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14 h MishnahToseftaEduyyot

14 h MishnahToseftaEduyyot

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Mishnah and Tosefta Eduyyot—the role of minorities

Mishnah Eduyyot 1:3-6
m1:3 Hillel says: a hin -full of drawn water renders the
mikveh unfit. –however, one must speak in the language
of his teacher--and Shammai says: nine kabs. But the
Sages say: Neither according to the opinion of the one
nor according to the opinion of the other, until two
weavers from the dung-gate which is in Jerusalem came
and testified in the name of Shemaiah and Abtalion
`three logs of drawn water render the mikveh unfit,` the
Sages confirmed their statement.
) ג ( ר ֵ מ¡א לֵ : ִ ה , uִ י ַ מ לי ִ ה אֹל ְ מ
הֶ ו ְ ק ִ n ַ ה תֶ א ¡י ִ ל ְ ס¡o ¡י ִ ב¡א ְ o , ) אָ : ֶ א (
¡aַ ר ¡¡oְ ל ִ a ר ַ מ¡ל בָ · ַ ח uָ ד× ֶ o .
ר ֵ מ¡א יא ַ n ַ oְ ו , ¡י ִ a ַ ק ה ָ ע ְ o ִ n . uי ִ מָ כ ֲ חַ ו
uי ִ ר ְ מ¡א , י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ ד ְ כ אֹלְ ו הֶ ז י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ ד ְ כ אֹל
הֶ ז , uי ִ · ִ + ְ רַ ג יֵ נ ְ o ¡אָ a ֶ o ד ַ ע אָ : ֶ א
uִ י ַ ל ָ o¡רי ִ a ֶ o ת¡o ְ o× ָ ה ר ַ ע ַ o ִ מ
¡¡י ְ ל ַ ט ְ ב×ְ ו הָ י ְ ע ַ מ ְ o u¡o ִ מ ¡די ִ ע ֵ הְ ו ,
¡י ִ ל ְ ס¡o ¡י ִ ב¡א ְ o uִ י ַ מ ¡י ִ x ל ת ֶ oל ְ o
הֶ ו ְ ק ִ n ַ ה תֶ א , תֶ א uי ִ מָ כ ֲ ח ¡מְ · ִ קְ ו
uֶ הי ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + :
m1:4 And why do they record the opinions of Shammai
and Hillel for no purpose? To teach the following
generations that a man should not [always] persist in his
opinion, for behold, the fathers of the world did not
persist in their opinion.

) ד ( ַ o י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + תֶ א ¡י ִ רי ִ 5ְ ז ַ מ ה ָ nָ לְ ו יא ַ n
הָ ל ָ uַ ב ְ ל לֵ : ִ הְ ו , uי ִ אָ a ַ ה ת¡ר¡+ַ ל ד ֵ nַ ל ְ ל
וי ָ ר ָ ב ְ + ל ַ ע ד ֵ מ¡ע uָ ד× אֵ הְ י אֹ: ֶ o ,
ל ַ ע ¡ד ְ מָ ע אֹל uָ ל¡ע ָ ה ת¡ב ֲ א י ֵ ר ֲ ה ֶ o
uֶ הי ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + :

m1:5 And why do they record the opinion of an
individual with the majority, when the Halachah must be
according to the opinion of the majority? So that if a
court prefers the opinion of the individual, it may
depend on him [as a precedent]. For no court may set
aside the decision of another court unless it is greater
than it in wisdom and in number. If it was greater than it
in wisdom but not in number, in number but not in
wisdom, it may not set aside its decision, unless it is
greater than it in wisdom and in number.

) ה ( ¡י ֵ a די ִ חָ · ַ ה י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + ¡י ִ רי ִ 5ְ ז ַ מ ה ָ nָ לְ ו
אָ : ֶ א הָ כָ ל ֲ ה ¡י ֵ אְ ו לי ִ א¡ה ¡י ִ a ר ְ מ ַ ה
¡י ִ a ר ְ מ ַ ה י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ ד ְ כ , ¡י ִ + תי ֵ ב ה ֶ א ְ רִ י u ִ א ֶ o
וי ָ ל ָ ע ְ |¡מ ְ סִ י ְ ו די ִ חָ · ַ ה י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + תֶ א , ¡י ֵ א ֶ o
¡י ִ + תי ֵ ב י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + ל ֵ uַ ב ְ ל ל¡כָ י ¡י ִ + תי ֵ a
ֶ o ד ַ ע ¡רֵ ב ֲ ח ה ָ מ ְ כ ָ חַ ב ¡: ֶ n ִ מ ל¡דָ ג הֶ י ְ הִ ·
¡ָ י ְ נ ִ nַ ב¡ . ה ָ מ ְ כ ָ חַ ב ¡: ֶ n ִ מ ל¡דָ ג הָ י ָ ה
¡ָ י ְ נ ִ nַ ב אֹל ל ָ ב ֲ א , אֹל ל ָ ב ֲ א ¡ָ י ְ נ ִ nַ a
ה ָ מ ְ כ ָ חַ ב , וי ָ ר ָ ב ְ + ל ֵ uַ ב ְ ל ל¡כָ י ¡ני ֵ א , ד ַ ע
¡ָ י ְ נ ִ nַ ב¡ ה ָ מ ְ כ ָ חַ ב ¡: ֶ n ִ מ ל¡דָ ג הֶ י ְ הִ · ֶ o :

m1:6 R. Judah said: if so, why do they record the
opinion of an individual with the majority? To annul it.
So that if a man shall say, thus have I learnt the
tradition,` it may be said to him, `according to the
[refuted] opinion of that individual did you hear it.
) ו ( י ִ aַ ר ר ַ מ× הָ ד¡הְ י , ה ָ nָ ל ¡ ֵ 5 u ִ א
¡י ִ a ר ְ מ ַ ה ¡י ֵ a די ִ חָ · ַ ה י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ + ¡י ִ רי ִ 5ְ ז ַ מ
הָ ל ָ uַ ב ְ ל , י ִ נ ֲ א ְ | ָ 5 uָ ד× ָ ה ר ַ מאֹי u ִ א ֶ o
ל ָ a ק ְ מ , י ִ נ¡ל ְ o oי ִ א י ֵ ר ְ ב ִ ד ְ 5 ¡ל ר ַ מאֹי
ָ n ְ ע ַ מ ָ o :


Tosefta Eduyyot 1:3-6
t1:3… And why are their place and their job explicitly
mentioned?
And is it not so that you have no more degraded craft than
weaving, and no more despised place in Jerusalem than the
Dung Gate?
But just as the fathers of the world were not stubborn about
their opinion when there was a tradition, how much the more
so that a person should not be stubborn about his opinion when
there is a tradition
... uש ורכזוה המלו
¡תונמוא uשו ¡היתומוקמ
תונמוא |ל ¡יא אלהו
|ל ¡יאו ידרג אלא הדירי
uלשוריב יוזב uוקמ
תופשאה רעשכ
אל uלועה תובא המ אלא
uהירבד לע ודמע ̘ӷ
‰ÚÂÓ˘ המכ תחא לע
לע uדא דימעי אלש המכו
ורבד ‰ÚÂÓ˘ ̘ӷ :
t1:4 Under all circumstances the law follows the majority, and
the opinion of the individual is recorded along with that of the
majority only in order to nullify it.
R. Judah says, ``The opinion of an individual is recorded along
with that of the majority only so that, if the times necessitate it,
they may rely upon [the opinion of the individual]``
And sages say, ``The opinion of the individual is recorded along
with that of the majority only so that, if later on, this one says,
`Unclean,` and that one says, `Clean,` one may respond that the
one who says it is unclean is in accord with the opinion of R.
Eliezer [and the law must follow the majority, which opposed
his opinion], so they say to him, `You have heard this opinion in
accord with the ruling of R. Eliezer.```
ירבדכ הכלה uלועל
ה אל ¡יבורמה ירבד ורכזו
אלא ¡יבורמה ¡יב דיחיה
¡לטבל
ר ' מוא הדוהי ' ורכזוה אל
¡יבורמה ¡יב דיחי ירבד
¡הל |רצית אמש אלא
¡הילע וכמסיו העש
מכחו ' מוא ' ורכזוה אל
uיבורמה ¡יב דיחי ירבד
מוא הזש |ותמ אלא ' אמט
מא הזו ' מא הז רוהט '
ר ירבדכ אמט ' רזעילא
ר ירבדכ ול ורמא ' רזעילא
התעמש :
t1:5 [If] one has addressed a question to one sage and he has
declared the matter unclean, he should not address his question
to another sage. [If] he has addressed a question to a sage and
he has declared the matter clean, he should not address his
question to another sage.
[If] there were two sages, one prohibiting and one permitting,
one declaring it unclean and one declaring it clean, if there is
another sage available, they address the question to him as
well.And if not, they follow the opinion of the one who adopts
the more strict of the two positions.
R. Joshua b. Qorha says, ``[If] it is a ruling involving teachings
of the Torah, they follow the opinion of the one who adopts the
more strict of the two positions, but [if] it is a ruling involving
teachings of scribes, they follow the opinion of the one who
adopts the more lenient of the two positions.``
אמיטו דחא uכחל לאשינ
רחא uכחל לאשי אל ול
אל ול רהיטו uכחל לאשנ
רחא uכחל לאשי
סוא דחא uינש ויה ' דחאו
דחאו אמטמ דחא ריתמ
רחא uכח שי uא רהטמ
¡ילאשנ ואל uאו ול
רימחמה רחא ¡יכלוה
ר ' מוא החרק ¡ב עשוהי '
¡יכלוה הרות ירבדמ רבד
ירבדמ רימחמה רחא
רחא ¡יכלוה uירפוס
לקימה :

which opposed his opinion]. they follow the opinion of the one who adopts the more strict of the two positions. Qorha says. but [if] it is a ruling involving teachings of scribes. this one says. `Unclean. [If] there were two sages. he should not address his question to another sage. ``The opinion of the individual is recorded along with that of the majority only so that.` one may respond that the one who says it is unclean is in accord with the opinion of R. Joshua b. if later on.``` t1:5 [If] one has addressed a question to one sage and he has declared the matter unclean. he should not address his question to another sage. they may rely upon [the opinion of the individual]`` And sages say.Tosefta Eduyyot 1:3-6 t1:3… And why are their place and their job explicitly mentioned? And is it not so that you have no more degraded craft than weaving. if there is another sage available. Eliezer [and the law must follow the majority. and the opinion of the individual is recorded along with that of the majority only in order to nullify it. Judah says. `You have heard this opinion in accord with the ruling of R. Eliezer.. they address the question to him as well. [If] he has addressed a question to a sage and he has declared the matter clean. and no more despised place in Jerusalem than the Dung Gate? But just as the fathers of the world were not stubborn about their opinion when there was a tradition. one declaring it unclean and one declaring it clean. they follow the opinion of the one who adopts the more strict of the two positions. they follow the opinion of the one who adopts the more lenient of the two positions.. one prohibiting and one permitting.` and that one says. ``The opinion of an individual is recorded along with that of the majority only so that.And if not. R. ``[If] it is a ruling involving teachings of the Torah.`` ¯ ̘ӷ ¯ ¯ . so they say to him. if the times necessitate it. ¯ ‰ÚÂÓ˘ ¯ :‰ÚÂÓ˘ ̘ӷ ¯ ¯ ¯ ' ¯ ¯ ' ' ' ' ¯ : ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ' ¯ ¯ ' ¯ ' ' ¯ ' ' ¯ ¯ : ' . how much the more so that a person should not be stubborn about his opinion when there is a tradition t1:4 Under all circumstances the law follows the majority. R. `Clean.

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