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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The branch of physics that deals with the motion of a body due to the application of force is called mechanics. Mechanics is divided into two branches namely dynamics and statics. The branch of mechanics that deals with the state of rest of a body is called statics. The branch of mechanics that deals with the state of motion of a body is called dynamics. Dynamics is classified into kinematics and kinetics. Kinematics is the study of motion which relates to the motion of bodies without reference to either the mass or the force causing it. Kinetics is the study of motion which relates to the action of forces causing the motion and the mass that is moved. A body is said to be at rest if its position remains constant with respect to its surroundings or frame of reference. A body is said to be in motion if its position is changing with respect to its surroundings or frame of reference.
10. The line joining the successive positions of a moving body is called its path. The length of the path gives the distance travelled by the body. 11. Displacement is the directed line segment joining the initial and final positions of a moving body. It is a vector. 12. If every particle of a moving body traverses the same distance along parallel paths, which may be straight or curved, while the body is moving, then the motion of the body is called translatory motion. 13. When the path traversed by each particle of a body is a straight line, then its motion is said to be rectilinear. 14. When the path traversed by the particles are parallel paths, then the motion is said to be curvilinear. SPEED : 15. Speed of a body is the rate at which it describes its path. Its SI unit is ms−1. 16. Speed is a scalar quantity. 17. Speed =
distance travelled . time taken
18. A body is said to be moving with uniform speed if it has equal distances in equal intervals of time, however small these intervals may be. 19. A body is said to be moving with non uniform speed if it has unequal distances in equal intervals of time or equal distances in unequal intervals of time, however small these intervals may be. 20. Average speed =
total distance travelled total time taken
21. Instantaneous speed = Lt
Δs ds . = Δt dt
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A body is said to be moving with uniform velocity. 1 kmph =
3abc . 28. 29. a+b
23. V = Lt
34. the average velocity =
Δs ds = dt Δt →0 Δt
. 2nd 1/3rd of the distance with speed ‘b’ and 3rd 1/3rd of the distance with speed ‘c’ Average speed = 24. 30. Its SI unit is ms−1. If a particle undergoes a displacement s1 along a straight line with velocity v1 and a displacement s2 with velocity v2 in the same direction. For a body with uniform speed. If the direction or magnitude or both of the velocity of a body change. 2
32.myengg. For a body moving with uniform velocity. The rate of change of displacement of a body is called velocity. however small these intervals may be. 27. 31.com
Kinematics 22.myengg. If a particle under goes a displacement s1 along a straight line t1 and a displacement s2 in time t2 in the same direction. If a particle covers 1st 1/3rd of a distance with a speed ‘a’. then Average velocity =
(s1 + s 2 )v 1v 2 s1v 2 + s 2 v 1
c. ab + bc + ca
5 ms−1 . If a particle covers the 1st half of the total distance with a speed ‘a’ and the second half with a speed ‘b’. then the body is said to be moving with non-uniform velocity. then Average velocity=
s1 + s 2 t1 + t 2
b. distance travelled = speed x time. Average speed =
2ab . If a particle travels first half of the displacement along a straight line with velocity v1 and the next half of the displacement with velocity v2 in the same direction. Average velocity : a. Average velocity =
net displacement total time taken
u+v .Powered by www. if it has equal displacements in equal intervals of time. For a body moving with uniform acceleration. 18
1 mph =
22 fts−1 15
25. the displacement is directly proportional to the time interval. Velocity is a vector quantity. The velocity of a particle at any instant of time or at any point of its path is called instantaneous velocity. Velocity : 26. then
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where ‘a’ is the acceleration.
Δv d v d 2 s = = dt Δt →0 Δt dt 2 u+v . h.myengg. e. Acceleration of free fall in vacuum is uniform and is called acceleration due to gravity (g) and it is equal to 980 cms−2 or 9. Acceleration : a. in the next second it travels a distance x+a. If the velocity of a body changes either in magnitude or in direction or both.myengg. If a body has uniform velocity. and hence it has acceleration.Powered by www. 37.
For a body moving with uniform acceleration. then Average velocity =
v1 + v 2 2
(in the case d put t1 = t2)
35. the velocity changes in magnitude and hence it has acceleration. j. Velocity of a body changes when magnitude or direction or both change. b. f. velocity at the highest point is zero. m. but acceleration is −g. whose trajectory is a parabola. Eg : uniform circular motion l.8 ms−2. Velocity of a particle is uniform if both its magnitude and direction remains unchanged. c. The acceleration and velocity of a body need not be in the same direction. For a projectile. however small these intervals may be. If a particle travels first half of the time with velocity v1 and the next half of the time with velocity v2 in the same direction. the velocity changes in magnitude and in direction. If a body has a uniform speed.
g. The acceleration of a particle at any instant or at any point is called instantaneous acceleration. eg : A body thrown vertically upwards. then Average velocity =
v 1t 1 + v 2 t 2 t1 + t 2
Kinematics Average velocity =
2v 1v 2 (in the case (b) put s1 = s2) v1 + v 2
d. it has no acceleration. the average velocity =
A body can have zero velocity and non-zero acceleration. then the body is said to be in uniform acceleration. Eg : for a particle projected vertically up. d.com
. n. If a particle travels for a time t1 with velocity v1 and for a time t2 with velocity v2 in the same direction.
k. If equal changes of velocity takes place in equal intervals of time. Negative acceleration is called retardation or deceleration. For a body moving round a circular path with a uniform speed.
Powered by www. then it is said to have acceleration. the velocity changes in direction and hence it has acceleration. When a body moves with uniform acceleration along a straight line and has a distance ‘x’ travelled in the nth second. 2
i. it may have acceleration. For a freely falling body.
Velocity-time graph : 1) Slope gives the acceleration.com
. displacement-time graph : 1) Straight lines represents uniform velocity 2) Slope of straight line gives velocity 3) Smooth curves represents uniform acceleration 4) Zig zag curve represents non-uniform acceleration
uniform acceleration t s
uniform deceleration t s
uniform acceleration t
uniform deceleration t
s uniform velocity
s zero velocity
s variable velocity
39.myengg. The equations of motion for uniform acceleration : 1) v = u + at 3) v2 u2 = 2as
u+v⎞ 5) s = ⎛ ⎜ ⎟t ⎝ 2 ⎠
2) s = ut + 4) sn = u +
1 2 at 2 a (2n 2
Powered by www. 2) Area under the graph gives the distance travelled 3) Curve represents non-uniform acceleration.
v zero acceleration uniform acceleration t v v v
(at2)/2 variable acceleration t v uniform retardation t v A body projected up t area=s t ut t
Kinematics 38.myengg. 4) Straight line represents uniform acceleration.Powered by www.
If car velocity is constant. Starting from rest a body travels with an acceleration 'α' for some time and then with deceleration 'β' and finally comes to rest.. the acceleration of the particle is a=
SI − S n2
46. If a particle travels along a straight line with uniform acceleration and travels distances Sn and Sn+1 in two successive seconds.
42. then the ratio of the times to cover 1st. If R is the range of head lights and ‘a’ is the maximum retardation of an automobile.1)x. For a particle moving with uniform retardation along a straight line distance travelled before coming to rest (v = 0) is s = ∴ sα U2 ∴
2 s1 u1 = 2 s2 u2
44. then its velocity becomes 'nv' after a further displacement (n2 . For a particle moving with uniform velocity a = 0 ∴ S = U t or S α t 43. The displacement of a body is proportional to the square of time. 2nd.myengg. then a =
Dn − Dm n−m
. s = (αβ)t 2 and
2(α + β)
average velocity = ⎜ ⎜
⎛ Vmax ⎝ 2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
Kinematics One dimensional motion : 41. If a particle travels along a straight line with uniform acceleration and travels distances S and SI in two successive intervals of n seconds each.myengg. 47. 50.
49. Moving with uniform acceleration from rest. then it will ⎜ ⎟ ⎝n⎠
come to rest after a further displacement of
x n −1
. 4th …… nth metres of the distance is ( 1 − 0 ) : ( 2 − 1) : ( 3 − 2 ). The velocity of a body becomes ⎛ ⎞ of its initial velocity after a displacement of 'x'. If a bullet loses (1/n)th of its velocity while passing through a plank.com
. then the no. then its initial velocity is zero.. 41
Powered by www.Sn 45. 3rd. of such planks required to just stop the bullet is =
n2 2n − 1
1 48. 52. ball will be caught by the thrower. a. the acceleration of the particle is a = Sn+1 . If a body starts from rest and moves with uniform acceleration. then its maximum safe speed = 2aR . then the maximum velocity and displacement are given by
Vmax = α+β
(αβ)t .. If a body starts from rest and moves with uniform acceleration ‘a’ and if Dm is the distance travelled by it in mth second and Dn is the distance travelled in nth second.( n − n − 1) 53. If the total time of journey is 't'. A body is projected vertically up from a topless car relative to the car which is moving horizontally relative to earth.Powered by www. a body attains a velocity 'v' after a displacement 'x'.
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. If acceleration or retardation of the car is constant path relative to car is a straight line and relative to ground is a parabola.
The acceleration of a body in a medium is given by gI = g ⎜ ⎜
⎛ 1 − dm ⎝ db
⎛ ⎞ d ⎟ = g⎜1 − m ⎟ ⎜ db ⎠ ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(dm = density of the medium) (db = density of the body) If dm = db. d. 4 s. ball falls back relative to the car. gI = 0. The equations of motion for a body a) projected up b) freely falling v = u −gt v = gt
b.n s are in the ratio 12 : 22 : 32 : 42 : 52 : 62…… e. j. In the presence of air resistance. then the distance between the two points is given by AB =
h. b. Any freely falling body travels g/2 metres or 4.myengg. d.myengg.9 m in the first second. if gravity disappears then the body continues to move with uniform velocity acquired during its free fall.
s = ut − gt2 v2 −u2 =−2gs time of rise =
1 2 gt 2 g sn = (2n 2
2h u = g g
time of fall =
55. path of ball relative to the ground is a parabola and relative to this car is straight up and then straight down. If both the stones reach the water simultaneously. If the car accelerates.
A stone is dropped into a river from the bridge and after 'x' second another stone is projected down into the river from the same point with a velocity of 'u'. Freely falling body : a. 54. g 2 2 t −t 2 2 1
A freely falling body passes through two points A and B distant h1 and h2 from the start. 2 s. then the sound of splash is heard after a time of 't' given by t=
2h h + g v sound
k. So it will remain at rest or in uniform motion. the acceleration of a denser body is greater. The displacements of a freely falling body in 1 s. then the time taken by it to move from A to B is given by T =
2h 2 2h1 − = g g 2 ( h 2 − h1 ) g
i. after a certain interval of time. The displacements of a freely falling body in successive seconds or in equal intervals of time are in the ratio of 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 : …… This also holds good for a body starting from rest and moving with uniform acceleration.
f. Then after any time the distance between them is equal to (h2 – h1) stone is dropped into a well of depth 'h'. A freely falling body' passes through two points A and B in time intervals of t1 and t2 from the start. During the free fall of a body. ………………. 3 s. c.com
Kinematics If car velocity is constant. g. c.
Two bodies are dropped from heights h1 and h2 simultaneously. then 42
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where aB is 2
acceleration of the balloon. 63. the height of the tower is h=
u2 2 (n − 1) 2g
Powered by www. 2 2 h h=
v 2 − u2 2g
66. If a body is projected vertically up from the top a tower of height h with a velocity u and takes "t" seconds to reach the ground u 1 1 u h = −u t + gt 2 ⇒ h = gt 2 − ut . If a body projected vertically upwards takes ‘t’ seconds to reach the maximum height. a) Equation of motion relative to earth is h=
1 2 gt 2
b) Equation of motion relative to balloon is h=
1 ( g + a B )t 2 . Irrespective of velocity of projection.myengg.
maximum height = u2 2g
57. 64. 65.myengg. then in (n-1)th s it will rise through a height h + g and in (n+1)th s it will rise through height h-g. The change in velocity over the complete journey is '2u' (downwards). ta = td =
u 2u ⇒ T =ta + td = ⇒T or ta ∝ u g g
60. 67. If a body is projected vertically up with a velocity u from a tower and it reaches the ground with a velocity nu.com
1 2 1 gt = u( t − x ) + g( t − x ) 2 2 2
Body thrown vertically upwards : 56. a body possesses the same speed while moving up and while moving down.Powered by www. At any point of the journey. all the bodies pass through a height
in the last second of
ascent. If an object is dropped from a balloon rising up with a velocity u at a height h. 62. 59. If a vertically projected body rises through a height 'h' in nth s. Hmax =
u2 ⇒ Hmax α u 2 (independent of 2g
the mass of the body) ⇒
u1 ⎛ u H1 = 1 =⎜ 1 H2 u 2 ⎜ u 2 ⎝ 2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
58. then in the first t/2 seconds it travels 3/4th of the maximum height. 61. The time of flight of a body thrown up vertically with velocity u is 2u/g. The height reached in the first second of ascent is equal to the height of fall in the last second of descent.com
c) Relative to earth body goes up and then falls d) Relative to the balloon it falls vertically downward.
Powered by www. then they will meet after a time of t=
h and at a distance of u 1 2 gh 2 from the top of the tower (or) gt = 2 2u 2 gh 2 2u 2
h2 = h -
from the foot of the tower. 73. A body is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity ‘u’ from the ground reaches a point ‘P’ on its path at height ‘h’ after a time t1 and t2 from the beginning. Oblique projectile : 1) For a projectile. A body is dropped from the top edge of a tower of height 'h' and at the same time another body is projected vertically up from the foot of the tower with a velocity 'u'.
Their velocities at the meeting point are V1 = gt = V2 = u gh (freely falling body) u
gh (vertically projected body) u
71.myengg.myengg. In the above case if elevator accelerates down. A body thrown with an angle with the horizontal is called a projectile.com
69. time of ascent and time of descent are equal. It remains constant throughout the motion 2) The vertical component (usin θ ) is subjected to acceleration due to gravity. the horizontal component of velocity is (ucos θ ). In the absence of air resistance. then u = (t1 + t 2 ) . If a person inside the elevator throws a particle vertically up with a velocity u relative to the elevator. A elevator is accelerating upwards with an acceleration a. time of flight is t = 74.
h = gt 1t 2 . if air resistance is taken into account. 76. time of flight is t =
PROJECTILES : 75. 72. Another particle thrown downwards with the same velocity from the top of the tower takes t2 seconds to reach the ground. Time of rise < time of fall.com
Kinematics 68. A particle projected vertically up from the top of a tower takes t1 sec to reach the ground. time taken is t. The path traced by a projectile is called trajectory and is a parabola. then a) t = t 1t 2 b) height of the tower is h =
1 gt 1t 2 2
g ( t1 − t 2 ) 2
c) Velocity of projection is u =
d) In the first and second case body reaches the ground with the same velocity 70. If the particle is dropped from the top of the tower.
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t. tanθ =
gT 2 2R
79.E 80.Powered by www.
α = tan −1
j) If α is the angle made by a projectile after t seconds.myengg.com
. u cos θ
k) If α is the angle made by a projectile after traveling a height of h.E = d) If K.myengg. r. Velocity after time "t":
1 mu 2 Sin 2 θ 2
1 mu 2 2
a) b) c) d) e) f)
ax = 0. At the maximum height a) Kinetic Energy =
1 1 mu 2 = mu 2 Cos 2 θ x 2 2
b) Potential Energy = mgHmax = c) Total Energy = K. Equations for an oblique projectile : a) Maximum height reached=
b) Time of flight = 2u sin θ g u sin θ g u 2 sin 2 θ 2g
Time of rise = time of fall =
c) Range = d) tanθ =
u 2 sin 2θ u2 . Rmax = for θ = 45° g g
tan α = (u sin θ) 2 − 2gh u cos θ
Powered by www. ay = – g Horizontal component of velocity through out the motion is constant. i) Direction of motion w. vertical component of velocity changes with time Horizontal component of velocity Vx=Ucosθ Vertical component of velocity Vy = U Sinθ−gt Velocity of the particle V = Vx 2 + Vy 2 v = (u cos θ) 2 + (u sin θ − gt ) 2 . then tan α =
u sin θ − gt .E then θ = 45° P.com
Kinematics 78. to horizontal.E = P.E tan 2 θ = e) K.E + P.
g) Velocity of a projectile after t seconds h) Velocity of a projectile when it is at a height h is v = (u cos θ) 2 + [(u sin θ) 2 − 2gh] or u 2 − 2gh .
myengg. V2 − V1 = −2g (h2-h1)
81.myengg. 60° b) Range is equal for complementary angles of projection (u = constant) R = Constant for θ and 90−θ. A = tanθ. 2g
R = 4 h1h 2 46
Powered by www. u m) Vertical component of velocity at the highest point Vy = 0 θ θ n) Velocity and acceleration are perpendicular to each other at the u highest point.com
Kinematics l) Velocity at highest point is UCosθ in the horizontal direction. o) If projected from level ground velocity of landing and angle of landing is same in magnitude as during projection.
Position of the projectile after time 't': a) If x and y represent the horizontal and vertical displacements with respect the point of projection 't' seconds after projection x = (U cosθ) t y = (U sinθ) t − b)
1 2 gt 2
Equation of trajectory is Y = (tanθ) x− g
1 x2 2 u 2 cos 2 θ g = tan θ x − 2 . Ex: 30°. c) If h1 and h2 are the maximum heights attained for complementary angles of projection h1 + h2 =
A2 . q) If projected from level ground a) Change in velocity till it reaches highest point = Usinθ b) Change in velocity for complete trajectory = 2Usinθ r) Velocity of the projectile when it moves perpendicular to its initial velocity is U cotθ. 4B
g 2u Cos 2 θ
Range R = or tan θ =
. p) If projected from level ground velocity is maximum during projection and during landing and minimum at the highest point.Powered by www.
Hmax A = R 4
Complementary angles of projection a) For a given velocity of projection angles of projection are θ and 90–θ then they are called as complementary angles of projection.x 2 2u cos 2 θ
y = Ax–Bx2. s) Time taken for the velocity to become perpendicular to the initial velocity is
u g sin θ
2 2 t) If V1 and V2 are the magnitudes of velocities at heights h1 and h2.
c) during its journey it suffers a horizontal displacement of u 2h / g . d) the angle α with which it strikes the ground is given by tan α = by
2h / g u
e) the velocity with which it hits the ground is given v = u 2 + 2gh or v = u 2 + (gt ) 2 . horizontally from the top of a tower path of the body is parabola relative to ground. x = u t 47
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O u y h x Vx = u V X
V R Y
a) it reaches the ground tracing a parabolic path. both the bodies
will take same time to reach the ground.Powered by www.
. a) The angle between velocity and acceleration during the rise of projectile is 1800 < θ < 90°. If a man throws a body to a maximum distance R then he can project the body to vertical height
Rmax = 2 (h1 +h2)
If t1 and t2 are the times of flight for complementary angles of projection R=
1 gt 1t 2 2
83. If a body is projected down at an angle θ with the horizontal from the top of a tower then 1 h = – (u sinθ) t + gt 2 2
Horizontal projection : 87. When a body is projected. 84. Position after time t : Horizontal displacement after time t. then h = – (u sinθ) t +
1 2 gt 2
86. b) its time of descent is 2h / g .com
tan 2 θ = h1 . If a body is projected horizontally and another is dropped from the same height.myengg. If a body is projected up at an angle θ with the horizontal from the top of a tower of height 'h'.myengg. If a man throws a body to a maximum distance R then the greatest height attained by the body is R/4. b) The angle between velocity and acceleration during the fall of projectile is 0° < θ < 90° 85.
myengg. (As seen by the pilot the bomb takes a vertically downward path). trajectory departs from parabola. velocity varies both in magnitude and direction but the acceleration remains constant both in magnitude and direction.myengg. 95. Both of them reach the ground simultaneously. 93. striking velocity decreases and the time of ascent is less than the time of descent.Powered by www. In the case of a projectile. striking angle increases. u 2gh
1 2 gt 2
Powered by www. Acceleration of a body sliding down a smooth inclined plane of angle of inclination θ with the horizontal is given by a = g sin θ 97. a) Time after which velocity vectors are perpendicular is t=
u1u 2 g 2 u1u 2 g
b) Time after which displacement vectors are perpendicular is t =
c) Distance between the two bodies when velocity vectors are perpendicular is
u1u 2 g (u1 + u 2 )
d) Horizontal distance between the two bodies when displacement vectors' are perpendicular is 2 u1u 2 g (u1 + u 2 )
90. If two bodies are projected horizontally with velocities u1 and u2 in opposite
directions. 94. Motion of a body along an inclined plane : 96. range decreases. For projectiles like Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) the trajectory is a portion of an ellipse (due to large variation in altitude). If a body travells from rest on a smooth inclined plane Velocity v= 2gl sin θ = 2gh .com
Kinematics Distance fallen in time "t" Velocity after time t : v = u 2 + (gt ) 2 = u 2 + 2gh If angle made with the horizontal is α tan α = Equation of path: y=
1 x2 g 2 u2 gt gt = . maximum height decreases. From the top of a tower a stone is dropped and simultaneously another stone is projected horizontally with a uniform velocity. Form a certain height. 92. A bomb dropped from a plane moving horizontally with a uniform velocity reaches the ground following a parabolic path. If air resistance is considered. time of flight increases. Two bodies are projected from a tower horizontally with velocities 'u1' and 'u2' then
t1 x u v = 1 and 1 = 1 and 1 = t2 x 2 u2 v2
2 u1 + 2gh
u 2 + 2gh 2
A body on an inclined plane reaches the bottom with the same velocity as that of a freely falling body but in a different direction after a time of
1 times that of a freely falling body.com
Kinematics Time taken t=
2l = g sin θ 2h g sin 2 θ
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