Straight-Arm Bar Takedown .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................208 Reverse Wristlock Takedown ........................215 Agent Characteristics .................................181 Basic Wristlock ............................................................................................................................................................178 SECTION 4 LEVEL 3 ACTIVE RESISTANT ........................................................182 Escort Position Resistance ....................................................................................................191 Handcuff Grip ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................189 Non-Lethal Restraint Techniques......192 Standing Handcuffing ......................................201 Flexi-Cuffs ............214 Finger Lock Takedown .................................211 Side Choke .........................................................................

..................................................................................253 Upper Block ...................................................................................223 SECTION 6 CHAPTER 7 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 LEVEL 5 DEADLY FORCE ASSAULT ...............................................................................................................................................................235 Thrusting Techniques............................................................237 Forward Thrust ....................................................................................................................................................262 Counter to Outside Slash.................................................................................................264 xii .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................228 KNIFE FIGHTING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................241 Overhand Strike.......................................240 IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES................................................................................................................................259 Counter to an Inside Slash..............................................................250 Forward Two-Hand Thrust...................................................................241 Strikes...256 Counter to Forward Thrust ..237 Reverse Thrust....................................................................225 EDGED AND IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION.......227 Slashing Techniques...............248 Forward Thrust ...........................................255 Defence Against Overhead Strike ................252 SECTION 6 BLOCKING TECHNIQUES ..............................................................................................................................................................................................260 Counter to an Under Hand Attack..........................................................................227 FUNDAMENTALS OF KNIFE FIGHTING ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................241 Underhand Strike.............................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Angles of Attack............................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Augmented Rear Arm Bar................................................................................................................232 Outside Slashing Techniques ...............................................................................................................232 Vertical Slashing Technique ..............246 Inside Strike.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................244 Outside Strike .............................................233 Inside Slashing Techniques ........253 Low Block ........................254 Middle Block........................238 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF IMPACT WEAPONS.........................................255 SECTION 7 DEFENCE AGAINST WEAPONS ..................

............................................................................................................................................................................................271 Defence Against Firearms ...........................................................................294 The Throat .................306 Neck Break Kneeling Opponent ........................................................................................................................................274 Rifle to the Front ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................272 Defence Against Rifles.............................................................................................................................291 SENTRY REMOVAL INTRODUCTION........................298 Garrotte from the Rear .......298 Garrotte to the Front ...................................311 Rear Takedown ...................................................................................................................309 SECTION 5 TAKEDOWNS...........................................................................................................................................................269 Defence Against Impact Weapons ..................................................................................................................................................................................271 Defence Against Pistols .............................................................................................283 Off-Balance Techniques..........................................311 xiii ...................................................266 Defence Against Knife Held to the Throat—Rear ...................296 The Kidney..............................................................................................................................................................................................285 Holstered Pistol With Opponent to the Front..........280 Rifle Hand Guard Grab ............................................290 SECTION 9 CHAPTER 8 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 IMPROVISED WEAPONS ....298 SECTION 3 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A GARROTTE ................................................................................................300 SECTION 4 NECK BREAKS .................303 Helmet Smash .....................................................Defence Against Knife Held to the Throat—Front ..........................................282 Butt Strokes ...................................................303 Helmet Neck Break ..............................................................................................................................................................................274 Rifle to the Rear ....................................................................287 Holstered Pistol With Opponent to the Rear .........................................................................................................................................................277 SECTION 8 WEAPON RETENTION TECHNIQUES ........................................................293 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A KNIFE ................................................................304 Neck Break from Rear............................................................................................................................................................................................288 Drawn Pistol to the Front ....................294 Subclavian Artery........................................................................................................280 Rifle Muzzle or Hand Guard Grab ..........................

......................................................................................................................................................313 BAYONET TECHNIQUES.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................313 RIFLE BAYONET FIGHTING TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................329 Defensive Strategy ......335 Safety Equipment ...........................................................................................................................325 Low Block ...................................................318 Vertical Butt Stroke......................................................................................................................................................................................321 Ground Point .......................................................328 Offensive Strategy...........................................................................................................................337 General Conduct.................................................................................................................................................................................338 Warm-Up..................................................................................................................315 Left and Right Parry......................................................................................................................................................................................................332 Conduct of Bayonet Obstacle Courses..................................................................326 Middle Block...........................................................328 Multiple Opponents.................330 SECTION 3 BAYONET TRAINING ...............................................................................321 Slash .................................................338 xiv .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................313 Rest.................313 On Guard .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................320 Smash ......326 Combinations ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................336 Safety Personnel ......................................................................................................................................................334 SECTION 4 PUGIL STICK TRAINING .338 Briefing..................................................315 Horizontal Butt Stroke ...........................................................314 Thrust ...335 Pugil Training Safety ..............................................................323 High Block ..................................................................331 Bayonet Obstacle Courses...............................................................................................337 Safety Inspection and Kit Issue.....................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Crotch Takedown ............................................................................................................................312 SECTION 6 CHAPTER 9 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 CHOKES .................................................................................332 Bayonet Targets.....................

...............................................................................................346 Side Mount .................................................................................................................................362 Straight Armbar................................................346 Cross Mount ..............................................................................................................................................................................362 Armbars from the Guard .345 GROUND FIGHTING POSITIONS .....................................357 Counter to a Front Armbar .........................................................................................................................................................347 SECTION 3 DEFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING .........................................................378 xv ..................................................................................................351 Reversal from Cross-Mount ............................Review.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................371 Cross Collar Chokes.....345 Guard Position....................................................................................................341 Second Impact Syndrome...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................375 Counter To Rear Choke (Applied) ...............................370 Ground Fighting Side Choke.......................................................................................341 Pugil Stick Construction.......................................................................376 SECTION 7 GROUND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS ....................................................................................................................................375 Counter To Rear Choke (Attempted) .....................................................................338 Pugil Stick Drills ......373 SECTION 6 GROUND COUNTER TECHNIQUES............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................342 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 GROUND FIGHTING INTRODUCTION..................................................................................352 Escaping the Guard ..............................................................................................370 Rear Chokes ...........................366 Figure 4 Armbar ...........................................................................................................................368 Shoulder Rip....345 Mount Position ...............................369 SECTION 5 GROUND FIGHTING CHOKES ..............................................................................................357 Armbar from Top Mount......................................338 Pugil Bouts .............................................................................................349 Guard Reversal..........................................................................................................355 SECTION 4 OFFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES ...........................................................................................................339 Instructor Supervision ..........................................348 Mount Reversal ...................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................383 CHAPTER 11 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 TRAINING TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION.................................................................389 Body Hardening Exercises ............................................................................................................................................................................................................388 Conduct of Training ....398 Training Drills ..............390 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 PROTECTIVE TRAINING EQUIPMENT ..................397 Multiple Opponents......................................................386 Training Areas..............................385 INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE .......................................................389 Conduct of Warm-up and Cool Down Exercises ......396 Protective Suit Training ..........................394 SPARRING ..................................................................................................................................................................388 Stages of Practice ...........................387 Training Methodology...............................................................................................................................382 Defensive Ground Position .................................379 Recovering from a Ground Position.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................385 Training Safety .............................................................385 Instructor Responsibilities...................................................................................................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Side Headlock from the Knees..............................................................................................................................................399 Tactical Positioning....................399 xvi ................................................................................................

..........................22 Figure 2-11: Natural Stance .............................39 Figure 3-16: Leg Sweep Step 2.....33 Figure 3-7: Shoulder Throw Step 1 ..............................................37 Figure 3-12: Turning Throw Step 2 ................36 Figure 3-11: Turning Throw Step 1 ............................................................................28 Figure 3-1: Directions for Balance Displacement ..19 Figure 2-6: Hammer Fist..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 Figure 2-7: Knife Hand.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 Figure 2-10: Instep Strike ...............................38 Figure 3-14: Turning Throw Step 4 ........46 xvii ..............................................26 Figure 2-15: Forward Shift—Mid-point ..34 Figure 3-8: Shoulder Throw Step 2 .....................................................45 Figure 3-25: Compression—Takedown....................................................................................................................................41 Figure 3-18: Leg Sweep Step 4.........................................................................................................................................................................38 Figure 3-15: Leg Sweep Step 1.............................26 Figure 2-16: Forward Shift—Finish ..................................................................................28 Figure 2-19: Turn to the Rear—Finish ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 Figure 3-6: Hip Throw Step 4........43 Figure 3-21: Head Tear Down Step 2 .......................................................18 Figure 2-5: Back Fist .......................................35 Figure 3-9: Shoulder Throw Step 3 ..................................................... Front and Back .......................................40 Figure 3-17: Leg Sweep Step 3..............................32 Figure 3-4: Hip Throw Step 2..................43 Figure 3-22: Head Tear Down Step 3 .30 Figure 3-2: Hip Throw Step 1.................................................23 Figure 2-12: Fighting Stance .....................................................................................................................................................................................42 Figure 3-20: Head Tear Down—Occipital Strike Step 1.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Figure 2-2: Pressure Points of the Body ........................Close Quarter Combat TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 2-1: Body Side......................................................................................................27 Figure 2-17: Turn to the Rear—Start.............................................................35 Figure 3-10: Shoulder Throw Step 4 ...............................................................................................................................................................27 Figure 2-18: Turn to the Rear—Mid-point .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................41 Figure 3-19: Leg Sweep Step 5.......................................................................................................25 Figure 2-14: Forward Shift—Start Point .....................................................................................................................................18 Figure 2-4: Striking Surface of the Fist ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Figure 3-24: Ocular Grip—Fingers .17 Figure 2-3: Making a Fist ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Figure 3-3: Hip Throw—Foot Position...................................................................32 Figure 3-5: Hip Throw Step 3..................................37 Figure 3-13: Turning Throw Step 3 ...........................................................................................................24 Figure 2-13: Directions of Movement ............................................................................................................................................................................................20 Figure 2-9: Ball and Toe of the Foot .............................................20 Figure 2-8: Ridge Hand .................................................44 Figure 3-23: Ocular Grip—Thumb..................................................................................

.............B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 3-26: Compression—Takedown Step 1...............................57 Figure 3-42: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 1.................................49 Figure 3-32: Single Leg Takedown ...................................................................................................................................50 Figure 3-33: Single Leg Takedown .................................................................................80 Figure 4-14: Front Thrust Kick—Step 1....................................................................................52 Figure 3-36: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 3...................................................................................................................48 Figure 3-31: Double Leg Takedown—Step 2............87 xviii .......................................................58 Figure 3-44: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 3............62 Figure 3-52: Front Breakfall Squatting—Step 1.................................................56 Figure 3-40: Rear Breakfall Lying—Step 2..60 Figure 3-49: Back Breakfall Standing—Step 2 ...........................................................67 Figure 3-60: Side Breakfall Squatting—Finish ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Figure 3-34: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 1..............81 Figure 4-15: Front Thrust Kick—Step 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 Figure 3-29: Double Leg Takedown................................................56 Figure 3-41: Back Breakfall Lying—Step 3............................................................................................................................................................................................68 Figure 3-62: Side—Breakfall Standing—Mid-point ..........................................................................................................................................................................................54 Figure 3-39: Rear Breakfall Lying—Step 1...........................66 Figure 3-59: Side Breakfall Squatting—Strike............................................................................................82 Figure 4-21: Side Thrust Kick—Step 4 ...............................81 Figure 4-16: Front Thrust Kick—Step 3.......................................................67 Figure 3-61: Side—Breakfall Standing—Start.....................................................................................68 Figure 3-63: Side—Breakfall Standing—Finish ...........................64 Figure 3-55: Front Breakfall Standing—Step 2........................................................66 Figure 3-58: Side Breakfall Squatting—Start....................................................................59 Figure 3-46: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 2 ...............................................................65 Figure 3-57: Side Breakfall Lying—Step 2 ........................................61 Figure 3-50: Front Breakfall Kneeling—Step 1 .................79 Figure 4-12: Roundhouse Kick—Step 1................................................................69 Figure 4-11: Roundhouse Kick...................63 Figure 3-54: Front Breakfall Standing—Step 1........................................48 Figure 3-30: Double Leg Takedown—Step1...58 Figure 3-45: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 1 .........................................................................................................................84 Figure 4-26: Power Generation.........................................................52 Figure 3-37: Rear Takedown—Step 1 ...........................................60 Figure 3-48: Back Breakfall Standing—Step 1 ...............................................................53 Figure 3-38: Rear Takedown—Step 2 ...........46 Figure 3-27: Compression—Takedown Step 2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 Figure 3-47: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 3 .............63 Figure 3-53: Front Breakfall Squatting—Step 2..........79 Figure 4-13: Roundhouse Kick—Step 2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 Figure 3-43: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 2..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Figure 3-56: Side Breakfall Lying—Step 1 .....................................................................51 Figure 3-35: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 2.............................................62 Figure 3-51: Front Breakfall Kneeling—Step 2 ..............................47 Figure 3-28: Compression—Takedown Step 3.......................................................................................................

............................................89 Straight Punch—Step 3..91 Reverse Punch—Step 2.........................................................................................................................................................................92 Reverse Punch—Step 4....................................................................................................99 Outside Ridge Hand .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Horizontal Elbow—Strike Rearward .............................................................................................................................................................................115 Hook Block—(Side View)...........................................116 Lower Block.................................................119 Double High Block 2 ...............106 Vertical Elbow Strike—Rear Upward ....................................109 Knee Strike to the Head—Step 2 .........107 Horizontal Elbow—Strike Forward .........................................................................................................................................................................................96 Heel Palm Strike ...............................................................100 Upper Cut—Step 1...113 Inside Rear Hand Parry ............................................................................114 Hook Block—(Front View) ..118 Double High Block 1 ..........................................101 Upper Cut—Step 2........92 Lunge Punch—Step 1 .....................................................91 Reverse Punch—Step 3................................................................................................................................................93 Lunge Punch—Step 2 ...........................90 Reverse Punch—Step 1.............................................103 Eye Gouge..........................................................................................................................................................95 Heel Palm Strike .........................................................................................................................115 High Guard...............................................................................................................................117 Double High Block 1 ..................117 Leg Block..................................................101 Upper Cut—Step 3............................................................................................111 Inside Lead Hand Parry.............................................108 Knee Strike to the Head—Step 1 .........................................................................................................94 Lunge Punch—Step 3 ......110 Horizontal Knee Strike....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................119 xix .....................................................104 Vertical Elbow—Strike Upward..................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Hook Punch—Step 1.....................................................................................110 Stomp Kick ...............................................................................................................................................................................99 Downward Knife Hand ................................................................................................98 Outside Knife Hand ............................................94 Lunge Punch—Step 4 ..............................................................................96 Hammer Fist...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................106 Vertical Elbow—Strike Rearward ......90 Straight Punch—Step 4................................................................103 Hook Punch—Step 2............................Figure 4-28: Figure 4-29: Figure 4-30: Figure 4-31: Figure 4-32: Figure 4-33: Figure 4-34: Figure 4-35: Figure 4-36: Figure 4-37: Figure 4-38: Figure 4-39: Figure 4-40: Figure 4-41: Figure 4-42: Figure 4-43: Figure 4-44: Figure 4-45: Figure 4-46: Figure 4-47: Figure 4-48: Figure 4-49: Figure 4-50: Figure 4-51: Figure 4-52: Figure 4-53: Figure 4-54: Figure 4-55: Figure 4-56: Figure 4-57: Figure 4-58: Figure 4-59: Figure 4-60: Figure 4-61: Figure 4-62: Figure 4-63: Figure 4-64: Figure 4-65: Figure 4-66: Figure 4-67: Figure 4-68: Figure 4-69: Figure 4-70: Figure 4-71: Figure 4-72: Figure 4-73: Straight Punch—Step 2......................................105 Vertical Elbow—Strike Downward ...........114 Outside Rear Hand Parry ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................113 Outside Lead Hand Parry....................................................................................................................................................97 Hammer Fist..............................................

.................................................................................................................140 Figure 5-27: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 5 ...............................136 Figure 5-22: Guillotine Choke—Step 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................126 Figure 5-5: Cross Collar Choke—Step 1 ..................................................120 Figure 4-76: Double High Block 3 ..........130 Figure 5-14: Rear Choke 2—Step 2.......................182 Figure 6-5: Basic Wristlock .........................145 Figure 5-37: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 7 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Figure 5-32: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................................179 Figure 6-3: Head Control Position...........................134 Figure 5-19: Side Choke—Step 3 ...........................130 Figure 5-13: Rear Choke 2—Step 1..................................183 xx ................................................................................................................125 Figure 5-4: Front Choke..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................132 Figure 5-17: Side Choke—Step 1 ................................144 Figure 5-36: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Figure 5-8: Trachea Choke ................121 Figure 5-1: Four-finger Grip...........179 Figure 6-4: Basic Wristlock .......................................................133 Figure 5-18: Side Choke—Step 2 .............................126 Figure 5-6: Cross Collar Choke—Step 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................135 Figure 5-21: Guillotine Choke—Step 1............................131 Figure 5-16: Rear Choke 3—Step 2.........................141 Figure 5-29: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 7 ...............................................................143 Figure 5-34: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 4 ....................................................................................127 Figure 5-7: Cross Collar Choke—Step 3 .....143 Figure 5-33: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 3 ......120 Figure 4-75: Double High Block 3 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................134 Figure 5-20: Side Choke—Step 4 .........182 Figure 6-6: Reverse Wristlock .......B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 4-74: Double High Block 2 ......................................................................140 Figure 5-28: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 6 ...................................................................................141 Figure 5-30: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 8 ........................................................................................................................178 Figure 6-2: Head Control Position.....................................................................................................................................................139 Figure 5-25: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 3 ..................................................................................................................................................................145 Figure 6-1: Escort Position ...................................................................................................................................................................144 Figure 5-35: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 5 ................125 Figure 5-3: Three-finger Grip—Version 2 ........................................................................................................................................................129 Figure 5-12: Rear Choke 1—Side View.......................................................................................................................136 Figure 5-23: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 1 ......128 Figure 5-9: Trachea Choke Alternate Grip ..............................................128 Figure 5-10: Rear Choke 1—Step 1..............................................124 Figure 5-2: Three-finger Grip—Version 1 ....................129 Figure 5-11: Rear Choke 1—Step 2........................................................139 Figure 5-26: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 4 ....................................142 Figure 5-31: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 1 ........................................................131 Figure 5-15: Rear Choke 3—Step 1.........138 Figure 5-24: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 2 ........................................................................................................

...................200 Figure 6-35: Prone Handcuffing ..............190 Figure 6-21: Straight-arm Bar Takedown......................................................................................................................................................................................................................203 Figure 6-40: Applying Flexi-cuffs ................................................................................................184 Figure 6-9: Come-along Wristlock .....................................204 Figure 6-41: Applying Flexi-cuffs ...................................196 Figure 6-28: Standing Handcuffing ............................................................................200 Figure 6-36: Rear Control Position..........188 Figure 6-17: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock ..........................................................................................................................................204 Figure 6-42: Handcuff Escort Position ..........................................................................186 Figure 6-13: Come-along Wristlock .....................................................199 Figure 6-34: Prone Handcuffing .....................................................189 Figure 6-19: Straight-arm Bar Takedown......................................................183 Figure 6-8: Come-along Wristlock ..................................................................................................202 Figure 6-38: Flexi-cuff Position.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................206 Figure 6-45: Basic Wristlock Takedown .187 Figure 6-15: Basic to Come-along Wristlock .206 Figure 6-44: Keyhole Down ......................................................212 Figure 6-52: Reverse Wristlock Takedown .........................195 Figure 6-27: Standing Handcuffing .................................................................................................................212 xxi .................................................................................................184 Figure 6-10: Come-along Wristlock ....................................................205 Figure 6-43: Keyhole Up ..................191 Figure 6-23: Handcuff Grip ..................185 Figure 6-11: Come-along Wristlock .................188 Figure 6-18: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock ..185 Figure 6-12: Come-along Wristlock .....................................................................................Figure 6-7: Reverse Wristlock ....................................................................................................................................................................................209 Figure 6-47: Basic Wristlock Takedown ...............................................................................................................................................................................................203 Figure 6-39: Applying Flexi-cuffs ....................................................................................................................................................................................201 Figure 6-37: Rear Control Position (modified)...........................................210 Figure 6-50: Basic Wristlock Takedown ...................................................................................................191 Figure 6-22: Straight-arm Bar Takedown........................................................................................................................................................................................196 Figure 6-29: Standing Handcuffing ........................................................................................................................................197 Figure 6-30: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 1...................................187 Figure 6-16: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock ...210 Figure 6-49: Basic Wristlock Takedown ..................211 Figure 6-51: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................198 Figure 6-32: Prone Handcuffing ....................199 Figure 6-33: Prone Handcuffing ................................................................................................................210 Figure 6-48: Basic Wristlock Takedown ......................................................................................209 Figure 6-46: Basic Wristlock Takedown .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 Figure 6-31: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 2.........................................................................................................................193 Figure 6-25: Standing Handcuffing ..........................................193 Figure 6-24: Handcuff Grip (modified) .................................................................................................................186 Figure 6-14: Basic to Come-along Wristlock ..................190 Figure 6-20: Straight-arm Bar Takedown....................................195 Figure 6-26: Standing Handcuffing ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 6-53: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ............................................................244 Figure 7-19: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 1......................................................232 Figure 7-4: Knife Fighting Stance .........................................................236 Figure 7-7: Outside Slash—(Mid-point).................................................................................................................................214 Figure 6-56: Iron Wristlock Takedown ......................247 Figure 7-23: Underhand Strike—Step 2 .................221 Figure 6-60: Femoral Strike..............................223 Figure 6-64: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .........................................................................................................................................................................238 Figure 7-10: Inside Slash—Mid-point .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................215 Figure 6-58: Finger Lock Takedown ...............................................249 Figure 7-26: Outside Strike—Step 2................................................................................................................224 Figure 7-1a: Right-handed Soldier—Angles of Attack ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Figure 7-16: One-hand Grip.................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Figure 7-2: Hammer Grip ........................................................................................248 Figure 7-25: Outside Strike—Step 1............................................................................229 Figure 7-1b: Left handed Soldier—Angles of Attack......................................................................246 Figure 7-22: Underhand strike—Step 1....................................................................................................................................................................................237 Figure 7-8: Outside Slash—(Finish)........252 Figure 7-31: Forward Thrust Angle 5—Step 1....................215 Figure 6-59: Peroneal Strike ...............245 Figure 7-20: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 2....231 Figure 7-3: Ice Pick Grip ..................239 Figure 7-11: Inside Slash—Finish ..............................................................................................................................................222 Figure 6-62: Ulna Strike .237 Figure 7-9: Inside Slash—Start................................................................214 Figure 6-57: Finger Lock Takedown ........................................................223 Figure 6-65: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .242 Figure 7-15: Reverse Thrust—Step 2 ...........................................221 Figure 6-61: Radial Strike................................................................................................................................................222 Figure 6-63: Augmented Rear Arm Bar .....................................................................................................233 Figure 7-5: Vertical Slash ...........................................235 Figure 7-6: Outside Slash—(Start) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................243 Figure 7-18: Stance One-hand Grip...............224 Figure 6-66: Augmented Rear Arm Bar ................................................................241 Figure 7-14: Reverse Thrust—Step 1 ................................................................................................................248 Figure 7-24: Underhand Strike—Step 3 ...................................................................................246 Figure 7-21: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 3..................................253 xxii .............................252 Figure 7-30: Inside Strike—Step 3 .................................................................................................243 Figure 7-17: Two-hand Grip.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................213 Figure 6-54: Reverse Wristlock Takedown ................239 Figure 7-12: Forward Thrust—Step 1......................................................213 Figure 6-55: Iron Wristlock Takedown .....250 Figure 7-27: Outside Strike—Step 3...............................................................................240 Figure 7-13: Forward Thrust—Step 2.................................................................................................................................................................................250 Figure 7-28: Inside Strike—Step 1 ......................251 Figure 7-29: Inside Strike—Step 2 .......

..........................................................................................274 Disarming Pistol—Step 1.................................................................................278 Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 2 .........................................................................................................................273 Knife From Rear—Step 2 ...................................................................272 Knife on Right Side—Step 2 .............................................................................................................................................265 Counter to Inside Slash—Step 4 ..........................................260 Counter to Angle Knife Sticks .................................................269 Counter to Outside Slash—Step 4 ........268 Counter to Outside Slash—Step 2 ...........................................................263 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 2 .......................................................261 Counter to Angle 10—Step 1 Knife Does Not Stick ............................................................................253 Forward Thrust Angle 6—Step 1.......................................257 Low Block.................................................266 Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 2 ....................................................255 Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 2 ....................................................268 Counter to Outside Slash—Step 3 ..........................................................................270 Knife on Left Side—Step 2.................................................260 Two-handed Soft Block ............................................................................................258 Angle 10 Attack ...........................................................................................264 Counter to Inside Slash—Step 2 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................254 Forward Thrust Angle 6—Step 2........................................................................269 Knife on Left Side..............................................................................................................278 xxiii ......256 Upper Block .................................................................................276 Disarming Pistol—Step 4..................................263 Counter to Inside Slash—Step 1 ....273 Knife From Rear—Step 3 ....266 Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 3 ..........................................................263 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 3 ...................................................................262 Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 1 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................254 Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 1 ...................................Figure 7-32: Figure 7-33: Figure 7-34: Figure 7-35: Figure 7-36: Figure 7-37: Figure 7-38: Figure 7-39: Figure 7-40: Figure 7-41: Figure 7-42: Figure 7-43: Figure 7-44: Figure 7-45: Figure 7-46: Figure 7-47: Figure 7-48: Figure 7-49: Figure 7-50: Figure 7-51: Figure 7-52: Figure 7-53: Figure 7-54: Figure 7-55: Figure 7-56: Figure 7-57: Figure 7-58: Figure 7-59: Figure 7-60: Figure 7-61: Figure 7-62: Figure 7-63: Figure 7-64: Figure 7-65: Figure 7-66: Figure 7-67: Figure 7-68: Figure 7-69: Figure 7-70: Figure 7-71: Figure 7-72: Figure 7-73: Figure 7-74: Figure 7-75: Figure 7-76: Figure 7-77: Forward Thrust Angle 5—Step 2.............................................................................................271 Knife on Right Side—Step 1 .............................................................................................................264 Counter to Inside Slash—Step 3 ..............................................................................................................................277 Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 1 ................................................267 Counter to Outside Slash—Step 1 ........................270 Knife on Left Side—Step 3..........275 Disarming Pistol—Step 2................257 Middle Block.273 Knife From Rear—Step 1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................262 Soft Open Hand Block ..................................255 Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 3 ................................270 Knife on Left Side—Step 1............................272 Knife From Rear .....................................................................................................................................................................................................265 Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 1 ...............................................................276 Disarming Pistol—Step 3....................................................................................................................................................261 Counter to Angle 10—Step 2 Knife Does Not Stick ...................................................................................................................................................................................271 Knife on Right Side............................................

....289 Figure 7-99: Opponent Pulls Rifle—Step 2...........290 Figure 7-101: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol—Step 1................................................................................................................................................................................286 Figure 7-93: Butt Stroke Femoral Nerve ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................303 xxiv .295 Figure 8-2: Throat—Step 1....................................................................288 Figure 7-97: Opponent Pulls Rifle...................296 Figure 8-4: Subclavian Artery—Step 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................280 Figure 7-82: Disarming Rifle to Rear Shoulder Height..........................................................................................................................................291 Figure 7-102: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol—Step 2..............................................................................................................................282 Figure 7-85: Disarming Rifle to Rear Small of the Back ..................................................................................................................299 Figure 8-9: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 2 ...................................................................280 Figure 7-81: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................287 Figure 7-94: Butt Stroke Peroneal Nerve.................................................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 7-78: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 3 ..281 Figure 7-84: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Elbow Strike) ...............................................................................302 Figure 8-14: Garrotte to the Front—Side View............................290 Figure 7-100: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol.................................................................299 Figure 8-8: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 1 ............................285 Figure 7-91: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 1 .........................................................................................................................301 Figure 8-13: Garrotte to the Front—Step 2............................................................................................................................300 Figure 8-11: Stalking the Sentry ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................301 Figure 8-12: Garrotte to the Front—Step 1........292 Figure 7-104: Opponent to the Rear—Step 1 ...........................................................................................................................................................297 Figure 8-5: Subclavian Artery—Step 2 ...............................286 Figure 7-92: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 2 ............281 Figure 7-83: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Parry)..........................................................................................................................................291 Figure 7-103: Opponent to the Rear ..........................284 Figure 7-89: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 2 ............................................................................................................................................282 Figure 7-86: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Lower Block) ....300 Figure 8-10: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 3 ........................................................................................................294 Figure 8-1: Close the Distance.....................................................................................................................297 Figure 8-6: Kidney....................................302 Figure 8-15: Helmet Neck Break—Step 1...............................292 Figure 7-105: Opponent to the Rear—Step 2 .................................................288 Figure 7-96: Opponent Pushes Rifle...........293 Figure 7-106: Pistol to the Front...................................................................294 Figure 7-108: Pistol to the Front—Step 2............293 Figure 7-107: Pistol to the Front—Step 1................................................................................285 Figure 7-90: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) .........................279 Figure 7-80: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside)............279 Figure 7-79: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 4 ..........................283 Figure 7-87: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) ..............................................................................289 Figure 7-98: Opponent Pulls Rifle—Step 1.........................284 Figure 7-88: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 1 ...................................295 Figure 8-3: Throat—Step 2.............................................287 Figure 7-95: Opponent Pushes Rifle.................................................................................................................................298 Figure 8-7: Stalking the Sentry ........

....................................................310 Figure 8-28: Neck Break Kneeling—Step 2..........................................................................................................................324 Figure 9-20: Bayonet Extraction (Finish) ....................................................................................................................................319 Figure 9-11: Horizontal Butt Stroke ........318 Figure 9-10: Left Parry .............................................307 Figure 8-23: Neck Break from Rear—Step 1 ..................305 Figure 8-19: Helmet Smash—Step 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................325 Figure 9-22: Low Block............................................................................................................................319 Figure 9-12: On Guard...............................................................................................................................................................................316 Figure 9-5: Left Parry .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................325 Figure 9-21: High Block .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................321 Figure 9-15: Slash (Start)....320 Figure 9-13: Vertical Butt Stroke .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................307 Figure 8-24: Neck Break from Rear—Step 2 ..................................................................................................................................306 Figure 8-22: Neck Break from Rear ..................................306 Figure 8-21: Helmet Smash—Step 3 ........................................................................................322 Figure 9-16: Slash (Mid-point) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................326 Figure 9-23: Middle Block................314 Figure 9-2: On Guard...................................................................................................312 Figure 8-33: Crotch Takedown—Step 2............................................................................................................................312 Figure 8-32: Crotch Takedown—Step 1..............................................................316 Figure 9-6: Left Parry ...............................................................................310 Figure 8-29: Stalking the Sentry ................................................................................304 Figure 8-17: Helmet Neck Break—Step 3.....................................................................................................320 Figure 9-14: Smash .......309 Figure 8-27: Neck Break Kneeling—Step 1..........327 Figures 9-25: Two against One...........330 xxv ................317 Figure 9-7: On Guard........304 Figure 8-18: Helmet Smash ..................................318 Figure 9-9: Right Parry ..........311 Figure 8-30: Rear Takedown—Step 1 ..........................324 Figure 9-19: Ground Point (Mid-point) .............................................................................................................................................................305 Figure 8-20: Helmet Smash—Step 2 ...............................................................313 Figure 9-1: Rest..........................................................................................................................................................................................327 Figure 9-24: Middle Block.......................................317 Figure 9-8: Right Parry ...Figure 8-16: Helmet Neck Break—Step 2......................................................................................................................315 Figure 9-4: On Guard.....................308 Figure 8-26: Stalking the Enemy ....308 Figure 8-25: Neck Break from Rear—Step 3 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................322 Figure 9-17: Slash (Finish) .................................................................................................329 Figure 9-26: Three against Two—Step 1........315 Figure 9-3: Thrust .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................323 Figure 9-18: Ground Point (Start)................................................................311 Figure 8-31: Rear Takedown—Step 2 ...............................................313 Figure 8-34: Crotch Takedown—Step 3....................................................................................................................................329 Figure 9-27: Three against Two—Step 2........................................................................................................................................

................................................................................333 Figure 9-33: Gallows Target........364 Figure 10-36: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 2 ........................................................................................................................363 Figure 10-35: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 1 ...................................................................................331 Figure 9-31: Two against Three Step 3...........................................................................................................344 Figure 10-1: Mount Position............331 Figure 9-32: Scaffold Target............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................350 Figure 10-7 Top Mount Reversal—Step 3.................................................................................................353 Figure 10-15: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 1...............................................................................................................................................358 Figure 10-26: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 1 ..........................356 Figure 10-22: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 4............................364 Figure 10-37: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 3 ......................................................................................356 Figure 10-21: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 3......................362 Figure 10-34: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 5 ...................................................................................................................................350 Figure 10-8: Top Mount Reversal—Step 4 ....361 Figure 10-32: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 3 ..........................................355 Figure 10-19: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 1....................................................354 Figure 10-18: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 4.......................................................350 Figure 10-10: Guard Position ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................351 Figure 10-11: Guard Reversal—Step 1...................357 Figure 10-25: Guard Pass 2............................................................352 Figure 10-13: Cross-mount Reversal 1—Step 1...........................................................343 Figure 9-36: Pugil Stick Construction .........................350 Figure 10-6 Top Mount Reversal—Step 2....357 Figure 10-24: Guard Pass 1—Step 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................354 Figure 10-16: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 2..........................................................................................................................349 Figure 10-5: Top Mount Reversal—Step 1 ..................................330 Figure 9-29: Two against Three Step 1..................................................................................................................................................365 xxvi ....................................................................................................353 Figure 10-14: Cross-mount Reversal 1—Step 2..................352 Figure 10-12: Guard Reversal—Step 2.......................................................362 Figure 10-33: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 4 .......................................................................................................................................................359 Figure 10-27: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 2 ....350 Figure 10-9: Top Mount Reversal—Step 5 ............................................348 Figure 10-3: Cross Mount...........356 Figure 10-23: Guard Pass 1—Step 1 .............................................................................334 Figure 9-34: Ground Target .........................................................................................................................360 Figure 10-30: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................361 Figure 10-31: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 2 ...................................359 Figure 10-28: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 3 ..........................................347 Figure 10-2: Guard Position................................................................348 Figure 10-4: Side Mount.....................................................355 Figure 10-20: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 2.........................................................................................................................................................................360 Figure 10-29: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 4 ................................................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 9-28: One against Two ...................................................................................................354 Figure 10-17: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 3.............................................................................334 Figure 9-35: Pugil Stick Construction and Materials ...........................331 Figure 9-30: Two against Three Step 2..............................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................373 Figure 10-54: Side Choke—Step 1 ....................................................................................383 Figure 10-76: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................384 Figure 10-77: Defensive Ground Position 1 ...........375 Figure 10-58: Cross Collar Choke .................................................................................................................................................................................379 Figure 10-67: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 1 .......................................................................................................................................377 Figure 10-62: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 1.......................366 Figure 10-41: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 3 ........................................................................................................................................379 Figure 10-66: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 5.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................380 Figure 10-69: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 3 ..........370 Figure 10-50: Shoulder Rip—Step 2 .....................392 xxvii ..382 Figure 10-73: Ground Side Headlock—Step 2..........................................Figure 10-38: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 4 .........................................................................................................................................................372 Figure 10-53: Top Mount ......................................368 Figure 10-45: Straight Armbar—Step 3 ........................392 Figure 11-5: Iron Cross.......................381 Figure 10-71: Ground Side Headlock ......................382 Figure 10-72: Ground Side Headlock—Step 1.....................................369 Figure 10-47: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1.............................................................369 Figure 10-48: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1..........................................................................................................368 Figure 10-46: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1..........................................................................................................................................................376 Figure 10-61: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 3 ...........................................................................................................390 Figure 11-2: Sprawl Drill....................................................380 Figure 10-68: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 2 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................371 Figure 10-51: Rear Choke on the Ground—Step 1 ..............................................................................................................382 Figure 10-74: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 1 ...367 Figure 10-42: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 4 .....................378 Figure 10-65: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 4...........................................................370 Figure 10-49: Shoulder Rip—Step 1 ....................................378 Figure 10-64: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 3...............373 Figure 10-55: Side Choke—Step 2 ........................................................367 Figure 10-43: Straight Armbar—Step 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................391 Figure 11-4: Mountain Climbers ..384 Figure 10-78: Defensive Ground Position 2 ..............377 Figure 10-63: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 2......................................................366 Figure 10-40: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 2 ...................368 Figure 10-44: Straight Armbar—Step 2 ..........................365 Figure 10-39: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................374 Figure 10-56: Cross Collar Choke Fingers in ........................383 Figure 10-75: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 2 .........374 Figure 10-57: Cross Collar Choke Thumbs in...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................381 Figure 10-70: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 4 ..375 Figure 10-59: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 1 ........................................................................................................................385 Figure 11-1: Bridging ....................................................391 Figure 11-3: Mountain Climbers .....371 Figure 10-52: Rear Choke on the Ground—Step 2 ...............................376 Figure 10-60: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 2 .....

...........................................................................................................393 Figure 11-8: Shrimping Drill ..........................................394 Figure 11-9: Shrimping Drill .......................................................................393 Figure 11-7: Shrimping Drill ................................................................................B-GL-382-004/FP-001 Figure 11-6: Iron Cross...............394 Figure 11-10: Tactical Positioning......................................................400 xxviii ...............................................................................................................................................

Close quarter combat techniques both flow from and support the tactical principles listed below. This is because the soldier must decide which response or B-GL-382-004/FP-001 1 b. Whether the intent is to control an opponent using restraints or defend themselves in war. Power concentrated at the time of impact must be instantly released to prepare for the next action. e. the strength of all parts of the body must be used simultaneously.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT SECTION 1 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT TACTICAL PRINCIPLES 1. but are combined to achieve maximum effect. baton or any improvised weapon. In close quarter combat. 2. d. uncertainty. Armed techniques include those applied with a rifle. Decisiveness. and non-lethal fighting techniques that range from enforced compliance to deadly force. unarmed. Unarmed techniques include hand-to-hand combat and defence against hand-held weapons. a. bayonet. Decisiveness is essential in close quarter combat. the speed and violence of the attack against an opponent provides soldiers with a distinct advantage. Close quarter combat is a weapons-based system that spans the spectrum of conflict. Flexibility. disorder and rapid change. Concentration of Force. Close quarter combat can be characterized by friction. . For example. soldiers must have a clear purpose before engaging in close quarter combat. The purpose of close quarter combat is to apply armed and unarmed techniques to produce lethal and non-lethal results. Close quarter combat is the physical confrontation between two or more opponents. Every situation is a unique combination of changing factors that cannot be controlled with precision or certainty. Speed is used to gain the initiative over an opponent. To achieve maximum power. A wide range of situations have to be handled with the same simple skill sets. Close quarter combat is based on instinctive responses. Simplicity. c. and act decisively once engaged. Soldiers must know and understand the basics of close quarter combat so that they can execute techniques instinctively and rapidly. Speed. It involves armed. These principles are not applied separately. as it has been found that increasing the number of possible responses results in increased response time. a soldier dealing with crowd-control will have to employ various techniques ranging from non-lethal restraints to possibly deadly force. Note that various muscles and tendons must be kept loose and relaxed to permit instant response to changing circumstances. An indecisive soldier wastes energy and possibly lives. lethal. A strike will be ineffective if applied with the arm or leg alone. Soldiers must adapt to situations quickly to maintain their advantage. Introduction. knife.

A basic principle of martial arts is to use an opponent’s strength against him to gain more leverage than one’s own muscles alone can generate. Escalation of force stops when the opponent complies with the demands imposed by the soldier. stealth. soldiers must exploit every advantage over an opponent to ensure a successful outcome. SECTION 2 CONTINUUM OF FORCE 5. 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . an opponent will not surrender simply because he is placed at a disadvantage. ranging from verbal commands to the application of deadly force. The continuum of force consists of five levels that correspond to the behaviour of opponents and the actions the soldier uses to control the situation. which may be used to gain and maintain control of a potentially dangerous situation. 4. Close quarter combat is employed in Levels 3. thereby gaining the advantage. Gaining Advantage. This range of actions is known as the continuum of force.Close Quarter Combat technique is most appropriate for the threat. 4 and 5 of the continuum. Soldiers will face both combat and non-combat situations. Soldiers try to achieve surprise through deception. Achieving surprise can also greatly increase leverage. While the difference in time may only be minimal. Typically. In close quarter combat. Continuum of Force Level 1 2 3 4 5 Level of Resistance Compliant Passive Resistant Active Resistant Assault Deadly Force Assault Level of Control Verbal commands Contact controls Compliance Techniques Defensive Tactics Deadly Force Note: bold text indicates levels where close quarter combat is employed. even a half-second hesitation in a deadly force confrontation could be fatal. and ambiguity. This can include employing various weapons and techniques to present a dilemma to the opponent. They must exploit that advantage aggressively and ruthlessly until an opportunity arises to completely dominate the opponent. Soldiers cannot be satisfied with gaining an advantage in close quarter combat. 3. Soldiers must exploit success by using every advantage that can be gained. The continuum of force describes a wide range of possible actions. Exploiting Success. 6. Threat levels may rise and fall based on the actions of the soldier and the opponents involved.

To control the opponent soldiers typically apply deadly force using small arms weapons. including: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) defensive techniques (blocks & counters). and non-lethal chemical weapons (if ordered). but does not use a weapon. enhanced pain compliance techniques. striking techniques. c. Level 3—Active Resistant. d. Examples of pain compliance techniques are joint locks and pressure points. Pain compliance uses pain to control resistive behaviour. The following principles describe legally acceptable methods for controlling an opponent who resists.Principles of Close Quarter Combat a. Level 5—Deadly Force Assault. 7. Level 4—Assault. The opponent resists verbal commands but complies immediately with any contact controls. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 3 . and impact weapon techniques. a. Principles for Controlling Resistance. Close quarter combat is not employed. but may also employ armed and unarmed close quarter combat. The opponent complies with verbal commands. The opponent usually has a weapon. In use of force situations the soldier is responsible for the level of force employed. Soldiers employ close quarter combat to neutralize the threat. Once the pain exceeds the opponent’s pain threshold he usually decides to stop resisting. Level 3 employs close quarter combat to physically force an opponent to comply. and will either kill or seriously injure someone if not stopped immediately and brought under control. Pain is a formidable tool for disrupting an opponent’s thought process. Close quarter combat is not necessary. Level 2—Passive Resistant. The opponent initially demonstrates physical resistance. Soldiers use compliance techniques to control the situation. e. non-lethal chemical weapons. b. Pain Compliance. The opponent may physically attack soldiers. Techniques include: (1) (2) (3) compliance techniques. soft-hand striking techniques. Level 1—Compliant.

Motor Dysfunction.Close Quarter Combat b. A distraction technique could be as simple as a shin scrape. or being struck on certain areas of the anatomy. a knee to the femoral nerve. and allows the soldier sufficient time for a follow-up strike. An example of balance displacement is any form of takedown. Stunning employs overwhelming sensory input that is sudden. Distraction techniques weaken motor action by changing the thought process. 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The average stun will average 3 to 7 seconds. Combat stress can activate the body’s sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and create a condition commonly known as the “flight or fight” response. enabling them to completely focus all the body’s resources on either charging toward or running away from an opponent. radial stun. If a soldier is trained properly and is prepared he will be able to anticipate these responses in himself and others. Balance displacement uses leverage. Balance Displacement. e. These stress reactions can never be negated. suprascapular stun. and can even have an effect on how he bleeds (vasoconstriction). an imminent threat of serious injury to the soldier. how he responds (loss of motor skills). and can then initiate measures to control the effects of combat stress. what he sees (tunnel vision and loss of near vision). virtually uncontrollable. or impact weapons such as a baton or rifle butt. It can result from any of the following: a. SECTION 3 EFFECTS OF COMBAT STRESS c. Activation of the SNS is a powerful survival mechanism shared by all mammals. Combat stress can impact what a soldier thinks (irrational thoughts). The process is automatic. The average motor dysfunction may last from 30 seconds to several minutes. reaction time to a threat is minimal. Motor dysfunction targets an area which is a large muscle mass. and may be applied by feet or hand strikes. d. b. 9. The stun can result from heavy impact. Motor dysfunction is a controlled striking technique which over-stimulates motor nerves. Stress can cause involuntary physiological responses. what he hears (auditory exclusion). and thus in life and death situations combat stress can have a significant diminishing effect on task performance. Examples of stunning techniques are the brachial stun. and roundhouse kicks to the peroneal or femoral nerve motor points. 8. however proper training and preparation can reduce their effects. hitting the ground. and dominates all voluntary systems until the threat has been eliminated or avoided. moving an opponent’s centre of gravity beyond the stability provided by his feet. The average distraction technique lasts about 3 seconds. a straight punch to set up a reverse punch. Distraction Techniques. intense and unexpected. or just asking a question that requires more than a yes or no answer. Stunning Techniques. resulting in temporary muscle impairment.

Soldiers may experience auditory exclusion and tunnel vision. 16. visual reaction time. As a result. are the only physical actions that can be performed well. particularly the auditory system. While flight or fight can be extremely effective in battle. Vasoconstriction is at its highest. At a heart rate of 175 BPM. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 5 . so that scratches. blows and even bullet wounds may not be felt. fine motor skills begin to deteriorate. gross motor skills. a potentially life threatening situation. however performance will diminish. This is not to say a soldier will fail to react to a stressful situation when the heart rate surpasses 145 BPM. visual exclusion may occur due to low-or no-light environments. 10. This is known as perceptual narrowing or selective attention. The brain will tune out all other sensory inputs because they lack immediate significance. 14. 13. It is within this range that the most significant symptoms of SNS activation occur. 11. cuts. 12. When the heart rate reaches 115 BPM. it may not be during peace support or aid to civil power operations. Effects of Heart Rate on Performance. When the auditory system is the dominant source of information. and thus heart rate and SNS activation are linked. when the brain becomes focused on an activity or threat it will tune in the sensory system that provides the most relevant information at that given time. the perceptual narrowing process becomes critical. the brain stops processing information from the other senses. especially when required to make split second. The soldier must understand the effect of combat stress on the SNS. Irrational behaviour such as freezing in place and becoming submissive or passive will occur. complex motor skills begin to deteriorate and soldiers lose their ability to recognize and react to potentially hazardous situations. When the heart rate is within this range complex motor skills. This is referred to as auditory exclusion. provide the brain with a constant flow of information. Selective attention can also tune out other tactile sensations (the sense of feeling or touch).e. flight or fight. Consequently. Near vision and depth perception will also deteriorate. life or death decisions. caused by redirecting energy from non-essential muscles that control the bladder and the sphincter. a soldier with a heart rate between 115 and 145 BPM will have a sharp and clear mind. The heart is responsible for the massive discharge of stress hormones throughout the body via the bloodstream. such as wind sprints. SNS activation will drive the heart rate from a normal range of 60-80 beats per minute (BPM) to over 200 BPM within seconds. However. also referred to as the perceptual senses.Principles of Close Quarter Combat c. Soldiers may also experience loss of bladder and bowel control. reaction time will be at its peak. Increases caused by exercise. or a soldier lacks confidence in his training/skill level to cope with the threat. During SNS activation. These effects are due to hormonal induced heart rate increases. and cognitive reaction time will be at their highest. almost completely shutting down blood flow for surface wounds. The optimal range for combat performance is between 115 and 145 BPM. and close-range shooting skills will be at their best. 15. will not have the same impact. At a heart rate of 145 BPM. d. Each of the five sensory systems. In combat vision usually provides the most relevant information. Auditory Exclusion. i.

Binocular dominance. Tactical implications of SNS activation on vision include: a. with the peripheral field reduced 70% or more. usually vision. during SNS activation. such as firing a pistol or rifle over an extended distance or sniping. Loss of Depth Perception. For example. If SNS activation occurs then these negative effects upon vision cannot be avoided. The field of vision narrows as though one were looking through a tunnel or tube. even a small amount of sensory information being processed by the brain is flawed. Perceptual narrowing causes all senses except one. it can enhance accuracy during close engagements. information shouted by another soldier. Dilated pupils degrade a soldier’s ability to aim a weapon or focus on close threats and visual cues. Loss of Near Vision. f. a by-product of SNS activation. This is due to pupil dilation. Tunnel Vision. c. Thus one should use visual methods. Auditory exclusion is a powerful process that can limit a soldier’s ability to process critical information in combat. such as threat cues. soldiers should be taught to pivot their head. causing a significant decrease in accuracy and a significant increase in reaction time. When near vision loss occurs a soldier will experience great difficulty focusing on objects closer than 1 metre. Depth perception usually deteriorates when soldiers are surprised by a spontaneous deadly force assault and have to quickly return fire.Close Quarter Combat 17. including vision. to close or be greatly diminished. e. thus the loss of peripheral vision also results in loss of night vision. Thus the mind is processing only minimal information and may miss critical information. This is one reason why successful combat leaders have always led from the front. will inhibit the accuracy of distance shooting. often resulting in soldier firing low and to his dominant side. so that the soldier will “see double”. Loss of Monocular Vision. In a combat stress environment this has a devastating impact on a soldier’s ability to perform a task. This is why soldiers are taught to look around an object at night. Loss of Night Vision. Monocular vision is predominantly used in shooting where accuracy is critical. 19. rather than just darting their eyes. in order to compensate for tunnel vision. Loss of Ability to Focus. however. Thus. SNS-induced vasoconstriction and hormonal processes have a profound effect on the entire body. 6 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . d. or even an opponent’s shouts to surrender may not be heard. in order to see it with their night vision receptors. such as moving in front of a soldier to get his attention. Similarly. but they can be minimized through proper training. Verbal orders. A soldier to incorrectly judges distance and believes that the target is either closer or further away than it actually is when depth perception is lost. Effects on Vision. The eye’s night vision receptors are located primarily in the peripheral field. SNS activation inhibits monocular vision. since vision plays such an important role in nearly every aspect of survival performance. b. Relaxation and loss of control over the muscles that control the lens causes distortion while focusing on a target. 18.

e. f. 20. c. and initiating a motor response. These steps must be completed in sequence. Effects of Combat Stress on Reaction Time. analyzing and evaluating the information or threat level. and submissive behaviour. response selection and motor response will not occur. c. The impact of SNS activation on cognitive processing and survival reaction time includes: a. the execution of each step depending on the information available at the previous step. 22. Survival reaction time is the process of perceiving a threat and initiating a survival response. freezing in place. formulating the response. b. These functions are connected. and motor skill performance. 24. disrupted concentration. 21. the brain’s ability to analyze and evaluate information is also impeded. b. and survival reaction time will suffer when any function is disrupted. processing sensory input. The survival reaction model corresponds with the effects of SNS activation on vision. As the visual field collapses and sensory perception is disrupted. Surviving close quarter combat depends on a soldier’s reaction time. In addition. and physical performance will become very poor when the heart rate exceeds 175 BPM. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 7 . d.Principles of Close Quarter Combat shooting programs can emphasize instinctive shooting which reduces the need to rely on sights at close range. This includes sensory perception. d. 23. if these two steps are disrupted. perception. g. irrational behaviour. survival reaction time can take more than four times longer. Research has shown that information processing will begin to deteriorate when the heart rate exceeds 145 BPM. repetitive actions. failure to develop logical survival responses. Reaction time will increase if any of the previous steps lack sufficient information. Survival reaction time is a four-step process: a.

27. precision. punching. by diminishing motor skills. The body relies primarily on three energy systems: the ATP (adenosin triphosphate) system. Complex Motor Skills. and a reserve should be withheld from a stressful confrontation so that it may be called forward to perform fine motor skills if required.g. e. complex motor skills begin to deteriorate. expending or burning energy during this time. c. Therefore it is critical that all gunshot wounds or knife wounds be treated with pressure dressings as soon as possible following the incident. One of the initial symptoms of vasoconstriction is a lack of circulation at high levels of SNS activation. When the heart rate reaches around 115 BPM vasoconstriction of the fingers and hands begins to reduce the dexterity required to perform fine motor skills which require hand/eye coordination and hand dexterity. After this initial burn time the soldier can expect to experience a dramatic decrease in strength and energy output. These skills involve muscle groups in a series of movements requiring hand/eye coordination. If a wound is bleeding excessively during SNS activation this indicates arterial bleeding. The effects of SNS activation on motor skills must be constantly considered. Under ideal conditions.Close Quarter Combat 25. Vasoconstriction. Gross Motor Skills. the lactic acid 8 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . thus during combat a body can endure major wounds without significant bleeding. as the lack of bleeding makes it appear that the wound is not critical. It also limits blood loss. 29. shooting stances in which muscle groups are working in different or asymmetrical movements. which increases bleeding. e. and appropriate first aid should be applied. Fine Motor Skills. Vasoconstriction will reduce finger and hand dexterity. individuals required to conduct fine motor skill tasks should not be placed in frontline confrontations. because gross motor skills are simple strength skills or skills involving symmetrical movements that involve large muscle or major muscle groups. Whenever possible. Endurance Limitations on Combat Performance. or simple shooting stances. precision shooting or safe vehicle operation. can have a detrimental effect on physical performance. Combat stress. 28. SNS will affect motor skills in the following ways: a. Deterioration of Motor Skill Performance. tracking and timing.g.g. b. and can inhibit vision. or a takedown that has multiple independent components. The combination of aerobic (cardio/respiratory) and anaerobic (strength) conditioning not only enhances the soldier’s ability to control and overcome an opponent but also increases his ability to survive. striking with batons. However. . This can be very deceptive. The human body has limitations when exposed to high intensity close quarter combat activities. the average soldier will have approximately 10 to 15 seconds to control a threat. At approximately 145 BPM. e. as SNS activation begins to decrease and the body returns to “normal” an opposite effect occurs known as vasodilatation. 26. Combat fitness is an integral component of close quarter combat. These are the only motor skills that actually increase effectiveness as the heart rate increases.

e. 31. This fuel will not burn as hot as ATP.Principles of Close Quarter Combat system. c. So while during the first 10 to 15 seconds of a confrontation a soldier can expect to perform at 100% of maximum. malnutrition) in combination with survival stress. ATP consists of small energy bundles stored in the muscles. each energy system has a predictable burn time before performance will decrease. The different energy systems perform as follows during combat: a. 30. which are designed to burn at different rates for varying levels of intensity. and physical stress (fatigue. the lactic acid system comes on-line to act as an “afterburner” fuel. b. but provides the soldier about 45 seconds of intermediate strength and endurance. d. when the aerobic system is activated after ATP and lactic acid depletion the soldier’s maximum energy will be reduced to approximately 30%. the soldier’s strength output begins to dramatically decline and the soldier will be forced to escalate. once the lactic acid system is engaged a soldier’s energy level will reduce to 55% at 30 seconds. c. carbohydrates and free fatty acids. depending on the soldier’s cardio/respiratory conditioning. The aerobic system is fuelled by a combination of oxygen. Unfortunately. For example. After about 90 seconds the lactic acid is depleted and the aerobic system becomes the final and dominant fuel system. sleep deprivation. level of experience in dealing with the specific threat. lifting very heavy weights. Lactic Acid System. and 35% at 60 seconds. Once the ATP system has been depleted. Aerobic System. then his probability of survival deteriorates substantially unless he resorts to deadly force escalation. If the soldier’s attempt to escalate fails. level of confidence and personal skill. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 9 . During the first 10 to 15 seconds the soldier will normally maintain his balance and neutralize the opponent’s attempts at takedowns. the soldier will perform at 100% of maximum output. It is used during high energy and high strength activities. b. such as sprinting. Five major variables have an immediate impact on the level of SNS activation: a. and the aerobic system. If the soldier fails to control the opponent within 15 seconds. This system is very economical and can burn for long periods. consider a situation where a soldier is employed in an aid to civil power operation and is suddenly attacked by an opponent who is bigger and stronger. perceived level of threat. with a 45% decrease in maximum energy. Each system can be equated to high performance fuels. ATP System. When this system is engaged. Preventing or Reducing SNS Activation. As with any fuel system. or defending against an aggressive assault. time needed to respond. The system burns out after 10 to 15 seconds.

Close Quarter Combat 32. c. and will also act as a form of combat stress inoculation. These variables can be strongly influenced through proper training and prior preparation. and SNS activation can be reduced and controlled through a simple breathing exercise: a. b. accelerated heart rates. panic attacks. exhale through the mouth 4 seconds and hold for 4 seconds. and repeat four times. As well. 33. Realistic scenario-based training will aid the soldier by allowing him to understand effects on both him and his team. 10 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . inhale through the nose for 4 seconds and hold for 4 seconds.

Sharp. nose and jaw: a. Close range techniques include knee. The vulnerable points of the body are organized in five major groups: head. At this range. batons and hand strikes. and quick violent blows to vulnerable points should be implemented.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT SECTION 1 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT RANGE BANDS 1. groin. neck. Eyes. torso. Ears. temple. A very sensitive area of the face. b. midrange. Biting and gouging techniques are also effective. therefore any concept of fair play should be forgotten. Before proceeding further. Long Range. Head. They may also include attacks with poles or sticks. 3. c. Mid-range engagements use knives. These ranges may blur together very quickly and at times jump from one to the other. takedowns and grappling. SECTION 2 VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY 5. heavy blows to the ears can cause brain concussion or ruptured eardrums and internal bleeding. Long range engagements use the rifle/bayonet or kicks. the soldier has to be prepared to advance to apply close range techniques. Vulnerable points are areas of the body which are susceptible to blows or pressure. ears. When close quarter combat is probable the soldier should always try to maintain a reactionary gap of 2 to 3 metres from his opponent. depending on the actions of the soldier or the opponent’s reaction. familiarize yourself with the parts of the body depicted at Figure 2-1. and extremities. a. 4. one of the most fragile areas of the head. The soldier should remember that pressure points are available to aid in escaping holds. allowing follow-up blows to other vulnerable points. It must be stressed that some B-GL-382-004/FP-001 11 . Mid-range. and close range. Close quarter combat engagements occur within three range bands: long range. In doing so the soldier may cause the opponent to drop his defence temporarily. depending on the situation. Close Range. may cause unconsciousness and possibly death. Forceful blows to the temple. Blows to and raking or gouging of the eyes will cause temporary or permanent blindness and intense pain. 6. Temple. 2. The vulnerable points of the head are the eyes. the nose can be easily broken. or the entrenching tool. or back off to longrange techniques. The soldier is striking to subdue and/or kill the opponent. and when struck will cause immediate watering of the eyes. as well as throws. elbow and hand strikes. Nose.

f. Ribs. or kill the opponent. Torso. Females are affected just the same as males. A strike to the jaw will cause immense pain and damage to the teeth. 9. A sharp blow to the stomach may cause breathlessness and internal injuries. which provides the nervous system’s link to the brain. will cause it to break or fracture and immobilize the arm. Spine. such as a punctured lung. The areas which the soldier should target are as follows: a. Violent and repeated blows to the ribs will cause intense pain. The back of the neck contains the spine and occipital nerve. 7. When the jaw is struck forcefully the opponent may lose consciousness. b. The torso contains the vital organs of the body and provides the most natural protection. so the soldier must be ready to apply a follow up blow immediately. Any damage to this area causes the opponent to involuntarily alter his stance to protect the area. Kidneys. The front of the neck is a soft tissue area that is not covered by natural protection. A trachea tear or forceful strike may kill the opponent. shock and permanent damage. 8. Solar Plexus. A violent kick or strike to the collarbone. Stomach. Powerful blows to the kidneys may cause immobilization. The weight of the head and lack of large muscle mass leads to severe spinal damage when repeated forceful blows are delivered. A forceful blow to the solar plexus or centre of the chest will knock the wind out of the opponent. Note that the risk of self-injury is great unless the soldier strikes the jaw with a hard object such as a boot. If the soldier applies repeated blows to the same area the bones may break and cause internal injuries. leading to intense pain or paralysis. causing breathlessness and possible internal injuries. rifle butt or helmet. b.. When striking this area it is possible to cause the trachea to swell. leading to unconsciousness or even death. the only difference being that a near miss to the scrotum of the 12 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . temporary or permanent paralysis. Groin. Striking this area will cause loss of vision and balance. Violent blows to the spine can cause pinching and/or severing of the spinal cord. lips and tongue. The groin is another soft tissue area that lacks natural protection. d.Close Quarter Combat individuals may have the conditioning to withstand a blow to the nose. Striking the throat will cause swelling of the trachea and lead to asphyxiation. which is very fragile. Jaw. Neck. The areas to strike are the throat and nape of the neck: a. c. d. e. Collarbone (clavicle).

13. A soldier can also use pressure points to distract an opponent so lethal techniques can be applied. Rarely will an attack to the arms and legs cause death. Extremities. c. b. but they are still important targets. Front and Back SECTION 3 PRESSURE POINTS OF THE BODY 11. Knowledge of pressure points enables the soldier to control an opponent through pain compliance without causing death or serious injury.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat male will still cause severe pain. A violent blow can cause unconsciousness and/or internal damage. and arterial pressure points. A limb can be immobilized by delivering forceful blows to the joints in a direction opposite to the natural bend. Before proceeding further. an important tool in situations where deadly force is not authorized. Figure 2-1: Body Side. areas where there are many nerve endings. Two methods of applying pressure point control are: B-GL-382-004/FP-001 13 . 12. areas where nerves cross bones close to the outer skin. Some areas of the body are susceptible to pain: a. 10. familiarize yourself with the pressure points of the body depicted at Figure 2-2.

16. pushing toward the top and centre of the skull. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure with the index finger. pushing in and up on the underside of the nose at a 45 degree angle toward the top centre of the head. This technique can be used to gain compliance by inflicting pain. The Hypoglossal Nerve is located 2. b. d. lasting 3 to 7 seconds. 17. e. When touch pressure is applied it causes medium to high intensity pain. 2. The mandibular angle is located where the three nerves run together behind the mandible at the base of the ear lobe. those who have previously broken their nose or have inhaled cocaine. 15.5 centimetres forward of the “R” angle of the mandible. Infra Orbital Nerve. and involuntary hyperextension of the arms. This will cause medium to high intensity pain. The infra orbital nerve is located at the base of the nose. or to displace the opponent’s balance. stabilize the target. Jugular Notch. This pressure point can be used in conjunction with the Mandibular Angle (see paragraph 16) for enhanced pain. This technique is used as a distraction technique. the thumb or the knuckle between the mandible and the mastoid at the base of the ear lobe. enabling the soldier to force balance displacement on the opponent. and striking techniques. This pressure point is vulnerable to pressure applied in a quick stabbing motion. directed toward the nose. loud repetitive verbal commands. or to touch pressure. This technique is used to attain opponent compliance through pain. The Jugular Notch is at the base of the front of the neck in the notch formed at the centre of the clavicle. immediate cessation of all intentional motor activity will occur as well as mental stunning. Pressure is applied with the thumb. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure or quick penetration. immediate signs of submission. and alleviate pressure when compliance is achieved. Pressure is applied using the fingertips. Mandibular Angle. This pressure point is vulnerable to touch pressure or quick penetration. Hypoglossal Nerve. When touch pressure is applied it redistributes the opponent’s 14 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . apply pressure with fingertip(s). 18.Close Quarter Combat a. If quick penetration is applied. apply pressure/counter-pressure. to gain compliance through pain. c. watering of the eyes.g. supported by the fist. or the unsupported fingertips. immediate signs of submission. cessation of all motor activity. and a low level stunning effect. This will cause medium to high intensity pain.5 centimetres under the jaw. and probable cessation of all intentional motor activity. b. e. This pressure point may not be effective against some opponents. Enhanced pain can be inflicted if used in conjunction with the infra orbital nerve. touch pressure using the fingertip. 14. Five steps to correctly apply touch pressure to a nerve are: a. Pressure is applied with the fingers down at a 45 degree angle in both cases.

22. causes involuntary flexing away from the pressure. The expected effects of striking techniques are a high degree of pain. Suprascapular Nerve. 19. mental stunning lasting 3 to 7 seconds. Expected effects of striking techniques are medium to high intensity pain. Hand strikes and direct pressure with the thumb are effective against this nerve. This technique is used for pain compliance and to cause motor dysfunction. Expected effects of striking techniques are medium to high intensity pain. temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand. The Brachial Plexus (Origin) is formed by nerve fibres stemming from the vertebrae in the neck. pressure is directed to the centre of the neck. and immediate cessation of the aggressive thought process. Brachial Plexus (Origin). and possible flex/reflex response to the affected hand. and low level mental stunning. Ulna Nerve . When striking. Strikes and direct pressure applied with the hand or impact weapons to the Ulna Nerve are a softening technique to distract the opponent prior to a lethal or non-lethal blow. The expected effects of striking techniques are high intensity pain. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 15 . If the quick penetration method is used it causes immediate cessation of all intentional motor activity. 20. between two groups of the Sterno Cleido Mastoid muscle. and immediate signs of submission. Brachial Plexus (Tie In). When touch pressure is applied high intensity pain is expected and cessation of all intentional motor activity occurs. and possible low levels of unconsciousness. This technique is used to cause motor dysfunction. 23. Note that this is most successful if the arm is beside the body when the attack is made. motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand. When touch pressure is applied. The Brachial Plexus (Tie In) is located at the shoulder joint. These nerves meet and form the Brachial Plexus group at the side of the neck. such as the hammer fist and knife-edge strikes. and numbing or tingling in the affected hand . or to create space when grappling. and possible flex/reflex response to the affected hand. immediate cessation of motor activity. and numbing or tingling of the hand. used to get the opponent to release a grip on an object or individual. redistributes the opponent’s balance. and probable signs of submission. Radial Nerve.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat balance. Motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand. Striking techniques. The angle of attack is directly toward the ground. The Suprascapular Nerve is located at the junction where the trapezius connects to the side of the neck. The effects of the strike are high intensity pain. mental stunning for approximately 3 to 7 seconds. Striking techniques are used to attack this pressure point. possible flexing of the hand. may also be seen. approximately 15 centimetres from the base of the neck. are used to deliver an attack from the rear. The Radial Nerve runs along the inside of the forearm along the radius bone. The Ulna Nerve is on the outside of the forearm along the Ulna Bone. temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand. This technique causes motor dysfunction and a flex/reflex response. causing motor dysfunction to the affected arm and hand. Striking techniques applied with the hand or impact weapons to the Radial Nerve are a softening technique to distract the opponent and/or disarm him prior to other strikes. This technique is used as distraction. to cause balance displacement. mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds. medium to high intensity pain can be expected. causes involuntary flexing away from the pressure. possible flexing of the hand. motor dysfunction to the affected arm or hand. probability of temporary motor dysfunction to the affected arm. 21.

and mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds. the Peroneal Nerve branches off the Sciatic Nerve and travels around the outside of the knee. Impact should be as close to the Sciatic Nerve and Peroneal Nerve as possible. 25. The strike should be delivered directly in to the calf. severe pain. Peroneal Nerve. preferably at the top. The Femoral Nerve is on the inside of the thigh along the femur bone. Femoral Nerve. and mental stunning lasting for 3 to 7 seconds. The Peroneal Nerve is the easiest of the three motor points in the leg to strike. The expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor dysfunction of the affected leg. severe pain. Tibial Nerve. Repeated hand and elbow strikes are very effective. 16 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . probable sympathetic reflex response of the unaffected leg.G. Its location on the outside of the leg makes it an easy target for both leg and impact weapon strikes. and THUS any pressure in the opposite direction will cause intense pain. fingers. probable sympathetic reflex response of the unaffected leg. Expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor dysfunction of the affected leg. 26.Close Quarter Combat 24. The Tibial Nerve is the lower branch of the Sciatic Nerve. helping to bring the opponent off balance and enabling a non-lethal blow to be delivered. just under the knee cap. NOTE All hinge joints (E. flex/reflex response of the affected leg. It starts just above the back of the knee and runs down the back of the leg through the calf muscle. Expected effects of striking techniques are temporary immobilization and motor function of the affected leg. This technique can be applied from the fighting stance. or heel of the boot when executing a leg sweep. severe pain. This technique can also be used to break a hold such as the scissors hold. flex/reflex response of the affected leg. This technique can be employed when attacking with a baton. The striking point is midway down the thigh. This pressure point is generally used for impact weapons and leg strikes from a rear oblique angle. Located just above the back of the knee. elbows) are designed to bend one-way. and mental stunning for 3 to 7 seconds.

For beginners a fist is the most effective striking surface (see Figure 2-3). 29. forearms and elbows are the individual weapons of the arms. The part of the fist which strikes the target is the area from slightly above the middle joint to the knuckle of the index and middle fingers (see Figure 2-4). Hands. Fists. Continue bending the fingers inward until they are tightly pressed in to the palm.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-2: Pressure Points of the Body SECTION 4 STRIKING SURFACES 27. 30. edges of the hand. In close quarter combat any hardened portion of the body can serve as a weapon. including the fingers. 28. Hands and Arms. Hands. To form a fist. and they become effective and powerful weapons when strengthened through proper training. and fists. fold the fingers so the tips touch the base of the fingers. feet and knees are used the most. try to prevent this from occurring. The hand can be used both opened and closed. The hand itself consists of several surfaces that can be employed as weapons. elbows. Use the fist to strike soft tissue areas such as the throat. Fold the thumb over the fingers and press tightly across the index and middle fingers. When employing striking surfaces the soldier must ensure that all parts of the body work as one when impacting the target. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 17 . palm. When forming a fist in this manner it is not unusual for the baby finger to become relaxed. No one part of the body is effective if striking on its own.

The back fist is primarily used to attack the face and side of the body. The tops of the knuckles of the index and middle fingers on the back of the hand are the part of the fist used for striking (see Figure 25).Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-3: Making a Fist Figure 2-4: Striking Surface of the Fist 31. 18 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Back Fist. This strike is delivered with a snapping motion of the forearm. The hand is formed in a normal fist.

B-GL-382-004/FP-001 19 . Knife Hand and Ridge Hand. The striking surface is narrow. After forming the fist. The knife hand is one of the most versatile and devastating strikes. allowing strikes on the neck between the opponent’s body armour and helmet.e. As with the back fist ensure that you snap the forearm to deliver the attack. Hammer Fist. use the bottom of the fist along the meaty portion below the baby finger to strike (see Figure 2-6). The ridge hand-striking surface is the bony portion between the thumb and the wrist (see Figure 2-8). i. Figure 2-6: Hammer Fist 33. the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger extending to the top of the wrist (see Figure 2-7).Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-5: Back Fist 32. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the hand.

Use the forearms to strike the opponent and break joints and limbs. The legs are the most powerful weapons on the soldier’s body and are less prone to injury when striking. The soldier can use knees and feet to attack with devastating force. Legs. The fingers can be used to gouge and rake the eyes and face. Due to the short striking distance needed to generate power. The feet are protected by boots and are the choice for striking. rear and side. Like elbows. 38. Fingers. The groin or peroneal nerve are the primary target for the knee strike if 20 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Elbow strikes are possible from the front. knees are excellent weapons during close range fighting. Forearms. Knees. 35. Knees are employed at close range. downward and in a half circle. Elbows. elbows are excellent weapons for close range striking.Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-7: Knife Hand Figure 2-8: Ridge Hand 34. 36. as well as in a straight line parallel to the ground. The strike may travel upward. 37. A soldier will sustain less injury when strikes are conducted with the forearms than when strikes are applied with fists and fingers.

Figure 2-9: Ball and Toe of the Foot 40. groin and leg areas (see Figure 2-9). chest. The foot is stretched downward and the toes point downward. Use the instep (see Figure 2-10) to kick the groin. The ball of the foot is used mainly for thrust kicks. If the opponent is bent at the waist. The attack with the ball or toe of the foot can be employed to the face. abdomen.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat the opponent is standing. or on the ground. The toe of the foot is used mainly for snap kicks. knee strikes to the head and ribs are highly effective. The top of the foot runs from the toes to the ankle. 39. Ball and Toe of the Foot. Top of the Foot. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 21 .

Two stances are employed during close quarter combat training. the Natural Stance and the Fighting Stance. The toes are pointed out approximately 10 degrees. It is a natural and comfortable stance. 22 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . 43. Relaxed fists are formed with both hands placed at the front of the body. SECTION 5 CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT STANCES 42.Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-10: Instep Strike 41. Heel. The Natural Stance (see Figure 2-11) is used during periods of instruction and for safety checks. Natural Stance. The heel is used in kicks directed backward or sideways. and for foot stomps. It can also be used when an opponent is attempting to attack from the rear or side. Both feet are placed flat on the ground and in line approximately shoulder width apart.

The upper body must be set on this strong base. but at the same time work together as a single harmonious unit. and ensure that the muscles used in the attack and defence work together harmoniously. Although an effective attack or defence is impossible without a strong stance. the stance must provide enough strength and firmness to withstand the shock caused by the application of techniques against the soldier. It is important to remember that in addition to stability while in the fighting stance. accurate and smoothly executed techniques can be performed only from a strong and stable base. The soldier must: a. apply techniques with the greatest possible speed. mobility will be lost. If the soldier concentrates too much on remaining in a firm and stable position. legs. The ability to defend against an attack under any circumstances depends largely upon maintaining a correct stance. From this base feet. as stated earlier. 45.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-11: Natural Stance 44. arms and hands must be controlled individually. Fighting Stance. d. The following points are key to developing a good stance. 46. be well balanced when applying offensive and defensive techniques. b. The primary consideration. offensive and defensive techniques will be ineffective. is establishing a strong and stable base. and the back must be kept straight. trunk. If the body lacks balance and stability. fast. it is only necessary to assume this position just before delivering an attack or reacting in a defensive manner. be able to rotate hips smoothly when executing techniques. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 23 . c. Powerful.

The knee of the lead leg should be directly above the lead foot. Elbows are close protecting the body. The soldier must also end the movement in the proper fighting stance. Figure 2-12: Fighting Stance SECTION 6 BASIC MOVEMENT 48. Stepping Forward and to the Rear.Close Quarter Combat 47. and the soldier will be able to rotate the hips to generate power when striking. re-adopting a fighting stance. The rear foot should point in the same direction as the lead foot. Stepping forward is executed by shifting the weight to the lead foot and bringing the rear foot straight forward. The soldier may be required to move forward or rearward for both offensive and defensive techniques. re-adopting a fighting stance. The shoulders are relaxed with the lead hand forward. take a pace forward with the left/right foot. The lead toe is pointed inward to prevent foot sweeps and also to allow the knee to naturally move inward and protect the groin. with loosely clenched fists and thumbs in line with the cheekbones. The chin is lowered slightly to protect the throat. Stepping rearward is executed by shifting the body weight to the rear foot and bringing the forward foot a full step to the rear. whichever feels most natural. 50. Distribute body weight evenly on both legs. The hands are positioned in front of and close to the centre of the body. Bend the knees slightly. 49. To adopt the fighting stance (see Figure 2-12). 24 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . In doing so vulnerable points such as the groin and solar plexus are protected. This will naturally turn the hips to an angle of about 45 degrees. The feet should be about shoulder width apart.

The soldier uses a lead leg stepping action (shift) to move. This movement is used both offensively and defensively. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 25 . then draws the other foot forward in to the fighting stance (see Figures 2-14 to 2-16). Rearward and Laterally.Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat 51. The soldier must ensure that the movement of his feet are not so great as to cause balance displacement in his stance. There are eight directions of movement (see Figure 2-13). To shift forward the soldier moves the foot closest to the direction of movement. Figure 2-13: Directions of Movement 52. Shifting Forward.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-14: Forward Shift—Start Point Figure 2-15: Forward Shift—Mid-point 26 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Turns to the Rear. Figure 2-17: Turn to the Rear—Start B-GL-382-004/FP-001 27 . To turn to the rear the soldier shifts the rear leg forward at a 45 degree angle in line with the lead leg. rotating the body quickly to re-adopt the fighting stance (see Figures 2-17 to 2-19).Fundamentals of Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-16: Forward Shift—Finish 53. and the exact opposite is done in the right leg forward fighting stance. then steps back out in a 45 degree angle with the same leg. Note that if the soldier is in the left leg forward fighting stance the body rotates to the right.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 2-18: Turn to the Rear—Mid-point Figure 2-19: Turn to the Rear—Finish 28 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

B-GL-382-004/FP-001 29 . The type of throw or takedown will depend on the opponent’s choice of attack or defence. Failure to complete any stage will neutralize the effectiveness of the technique. To execute a throw the soldier’s point of balance must be below or equal to the opponent’s. 4. hand strikes. wrist or fingers. When standing there are eight directions in which the body’s balance may be displaced (see Figure 3-1). Properly executed throws can be devastating. The point of balance of a standing person is the navel. For example. When executing a throw or takedown the soldier must not fall with the opponent. by pushing or pulling. if you were leaning against a chest high fence there would be little chance of falling. timing and body position are applied to upset an opponent’s balance and gain control by forcing him to the ground. 2. c. possibly causing broken limbs or unconsciousness. 5. TAKEDOWNS AND BREAKFALLS SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. leverage. Throws and takedowns are used to throw an opponent to the ground during close combat. and breaking the elbow. balance displacement. There are three stages which must be applied for a throw or takedown to be effective. The principles of balance. 3. b.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 3 THROWS. and execution of the technique. proper entry in to the technique. however if that fence was lowered to waist height the body could topple easily. and the location of his weakest balance point. Balance must be maintained and a strong stance re-adopted. stomps. Once the opponent is on the ground a series of lethal follow-up techniques can be applied such as knee drops. Balance displacement occurs as a result of either pushing or pulling. In sequence the stages are: a. Throws and takedowns are effective because they rely on the momentum and power generated by the opponent rather than the strength and size of the soldier.

7. 8. The soldier must fully commit to the throw or takedown to be successful. SECTION 2 THROWS HIP THROW 9. At the same time grasp the opponent around the waist with the right hand. ensuring the opponent cannot regain his balance and that he does not allow his own balance to be disrupted. the soldier must enter in to the technique. Again. The hip throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while the soldier remains standing. b. Grasp the opponent’s upper arm with the left hand. This throw is effective when the opponent is moving forward or pushing. Step forward with the right foot and place it against the front of the opponent’s right foot. He must then immediately switch to another throw or employ striking techniques to neutralize the opponent.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-1: Directions for Balance Displacement 6. and to counter common attacks. note that all stages of the technique are interdependent and must flow together. The throw or takedown will only be possible if the opponent is off balance and the soldier is in the correct position. The soldier must apply pressure or use leverage correctly to make the throw. Once the opponent is off balance. but must also be prepared for counters to the technique. Use the opponent’s forward momentum to execute the hip throw as follows (see Figures 3-2 to 3-6): a. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 30 .

pulling the opponent on to the right hip. pull the opponent’s left arm toward the left knee with the left hand. Figure 3-2: Hip Throw Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 31 . to the point of balance. Takedowns and Breakfalls c. Stepping back with the right leg drops the opponent off the hip using gravity. Lower the hips so they are below the opponent’s point of balance. e. d. allowing the soldier to use arm strength to generate more power in the throw.Throws. and place the heel of the left foot so it is in front of the opponent’s left toe. rotating on the ball of the right foot. To execute the throw. Then straighten the legs. The soldier’s and opponent’s feet should form a box. simultaneously pushing with the right arm and stepping back slightly with the right leg. Step back with the left foot.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-3: Hip Throw—Foot Position Figure 3-4: Hip Throw Step 2 32 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Throws. the shoulder throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while maintaining control. Use the opponent’s forward momentum to execute the shoulder throw. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-5: Hip Throw Step 3 Figure 3-6: Hip Throw Step 4 SHOULDER THROW 10. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 33 . This throw is effective if the opponent is attacking with a grabbing technique from the rear. As with the hip throw.

bend the knees. thrust the hips upward. Grasp the opponent’s right upper arm with the left hand and pull him off balance. on a taller opponent. The soldier must remember to maintain his balance during and after making the throw. Ensure that the entire back is against the opponent’s torso.g. simultaneously shift the right leg back to gain momentum.Close Quarter Combat This throw is more violent and has greater potential to break limbs or cause unconsciousness. e. and finish the throw in a fighting stance. To execute the shoulder throw (see Figures 3-7 to 3-10): a. b. d. Figure 3-7: Shoulder Throw Step 1 34 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . and straighten the legs. Quickly slide the left foot beside the right foot so your feet form a box with the opponent’s feet. bend slightly at the waist. Simultaneously pull the opponent’s arm across the body from the right shoulder to the left knee. c. Then lower the chin in to the left shoulder. If this cannot be achieved. rotating the body on the ball of the left foot so the right foot is inside the opponent’s right foot. e. and lower the hips below the opponent’s. f. then with the right hand grasp the front of the shirt or webbing and pivot the elbow under the trapped armpit. Simultaneously shoot the right arm under the opponent’s right arm and grasp the top of the right shoulder from behind. Pull the opponent over the body to the left side. Step in to the opponent.

Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-8: Shoulder Throw Step 2 Figure 3-9: Shoulder Throw Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 35 .Throws.

To execute a turning throw (see Figures 3-11 to 3-14): a. Hook the opponent’s right arm with the left arm. d. 36 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The turning throw is used to take the opponent to the ground while the soldier remains standing. A turning throw can be executed from a stationary position. c. Pivot to the left on the ball of the right foot and step back with the left leg. b. and pinch his arm between the bicep and forearm. It is particularly effective if the soldier and the opponent are wearing full fighting order. Pull the opponent’s arm downward. Step forward with the right foot and place it past the outside of the opponent’s right foot. e. Continue pulling downward on the opponent’s arm while rotating the arm outward to unbalance him. Grasp the opponent’s right arm with the left hand.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-10: Shoulder Throw Step 4 TURNING THROW 11. keeping it close to the body. touching the body to the opponent’s.

Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-11: Turning Throw Step 1 Figure 3-12: Turning Throw Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 37 .Throws.

To execute the leg sweep (see Figures 3-15 to 3-19): 38 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The leg sweep is used to take the opponent to the ground.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-13: Turning Throw Step 3 Figure 3-14: Turning Throw Step 4 LEG SWEEP 12. It is effective if the opponent is already off balance and moving backward or pulling the soldier.

e. close to the body. A brachial stun or ridge hand to throat may be used in conjunction with the leg sweep to take the opponent to the ground. Figure 3-15: Leg Sweep Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 39 . using the right hand for a trachea tear. Pull the opponent’s right arm downward. b. and push the upper body backward to unbalance the opponent. sweep the right leg backward. as you thrust the opponent backward. Step forward with the left foot on the outside and past the opponent’s right leg. d. c. Grasp the opponent’s right arm with the left hand. eye gouge or brachial stun when the right leg strikes. Raise the right knee just above the opponent’s knee and. kicking the back of the calf (tibial nerve) with the heel and driving the opponent to the ground. Takedowns and Breakfalls a.Throws.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-16: Leg Sweep Step 2 40 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-17: Leg Sweep Step 3 Figure 3-18: Leg Sweep Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 41 .Throws.

From this position the soldiers’ hand rotates to a thumbs up position to act as a fulcrum. Continue to force the head back.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-19: Leg Sweep Step 5 SECTION 3 TAKEDOWNS HEAD TEAR DOWN 13. entering with an occipital strike. This technique may also be applied with a trachea grab or ocular grip (see Figures 3-23 and 3-24) to force the head back. and the other hand strikes up in to the center of the jaw. continue pressure to the head and step back with the rear leg. 42 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . To execute the head tear down (see Figures 3-20 to 3-22) move to the opponent’s tactical position 2. Once the head is back as far as possible and the opponent’s hips are forward. driving the head straight back. driving the opponent to the ground.

Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-20: Head Tear Down—Occipital Strike Step 1 Figure 3-21: Head Tear Down Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 43 .Throws.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-22: Head Tear Down Step 3 Figure 3-23: Ocular Grip—Thumb 44 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

b. place both hands on the back of his neck. d. while the opponent is stunned. This technique is used to take an opponent to the ground to a control position (see Figures 3-25 to 3-28): a. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-24: Ocular Grip—Fingers COMPRESSION TAKEDOWN 14. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 45 . c.Throws. maintaining control of the head at all times. execute a strike to the brachial plexus origin. and once on the ground move to a control position. bend the lead knee and using body weight force the opponent’s head directly toward his feet.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-25: Compression Takedown Figure 3-26: Compression Takedown—Step 1 46 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

using them to generate power drives in to the opponent’s midsection with the shoulder (head to the outside). placing the lead leg as close as possible to the opponent’s legs. pulling B-GL-382-004/FP-001 47 . the soldier removes his opponent’s base. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-27: Compression Takedown—Step 2 Figure 3-28: Compression Takedown—Step 3 DOUBLE LEG TAKEDOWN 15. By attacking the legs. The soldier can close for the takedown at both mid.Throws.and close range (see Figures 3-29 to 3-31). Continue to drive forward with the shoulder. Lower the fighting stance by bending the knees. Wrap the opponent’s legs with the arms.

then throw to generate more power. techniques to break the leg or ankle. follow up with stomps to the groin.Close Quarter Combat the opponent’s legs toward the body. back straight. Once the opponent is on the ground. Body position is important for this takedown and you must keep head up. Figure 3-29: Double Leg Takedown Figure 3-30: Double Leg Takedown—Step1 48 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . and shoulders above the level of the hips. If possible drive the opponent up off the ground. or flip the opponent and go to a rear control position.

Throws. Once the leg is trapped. the opponent maintains some balance rearward by hopping on one leg. Ideally the soldier should execute the double leg takedown. Now turn and force the opponent directly to the side or to the rear on an oblique angle. Body position is the same as the double leg take down. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-31: Double Leg Takedown—Step 2 SINGLE LEG TAKEDOWN 16. Therefore the entry in to this technique is the same as the double leg takedown up to the point of wrapping the arms. and you can follow up with multiple techniques. apply power to take the opponent to the ground (see Figures 3-32 and 3-33). With this technique. however if the opponent steps back there may only be a chance to grab the lead leg. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 49 .

The leg hook takedown originates from a standing grappling position. The leg hook is used against an opponent stepping away (see Figures 3-34 to 3-36).Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-32: Single Leg Takedown Figure 3-33: Single Leg Takedown LEG HOOK TAKEDOWN 17. First. or circle forward or rearward. work to tactical position 2. From this position. with the head directly behind and tight to the opponent’s shoulder. the opponent will have two options. and the arms wrapped high around the opponent. as follows: 50 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . either to step away to his side and widen his stance.

just before the opponent hits the ground release the arms to prevent landing on them. from the clinched position use the rear leg to sweep the opponent’s nearest/supporting leg back between the legs.Throws. and once the opponent is on the ground remain standing or mount the opponent and use follow-up techniques. b. Figure 3-34: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 51 . c. d. once the opponent starts to fall plant the sweeping leg to maintain balance and prevent the knee striking the ground from the momentum of the throw. Takedowns and Breakfalls a. simultaneously pushing with the upper body.

from a standing grappling position the opponent’s second option is to circle forward or to the rear. 52 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Step to one side so that you are behind the opponent at an angle. The rear takedown is used against a circling opponent (see Figures 3-7 and 3-38): a. As discussed in the previous paragraph.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-35: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 2 Figure 3-36: Leg Hook Takedown—Step 3 REAR TAKEDOWN 18.

As this happens. Sit down as close to the forward foot as possible and drop using bodyweight to make the throw. Takedowns and Breakfalls b. reach out and place the instep of the foot behind the opponent’s far side foot to prevent him stepping back. Figure 3-37: Rear Takedown—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 53 . c.Throws. Keep the elbows tucked to the side to avoid falling on them. The opponent will fall backward over the extended leg. turn the body backward to prevent the opponent from landing on top. With the rear leg.

gouge the eyes. 22. Once a breakfall has been executed.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-38: Rear Takedown—Step 2 SECTION 4 COUNTERS TO THROWS/TAKEDOWNS 19. The soldier uses breakfalls to absorb the shock of the impact with the ground. the soldier is in a defensive posture and must immediately attack to gain the initiative. This fear can be minimized by learning to land so that the major muscle groups absorb the shock of falling and lessen the pain of impact. An opponent using a takedown or throw may take a soldier to the ground. SECTION 5 BREAKFALLS 21. keep the head up to arc the back. 54 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . immediately on contact with the opponent kick both legs back. if the opponent starts to apply a throw the best defence is to hang as a dead weight and immediately launch a counter throw or attack (execute stunning blows. Training for breakfalls should be progressive. Breakfalls and rolls are a necessary part of close quarter combat training. When attacking. Fear of falling is instilled at birth and unless countered by training that fear remains. To sprawl. rake the face. and drive the elbows in to the opponent’s back. and all breakfalls should be practiced repeatedly in all directions until they become instinctive. 20. If an opponent is attempting a double or single leg takedown. or attack pressure points). On hitting the ground move immediately to a control position. The key to not being thrown is to prevent the opponent from moving to tactical position 1 or 2 (the inside position). the soldier can defend using a sprawl.

and cross the arms on the chest with each hand touching the opposite shoulder (see Figures 3-39 to 3-41). for a description of chambering the leg in a fighting stance. to forcefully expel the air. 26. Bring the legs up with the feet above the body. as soon as possible. paragraph 12. This is done using a “ KEEOIA”. recover to the fighting stance. The same principles apply in a breakfall. Takedowns and Breakfalls 23. Upon striking the mat. and counter follow-up attacks. Force the arms to the side at a 30 to 40 degree angle. simultaneously exhaling air from the lungs. 1 See Chapter 4. From this position the soldier must execute counters such as leg sweeps or kicks to gain distance and. confirming that it feels natural for the hands to strike the mat and adopt the defensive posture. 24. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 55 . tuck the chin in to the chest.Throws. When executing any breakfall technique the soldier must expel as much air as possible from the lungs to prevent injury. It should be repeated before proceeding to other breakfalls. the KEEOIA can be silent or loud. 27. After the breakfall is executed there must be immediate recovery from the technique. SECTION 6 REAR BREAKFALLS LYING 25. one leg being chambered1 to kick or deflect an attack from above. This is the basic rear breakfall. draw the hands back in front of the body with one arm above the head and the other arm covering the mid-section in a defensive posture. Lie flat on the mat. striking the ground with the full extent of the arms and palms of the hands. The soldier must move to face the opponent executing the throw or takedown.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-39: Rear Breakfall Lying—Step 1 Figure 3-40: Rear Breakfall Lying—Step 2 56 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Sit on the mat with the knees bent. Figure 3-42: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 57 . with the feet up to deflect an attack from above. and return to the defensive posture. chin tucked in to the chest and arms crossed on the chest (see Figures 3-42 to 3-44). Roll back and bring the legs up over the body. Strike the mats and exhale.Throws. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-41: Back Breakfall Lying—Step 3 SITTING 28.

placing the hands in the same position as when sitting (see Figures 3-45 to 3-47). 30. Carry out the basic breakfall as when sitting. Roll back letting the buttocks touch the mat first. 58 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Squat on the mat.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-43: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 2 Figure 3-44: Back Breakfall Sitting—Step 3 SQUATTING 29.

Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-45: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 1 Figure 3-46: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 59 .Throws.

then roll back executing the basic breakfall.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-47: Back Breakfall Squatting—Step 3 STANDING 31. Figure 3-48: Back Breakfall Standing—Step 1 60 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . landing with the buttocks first. 32. Stepping back slightly. Do not reach for the ground. Stands with the back bent slightly forward. drop back. in a high squat position. arms crossed in front of the chest and the chin tucked in.

Throws. stomach and chest should not touch the mat. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-49: Back Breakfall Standing—Step 2 SECTION 7 FRONT BREAKFALLS KNEELING 33. Kneel on the mat with toes pointing downward and buttocks on the heels (see Figures 350 and 3-51). Elbows are tucked in close to the body. Knees. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 61 . Hands are raised in front of the body at a slight angle. hands and toes. Ensure that the head is turned left or the right to avoid smashing the face or chin on the ground. Legs should be spread more than shoulder width apart to lower the centre of gravity. and land on the forearms. Upon impact exhale air from the lungs. pushing the legs out straight. 34. with palms facing forward and hands cupped. Fall forward.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-50: Front Breakfall Kneeling—Step 1 Figure 3-51: Front Breakfall Kneeling—Step 2 SQUATTING 35. Bring the hands in to position in the air and perform the breakfall. Squat on the mat and fall forward (see Figures 3-52 and 3-53). 62 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

B-GL-382-004/FP-001 63 . Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-52: Front Breakfall Squatting—Step 1 Figure 3-53: Front Breakfall Squatting—Step 2 STANDING 36. Stand with feet about shoulder width apart.Throws. and execute the breakfall (see Figures 3-54 and 3-55). leap forward.

The forward roll breaks a fall from an opponent’s attack and uses the momentum of the roll to get back to the fighting stance. adopting the fighting stance once erect. 64 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Tuck the chin in to the chest. Roll over the right shoulder and diagonally across the back and left hip to the feet.Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-54: Front Breakfall Standing—Step 1 Figure 3-55: Front Breakfall Standing—Step 2 FORWARD ROLLS 37. To execute the forward roll step forward with the right foot and contact the ground with the back of the right forearm and upper arm.

Figure 3-56: Side Breakfall Lying—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 65 . 39. left arm across the mid-section of the torso. chin to chest. The left breakfall is the exact opposite of the right breakfall. palm downward. The left arm will come up to protect the face. and the left knee is bent slightly to protect the groin. Lie on the back. 40. right arm across touching the left shoulder. rotate the body to the right. Takedowns and Breakfalls SECTION 8 SIDE BREAKFALLS LYING 38. striking the ground with the full extent of the right arm and leg at about a 45 degree angle.Throws. All movements are carried out simultaneously. Ensure air is exhaled during impact. For the right breakfall. palm facing out and legs raised off the mat (see Figures 3-56 and 3-57).

looking under the left armpit. Place the palm of the right hand on the mat with the fingers facing the body on the inside of the left hand. landing on the left hip. Figure 3-58: Side Breakfall Squatting—Start 66 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Tuck the head in to the right arm. Strike the ground with the legs and arms positioned as in the lying position. Raise the left knee off the ground and roll forward over the right shoulder. To roll and execute a left breakfall roll over the right shoulder (see Figures 3-58 to 3-60).Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-57: Side Breakfall Lying—Step 2 SQUATTING 41. Elbows should be slightly bent forming a wheel.

Tuck the head as in the squatting position.Throws. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 67 . forcing the roll over the right shoulder and ending in a left break fall. In the same motion lower the upper body. but in front of the body to form a wheel (see Figures 3-61 to 3-63). Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-59: Side Breakfall Squatting—Strike Figure 3-60: Side Breakfall Squatting—Finish STANDING 42. and take a pace forward with the right leg. placing the hand on the ground inside the right foot. Throw the left leg over the body. Place the hands as in the squatting position.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 3-61: Side—Breakfall Standing—Start Figure 3-62: Side—Breakfall Standing—Mid-point 68 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Once rolls from the standing position have been practiced the movement will become instinctive. Takedowns and Breakfalls Figure 3-63: Side—Breakfall Standing—Finish 43. In training it is important to consider the height of obstacles presented to the student. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 69 .Throws. Remember that the right roll is executed on the right foot and the left roll on the left foot. making them progressively higher. but no obstacle should be higher than the waist.

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and thrusting the hip and upper body forward toward the intended striking surface. the greater probability it will be grabbed and the intended offensive strike neutralized. Kicks can be used offensively and defensively. in combination with other striking surfaces. SECTION 1 LONG RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES KICKING THEORY 2. it is the one most commonly used. After executing the kick the leg must be immediately re-chambered (see paragraph 12) and a stable stance readopted. 5. As an example it takes approximately 25 kilograms of pressure to break the knee joint. Also. The primary targets for kicks are the knees. These are the primary targets because of their susceptibility to serious and immediate damage. Soldiers must know how to execute strikes effectively. Since the back leg is the more powerful of the two. Kicks are the natural long-range weapons of the soldier. the soldier can also stomp on hands and other limbs. kidneys. spine. They enable the soldier to strike at targets from a distance. If the opponent is on the ground the soldier can aim for the head. Any soldier regardless of size can generate the required amount of force. In close quarter combat many parts of the body can serve as weapons. Strikes can be delivered with the hands. Kicks can be executed from either the lead or rear leg depending on the circumstances. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 71 . 4. groin. tibial nerve and shins. 3. If the target is out of range the soldier can combine a shifting or stepping technique combined with the kick. without compromising his defensive stance. If the target is too close the soldier must use techniques that apply at that range. in some instances.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 4 STRIKING TECHNIQUES AND COUNTERS 1. to strike two or more of the opponent’s vulnerable points. other parts of the body. the soldier must maintain a balanced stance and not strike with kicking techniques. A kick must always be executed with maximum speed. if the environment is cluttered with debris and other objects. The groin is similarly vulnerable. 7. as there are no surrounding muscles and a strike here is excruciatingly painful. Kicks should not be delivered above waist level unless the opponent is on the ground or bent forward. feet. and. peroneal nerve. ribs and stomach. or the technique may be jammed or trapped. 6. Strikes can only become effective and powerful weapons when strengthened through proper training. Power is achieved through keeping the supporting leg bent. but at the same time contain enough power to cause damage to the intended target area. They can be used for one powerful strike or. The higher a kick is thrown. The soldier must assess the distance to the target and the surrounding environment before using kicks. femoral nerve.

The first is the snap kick. beginning from the chambered position. The soldier must carry his hands in the fighting stance to ensure he has protection and that the hands are in position to strike. When kicking. This action is an important preliminary to kicking. and keep the upper body well balanced and perpendicular to the ground. better leverage is obtained for a quick and powerful kick. and keep the sole of the foot firmly on the ground. Part of the reason for bending the knee fully is to keep the weight of the kicking leg as close as possible to the trunk. keep the supporting leg steady. By bending the knee fully. Attempt to absorb the shock with the ankle. Pushing the hips forward during the kick helps achieve this. Regardless of the type of kick to be executed the first action is chambering the leg. Practice lifting the knee also helps accustom the body to balancing on one leg. The snap kick can be delivered with the front or rear leg. 72 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Be sure to bend the knee only slightly. 14. Begin by raising the knee of the kicking leg as high as possible and bending the knee fully. kick with the whole body instead of with the leg alone. a snapping and swinging movement of the foot. knee and hip of the supporting leg. This situation is aggravated at the instant the foot hits the target by the strong counter shock of the kick. There are two basic methods for delivering a leg strike. Be sure to re-chamber the kicking foot quickly after completing the kick. tighten the ankle of the supporting leg. with the knee slightly bent. it must be ready for the next attack. This prevents the opponent from catching it or sweeping your supporting leg. 13. The kick has greater power if the leg is initially close to the body. The second is the thrust kick. straightening the knee and thrusting the foot outward and toward the target. The knee and ankle will be loose.Close Quarter Combat BALANCE 8. During the kick. To counteract this shock. 9. Bend the knee of the kicking leg to its maximum extent. To achieve maximum effect. METHODS OF DELIVERY 11. The foot describes almost a half circle during the kick. tense the muscles of the leg. As soon as the foot is withdrawn. and aids in learning the first part of the correct course of a kicking foot. the leg muscle will have some difficulty supporting the body. If the knee is bent too much. SNAP KICK 15. CHAMBERING THE LEG 12. lean the leg slightly forward. balance is of primary importance. Deliver the snap kick with a strong snapping motion. as body weight is supported by only one leg. 10. and it will be difficult to kick effectively.

Strike the target with the toe of the boot or top of the foot. Return as quickly as possible to the fighting stance. To deliver the snap kick. The kick from beginning to end is smooth. 17. chamber the leg. then quickly and powerfully tense the muscles at the front of the thigh. A slow snap kick not only fails to create a powerful attack. but also results in an unbalanced position and leaves the soldier vulnerable to foot traps. When the leg is fully extended. This is because the muscles at the back of the thigh are stretched as the leg is extended outward. and because the power of the kick is usually directed upward. Maximum speed is essential executing the snap kick. This tension drives the foot outward. relax the muscles at the front of the thigh and tense those at the back to re-chamber the leg. A sudden release of tension in the front thigh muscles will immediately cause those at the back to contract. and there is no noticeable pause at the moment of impact.Striking Techniques and Counters 16. In the snap kick (see Figures 4-1 to 4-5) balance is often poor because of the restricted base provided by the supporting foot. Figure 4-1: Snap Kick Front Leg—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 73 . automatically withdrawing the foot. 18.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-2: Snap Kick Front Leg—Step 2 Figure 4-3: Snap Kick Front Leg—Step 3 74 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-4: Snap Kick Front Leg—Step 4 Figure 4-5: Snap Kick Front Leg—Step 5 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 75 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-6: Snap Kick Rear Leg—Step 1 Figure 4-7: Snap Kick Rear Leg—Step 2 76 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-8: Snap Kick Rear Leg—Step 3 Figure 4-9: Snap Kick Rear Leg—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 77 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-10: Snap Kick Rear Leg—Step 5 ROUNDHOUSE KICK 19. The snapping motion of the leg is generated by the rotation of the hips and not the extension of the knee. or the femoral nerve. or the shin. the instep. The roundhouse kick (see Figures 4-11 to 4-13) is normally executed with the rear leg and targets either the side of the knee. The motion of the rear leg is a dead leg swing. transferring the weight to the lead foot. the peroneal nerve. 78 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . 20. and rotate the hips. Turn the lead foot outward. 21. swinging the rear leg forward in a low arc to strike with the toe of the boot.

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-11: Roundhouse Kick Figure 4-12: Roundhouse Kick—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 79 .

The foot can easily snap outward and upward toward the target.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-13: Roundhouse Kick—Step 2 THRUST KICKS 22. 28. It can be used to strike targets from shin to waist high on a standing opponent. 23. but concentrate maximum power through the cutting edge of the heel at the moment of impact. If the foot hits the target too soon or too late. Moreover. good balance is still possible. This negative reaction is greatest when the foot hits the target with the leg already fully extended but improperly focused. This results in good balance and power from the forward momentum of the body. After striking the target. The foot travels the most direct course to the target. however the hips drive forward and the leg thrusts directly toward the target. place the kicking foot on the ground in front of the supporting 80 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . 24. From the chambered position. Keep the movement light and fast at the start of the kick. The leg is chambered and draws upward like the snap kick. With the front thrust kick (see Figures 4-14 to 4-17) the centre of gravity falls within the base area of the supporting foot. striking with the ball of the foot. the resulting reaction will push the foot back toward the kicker instead of striking the target. a thrust kick can be aimed to the front or to the side. kicking range is extended. FRONT THRUST KICK 25. Forward body momentum can strengthen your kick. If the centre of gravity falls outside the base area of the supporting foot. 27. A successful thrust kick depends on correct distancing and timing. 26.

Striking Techniques and Counters foot. Figure 4-14: Front Thrust Kick—Step 1 Figure 4-15: Front Thrust Kick—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 81 . If necessary. thereby easily maintaining balance. it is also possible to return the kicking foot to its initial position on the ground without balance displacement.

It is a flexible technique that can attack in any direction. quickly delivering a powerful 82 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The side thrust kick (see Figures 4-18 to 4-21) is effective striking from the shin to the waist.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-16: Front Thrust Kick—Step 3 Figure 4-17: Front Thrust Kick—Step 4 SIDE THRUST KICK 29.

Simultaneously turn the foot of the supporting leg so the heel points to the target. 31. Thrust the foot of the kicking leg directly toward the target. The striking surface is the outside cutting edge of the heel.Striking Techniques and Counters kick that can be combined with movement techniques to close the distance. 30. and extend the hips to generate power. Chamber the kicking leg and rotate the hips toward the target. Figure 4-18: Side Thrust Kick—Step 1 Figure 4-19: Side Thrust Kick—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 83 .

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Figure 4-20: Side Thrust Kick—Step 3

Figure 4-21: Side Thrust Kick—Step 4

BACK KICK 32. The back kick (see Figures 4-22 to 4-25) is a thrust kick used to strike an opponent advancing from the rear. The striking surface is the heel. Target areas are the pelvic area immediately above the groin or the knees.
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33. To execute a back kick chamber the leg. Look over the shoulder on the same side as the leg you intend to strike with. Keeping the knees as close together as possible, kick out to the rear in a straight line using the hips to generate power. Bend slightly at the waist. Re-chamber the kicking leg and turn to face your opponent. Immediately re-adopt the fighting stance. It is important that your supporting knee remains bent.

Figure 4-22: Back Kick—Step 1

Figure 4-23: Back Kick—Step 2

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Figure 4-24: Back Kick—Step 3

Figure 4-25: Back Kick—Step 4

SECTION 2 MID-RANGE STRIKING TECHNIQUES 34. Hand Strikes. Hand strikes may be thrown during any close quarter combat. Most people resort to various forms of hand strikes because they are a natural reaction to a threat. The purpose of hand strikes is to stun the opponent or to set him up for a follow-up or finishing technique. Hand strikes can be delivered in many variations and combinations, including fists,
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knife and ridge hands, heel of the palm, and hammer fist strikes to back hands. When striking with the hand care must be taken selecting the type of strike compared to the type of target. For example, soldiers should punch only soft tissue areas of the opponent, since striking something harder than the hand, like the skull, risks injury. A well-placed punch, however, maximizes the opponent’s damage while minimizing the risk of injury to the soldier. 35. Power Generation. Effective use of natural strength in any confrontation is important, but muscle strength alone will accomplish very little. Power is achieved by combining maximum force at the moment of impact with use of the entire weight of the body projected through the striking surface to transfer energy to the target. Concentration of force also depends greatly on the speed with which the technique is executed. The ultimate goal is to deliver a blow with maximum speed and with maximum body weight behind the striking surface. 36. There is very little power in the striking arm alone, thus legs, hips, and shoulders must all be used at once to create the power necessary to cause damage and incapacitate the opponent. The hips have a critical effect on any striking technique; body mass must be moved forward or backward in a straight line, and using the hips is the most effective way to transfer that mass to a target. Power and speed is attained as follows (see Figure 4-26): a. b. c. The calf and thigh muscles on the back of the leg tense and force the hips forward. The hips are then violently rotated forward. Simultaneously power is transferred through the abdominal area to the chest and the shoulder is thrust forward, the striking arm remaining closely aligned with the shoulder on a straight path to the target. The opposite shoulder is forced back thereby retracting the lead hand toward the hips.

Figure 4-26: Power Generation

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37. Muscular Tension. It is crucial when executing hand strikes that the soldier stay relaxed. The natural tendency in any fight is to tense up, which results in rapid fatigue and decreased power. If the soldier remains relaxed during close quarter combat greater speed and power will be generated. At the point of impact, clench the muscles to cause damage to the opponent and avoid injury to the wrist and hand. 38. Hit, Strike and Follow-through. A strike must be delivered so that the striking surface hits, remains on target, and follows through to cause maximum energy transfer. Strikes must be executed so they drive through the target. Strikes on the opponent should occur with the arm slightly bent, so that the arm extends as it moves through the target. Energy transfer is complete once all forward momentum has stopped. The striking surface must then be drawn back to the chambered position. 39. Movement. Movement puts the soldier in the proper position to attack and provides protection. All forms of movement can be used for striking, and the direction will depend on the angle of attack, position of the opponent, and exposed vulnerable points. 40. Telegraphing. Telegraphing a strike occurs when body movement warns the opponent of the intention to attack. Staying relaxed helps to reduce telegraphing. Often, an untrained fighter telegraphs his intentions by drawing the hands back, changing facial expression, tensing neck muscles, or twitching. These movements, however small, immediately indicate an attack is about to happen. An opponent who is a trained fighter may be able to evade or counter the attack. An opponent who is untrained may still be able to minimize the effect of an attack. Note however that the soldier can also use these types of telegraphing movements to deceive an opponent and create openings. PUNCHES 41. Punches generally are hand strikes delivered with a close fist, singly or with other strikes. They can be executed using both the forward and rear hand, at mid- and close range. STRAIGHT PUNCH 42. The straight punch is executed by the forward or lead hand. It is a fast punch designed to keep distance from the opponent and to set up more powerful techniques. A straight punch conceals movement and allows the soldier to close with the opponent. Straight punches should strike soft tissue areas, however if the soldier strikes the head alternate hand strikes should be used. 43. To execute the straight punch (see Figures 4-27 to 4-30) drive the lead hand directly to the target using the full extension of the arm, while rotating the palm down. Release all unnecessary tension from the arm and hand at the start of the technique, but concentrate the power of the body and tense the muscles at the moment of impact.

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44. Power for this technique is generated by slight forward rotation of the hip and rotation of the striking arm. The rear hand pulls back tight to the body to assist this rotation, but stays high to protect the head.

Figure 4-27: Straight Punch—Step 1

Figure 4-28: Straight Punch—Step 2

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Figure 4-29: Straight Punch—Step 3

Figure 4-30: Straight Punch—Step 4

REVERSE PUNCH 45. The reverse punch is delivered with the rear hand. It is a powerful punch intended to cause maximum damage to the opponent. Power for this technique is generated from the coordinated movement of all parts of the body.
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46. To execute the reverse punch (see Figures 4-31 to 4-34) tense the muscles of the legs and straighten the rear leg, which rotates the hips and upper body toward the target. The rear hand drives straight out toward the target, rotating the palm down to nearly full extension. Shift the body weight to the lead leg while pushing off the rear foot. Strike the target with the two striking knuckles, striking and driving through the opponent, then immediately retract the arm to the fighting stance.

Figure 4-31: Reverse Punch—Step 1

Figure 4-32: Reverse Punch—Step 2

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Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-33: Reverse Punch—Step 3 Figure 4-34: Reverse Punch—Step 4 92 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

The lunge punch is delivered at the end of a forward step. or sweep your advancing foot to cause balance displacement. Thus if the step forward is with the right foot. strike the target with the forward hand. 48. moving forward as smoothly and rapidly as possible. If you fail to step forward quickly. strike with the right hand. but slide it over the ground. rotating the forward hip slightly to generate power. Do not raise the heel of the advancing foot. At the same time.Striking Techniques and Counters LUNGE PUNCH 47. which now becomes the lead foot in the fighting stance. Figure 4-35: Lunge Punch—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 93 . To prevent this. push the hips forward by driving the supporting foot hard against the ground as you move ahead. resulting in a powerful blow. In moving forward the centre of gravity shifts and the momentum of the body provides additional force. To execute the lunge punch (see Figures 4-35 to 4-38) step forward with the rear foot. the opponent may anticipate your attack and apply a counter. The strike must be executed immediately on placing the forward foot. 49. Keep the hips low and level.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-36: Lunge Punch—Step 2 Figure 4-37: Lunge Punch—Step 3 94 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

and can be used at both mid. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 95 . This technique can be delivered straight forward or from the opponent’s outside.and close range. 51. chin and occipital nerve. Heel palm strikes are powerful and flexible strikes that are suitable for both soft and hard targets. or. in the case of a brachial strike. To execute a heel palm strike (see Figures 4-39 and 4-40) bend the wrist of the striking hand at a 90 degree angle. From this point the strike is delivered in the same manner as a punch. The main targets for this strike are the brachial plexus.Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-38: Lunge Punch—Step 4 HEEL PALM STRIKES 50. as a straight-arm swing.

transferred to the target. can have a devastating effect. The striking surface of the hammer fist is the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-39: Heel Palm Strike Figure 4-40: Heel Palm Strike HAMMER FIST 52. Striking with the hammer fist concentrates power through a small part of the hand which. which handles the shock of striking well 96 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Figure 4-41: Hammer Fist B-GL-382-004/FP-001 97 . and can be delivered downward. median nerve. radial nerve. 53. like striking with a hammer. 54. brachial nerve. Rotate the wrist so the hammer fist strikes the opponent. Thrust the fist forward at the opponent while rotating the hip and shoulder forward. occipital nerve. This technique is effective for cutting through a target. The main targets for this strike are the suprascapular nerve. nose.Striking Techniques and Counters and is a good surface against hard targets. to a target behind the soldier. rotate the hip and shoulder of the hand being used rearward. and groin. At the same time. To execute the hammer fist (see Figures 4-41 and 4-42) make a fist and bend the arm at approximately a 45 to 90 degree angle.

inside or downward. 56. the hand is positioned with the knuckles upward and the wrist bent. placing the thumb next to the forefinger. The striking surface is narrow. The knife hand is one of the most versatile and devastating strikes. 98 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Execute a knife hand (see Figures 4-43 to 4-45) by extending and joining the fingers of the striking hand. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the hand. The execution of the ridge hand is the same as the knife hand. and can be executed with either hand. however. either outside. which is the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger extending to the top of the wrist. forming a straight line from the bottom knuckle of the thumb to the elbow. at the same time rotating the hips. The knife hand strike is executed from one of three angles. allowing strikes on the neck between an opponent’s body armour and helmet. Thrust the knife hand forward to the target while rotating the hip and shoulder to generate power. Retract the striking hand.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-42: Hammer Fist KNIFE HAND/RIDGEHAND 55. The striking surface is the bottom knuckle of the thumb to the wrist.

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-43: Outside Knife Hand Figure 4-44: Outside Ridge Hand B-GL-382-004/FP-001 99 .

This technique is very effective. traveling up the centreline of the opponent’s body. and power must be generated from the torso and not the neck alone. The distance the arms bend depends on the range to the target. especially when wearing a helmet. 100 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . UPPERCUT 58.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-45: Downward Knife Hand SECTION 3 CLOSE RANGE TECHNIQUES HEAD BUTT 57. The target area is the opponent’s jaw. or sever the tongue. The head can be used as a close range weapon. Striking surfaces are the top of the forehead or the back of the head. This technique must be delivered with a tensed neck. It is executed with the hand in an upward motion. rotating the palms inward. For this strike to be effective the soldier must ensure that the target is braced so it absorbs maximum force. cause extensive damage to the neck. The uppercut is a powerful close range punch originating below the opponent’s line of vision. Rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward the opponent. 59. To execute the uppercut (see Figures 4-46 to 4-48) bend the arms. thrusting the fist straight up toward the opponent’s chin or jaw. This technique can render the opponent unconscious. Strike the target with the two fixed knuckles of the fist and immediately re-adopt the fighting stance. It is delivered in close and can be followed by other striking techniques.

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-46: Upper Cut—Step 1 Figure 4-47: Upper Cut—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 101 .

To execute the hook (see Figures 4-49 and 4-50) drive the arm in a hooking motion toward the target. keeping the elbow bent while forcefully rotating the hips to generate power. Continue rotating the hips and shoulders. targeting the head. The arm should be held firmly at the appropriate height with a 90 degree bend. Strike the opponent with the fixed knuckles of the fist. Immediately re-adopt the fighting stance. The hook is a powerful close range technique which attacks the opponent to the outside. Use the power from the hips and not the arm. 61.Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-48: Upper Cut—Step 3 HOOK 60. 102 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . ribs or kidneys. 62. driving through the target.

delivered with either hand. The striking surface is the tips of the fingers or thumbs.Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-49: Hook Punch—Step 1 Figure 4-50: Hook Punch—Step 2 EYE GOUGE 63. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 103 . The eye gouge is used to attack an opponent’s eyes. blinding him to set up other techniques.

67. The striking surface is 5 centimetres above or below the point of the elbow. thrust the striking hand forward in to the opponent’s eyes. To execute the eye gouge (see Figure 4-51) extend the striking hand with the fingers slightly spread apart and bent to allow entry in to the eye sockets. Elbow strikes work on two planes. Strike the target 104 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat 64. keeping it close to the body. shoulder and hip forward to generate power. depending on the angle of delivery and the direction of the target. while dropping the body weight to generate power. Strike the opponent with the forearm 5 centimetres below the point of the elbow. The elbow is a powerful weapon that can strike targets from various angles at close range. keeping the fist close to the body. the vertical and horizontal. Figure 4-51: Eye Gouge ELBOW STRIKES 65. Drive the arm down bending the elbow. The elbow is the second hardest striking surface of the body and is an excellent weapon for striking hard targets. To execute a vertical elbow strike downward (see Figure 4-53) straighten the striking arm so the elbow is elevated to approximately eye level. Aim the hand at the opponent’s nose level so the fingers or thumb slide naturally in to the grooves of the opponent’s eye sockets. With the palm of the hand down. The target for this strike is the jaw. To execute the vertical elbow strike upward (see Figure 4-52) bend the elbow of the rear hand. Thrust the elbow vertically upward toward the opponent while rotating the rear arm. Elbow strikes can be executed from either arm while standing or on the ground. VERTICAL ELBOW STRIKES 66.

Striking Techniques and Counters

with the triceps 5 centimetres above the point of the elbow. The main targets for this strike are the back of the neck or suprascapular. 68. To execute the vertical elbow strike rearward (see Figure 4-54) fully extend the striking arm forward, palm down. Drive the striking arm straight back, keeping it close to the body while simultaneously rotating the hand palm down. Use the rotation of the hips and upper body to generate power for this strike. The main targets for this strike are the vulnerable points of the torso. 69. To execute the vertical elbow strike rear upward (see Figure 4-55) start in the same manner as the rearward strike. On driving the arm backward the opposite shoulder drops forward and the striking elbow is directed up toward the opponent’s head. The striking surface is 5 centimetres above the elbow. This strike targets the jaw and throat area. To employ this technique space has to be created so the arm will move easily between the soldier and his opponent.

Figure 4-52: Vertical Elbow—Strike Upward

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Figure 4-53: Vertical Elbow—Strike Downward

Figure 4-54: Vertical Elbow—Strike Rearward

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Figure 4-55: Vertical Elbow Strike—Rear Upward

HORIZONTAL ELBOW STRIKES 70. To execute a horizontal elbow strike forward (see Figure 4-56) tuck the fist of the striking arm near the chest, with the palm facing down. Drive the elbow of the striking arm forward toward the target with the forearm parallel to the ground. Strike the opponent with the forearm 5 centimetres below the point of the elbow. The hips generate power similar to a straight or reverse punch. 71. To execute the horizontal elbow strike rearward (see Figure 4-57) tuck the fist of the striking arm near the chest with the palm facing down. At the same time, rotate the shoulder and hip of the arm being used forward. Drive the elbow of the striking arm horizontally rearward toward the target. The forearm is parallel to the ground and the hand drives toward the direction of the attack. Rotate the hip and shoulder of the arm being used backward to generate power. The targets for this strike are the head, neck and vulnerable points on the torso.

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Figure 4-56: Horizontal Elbow—Strike Forward

Figure 4-57: Horizontal Elbow—Strike Rearward

KNEE STRIKES 72. Knee strikes are a close range technique. The knee can be delivered forward and in a roundhouse fashion. It is effective in clinch situations and as an entry technique in counter attacking. The knee generates power at short range, and its effectiveness is increased when
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striking a braced target or a target pulled toward the knee. The power for knee strikes is generated from rotating the hips or driving them upward. Due to the close proximity of combatants knee strikes are delivered from the rear leg, and the soldier may have to step back with the striking leg to strike with power. The main striking surface for the knee is 5 centimetres above the knee on the thigh. Its main targets are the legs, groin, hips or, if the opponent is bent over or on the ground, the torso and head area. FORWARD KNEE STRIKE 73. To execute the forward knee strike (see Figures 4-58 and 4-59) drive the leg forward to the chambered position and continue using the hip to drive the knee forward and upward in to the target. As the leg drives forward pull the opponent in. This strike can be delivered from the escort position (see Chapter 6, paragraph 12).

Figure 4-58: Knee Strike to the Head—Step 1

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Figure 4-59: Knee Strike to the Head—Step 2

HORIZONTAL KNEE STRIKE 74. The horizontal knee strike (see Figure 4-60) is executed with the leg generally parallel to the ground, using the hips to generate power. Its main target is the peroneal nerve. The striking surface is the front of the leg, slightly above or below the knee. The leg is delivered in a similar fashion as a roundhouse kick, however the lower portion of the leg is retracted.

Figure 4-60: Horizontal Knee Strike

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STOMP KICK 75. Stomp kicks target the opponent’s limbs, torso and head. It is effective when counter attacking, or when your opponent is on the ground. The stomp kick is delivered from an upright and balanced stance, and can be executed from either foot. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the heel. 76. To execute the stomp kick (see Figure 4-61) chamber the leg, then drive the heel down to the target by straightening the leg and pushing the hips slightly forward. The foot must be positioned with the toes curled back so the cutting surface of the heel strikes the target. Keep the supporting leg slightly bent at the knee to assist balance and power generation.

Figure 4-61: Stomp Kick

SECTION 4 DEFENSIVE AND COUNTER-ATTACK TECHNIQUES 77. In close quarter combat soldiers will instinctively react defensively to threats. In order to effectively block and counter techniques, soldiers need to take defensive action based on such instinctive reactions. 78. Against striking attacks two forms of defensive techniques are employed, parrying and blocking. Parrying techniques are soft blocks executed from an open hand to parry or trap the strike. Blocks are used to absorb the shock of an attack through the muscles of the body. Both parrying and blocking can be combined with movement to bring the soldier off the line of attack or to assist in absorbing the shock. With both defensive techniques the soldier is in a position to counter-attack, and must do so immediately to gain the advantage.

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79. When parrying a technique the soldier needs to move the attack offline, i.e. to a point where the opponent’s technique will not strike the soldier. This is done by parrying with the hands or arms and rotating the body. Taking an attack offline is of the utmost importance when dealing with an armed opponent. CLOSING THE DISTANCE 80. In any close quarter combat the soldier has to close the distance to the opponent to neutralize or control him. Once the distance to the opponent has been closed throws, takedowns, chokes or other techniques can be used. When closing with the opponent the soldier can either work to the opponent’s inside or outside positions. A key factor in closing the distance is the type of attacks that the soldier must defend against. If the technique is delivered from the outside, such as a hook punch or wild punch, the soldier can close as the strike is being delivered. However, if the strikes are coming hard and fast inside the soldier has close the distance in the brief pauses between strikes. When closing the soldier must be prepared to deal with other threats. LEAD AND REAR HAND PARRIES 81. The lead and rear hand parries are employed against attacks that are moving directly toward the soldier, and can be used with the hand in its normal position or rotated to the outside. These techniques allow the soldier to take multiple hand strikes offline quickly and close the distance, or move to the opponent’s outside. 82. To execute the parry (see Figures 4-62 to 4-65) use the hand which is the mirror image of the opponent’s strike, i.e. if the opponent strikes with his right hand parry with the left hand. Parry by rotating the shoulders and hips in the direction of the punch, using either an open or closed hand to deflect the opponent’s strike laterally or downward, to the point where the attack is taken offline. Both elbows remain close to the body.

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Figure 4-62: Inside Lead Hand Parry

Figure 4-63: Inside Rear Hand Parry

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Figure 4-64: Outside Lead Hand Parry

Figure 4-65: Outside Rear Hand Parry

HOOK BLOCK 83. The hook block is used to counter a hook punch. To execute the block (see Figures 4-66 and 4-67) bend the blocking arm so that the hand and wrist are against the side of the head, the elbow is pointing at the opponent, and the upper arm is parallel to the ground.
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Figure 4-66: Hook Block—(Front View)

Figure 4-67: Hook Block—(Side View)

HIGH GUARD 84. The high guard is used to defend against high roundhouse kicks delivered from waist to head height, uppercuts, and elbow strikes. The high guard (see Figure 4-68) is executed by bringing the hands and elbows close together, forming a triangle to absorb the impact, and by
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pivoting the body in to the direction of the attack. The blocking surface is the bottom of the forearm.

Figure 4-68: High Guard

LOWER BLOCK 85. The lower block defends against kicks delivered in a straight-line. To execute the block (see Figure 4-69) chamber the blocking arm so the hand is positioned by the opposite shoulder and the elbow is close to the centre of the chest. Drive the blocking arm down at a 45 degree angle from the body, using the outside of the forearm to deflect the strike to the outside.

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Figure 4-69: Lower Block

LEG BLOCK 86. The leg block is used to block low kicks, and leaves the hands in a position to protect the head and to counter punch. To execute the block (see Figure 4-70) chamber the leg on the attacking side with the toe pointing downward. Absorb the kick on the outside of the calf.

Figure 4-70: Leg Block

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DOUBLE HIGH BLOCKS 87. The double high block is used to close with the opponent, driving him back and causing balance displacement. This block is executed when the opponent attacks from the outside with a swinging attack like a hook punch or a baseball bat style swing. There are various hand positions used depending on the type of attack and the reaction time available. This technique must be combined with forward movement to hit the opponent hard and absorb the shock of attack. This technique protects the jaw and throat, using the hands and keeping the chin down. 88. To execute double high block option 1 (see Figures 4-71 and 4-72) shift or step forward, bending the lead arm as per the hook block. The other arm is positioned across the front of the face, with the hand on the opposite biceps protecting the chin. The points of the elbow should target the throat and the opponent’s upper arm.

Figure 4-71: Double High Block 1

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bringing both arms up and over the opponent’s shoulder. To execute double high block option 2 (see Figures 4-73 and 4-74) shift or step forward. This is done if reaction time is very short.Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-72: Double High Block 1 89. Figure 4-73: Double High Block 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 119 . Once the technique is complete quickly gain control of the opponent’s head.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 4-74: Double High Block 2 90. The opposite hand is used to strike the opponent’s eyes. Figure 4-75: Double High Block 3 120 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . To execute double high block option 3 (see Figures 4-75 and 4-76) shift or step forward. bringing the lead arm up and over the opponent’s shoulder. or to grab or strike the throat.

Striking Techniques and Counters Figure 4-76: Double High Block 3 DEFENCE AGAINST HEAD BUTTS 91. reducing the space required to execute the technique. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 121 . The head butt can be countered by keeping the head in tight to the opponent’s head.

.

This causes a survival stress phenomenon. There are two types of chokes. An air choke applies pressure to the opponent’s trachea (windpipe). SECTION 1 CHOKES 2. while a blood choke affects blood flow to the brain. A blood choke applies forearm/wrist and bicep/deltoid pressure to the sides of the neck. Control is established by blood body compression and may result in unconsciousness in 5 to 10 seconds. 5. 4. this is not the ideal technique to immobilize an opponent quickly. WARNING Never apply a choke for more than 5 seconds during training or practice the technique at full speed. Due to the length of time required. air and blood. which can trigger the sympathetic nervous system to activate the flight or fight response. where the opponent has the perception of being choked to death but is still able to endure high levels of pain. Air chokes are considered deadly force and will only be applied at Level 5 of the continuum of force (see Chapter 1 paragraph 6). Both result in unconsciousness and death if applied long enough. BLOOD CHOKE 6. all techniques can be executed from either side. Close supervision of all trainees is necessary to maintain safety. An air choke prevents air from reaching the lungs. 1. AIR CHOKE 3. A properly applied choke may render an opponent unconscious in as little as 5 to 12 seconds.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 5 CHOKES AND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS/CHOKES All techniques in this chapter are described for a right-handed soldier. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 123 . This choke also causes a high degree of pain. Death may result when pressure is maintained for a longer period. The air choke also has the potential to create an adrenalin rush in the opponent. preventing air from reaching the lungs. Adrenalin secretion in the body enhances pain tolerance and increases strength. Chokes may be used by anyone regardless of size or gender. Chokes do not take great strength as the weight of the opponent is used to the soldier’s advantage. However. An air choke results in unconsciousness in 2 to 3 minutes.

Close Quarter Combat 7. which are thinner. There are two basic grips used in chokes and holds. The three-finger grip can be applied two ways (see Figures 5-2 and 5-3). are much more difficult to compress than veins. however if the soldier has sweaty hands or a weak grip a three-finger grip can be used. Figure 5-1: Four-finger Grip 124 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Both jugular veins are connected to the superior vena cava system. and causes blood to pool in the brain. the network of vessels that bring blood back to the right side of the heart. The type of hold and individual preference determines the method used. The internal jugular vein lies parallel to the carotid artery and transports blood from the brain to the heart for reoxygenation. (As mentioned earlier. either hooking the pinkie finger between the middle and index finger. Blood chokes have less injury potential than air chokes. however the side choke is the only choke that will be applied at Level 4 of the continuum of force. which are thicker and tougher. Arteries. or hooking the thumb between the middle and index finger.) GRIPS 9. The main grip employed for chokes is the four-finger grip (see Figure 5-1). Venous compression results in congestion of the blood bodies in the head and neck. 8. all air chokes are Level 5 techniques. Blood choke control is gained through venous compression.

The front choke (see Figure 5-4) is a blood choke executed facing the opponent. with the middle knuckles of the fingers touching the carotid artery on both sides of the neck. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 125 . pivot the hands toward the centre of the neck while drawing the elbows in. either standing or on the ground.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-2: Three-finger Grip—Version 1 Figure 5-3: Three-finger Grip—Version 2 FRONT CHOKE 10. Using the collar for leverage. Use the thumbs to apply additional pressure to the opponent’s windpipe. Grasp the opponent’s collar on both sides.

placing the left arm under the right arm and the hand inside the opponent’s collar. Figure 5-5: Cross Collar Choke—Step 1 126 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Place the right hand in a thumb out grip as far back as possible inside the opponent’s right collar. simultaneously rotating the forearms so the thumbs of both hands turn in against the neck.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-4: Front Choke CROSS COLLAR CHOKE 11. To apply pressure pull the elbows of both hands down to the hips. The soldier must also step back to increase pressure and avoid counter strikes. using a distraction technique if necessary. The cross collar choke (see Figures 5-5 to 5-7) is a blood choke using the opponent’s shirt collar as a mechanical means to apply pressure. Bend the opponent slightly forward. This technique is best applied when the opponent is braced against a wall or the ground. Once the hands are secure in the collar the forearms will form an X.

To apply pressure squeeze the windpipe as hard as possible. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 127 . simultaneously twisting the neck. 13. An alternate grip can also be used to apply pressure to the throat (see figure 5-10). Grip the opponent’s windpipe in an all round grasp.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-6: Cross Collar Choke—Step 2 Figure 5-7: Cross Collar Choke—Step 3 TRACHEA CHOKE 12. For this choke the target must be braced. pushing the fingers as far back as possible. The trachea choke (see Figure 5-8) is an air choke designed to destroy the opponent’s windpipe. Place the thumb high against the trachea and reach around the neck. then squeeze thumb and fingers together.

They can be applied either as a blood choke or air choke. while applying forward pressure with the 128 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Rear chokes are applied approaching the opponent from tactical position 3. In all cases the soldier must keep his hands tight to the neck on the initial application so the opponent does not have a chance to react before the grip is fully applied.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-8: Trachea Choke Figure 5-9: Trachea Choke Alternate Grip REAR CHOKES 14. This form of choke is effective for sentry removal. The soldier must also step back to use an opponent’s weight against him.

with the bony portion of the forearm against the trachea. Tightly position the head against the opponent’s head. and the right forearm positioned vertically against the opponent’s back. grasping the left hand in a four-finger grip with the right palm up. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. assisted by the right hand. Figure 5-10: Rear Choke 1—Step 1 Figure 5-11: Rear Choke 1—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 129 . Simultaneously. When fighting a taller opponent step on the back of his leg to lower his centre of gravity just before the arms encircle the neck.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes shoulders. Step back to arc the opponent‘s back. To apply pressure pull the left hand back in to the throat. causing greater pressure and increasing the pain. keeping it close to the neck. the left hand rotates or scoops up to a thumbs up position. Place the left hand around the left side of the opponent’s head. Once on the ground place maximum weight on the back of the opponent’s head. reach with the right hand across the right shoulder. REAR CHOKE 1 15. Rear choke 1 (see Figures 5-10 to 5-12) is an air choke. then drop him to the ground. Slip the hand in front of the throat. 16. As the pressure is applied.

Slip the arm around the neck until the elbow is in line with the point of the opponent’s chin. 18. grasping the left hand in a four-finger grip with the right palm up. Rear choke 2 (see Figures 5-13 and 5-14) is a blood choke. reach with the right hand across the right shoulder. Tightly position the head against the opponent’s head. Figure 5-13: Rear Choke 2—Step 1 130 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Place the left hand around the left side of the opponent’s head. Simultaneously. Apply pressure with the biceps and forearm on both sides of the neck. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. and the right forearm positioned vertically against the opponent’s back. pulling the left hand in with the right hand and drawing the right arm in. keeping it close to the neck.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-12: Rear Choke 1—Side View REAR CHOKE 2 17.

assisted by the head. To apply pressure force the opponent’s head forward and down with the right arm. Rear choke 3 (see Figures 5-15 and 5-16) is a blood choke. Rear choke 3 uses a figure four hold with the arms. Figure 5-15: Rear Choke 3—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 131 .Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-14: Rear Choke 2—Step 2 REAR CHOKE 3 19. To apply the figure four hold position the right arm on the right shoulder of the opponent and with the left hand grasp the right bicep. and squeeze both elbows together. Position the left arm as described for rear choke 2. Then place the right hand on the back of the opponent’s head near the top of the skull. Approach the opponent from tactical position 3. 20.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-16: Rear Choke 3—Step 2 SIDE CHOKE NOTE The side choke is the only choke used at level 4 of the continuum of force 21. 23. The left hand is then brought palm up to grasp the right wrist. neck or shoulder. but differs from previous chokes in that pressure is only applied to one side of the opponent’s neck. The head is then placed against the back of the opponent’s head. Execute a brachial stun and end with the inside of the wrist just below the right angle of the jaw. as the soldier can apply it quickly from any tactical position and various ground positions. Then take the opponent to the ground by stepping back with the left leg and dropping to the right knee. and Level 4 compression which causes unconsciousness. c. Level 2 side control. but no compression. It is particularly effective as an enhanced pain compliance technique in situations where deadly force is not authorized. 132 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . This choke easily controls the opponent. The right elbow should be centred on the opponent’s sternum and the palm of the hand should be down. b. This movement will place the opponent’s arm straight above his head. simultaneously rotating the bony portion of the forearm against the neck. 22. Level 3 mechanical compression until pain forces opponent compliance. pulling the right hand across and down at a 45 degree angle. The side choke is a blood choke. To apply pressure lock the head in position and push down on the sternum with the right elbow. using varying degrees of effort as follows: a. To apply this technique from tactical position 2½ (see Figures 5-17 to 5-20) forcefully drive the right arm under the opponent’s right arm and across his chest. This technique is flexible.

Once revived he may not realize what has happened or that he were unconscious. When this technique has been used and the opponent is unconscious the soldier must adopt tactical position 2 with only one knee on the opponent’s back. and may attempt to resume the fight. Figure 5-17: Side Choke—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 133 . Once resistance has stopped place the opponent face down and move to a rear tactical position (see chapter 6).Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes 24. Control is essential since the opponent will regain consciousness within 5 to 30 seconds.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-18: Side Choke—Step 2 Figure 5-19: Side Choke—Step 3 134 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

a kick to the shin or knee. The arms then pull up against the throat and the right hand rotates to a palm down position. e.g. While moving to tactical position 2 the right arm encircles the opponent’s neck and the right shoulder is driven up to pin the opponent’s arm. place the hardened portion of the forearm against the opponent’s throat and either grab the right hand in a four-finger grip or grasp the wrist in an overhand grasp. It starts from a front headlock position (see Figures 5-21 and 5-22). 27. To apply pressure snap the opponent’s head to the centre of the chest and stand up. pushing the hips forward slightly. and the right arm forming the headlock. Then using the left arm drive the opponent’s right arm up. This pushes the opponent’s chin to the chest. clearing the path to tactical position 2. GUILLOTINE CHOKE 26. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 135 . From this point apply the choke as previously described. To apply this technique from the inside position use a distraction. With the opponent’s head on the right side of the body.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-20: Side Choke—Step 4 25. The guillotine choke is an air choke.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-21: Guillotine Choke—Step 1 Figure 5-22: Guillotine Choke—Step 2 136 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

d. or the soldier may be decisively engaged. A counter-attack is simply a combination of all the techniques the soldier knows. b. c. counter-attacks. Continue to maintain control of the opponent and monitor the surrounding area. The soldier must possess the skills to counter these attacks. kicks and stomps to the limbs. continue the counter-attack until the opponent is controlled or neutralized. five stage approach is used to deal with this threat. This stage is complete once the opponent is under control. Re-assessment. to the point of joint destruction. Depending on the situation the soldier will now control the opponent from a rear tactical position and secure him. hand strike to the groin. e. Recognize the threat and determine the response. Use further strikes to subdue the opponent. In most close quarter combat an opponent’s attack will either begin or end in a basic hold. Ideally the soldier will end in control with his opponent at his feet. or further opponents that must be dealt with. c. Use throws. spine and head. throat and head. The five stages to the counter-attack are: a. takedowns and holds. FOLLOW-UP TECHNIQUES 30. Successful application of these techniques means that the soldier can deal with the threat and walk away.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes SECTION 2 COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS 28. b. who should be looking for signs that indicate intent. Also strike the opponent’s vulnerable points to cause damage and gain the advantage. Even though the opponent may cease his attack during any part of the attack. d. Launch the attack with techniques to distract the opponent to create space/openings. remain alert for concealed weapons. A systematic. The soldier has various follow-up options: a. or carry out further offensive action to destroy him. At this stage the opponent may still be closing with the soldier. ribs. elbow. Entry. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 137 . Establish Control. and chokes or weapons techniques to kill the opponent. 31. Assessment. Follow-up. 29. or apply holds or locks. strikes or locks applied to the shoulder. wrist and fingers. The soldier must react instinctively and never give up. e.g.

so that once on the ground the opponent will be at the soldier’s feet and in position for follow-up techniques. forcing the hips forward to arc the opponent’s back to the point of balance displacement. Then stand up. In many situations the opponent will hit hard causing balance displacement. To counter a side headlock (see Figures 5-23 to 5-30) enter with a ridgehand strike to the groin. Further softening techniques to the groin or solar plexus can be applied. The headlock is a very common attack and can take many forms. with either or both hands. Reach up with the left hand and deliver multiple occipital strikes.Close Quarter Combat HEADLOCKS 32. SIDE HEAD LOCK 33. Simultaneously with the strike step back with the left leg. taking the opponent to the ground. whether standing or on the ground. This hold may also be combined with striking techniques. Trap the opponent’s wrist with an overhand grasp with the right hand. Circle backward as the opponent drops. 34. The soldier can easily counteract this by stepping forward to tactical position 2. Figure 5-23: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 1 138 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The left hand then swings around and grasps the face. Next execute a hammer fist to the throat or brachial plexus strike while forcing the opponent’s head back. with the thumb on the hypoglossal nerve and the middle finger against the infra orbital nerve.

Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-24: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 2 Figure 5-25: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 139 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-26: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 4 Figure 5-27: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 5 140 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes

Figure 5-28: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 6

Figure 5-29: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 7

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Figure 5-30: Counter to Side Headlock—Step 8

SIDE HEADLOCK WITH PUNCHING 35. To counter a side headlock with punching (see Figures 5-31 to 5-38) turn the forehead in to the opponent and reach across with both hands, grabbing the shoulder of the punching arm. Slide both hands downward, trapping and squeezing the tricep. The left hand then releases the arm and delivers multiple occipital strikes. From this point carry on as described for the side headlock.

Figure 5-31: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 1

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Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes

Figure 5-32: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 2

Figure 5-33: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 3

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Figure 5-34: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 4

Figure 5-35: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 5

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Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes

Figure 5-36: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 6

Figure 5-37: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 7

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Figure 5-38: Counter to Punching Side Headlock—Step 8

FRONT HEADLOCK 36. To counter a front headlock (see Figures 5-39 to 5-41) grasp the opponent’s forearm with the outside hand to prevent a choke. Then enter with a right ridgehand strike to the groin, immediately followed with an elbow strike to the head. Step through with the right foot and stand straight up in to the opponent’s arm, maintaining control of the opponent’s wrist. From here the hold will be broken but the soldier will still not have total control, so must continue to fight and gain control.

Figure 5-39: Counter to Front Headlock—Step 1

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Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes

Figure 5-40: Counter to Front Headlock—Step 2

Figure 5-41: Counter to Front Headlock—Step 3

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BEAR HUGS 37. The bear hug is a basic hold where the opponent has a two-hand grasp around the body. This can be either from the front or rear, with the grip over or under the arms. In many cases the opponent will drive in hard and lift the soldier. If this occurs target the opponent’s legs, striking with the boot heels or knees. OVERHAND REAR BEAR HUG 38. To counter an overhand rear bear hug (see Figures 5-42 to 5-47) immediately drop the centre of gravity by widening the stance with the left leg. Drive up, attempting a head butt and/or a foot stomp. Shoot the arms straight out and up, shrugging the shoulders. This will bring the opponent’s arms up and over the soldier’s shoulders, creating space. Once the opening is there deliver elbow strikes to the abdomen and hammer fists to the groin. Then execute a hip throw and follow-up techniques.

Figure 5-42: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug

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Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-43: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug—Step 1 Figure 5-44: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 149 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-45: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug—Step 3 Figure 5-46: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug—Step 4 150 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

striking with the elbow.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-47: Counter to an Overhand Bear Hug—Step 5 UNDERHAND REAR BEAR HUG 39. Continue until a blow has been delivered and the opponent is stunned. From here. step in. and execute a head throw. then immediately pivot to the left. wrap the right arm around the opponent’s head. Once the opponent is on the ground execute follow-up techniques. To counter an underhand rear bear hug (see Figures 5-48 to 5-51) immediately drop the centre of gravity by widening the stance with the left leg. Deliver an elbow strike to the opponent’s head with the right hand. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 151 . grab the triceps with the left arm.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-48: Counter to Underhand Bear Hug—Step 1 Figure 5-49: Counter to Underhand Bear Hug—Step 2 152 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-50: Counter to Underhand Bear Hug—Step 3 Figure 5-51: Counter to Underhand Bear Hug—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 153 .

Figure 5-52: Counter to Front Overhand Bear Hug—Step 1 Figure 5-53: Counter to Front Overhand Bear Hug—Step 2 154 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Shifting to the left.Close Quarter Combat FRONT OVERHAND BEAR HUG 40. Grab the opponent’s hips and execute a knee strike to the groin. To counter a front overhand bear hug (see Figures 5-52 to 5-55) execute a head butt. execute a leg sweep takedown.

and with the right hand execute a hammer fist strike to the throat. For an optional counter (see Figures 5-56 to 5-59) enter with heel palm strikes to the ears or brachial plexus. Continue to force back on the opponent’s head so it strikes the ground first. or the option described in paragraph 42. To counter a front underhand bear hug use the same technique as the overhand counter.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-54: Counter to Front Overhand Bear Hug—Step 3 Figure 5-55: Counter to Front Overhand Bear Hug—Step 4 FRONT UNDER HAND BEAR HUG 41. Unhook the left leg B-GL-382-004/FP-001 155 . 42. Follow with an ocular strike with the thumb of the left hand to force the opponent’s head back as far as possible. Simultaneously hook the left leg behind the opponent’s legs causing a takedown.

Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. Figure 5-56: Counter to Front Underhand Bear Hug—Step 1 Figure 5-57: Counter to Front Underhand Bear Hug—Step 2 156 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat before the opponent hits the ground to prevent injury.

With this hold the soldier has to work fast to counter the technique.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-58: Counter to Front Underhand Bear Hug—Step 3 Figure 5-59: Counter to Front Underhand Bear Hug—Step 4 FULL NELSON 43. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 157 . The full nelson is a common wrestling move where the opponent brings both arms under the soldier’s arms and clasps his hands behind the head. as a skilled opponent can apply a choke or break the neck.

and deliver elbow and knee strikes. drop the centre of gravity while driving the elbows to the hips and the head and shoulders back (see Figures 5-60 to 5-62). Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. As soon as the soldier feels the opponent’s arms coming under his. To gain control use a leg sweep takedown or a turning throw.Close Quarter Combat COUNTERS TO FULL NELSON 44. Figure 5-60: Counter to Full Nelson—Step 1 Figure 5-61: Counter to Full Nelson—Step 2 158 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Now turn to the right to face the opponent.

To counter any wrist grab the soldier works his arm in to the opponent’s thumb. This will work regardless of how the opponent grabs. ONE-HANDED WRIST GRAB 46. To counter the one-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-63 and 5-64) drive the forearm upward toward the opponent’s thumb. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 159 . In low intensity situations quite often the soldier will have to deal with an opponent attempting to grab an arm with either a single or double hand grab. The thumb is the weakest part of the hand and is easily defeated.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-62: Counter to Full Nelson—Step 3 COUNTERS TO WRIST GRABS 45.

160 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . grabbing the trapped hand and working up toward the thumbs. To counter a low two-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-65 to 5-67) reach between the opponent’s hands.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-63: One-handed Wrist Grab Figure 5-64: Counter to a One-handed Wrist Grab LOW TWO-HANDED WRIST GRAB 47.

Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-65: Low Two-handed Wrist Grab Figure 5-66: Counter to a Low Two-handed Grab—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 161 .

Figure 5-68: High Two-handed Wrist Grab 162 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . To counter a high two-handed wrist grab (see Figures 5-68 to 5-70) reach between your opponent’s hands. grabbing your hand and pulling downward.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-67: Counter to a Low Two-handed Grab—Step 2 HIGH TWO-HANDED WRIST GRAB 48.

denying the soldier the ability to attack. The first priority for the soldier is to protect the throat. Soldiers must escape chokes to regain the tactical advantage.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-69: Counter to a High Two-handed Wrist Grab—Step 1 Figure 5-70: Counter to a High Two-handed Wrist Grab—Step 2 SECTION 3 COUNTERS TO CHOKES 49. Immediately drop the chin to the chest to prevent the opponent’s arm from encircling the neck. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 163 . A choke causes unconsciousness quickly. 50. Even if a choke is executed improperly it results in a hold where the opponent has control. The following paragraphs describe three counter-attack variations. COUNTERS TO REAR CHOKES 51. If the opponent correctly applies a choke the soldier will quickly loose consciousness. In close quarter combat a determined attacker will attempt a choke to kill or neutralize the soldier. Depending on the situation there are many options to counter rear chokes. simultaneously using the hands to reach up and secure the opponent’s choking arm.

53. With counter 1. at the moment the opponent’s arm encircles the neck drop the chin and grasp the choking arm with both hands (see Figures 5-71 to 5-73).Close Quarter Combat 52. Smaller soldiers may find it easier to execute the throw by dropping the knee on the side they are throwing to. immediately executing a shoulder throw to the side where the opponent attempted to apply the choke. Violently pull the opponent forward and thrust upward with the hips. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. Figure 5-71: Rear Choke Counter 1—Step 1 164 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

delivering elbow strikes to the chest. Once in tactical position 2 deal with the threat in the same manner as a side headlock.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-72: Rear Choke Counter 1—Step 2 Figure 5-73: Rear Choke Counter 1—Step 3 54. Turn in to the opponent. Step back with the left leg. then knife hand strikes to the groin. moving to tactical position 2 and pulling the opponent’s arm in. tuck the chin and grab the arm with both hands (see Figures 5-74 to 5-76). Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques B-GL-382-004/FP-001 165 . For counter 2.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-74: Rear Choke Counter 2—Step 1 Figure 5-75: Rear Choke Counter 2—Step 2 166 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

strike with a ridgehand to the groin. pulling in on the trapped arm and bending at the waist will assist the throw. Then execute a turning throw. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 167 . adopting a pronounced fighting stance facing the opposite direction. 56. then the brachial plexus. simultaneously pulling the opponent’s arm to the chest while bending forward slightly.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-76: Rear Choke Counter 2—Step 3 55. while attempting to drop the upper body forward. Immediately drop the chin and grab the arm with both hands. From this position drive the body as hard as possible to the outside. If the soldier is unable to execute the turning throw. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. Step back and to the outside of the side the choke is being applied on to a pronounced fighting stance. Counter 3 applies to a rear choke where the opponent is dragging the soldier or has stepped back to apply further pressure (see Figures 5-77 to 5-80). while simultaneously executing a leg sweep takedown.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-77: Rear Choke Counter 3—Step 1 Figure 5-78: Rear Choke Counter 3—Step 2 168 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-79: Rear Choke Counter 3—Step 3 Figure 5-80: Rear Choke Counter 3—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 169 .

If an opponent has executed a grab or choke he are within arms’ reach. In many situations an opponent will grab the soldier with one or two hands. simultaneously applying downward pressure with the arm against the forearm. To counter a one handed front choke (see Figures 5-81 to 5-83) grab the opponent’s choking hand with the right hand. either by the throat or by using clothing and equipment. This will cause a wrist pinch and pain compliance. Turning the body to the right and stepping back with the right leg. apply follow-up techniques. and place it on the opponent’s forearm as close to the wrist as possible. The soldier can then take the wrist to a reverse wristlock. then close the distance with strikes. Figure 5-81: Counter One-hand Choke—Step 1 170 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Bend the left arm so the tricep is parallel to the ground. and apply appropriate follow-up techniques. Keep the opponent’s hand in to the chest. The techniques described in the following paragraphs demonstrate some basic options. and re-assess the situation. turn the opponent’s wrist so the pinkie is up.Close Quarter Combat COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKES OR GRABS 57. COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKES OR GRABS—ONE HAND 58. At this distance use long range striking techniques to enter in to the counter and break the hold. gain control.

pulling them apart to the outside in a plucking motion. To apply this as a counter (see Figures 5-84 and 5-85) grab the opponent’s hands/wrists with both hands. When an opponent lunges in and attacks the throat an instinctive reaction is to grab the hands.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes Figure 5-82: Counter One-hand Choke—Step 2 Figure 5-83: Counter One-hand Choke—Step 3 COUNTER TO FRONT CHOKES—TWO HANDS 59. This prevents the B-GL-382-004/FP-001 171 .

Figure 5-84: Front Two-handed Choke Figure 5-85: Front Two-handed Choke Counter (Plucking) COUNTER TO A TWO HAND OR CROSS COLLAR CHOKE 60. To apply this counter (see Figures 5-86 to 5-89) immediately stop your rearward momentum by turning the body back and to the right. Close the distance and strike with the elbows and knees. driving the left elbow down on 172 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Brace the opponent’s upper arm with the right arm. stepping back with the right foot and driving the left arm straight up. This technique can be applied for either a two hand or cross-collar choke. follow up and re-assess. This is also an effective counter if the opponent is pushing backward or bracing the soldier against a wall.Close Quarter Combat opponent from applying the choke further. From this entry gain control. Immediately counter attack. Execute a snap kick to the groin or a shin kick.

Figure 5-86: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1—Step 1 Figure 5-87: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 173 . gain control. but will at least help drop the opponent’s centre of gravity. and re-assess. Depending on the angle of the opponent’s arm this may break the arm.Chokes and Counter to Common Attacks/Chokes to the opponent’s upper arm. If braced against a wall the soldier will not be able to step back. 61. Finally turn back to the opponent. Deliver hammer fist strikes to the temple. brachial or face. close the distance. In this case drive the left side of the body forward and in to position. follow up.

174 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . or a roundhouse kick to the peronial nerve.Close Quarter Combat Figure 5-88: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1—Step 3 Figure 5-89: Front Two-handed Choke Counter 1—Step 4 62. Another counter to the two-handed front choke or grab is to violently execute a palm heel strike to the opponent’s chest upon first contact. and follow it up with other techniques such as a snap kick to the groin.

These operations require skills that span the spectrum of conflict and the continuum of force described in Chapter 1. How force is applied may affect a mission’s success or lead to unnecessary loss of human life. property. 3. in self-defence. ROE can also be used to provide direction on when force can be used to protect larger national interests. This direction is based on Canadian law. in self-defence. and legal factors are all reviewed when considering ROE. destruction of natural resources. political. periods of tension. Note that everyone authorized to use force is responsible for any excess force used. They are lawful commands designed to remove any legal or semantic ambiguity that could lead commanders or troops under their command to violate national or coalition policy by inadvertently under reacting or overreacting to an action by foreign forces. Canadian Forces personnel are always entitled to use force. 4. and armed conflict. the threat. even in times of peace. or alienation of the local and international public. Therefore commanders at all levels must be provided with clear direction and orders that control the use of force. operational or political situation dictates. the inherent right of self-defence. In some circumstances. ROE will be tailored for each operation and may change as the tactical. Soldiers must apply reasonable force. Military. or protect other foreign forces or non-military individuals. diplomatic. e. 2. damage to property. in some international operations. or to protect property. When the appropriate action is unclear the use of force by commanders and soldiers must be guided by their professional ethos and the law of armed conflict. defence of Canadian Forces personnel and Canadian Forces units in peace. b. based on the following: a. in some cases use of force without causing injury can be excessive force. international law. to defend or protect others.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 6 NON-LETHAL TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 175 . they will not cover all situations. The Canadian Army’s involvement in operations other than war has greatly increased. the law of armed conflict (LOAC). conflict or war. and rules of engagement (ROE).g. Soldiers may be required to use force in operations other than war for numerous reasons. up to and including deadly force. ROE are orders and direction originating from the Chief of Defence Staff regarding the use of force in peacetime. Although there may be formal guidelines for the use of force on operations. 6. 5. Canadian Forces personnel may be entitled to protect others and. defend against larger scale attacks on an operational or strategic level. In fact. the level of resistance compared to the level of control.

calmness. If this occurs the soldier establishes initial contact with the opponent. 9. c. The soldier’s response depends on evaluation and analysis of relevant information. causing verbal non-compliance and unnecessarily escalating the level of resistance. severity of the incident. aggressiveness. cheerfulness. which work during motor skill deterioration. uneasiness. Soldiers who are overly aggressive however may antagonize a subject. b. The opponent’s emotional state can be inferred from physical behaviour such as yelling. The techniques used during these operations are basic close quarter combat skills. The opponent’s likely actions can be inferred from physical behaviour that is more action oriented. or reaching for an object. running. c. 7. These skills must be applied within the continuum of force. SECTION 2 LEVEL 1 COMPLIANT 8. Intent. carrying or employing a weapon. Assessing Temperament and Intent. as follows: a. In many cases the soldier will be dealing with local civilians and military personnel on a daily basis. Intent can also be inferred from the opponent’s clothing or equipment.g. Temperament. striking. The soldier requires skills to deal with common threats. The soldier must control resistant actions with techniques that have minimal chance of long-term injury. d. In order to respond appropriately the soldier must assess and evaluate the opponent’s temperament and intent in order to respond. and attempts to evade or escape. 176 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . etc.Close Quarter Combat c. Tactically Effective. The sections that follow describe the levels of the continuum of force and how these basic skills are adjusted to fit each level in order to meet the following requirements: a. b. nervousness. The soldier must be justified in using force and the force must be reasonable. At Level 1 the opponent complies with verbal commands. The opponent’s temperament and intent is part of this analysis: (1) The soldier constantly assesses the temperament and intent of every person he comes in contact with. e. crying. Minimum Injury Potential. Legally Accepted. Most people will cooperate and obey instructions: Simple verbal commands used with firmness and courtesy will be sufficient to control most situations.

ESCORT POSITION 12. Physical force does not have to be used immediately if the opponent offers verbal noncompliance. as it will be behind him and less vulnerable.Non-Lethal Techniques (2) (3) (4) This assessment becomes more focused when something unusual or out of the ordinary is observed. Contact controls include the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) repeating verbal commands in a more forceful manner. 11. At Level 2 the opponent demonstrates verbal non-compliance. Contact controls are verbal or physical techniques which do not employ the principles of resistance control. assuming a more authoritative posture. the escort position and head controls. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 177 . SECTION 3 LEVEL 2 PASSIVE RESISTANT 10. position and stance.e. such as bracing the head prior to a pain compliance technique. Soldiers must maintain a reactionary gap and adjust motor responses as necessary. To counter resistant behaviour. and physical contact controls. however the soldier must be prepared to deal with a higher level of resistance. If the soldier is carrying a weapon the weapon side should be kept close to the opponent. rather they psychologically intimidate the opponent in order to eliminate resistant behaviour and re-establish cooperation. with security being provided by another armed soldier. Temperament and intent must be assessed very quickly to determine the threat a subject poses and initiate a motor response. The escort position is the primary method of moving a detained opponent. If possible the soldier should not have a personal weapon. There will be no immediate danger of physical harm to either the opponent or soldier. The techniques applied at this level are the bridge between verbal commands and physical force. Proper positioning is important in order to control the opponent and place the soldier in a position to deal with the two common types of resistance. i. requesting assistance if the opponent continues to be uncooperative. Throughout any situation there must be constant evaluation and analysis of the situation. the soldier applies contact controls as follows: a. warning the opponent of the consequences of failing to cooperate. b.

Close Quarter Combat 13. Maintain an overall view of the opponent and do not focus solely on the arm. The head control position (see Figures 6-2 and 6-3) is used to control a kneeling or seated opponent. the left arm reaching around to secure the opponent’s jaw. The left arm maintains contact with the triceps and the right hand slides down the opponent’s arm. grasping the notch on the wrist in an all round grasp with the thumb and middle finger. Figure 6-1: Escort Position HEAD CONTROL POSITION 14. To apply the escort position (see Figure 6-1) approach the opponent from tactical position 2½. 178 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The opponent’s head is pulled tightly in to the soldier’s chest. Approach from tactical position 2½ or 3. with the opponent’s right hand against the soldier’s waist. with the right hand positioned to apply nerve touch pressure. The left shoulder is kept in close to the opponent’s right shoulder and the arm is pulled down across the front of the body. It is also used to move the opponent to a standing position. and after closing the reactionary gap place both hands on the opponent’s triceps to prevent him striking with the arm. Move in to a deep fighting stance with the feet. The hands are kept high.

The soldier can also encounter opponents pulling away. barricading themselves in a vehicle or room. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 179 .Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-2: Head Control Position Figure 6-3: Head Control Position SECTION 4 LEVEL 3 ACTIVE RESISTANT 15. but continues to defy verbal commands. At Level 3 the opponent first demonstrates physical resistance. The opponent does not attack the soldier. or attempting to flee. shouting. struggling.

pressure points. wrist. Touch pressure is the application most likely used at Level 3 to control low levels of resistance. Pressure points achieve pain compliance by applying pressure to a nerve. Joints such as knees and elbows only bend in one direction. soft-hand striking techniques. b. knee. In the opposite direction to which the joint bends. Compliance techniques are physical force against an opponent to gain compliance using: a. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 180 . loud repetitive verbal commands. b. 19. There are two methods of applying pressure point control: a. and striking techniques (used at Level 4). apply pressure with fingertip. At this level the physical threat to the soldier is still low. and fingers) in two ways: a. To apply pressure the soldier follows these five steps (see Chapter 2 Section 3): a. b. d. applying close quarter combat techniques as follows: a. COMPLIANCE TECHNIQUES 17. c. shoulder. and compliance techniques are used. and restraint techniques. but it can also be used at higher levels if the soldier is close to the opponent. Joint manipulation is used to initiate pain compliance to gain control of the opponent. and when pressure is applied in the opposite direction. b. apply pressure/counter-pressure. touch pressure. pain compliance can be achieved. c. e. and alleviate pressure when pain compliance is achieved. 20. stabilize the target. compliance techniques. ankle. The principles of controlling resistance (see Chapter 1 paragraph 7) are used. 18. and non-lethal chemical weapons (on order). This involves applying pressure to joints (elbows.Close Quarter Combat 16. joint manipulation. c.

Beyond the point where the joint stops naturally in its range of motion. Pressure is exerted downward with the thumb across the knuckle line to bend the opponent’s wrist.Non-Lethal Techniques b. The hand is rotated to the outside twisting the joint. Wristlocks can be applied to transport opponents who have demonstrated resistance from the escort position. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 181 . or to take an opponent to the ground and in to the rear control position (see paragraph 47). 22. the fingers grabbing the meaty portion under the opponent’s thumb. Depending on the operation soldiers may be equipped with handcuffs or with flexi-cuffs. They can be applied when an opponent attempts to grab. WRISTLOCKS 23. Continued pressure will break the joint. or to initiate control over an opponent. The basic wristlock (see Figures 6-4 and 6-5) is applied when the opponent attempts to grab or reaches for the soldier. Joint manipulation also uses the principle of balance displacement. pressure must be applied slowly and steadily until pain compliance is achieved. Wristlocks exert pressure beyond the normal range of motion. Place the thumb against the back of the opponent’s hand so it is between the middle knuckles. 25. Grasp the opponent’s hand to the thumb side. The fingers are used to anchor the hand so leverage can be applied to twist and bend the joint to the outside. Wristlocks are joint manipulation techniques that can be applied a number of ways to achieve pain compliance or balance displacement. unnecessarily escalating the level of force. Since each joint has a breaking point. BASIC WRISTLOCK 24. 21. Restraint techniques are designed to temporarily restrict an opponent’s mobility in order to control and/or transport him. If the opponent grabs with the right hand apply the technique with the left hand. Shift in to the opponent to keep the hand close to the body to gain leverage and control.

wrapping 182 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . A reverse wristlock (see Figures 6-6 and 6-7) is executed by grabbing the opponent’s right hand with your right hand.Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-4: Basic Wristlock Figure 6-5: Basic Wristlock REVERSE WRISTLOCK 26. Place the palm on the back of the opponent’s hand.

Non-Lethal Techniques the fingers across the fleshy part of the palm below the little finger. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 183 . There are two common forms of resistance encountered when escorting an opponent: a. b. and straight-arm lockout. where the opponent curls the arm toward the chest in an attempt to escape. Twist the opponent’s hand to the inside. Figure 6-6: Reverse Wristlock Figure 6-7: Reverse Wristlock ESCORT POSITION RESISTANCE 27. where the opponent locks the elbow and attempts to pull away. arm curl resistance. pivoting the body inward and rotating the elbow up on to the forearm while holding the hand tight to the chest.

tucking the opponent’s arm under the armpit and locking the elbow in to the side of the body. To apply pressure the soldier’s index knuckle must be directly over the opponent’s index knuckle. To counter arm curl resistance in the escort position apply the come-along wristlock (see Figures 6-8 to 6-13). The outside hand assists in forcing the opponent’s arm in to the side of the body. grasping the top of the hand and forcing downward.Close Quarter Combat COME-ALONG WRISTLOCK 28. On meeting resistance immediately turn in to the opponent and with the outside leg apply a knee strike to the peroneal nerve as a distraction. Then shoot the left hand between the opponent’s upper arm and body. Figure 6-8: Come-along Wristlock Figure 6-9: Come-along Wristlock 184 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-10: Come-along Wristlock Figure 6-11: Come-along Wristlock B-GL-382-004/FP-001 185 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-12: Come-along Wristlock Figure 6-13: Come-along Wristlock 29. gripping the hand so that the index knuckles cover each other. To apply this from the basic wristlock (see Figures 6-14 and 6-15) augment your grip using the right hand to provide greater control. 186 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . To gain control. apply downward pressure on the opponent’s wrist. Release the left hand and quickly reach under the opponent’s arm from behind. The come-along wristlock can also be applied to a resistant opponent already in the basic or reverse wristlock. Maintain pressure with the right hand and pivot the body to tactical position 2.

Force the B-GL-382-004/FP-001 187 . causing it to bend and rotate inward. To apply the come-along wristlock from the reverse wristlock (see Figures 6-16 to 6-18) the left hand maintains pressure on the opponent’s hand.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-14: Basic to Come-along Wristlock Figure 6-15: Basic to Come-along Wristlock 30. The right hand strikes in a thumb up manner to the inside of the opponent’s elbow.

Figure 6-16: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock Figure 6-17: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock 188 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . simultaneously rotating the hand up in to the comealong.Close Quarter Combat opponent’s elbow in to the side of the body.

with the hand brought to the soldier’s waist. Immediately turn in and deliver a knee strike with the outside leg to distract the opponent. The bony portion of the wrist applies pressure down and across the triceps. To counter the straight-arm lockout in the escort position apply the straight-arm bar takedown (see Figures 6-19 to 6-22). Pull the opponent’s arm down across the front of the body. Simultaneously step back with the leg that executed the knee strike.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-18: Reverse to Come-along Wristlock STRAIGHT-ARM BAR TAKEDOWN 31. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 189 . taking the opponent to the ground. pivot 180 degrees and drop to the inside knee.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-19: Straight-arm Bar Takedown Figure 6-20: Straight-arm Bar Takedown 190 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

There are two means to restrain an opponent. Restraints may also be used to control a large number of opponents. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 191 .Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-21: Straight-arm Bar Takedown Figure 6-22: Straight-arm Bar Takedown NON-LETHAL RESTRAINT TECHNIQUES 32. In some operations it may be necessary to temporarily restrict an opponent’s mobility with mechanical devices. Non-lethal restraints may be used to control an opponent during transport or prevent further resistant behaviour. handcuffs and flexi-cuffs.

Potentially uncooperative. the most common type of opponent. the most dangerous type of opponent to restrain. for which there is no effective method of restraint. Control on Contact. c. with an all round grip on the chain so that the right hand forms a pistol grip supporting the top cuff (see Figure 6-23). c.Close Quarter Combat 33. b. In many cases the opponent will react as the soldier applies the first cuff so it is important to gain control immediately on contact. where the soldier meets no resistance. An opponent could however turn uncooperative and resist at any moment. HANDCUFF GRIP 36. The bottom cuff is turned in at a 45 degree angle to ensure easy application of the cuff. Totally uncooperative. since the soldier has to close the reactionary gap and will not normally meet resistance until first contact with the opponent. Prior to closing with the opponent position the handcuffs in a pistol grip. Therefore the reactionary gap must be maintained until both cuffs are secure. The most fundamental and critical aspect of handcuffing is the grip. To prevent resistance move quickly to apply both cuffs. single bar will not rotate smoothly through double bar—use the single bar on the other cuff to pry apart the damaged double bar. Always assume that the opponent will be uncooperative. Common failures and remedies with handcuffs are: a. then apply restraints. cuffs fail to unlock—use another key since yours may be damaged. or applying a thumb lock and finger lock with flexi cuffs. When applying restraints the soldier will encounter three types of opponent: a. The double bar of the top 192 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The first cuff is applied from the edge of the reactionary gap. b. This is achieved using the double push method with handcuffs. Totally cooperative. Handcuffs should be maintained at least weekly. With this type of opponent the soldier must first gain control. Approach to Contact. and single bar will not rotate smoothly through ratchet—clean and oil (note that some brands of handcuffs do not rotate smoothly). Handcuff Maintenance. 35. securing them in less than 3 seconds. Speed in Application. A potentially uncooperative opponent will normally be either intoxicated or experienced in dealing with authorities. 34. When applying handcuffs a high level of control can be achieved by applying the following restraint techniques: a. b. c.

Non-Lethal Techniques cuff is loaded toward the palm and the lower cuff double bar is loaded in either direction depending on soldier preference. 37. Figure 6-23: Handcuff Grip Figure 6-24: Handcuff Grip (modified) B-GL-382-004/FP-001 193 . keeping the index finger pointed forward (see Figure 6-24). Soldiers with large hands can use a modified grip. This is known as the chambered position.

Have the opponent put his hands above his head. Rotate the hand inward so the thumb is up and position it to apply the second cuff. The opposite hand grasps the opponent’s thumb. 39. stopping him at tactical position 2½. Now chamber the cuffs and approach from tactical position 2½. The second hand can be cuffed either upward or downward depending on how the lower cuff was chambered. To do this. Once the first cuff is applied rotate the opponent’s thumb upward and the cuff down. 41. so that any clothing on the upper body is raised in order to check for weapons on the opponent’s waist. This action will force the opposite arm up. 40. Then direct the opponent to spread his feet apart and point the toes outward. 42.Close Quarter Combat STANDING HANDCUFFING 38. place the little finger between the cuff and the opponent’s wrist. bending forward at the waist. To handcuff an opponent in the standing position (see Figures 6-25 to 6-29) first direct the opponent to the standing handcuffing position. Then have the opponent bring his hands back to a position where they are directly in line with the approach to contact. 194 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Once both cuffs are applied secure and check for tightness. and looking away from the soldier. the handcuffs should be double locked to prevent injury to the opponent or the possibility of escape. Then have the opponent turn 360 degrees. maintaining an overall view of the opponent. The cuff must go on oval to oval. 43. Move the hand to the small of the back. When the tactical situation permits. pushing toward the single bar of the upper cuff while simultaneously pushing the cuff toward the other hand. placing his hands out to the side with the palms back. To apply the first cuff position it so that the single bar is in line with the notch on the outside of the opponent’s wrist. At this point it is not important if the cuff closes and locks. Release the thumb lock and grasp the opponent’s left hand with either the fingers or the thumb.

Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-25: Standing Handcuffing Figure 6-26: Standing Handcuffing B-GL-382-004/FP-001 195 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-27: Standing Handcuffing Figure 6-28: Standing Handcuffing 196 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

The handcuffing procedure is the same as for standing except the second cuff should be top loaded.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-29: Standing Handcuffing KNEELING HANDCUFFING 44. since this assists maintaining balance while applying the second cuff. one leg at a time. To handcuff an opponent in the kneeling position have him move to his knees. crossing the ankles and sitting on them (see Figure 6-30). Figure 6-30: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 197 . If the opponent is unable to do this have him place his toes pointing directly to the rear (see Figure 6-31).

by shifting forward to drop the opponent’s arm to the ground and then bringing it back up once in position. The cuff does not have to lock. Then place this hand in the second cuff using a finger lock. Then move to tactical position 1. and the head turned away. 198 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Now move to the rear control position and direct the opponent to bring his free hand to the small of his back. The arms should be straight out and palms up. Approach from tactical position 2½ and apply the first cuff. This will put the opponent in a position where he cannot roll toward the soldier.Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-31: Kneeling Handcuffing Position 2 PRONE HANDCUFFING 45. 47. To handcuff an opponent in the prone position (see Figures 6-32 to 6-35) have him adopt the prone position with the feet apart and flat. 46.

Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-32: Prone Handcuffing Figure 6-33: Prone Handcuffing B-GL-382-004/FP-001 199 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-34: Prone Handcuffing Figure 6-35: Prone Handcuffing 200 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

This technique is used if the soldier has difficulty with the first application. The right foot is placed by the head and the knee is positioned between the shoulder blades (see Figure 6-36).Non-Lethal Techniques REAR CONTROL POSITION 48. This position is also used if the opponent was rendered unconscious or nonlethal chemical weapons have been employed. This position can be modified so that the left knee is positioned by the side of the opponent’s body (see Figure 6-37). Figure 6-36: Rear Control Position B-GL-382-004/FP-001 201 . The left foot is then placed against the side of the body and the knee is placed across the back. When the opponent is on the ground face down the soldier steps in from tactical position 1. 49. The rear control position is used to gain control of non-compliant opponents when encountering resistance during transport or handcuffing. The knees are kept close together and the hands control the arm with a reverse wristlock. 50.

202 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Flexi-cuffs are an alternate means for securing opponents.Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-37: Rear Control Position (modified) FLEXI-CUFFS 51. There may be times when handcuffs are not issued or suitable for operations but the soldier must still restrain opponents. To apply the cuff the soldier prepares them and loops one cuff over the arm. The flexi-cuff is applied right arm to right arm. the second cuff to the inside with the draw tabs up (see Figure 6-38).

and step on the foot for added control. then slide the cuff on to the opponent’s arm. ensuring his index finger and thumb are tucked in. The second cuff is then applied and secured. Approach from tactical position 2½. Figure 6-39: Applying Flexi-cuffs B-GL-382-004/FP-001 203 . Grab three of the opponent’s fingers (middle to little finger). 53. In the prone position use verbal commands to have the opponent bring the second hand back. Ideally.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-38: Flexi-cuff Position 52. Direct the opponent to the position to apply the cuff. flexi-cuffs are applied in the kneeling or prone position to maintain control (see Figures 6-39 to 6-41). Once the first cuff is applied tighten the cuff (depending on the make of cuff) and then reach across the opponent if in the kneeling position to grab the second hand in a thumb lock and take it to the small of the opponent’s back.

assist the opponent to the standing position. 204 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . maintaining the grip on the arm and neck. place the hand closest to his head in to the crook of the elbow and the other hand behind the neck.Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-40: Applying Flexi-cuffs Figure 6-41: Applying Flexi-cuffs STANDING AND ESCORTING A RESTRAINED OPPONENT 54. rotating him away from you. Have the opponent then bend the leg closest to you and. Assist the opponent in to the sitting position. To bring a restrained opponent from the prone to a standing position.

the back of opponent’s hand with the inside hand. When removing Flexi Cuffs the same techniques are followed however cuffs are cut. the position being determined by whether the key hole is up or down (see Figures 6-43 and 6-44). and apply a come-along wristlock (see Figure 6-42). When removing the second cuff the soldier’s hand must be in position to immediately put pressure on the opponent’s wrist. Maintain the grip on the handcuffs and ensure that the first cuff is locked. Escorting a restrained opponent is done from tactical position 2½. as it can serve as an edged weapon. Then move to tactical position 2 with the opponent’s arm full extended. When removing restraints from an opponent control must be maintained as once free the opponent may attack the soldier. Figure 6-42: Handcuff Escort Position RESTRAINT REMOVAL 56. On removal of the first cuff instruct the opponent to place his hand on his head. Grasp the opponent’s elbow with the outside hand.Non-Lethal Techniques 55. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 205 .

a knee strike to the peroneal nerve. 206 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-43: Keyhole Up Figure 6-44: Keyhole Down SOFT HAND STRIKING TECHNIQUES 57. Non-lethal chemical weapons can be an effective compliance tool when used properly. They may also include balance displacement techniques like the compression takedown or head tear down. At Level 3 these weapons will be deployed on order. during crowd control or against barricaded opponents. Soft hand striking techniques are used to control resistant behaviour by creating a distraction.g. e.g. This weapon will be covered in detail in Level 4. NON-LETHAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS 58. e.

Strike from the outside of the opponent. The soldier applies strikes that are aimed at nerve pressure points to stun the opponent or cause temporary motor dysfunction. If an opponent is able to apply any hold on the soldier apply a counter to control the opponent. In order to gain control of an assaulting opponent it may be necessary to employ striking techniques.Non-Lethal Techniques SECTION 5 LEVEL 4 ASSAULT 59. b. re-establish control. c. 62. defensive techniques. An assaulting opponent may quickly attack the soldier to try to gain advantage. striking techniques. This effectively stops his forward momentum. and maintain it once compliance is achieved. DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUES 60. non-lethal chemical weapons. and also counters to chokes and common attacks. and impact weapon techniques. Strikes must be delivered with 100% speed and power. It is delivered to the inside. e. The following striking techniques focus on an assaulting opponent: a. and also controls standing grappling situations. This technique is normally applied after blocking an attack or in a standing grappling situation. wrestle or bite. c. taking him to the ground and to a rear control position. Soldiers must work quickly to stop the assault to restore control. d. striking for the brachial plexus. Defensive techniques include parrying and blocking techniques. Soldiers must be prepared to defend themselves as they will be reacting rather than acting. Heel palm/ridge hand brachial strike to stun the opponent. This technique is applied from tactical B-GL-382-004/FP-001 207 b. Knife-edge brachial strike to stun the opponent. kick. but does not use a weapon. At Level 4 the opponent may physically attack the soldier. aiming for the side of the neck directly below the ear. STRIKING TECHNIQUES 61. Hammer fist suprascapular stun to stun the opponent and also cause motor dysfunction to the arm on the side struck. The soldier uses defensive tactics to defeat the attack. The opponent may strike. Defensive tactics include the following: a. enhanced pain compliance techniques. and prevent the situation escalating to one which requires deadly force. . protect participants from injury.

66. 208 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . as some opponents will attempt to roll out of the wristlock. g. but the head is a secondary target. 64. An opponent may initiate an assault after the soldier has applied a technique at a lower level of the continuum of force. This technique can be used at long or midrange to stop an opponent’s forward momentum. when placed in a reverse wristlock. The primary target is the peroneal nerve. ENHANCED PAIN COMPLIANCE TECHNIQUES 63. Pressure is applied to the wrist by pulling the opponent’s wrist in with your left hand and applying pressure to the back of the hand with your right. The heel palm strike is particularly effective for striking the head. Enhanced pain compliance techniques take the affected joint to the point where the opponent submits or the joint is broken. This technique allows the soldier to strike at long range. The primary target is the lower shin. d. Then step back pulling the opponent toward you and to the ground. This technique effectively stops an opponent’s forward momentum and any resistance in the escort position. Roundhouse kick to cause motor dysfunction to the leg and also stun the opponent. Heel palm/straight and reverse punch to stun. The basic wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-45 to 6-50) is used to take an assaulting opponent to the ground once a basic wristlock is applied. the secondary target being the femoral nerve. Approach from behind and strike the opponent in the suprascapular in a hammer style strike. The primary target is the peroneal nerve. f. If the opponent demonstrates a higher level of resistance apply a technique to counter that resistance and continue to escalate as required to gain control. The side choke is also classed as an enhanced pain compliance technique. BASIC WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 65. e. If the opponent lands on his stomach rotate the hand to a reverse wristlock and move to the rear control position. distract and cause balance displacement to the opponent. the secondary target being the femoral nerve. Knee strike to cause motor dysfunction of the affected leg and to stun the opponent it can also be used as a distraction technique. Front snap kick to cause motor dysfunction to the leg and also stun the opponent. The primary target for these techniques is the upper body. Maintain pressure on the wrist when the opponent is on the ground.g. With this technique the opponent will either land on his stomach or on his back.Close Quarter Combat position 3 when an opponent is grabbing someone else. e. These effectively stop an assaulting opponent’s forward momentum and set up further control techniques. as it has lower injury potential for both the soldier and opponent.

Non-Lethal Techniques 67. in to a reverse wristlock. Figure 6-45: Basic Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-46: Basic Wristlock Takedown B-GL-382-004/FP-001 209 . simultaneously shifting in the same direction. If the opponent lands on his back roll him on to his stomach by rotating the fingers toward the head. Once the opponent is on his stomach rotate the fingers in the opposite direction. and place him in the rear control position.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-47: Basic Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-48: Basic Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-49: Basic Wristlock Takedown 210 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

The soldier’s weight is applied against the back of the opponent’s arm to cause balance displacement. placing the left arm over the opponent’s extended arm. then dropping the soldier’s weight to cause the takedown. 69. applying pressure to the arm and keeping your weight across the opponent’s back. The reverse wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-51 to 6-54) is used to take an opponent to the ground once a reverse wristlock is applied. Then kick out the left leg and drop straight down to a seated position. ensuring the armpit is above the opponent’s elbow. From the reverse wristlock pivot in against the opponent.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-50: Basic Wristlock Takedown REVERSE WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 68. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 211 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-51: Reverse Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-52: Reverse Wristlock Takedown 212 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

c. as it can be applied from all tactical position and from ground fighting positions. For further detail on applying this choke see Chapter 5 paragraphs 21 to 25. Level 2—mechanical compression until pain forces opponent compliance. Level 1—side control but no compression. It also allows varying levels of control to be applied as follows: a. and Level 3—compression which causes unconsciousness.Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-53: Reverse Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-54: Reverse Wristlock Takedown SIDE CHOKE 70. Note that the side choke is the only choke that can be applied at Level 4. b. It is flexible. The side choke is an effective enhanced pain compliance technique. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 213 . 71.

apply a finger lock takedown to control the opponent (see Figures 6-57 and 6-58). From here move to the rear control position. On immediately feeling resistance step back in the direction of approach. If the soldier is using flexi-cuffs and meets resistance. when the first cuff is applied. Figure 6-55: Iron Wristlock Takedown Figure 6-56: Iron Wristlock Takedown FINGER LOCK TAKEDOWN 74. i. forcing the opponent in to the prone position.e. Place the left hand on the back of the 214 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Maintaining the wristlock with the first cuff. 73.Close Quarter Combat IRON WRISTLOCK TAKEDOWN 72. Resistance during handcuffing usually occurs upon first contact. sharply pull the opponent’s arm downward. If the opponent resists while being cuffed from either the standing or kneeling positions apply the iron wristlock takedown (see Figures 6-55 and 6-56).

Non-Lethal Techniques opponent’s triceps. forcing the fingers down and toward the opponent’s head. This weapon is usually not a response to an immediate deadly force assault. They are deployed as an intermediate weapon at Level 4 of the continuum of force. while the right hand applies pressure to the finger lock. but is used to resolve situations with B-GL-382-004/FP-001 215 . applying pressure to straighten the arm. Figure 6-57: Finger Lock Takedown Figure 6-58: Finger Lock Takedown NON-LETHAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS 75. Non-lethal chemical weapons are designed to control resistant behaviour.

OC spray provides the soldier an intermediate weapon to control resistant behaviour without having to resort to impact weapons or deadly force. ROE for the mission or specific situation governs its use. OLEORESIN CAPSICUM (OC) SPRAY 80. d. but is not used as an incapacitant. b. 78. 216 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . and reaction time 2 to5 seconds. including the respiratory tract. The characteristics of CS agent are: a. 79. b. but CS and CN may also be available. itching and nausea. c. Note the following: a. irritates the eyes and damp areas of the body. The characteristics of OC agent are described in paragraphs 81 and 82. which is strictly controlled. used worldwide as a tactical option for crowd management. commonly known as pepper spray. e. c. white crystalline solid which activates in the presence of moisture. trade name Mace. and reaction time 20 to 30 seconds. tearing agent which produces burning. d. recognizing it as a humane force option compared to other use of force options. e. The characteristics of CN agent are: a. During certain CF operations OC spray may be issued as defensive equipment for self-protection. There are several effective agents for controlling resistant behaviour. Depending on the type of operation being conducted the soldier may use various non-lethal chemical weapons. Non-lethal chemical weapons may also be deployed on order to control resistive behaviour at lower levels of the continuum of force. classified as an irritant.Close Quarter Combat non-lethal means. classified as an irritant. used primarily for crowd management. Currently the main agent used is Oleoresin Capsicum (OC). 77. The courts have upheld use of force models that include OC spray use. AGENT CHARACTERISTICS 76.

f. and animals. or to punish an opponent. burning. burning and uncomfortable inflammation of mucus membranes. 85. Each projector has a serial number and is effective for four B-GL-382-004/FP-001 217 . pressure tight canister. dip tube. nitrogen propellant gas (the remaining volume). inflammation and constriction of the throat and esophagus. OC is effective controlling persons under the influence of drugs and alcohol. Anyone found in possession of OC spray in Canada or abroad other than when on duty and authorized to use it could face disciplinary action/charges. 84. intense panic (short shallow breaths). d. e. e. c.Non-Lethal Techniques b. c. negligently. and nozzle. d. Prior to use the projector must be shaken to ensure effective delivery. 82. Soldiers using OC spray contradictory to ROE or SOPs could face disciplinary action/charges. OC spray is a prohibited weapon and must be controlled and stored appropriately. 83. burning all exposed skin. reaction time 1 to 2 seconds. OC spray has the following physiological effects: a. self-enclosing valve and actuator (control button). eyes and nose. OC has the following psychological effects: a. b. b. liquid formulation (½ to ¾ of the internal volume). OC Aerosol Projectors. 86. Courts have also ruled against those that use OC spray maliciously. involuntary closing of the eyes. b. and normal lasting effect on an opponent 30 to 45 minutes. c. 81. OC aerosol projectors consist of the following components: a. f. and loss of will to fight. Only issued projectors and canisters will be used. Once trained in OC spray use the soldier must re-qualify annually. the mentally ill.

57 metres.65 to 4. The projector can be carried in either hand. Currently there is no method to determine the exact amount of OC remaining in the projector (canisters can be weighed to measure content). The control button is actuated with either the thumb or index finger. active ingredient: (1) (2) b. circle. Use the element of surprise. and inactive ingredient (1) (2) (3) 60% distilled water. and 96.Close Quarter Combat years. c. maximum 3 to 3. Minimum range . maximum 7. Marks 21 and 46. as this will keep that hand free for quick personal weapon access. b.5% OC. 218 . Each canister consists of 90% inactive ingredient and 10% active ingredient: a. 87. Aim for the forehead (OC must hit the eyes to be 100% effective) using two ½ to 1 second bursts. maximum 3 to 4. Minimum 1. 88.91 metre. which is safe for humans and the environment. Marks 3. c. Mark 9. Use one of the following spray patterns: (1) (2) (3) criss cross. as follows: a. OC spray is employed tactically as follows: a. serpentine.62 to 9. Mark 6. 4 and 5.57 metres.5 to 97% distilled water.82 metres.65 metres. b. The effective range will depend on the type of projector being used.91 metre. but it is recommended that the soldier not employ it using his dominant hand. Advise opponent(s) that continued resistive behaviour will be countered. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 d. 3 to 3. Access OC projector. d. Minimum 4. maximum range 3. and 5% nitrogen propellant compressed gas. Minimum . 35% denatured (non isopolical) alcohol. Tactical Employment.14 metres.57 metres.

c. Do not use on opponents with known respiratory problems.e. g. b. 93. Have medical personnel remove contact lenses if worn. Do not use on infants or elderly persons. Flush opponent’s eyes with uncontaminated cool water until vision is restored. Expose opponent to fresh air. 91. First Aid and Decontamination. Special Considerations. Soldiers must be aware of the following when employing OC spray: a. Factor in the minimum and maximum ranges described at paragraph 85. 89. If the opponent is not cooperative take him to the ground and then apply restraints. If the opponent is cooperative apply restraints. Ensure that the nozzle is toward the opponent. Ensure medical personnel are informed of the decontamination procedures undertaken and provide OC spray data sheet. more than two bursts. To decontaminate an opponent: a. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 219 . 92. Once an opponent has been contaminated it is the soldier’s responsibility to ensure his safety and well being. f. Inform him that failure to do so will be considered further resistant behaviour and that further action may be taken. and side to side. spray is too concentrated when released within the minimum safety distance and there is the potential for eye injuries. or bursts longer than ½ to 1 second. Avoid over-contamination. i. Opponents must be controlled immediately to prevent further injury to themselves or other persons. Beware of cross contamination. Avoid the hypodermic needle effect.Non-Lethal Techniques (4) (5) e. low to high. which is excessive force. 90. Note that contaminated opponents must not be left face down in a prone position. c. The projector should never be deployed upside down. Decontamination starts only after the opponent has been controlled. As soon as an opponent is sprayed communicate to him using firm clear commands not to move and to comply. or transport to the nearest medical facility if the opponent requires medical attention or has a serious reaction to OC spray. i. b.e. d. If the OC spray fails to have an effect the soldier can escalate to a higher level of control.

or oil. targeting the radial or ulna nerve pressure points (see Figures 6-61 and 6-62). when empty hand control techniques fail. d. 94. Do not apply creams. Non-lethal impact weapons are used to control assaults intended to seriously injure the soldier. 96. and remember that anything that can be done with sight can be done without it. 100. If a soldier is contaminated or cross-contaminated the primary concern is weapons retention. when the soldier believes empty hand techniques would be ineffective. Non-lethal baton techniques employ the 10 angles of attack (see Chapter 7 paragraph 2). and when deadly force is not justified. g. b. maintain an offensive mindset. 95. Immediately after being sprayed blink rapidly the eyes until vision is restored. Defensively the soldier uses the weapon to block hand strikes and grabs. as a means to cause temporary motor dysfunction. however the soldier may have to escalate the level of control to deal with the threat. Observe opponent at 15 minute intervals for 1 hour to ensure there is no permanent damage. The secondary target is the femoral nerve pressure point (see Figure 6-60). 98. salve. not permanent injury. If an opponent is attacking and attempting to disarm the soldier this is a deadly force situation. Offensively the primary striking area for non-lethal baton strikes is the peroneal nerve pressure point (see Figure 6-59). or as a restraining device. Counter-OC Tactics. After weapon retention. determine a plan. Use a palm up shielding method and evasion to avoid being sprayed. e. Impact weapons can be used defensively. As soon as possible start decontamination procedures. f.Close Quarter Combat d. 2. 3 and 4. All defensive tactics can be executed while visually impaired. offensively. If possible have the opponent shower and issue clean clothing. 220 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Record all decontamination efforts and time intervals on a formal report. The soldier must remain calm. NON-LETHAL IMPACT WEAPONS 97. Soldiers employ non-lethal impact weapons in the following situations: a. The impact weapon is an intermediate weapon that can be employed at Level 4 or 5 on the continuum of force. 99. since striking the head or bony portions of the body is considered deadly force. In non-lethal situations the target areas vary. c. however the main angles used are 1.

Non-Lethal Techniques Figure 6-59: Peroneal Strike Figure 6-60: Femoral Strike B-GL-382-004/FP-001 221 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-61: Radial Strike Figure 6-62: Ulna Strike 222 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

To take the opponent to the ground step on the back of the left calf to take him to his knees and then drop him forward to the rear control position. dropping the handle of the baton down so that you are forearm to forearm with the opponent. This places the opponent in a position of control for transport. Continue exerting downward pressure with the right forearm while pulling back on the shoulder or arm with the left hand. continuing to apply pressure to the forearm. Use the right hand to run the baton up under the opponent’s left armpit. With the left hand grasp the top of the baton. The augmented rear arm bar is used to restrain an opponent (see Figures 6-63 to 6-66). Continue to move around to tactical position 2½. Drive the right hand forward and up to bend the opponent’s arm up behind the back. parallel to the ground. Figure 6-63: Augmented Rear Arm Bar Figure 6-64: Augmented Rear Arm Bar B-GL-382-004/FP-001 223 . to apply pressure pull up on the handle of the baton. With the left hand grab the opponent’s triceps or shoulder. With the right foot step 45 degrees to the left of the opponent’s tactical position 2. at the same time pushing down on the top.Non-Lethal Techniques AUGMENTED REAR ARM BAR 101.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 6-65: Augmented Rear Arm Bar Figure 6-66: Augmented Rear Arm Bar 224 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

To use deadly force the following criteria should be present: a. hazardous materials. At the fifth and final level of the continuum of force the opponent usually has a weapon and will either kill or seriously injure the soldier or other personnel if he is not brought under control. Soldiers authorized to carry weapons in the performance of their duties will use only the minimum amount of force necessary to reach their objective. as a last resort. in defence of other CF personnel and CF units. in some circumstances. Circumstances for using Deadly Force.g. for the protection of others. Deadly force may also include close quarter combat. or strikes to vulnerable points of the body. Deadly force is most often applied by the soldier using small arms. Deadly force is justified only under conditions of extreme necessity. in self defence. Criteria for using Deadly Force. While guns and knives are the most obvious weapons. Alternatively. in some circumstances.Non-Lethal Techniques SECTION 6 LEVEL 5 DEADLY FORCE ASSAULT 102. 103. Deadly force is only employed as a last resort and only after all lesser means of force have failed to produce the intended result. when lesser means have failed or can not reasonably be employed. Any physical confrontation in which no weapon is involved. to protect property. e. Note the following: a. 104. d. or force which a reasonable and prudent person would consider likely to create a substantial risk of causing death or grievous bodily harm. but the soldier is in fear of imminent death or grievous bodily harm. 106. b. or any tool that can be used as a bludgeon or cutting instrument may pose a lethal threat. or if circumstances prevent the use of lesser means. constitutes authorization to apply deadly force. and only under one or more of the following circumstances: a. use of impact or edged weapons. Note the following: a. chains. b. and in accordance with a lawful order. b. Deadly Force. The opponent must possess a weapon that if employed would result in death or grievous bodily harm to the soldier or others. c. Weapon. the B-GL-382-004/FP-001 225 . 105. e. improvised weapons such as pipes. Deadly force is force used to cause death or grievous bodily harm.

The opponent must demonstrate the intent to commit the assault.Close Quarter Combat opponent has the physical means to commit an assault that would result in death or grievous bodily injury to the soldier or others. The opponent must have an unobstructed way to bring the weapon to bear on the soldier or other personnel. but can also be indicated by the brandishing of a weapon in deadly manner. Intent. c. b. 226 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . This can be indicated by a statement of intent to inflict injury. Delivery System. damage or other hostile act.

ANGLES OF ATTACK Figure 7-1a: Right-handed Soldier—Angles of Attack Figure 7-1b: Left handed Soldier—Angles of Attack B-GL-382-004/FP-001 227 .Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 7 EDGED AND IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Soldiers must be able to attack and defend against a variety of weapons. and understand that any object can be employed as a weapon or as a means of defence. As well as fighting with a rifle and bayonet the soldier must make effective use of edged and impact weapons.

The two grips used in knife fighting are: a. It can be used for offensive tasks to silence sentries. Hammer Grip (see Figure 7-2). and impact weapons include sticks. 228 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . i. Angles of attack apply with all weapons. and weapons of opportunity. angle 5 is a forward thrust to the opponent’s body from eye to groin level. Angles of attack (see Figure 7-1) are as follows: a. Edged weapons can cause serious damage and massive trauma. angle 6 is a reverse thrust to the opponent’s body from eye to groin level. Edged weapons include knives and machetes. h. g. with the fingers downward. Both grips are an all round grasp of the handle. and he must be aggressive and attack straight to the opponent’s vulnerable areas. f. angle 3 cuts across the opponent horizontally from the outside. angle 9 cuts vertically straight up the opponent. and the grip is an all round grasp of the handle with the thumb and forefinger against the guard. or an improvised edged weapon. c. angle 1 cuts down at 45 degrees across the opponent from the outside. which will stop an opponent. j. maintained with a firm grip to prevent the shock of hitting the target knocking the knife from the soldier’s hand. angle 8 cuts up at 45 degrees across the opponent from the inside. batons. is a deadly weapon. The blade of the weapon is down. d. e. b. properly employed. b. 4. angle 2 cuts down at 45 degrees across the opponent from the inside. the soldier must place the thumb on the top of the weapon to prevent the hand sliding on to the blade. Very rarely will a soldier face a similarly armed opponent. and the grip is an all round grasp of the handle with the little finger against the guard. angle 7 cuts up at 45 degrees across the opponent from the outside. Ice Pick Grip (see Figure 7-3). clubs. There are two types of grips used in knife fighting. Grips. or in defensive situations where the soldier is unable to employ his weapon. When using a knife with no guard. The soldier must have the mindset that these are effective tools. and angle 10 cuts vertically straight down the opponent SECTION 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF KNIFE FIGHTING 3. with the fingers upward. The blade of the weapon is up. A knife or bayonet. angle 4 cuts across the opponent horizontally from the inside.Close Quarter Combat 2.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-2: Hammer Grip Figure 7-3: Ice Pick Grip 5. When fighting an opponent armed with a knife the stance should be altered so the knife is in the lead hand in a position to parry the opponents knife strikes. The lead hand forms a vertical shield to parry the opponent’s strikes and protect the ribs. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 229 . Stance. The soldier uses the fighting stance as the foundation from which all knife attacks and techniques are initiated. The right hand is lowered so the point of the blade is pointing directly at the opponent. throat and head.

Execute movements with the knife blade within a box covering the central torso. c. b. shoulder.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-4: Knife Fighting Stance 6.width across from the neck down to the waistline. Close with the opponent. Move the knife in straight lines. d. Point the knife forward and toward the opponent. During any confrontation the parts of the opponent’s body that are exposed or readily accessible will vary. Principles. This is fundamental. 7. coming straight to the target. The basic principles of knife fighting are: a. The aim in knife fighting is to attack the body’s soft. i. Target Areas. 230 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .e. because the opponent has a greater chance of blocking an attack if the blade is brought wide in a sweeping movement.

f.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques vital target areas that are readily accessible. sides and front of the neck. who can then rely on his forward momentum to seize the tactical advantage. A slash to the wrist will sever the radial artery. Target areas should be engaged as follows: a. This is an excellent attack if the opponent attempts to grab. Unconsciousness occurs in about 15 seconds. and groin. The opponent will be stunned and unable to defend. lower abdomen. which is just over 1 centimetre below the skin. A thrust to the heart causes almost instant death. Ideally the soldier should move in a 360 degree circle around the opponent. the side of the neck being the most accessible. Unconsciousness results in about 30 seconds.e. Attacking the kidneys produces immediate shock and internal hemorrhaging. When slashing to the throat target the same areas. A slash to the upper arm just above the inside of the elbow cuts the brachial artery. creating openings for follow-up attacks. Thrust the knife in to the opponent’s kidney. Kidney. which is slightly less than 1 centimetre below the skin. move in 45 degree increments to either side. A deep wound to the stomach causes death if the wound is unattended. b. Stomach. If facing an opponent. i. Attack the throat with thrusts and slashes. the carotid artery will be cut. Avoid being directly in front of the opponent. If the knife is driven in to the base of the throat just below the Adam’s apple the jugular vein will be cut. 8. A thrust combined with a slash to the stomach produces shock. This spot is difficult to hit however because of the protecting ribs. Movement. e. quickly followed by death. In either case the opponent will die within a few seconds from loss of blood. simultaneously grabbing the mouth and nose. but a hard thrust will usually slip off a rib and penetrate the heart. or. c. The thrust is the most effective attack. and death within 2 minutes. the face. Force the blade back and forth to create further injury. This produces an opening to deliver a killing blow. Upper Arm. if driven in to the side of the neck. A slash or stab to the inside of the leg near the groin severs the femoral artery causing severe bleeding. Attacking the kidneys is effective for removing a sentry. Leg. Heart. Damage to the large muscle groups will reduce the opponent’s base and mobility. d. This helps avoid an opponent’s strikes and places the soldier in a good position to attack. g. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 231 . Throat. Wrist. This allows access to different target areas. and death within 2 minutes.

Figure 7-5: Vertical Slash 232 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Slashing techniques are used to close with an opponent. They distract the opponent and cause damage. VERTICAL SLASHING TECHNIQUE 10. Target the opponent’s limbs to reduce his ability to strike and to create openings. This strike commonly targets the subclavian artery when taking out sentries. The vertical slash follows a line straight down through the target with either an ice pick or hammer grip (see Figure 7-5). Thrust the knife hand out and bring the knife straight down on the opponent from angle 10.Close Quarter Combat SECTION 3 KNIFE FIGHTING TECHNIQUES SLASHING TECHNIQUES 9.

b. snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing motion to maximize contact with the opponent. c. 3 or 7 (see Figures 7-6 to 7-8): a. Figure 7-6: Outside Slash—(Start) B-GL-382-004/FP-001 233 . and end the movement with the forearm against the body and the knife at the opposite hip. drag the knife across the opponent’s body in a forehand stroke. across the target areas of the body. from angles 1. with its blade oriented toward the opponent. d. extend the knife hand while simultaneously rotating the palm up until the knife blade makes contact with the opponent. The outside slash follows a straight line in a forehand stroke.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques OUTSIDE SLASHING TECHNIQUES 11.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-7: Outside Slash—(Mid-point) Figure 7-8: Outside Slash—(Finish) 234 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

c. from angle 2. across the target areas of the body. The inside slash is a follow up to a forward attack. snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing motion to maximize contact with the opponent. b. and drag the knife across the opponent’s body. maintaining contact on the opponent’s body with the blade. extend the knife hand while simultaneously rotating the palm down until the knife blade makes contact with the opponent. Figure 7-9: Inside Slash—Start B-GL-382-004/FP-001 235 . The inside slash follows a straight line in a backhand stroke. 4 or 8 (see Figures 7-9 to 7-11): a.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques INSIDE SLASHING TECHNIQUES 12. It allows for both a secondary attack and re-adopting the fighting stance. in a backhand stroke.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-10: Inside Slash—Mid-point Figure 7-11: Inside Slash—Finish 236 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

FORWARD THRUST 14. and can be used with either the hammer or ice pick grip. toward the target. stabbing the blade in to the opponent. Thrusting techniques are more effective than slashing because of the damage they inflict. Figure 7-12: Forward Thrust—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 237 . palm down. The primary objective of knife fighting is to stab the opponent to cause damage and trauma. They are delivered either with a forward or reverse strike. c.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques THRUSTING TECHNIQUES 13. rotate the palm up once the knife is inserted to twist the blade. Thrusting techniques can be used on their own or combined with slashing. The forward thrust follows a straight line in to the opponent’s neck (high angle 5) or abdominal region (low angle 5) (see Figures 7-12 and 7-13): a. b. This is done with a thrusting technique on angle 5 or 6. thrust the knife hand. and extract the knife in a slashing motion.

c. thrust the knife hand forward. and extract the knife in a slashing motion. The reverse thrust is a follow-up to a forward attack. stabbing the blade in to the opponent. rotate the palm down once the knife is inserted to twist the blade. with the knife hand held to the left side of the body. b.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-13: Forward Thrust—Step 2 REVERSE THRUST 15. palm up. 238 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . It allows for both a secondary attack and re-adopting the fighting stance. The reverse thrust follows a horizontal line straight in to the opponent from either a high or low angle 6 (see Figures 7-14 and 7-15): a.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-14: Reverse Thrust—Step 1 Figure 7-15: Reverse Thrust—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 239 .

For the two-hand grip (see Figure 7-17). The basic fighting stance is the foundation for impact weapon techniques (see Figure 7-18). They may employ extendable or riot batons during aid of the civil power or peace support operations. or use an alternate grip with the thumbs in the same direction. In combat. On the battlefield. In many close quarter combats soldiers will employ impact weapons. entrenching tool. Stance. allowing the soldier to parry the opponent’s attacks. grasp the weapon with both hands about 5 centimetres from either end.Close Quarter Combat SECTION 4 FUNDAMENTALS OF IMPACT WEAPONS 16. The free hand is a vertical shield that protects the ribs or the head and neck. impact weapons are readily available to a soldier who has lost his weapon. Depending on the weight of the weapon it should be held approximately shoulder height. club. 17. grasp the weapon about 5 centimetres from the base. a one hand or two hand grip. broken rifle. For the one-hand grip (see Figure 7-16). There are two common grips for impact weapons. Figure 7-16: One-hand Grip Figure 7-17: Two-hand Grip 18. impact weapon techniques can be used with a stick. Grips. or even a web belt. the thumbs pointing in to the centre. 240 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

extending the weapon back over the shoulder. broken rifle. OVERHAND STRIKE 21.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-18: Stance One-hand Grip 19. the soldier moves in a 360 degree circle around the opponent to access different target areas and to gain tactical advantage. Strikes are intended to inflict as much damage on the opponent as possible. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 241 . bend the arm. and apply to weapons of opportunity such as a stick. Ideally. Movement. The hand must maintain a firm grip on the weapon and the forward knuckles follow the angle of attack in a cutting motion. An overhand strike follows a vertical plane straight down the opponent’s centreline on angle 10 using a one-hand grip (see Figures 7-17 to 7-21): a. or pipe. SECTION 5 IMPACT WEAPON TECHNIQUES STRIKES 20. When striking with an impact weapon the soldier cuts through the target. tent pole. entrenching tool. Striking techniques are executed using the basic angles of attack. Movement during impact weapon techniques is the same as for other close combat techniques.

rotate the forearm straight down off the elbow to bring the weapon down on the opponent. d. rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward the opponent. and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body. Figure 7-19: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 1 242 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . c.Close Quarter Combat b.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-20: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 2 Figure 7-21: One-hand Vertical Strike—(Down) Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 243 .

An underhand strike follows a vertical plane straight up through the opponent on angle 9 using a one-hand grip (see Figures 7-22 to 7-24): a. c.Close Quarter Combat UNDERHAND STRIKE 22. rotate the forearm and drop the shoulder slightly. following an inside strike. Figure 7-22: Underhand strike—Step 1 244 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . rotating the hips and shoulders upward. force the weapon upward through the opponent. and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body. b.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-23: Underhand Strike—Step 2 Figure 7-24: Underhand Strike—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 245 .

rotate the forearm to the inside. bringing the weapon down on to the opponent. and follow through allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body. with the elbow extending to the outside and the weapon extended over the shoulder. Figure 7-25: Outside Strike—Step 1 246 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . b. c. The outside strike follows a straight line in a forehand stroke across the target areas of the body on angles 1. bend the weapon arm. while at the same time forcefully rotating the hips and shoulders toward the opponent.Close Quarter Combat OUTSIDE STRIKE 23. 3 or 7 (see Figures 7-25 to 7-27): a.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-26: Outside Strike—Step 2 Figure 7-27: Outside Strike—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 247 .

Close Quarter Combat INSIDE STRIKE 24. Figure 7-28: Inside Strike—Step 1 248 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The inside strike follows a straight line in a backhand stroke across the target areas of the body on angle 2. It allows both a secondary attack and re-adoption of a fighting stance. b. 4 or 8 (see Figures 7-28 to 7-30): a. while at the same time stepping forward and rotating the hips and shoulders toward the opponent. rotate the forearm down to the outside bringing the weapon down on the opponent. extending the weapon over the opposite shoulder. The inside strike may be a follow-up technique to a forward strike. c. bend the weapon arm with the hand near the opposite shoulder. and follow through by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-29: Inside Strike—Step 2 Figure 7-30: Inside Strike—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 249 .

Figure 7-31: Forward Thrust Angle 5—Step 1 Figure 7-32: Forward Thrust Angle 5—Step 2 250 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat FORWARD THRUST 25. b. from the fighting stance draw the weapon back to a position where it can be thrust in a straight line toward the opponent. The forward thrust follows a horizontal plane directly in to the opponent on either a high or low angle 5 or 6 (see Figures 7-31 to 7-34): a. and retract the weapon and follow up.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-33: Forward Thrust Angle 6—Step 1 Figure 7-34: Forward Thrust Angle 6—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 251 .

The forward two-hand thrust follows a horizontal plane directly in to the opponent on a high or low angle 5 (see Figures 7-35 to 7-37): a. Figure 7-35: Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 1 Figure 7-36: Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 2 252 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat FORWARD TWO-HAND THRUST 26. b. adopt a two-hand grip. and shift forward. extending both arms directly to the target to thrust the end of the weapon in to the opponent.

keep the weapon perpendicular to the opponent’s striking surface to absorb the impact. UPPER BLOCK 28. With a one-hand grip blocks are executed along all angles of attack. A block is used to stop or deflect an attack and allow follow-up attacks. Blocks can be executed with either a one-hand or two-hand grip. d. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 253 . place the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm behind the weapon to assist in absorbing the blow. Blocking with impact weapons can also be used against opponents using empty hand techniques. c. The upper block is used against an overhand angle 10 attack (see Figure 7-38): a. b. and bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the impact. raise the weapon above the head horizontally to block the blow.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-37: Forward Two-hand Thrust—Step 3 SECTION 6 BLOCKING TECHNIQUES 27.

and arc the body slightly backward from the waist. c. or torso from an angle 9 attack (see Figure 7-39): a. Figure 7-39: Low Block 254 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-38: Upper Block LOW BLOCK 29. e. b. bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the impact. groin. with the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm reinforce the weapon to assist in absorbing the impact. The low block is used to stop an underhand strike directed at the lower abdomen. d. lower the weapon to just below the groin. place the weapon horizontally.

32. If engaged by an opponent armed with an edged or impact weapon the soldier must establish and maintain an offensive mindset. Weapon Disarming Theory. Remember when faced with an armed opponent to fight the weapon. Figure 7-40: Middle Block SECTION 7 DEFENCE AGAINST WEAPONS 31. thrust the weapon vertically in the direction of the attack. right. focus just on the weapon but also observe the opponent’s entire body. c. Once control of the weapon is gained attack the opponent wielding it. and keep the weapon perpendicular to the opponent’s striking surface to absorb the impact. as it poses the greatest threat. d. depending on the angle the attack is coming from (see Figure 7-40): a. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 255 . place the meaty part of the forearm or the open palm behind the weapon to assist in absorbing the impact. but maintain a reactionary gap until ready to strike. Do not. The middle block can be executed to the left. Fight the Weapon. if the attack is coming from the outside rotate the hips and shoulders in the direction of the attack. The basic principles of weapon defence are as follows: a. however. The soldier must not be concerned with getting hurt but must attack the opponent and gain the advantage. b. or middle of the torso. and then attack the weapon hand. Do not attack in a manner that will compromise defence.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques MIDDLE BLOCK 30.

Follow-up Techniques. so apply striking techniques with the weapon before attempting to fire it. c. Once the soldier has the weapon controlled do not allow the opponent to use that weapon again. Shift left forward to the outside of the weapon hand. and gain control of the weapon. c. c. d. accept it. or use webbing. 34. Only as a last resort should you attempt to disarm with empty hand techniques. To disarm an opponent attacking on angle 10 execute the following technique (see Figures 7-41 to 7-45): a. use anything at hand to assist in defence and to improvise. d. establish and maintain an offensive mindset (act. Due to the speed with which an edged weapon can be employed and the speed an opponent can cover ground. Parry with both hands using the opponent’s momentum to force the weapon down and stick it in the leg or groin. Other basic principles are as follows: a. Maintain a reactionary gap by placing obstacles in the opponent’s path. DEFENCE AGAINST OVERHEAD STRIKE 35. For example. Drive the elbow in to the ground. b. maintain a grip on the knife hand. Reactionary Gap. reach behind with the left hand. When unarmed and defending against an opponent armed with an edged weapon. If the knife sticks in to the opponent. 33. Disarming Edged Weapons. expect to get cut. snapping the wrist. and apply follow-up techniques. and bring it forward and execute a basic wristlock takedown. Disarm the Opponent. don’t react). Use techniques to force the weapon from the opponent and to a position where the soldier has control. it takes a reactionary gap of about 7 metres for the soldier to draw a pistol and fire two rounds at a charging opponent. If the knife does not stick. and lift while forcing the head down with the right hand. helmet or anything else to extend your reach and distance. Once the opponent is controlled use further techniques to neutralize the opponent.Close Quarter Combat b. and deal with it. and never relinquish it. if you disarm an opponent with a firearm the weapon may not have been loaded. b. Do not relinquish Control of the Weapon. grab the handle between the legs. 256 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Take the opponent to the ground and apply follow-up techniques.

Figure 7-41: Angle 10 Attack Figure 7-42: Two-handed Soft Block B-GL-382-004/FP-001 257 .Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques e. If the knife fails to stick and travels too far rearward to apply a basic wristlock effectively. immediately apply a reverse wristlock and a snap kick to the opponent’s face.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-43: Counter to Angle Knife Sticks Figure 7-44: Counter to Angle 10—Step 1 Knife Does Not Stick 258 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

c. Trap the opponent’s wrist with the right hand and pull it in to the body. executing a basic wristlock takedown. To disarm an opponent executing a high or low thrust on angle 5 or 6 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-46 to 7-49): a. and apply follow-up techniques.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-45: Counter to Angle 10—Step 2 Knife Does Not Stick COUNTER TO FORWARD THRUST 36. b. drive the elbow in to the ground. and execute a soft open hand parry to the outside of the attacking arm. Step in with the left foot and drop weight on the elbow to bar the arm and lower the opponent’s centre of gravity. breaking the wrist. Figure 7-46: Soft Open Hand Block B-GL-382-004/FP-001 259 . Stepping back. Shift forward and to the outside of the opponent’s attack.

To disarm an opponent executing an inside slash from angle 2. 4 or 8 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-50 to 7-53): 260 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-47: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 1 Figure 7-48: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 2 Figure 7-49: Counter to Angle 5/6 High or Low Step 3 COUNTER TO AN INSIDE SLASH 37.

Trap the opponent’s wrist with the right hand and pull it in to the body. Stepping back. Shift forward and to the outside of the opponent’s attack. c. b. execute a basic wristlock takedown and drive the elbow to the ground. Figure 7-50: Counter to Inside Slash—Step 1 Figure 7-51: Counter to Inside Slash—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 261 . Step in with the left foot and drop weight on the elbow to bar the arm and lower the opponent’s centre of gravity.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques a. breaking the wrist. and apply follow-up techniques. and execute a soft open hand block to the outside of the opponent’s attacking arm.

With the right hand. b. and with the hands together and thumbs crossed execute a two-handed block trapping the knife hand. 262 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-52: Counter to Inside Slash—Step 3 Figure 7-53: Counter to Inside Slash—Step 4 COUNTER TO AN UNDER HAND ATTACK 38. c. Thrust the hips back to arc the back forward. and apply follow-up techniques. To disarm an opponent coming at angle 9 execute the following technique (see Figures 754 to 7-56): a. Stepping back. breaking the wrist. execute a basic wristlock takedown and drive the elbow to the ground. grab the back of the knife hand. Execute a basic wristlock takedown (see Figures 7-21 and 7-22). while the left hand maintains the hold on the wrist.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-54: Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 1 Figure 7-55: Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 263 .

execute a two-handed soft block to the attacking arm. 264 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . maintaining contact. 3 or 7 apply the following technique (see Figures 7-57 to 7-60): a. force the arm across the front while bending forward. b.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-56: Counter to Underhand Attack—Step 3 COUNTER TO OUTSIDE SLASH 39. rotate the other hand over the back of the opponent’s hand and execute a basic wristlock takedown. and apply follow up techniques. e. using the momentum of the attacking arm. c. rotate the hand close to the opponent to an overhand grip on the wrist. To disarm an opponent executing an outside slash on angle 1. d.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-57: Counter to Outside Slash—Step 1 Figure 7-58: Counter to Outside Slash—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 265 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-59: Counter to Outside Slash—Step 3 Figure 7-60: Counter to Outside Slash—Step 4 DEFENCE AGAINST KNIFE HELD TO THE THROAT—FRONT 40. attempting to slash the opponent’s arm. forcing the knife from the throat (see Figures 7-61 to 7-64). 266 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Bring the knife down. The soldier may be faced with an opponent who is pressing a knife against the throat and is using the opposite hand for further control. counter by securing the opponent’s knife hand with both hands. and then apply a basic wristlock takedown and follow-up techniques. with the knife in the right hand and pressed against the left side of the soldier’s throat. If the opponent is in this position.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-61: Knife on Left Side Figure 7-62: Knife on Left Side—Step 1 Figure 7-63: Knife on Left Side—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 267 .

Force the weapon down to a position where a basic wristlock takedown can be applied. Figure 7-65: Knife on Right Side 268 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . If the knife is on the right side of the soldiers’ neck. attempting to slash the other arm on the way down. counter by trapping the weapon with both hands. then apply follow-up techniques.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-64: Knife on Left Side—Step 3 41. forcing the knife away from the neck (see Figures 7-65 to 7-67).

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-66: Knife on Right Side—Step 1 Figure 7-67: Knife on Right Side—Step 2 DEFENCE AGAINST KNIFE HELD TO THE THROAT—REAR 42. striking the opponent’s elbow to force the knife away from the throat (see Figures 7-68 to 7-71). (Note: for this technique the opponent’s elbow must be far enough forward to reach it. Rotate to the right and grasp the opponent’s forearm with the right hand.) B-GL-382-004/FP-001 269 . Simultaneously grasp the opponent’s knife hand with the left hand to gain control. If the opponent is holding the soldier from behind with a knife against the throat counter with the right hand. Once the opponent is on the ground apply follow-up techniques. then force the opponent’s arm back while simultaneously forcing him back to execute a takedown.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-68: Knife From Rear Figure 7-69: Knife From Rear—Step 1 Figure 7-70: Knife From Rear—Step 2 270 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

When an opponent is armed with an impact weapon it extends his range. Finally apply appropriate follow-up techniques. Thus the closer the soldier is to the opponent. Where an armed opponent will not let a soldier close the distance.or close range. Once at close range employ strikes. e. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 271 . With a pistol disarming must be done at close range. and it is at this point where the most power is generated. by repositioning himself. To counter impact weapons attempt to employ improvised weapons. throws and takedowns to gain control of the opponent. 46. The striking surface of the impact weapon is the tip. An unarmed soldier faced with a firearm must wait until the weapon is within arm’s reach before attempting to disarm an opponent. the soldier must play on any situation to entice the opponent to close the distance. although a pistol can be disarmed when held to the rear it is recommended that the soldier wait until the opponent is positioned to the front. Disarming a rifle can be done at mid.g. 44. If this is not possible use empty hand blocking and parrying techniques to close the distance. the less power the strike will have. So to defend against this the soldier must move quickly to close the distance. when the opponent is in front of or behind the soldier.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-71: Knife From Rear—Step 3 DEFENCE AGAINST IMPACT WEAPONS 43. DEFENCE AGAINST FIREARMS 45.

Parry against the trigger finger. for any disarm. Once you have control of the pistol. To execute this technique it is essential to draw the opponent to close range and wait for a distraction before striking (see Figures 7-72 to 7-75): a. If the soldier maintains his grip on the hands the opponent can be taken to the ground. Pivot the body and simultaneously bring the parrying hand across the body and parry the weapon off line. and if the opponent attempts to pull the weapon back the soldier maintains control and keeps the weapon off line. Striking to the wrist may cause the pistol to fire due to an involuntary hand reflex. strike with the weapon and move out of the opponent’s reach. if in the left hand parry with the left. This technique is used when the soldier is unarmed against an opponent to the front armed with a pistol. The pistol is rotated upward. Immediately bring the other hand up and strike and grasp the back of the opponent’s hand. If the opponent has a two hand grip note which hand controls the pistol. c. The soldier should also maintain contact with the weapon to assist in gaining control. If the pistol is in the opponent’s right hand parry with the right hand. tearing the pistol from the opponent’s hand. Initially. or to a position that even if fired the round would not strike the soldier. then quickly and violently pulled down. parry the weapon and turn the body so the weapon is taken off line. DEFENCE AGAINST PISTOLS 48. Figure 7-72: Disarming Pistol—Step 1 272 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . At this point the soldier will have control of the weapon.Close Quarter Combat 47. b.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-73: Disarming Pistol—Step 2 Figure 7-74: Disarming Pistol—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 273 .

and keeping the hand clear of the muzzle grasp the barrel or handguards with the opposite hand. As with the pistol. if you are to the inside. To execute this technique (see Figures 7-76 to 7-81): a. while simultaneously stepping back with the foot on the parrying side.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-75: Disarming Pistol—Step 4 DEFENCE AGAINST RIFLES 49. parry left or right and grasp the barrel. tearing the rifle from the opponent’s grasp. pull up on the butt and push down on the barrel. the other working to the outside. b. shift in with the foot on the side of the parrying hand. The only difference is the side the soldier moves to. RIFLE TO THE FRONT 50. if you are to the outside. simultaneously turning the body off line by pivoting on the ball of the foot on the side executing the parry. c. with the parrying hand execute an elbow strike to the opponent’s head and then grasp the small of the butt in an overhand grasp. Whether the rifle is to the front or the rear the soldier can use either of these techniques. when you are unarmed and confronted with a rifle to the front it is essential to draw the opponent within striking range and wait for a distraction before striking. push down on the butt while pulling up on the barrel. d. 274 . To defend against an opponent armed with a rifle two disarming techniques are possible. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 e. one working to the inside (the side of the rifle the opponent is on).

Figure 7-76: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 1 Figure 7-77: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 275 . step in and strike with the weapon. once you have control of the rifle.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques f.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-78: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 3 Figure 7-79: Disarming Rifle to Front—(Inside) Step 4 276 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

then execute the following technique: a.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-80: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside) Figure 7-81: Disarming Rifle to Front (Outside) RIFLE TO THE REAR 51. note the height of the rifle. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 277 . Draw the opponent to within striking distance and wait for a distraction.

and parry and grasp the rifle.Close Quarter Combat b. e. c. tear the weapon from the opponent’s hand (as with a rifle to the front working either to the inside or the outside). if the rifle is at shoulder height (see figures 7-82 to 7-84). pivot the body on the heel of the foot on the parrying side and the ball of the other foot. and if the rifle is in the small of the back. step in and execute an elbow strike with the opposite arm and grasp the small of the butt in an overhand grasp. Figure 7-82: Disarming Rifle to Rear Shoulder Height Figure 7-83: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Parry) 278 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . d. pivot and execute a lower block (see Figures 7-85 and 7-86).

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-84: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Elbow Strike) Figure 7-85: Disarming Rifle to Rear Small of the Back B-GL-382-004/FP-001 279 .

There may be times when an opponent tries to take the soldier’s weapon. To avoid a prolonged struggle the soldier must understand and apply weapon retention techniques. c. and rotate the barrel to place it across the opponent’s forearm and apply downward pressure. c.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-86: Disarming Rifle to Rear (Lower Block) SECTION 8 WEAPON RETENTION TECHNIQUES 52. Use striking techniques or pain compliance techniques to release the opponent’s grip. similar to a wristlock. The following techniques are employed in non-lethal situations. Secure. Increase the distance from the threat. Separate. b. Strike. Grab the weapon to prevent the opponent taking it. The following principles apply to weapon retention techniques: a. trap the closest finger(s) with the thumb so the opponent cannot release his grasp. b. If the opponent uses an overhand grasp to seize the rifle hand guards execute the following technique (see Figures 7-87 to 7-89): a. 280 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . It is essential that soldiers be alert to their surroundings. RIFLE HAND GUARD GRAB 53. apply bone pressure to the finger to initiate pain compliance.

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-87: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Figure 7-88: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 281 .

force the weapon upward at a 45 degree angle to the outside. and violently force the weapon downward and separate it from the opponent.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-89: Rifle Retention (Hand Guards) Step 2 RIFLE MUZZLE OR HAND GUARD GRAB 54. If the opponent grabs the rifle muzzle or hand guard apply the following technique (see Figures 7-90 to 7-92): a. b. Figure 7-90: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) 282 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Striking with the rifle butt can control or ward off an attacker. an outside butt strike targets the peroneal nerve. Use the edge of the butt to strike the inside or outside of the thighs (see Figures 7-93 and 7-94): a. and B-GL-382-004/FP-001 283 . an inside butt strike targets the femoral nerve. b.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-91: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 1 Figure 7-92: Rifle Retention (Muzzle/Hand Guards) Step 2 BUTT STROKES 55.

follow back through with a strike to the other side.Close Quarter Combat c. if a strike to one side of the thigh misses. Figure 7-93: Butt Stroke Femoral Nerve Figure 7-94: Butt Stroke Peroneal Nerve 284 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

do not push back. Off-balance techniques are used to throw an opponent to the ground to retain possession of the rifle. If the opponent grabs the rifle and pushes. Figure 7-95: Opponent Pushes Rifle Figure 7-96: Opponent Pushes Rifle B-GL-382-004/FP-001 285 . pivoting and forcing the rifle butt in to the opponent’s shoulder or head (see Figures 7-95 and 7-96).Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques OFF-BALANCE TECHNIQUES 56. 57. Throw him to the ground and separate him from the rifle. Move with the opponent’s momentum by stepping back.

step on the foot and push forward to off-balance him and drive him to ground (see Figures 7-97 to 7-99).Close Quarter Combat 58. If the opponent grabs the rifle and pulls. Figure 7-97: Opponent Pulls Rifle Figure 7-98: Opponent Pulls Rifle—Step 1 286 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-99: Opponent Pulls Rifle—Step 2 HOLSTERED PISTOL WITH OPPONENT TO THE FRONT 59. If the opponent goes for the holstered pistol from the front. trap the hand with the pistol side hand. lowering the centre of gravity and using the full body weight to execute a lateral forearm strike to the opponent’s forearm (see Figures 7-100 to 7-102). Figure 7-100: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol B-GL-382-004/FP-001 287 .

288 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . reach across the body with the left hand and trap the hand(s) on the holster.Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-101: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol—Step 1 Figure 7-102: Opponent Grabs Holstered Pistol—Step 2 HOLSTERED PISTOL WITH OPPONENT TO THE REAR 60. If the opponent attempts to grab the holstered pistol from behind. With the right arm execute either a hammer fist or elbow strike to the opponent’s head (see Figures 7-103 to 7-105).

Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-103: Opponent to the Rear Figure 7-104: Opponent to the Rear—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 289 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 7-105: Opponent to the Rear—Step 2 DRAWN PISTOL TO THE FRONT 61. execute a lateral forearm strike to the opponent’s wrist(s) and continue forcing the hand(s) downward. Figure 7-106: Pistol to the Front 290 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . If the opponent grabs the drawn pistol to the front. while simultaneously drawing the pistol hand rearward until the grip on the pistol is broken (see Figures 7-106 to 7-108).

The following are some examples of what can be used: a. and thrust at the opponent. Be ruthless and use whatever means are available to win the fight. In close quarter combat the unarmed soldier must improvise weapons. strike. Virtually any object can be used. b. or smashing his head with a rock or helmet. Tent poles and spikes can be used to block. An entrenching tool can be used to block. throwing dirt in the opponent’s face to impair his vision. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 291 . e.Edged and Impact Weapon Techniques Figure 7-107: Pistol to the Front—Step 1 Figure 7-108: Pistol to the Front—Step 2 SECTION 9 IMPROVISED WEAPONS 62.g. slash and thrust at the opponent.

axe handles. e. Pens and pencils can be used to stab the eyes. and stab at the opponent. A helmet can be used to strike the opponent on an unprotected area of the body like the head or face. boards. 292 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . the face and stomach d.Close Quarter Combat c. or broken rifles can also be used to strike. Battlefield debris can be used to cut. slash. metal pipes. Other types of debris such as shovels.

d. and do not cross the feet. thus must be silenced quickly and brutally. and then strike swiftly and silently. Attacking the sentry’s throat is the preferred method as it severs the windpipe and silences the sentry. If the sentry is tall. 2. There must be no hesitation and split second timing is necessary. ensure the head is forced in to your shoulder. and the lead hand should be free. forcing back the head to expose the throat. To silence a sentry. Look toward the sentry’s head. cup the left hand over the mouth and nose. As the sentry falls back. dropping to the knee. as this is a life or death struggle. Use peripheral vision to detect movement. 3. pulling the opponent off balance. avoid looking directly at the back of the head as the sentry may sense that someone is watching. b. Place each foot silently on the ground toe to heel. To avoid detection approach using a low crouch. control the fall of both the sentry and any weapons he may have by stepping back with the lead foot.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 8 SENTRY REMOVAL SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 293 . The soldier must close aggressively. The knife is the weapon of choice for sentry removal as it kills quickly and silently. In wartime a soldier may have to remove a sentry silently. advancing from the rear slowly and deliberately. as this is where movement will originate. step on the back of his knee so that the opponent will drop to a level which makes it easier to kill silently. There are several ways to kill a sentry with a knife or bayonet. place the hand over the mouth and nose and twist the head outwards exposing the neck. SECTION 2 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A KNIFE 4. The sentry will do everything possible to cry out or escape. where follow up techniques are easily executed. c. and silently lower the sentry to the ground. close the distance. Your normal fighting stance determines which foot leads. and easing the sentry down to a sitting position. However. ready to strike and cover the opponent’s mouth and nose. Both the hammer and ice pick grip can be employed. THE THROAT 5. Execute the attack as follows (see Figures 8-1 to 8-3): a. thrust the knife in to the side of the neck behind the windpipe and slash outward to severe the windpipe.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-1: Close the Distance Figure 8-2: Throat—Step 1 294 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

The subclavian artery is located 5 centimetres below the surface between the collarbone and the shoulder blade. the knife should slash to create maximum damage and ensure that the subclavian artery is in fact severed. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 295 . The blade is then withdrawn. Once the thrust is made. Attack by thrusting the knife in from above using an ice pick grip (see Figures 8-4 and 8-5). thus the sentry will loose consciousness quickly and die. Bleeding to this wound cannot be stopped without surgery.Sentry Removal Figure 8-3: Throat—Step 2 SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY 6. slashing and enlarging the cut to maximize blood loss.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-4: Subclavian Artery—Step 1 Figure 8-5: Subclavian Artery—Step 2 296 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

It is recommended that the garrotte have handles on each end to improve grip and to avoid injuring the soldier’s hand. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 297 . the soldier may place the free hand on the neck of the sentry and squeeze the windpipe. Note that this technique is not a silent sentry takeout. A bootlace is also effective. Throw the garrotte over the sentry’s head so it is around the neck. A thrust to the kidney will cause great shock and internal hemorrhaging. Wire is commonly used as it can decapitate the sentry. To garrotte a sentry from the rear (see Figures 8-7 to 8-10) approach in a fighting stance with the loop of the garrotte over the rear hand. Withdraw the blade. Pivot 180 degrees back to back with the sentry to form a loop in the garrotte. 9. GARROTTE FROM THE REAR 10. In both subclavian artery and kidney attacks. Figure 8-6: Kidney SECTION 3 SENTRY REMOVAL WITH A GARROTTE 8. slashing and enlarging the wound. Drop the centre of gravity below the sentry’s and pull forcefully while driving the legs up for a shoulder throw. It is constructed of any strong material that is thin and pliable. It is unlikely that the sentry will be able to utter more than a gasp before death. resulting in death. At this point the sentry’s head may be decapitated. A garrotte is used for strangulation or to sever the neck. continue to apply pressure until unconsciousness or death. To attack the kidney thrust the knife in while simultaneously grabbing the sentry’s mouth and nose (see Figure 8-6).Sentry Removal THE KIDNEY 7. Cut the windpipe to ensure silence. If the sentry flips over. Pull the garrotte so the sentry’s neck is held tightly and arc your back. twisting and crushing the larynx.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-7: Stalking the Sentry Figure 8-8: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 1 298 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Reach behind the back so that the hands come together in a bear hug. stepping behind one of B-GL-382-004/FP-001 299 .Sentry Removal Figure 8-9: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 2 Figure 8-10: Garrotte from the Rear—Step 3 GARROTTE TO THE FRONT 11. If while approaching from the rear the sentry turns to face you drive forward violently with both hands so the garrotte crosses the throat (see Figures 8-11 to 8-14). then pull downward.

Pull downward with the hands until the sentry ceases to struggle. and take him to the ground. Figure 8-11: Stalking the Sentry Figure 8-12: Garrotte to the Front—Step 1 300 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Your hands are now under the sentry’s back with the garrotte across the throat.Close Quarter Combat the sentry’s legs.

Sentry Removal Figure 8-13: Garrotte to the Front—Step 2 Figure 8-14: Garrotte to the Front—Side View B-GL-382-004/FP-001 301 .

Close Quarter Combat SECTION 4 NECK BREAKS 12. Your forearm drives the opponent’s shoulders forward and acts as a lever to break the neck. HELMET NECK BREAK 13. with the forearm on the back of the sentry’s neck. however it requires strength and commitment to break an opponent’s spinal column. Then pull the helmet up and back with great force. simultaneously grabbing the rim of the sentry’s helmet with the right hand. The neck is susceptible to damage from all angles. Figure 8-15: Helmet Neck Break—Step 1 302 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Grab the opposite shoulder with the left hand. Another method of sentry removal is the neck break. To execute the helmet neck break (see Figures 8-15 to 8-17) use the opponent’s helmet as a weapon to create leverage.

Sentry Removal Figure 8-16: Helmet Neck Break—Step 2 Figure 8-17: Helmet Neck Break—Step 3 HELMET SMASH 14. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 303 . If while executing a helmet neck break the sentry’s helmet is undone or the strap breaks. smash the head repeatedly until the sentry is eliminated (see Figures 8-18 to 8-21).

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-18: Helmet Smash Figure 8-19: Helmet Smash—Step 1 304 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

To neck break while approaching from the rear strike the jaw with the right hand. and immediately wrap the head with both arms in a bear hug (see Figures 8-22 to 8-25). drive the sentry’s head fully to the left. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 305 .Sentry Removal Figure 8-20: Helmet Smash—Step 2 Figure 8-21: Helmet Smash—Step 3 NECK BREAK FROM REAR 15. dropping all your body weight down on the back of his head. To break the neck pull the sentry back off balance and kick your legs out.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-22: Neck Break from Rear Figure 8-23: Neck Break from Rear—Step 1 306 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Sentry Removal Figure 8-24: Neck Break from Rear—Step 2 Figure 8-25: Neck Break from Rear—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 307 .

and drive the hips up in one swift motion to break the neck. d. To neck break a kneeling sentry (see Figures 8-26 to 8-28): a.Close Quarter Combat NECK BREAK KNEELING OPPONENT 16. if the opponent has a weapon. b. reach around the opponent’s head with the left arm and apply a reverse headlock. control it with the right hand. Figure 8-26: Stalking the Enemy 308 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . close the distance. c.

Sentry Removal Figure 8-27: Neck Break Kneeling—Step 1 Figure 8-28: Neck Break Kneeling—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 309 .

Close Quarter Combat SECTION 5 TAKEDOWNS REAR TAKEDOWN 17. This technique is effective against a tall sentry. Quickly move up the body. and execute a neck break. placing the knee in the small of the back. The sentry falls forward and strikes his head on the ground. Figure 8-29: Stalking the Sentry Figure 8-30: Rear Takedown—Step 1 310 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . A sentry may be quickly taken out by a double leg takedown from behind (see Figures 829 to 8-31).

Push forward on the neck while pulling up and to the rear at the crotch.Sentry Removal Figure 8-31: Rear Takedown—Step 2 CROTCH TAKEDOWN 18. lifting the sentry off the ground. To execute the crotch takedown grasp the collar with the lead hand at the back of the neck. This technique is not as effective against a taller sentry. Figure 8-32: Crotch Takedown—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 311 . reaching between the legs with the other hand to grasp the crotch or belt (see Figures 8-32 to 8-34). Once the sentry is taken down. move up the body and execute a neck break.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 8-33: Crotch Takedown—Step 2 Figure 8-34: Crotch Takedown—Step 3 SECTION 6 CHOKES 19. 312 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Chokes may be used to cause unconsciousness. To ensure that the sentry does not cry out a choke that restricts the windpipe needs to be applied. Any of the chokeholds covered in Chapter 5 can be employed against a sentry. Chokes can be used a prisoner must be taken while minimizing noise. to kill the sentry. 20. or. if pressure is maintained long enough or the choke is used to break the neck.

Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 9 RIFLE BAYONET FIGHTING TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. This often leaves other parts of the body. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 313 . such as the chest. whether to defend. ultimately. in that every infantry soldier is issued a rifle and bayonet as his primary tools to destroy an opponent at close quarters. Any hesitation. the face and throat are most vulnerable because a person will react instinctively to protect them. 3. delay or useless movement may be fatal. Speed is essential. Weakness must be detected and exploited. The rest position is used in training. kill the opponent. and. with the hands on top of the hand guards (see Figure 9-1). Bayonet fighting skills are warfighting techniques every soldier must master. Close quarter combat is a weapon-based system. confidence. vulnerable and unprotected. abdomen. groin and limbs. Training to perfect these techniques develops skill. 2. The bayonet is an offensive weapon that must be used aggressively. Although all parts of the body may be a target. counter-attack. At the command “rest”. the soldier places the butt of the rifle between the feet and holds the weapon vertically. and aggressiveness executing all movements. or attack. The soldier must attack violently until the opponent is neutralized. SECTION 2 BAYONET TECHNIQUES REST 4.

one hand on the hand guard. Figure 9-2: On Guard 314 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . the other on the small of the butt. The soldier leans forward slightly with the weight evenly distributed (see Figure 9-2). On the command “on guard” the soldier adopts the fighting stance.Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-1: Rest ON GUARD 5. The weapon is positioned so the side of the butt is against the right hip at approximately 45 degrees.

Hold the weapon firmly and. or chest. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 315 . thrust the bayonet in to the target area (see Figure 9-3).5 metres from the opponent. and can originate off either foot. The thrust is directed against a vulnerable point of the body such as the throat. abdomen. The parry should be immediately followed up with an attack. From the on guard position. Avoid over-extending. Figure 9-3: Thrust LEFT AND RIGHT PARRY 7. strike the opponent’s weapon violently to deflect it either left or right (see Figures 9-4 to 9-9). The thrust is the primary attacking technique. face.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques THRUST 6. It is executed from the on guard position about 1. extending both arms. The thrust is usually executed when advancing. The parry is a defensive movement used to deflect the opponent’s weapon and create openings. Put the weight of the body behind the thrust by shifting or stepping forward when thrusting.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-4: On Guard Figure 9-5: Left Parry 316 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-6: Left Parry Figure 9-7: On Guard B-GL-382-004/FP-001 317 .

with your full weight behind the blow (see Figures 9-10 and 9-11). aiming it horizontally at the opponent’s head or upper body. A butt stroke executed correctly will likely stun the opponent. and must be followed with a slash. To execute a horizontal butt stroke step forward from the on guard position with the rear foot. thrust or ground point. 318 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-8: Right Parry Figure 9-9: Right Parry HORIZONTAL BUTT STROKE 8. forcing the rifle butt up and forward across the front of the body.

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-10: Left Parry Figure 9-11: Horizontal Butt Stroke B-GL-382-004/FP-001 319 .

Close Quarter Combat VERTICAL BUTT STROKE 9. forcing the rifle butt up in a vertical arc toward the opponent’s groin. The vertical butt stroke is executed from the on guard or crouching position. Figure 9-12: On Guard Figure 9-13: Vertical Butt Stroke 320 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Step forward with the rear foot. Continue to attack if required. with your entire weight behind the blow. or chin. solar plexus.

in this case the rifle is kept in a horizontal position. Hold the rifle slightly higher than shoulder height. The slash is used to cut the opponent open using the knife-edge of the bayonet. The smash may be used when the opponent is backing away to avoid a vertical butt stroke. with the butt forward and the pistol grip up (see Figure 9-14). Extend the left arm while stepping forward. Force the body forward driving the rifle butt straight in to the opponent’s face. Figure 9-14: Smash SLASH 11. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 321 . and drive the weapon down diagonally across the body.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques SMASH 10. and is an effective follow-up to a smash. striking the opponent between the head and shoulder (see Figures 9-15 to 9-17). This technique may also be used following a failed horizontal butt stroke.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-15: Slash (Start) Figure 9-16: Slash (Mid-point) 322 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

pull the rifle straight back until the blade is out.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-17: Slash (Finish) GROUND POINT 12. The ground point is used to finish off the opponent once on the ground. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 323 . Draw the rifle butt upward then violently thrust downward. After sticking the bayonet in to an opponent on the ground it may be necessary to place one foot on the chest to extract the bayonet or. To extract the bayonet. to fire a round in to the chest. driving the point of the bayonet in to the exposed chest or throat of the opponent (see Figures 9-18 to 920). in extreme cases. The bayonet is pointed down to the target.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-18: Ground Point (Start) Figure 9-19: Ground Point (Mid-point) 324 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-20: Bayonet Extraction (Finish) HIGH BLOCK 13. bending the elbows slightly to absorb the impact. Use the centre of the weapon to strike the opponent’s weapon on its downward motion. Violently extend the arms upward about 45 degrees from the body (see Figure 9-21). Figure 9-21: High Block B-GL-382-004/FP-001 325 . Enough force should be used to throw the opponent off balance and follow up with an offensive technique. The high block is effective against a high or low vertical attack.

simultaneously forcing the weapon to the right to strike the opponent’s rifle with the centre part of the rifle. Use the centre part of the rifle to strike the opponent’s rifle on its upward motion. 326 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . (For left handed soldiers these movements would be reversed.). The middle block is effective against a horizontal butt stroke. To counter a butt stroke from the right (see Figure 9-24). For a right handed firer to counter a butt stroke from the left (see Figure 9-23).Close Quarter Combat LOW BLOCK 14. Violently extend the arms downward about 45 degrees from the body (see Figure 9-22). bending the elbows slightly to absorb the impact. pivot the body violently to the right. The low block is effective block against a vertical butt stroke. drive the rifle butt downward. simultaneously pivoting the body to the left to strike the opponent’s rifle with the centre part of the rifle. Figure 9-22: Low Block MIDDLE BLOCK 15.

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-23: Middle Block Figure 9-24: Middle Block B-GL-382-004/FP-001 327 .

Butt Stroke—Smash. 19. or in some cases will have an opponent out numbered. push forward off the rear foot and bring the butt upward in a short vertical arc. 18. The aim of the parry is to ward off the opponent’s weapon and create an opening. with the soldier stepping forward with each movement (unless using a static dummy). move the rear foot forward.Close Quarter Combat COMBINATIONS NOTE FOR TRAINING PURPOSES: All combinations should end with the soldier in the on guard position. The aim of the parry is to ward off the opponent’s weapon and create an opening. 21. Aim the butt at the opponent’s groin or solar plexus. 328 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The soldier may face more than one opponent. Left/Right Parry—Horizontal Butt Stroke—Ground Point. Combinations should be executed on the attack. If a butt stroke misses the opponent continue until the rifle is in position to execute a smash. This is followed immediately by a thrust to the face or throat. This is followed by a horizontal butt strike in a continuous movement. The butt stroke is aimed at the opponent’s head. and execute another thrust. MULTIPLE OPPONENTS 22. Thrust following a Failed Attack. Thrust—Horizontal Butt Stroke. 20. Combinations ending with a vertical/horizontal butt stroke or a smash should finish with the soldier executing a slash in to the on guard position. or if it has been dodged. If a thrust has been executed to either side of the opponent. 16. If the opponent retreats to avoid the thrust slightly bend the lead arm. instead of returning to the defensive push forward off the rear foot and bring the butt across in a wide horizontal arc. The following are simple strategies for dealing with these situations. and the ground point is immediately driven in to the fallen and stunned opponent. Left/Right Parry Thrust. then push forward off the rear foot and aim the rifle butt at the opponent’s face or throat with as much force as possible. If a thrust is directed at the opponent’s head but passes over it. A series of thrusts can be executed until the opponent is struck or off balance and thus vulnerable to another technique. Thrust—Vertical Butt Stroke. bend the lead arm slightly. 17.

one soldier engaging the opponent while the other soldier aggressively attacks the opponent’s open flank (see Figure 9-25). 24. The soldiers advance together. the two on the outside engaging the opponents. Two against One. Three against Two. while the middle soldier attacking each opponent’s open flank (see Figures 9-26 and 9-27)). Figures 9-25: Two against One Figure 9-26: Three against Two—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 329 . Both soldiers advance together.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques OFFENSIVE STRATEGY 23.

Once an outside threat has been eliminated that soldier attacks the centre opponent. the soldier moves to the second opponent. Once the first threat is taken out. using the first attacker as a shield to prevent the second moving closer (see Figure 9-28).Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-27: Three against Two—Step 2 DEFENSIVE STRATEGY 25. Figure 9-28: One against Two 26. forcing the outside opponents in to the centre opponent (see Figures 9-29 to 9-31). Two against Three. One against Two. If three opponents attack two soldiers. 330 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . move immediately to the flanks. A soldier attacked by two opponents must immediately move to a flanking position.

SECTION 3 BAYONET TRAINING There are two main methods used for bayonet training: a.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-29: Two against Three Step 1 Figure 9-30: Two against Three Step 2 Figure 9-31: Two against Three Step 3 27. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 331 . The rifle with bayonet. used against dummies and/or practice targets spaced on the terrain to simulate combat.

This training can also be enhanced using pyrotechnics and smoke. 30. The soldier first advances to the course using fire and movement. All techniques are done at the double. For bayonet training there are basic. To ensure successful training the soldier must have suitable targets. and targets where the soldier must parry left and right. continuing at unit level. This is the introduction to bayonet training. BAYONET TARGETS 31. Soldiers must be briefed to engage all targets as they come to them. and then progressing to instructor training. i. This level is conducted under realistic conditions.e. ground point targets. The emphasis at this level is for the soldier to develop proper techniques and combat fitness. The lanes consist of thrust targets. and must negotiate an obstacle course constructed of field fortifications interspersed with bayonet targets. and injuries to the soldier. c. instinctive skill with each situation likely to demand variations in technique. Basic Bayonet Obstacle Course. 332 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . It is a quick. using all techniques taught at the basic and intermediate level. Bayonet training can also be conducted during live field firing ranges during the final stages of the assault. Targets can be permanent or portable. Bayonet training is conducted throughout all close quarter combat training. initially during the close quarter combat basic course. movements. The soldier first advances at the walk and then progresses to a run. Advanced Bayonet Obstacle Course. fire and movement. The aim is for the soldier to advance and deliver the techniques without changing the pace or stopping. The soldier is then put through a series of exercises simulating battlefield tasks. The pugil stick. b. 28. At this level the soldier covers intermediate bayonet techniques advancing through the range at the walk. Once at the targets the soldier attacks with combinations at the double. Intermediate Bayonet Obstacle Course.Close Quarter Combat b. Properly constructed targets will reduce damage to the rifle/bayonet and target frames. or basic obstacles to fatigue the soldier prior to reaching the first target. feinting and counter-attacking against an armed opponent. Where possible the soldier should advance at fire team level. This is the ideal method to sharpen reflexes and increase aggressiveness. then deliver a thrust. which increases realism by introducing blocking. Bayonet fighting must not be taught as a drill. intermediate and advanced bayonet obstacle courses: a. BAYONET OBSTACLE COURSES 29. Soldiers must be encouraged to develop a style to suit their size and build.

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques 32. and can be equipped with a weapon to facilitate parrying techniques (see Figure 9-33). smashes and parries. This target is used for thrusts. butt strokes. tires or figure 12 targets. gallows and ground target. Gallows. are used during bayonet training: a. Tires can also be used as a target. The frame supports a target constructed from bags filled with foam rubber. slashes. and consists of foam filled bags or sandbags (see Figure 9-34). Ground Targets. and can be equipped with a device for parrying techniques (see Figure 9-32). This target is used for thrusts and smashes. Three types of targets. The target hangs from the gallows. It is constructed of stuffed mannequins using old uniforms or coveralls. Figure 9-32: Scaffold Target B-GL-382-004/FP-001 333 . b. the scaffold. Scaffold. c. This target is used for ground points.

Conduct of a bayonet obstacle course will vary depending on the level of training and the available training facilities.Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-33: Gallows Target Figure 9-34: Ground Target CONDUCT OF BAYONET OBSTACLE COURSES 33. The following points deal with basic conduct and safety: 334 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Pugil stick training is the only “full contact” training provided to close quarter combat trainees. As soon as the soldier becomes aware of the advantages of attack over defence. Pugil stick training is the most realistic method of teaching bayonet fighting. Everything is done at the double except when instructed otherwise. During any practice when soldiers are required to pass one anther they do so at the high port and to the left of each other. e. SECTION 4 PUGIL STICK TRAINING 34. i. b. PUGIL TRAINING SAFETY 37. retreats. Targets should be spaced 3 to 5 metres in line. A timid soldier will quickly become tired of being beaten and will counter-attack. Before beginning the practice identify control measures and words of command. and to B-GL-382-004/FP-001 335 . supervision and safety are required. g. To prevent accidents ensure all targets are placed in the same manner. d. In order to obtain full benefit from these bouts proper training. 36. Instructors should be in position to observe each soldier’s individual actions. Pugil stick bouts are an excellent method of improving physical fitness. dodges. the soldier becomes self-confident and moves aggressively. protective equipment. It teaches the soldier to function when faced with stress and violence. It is important that the soldier be fully trained before participating in pugil stick bouts. Soldiers are dressed in fighting order and wear combat gloves to protect the hands. Pugil stick training simulates rifle and bayonet fighting so that effective but safe training can be conducted. Lack of technique and knowledge will make a soldier ineffective and increase the risk of sustaining injuries. They return to the start position by moving to the right of the targets. The soldier must put forth maximum effort during bouts that can last as long as 2 minutes. etc. Lateral spacing between targets must be a minimum of 3 metres.e.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques a. right shoulder to right shoulder. The soldier must learn to remain vigilant and react instantly. responds and takes corrective action. Left-handed soldiers are always in the right hand lane. It gives the soldier an adversary who thinks. and who moves. 35. Portable targets can be positioned in pairs by placing the second target 1 metre behind and to the left of the first target. The instructor must instil aggressiveness and determination. c. f. Whistle blasts should be used to cease activity. Soldiers pass targets to the left. Instructors must not penalize soldiers for small technical faults.

j. 336 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . k. 38. m. The instructor must inspect all equipment to ensure serviceability. In addition. dental surgery within the last 48 hours. e. as they provide better protection and support during quick turns and manoeuvring. SAFETY EQUIPMENT 39. with sleeves rolled down to prevent friction burns. Combat boots are mandatory. The following equipment must be worn during pugil stick bouts: a. It must fit the head without rocking back and forth. frequent headaches. and broken bone within the last 6 months. light duties. previous brain concussions. Combat uniform is worn. staples or stitches.Close Quarter Combat deliver a blow and take a blow. blow to the head within the last 7 days. participation in pugil stick training within the last 7 days. ear infection or sinus infection. f. A soldier meeting any of the following criteria will be excluded from pugil stick training: a. l. concussion within the last 6 months. i. severe shoulder or head injury within the last 5 years. taking prescription drugs which may adversely affect performance during training. d. or obstructing the soldier’s view if struck on top of the head. h. history of hernias. restricted to wearing running shoes. frequent headaches. B-GL-381-001/TS-000 Training Safety directs that individuals who have had hernias. The football helmet has foam rubber wrapped around the bottom of the face cage. g. b. recent teeth extractions or current lacerations containing stitches be excluded from pugil stick training for safety reasons. The helmet must not pivot when struck on the side. It also provides physical and mental skills vital to success on the battlefield. c. all equipment must fit the soldier and be properly adjusted.

The mouthpiece is worn on the upper teeth. review. or units can purchase a female groin protector. it is better to have two instructors judging a bout because each instructor can fully observe one fighter. The protector must be worn outside of clothing and incorporate a pad around the hips. c. Groin protection must be in good condition and fit firmly against the body. Instructors supervising bouts must understand their value and limitations. Do not use sticks that are broken or cracked. d. pugil stick drills (give and take). warm-up. Pugil training periods should be organized as follows: a. supports the head and protects the neck from blows. The ends of the stick must not be loose fitting. and if in doubt. b.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques b. Gloves must be worn if the pugil sticks do not have built in hand protection. This allows the instructor to see the fighter’s facial expression and body movement. d. f. (To construct a pugil stick see paragraph 52. Instructors running pugil bouts must be qualified Close Quarter Combat Instructors. The best position for observation is to the right of a fighter. One instructor is necessary for each bout. Females wear the male protection in order to protect the hips. briefing. g. but must be completely done up. The neck roll prevents whiplash if the soldier is struck in the head. They must be alert for the unexpected. For safety. GENERAL CONDUCT 41. safety inspection and kit issue. Gloves are either hockey or lacrosse style. e. Both new and old style fragmentation vests can be worn as a substitute.) c. or covers both the upper and lower teeth. e. The chest protector must cover the chest and abdomen to approximately belt level. SAFETY PERSONNEL 40. the bout must be stopped immediately to prevent injury. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 337 . Pugil sticks must be in good condition and well padded. They must be in good condition. All straps must be in place and fastened. The tied end of the roll should be on the front of the soldier’s neck. It must be form fitted to the individual to prevent it being swallowed. The instructor’s position must not interfere with the fight. Padding must be properly fastened and have no tears.

The initial warm-up for any session should commence with light exercise to increase blood flow. Once the inspection is complete. BRIEFING 43. . or any other exercise which will further warm-up and strengthen the major muscle groups of the body. incorporating movement in all directions. leg raises. nothing worn around the neck. including basic movements done individually and in combination. The review should immediately follow the warm-up. The instructor should look for the following during the inspection: a. squats. crunches. ankle raises. d.Close Quarter Combat f. The instructor will designate attackers and defenders. PUGIL STICK DRILLS 46. false teeth removed. g. It should focus on and further develop basic skills. soldiers should be issued the kit described in paragraph 39. During the review soldiers practice individually and not against an opponent. b. and debriefing. SAFETY INSPECTION AND KIT ISSUE 42. WARM-UP 44. then progress to stretching to increase flexibility. lunges. Before fitting equipment soldiers must be inspected by the instructor. such as push-ups. For pugil stick drills soldiers will be paired with a partner and form in two ranks facing each other. pugil bouts. Before bouts commence the officer/senior non-commissioned officer conducting the training briefs all assisting staff and trainees. Commencing a pugil fighting session with a proper warm-up is necessary to prevent injury. Instructors must ensure that all equipment fits properly. REVIEW 45. c. and nothing in pockets or attached to belts. He then designates the 338 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 contact lenses or glasses removed (contacts may be worn if the soldier’s vision is such that it would be detrimental to fight without them). Once soldiers are stretched they should go through a series of conditioning exercises.

d. Before the Bout. A slash to the side of the opponent’s helmet (below the ear) or neck with the red end of the pugil stick. such as a straight thrust countered with a parry left and right. The word of command “STOP” may also be used. If both fighters are fit to continue and no unsafe condition exists. throat or chest protector. a butt stroke or smash using the butt (blue end) of the pugil stick. c. attack. Scoring Blows.g. A bout will be stopped immediately an unsafe condition exists.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques technique the attackers are to execute and the technique defenders are to use to counter the attack. An unsafe condition exists when: B-GL-382-004/FP-001 339 . Soldiers are paired according to height. There are only two reasons for stopping a bout. A heavy blow to the opponent’s head with an authorized technique. A scoring blow is defined as: (1) (2) (3) (4) A straight thrust with the blade end of the weapon (red end of the pugil stick) to the opponent’s face mask. Following drills the trainees will conduct pugil bouts. The instructor or assistant instructor may stop the bout any time an unsafe condition is observed. A scoring blow is an offensive technique delivered to an opponent’s vulnerable area with sufficient force and precision to be considered a disabling or killing blow. the primary signal for stopping the bout. Scoring blows are not judged solely on the degree of force with which they were delivered. the instructor blows the whistle to stop the bout. The instructor starts the bout with the word of command “ON GUARD”. e. The instructor designate two fighters. Unsafe Conditions. either delivery of a scoring blow or an unsafe condition. the instructor restarts the bout. Rules governing pugil bouts are as follows: a. but on the accuracy and technique employed. and then progress to combination techniques. When a scoring blow is delivered. weight and gender (where possible). Starting the Bout. The soldiers adopt this position and then. PUGIL BOUTS 47. when given the command “FIGHT”. They must be fully briefed on safety and the conduct of the bout. e. who move in to the centre of the mats facing each other approximately 2 metres apart and adopt the rest position. b. The instructor will be equipped with a whistle. Stopping the Bout. This part of the lesson should start with basic techniques.

Other Considerations. Instructors should note the following points: (1) (2) Competition among groups of soldiers is authorized as long as it does not overshadow training objectives or compromise safety procedures. assistant instructor or anyone supervising training will stop the bout. Soldiers will only use authorized techniques or face expulsion from the bout and subsequent disciplinary action. 340 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . soldier loses muscular tension in the neck and the head snaps back or to one side. soldier looses control of the pugil stick. including how to improve weak areas.Close Quarter Combat (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) f. The instructor then commences subsequent bouts. both verbally and physically. Safety and proper technique are paramount. Ensure the soldier is alert and responsive. buckling at the knees). equipment falls off. and that eyes are focused and not dazed or glazed. Ensure legs are not wobbly or shaky. The pugil stick is not to be used as a baseball bat. soldier falls down completely. After the Bout. or soldier fails to apply proper techniques. If any of these conditions occur: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The instructor. h. and will be held the same as the rifle. soldier demonstrates instability (e. i. Question the soldier to ensure comprehension and coherent responses. soldier loses balance and falls down on one or both knees. g. soldier is unable to defend. Ensure speech is not slurred. The instructor should discuss the good and bad points of each soldier’s techniques.g. soldier appears disoriented. He will then check the soldier’s condition. Safety is more important than competition. Soldiers will be debriefed.

At the end of each lesson the soldier should be physically tired. Soldiers undertaking training must have any injuries checked by proper medical authorities. Second impact syndrome (SIS) occurs when a second blow to the head produces a second concussion less than 1 week after a previous concussion (i. As with all close quarter combat training much emphasis must be placed on the individual’s level of combat fitness. particularly in someone who may have suffered a brain injury or concussion but shows no symptoms. A soldier who has exhibited these symptoms must not be allowed to participate in pugil stick training or any other activity where a heavy blow might be sustained for a minimum of 7 days after the headache or other symptoms have subsided. and he must be prepared for the unexpected. An instructor supervising pugil stick training must understand its value and limitations. first aid kit and safety vehicle must be in location. and the instructor must deal with them as they arise in the most appropriate manner. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 341 . bleeding from ears and mouth. SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME 50. ringing in ears. SIS causes rapid brain swelling and can cause death. 51. Designating a winner only undermines this positive training environment. It is the instructor’s responsibility to ensure safety. Due to the nature of this training injuries may occur. If in doubt. Any soldier who experiences headaches or the following symptoms after training must be examined by appropriate medical personnel: a. b.Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques (3) (4) The instructor must have a whistle to control bouts. Instructors must provide a positive training environment. stop the bout. e. whether serious or otherwise. d. A stretcher.e. Provide positive feedback to both soldiers. dilation of pupils. c. f. and ensure soldiers who experience difficulty receive the appropriate feedback to correct their shortcomings. blurred vision. INSTRUCTOR SUPERVISION 48. 49. Therefore there must be a minimum of 7 days between pugil stick bouts to reduce the risk of severe injury resulting from SIS. The 7 day separation between pugil bouts significantly reduces the possibility of injury. before recovery from the first concussion). slurred speech. or swelling or any unnatural discolouration in head or neck.

To construct a pugil stick: a. and roll it as tightly as possible.22 metres long on a flat surface. 12. Once the cover is properly seated remove the metal sleeve.2 centimetres in diameter and 35. the stick handle can be covered with foam rubber. leaving enough room for the hands. Make two canvas bags 15. Slide the canvas cover and metal sleeve on to the end of the stick. Cut the stick to the required dimensions (see figure 9-35). Cover the staples with cardboard. d.27 centimetres thick. Attach the roll with elastic bands and let dry at least 24 hours. Apply rubber cement on the contact surface as the sheet is rolled on. cut a sheet of foam rubber. then wrap tightly with gun tape. f. The material required to construct a pugil stick is described at Figure 9-35. b. Apply rubber cement on the contact surfaces and roll it as tightly as possible around the pod formed by the small roll of plastic foam covering the end of stick. decreasing in width as shown in Figures 9-35 and 9-36.6 centimetres long. Use the stitching method shown in Figures 9-35and 9-36.27 centimetres thick. To provide better protection. which was applied in step b. Place one of these rolled sheets at each end of the stick. 29.Close Quarter Combat PUGIL STICK CONSTRUCTION 52. Place the canvas bag on the end of the stick using an adjustable sleeve such as No 28 sheet metal. To make the part of the stick that represents the rifle butt. c.21centimetres wide and 3. spread a sheet of plastic foam 1. 342 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Spread a sheet of foam rubber 1. g.66 metres long on a flat surface. e. Attach the canvas bag to the stick using staples and remove excess canvas. Light sticks can be made heavier by rolling rubber from an inner tube around the central part of the stick under the layer of foam rubber.7 centimetres wide and 1. To prepare the end of the stick representing the bayonet.

Rifle Bayonet Fighting Techniques Figure 9-35: Pugil Stick Construction and Materials B-GL-382-004/FP-001 343 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 9-36: Pugil Stick Construction 344 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

as the battlefield may be covered with debris and. This is an offensive position as soldiers are in a good position to control the opponent and to execute striking and control techniques. He can then neutralize the opponent through striking techniques and joint destruction techniques.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 10 GROUND FIGHTING SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The mount position (see Figure 10-1) is used when the opponent is on his back. The intent of ground fighting is not to force the opponent to submit but to control or destroy him. Many close quarter combats however will include fighting on the ground. with the soldier on top. thus gaining a dominating body position. When engaging an opponent on the ground the soldier must first gain control using a strong ground fighting position. SECTION 2 GROUND FIGHTING POSITIONS MOUNT POSITION 4. The soldier must always monitor or control the hands of the opponent to prevent him using weapons. During close quarter combat soldiers should avoid fighting on the ground. more importantly. they may have to deal with multiple opponents. In any ground-fighting situation the soldier’s main priority is to fight his way back up to his feet. Figure 10-1: Mount Position B-GL-382-004/FP-001 345 . The soldier must use techniques which destroy the target joint to finish the opponent. 2. Fighting at this range also presents the problem of concealed weapons draws. due to the close proximity of the combatants. Once this has been achieved the soldier must get to his feet and deal with other threats. legs straddling the opponent’s body. 3.

The guard position is a defensive ground position. The cross mount is an effective position for gaining control of an opponent.Close Quarter Combat GUARD POSITION 5. Try to keep the opponent down and in close to prevent striking. . Figure 10-2: Guard Position CROSS MOUNT 6. With the soldier on his back this allows him to control the opponent and launch offensive techniques. the other near the ribs (see Figure 10-3). Place the elbows on the ground. In many cases this position is easily countered so once you have have initially engaged the opponent work to the mount position. The leg closest to the opponent’s head should be straight and the other bent so that the knee is near the opponent’s hip. When on top this position is effective for striking and for control techniques. and your weight should be kept as low as possible. 346 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . The chest should be centred on the opponent’s chest. The guard position (see Figure 10-2) is executed with the soldier on his back and the opponent between his legs. If unable to do this the hips can be extended to create space. one in the notch created by the opponent’s head and shoulder.

The side mount is used when a soldier’s opponent is on his side and the soldier is mounted on top. by placing a leg as a post in front of the opponent at waist level and in tight to the body (see Figure 10-4).Ground Fighting Figure 10-3: Cross Mount SIDE MOUNT 7. In this position it is easy for the soldier to be pulled forward and off balance. The other leg is placed behind the opponent. To counter this keep the center of gravity low. flat on the outside of the leg. Keep the upper body close to the opponent’s side. with the soldier’s weight placed back and down. Figure 10-4: Side Mount B-GL-382-004/FP-001 347 .

Close Quarter Combat SECTION 3 DEFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING MOUNT REVERSAL 8. Figure 10-5: Top Mount Reversal—Step 1 Figure 10-6 Top Mount Reversal—Step 2 348 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . space must be created by driving the hips straight up and striking with the elbows in to the opponent’s legs. and the opposite arm is drawn in and placed on the opponent’s chest. 9. The hand that is pulling the opponent in continues to do so while the other hand pushes. drive the hips up at a 45 degree angle. If an opponent mounts the soldier the position must be reversed to prevent the opponent from gaining control or striking (see figures 10-5 to 10-9). 10. using the leg on the side to which the reversal will be executed. Use the momentum of the elbow strikes to slide back to a position where the opponent is located over the soldier’s centre of gravity. while the posted leg simultaneously sweeps the hooked leg across in the opposite direction. To execute the reversal. Once space has been created trap the opponent’s arm. Also trap the opponent’s leg. The soldier’s other leg must be drawn in as close to the body as possible. If the opponent is in tight to the soldier. drawing it in close.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-7 Top Mount Reversal—Step 3 Figure 10-8: Top Mount Reversal—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 349 .

The guard reversal is used when in the guard in order to escape to the mount (see Figures 10-10 to 10-12). shift to one side and create enough space to place one shin across the opponent’s waist. Hold the opponent’s arm in to the side to which the reversal will be executed to prevent the opponent regaining balance once the reversal has commenced. Figure 10-10: Guard Position 350 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-9: Top Mount Reversal—Step 5 GUARD REVERSAL 11. keeping the other leg out and positioned by the opponent’s waist. To begin. Make a scissor motion with the legs to sweep the opponent. Roll with the opponent to adopt the mount.

as control will not have been gained. work the hands under the opponent and then drive the hips up and at 45 degree angle.Ground Fighting Figure 10-11: Guard Reversal—Step 1 Figure 10-12: Guard Reversal—Step 2 REVERSAL FROM CROSS-MOUNT 12. The following paragraphs describe three variations of cross mount reversals. Quickly work to the fighting stance. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 351 . 13. The soldier must decide which one best suits the situation. When being held in the cross-mount the position must be reversed quickly as the opponent has many offensive options. bridging toward the opponent while simultaneously pushing the opponent in that direction. For the first option (see Figures 10-13 and 10-14).

rotate the body around until in line with the opponent. turns toward the opponent and wrap the leg closest to the head with both arms. Once in position. Pulling on this leg. In this reversal.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-13: Cross-mount Reversal 1—Step 1 Figure 10-14: Cross-mount Reversal 1—Step 2 14. avoid turning away from the opponent as this will present your back to him and offer him more offensive options. executing a single leg takedown to the opponent’s guard. For the second option (see Figures 10-15 to 10-18). 352 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . pull in with the arms and drive the shoulder in to the opponent’s centre of gravity.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-15: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 1 Figure 10-16: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 2 Figure 10-17: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 353 .

simultaneously drawing the closest leg to the ground under the opponent and adopting the guard position. Turn in to the opponent and brace the opponent’s leg closest to the head with a hand placed in the area of the knee. Figure 10-19: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 1 354 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Then extend the arm and force the body away from the opponent.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-18: Cross-mount Reversal 2—Step 4 15. This technique can also be used to reverse the mount position. For the third option execute a technique known as shrimping (see Figures 10-19 to 10-22).

B-GL-382-004/FP-001 355 . The following paragraphs describe two variations used to escape the guard. The guard is used to defend when on the back as it affords protection and also allows offensive techniques. A soldier held in an opponent’s guard should work to a dominating body position.Ground Fighting Figure 10-20: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 2 Figure 10-21: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 3 Figure 10-22: Cross-mount Reversal 3—Step 4 ESCAPING THE GUARD 16.

Figure 10-23: Guard Pass 1—Step 1 Figure 10-24: Guard Pass 1—Step 2 18. At the same time position one knee up against the centre of the opponent’s buttocks. With a leg in close to the centre of the opponent’s buttocks.Close Quarter Combat 17. 356 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Apply pressure to the opponent’s thigh by forcing the points of the elbows down the inside of the opponent’s legs. To execute the second option (see Figure 10-25) again place both hands in the area of the opponent’s belt. using the back to break the hold. or force the opponent’s leg to the ground and pass over top to the mount. keep the knee in place and force the body back by straightening the arms. To execute the first option (see Figures 10-23 and 10-24) grab the area of the opponent’s belt with both hands. Then pass to either the side mount or mount. Once the opponent has released the lock on the legs either pass under the leg and move to cross-mount.

Both these methods can be applied from the standing position. Now drop back to the side armbar position. keeping both knees close together. 20. Rotate a leg over the opponent’s head. pulling in with the leg crossing the chest and pushing with the leg over the head. so the hands end up one on top of the other (see Figures 10-26 to 10-29). In confined space. by stepping over the opponent. 21. Thrust down on the chest to cause a chest compression (not to be done in training). If the opponent attempts to bite the leg. The arms control the opponent’s extended arm. To counter this place the hands so one is inside on the chest while the other works outside around the arm to be trapped. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 357 . sitting on the elbow. Your legs should now be locked in place over the opponent’s chest and face. and pulling the hand to the chest or dropping back to the ground. but thrusting the hips forward and pulling the arm back once the leg is in place around the opponent’s head (see Figures 10-30 to 10-34). this technique can be applied without dropping back off the opponent. pulling it to the chest while simultaneously lifting the hips to apply pressure to the elbow joint. bounce the leg off the opponent’s head until compliance is achieved. or with one hand on the chest strike the face with the other. simultaneously trapping the arm.Ground Fighting Figure 10-25: Guard Pass 2 SECTION 4 OFFENSIVE GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES ARMBAR FROM TOP MOUNT 19. An opponent on his back will extend his arms to choke or grab the soldier who is in the mount.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-26: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 1 Figure 10-27: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 2 358 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Ground Fighting Figure 10-28: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 3 Figure 10-29: Armbar from Top Mount 1—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 359 .

Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-30: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 1 Figure 10-31: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 2 360 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Ground Fighting Figure 10-32: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 3 Figure 10-33: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 4 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 361 .

Next strike the opponent’s jaw with the right hand. As the opponent grabs the arm rotate your wrist and grasp your hand in an overhand grip. The right leg is positioned to hook the head and neck. placing him in the side armbar position and applying pressure to the left arm.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-34: Armbar from Top Mount 2—Step 5 COUNTER TO A FRONT ARMBAR 22. as the opponent grabs the arm rotate the wrist and grasp the opposite hand in an overhand grip. and simultaneously drive the right heel in to the opponent’s hip to create space. Move the upper body to the left and hips to the right. To execute an armbar from the guard. roll through to the guard position. simultaneously bringing both legs up to the right side of the body. Exert downward pressure to roll the opponent on to his back. When the opponent attempts to complete the arm bar by rolling backwards. applying pressure with the elbows and forearms (see Figures 10-35 to 10-38). To counter a front armbar. 362 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . when an opponent attempts a choke or straightarm. pushing the opponent to the left. ARMBARS FROM THE GUARD 23. cross the arms and trap the opponent’s arms.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-35: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 1 Figure 10-36: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 363 .

where the opponent has countered the attack. If the opponent drops his body so the right leg cannot be positioned by the opponent’s head then change the target arm to achieve an armbar. Bring the left leg from the hip around above the arm. placing the opponent’s right arm against the left side of the chest. It is critical that the opponent’s arm be positioned so the elbow is up.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-37: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 3 Figure 10-38: Armbar from Guard 1—Step 4 24. 364 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . change the target arm. extending the leg to kick the jaw and continue to a straight leg extension. the arm being held tight to the chest when extending the leg to ensure maximum effect. rolling to the right and leaning back. To execute a guard armbar variation (see Figures 10-39 to 10-42). 25.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-39: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 1 Figure 10-40: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 365 .

Place the arm closest to the head under the opponent’s arm directly above the elbow. The straight armbar can be applied in either the cross-mount or top mount. 366 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Then apply pressure on the opponent’s wrist. To apply the straight-armbar trap the opponent’s arm out to the side of the body (see Figures 10-43 to 10-45). simultaneously using the forearm to raise the arm closest to the head upward to put pressure on the elbow. and grab your forearm.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-41: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 3 Figure 10-42: Armbar from Guard 2—Step 4 STRAIGHT ARMBAR 26. The arm closest to the body reaches out and traps the inside of the opponent’s wrist so the palm is up.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-43: Straight Armbar—Step 1 Figure 10-44: Straight Armbar—Step 2 Figure 10-45: Straight Armbar—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 367 .

Close Quarter Combat FIGURE 4 ARMBAR 27. To apply a figure 4 armbar pin the opponent’s wrist with the arm closest to the head. pin the wrist and lift up on the elbow. To finish. and slide the elbow down to the opponent’s side. The figure 4 armbar can be applied from top mount or cross mount (see Figures 10-46 to 10-48). grab the wrist. Figure 10-46: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1 Figure 10-47: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1 368 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Then move the other arm under the opponent’s tricep.

Maintain the figure 4 grip and place the head to the outside of the opponent’s arm (see Figures 10-49 and 10-50). Figure 10-49: Shoulder Rip—Step 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 369 .Ground Fighting Figure 10-48: Figure 4 Armbar—Step 1 SHOULDER RIP 28. The shoulder rip is applied when an opponent pulls the arm and elbow close to the head to defend against the figure 4 armbar. To apply pressure force the head toward the opponent and the hand away from the opponent.

At times soldiers will be able to end a ground fight quickly by executing a choke. REAR CHOKES 30.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-50: Shoulder Rip—Step 2 SECTION 5 GROUND FIGHTING CHOKES 29. Once in this position arc the back to apply greater pressure to the opponent’s neck. Chokes applied during ground fighting are the same as those used for standing positions. The priority in ground fighting is to get back to the feet as quickly as possible. Figure 10-51: Rear Choke on the Ground—Step 1 370 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Any rear choke can be used on the ground. The following paragraphs describe minor differences when chokes are applied on the ground. When an opponent is in a rear choke work to a position where the opponent will not escape. hooking both legs between the opponent’s legs (see Figures 10-51 and 10-52). Once the choke is secured place the legs around the opponent.

to the inside of the opponent’s reach (see Figures 10-53 to 10-55). To execute this technique use the left hand to parry the opponent’s right arm inboard. Bring the right arm underneath the opponent’s arm and up around the front of the neck. The ground fighting side choke is a vascular choke applied from the guard or mount position. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 371 . If in the mount position dismount to a position beside the opponent. If in the guard position. first parry the arms inboard and apply the choke. The ground fighting side choke is particularly effective when the opponent raises his arms and places them on the soldier’s chest or throat. and the opponent is attempting to choke the soldier. 32. or if the opponent has top mount. whether the opponent is on top or bottom. 33. and apply venous pressure down and at a 45 degree angle.e. place the back of the blade edge of the forearm against the opponent’s neck just below the ear. Keep the fingers extended. then reverse the position and move to the opponent’s side. The feet are then moved around in a clockwise direction to increase pressure. i.Ground Fighting Figure 10-52: Rear Choke on the Ground—Step 2 GROUND FIGHTING SIDE CHOKE 31.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-53: Top Mount Figure 10-54: Side Choke—Step 1 372 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

For the first choke. There are various ways to apply cross collar chokes on the ground depending on the physque and dress of the opponent. Figure 10-56: Cross Collar Choke Fingers in B-GL-382-004/FP-001 373 . The following paragraphs describe three positions for hand placement: 35. insert one hand (with fingers in) in to the back of the opponent’s collar and grip it (see Figure 10-56). The forearms should be crossed.Ground Fighting Figure 10-55: Side Choke—Step 2 CROSS COLLAR CHOKES 34. Then insert the other hand in to the collar on the opposite side. To apply pressure pull the elbows to the waist and rotate the hands so the thumbs are against the neck. This choke can be executed from the guard or mount position.

Close Quarter Combat 36. force the elbows to the ground and the forearms against the opponent’s throat. Figure 10-58: Cross Collar Choke 374 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . This choke is executed from the mount position. The second choke has a thumb in grip. For the third choke grab the front of the opponent’s collar with fingers in (see Figure 10-58). The second hand grabs lower on the opponent’s shirt in to the opposite collar. Figure 10-57: Cross Collar Choke Thumbs in 37. To apply pressure. This choke is applied from the mount position. To apply pressure force the arm across the throat to the ground while pulling the other arm down to the waist. and the hands are positioned at the front of the neck (see figure 10-57).

If the opponent places his legs around the soldier and locks them. To break the hold pull in on the foot. Figure 10-59: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 1 Figure 10-60: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 375 . but does not have his hands around the neck.Ground Fighting SECTION 6 GROUND COUNTER TECHNIQUES COUNTER TO REAR CHOKE (ATTEMPTED) 38. simultaneously applying pressure down on to the inside of the opponent’s shin with the elbow. If the opponent attempts to place a rear choke the soldier must counter before the choke is fully applied. quickly counter by grabbing the opponent’s upper foot with both hands (see Figures 10-59 to 10-61).

and apply a rear armbar or any other follow-up technique. As you roll off the opponent pull the choking arm back. Figure 10-62: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 1 376 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . violently roll back in the other direction. and turn in to the choking arm (do not roll off the opponent). Then grab the choking arm and tuck the chin.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-61: Counter to Rear Choke (Attempted)—Step 3 COUNTER TO REAR CHOKE (APPLIED) 39. Maintaining the grip on the choking arm. slip the head under. act swiftly and violently by reaching back and attempting to drive the thumb in to the opponent’s eye (see Figures 10-62 to 10-66). violently pivot the hips and drive them in to the opponent’s groin. Once the rear choke is fully applied.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-63: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 2 Figure 10-64: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 3 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 377 .

The side headlock from the knees starts from a standing side headlock (see Figures 10-67 to 10-70). If the opponent still maintains the hold. Then apply pressure down and toward the head. striking the opponent’s head on the ground.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-65: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 4 Figure 10-66: Counter to Rear Choke Applied—Step 5 SECTION 7 GROUND COUNTERS TO COMMON ATTACKS SIDE HEADLOCK FROM THE KNEES 40. form a frame placing the outside of the forearm against the opponent’s brachial plexus. To break the hold. Then pull the arms toward the body. simultaneously pushing with the shoulders. reach across the opponent and grip the far side knee and ankle. When the soldier executes the entry technique the opponent drops to the knees. Once the opponent is off balance move to the side mount. 41. From this point. apply stunning techniques. 378 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

Figure 10-67: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 1 Figure 10-68: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 379 . If done correctly the opponent will extend the arm which applied the headlock.g. a wristlock or arm bar.Ground Fighting forcing it back. Now apply follow-up techniques. e.

Extend the leg forcing the opponent away. Bring the leg closest to the opponent’s head around and place it against the head. If the opponent has taken the soldier to ground using a headlock immediately brace the opponent’s hips with both arms extended (see Figures 10-71 to 10-73). Now form a frame with the arms and push the opponent away to create space. 380 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Once in this position deliver knee strikes to the opponent’s back. This prevents the opponent from moving backward and denying the soldier space. Simultaneously pivot around to the side mount. If the opponent disengages stand and adopt the fighting stance. If the opponent still maintains the headlock apply stunning techniques and follow up as for the side headlock from the knees. Then strike with a heel palm to the occipital nerve to distract the opponent. 43.Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-69: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 3 Figure 10-70: Side Headlock from the Knees—Step 4 GROUND SIDE HEADLOCK 42.

Ground Fighting Figure 10-71: Ground Side Headlock Figure 10-72: Ground Side Headlock—Step 1 Figure 10-73: Ground Side Headlock—Step 2 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 381 .

place your dominant hand flat on the ground behind you (see Figures 10-74 to 10-76). Distributing the weight evenly. The opposite hand is bent and the foot is placed flat on the ground. with the forearm resting on the knee. Stand up and adopt the fighting stance. Figure 10-74: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 1 Figure 10-75: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 2 382 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .Close Quarter Combat RECOVERING FROM A GROUND POSITION 44. To recover from a ground position. raise your buttocks off the ground and draw your dominant leg back between the hand on the floor and the planted foot.

Figure 10-77: Defensive Ground Position 1 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 383 . and work to your feet as soon as possible. If the opponent is moving too fast to pivot in this manner roll on the same side as the direction of movement. In both cases keep the legs in to prevent stomps or leg bars. In this case the soldier sits in position with the legs chambered and pivots toward the threat using the arms (see Figures 10-77 and 10-78).Ground Fighting Figure 10-76: Recovering from the Ground Position—Step 3 DEFENSIVE GROUND POSITION 45. There may be times when the soldier is knocked to the ground while the opponent remains standing and continues to attack.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 10-78: Defensive Ground Position 2 384 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

enthusiasm. Continually strive to reduce all unnecessary explanations. Seek efficiency with minimum effort. Diligent effort is needed to perfect the various techniques to a level where the instructor can apply them instinctively and teach them to others safely. SECTION 2 INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES 4. Instructors must teach the techniques demonstrated in this manual and not their own styles. Formal close quarter combat training is conducted in two blocks. Professional instruction is the key to successful close quarter combat training. and are legally and medically acceptable. The essential requirements for planning and conducting effective close quarter combat training are as follows: a. c. meet use of force tactical requirements. such as stances and movement. Promote suppleness and controlled aggression. efficiency or safety. aggression and technical expertise are essential. Instructors must continually work to improve their technique. and combat fitness training. the Basic Close Quarter Combat Course and the Advanced Close Quarter Combat Course for instructors. Stress cooperation and technique. b. To demonstrate and practically apply the skills described in this manual instructors must be physically fit and highly proficient. 3. Training during the Basic Course covers the fundamental techniques. movement and activity. Confidence. knives and OC spray. especially those who are having difficulty. In order to teach the Basic Course and conduct unit training the instructor is trained on the Advanced Course to instruct all techniques in this manual. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 385 . Reinforce the details of each technique and provide positive feedback when warranted. striking techniques. Instructors at the COE will instruct the Advanced Course. 2. ground fighting. Continuation training at unit level should focus on these fundamentals but also incorporate further use of force training.Close Quarter Combat CHAPTER 11 TRAINING TECHNIQUES SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Use humour to motivate soldiers but do not degrade or insult soldiers. The techniques in this manual are proven techniques. bayonet training and use of force. and seek additional training opportunities in order to develop new and challenging ways to teach close quarter combat. training with impact weapons. review available training media. Streamline training without compromising content.

TRAINING SAFETY 5. Approved safety equipment must be used. h. g. c. Fingernails must be trimmed and clean. except when on the bayonet range. Ensure there is adequate space between soldiers when they are practicing techniques (an area approximately 2 to 3 metres square is required per partner pair).Close Quarter Combat d. ID disks. The ratio is one instructor/assistant instructor (who must also be qualified instructors) for every 10 student pairs (20 students). dentures and. if possible. Enforce discipline and professional conduct from all soldiers. are executed. f. glasses. such as the head. A first aid kit and stretcher must be available and at least one person qualified standard first aid must be present during all training sessions and demonstrations. and groin area. 386 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Our greatest resource is our soldiers so we must constantly strive to keep them safe. A qualified instructor must supervise all training. Instructors must make every effort to ensure training is conducted within specified safety guidelines and with the proper protective equipment. neck. are taped on. When training close quarter combat certain safety techniques must be strictly adhered to. and remove all jewellery. f. Instructors must also understand local casualty evacuation procedures. Ensure all training aids are in good repair and that you have sufficient numbers to cover the soldiers in the class. Students must be made aware of the specific technique to be practiced before it is executed. and horseplay. Ensure demonstrations are well rehearsed and never conducted with more than 50% speed and power. Intentional striking of an individual by another. Ensure fingers are not placed in trigger guards. The following safety precautions must be followed: a. Ensure soldiers empty their pockets. Soldiers may use light blows to other areas but must exercise caution at all times. and clothing clean and unsoiled. Ensure assistant instructors know what is being covered and that they know the techniques. Students must have mouth guards for appropriate lessons. When practicing knife and bayonet techniques ensure that scabbards are firmly attached and. e. d. Only simulated strikes to vital points. e. are prohibited. b. Ensure the training area is well maintained and free from dangerous obstructions.

All injuries must be reported as soon as possible after they occur. sentry removals. tapping the partner. takedowns.Training Techniques i. When training is to be conducted outdoors the instructor must ensure that the area is clear of natural objects and debris which may cause injury. tapping the mats. The training area used depends on the type of training to be conducted. bayonet and pugil training can be conducted outdoors in areas of soft footing (sand or grass). Soldiers will always question the validity of the techniques taught. The soldier must have a positive training experience.g. This can be achieved through the following methods: a. c. 7. Ensure that techniques are practiced under intermediate conditions so that the soldier faces an opponent that offers resistance. During all sparring bouts instructors should have a whistle to control training. Make sure soldiers warm up and cool down before and after practical application. n. k. Training which includes throws. The soldier must have a positive field experience. pain compliance and choking techniques (e. A signal must be established to indicate to the partner when to stop the pressure in grappling. TRAINING METHODOLOGY 8. or a verbal command). outside areas clear of rocks and other debris. Striking techniques. and all required safety equipment in place). etc should be conducted on a mat. The soldier’s skill sets must work under stress and must be easily learned. m. Instructors must motivate and instil confidence in their students. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 387 . The size of the training area depends on the size of the class. The instructor must inspect all medical chits prior to commencing all classes. l. It should be large enough to provide an area approximately 2 to 3 metres square per student pair. j.g. Demonstrating a need for the skill. Why is it essential for the soldier to have this skill? The skill must be attainable. b. The instructor must inspect the area to be used to ensure that it is suitable (e. Advanced training conducted realistically and under field conditions will add to the soldier’s d. TRAINING AREAS 6.

Safety inspection. Describe the “what. progresses to practice the complete movement.g. squats. and lunges. The skills taught during close quarter combat training are unlike any other skill that the soldier learns in the military. b. CONDUCT OF TRAINING 10. Training at units or on formal courses is conducted the same way. Prior to commencing any training soldiers must be checked to ensure pockets are empty and all jewellery is removed. Staged training is very important. These skills must be taught such that the soldier practices the movement in stages. Warm-up. Start with light aerobic activity to increase the heart rate and circulation. This final stage of practice must only be conducted with proper safety equipment and supervision. Intermediate. This should occupy most of the time practicing the technique.Close Quarter Combat confidence in his abilities and techniques. push-ups. The technique should be broken into components. leg raises. c. and then completes training in simulated operational conditions. in a manner that leads directly from the warm-up to the techniques to be practiced/confirmed. STAGES OF PRACTICE 9. situps. because he is trying to influence the physical behaviour of another potentially or totally uncooperative human at close quarters. The stages of practice are as follows: a. 388 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . crunches. breaking down each lesson as follows: a. Review. Training at this stage should be restricted to no more than 50% full speed and power to allow the soldier to tie together the separate components. b. At this stage the skill should be practiced slowly without any simulated resistance. The warm-up should conclude with body hardening techniques. c. and will demonstrate to the instructor those soldiers who require remedial training. d. where” of the lesson and issue any pertinent safety/control details. The instructor introduces the skill to the soldier. e. Advanced. Confirm previously taught techniques. and all components must be practiced separately and successively. The soldier practices the skill as a response to a specific type of resistance. Basic. Advanced training is full speed scenario based training to test the soldier’s ability to respond to a specific level of resistance. why. Lesson introduction. The warm-up then progresses to stretching techniques with specific focus on the muscle groups that will have the largest output during that period.

A warm-up should prepare the soldier both physically and mentally. Cool-down. stretching exercises. and effects on the opponent. and cool-downs should include light aerobic activity to control heart rate and then stretching exercises. hands on the chest. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 389 . Demonstrations are conducted at 50% speed and power. The Army Fitness Manual (B-GL-382-003/PT-001) describes many exercises that may be incorporated in a close quarter combat warm-up. The student however should have to demonstrate or react to a number of techniques. Soldiers should undergo light activity to lower their heart rates and then stretching techniques (cool-down provides the soldier the most benefit from stretching). This gives the instructor maximum control of the class.Training Techniques e. The following points are specific to each activity: a. and stretching at this time will provide greater muscle flexibility. b. Main body. A cool down helps to prevent injury. BODY HARDENING EXERCISES 12. Some additional body hardening exercises are: a. concentration of power. the instructor should break the technique down in to stages prior to demonstrating the complete movement. Body hardening exercises are essential to reduce close quarter combat injuries. soldiers practicing each part separately until their instructors are satisfied with their performance. Neck Exercise 1. and body hardening exercises. f. Laying flat on your back. Given the intense physical activity and high potential for injury it is important that soldiers be warmed up at the commencement of training and cooled down once training is complete. The instructor then restates his lesson objectives. re-motivates the class. Introduce the technique with an explanation and demonstration. warm-up activity should be applicable to the upcoming lesson. Once the complete movement has been taught soldiers practice the technique at the intermediate stage. During the explanation cover where the technique fits in the continuum of force. If possible break the technique into components. including light aerobic activity to increase the heart rate and blood flow to the muscles. For more complicated techniques. Conclusion. g. and packs up any equipment used during the period. CONDUCT OF WARM-UP AND COOL DOWN EXERCISES 11. During a 40 minute period the instructor will be able to teach approximately two techniques and ensure adequate practice. target area. striking surface. Conduct the end lesson confirmation as a fluid practice. raise your head and repeatedly look left and right. so that the soldier leaves the lesson with a good understanding of the technique.

Laying flat on your back. From this position repeatedly bring your chin to your chest and back to the start position. arcing the back with hips down and head up (see Figure 11-2). Bridging. From this position lift your hips. Neck Exercise 2. From a fighting stance. Thrust your arms outward to simulate throwing an opponent from you (used in ground fighting counter to cross mount). Repeatedly alternate sides. raise your head approximately 5 centimetres. knees bent and feet flat on the floor (see Figure 11-1). arc your back and rotate your body on to one of your shoulders. hands on the chest.Close Quarter Combat b. 390 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . drop down with the arms fully extended and feet apart. Lay flat on your back. From this position use your legs to thrust yourself back up to a fighting stance (used as a counter to single or double leg takedowns). Sprawl Drill. Figure 11-1: Bridging d. c.

Mountain Climbers.Training Techniques Figure 11-2: Sprawl Drill e. alternate bending the knees and bringing the feet as close to the hands as possible (see Figures 11-3 and 11-4). Figure 11-3: Mountain Climbers B-GL-382-004/FP-001 391 . From a sprinters stance with your head up.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 11-4: Mountain Climbers f. bending the right knee and bringing it over the body towards your left elbow. Iron Cross. Lay flat on your back with arms fully extended to the side (see Figures 11-5 and 11-6). Rotate your hips to the left. Figure 11-5: Iron Cross 392 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . Alternate from side to side (used as part of the counter to ground fighting rear chokes).

Lay on your side in the shrimping position. From this position thrust your hips forward and arc your back Roll to the opposite side and repeat the process (used in the counter to the ground fighting cross mount). Shrimping Drill. Figure 11-7: Shrimping Drill B-GL-382-004/FP-001 393 . knees tight to the chest (see Figures 11-7 to 11-9).Training Techniques Figure 11-6: Iron Cross g.

Some of these exercises are push-ups where you clap your hands. Do to the burn time of the ATP system any exercise that incorporates explosive power is an excellent close quarter combat training tool. 14. Sparring equipment is required for all forms of sparring and consists of different categories of equipment depending on the training being conducted. SECTION 3 PROTECTIVE TRAINING EQUIPMENT 13.Close Quarter Combat Figure 11-8: Shrimping Drill Figure 11-9: Shrimping Drill h. This equipment permits realistic training and develops powerful. It also enhances soldier safety while training. Protective training equipment is a valuable aid for developing close quarter combat skills and combat fitness. For pugil fighting the 394 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . or medicine ball exercises. Training equipment consists of sparring equipment and striking equipment. speedy techniques. burpies.

When sparring involving striking techniques the soldier wears head protection that provides a face shield and remains in place when hit. Sticks must be a padded training stick with a soft tip. e. Kick pads are large pads for kicking and require a partner. When conducting other forms of sparring the soldier must wear appropriate equipment. d. rather than combat boots. Focus mitts are good for hand and elbow techniques delivered at full power. The best is the Muay Thai bag. d. When grappling the soldier must wear a mouth guard and groin protection. b. Bag weight should be at least 68 kilograms. that may cause injury if the soldier falls on it. c. a. Striking equipment is used during training to provide a target for the soldier. They should be firm enough to support stand-up techniques. web gear. Muay Thai pads are heavy pads that cover both forearms. gloves with an open palm to allow grabbing. There are various types of pads which are well suited to this type of training. The soldier holding the bag must put his arm through the handles and place the free hand on top of the target. They may also be used for knee and kicking techniques delivered with light power. Knives must be rubber with a flexible blade. ground striking. When conducting bouts with throwing techniques the soldier must not wear any equipment. Mats are a basic safety item for all techniques. If weapons sparring with sticks or knives the soldier must wear eye protection. The mandatory equipment for pugil training is described in Chapter 9 (paragraph 39). 15. which is long enough for both head strikes and low kicks to the leg area. b. but provide enough shock absorption for throws and takedowns. a mouth guard properly formed. Heavy Bags are good for all forms of striking techniques. external groin protection. They can be used like focus mitts but are well suited for full powered kicks.g. and submission techniques. The target must also be kept in tight to the body to prevent injury to both soldiers. The soldier holding the pads must ensure he is properly braced to absorb the power of kicking techniques. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 395 . c. 16. chest protection. Soldiers must only wear light shoes when sparring. and leg protection that protects the shin and the top of the foot.Training Techniques soldier will require a higher degree of protection than with other techniques. f. as follows: a. e. Grappling dummies are life-sized stuffed dummies used to practice throws and takedowns.

g. The following progressive steps of sparring will help to condition soldiers to combat stress situations: a. h. with a partner who is also trying to influence the situation. On commencing the bout the aggressor attacks the defender. Soldiers must also have the safety equipment required for the training being conducted.Close Quarter Combat g. Matches should be timed. who only has to focus on one aspect of the fight. SECTION 4 SPARRING 17. An overall concern in sparring is soldier safety. Training at this level produces certain reactions within each soldier. who has to take control of the situation and get the instructor into a position of control. and even fewer have been involved in situations where their life was at stake. Aggressor-Defender Bouts. Sparring is an important part of close quarter combat training as it allows the soldier to practice techniques under advanced conditions. The focus for this training is control and the development of technique. On commencing the bout the instructor attacks the soldier. This training is conducted with either pugil training equipment or empty hand. and at a set time roles are reversed without stopping the bout (e. since the emphasis is on control. Hand wraps must be used to prevent damage to the hand when striking heavy bags and hard pads. When conducting bouts with striking the soldiers must not strike with full contact. Soldiers must learn to focus on the techniques. The instructor wears a protective suit and the soldier has basic sparring gear. 396 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . and at least 45 centimetres thick. This allows him to gain confidence in the techniques b. thus the instructor must strictly control training to prevent injury and ensure a positive training experience. Training at this level must be progressive as many soldiers have not been involved in any form of fighting. The instructor must designate the command word used for the switch. Crash Mats are thick mats used on top of regular mats to practice throwing and takedown techniques while maintaining safety. This type of training is beneficial for the soldier. 18. The instructor designates one soldier as the defender and the other as the aggressor. in a 60 second bout switches would be made every 15 seconds). Advanced training can take different forms from basic sparring to protective suit training to scenario based training. Instructors will be held accountable for injuries incurred during unauthorized training. and work through conditions where motor skills deteriorate under combat conditions. Remember that this is a training tool and the instructor must not let ego get in the way. Mats should be approximately 3 metres by 3 metres. Protective Suit Training. NOTE Instructors will not allow or conduct any full contact bouts.

suplex throws and heel hooks. 20.g. e. rifles and pistols. all wearing the appropriate protective equipment. Standard Bout. neck and spine.e. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 397 . throat. taking control of an opponent or fighting through an obstacle course. OC spray. b. 21. moderate force can be applied to the groin. At this stage the soldier can also be subjected to OC spray and/or have to fight through various tasks. Instructors should wear a protective suit or other suitable targets should be used. Protective suits provide realistic scenario based training by allowing soldiers to strike targets that would normally be off limits. d. throws and grappling. c. At this level the soldier’s level of combat fitness should be tested. and repeated or deflected strikes must be avoided.g. d. At this level the soldier employs the techniques taught with light contact. The instructor must designate techniques which are not allowed. Safety considerations working with protective suits are as follows: a. When conducting multiple opponent bouts the instructor must maintain control and designate killing blows on opponents as they occur. only light force is permitted to the head. and the suit is never to be used with live weapons. legs and other vital areas. chest. Calling the switch without stopping the bout allows the defender to immediately go to the attack. and individuals must wear protective glasses in mesh face cages and during inert OC spray exercises. all equipment must be properly fitted and secured. Soldiers should be at an advanced level before undertaking this training. e. strikes to the joints and to unpadded exposed areas must be avoided. PROTECTIVE SUIT TRAINING 19. penetration of the face cage must be avoided. Scenario Training. The soldier wears operational equipment and has to complete an operational task. The soldier faces off with one or more opponents. e. batons. Soldiers participating in the exercise wear other protective operational equipment as indicated in the exercise scenario.Training Techniques covered without being overloaded. Only qualified close quarter combat instructors wear the protective suit when conducting this training. or any techniques that will cause serious injury. When training with the protective suit units can conduct exercises that escalate through the continuum of force. c. striking techniques. and he should be tired by the time the fight is reached. This type of bout can be used for pugil fighting. i. f.

and physically. c. b. do not become braced or immobilized. 398 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 . avoid planting weight against mats or walls. the soldier will be fresh and physically stronger. avoid absorbing and stepping into strikes. or making mistakes. Obstacles must be used to channel the opponent. but by attacking right away the soldier gains two important advantages: (1) psychologically. d. and incorporate rolling movements. since the group looks to this individual as its leader as the strongest member. The first priority is to attack the leader or physically strongest of the group. Secondly. Once an opponent has been neutralized use him against other opponents. Many times soldiers will have to deal with situations where they are out numbered. A group with superior numbers will believe they will be able to achieve an easy victory. soldiers fighting for their lives must use any and all weapons against their opponents to ensure their survival. (2) b. c. if the soldier neutralizes this target the other members of the group will second guess their abilities and situation. and dealing with the opponent in a decisive manner will set the tone of the engagement.Close Quarter Combat 22. do not become rigid or lock joints. Soldiers must be physically as well as physiologically prepared to deal with this problem. Deal with multiple opponents as follows: a. f. Finally. the soldier must use the environment to gain advantage. e. stay loose. This allows the soldier to focus his effort in one direction. No protective suit will provide the instructor 100% protection. and opponents used to block other opponents. The instructor must understand how much force can be applied relative to the target and use the following techniques to further protect himself in the suit: a. Soldiers must deal quickly and decisively with these situations to prevent becoming tired or injured. This belief must be challenged immediately. by lining them up to one side. MULTIPLE OPPONENTS 23. This opponent must be dealt with eventually.

Drills are flexible: they can focus on individual techniques or combinations. This is also effective when using weapons. for warm-ups/combat conditioning. but more importantly to explain angles of approach and attack. Timed Drills. however the partner holding the pad must know the techniques in order to position the pads properly. punching/counter-punching drills). The instructor designates one or several techniques. B-GL-382-004/FP-001 399 . Training drills allow soldiers to practice and improve their technique in order to condition their responses to stress stimuli and help to improve their level of combat fitness. These pads are good for combination techniques at all ranges. Drills can be used to confirm techniques during lessons. In this drill a soldier stands in a circle formed by opponents. Focus mitts are an excellent way to develop hand techniques. at all ranges. and the soldier executes them for a set time. d.Training Techniques TRAINING DRILLS 24. The instructor then calls a number and the designated opponent attacks the soldier in the centre of the ring with the pre-designated attack. b.g. for a set number of repetitions or a timed duration. c. Shark Bait. and will be referred to throughout the manual. or as part of unit training. The tactical positioning model (see Figure 11-10) is designed primarily to assist instructors as a teaching aid. The soldier must counter the attack and gain control of the opponent. then follow through with a third strike on a pre-designated angle (this drill works through all the angles of attack. A baton/stick pair can for example attack on designated angles. but the first two angles used for the drill are numbers 1 and 6). Regular circuit training stands can be intermixed if desired. Sequence Training (Give and Take Drills). come back on the number 6 angle. Focus Pad Drills. Pairs are given a sequence of actions and reactions. In order both to practice and build combat fitness a close quarter combat technique circuit can be set up. This model is used by the instructor as a means to position trainees for class control. Each opponent is numbered and given a specific form of attack by the instructor. e. Following are some general training drills: a. Circuit Training. The instructor can also designate if the soldier should be hitting for speed or power. such as a number 1 angle. and can also be used for light kicking and knee strikes. or can be keyed by a partner assisting with the drill. and work back and forth changing roles after each technique (e. TACTICAL POSITIONING 25. Having soldiers execute techniques over a set period is an excellent way to increase combat fitness.

Close Quarter Combat Figure 11-10: Tactical Positioning 400 B-GL-382-004/FP-001 .

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